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Sample records for pyrococcus horikoshii tryptophanyl-trna

  1. [Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a novel diacetylchitobiose deacetylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Ni, Jin-Feng; Shen, Yu-Long

    2006-04-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant organic compound in nature and the degradation of this biomass is an important process in the recycling of nutrients in the environments. Several biodegradation pathway of chitin have been classified in eukaryotes and bacteria, and a unique chitin degradation pathway was proposed according to recent studies on hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis. In the genome of Pyrococcus horikoshii, several ORFs show high homology to the chitin-degrading related genes from T. kodakararaensis, therefore P. horikoshii is likely to have the same chitin degrading pathway as that of T. kodakaraensis. In order to further characterize the novel chitin degrading pathway in thermophilic archaea, a diacetylchitobiose deacetylase from P. horikoshii (Dacph) was studied in the present study. Dacph belongs to the LmbE-like protein family and the amino sequence is not related to the other deacetylases studied before (except that in T. kodakararaensis). The gene (Dacph, PH0499) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon P. horikoshii was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned into expression vector pET15b, and expressed in E. coli BL21-codonPlus (DE3)-RIL. A soluble fraction of Dacph (31.6kDa) was obtained as shown by SDS-PAGE. TLC analysis showed that Dacph is able to deacetylate one acetyl group of GlcNAc2 and GlcNAc. By the concerted reaction with the Exo-beta-D-Glucosaminid-ase (BglAph), it is also able to convert GlcNAc2 into GlcN. It is concluded that PH0499 is a diacetylchit-obiose deacetylase. By reaction together with Exo-beta-D-Glucosaminidase in P. horikoshii, Dacph probably plays a key role in the new chitin degradation pathway in hyperthermophilic archaea (the genera Thermococcus and Pyrococcus).

  2. Crystal Structure of Pyridoxal Biosynthesis Lyase PdxS from Pyrococcus horikoshii

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Atsushi; Yoon, Ji Young; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Suh, Se Won

    2012-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B6 and is de novo synthesized from three substrates, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), riburose 5-phosphate (RBP), and ammonia hydrolysed from glutamine. Glutamine amidotransferase (PdxT) catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine, while PdxS catalyzes the following condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), and ammonia. PdxS exists as a hexamer or dodecamer depending on species and makes a 1:1 complex with PdxT. Pyrococcus horikoshii PdxS has a 37 amino acids insertion region, which is found in some archaeal PdxS proteins, but its structure and function are unknown. To provide further structural information on the role of the insertion region, the oligomeric state, and ligand binding mode of P. horikoshii PdxS, the crystal structure of PdxS from P. horikoshii was solved in two forms: (i) apo form, (ii) r ibose 5-phosphate (R5P) complex and the quaternary structure of PdxS in solution was determined by analytical gel filtration. P. horikoshii PdxS forms hexamer in solution based on analytical gel filtration data. When we superimpose the structure of P. horikoshii PdxS with other dodecamer structures of PdxS, the additional insertion is located apart from the active site and induces a steric clash on the hexamer-hexamer interface of PdxS proteins. Our results suggest that the additional insertion perturbs dodecamer formation of P. horikoshii PdxS. PMID:23104439

  3. Crystal structure of pyridoxal biosynthesis lyase PdxS from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Atsushi; Yoon, Ji Young; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Suh, Se Won

    2012-10-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B(6) and is de novo synthesized from three substrates, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), riburose 5-phosphate (RBP), and ammonia hydrolysed from glutamine. Glutamine amidotransferase (PdxT) catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine, while PdxS catalyzes the following condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), and ammonia. PdxS exists as a hexamer or dodecamer depending on species and makes a 1:1 complex with PdxT. Pyrococcus horikoshii PdxS has a 37 amino acids insertion region, which is found in some archaeal PdxS proteins, but its structure and function are unknown. To provide further structural information on the role of the insertion region, the oligomeric state, and ligand binding mode of P. horikoshii PdxS, the crystal structure of PdxS from P. horikoshii was solved in two forms: (i) apo form, (ii) r ibose 5-phosphate (R5P) complex and the quaternary structure of PdxS in solution was determined by analytical gel filtration. P. horikoshii PdxS forms hexamer in solution based on analytical gel filtration data. When we superimpose the structure of P. horikoshii PdxS with other dodecamer structures of PdxS, the additional insertion is located apart from the active site and induces a steric clash on the hexamer-hexamer interface of PdxS proteins. Our results suggest that the additional insertion perturbs dodecamer formation of P. horikoshii PdxS.

  4. Expression, refolding, and purification of active diacetylchitobiose deacetylase from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    PubMed

    Mine, Shouhei; Ikegami, Takahisa; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Uegaki, Koichi

    2012-08-01

    A chitinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus degrades chitin to produce diacetylchitobiose [(GlcNAc)(2)] as the end product. To further investigate the degradation mechanism of (GlcNAc)(2) in Pyrococcus spp., we cloned the gene of PH0499 from Pyrococcus horikoshii, which encodes a protein homologous to the diacetylchitobiose deacetylase of Thermococcus kodakaraensis. The deacetylase (Ph-Dac) was overexpressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) pLys. The insoluble inclusion body was solubilized and reactivated through a refolding procedure. After several purification steps, 40 mg of soluble, thermostable (up to 80°C) Ph-Dac was obtained from 1L of culture. The apparent molecular mass of the refolded Ph-Dac was 180 kDa, indicating Ph-Dac to be a homohexamer. The refolded Ph-Dac also exhibited deacetylase activity toward (GlcNAc)(2), and the deacetylation site was revealed to be specific to the nonreducing end residue of (GlcNAc)(2). These expression and purification systems are useful for further characterization of Ph-Dac.

  5. The crystal structure of a novel SAM-dependent methyltransferase PH1915 from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W.; Xu, X.; Pavlova, M.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Savchenko, A.; Christendat, D.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Toronto; Univ. Health Network

    2005-01-01

    The S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases represent a diverse and biologically important class of enzymes. These enzymes utilize the ubiquitous methyl donor SAM as a cofactor to methylate proteins, small molecules, lipids, and nucleic acids. Here we present the crystal structure of PH1915 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, a predicted SAM-dependent methyltransferase. This protein belongs to the Cluster of Orthologous Group 1092, and the presented crystal structure is the first representative structure of this protein family. Based on sequence and 3D structure analysis, we have made valuable functional insights that will facilitate further studies for characterizing this group of proteins. Specifically, we propose that PH1915 and its orthologs are rRNA- or tRNA-specific methyltransferases.

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of galactokinase from Pyrococcus horikoshii

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, Eiji; Sakamoto, Keiko; Obayashi, Naomi; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kuroishi, Chizu; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shinkai, Akeo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2006-02-01

    Galactokinase from P. horikoshii has been crystallized in both the apo form and as a ternary complex with α-d-galactose and an ATP analogue. The crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. Galactokinase (EC 2.7.1.6) catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of α-d-galactose to α-d-galactose-1-phosphate, in an additional metabolic branch of glycolysis. The apo-form crystal structure of the enzyme has not yet been elucidated. Crystals of galactokinase from Pyrococcus horikoshii were prepared in both the apo form and as a ternary complex with α-d-galactose and an ATP analogue. Diffraction data sets were collected to 1.24 Å resolution for the apo form and to 1.7 Å for the ternary complex form using synchrotron radiation. The apo-form crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 108.08, b = 38.91, c = 81.57 Å, β = 109.8°. The ternary complex form was isomorphous with the apo form, except for the length of the a axis. The galactokinase activity of the enzyme was confirmed and the kinetic parameters at 323 K were determined.

  7. Pyrococcus horikoshii TET2 Peptidase Assembling Process and Associated Functional Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Appolaire, Alexandre; Rosenbaum, Eva; Durá, M. Asunción; Colombo, Matteo; Marty, Vincent; Savoye, Marjolaine Noirclerc; Godfroy, Anne; Schoehn, Guy; Girard, Eric; Gabel, Frank; Franzetti, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahedral (TET) aminopeptidases are large polypeptide destruction machines present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, the rules governing their assembly into hollow 12-subunit tetrahedrons are addressed by using TET2 from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhTET2) as a model. Point mutations allowed the capture of a stable, catalytically active precursor. Small angle x-ray scattering revealed that it is a dimer whose architecture in solution is identical to that determined by x-ray crystallography within the fully assembled TET particle. Small angle x-ray scattering also showed that the reconstituted PhTET2 dodecameric particle displayed the same quaternary structure and thermal stability as the wild-type complex. The PhTET2 assembly intermediates were characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation, native gel electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. They revealed that PhTET2 assembling is a highly ordered process in which hexamers represent the main intermediate. Peptide degradation assays demonstrated that oligomerization triggers the activity of the TET enzyme toward large polypeptidic substrates. Fractionation experiments in Pyrococcus and Halobacterium cells revealed that, in vivo, the dimeric precursor co-exists together with assembled TET complexes. Taken together, our observations explain the biological significance of TET oligomerization and suggest the existence of a functional regulation of the dimer-dodecamer equilibrium in vivo. PMID:23696647

  8. Characterization of the archaeal ribonuclease P proteins from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Terada, Atsushi; Honda, Takashi; Fukuhara, Hideo; Hada, Kazumasa; Kimura, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is a ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the processing of the 5'-leader sequence of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Our earlier study revealed that RNase P RNA (pRNA) and five proteins (PhoPop5, PhoRpp38, PhoRpp21, PhoRpp29, and PhoRpp30) in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 reconstituted RNase P activity that exhibits enzymatic properties like those of the authentic enzyme. In present study, we investigated involvement of the individual proteins in RNase P activity. Two particles (R-3Ps), in which pRNA was mixed with three proteins, PhoPop5, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp38 or PhoPop5, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp21 showed a detectable RNase P activity, and five reconstituted particles (R-4Ps) composed of pRNA and four proteins exhibited RNase P activity, albeit at reduced level compared to that of the reconstituted particle (R-5P) composed of pRNA and five proteins. Time-course analysis of the RNase P activities of R-4Ps indicated that the R-4Ps lacking PhoPop5, PhoRpp21, or PhoRpp30 had virtually reduced activity, while omission of PhoRpp29 or PhoRpp38 had a slight effect on the activity. The results indicate that the proteins contribute to RNase P activity in order of PhoPop5 > PhoRpp30 > PhoRpp21 > PhoRpp29 > PhoRpp38. It was further found that R-4Ps showed a characteristic Mg2+ ion dependency approximately identical to that of R-5P. However, R-4Ps had optimum temperature of around at 55 degrees C which is lower than 70 degrees C for R-5P. Together, it is suggested that the P. horikoshii RNase P proteins are predominantly involved in optimization of the pRNA conformation, though they are individually dispensable for RNase P activity in vitro.

  9. A three-dimensional model of RNase P in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuzhu; Oshima, Kosuke; Ueda, Toshifumi; Nakashima, Takashi; Kimura, Makoto

    2017-09-19

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an endoribonuclease involved in maturation of the 5'-end of tRNA. We found previously that RNase P in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 consists of a catalytic RNase P RNA (PhopRNA) and five protein cofactors designated PhoPop5, PhoRpp21, PhoRpp29, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp38. The crystal structures of the five proteins have been determined, a three-dimensional (3-D) model of PhopRNA has been constructed, and biochemical data, including protein-RNA interaction sites, have become available. Here, this information was combined to orient the crystallographic structures of the proteins relative to their RNA binding sites in the PhopRNA model. Some alterations were made to the PhopRNA model to improve the fit. In the resulting structure, a heterotetramer composed of PhoPop5 and PhoRpp30 bridges helices P3 and P16 in the PhopRNA C-domain, thereby probably stabilizing a double-stranded RNA structure (helix P4) containing catalytic Mg(2+) ions, while a heterodimer of PhoRpp21 and PhoRpp29 locates on a single-stranded loop connecting helices P11 and P12 in the specificity domain (S-domain) in PhopRNA, probably forming an appropriate conformation of the precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA) binding site. The fifth protein PhoRpp38 binds each kink-turn (K-turn) motif in helices P12.1, P12.2, and P16 in PhopRNA. Comparison of the structure of the resulting 3-D model with that of bacterial RNase P suggests transition from RNA-RNA interactions in bacterial RNase P to protein-RNA interactions in archaeal RNase P. The proposed 3-D model of P. horikoshii RNase P will serve as a framework for further structural and functional studies on archaeal, as well as eukaryotic, RNase Ps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional analysis of the small subunit of the putative homoaconitase from Pyrococcus horikoshii in the Thermus lysine biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Lombo, Tania; Takaya, Naoki; Miyazaki, Junichi; Gotoh, Kazumi; Nishiyama, Makoto; Kosuge, Takehide; Nakamura, Akira; Hoshino, Takayuki

    2004-04-15

    An in vivo disruption-integration vector system for Thermus thermophilus was developed and used for the functional analysis of an evolutionary-related archaeal protein for lysine biosynthesis. In contrast to fungal one, the putative homoaconitase of T. thermophilus consists of two subunits and catalyzes the second and third steps of lysine biosynthesis. ORFs from hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii, PH1726 and PH1724, share a high degree of amino acid identity with the T. thermophilus subunits LysT and LysU, respectively. In the present report, gene encoding the putative small subunit of archaeal homoaconitase, PH1724, was integrated into the lysU locus of T. thermophilus. The archaeal gene was expressed under the control of PslpA promoter and functional analyses were performed. Transformants were able to grow on minimal medium without lysine when PH1724 ORF was integrated, whereas the lysU disruption led to lysine auxotrophy. Chromosomal integration was verified by PCR analysis, and homoaconitase assay showed that the archaeal gene product functions as a small subunit of homoaconitase, possibly by forming a heterodimer with the LysT subunit of T. thermophilus. These results strongly suggest the functional relation of P. horikoshii PH1724 with LysU in the Thermus lysine biosynthetic pathway, together with functional assignment of LysU as small subunit of homoaconitase. In addition, the provided results indicate that archaeal genes products from hyperthermophiles can be studied in a thermophilic eubacterium such as T. thermophilus.

  11. Subunit interaction and regulation of activity through terminal domains of the family D DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Tang, X-F; Matsui, E; Matsui, I

    2004-04-01

    Family D DNA polymerase (PolD) has recently been found in the Euryarchaeota subdomain of Archaea. Its genes are adjacent to several other genes related to DNA replication, repair and recombination in the genome, suggesting that this enzyme may be the major DNA replicase in Euryarchaeota. We successfully cloned, expressed, and purified the family D DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PolDPho). By site-directed mutagenesis, we identified amino acid residues Asp-1122 and Asp-1124 of a large subunit as the essential residues responsible for DNA-polymerizing activity. We analysed the domain structure using proteins truncated at the N- and C-termini of both small and large subunits (DP1Pho and DP2Pho), and identified putative regions responsible for subunit interaction, oligomerization and regulation of the 3'-5' exonuclease activity in PolDPho. It was also found that the internal region of the putative zinc finger motif (cysteine cluster II) at the C-terminal of DP2Pho is involved in the 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Using gel filtration analysis, we determined the molecular masses of the recombinant PolDPho and the N-terminal putative dimerization domain of the large subunit, and proposed that PolD from P. horikoshii probably forms a heterotetrameric structure in solution. Based on these results, a model regarding the subunit interaction and regulation of activity of PolDPho is proposed.

  12. Purification, crystallization and initial X-ray crystallographic analysis of the putative GTPase PH0525 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Lokanath, Neratur K.; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Matsunaga, Emiko; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-10-01

    The putative GTPase PH0525 from P. horikoshii OT3 was crystallized using the microbatch method. Crystals were formed under two different conditions, providing two distinct crystal forms. Diffraction data from the two forms were measured to resolution limits of 2.30 and 2.40 Å and processed in space groups P2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1}, respectively. GTPases are involved in diverse cellular functions including cell proliferation, cytoskeleton organization and intracellular traffic. The putative GTPase PH0525 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Two distinct crystal forms were grown by the microbatch method at 291 K using a very high protein concentration (80 mg ml{sup −1}). Native data sets extending to resolutions of 2.3 and 2.4 Å have been collected and processed in space groups P2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1}, respectively. Assuming the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit gives V{sub M} values of 2.6 and 2.4 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} for the P2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1} forms, respectively, which is consistent with dynamic light-scattering experiments, which show a monomeric state of the protein in solution.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-04-01

    RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with ATP. Both crystal forms belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21 and diffract X-rays to 2.0 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 Å. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V{sub M} value of 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 Å resolution.

  14. Overproduction and preliminary crystallographic study of a human kynurenine aminotransferase II homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Chon, Hyongi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Shimizu, Shoko; Maeda, Nao; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2005-03-01

    A human kynurenine aminotransferase II homologue from P. horikoshii OT3 has been overproduced in E. coli, purified, and characterized. Crystals of this protein have been obtained and analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 genome contains a gene encoding a human kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) homologue, which consists of 428 amino-acid residues and shows an amino-acid sequence identity of 30% to human KAT II. This gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein (Ph-KAT II) was purified. Gel-filtration chromatography showed that Ph-KAT II exists as a homodimer. Ph-KAT II exhibited enzymatic activity that catalyzes the transamination of l-kynurenine to produce kynurenic acid. Crystals of Ph-KAT II were grown using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and native X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation from station BL44XU at SPring-8. The crystals belong to the centred orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.75, b = 86.84, c = 137.30 Å. Assuming one molecule per asymmetric unit, the V{sub M} value was 2.19 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and the solvent content was 43.3%.

  15. Crystal structure of the Pyrococcus horikoshii isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit provides insight into the dual substrate specificity of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Yoshiaki; Yao, Min; Sakai, Naoki; Kirita, Tomomi; Tanaka, Isao

    2004-11-19

    Recent studies have implied that the isopropylmalate isomerase small subunit of the hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhIPMI-s) functions as isopropylmalate isomerase in the leucine biosynthesis pathway, and as homoaconitase (HACN) in the lysine biosynthesis pathway via alpha-aminoadipic acid. PhIPMI is thus considered a key to understanding the fundamental metabolism of the earliest organisms. We describe for the first time the crystal structure of PhIPMI-s, which displays dual substrate specificity. The crystal structure unexpectedly shows that four molecules create an interlocked assembly with intermolecular disulfide linkages having a skewed 222 point-group symmetry. Although the overall fold of the PhIPMI-s monomer is related closely to domain 4 of the aconitase (ACN), one alpha-helix in the ACN structure is replaced by a short loop with relatively high temperature factor values. Because this region is essential for discriminating the structurally similar substrate based on interactions with its diversified gamma-moiety, the loop structure in the PhIPMI-s must be dependent on the presence of a substrate. The flexibility of the loop region might be a structural basis for recognizing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic gamma-moieties of two distinct substrates, isopropylmalate and homocitrate.

  16. Characterization of the PH1704 protease from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 and the critical functions of Tyr120.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Dongling; Bai, Aixi; Yu, Lei; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The PH1704 protease from hyperthermophilic archaean Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 is a member of DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily with diverse functional subclasses. The recombinant PH1704 was efficiently purified and was systematically characterized by a combination of substrate specificity analysis, steady-state kinetics study and molecular docking research. The homogeneous protease was obtained as a presumed dodecamer with molecular weight of ∼240 kDa. Iodoacetamide strongly inhibited the peptidase activity, confirming that Cys100 is a nucleophilic residue. The recombinant protein was identified as both an aminopeptidase and an endopeptidase. Experimental data showed that L-R-amc was the best substrate of PH1704. Structural interaction fingerprint analysis (SIFt) indicated the binding pose of PH1704 and showed that Tyr120 is important in substrate binding. Kinetic parameters Kcat and Kcat/Km of the Y120P mutant with L-R-amc was about 7 and 7.8 times higher than that of the wild type (WT). For the endopeptidase Y120P with AAFR-amc, Kcat and Kcat/Km is 10- and 21-fold higher than that of WT. Experimental data indicate the important functions of Tyr120: involvement in enzyme activity to form a hydrogen bond with Cys100 and as an entrance gate of the substrate with Lys43. The results of this study can be used to investigate the DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of archaeal 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase homologue PH0634 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase (PTPS) catalyses the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin, the second of the three enzymatic steps in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. PH0634, a 13.51 kDa archaeal PTPS homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, was overexpressed as native and selenomethionine-substituted protein and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 A resolution from the native crystal using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 35.83, b = 95.71, c = 105.65 A. Threefold noncrystallographic symmetry was identified from self-rotation calculations. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 45% (V(M) = 2.24 A3 Da(-1)). The selenomethionine-substituted crystal is isomorphous to the native crystal and diffracts X-rays to 2.9 A.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of archaeal 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase homologue PH0634 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase (PTPS) catalyses the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin, the second of the three enzymatic steps in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. PH0634, a 13.51 kDa archaeal PTPS homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, was overexpressed as native and selenomethionine-substituted protein and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution from the native crystal using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.83, b = 95.71, c = 105.65 Å. Threefold noncrystallographic symmetry was identified from self-rotation calculations. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 45% (V M = 2.24 Å3 Da−1). The selenomethionine-substituted crystal is isomorphous to the native crystal and diffracts X-rays to 2.9 Å. PMID:17183164

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 Å. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V M value of 2.36 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 Å resolution. PMID:16582499

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Biotin–protein ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent biotinylation of a specific lysine residue in acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. Crystallization was performed by the microbatch method or the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 2000 as a precipitant at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å resolution from a native crystal and to 1.55 Å resolution from a selenomethionine-derivative crystal for multiple anomalous dispersion phasing using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The native crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.601, b = 78.264, c  =  70.147 Å, β = 101.48°. Assuming a homodimer per asymmetric unit gives a V M value of 2.14 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 42.5%. Cocrystals with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5′-AMP were prepared and diffraction data sets were collected to 1.6, 1.6 and 1.45 Å resolution, respectively. PMID:16510991

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin-protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-02-01

    Biotin-protein ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent biotinylation of a specific lysine residue in acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The biotin-protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. Crystallization was performed by the microbatch method or the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 2000 as a precipitant at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 A resolution from a native crystal and to 1.55 A resolution from a selenomethionine-derivative crystal for multiple anomalous dispersion phasing using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The native crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 38.601, b = 78.264, c = 70.147 A, beta = 101.48 degrees. Assuming a homodimer per asymmetric unit gives a VM value of 2.14 A3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 42.5%. Cocrystals with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5'-AMP were prepared and diffraction data sets were collected to 1.6, 1.6 and 1.45 A resolution, respectively.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-04-01

    Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 angstroms resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 angstroms. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V(M) value of 2.36 angstroms3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 angstroms resolution.

  3. Crystal structure of product-bound complex of UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Pampa, K.J.; Lokanath, N.K.; Girish, T.U.; Kunishima, N.; Rai, V.R.

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Determined the structure of UDP-D-ManNAcADH to a resolution of 1.55 Å. • First complex structure of PhUDP-D-ManNAcADH with UDP-D-ManMAcA. • The monomeric structure consists of three distinct domains. • Cys258 acting as catalytic nucleophilic and Lys204 acts as acid/base catalyst. • Oligomeric state plays an important role for the catalytic function. - Abstract: UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase (UDP-D-ManNAcDH) belongs to UDP-glucose/GDP-mannose dehydrogenase family and catalyzes Uridine-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (UDP-D-ManNAc) to Uridine-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid (UDP-D-ManNAcA) through twofold oxidation of NAD{sup +}. In order to reveal the structural features of the Pyrococcus horikoshii UDP-D-ManNAcADH, we have determined the crystal structure of the product-bound enzyme by X-ray diffraction to resolution of 1.55 Å. The protomer folds into three distinct domains; nucleotide binding domain (NBD), substrate binding domain (SBD) and oligomerization domain (OD, involved in the dimerization). The clear electron density of the UDP-D-ManNAcA is observed and the residues binding are identified for the first time. Crystal structures reveal a tight dimeric polymer chains with product-bound in all the structures. The catalytic residues Cys258 and Lys204 are conserved. The Cys258 acts as catalytic nucleophile and Lys204 as acid/base catalyst. The product is directly interacts with residues Arg211, Thr249, Arg244, Gly255, Arg289, Lys319 and Arg398. In addition, the structural parameters responsible for thermostability and oligomerization of the three dimensional structure are analyzed.

  4. ADP-dependent 6-Phosphofructokinase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3: STRUCTURE DETERMINATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PH1645

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Mark A.; Merino, Felipe; Skarina, Tatiana; Wong, Andrew H.Y.; Singer, Alexander; Brown, Greg; Savchenko, Alexei; Caniuguir, Andrés; Guixé, Victoria; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Jia, Zongchao

    2009-12-01

    Some hyperthermophilic archaea use a modified glycolytic pathway that employs an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADP-GK) and an ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase (ADP-PFK) or, in the case of Methanococcus jannaschii, a bifunctional ADP-dependent glucophosphofructokinase (ADP-GK/PFK). The crystal structures of three ADP-GKs have been determined. However, there is no structural information available for ADP-PFKs or the ADP-GK/PFK. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an ADP-PFK from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhPFK) in both apo- and AMP-bound forms determined to 2.0-{angstrom} and 1.9-{angstrom} resolution, respectively, along with biochemical characterization of the enzyme. The overall structure of PhPFK maintains a similar large and small {alpha}/{beta} domain structure seen in the ADP-GK structures. A large conformational change accompanies binding of phosphoryl donor, acceptor, or both, in all members of the ribokinase superfamily characterized thus far, which is believed to be critical to enzyme function. Surprisingly, no such conformational change was observed in the AMP-bound PhPFK structure compared with the apo structure. Through comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis of the substrate binding pocket we identified residues that were critical for both substrate recognition and the phosphotransfer reaction. The catalytic residues and many of the substrate binding residues are conserved between PhPFK and ADP-GKs; however, four key residues differ in the sugar-binding pocket, which we have shown determine the sugar-binding specificity. Using these results we were able to engineer a mutant PhPFK that mimics the ADP-GK/PFK and is able to phosphorylate both fructose 6-phosphate and glucose.

  5. Identification of a novel amino acid racemase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 induced by D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohmori, Taketo; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2015-08-01

    To date, there have been few reports analyzing the amino acid requirement for growth of hyperthermophilic archaea. We here found that the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 requires Thr, Leu, Val, Phe, Tyr, Trp, His and Arg in the medium for growth, and shows slow growth in medium lacking Met or Ile. This largely corresponds to the presence, or absence, of genes related to amino acid biosynthesis in its genome, though there are exceptions. The amino acid requirements were dramatically lost by addition of D-isomers of Met, Leu, Val, allo-Ile, Phe, Tyr, Trp and Arg. Tracer analysis using (14)C-labeled D-Trp showed that D-Trp in the medium was used as a protein component in the cells, suggesting the presence of D-amino acid metabolic enzymes. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent racemase activity toward Met, Leu and Phe was detected in crude extract of P. horikoshii and was enhanced in cells grown in the medium supplemented with D-amino acids, especially D-allo-Ile. The gene encoding the racemase was narrowed down to one open reading frame on the basis of enzyme purification from P. horikoshii cells, and the recombinant enzyme exhibited PLP-dependent racemase activity toward several amino acids, including Met, Leu and Phe, but not Pro, Asp or Glu. This is the first report showing the presence in a hyperthermophilic archaeon of a PLP-dependent amino acid racemase with broad substrate specificity that is likely responsible for utilization of D-amino acids for growth.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-02-01

    The biotin–protein ligase from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5′-AMP. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1} and diffract to beyond 1.6 Å resolution.

  7. Characterization of Quinolinate Synthases from Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pyrococcus horikoshii Indicates that [4Fe-4S] Clusters Are Common Cofactors Throughout this Class of Enzymes†

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Allison H.; Griffiths, Amy E.; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Cicchillo, Robert M.; Tu, Loretta; Stromberg, Jeffrey A.; Krebs, Carsten; Booker, Squire J.

    2009-01-01

    Quinolinate synthase (NadA) catalyzes a unique condensation reaction between iminoaspartate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, affording quinolinic acid, a central intermediate in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Iminoaspartate is generated via the action of l-aspartate oxidase (NadB), which catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of NAD in most prokaryotes. NadA from Escherichia coli was hypothesized to contain an iron–sulfur cluster as early as 1991, because of its observed labile activity, especially in the presence of hyperbaric oxygen, and because its primary structure contained a CXXCXXC motif, which is commonly found in the [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin class of iron–sulfur (Fe/S) proteins. Indeed, using analytical methods in concert with Mössbauer and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies, the protein was later shown to harbor a [4Fe–4S] cluster. Recently, the X-ray structure of NadA from Pyrococcus horikoshii was solved to 2.0 Å resolution [H. Sakuraba, H. Tsuge, K. Yoneda, N. Katunuma, and T. Ohshima, (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, pp. 26645-26648]. This protein does not contain a CXXCXXC motif, and no Fe/S cluster was observed in the structure or even mentioned in the report. Moreover, rates of quinolinic acid production were reported to be 2.2 μmol min-1 mg-1, significantly greater than that of E. coli NadA containing an Fe/S cluster (0.10 μmol min-1 mg-1), suggesting that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of E. coli NadA may not be necessary for catalysis. In the study described herein, nadA genes from both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pyrococcus horikoshii were cloned, and their protein products shown to contain [4Fe–4S] clusters that are absolutely required for activity despite the absence of a CXXCXXC motif in their primary structures. Moreover, E. coli NadA, which contains nine cysteine residues, is shown to require only three for turnover (C113, C200, and C297), of which only C297 resides in the CXXCXXC motif. These

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a conserved domain in plants and prokaryotes from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Linyen; Nakano, Hiroaki; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fujimoto, Satoru; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Nakamura, Shota; Kobayashi, Yuji; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2005-04-01

    A plant- and prokaryote-conserved domain (PPC) has been crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 1.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6{sub 3}22. A plant- and prokaryote-conserved domain (PPC) has previously been found in AT-hook motif nuclear localized protein 1 (AHL1) localized in the nuclear matrix of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtAHL1). AtAHL1 has a DNA-binding function. Mutation analyses of AtAHL1 has previously revealed that the hydrophobic region of the PPC domain is essential for its nuclear localization. In this study, the PPC of the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhPPC) was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.69, c = 159.2 Å. Data were obtained at 100 K, with diffraction being observed to a resolution of 1.7 Å. A complete data set from crystals of the SeMet-substituted protein was also obtained.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein and biotin protein ligase complex from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Bagautdinova, Svetlana; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Biotin protein ligase (BPL) catalyses the biotinylation of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. To elucidate the exact details of the protein–protein interactions in the biotinylation function, the C-terminal half fragment of BCCP (BCCPΔN76), the R48A mutant of BPL (BPL*) and the R48A K111A double mutant of BPL (BPL**), all of which are from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, have been expressed, purified and successfully cocrystallized. Cocrystals of the BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 complexes as well as crystals of BPL*, BPL** and BCCPΔN76 were obtained by the oil-microbatch method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant at 295 K. Complete X-ray diffraction data sets for BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 crystals were collected at 100 K to 2.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. They belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with similar unit-cell parameters a = 69.85, b = 63.12, c = 75.64 Å, β = 95.9°. Assuming two subunits of the complex per asymmetric unit gives a V M value of 2.45 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 50%. PMID:17401210

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the KaiC-like protein PH0187 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kubota, Keiko; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    KaiC is the central protein in the circadian rhythm in cyanobacteria. The 28 kDa KaiC-like protein PH0187 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. Crystals of PH0187 were obtained using a reservoir solution consisting of 1.0 M ammonium phosphate monobasic and 0.1 M sodium citrate tribasic pH 5.3 (the final pH value of the reservoir solution was 4.8) and diffracted X-rays to 2.75 Å resolution. The crystal of PH0187 belonged to space group P6322, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 239.1, c = 106.5 Å. The crystal contained four PH0187 molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21206047

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein and biotin protein ligase complex from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Bagautdinova, Svetlana; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-04-01

    Biotin protein ligase (BPL) catalyses the biotinylation of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. To elucidate the exact details of the protein-protein interactions in the biotinylation function, the C-terminal half fragment of BCCP (BCCPDeltaN76), the R48A mutant of BPL (BPL*) and the R48A K111A double mutant of BPL (BPL**), all of which are from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, have been expressed, purified and successfully cocrystallized. Cocrystals of the BPL*-BCCPDeltaN76 and BPL**-BCCPDeltaN76 complexes as well as crystals of BPL*, BPL** and BCCPDeltaN76 were obtained by the oil-microbatch method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant at 295 K. Complete X-ray diffraction data sets for BPL*-BCCPDeltaN76 and BPL**-BCCPDeltaN76 crystals were collected at 100 K to 2.7 and 2.0 A resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with similar unit-cell parameters a = 69.85, b = 63.12, c = 75.64 A, beta = 95.9 degrees . Assuming two subunits of the complex per asymmetric unit gives a V(M) value of 2.45 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 50%.

  12. Crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase and structure-based phylogenetic analysis suggest an archaeal origin of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xianchi; Zhou, Minyun; Zhong, Chen; Yang, Bei; Shen, Ning; Ding, Jianping

    2010-03-01

    The ancient and ubiquitous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases constitute a valuable model system for studying early evolutionary events. So far, the evolutionary relationship of tryptophanyl- and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS and TyrRS) remains controversial. As TrpRS and TyrRS share low sequence homology but high structural similarity, a structure-based method would be advantageous for phylogenetic analysis of the enzymes. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an archaeal TrpRS, the structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii TrpRS (pTrpRS) in complex with tryptophanyl-5' AMP (TrpAMP) at 3.0 A resolution which demonstrates more similarities to its eukaryotic counterparts. With the pTrpRS structure, we perform a more complete structure-based phylogenetic study of TrpRS and TyrRS, which for the first time includes representatives from all three domains of life. Individually, each enzyme shows a similar evolutionary profile as observed in the sequence-based phylogenetic studies. However, TyrRSs from Archaea/Eucarya cluster with TrpRSs rather than their bacterial counterparts, and the root of TrpRS locates in the archaeal branch of TyrRS, indicating the archaeal origin of TrpRS. Moreover, the short distance between TrpRS and archaeal TyrRS and that between bacterial and archaeal TrpRS, together with the wide distribution of TrpRS, suggest that the emergence of TrpRS and subsequent acquisition by Bacteria occurred at early stages of evolution.

  13. The structures of the CutA1 proteins from Thermus thermophilus and Pyrococcus horikoshii: characterization of metal-binding sites and metal-induced assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin

    2014-01-01

    CutA1 (copper tolerance A1) is a widespread cytoplasmic protein found in archaea, bacteria, plants and animals, including humans. In Escherichia coli it is implicated in divalent metal tolerance, while the mammalian CutA1 homologue has been proposed to mediate brain enzyme acetylcholinesterase activity and copper homeostasis. The X-ray structures of CutA1 from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (TtCutA1) with and without bound Na+ at 1.7 and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively, and from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhCutA1) in complex with Na+ at 1.8 Å resolution have been determined. Both are short and rigid proteins of about 12 kDa that form intertwined compact trimers in the crystal and solution. The main difference in the structures is a wide-type β-bulge on top of the TtCutA1 trimer. It affords a mechanism for lodging a single-residue insertion in the middle of β2 while preserving the interprotomer main-chain hydrogen-bonding network. The liganded forms of the proteins provide new structural information about the metal-binding sites and CutA1 assembly. The Na+–TtCutA1 structure unveils a dodecameric assembly with metal ions in the trimer–trimer interfaces and the lateral clefts of the trimer. For Na+–PhCutA1, the metal ion associated with six waters in an octahedral geometry. The structures suggest that CutA1 may contribute to regulating intracellular metal homeostasis through various binding modes. PMID:24699729

  14. Designing better diffracting crystals of biotin carboxyl carrier protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii by a mutation based on the crystal-packing propensity of amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kazunori D.; Kunishima, Naoki; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Koshiro; Naitow, Hisashi; Fukasawa, Yoshinori; Tomii, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    An alternative rational approach to improve protein crystals by using single-site mutation of surface residues is proposed based on the results of a statistical analysis using a compiled data set of 918 independent crystal structures, thereby reflecting not only the entropic effect but also other effects upon protein crystallization. This analysis reveals a clear difference in the crystal-packing propensity of amino acids depending on the secondary-structural class. To verify this result, a systematic crystallization experiment was performed with the biotin carboxyl carrier protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhBCCP). Six single-site mutations were examined: Ala138 on the surface of a β-sheet was mutated to Ile, Tyr, Arg, Gln, Val and Lys. In agreement with prediction, it was observed that the two mutants (A138I and A138Y) harbouring the residues with the highest crystal-packing propensities for β-sheet at position 138 provided better crystallization scores relative to those of other constructs, including the wild type, and that the crystal-packing propensity for β-sheet provided the best correlation with the ratio of obtaining crystals. Two new crystal forms of these mutants were obtained that diffracted to high resolution, generating novel packing interfaces with the mutated residues (Ile/Tyr). The mutations introduced did not affect the overall structures, indicating that a β-sheet can accommodate a successful mutation if it is carefully selected so as to avoid intramolecular steric hindrance. A significant negative correlation between the ratio of obtaining amorphous precipitate and the crystal-packing propensity was also found. PMID:28876239

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein and biotin protein ligase complex from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Bagautdinova, Svetlana; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-04-01

    A truncated form of biotin carboxyl carrier protein containing the C-terminal half fragment (BCCPΔN76) and the biotin protein ligase (BPL) with the mutation R48A (BPL*) or the double mutation R48A K111A (BPL**) were successfully cocrystallized in the presence of ATP and biotin. The BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1} and diffract X-rays to 2.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Biotin protein ligase (BPL) catalyses the biotinylation of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. To elucidate the exact details of the protein–protein interactions in the biotinylation function, the C-terminal half fragment of BCCP (BCCPΔN76), the R48A mutant of BPL (BPL*) and the R48A K111A double mutant of BPL (BPL**), all of which are from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, have been expressed, purified and successfully cocrystallized. Cocrystals of the BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 complexes as well as crystals of BPL*, BPL** and BCCPΔN76 were obtained by the oil-microbatch method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant at 295 K. Complete X-ray diffraction data sets for BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 crystals were collected at 100 K to 2.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with similar unit-cell parameters a = 69.85, b = 63.12, c = 75.64 Å, β = 95.9°. Assuming two subunits of the complex per asymmetric unit gives a V{sub M} value of 2.45 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 50%.

  16. Improving the Catalytic Activity of Hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii Prolidase for Detoxification of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents over a Broad Range of Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    deep hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough in the northeastern Pacific Ocean and from a shallow marine solfatara at Vulcano Island off the coast of... hydrothermal vent at the Okinawa Trough,” Extremophiles, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 123–130, 1998. [2] G. Fiala and K. O. Stetter, “Pyrococcus furiosus sp. nov

  17. A 21-amino acid peptide from the cysteine cluster II of the family D DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus horikoshii stimulates its nuclease activity which is Mre11-like and prefers manganese ion as the cofactor.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yulong; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Matsui, Eriko; Matsui, Ikuo

    2004-01-01

    Family D DNA polymerase (PolD) is a new type of DNA polymerase possessing polymerization and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. Here we report the characterization of the nuclease activity of PolD from Pyrococcus horikoshii. By site-directed mutagenesis, we verified that the putative Mre11-like nuclease domain in the small subunit (DP1), predicted according to computer analysis and structure inference reported previously, is the catalytic domain. We show that D363, H365 and H454 are the essential residues, while D407, N453, H500, H563 and H565 are critical residues for the activity. We provide experimental evidence demonstrating that manganese, rather than magnesium, is the preferable metal ion for the nuclease activity of PolD. We also show that DP1 alone is insufficient to perform full catalysis, which additionally requires the formation of the PolD complex and manganese ion. We found that a 21 amino acid, subunit-interacting peptide of the sequence from cysteine cluster II of the large subunit (DP2) stimulates the exonuclease activity of DP1 and the internal deletion mutants of PolD lacking the 21-aa sequence. This indicates that the putative zinc finger motif of the cysteine cluster II is deeply involved in the nucleolytic catalysis.

  18. A 21-amino acid peptide from the cysteine cluster II of the family D DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus horikoshii stimulates its nuclease activity which is Mre11-like and prefers manganese ion as the cofactor

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yulong; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Matsui, Eriko; Matsui, Ikuo

    2004-01-01

    Family D DNA polymerase (PolD) is a new type of DNA polymerase possessing polymerization and 3′–5′ exonuclease activities. Here we report the characterization of the nuclease activity of PolD from Pyrococcus horikoshii. By site-directed mutagenesis, we verified that the putative Mre11-like nuclease domain in the small subunit (DP1), predicted according to computer analysis and structure inference reported previously, is the catalytic domain. We show that D363, H365 and H454 are the essential residues, while D407, N453, H500, H563 and H565 are critical residues for the activity. We provide experimental evidence demonstrating that manganese, rather than magnesium, is the preferable metal ion for the nuclease activity of PolD. We also show that DP1 alone is insufficient to perform full catalysis, which additionally requires the formation of the PolD complex and manganese ion. We found that a 21 amino acid, subunit-interacting peptide of the sequence from cysteine cluster II of the large subunit (DP2) stimulates the exonuclease activity of DP1 and the internal deletion mutants of PolD lacking the 21-aa sequence. This indicates that the putative zinc finger motif of the cysteine cluster II is deeply involved in the nucleolytic catalysis. PMID:14704353

  19. Identification of two [4Fe-4S]-cluster-containing hydro-lyases from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    van Vugt-Lussenburg, Barbara M A; van der Weel, Laura; Hagen, Wilfred R; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon

    2009-09-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is a strict anaerobe. It is therefore not expected to use the oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle for energy transduction. Nonetheless, its genome encodes more putative TCA cycle enzymes than the closely related Pyrococcus horikoshii and Pyrococcus abyssi, including an aconitase (PF0201). Furthermore, a two-subunit fumarase (PF1755 and PF1754) is encoded on the Pyr. furiosus genome. In the present study, these three genes were heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli to enable characterization of the enzymes. PF1755 and PF1754 were shown to form a [4Fe-4S]-cluster-containing heterodimeric enzyme, able to catalyse the reversible hydratation of fumarate. The aconitase PF0201 also contained an Fe-S cluster, and catalysed the conversion from citrate to isocitrate. The fumarase belongs to the class of two-subunit, [4Fe-4S]-cluster-containing fumarate hydratases exemplified by MmcBC from Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum; the aconitase belongs to the aconitase A family. Aconitase probably plays a role in amino acid synthesis when the organism grows on carbohydrates. However, the function of the seemingly metabolically isolated fumarase in Pyr. furiosus has yet to be established.

  20. Domain topology of the DNA polymerase D complex from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Feng; Shen, Yulong; Matsui, Eriko; Matsui, Ikuo

    2004-09-21

    Family D DNA polymerase (PolD) is a recently found DNA polymerase extensively existing in Euryarchaeota of Archaea. Here, we report the domain function of PolD in oligomerization and interaction with other proteins, which were characterized with the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays. A proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PhoPCNA, interacted with the N-terminus of the small subunit, DP1(1-200). Specific interaction between the remaining part of the small subunit, DP1(201-622), and the N-terminus of the large subunit, DP2(1-300), was detected by the Y2H assay. The SPR assay also indicated the intrasubunit interaction within the N-terminus, DP2(1-100), and the C-terminus, DP2(792-1163), of the large subunit. A synthetic 21 amino acid peptide corresponding to the sequence from cysteine cluster II, DP2(1290-1310), tightly interacted (a dissociation constant K(D) = 4.3 nM) with the N-terminus of the small subunit, DP1(1-200). Since the peptide could increase the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of DP1 [Shen et al. (2004) Nucleic Acids Res. 32, 158], the short region DP2(1290-1310) seems to play dual roles to form the PhoPolD complex and to regulate the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of DP1 through interaction with DP1(1-200). Furthermore, DP2(792-1163) containing the catalytic residues for DNA polymerization, Asp1122 and Asp1124, interacted with the intrasubunit domain, DP2(1-100), and the intersubunit domain, DP1(1-200). DP2(792-1163) probably forms the most important domain deeply involved in both the catalysis of DNA polymerization and stabilization of the PhoPolD complex through these multiple interactions.

  1. Substrate specificity engineering of beta-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase from Pyrococcus by exchange of unique active site residues.

    PubMed

    Kaper, Thijs; van Heusden, Hester H; van Loo, Bert; Vasella, Andrea; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M

    2002-03-26

    A beta-mannosidase gene (PH0501) was identified in the Pyrococcus horikoshii genome and cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified enzyme (BglB) was most specific for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-mannopyranoside (pNP-Man) (Km: 0.44 mM) with a low turnover rate (kcat: 4.3 s(-1)). The beta-mannosidase has been classified as a member of family 1 of glycoside hydrolases. Sequence alignments and homology modeling showed an apparent conservation of its active site region with, remarkably, two unique active site residues, Gln77 and Asp206. These residues are an arginine and asparagine residue in all other known family 1 enzymes, which interact with the catalytic nucleophile and equatorial C2-hydroxyl group of substrates, respectively. The unique residues of P. horikoshii BglB were introduced in the highly active beta-glucosidase CelB of Pyrococcus furiosus and vice versa, yielding two single and one double mutant for each enzyme. In CelB, both substitutions R77Q and N206D increased the specificity for mannosides and reduced hydrolysis rates 10-fold. In contrast, BglB D206N showed 10-fold increased hydrolysis rates and 35-fold increased affinity for the hydrolysis of glucosides. In combination with inhibitor studies, it was concluded that the substituted residues participate in the ground-state binding of substrates with an equatorial C2-hydroxyl group, but contribute most to transition-state stabilization. The unique activity profile of BglB seems to be caused by an altered interaction between the enzyme and C2-hydroxyl of the substrate and a specifically increased affinity for mannose that results from Asp206.

  2. Operon prediction in Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thao T.; Dam, Phuongan; Su, Zhengchang; Poole, Farris L.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Zhou, G. Tong; Xu, Ying

    2007-01-01

    Identification of operons in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus represents an important step to understanding the regulatory mechanisms that enable the organism to adapt and thrive in extreme environments. We have predicted operons in P.furiosus by combining the results from three existing algorithms using a neural network (NN). These algorithms use intergenic distances, phylogenetic profiles, functional categories and gene-order conservation in their operon prediction. Our method takes as inputs the confidence scores of the three programs, and outputs a prediction of whether adjacent genes on the same strand belong to the same operon. In addition, we have applied Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway information to improve the accuracy of our algorithm. The parameters of this NN predictor are trained on a subset of all experimentally verified operon gene pairs of Bacillus subtilis. It subsequently achieved 86.5% prediction accuracy when applied to a subset of gene pairs for Escherichia coli, which is substantially better than any of the three prediction programs. Using this new algorithm, we predicted 470 operons in the P.furiosus genome. Of these, 349 were validated using DNA microarray data. PMID:17148478

  3. Pyrococcus furiosus strains and methods of using same

    DOEpatents

    Lipscomb, Gina L; Farkas, Joel Andrew; Adams, Michael W. W.; Westpheling, Janet

    2015-01-06

    Provided herein are methods for transforming a Pyrococcus furiosus with a polynucleotide. In one embodiment, the method includes contacting a P. furiosus with a polynucleotide under conditions suitable for uptake of the polynucleotide by the P. furiosus, and identifying transformants at a frequency of, for instance, at least 10.sup.3 transformants per microgram DNA. Also provided are isolated Pyrococcus furiosus having the characteristics of Pyrococcus furiosus COM1, and plasmids that include an origin of replication that functions in a Pyrococcus furiosus. The plasmid is stable in a recipient P. furiosus without selection for more than 100 generations and is structurally unchanged after replication in P. furiosus for more than 100 generations.

  4. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of the Type Strain Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-González, Ismael L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus genus have been extensively studied because of their ability to produce enzymes with high biotechnological value. Here, we report the draft of the whole-genome sequence of the type strain Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719, an alkali-tolerant strain. PMID:27417833

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus horikoshii Strain 20a from Cuatro Cienegas, Coahuila, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zarza, Eugenia; Alcaraz, Luis D; Aguilar-Salinas, Bernardo; Islas, Africa; Olmedo-Álvarez, Gabriela

    2017-07-27

    We sequenced the Bacillus horikoshii 20a genome, isolated from sediment collected in Cuatro Cienegas, Mexico. We identified genes involved in establishing antagonistic interactions in microbial communities (antibiotic resistance and bacteriocins) and genes related to the metabolism of cyanophycin, a reserve compound and spore matrix material potentially relevant for survival in an oligotrophic environment. Copyright © 2017 Zarza et al.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus horikoshii Strain 20a from Cuatro Cienegas, Coahuila, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, Luis D.; Aguilar-Salinas, Bernardo; Islas, Africa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sequenced the Bacillus horikoshii 20a genome, isolated from sediment collected in Cuatro Cienegas, Mexico. We identified genes involved in establishing antagonistic interactions in microbial communities (antibiotic resistance and bacteriocins) and genes related to the metabolism of cyanophycin, a reserve compound and spore matrix material potentially relevant for survival in an oligotrophic environment. PMID:28751383

  7. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of the Type Strain Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Ismael L; Olmedo-Álvarez, Gabriela

    2016-07-14

    Members of the Bacillus genus have been extensively studied because of their ability to produce enzymes with high biotechnological value. Here, we report the draft of the whole-genome sequence of the type strain Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719, an alkali-tolerant strain.

  8. Discovery of a novel restriction endonuclease by genome comparison and application of a wheat-germ-based cell-free translation assay: PabI (5'-GTA/C) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ken; Watanabe, Miki; Kuroita, Toshihiro; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Kawakami, Bunsei; Tanokura, Masaru; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2005-07-21

    To search for restriction endonucleases, we used a novel plant-based cell-free translation procedure that bypasses the toxicity of these enzymes. To identify candidate genes, the related genomes of the hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus abyssi and Pyrococcus horikoshii were compared. In line with the selfish mobile gene hypothesis for restriction-modification systems, apparent genome rearrangement around putative restriction genes served as a selecting criterion. Several candidate restriction genes were identified and then amplified in such a way that they were removed from their own translation signal. During their cloning into a plasmid, the genes became connected with a plant translation signal. After in vitro transcription by T7 RNA polymerase, the mRNAs were separated from the template DNA and translated in a wheat-germ-based cell-free protein synthesis system. The resulting solution could be directly assayed for restriction activity. We identified two deoxyribonucleases. The novel enzyme was denoted as PabI, purified and found to recognize 5'-GTAC and leave a 3'-TA overhang (5'-GTA/C), a novel restriction enzyme-generated terminus. PabI is active up to 90 degrees C and optimally active at a pH of around 6 and in NaCl concentrations ranging from 100 to 200 mM. We predict that it has a novel 3D structure.

  9. Regulation of Iron Metabolism by Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yixuan; Kumar, Sunil; Menon, Angeli L.; Scott, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and many of its iron-containing enzymes have been characterized. How iron assimilation is regulated, however, is unknown. The genome sequence contains genes encoding two putative iron-responsive transcription factors, DtxR and Fur. Global transcriptional profiles of the dtxR deletion mutant (ΔDTXR) and the parent strain under iron-sufficient and iron-limited conditions indicated that DtxR represses the expression of the genes encoding two putative iron transporters, Ftr1 and FeoAB, under iron-sufficient conditions. Under iron limitation, DtxR represses expression of the gene encoding the iron-containing enzyme aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a putative ABC-type transporter. Analysis of the dtxR gene sequence indicated an incorrectly predicted translation start site, and the corrected full-length DtxR protein, in contrast to the truncated version, specifically bound to the promoters of ftr1 and feoAB, confirming its role as a transcription regulator. Expression of the gene encoding Ftr1 was dramatically upregulated by iron limitation, but no phenotype was observed for the ΔFTR1 deletion mutant under iron-limited conditions. The intracellular iron concentrations of ΔFTR1 and the parent strain were similar, suggesting that under the conditions tested, Ftr1 is not an essential iron transporter despite its response to iron. In contrast to DtxR, the Fur protein appears not to be a functional regulator in P. furiosus, since it did not bind to the promoters of any of the iron-regulated genes and the deletion mutant (ΔFUR) revealed no transcriptional responses to iron availability. DtxR is therefore the key iron-responsive transcriptional regulator in P. furiosus. PMID:23504018

  10. Isolation and characterization of a novel alkalitolerant thermophile, Anaerobranca horikoshii gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Engle, M; Li, Y; Woese, C; Wiegel, J

    1995-07-01

    Nine moderately alkalitolerant thermophilic bacteria with similar properties were isolated from water and soil samples obtained from Yellowstone National Park. These Gram-type-positive, rod-shaped bacteria produce cells with primary branches. The cells are peritrichous and exhibit only slight tumbling motility. At 60 degrees C the pH range for growth is 6.9 to 10.3, and the optimum pH is 8.5. At pH 8.5 the temperature range for growth is 34 to 66 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 57 degrees C. The strains are mainly proteolytic. The fermentation products from yeast extract are acetate, CO2, and H2. Fumarate added to minimal medium containing yeast extract is stoichiometrically converted to succinate, indicating that it is used as an alternative electron acceptor. The DNA G + C content is 33 to 34 mol%. On the basis of its unique properties, such as branch formation, growth at alkaline pH values at elevated temperatures, and the relative distance of its 16S rRNA sequence from those of other known bacteria, we propose that strain JW/YL-138T (T = type strain) and eight similar strains represent a new genus and species, Anaerobranca horikoshii. Strain JW/YL-138 is designated the type strain of the type species, A. horikoshii, which was named in honor of Koki Horikoshi, a pioneer in the field of alkaliphilic bacteria.

  11. Production and Application of a Soluble Hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chang-Hao; McTernan, Patrick M.; Walter, Mary E.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a potential renewable alternative energy carrier that could be used in the future to help supplement humanity's growing energy needs. Unfortunately, current industrial methods for hydrogen production are expensive or environmentally unfriendly. In recent years research has focused on biological mechanisms for hydrogen production and specifically on hydrogenases, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reduction of protons to generate hydrogen. In particular, a better understanding of this enzyme might allow us to generate hydrogen that does not use expensive metals, such as platinum, as catalysts. The soluble hydrogenase I (SHI) from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus, a member of the euryarchaeota, has been studied extensively and used in various biotechnological applications. This review summarizes the strategies used in engineering and characterizing three different forms of SHI and the properties of the recombinant enzymes. SHI has also been used in in vitro systems for hydrogen production and NADPH generation and these systems are also discussed. PMID:26543406

  12. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of the archaeon Pyrococcus chitonophagus DSM 10152 (formerly Thermococcus chitonophagus).

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Baharidis, Panagiotis K; Georgoulis, Anastasios; Engel, Marion; Louka, Maria; Karamolegkou, Georgia; Tsoka, Aggeliki; Blom, Jochen; Pot, Bruno; Malecki, Piotr; Rypniewski, Wojciech; Huber, Harald; Schloter, Michael; Vorgias, Constantinos

    2016-05-01

    Here we analyze the first complete genome sequence of Pyrococcus chitonophagus. The archaeon was previously suggested to belong to the Thermococcus rather than the Pyrococcus genus. Whole genome phylogeny as well as whole proteome comparisons using all available complete genomes in Thermococcales clearly showed that the species belongs to the Pyrococcus genus. P. chitonophagus was originally isolated from a hydrothermal vent site and it has been described to effectively degrade chitin debris, and therefore is considered to play a major role in the sea water ecology and metabolic activity of microbial consortia within hot sea water ecosystems. Indeed, an obvious feature of the P. chitonophagus genome is that it carries proteins showing complementary activities for chitin degradation, i.e. endo- and exo-chitinase, diacetylchitobiose deacetylase and exo-β-D glucosaminidase activities. This finding supports the hypothesis that compared to other Thermococcales species P. chitonophagus is adapted to chitin degradation.

  13. Production and Application of a Soluble Hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Chang-Hao; McTernan, Patrick M.; Walter, Mary E.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a potential renewable alternative energy carrier that could be used in the future to help supplement humanity’s growing energy needs. Unfortunately, current industrial methods for hydrogen production are expensive or environmentally unfriendly. In recent years research has focused on biological mechanisms for hydrogen production and specifically on hydrogenases, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reduction of protons to generate hydrogen. In particular, a better understanding of this enzyme might allow us to generate hydrogen that does not use expensive metals, such as platinum, as catalysts. The soluble hydrogenase I (SHI) from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus ,more » a member of the euryarchaeota, has been studied extensively and used in various biotechnological applications. This review summarizes the strategies used in engineering and characterizing three different forms of SHI and the properties of the recombinant enzymes. SHI has also been used in in vitro systems for hydrogen production and NADPH generation and these systems are also discussed.« less

  14. Comparative Analysis of Barophily-Related Amino Acid Content in Protein Domains of Pyrococcus abyssi and Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Yafremava, Liudmila S.; Di Giulio, Massimo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid substitution patterns between the nonbarophilic Pyrococcus furiosus and its barophilic relative P. abyssi confirm that hydrostatic pressure asymmetry indices reflect the extent to which amino acids are preferred by barophilic archaeal organisms. Substitution patterns in entire protein sequences, shared protein domains defined at fold superfamily level, domains in homologous sequence pairs, and domains of very ancient and very recent origin now provide further clues about the environment that led to the genetic code and diversified life. The pyrococcal proteomes are very similar and share a very early ancestor. Relative amino acid abundance analyses showed that biases in the use of amino acids are due to their shared fold superfamilies. Within these repertoires, only two of the five amino acids that are preferentially barophilic, aspartic acid and arginine, displayed this preference significantly and consistently across structure and in domains appearing in the ancestor. The more primordial asparagine, lysine and threonine displayed a consistent preference for nonbarophily across structure and in the ancestor. Since barophilic preferences are already evident in ancient domains that are at least ~3 billion year old, we conclude that barophily is a very ancient trait that unfolded concurrently with genetic idiosyncrasies in convergence towards a universal code. PMID:24187517

  15. Pyrococcus Furiosus Genome Supplementary Data from the Adams Laboratory at the University of Georgia

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adams, Michael W.W.; Weinberg, Michael V.; Schut, Gerrit J.; Brehm, Scott; Datta, Susmitta; Zhou, J.

    The research in the Adams Laboratory focuses on the physiology of hyperthermophilic organisms with an emphasis on metal-containing enzymes in the hyperthermophilic marine archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Three of the many articles from this University of Georgia lab have supplementary materials that are available on the Adams Lab website. All three sets of data are Open Reading Frames (ORFs) used for DNA microarray experiments and the changes in signal intensities. The full citations for the three articles are: 1) Weinberg, M. V., Schut, G. J., Brehm, S., Datta, S. and Adams, M. W. W. (2005) Cold shock of a hyperthermophilic archaeon: Pyrococcus furiosus exhibits multiple responses to a suboptimal growth temperature with a key role for membrane-bound glycoproteins. J Bacteriol. 187, 336-348; 2) Schut, G. J., Brehm, S. D., Datta, S. and Adams, M. W. W. (2003) "Whole genome DNA microarray analysis of a hyperthermophile and an archaeon: Pyrococcus furiosus grown on carbohydrates or peptides" J. Bacteriol. 185, 3935-3947; Schut, G. J., Zhou, J. and Adams, M. W. W. (2001) "DNA microarray analysis of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus evidence for a new type of sulfur-reducing enzyme" J. Bacteriol. 183, 7027-7036. Note that these articles are copyrighted by the Journal of Bacteriology.

  16. Novel structure of an N-terminal domain that is crucial for the dimeric assembly and DNA-binding of an archaeal DNA polymerase D large subunit from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Ikuo; Urushibata, Yuji; Shen, Yulong; Matsui, Eriko; Yokoyama, Hideshi

    2011-02-04

    Archaea-specific D-family DNA polymerase forms a heterotetramer consisting of two large polymerase subunits and two small exonuclease subunits. The N-terminal (1-300) domain structure of the large subunit was determined by X-ray crystallography, although ∼50 N-terminal residues were disordered. The determined structure consists of nine alpha helices and three beta strands. We also identified the DNA-binding ability of the domain by SPR measurement. The N-terminal (1-100) region plays crucial roles in the folding of the large subunit dimer by connecting the ∼50 N-terminal residues with their own catalytic region (792-1163).

  17. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  18. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    PubMed Central

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins. PMID:27250364

  19. Unusual fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, N M; Reyes, M; Sostre, A; Huang, H; Verhagen, M F; Adams, M W

    1997-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic microorganisms Thermotoga maritima and Pyrococcus furiosus were studied and compared. A total of 37 different fatty acids were identified in T. maritima, including the novel 13,14-dimethyloctacosanedioic acid. In contrast, a total of 18 different fatty acids were characterized, as minor components, in P. furiosus, and these included saturated, monounsaturated, and dicarboxylic acids. This is the first report of fatty acids from an archaeon. PMID:9098079

  20. Purification and characterization of a proteasome from the hyperthermophilic archaeon pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, M.W.; Bauer, S.H.; Kelly, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    A 640-kDa proteasome consisting of {alpha} (25-kDa) and {beta} (22-kDa) subunits, and with a temperature optimum of 95{degrees}C, was purified from crude cell extracts of a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. Although this is the fourth member of the kingdom Euryarchaeota (and the first hyperthermophile) found to contain a proteasome, none has been identified among the members of the kingdom Crenarchaeota. 38 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Structural Analysis and Bioengineering of Thermostable Pyrococcus furiosus Prolidase for the Optimization of Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Detoxification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    was tracked. Transfers were made into fresh media (1% inoculum) once cells in the cultures had reached early stationary phase . Unfortunately this...horikoshii have been characterized and show promising enzymatic properties as candidates for OP decontamination in that they are highly thermostable...is bound, it is most likely that having two tightly bound Co in the prolidase active site actually prevents substrate binding and catalysis . This is

  2. Pyrococcus kukulkanii sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic, piezophilic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Callac, Nolwenn; Oger, Philippe; Lesongeur, Françoise; Rattray, Jayne E; Vannier, Pauline; Michoud, Grégoire; Beauverger, Mickael; Gayet, Nicolas; Rouxel, Olivier; Jebbar, Mohamed; Godfroy, Anne

    2016-08-01

    A novel hyperthermophilic, piezophilic, anaerobic archaeon, designated NCB100T, was isolated from a hydrothermal vent flange fragment collected in the Guaymas basin at the hydrothermal vent site named 'Rebecca's Roost' at a depth of 1997 m. Enrichment and isolation were performed at 100 °C under atmospheric pressure. Cells of strain NCB100T were highly motile, irregular cocci with a diameter of ~1 µm. Growth was recorded at temperatures between 70 and 112 °C (optimum 105 °C) and hydrostatic pressures of 0.1-80 MPa (optimum 40-50 MPa). Growth was observed at pH 3.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7) and with 1.5-7 % NaCl (optimum at 2.5-3 %). Strain NCB100T was a strictly anaerobic chemo-organoheterotroph and grew on complex proteinaceous substrates such as yeast extract, peptone and tryptone, as well as on glycogen and starch. Elemental sulfur was required for growth and was reduced to hydrogen sulfide. The fermentation products from complex proteinaceous substrates were CO2 and H2. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 41.3 %. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NCB100T belongs to the genus Pyrococcus, showing 99 % similarity with the other described species of the genus Pyrococcus. On the basis of physiological characteristics, DNA G+C content, similarity level between ribosomal proteins and an average nucleotide identity value of 79 %, strain NCB100T represents a novel species for which the name Pyrococcus kukulkanii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NCB100T (=DSM 101590T=Souchothèque de Bretagne BG1337T).

  3. Maltose-forming α-amylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. ST04.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Dong-Ho; Holden, James F; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2014-03-01

    The deduced amino acid sequence from a gene of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. ST04 (Py04_0872) contained a conserved glycoside hydrolase family 57 (GH57) motif, but showed <13% sequence identity with other known Pyrococcus GH57 enzymes, such as 4-α-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25), amylopullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41), and branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18). This gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant product (Pyrococcus sp. ST04 maltose-forming α-amylase, PSMA) was a novel 70-kDa maltose-forming α-amylase. PSMA only recognized maltose (G2) units with α-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages in polysaccharides (e.g., starch, amylopectin, and glycogen) and hydrolyzed pullulan very poorly. G2 was the primary end product of hydrolysis. Branched cyclodextrin (CD) was only hydrolyzed along its branched maltooligosaccharides. 6-O-glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin (G1-β-CD) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were resistant to PSMA suggesting that PSMA is an exo-type glucan hydrolase with α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan hydrolytic activities. The half-saturation value (Km) for the α-1,4 linkage of maltotriose (G3) was 8.4 mM while that of the α-1,6 linkage of 6-O-maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin (G2-β-CD) was 0.3 mM. The kcat values were 381.0 min(-1) for G3 and 1,545.0 min(-1) for G2-β-CD. The enzyme was inhibited competitively by the reaction product G2, and the Ki constant was 0.7 mM. PSMA bridges the gap between amylases that hydrolyze larger maltodextrins and α-glucosidase that feeds G2 into glycolysis by hydrolyzing smaller glucans into G2 units.

  4. Characterization of amylolytic enzyme activities associated with the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H.; Costantino, H.R.; Kelly, R.M. Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore )

    1990-07-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus produces several amylolytic enzymes in response to the presence of complex carbohydrates in the growth medium. These enzyme activities, {alpha}-glucosidase, pullulanase, and {alpha}-amylase, were detected in both cell extracts and culture supernatants. All activities were characterized by temperature optima of at least 100{degree}C as well as a high degree of thermostability. The existence of this collection of activities in P. furiosus suggests that polysaccharide availability in its growth environment is a significant aspect of the niche from which it was isolated.

  5. Phosphate and arsenate removal efficiency by thermostable ferritin enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus using radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Sevcenco, Ana-Maria; Paravidino, Monica; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2015-06-01

    Oxo-anion binding properties of the thermostable enzyme ferritin from Pyrococcus furiosus were characterized with radiography. Radioisotopes (32)P and (76)As present as oxoanions were used to measure the extent and the rate of their absorption by the ferritin. Thermostable ferritin proved to be an excellent system for rapid phosphate and arsenate removal from aqueous solutions down to residual concentrations at the picomolar level. These very low concentrations make thermostable ferritin a potential tool to considerably mitigate industrial biofouling by phosphate limitation or to remove arsenate from drinking water.

  6. A novel domain arrangement in a monomeric cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing enzyme from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Song, Hyung-Nam; Jung, Tae-Yang; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Park, Sung-Goo; Woo, Eui-Jeon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    PFTA (Pyrococcus furiosus thermostable amylase) is a hyperthermophilic amylase isolated from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. This enzyme possesses characteristics of both α-amylase- and cyclodextrin (CD)-hydrolyzing enzymes, allowing it to degrade pullulan, CD and acarbose-activities that are absent in most α-amylases-without the transferring activity that is common in CD-hydrolyzing enzymes. The crystal structure of PFTA revealed a unique monomeric subunit with an extended N-terminal region and an N'-domain folded into its own active site-a significantly altered domain configuration relative to that of the conventional dimeric CD-hydrolyzing amylases in glycoside hydrolase family 13. The active site is formed by the interface of the N'-domain and the catalytic domain and exhibits a broad and wide-open geometry without the concave pocket that is commonly found in the active sites of maltogenic amylases. The mutation of a residue (Gly415 to Glu) located at the domain interface between the N'- and catalytic domains yielded an enzyme that produced a significantly higher purity maltoheptaose (G7) from β-CD, supporting the involvement of this interface in substrate recognition and indicating that this mutant enzyme is a suitable candidate for the production of pure G7. The unique configuration of the active site distinguishes this archaic monomeric enzyme from classical bacterial CD-hydrolyzing amylases and provides a molecular basis for its enzymatic characteristics and for its potential use in industrial applications.

  7. Archaeal homologs of eukaryotic methylation guide small nucleolar RNAs: lessons from the Pyrococcus genomes.

    PubMed

    Gaspin, C; Cavaillé, J; Erauso, G; Bachellerie, J P

    2000-04-07

    Ribose methylation is a prevalent type of nucleotide modification in rRNA. Eukaryotic rRNAs display a complex pattern of ribose methylations, amounting to 55 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and about 100 in vertebrates. Ribose methylations of eukaryotic rRNAs are each guided by a cognate small RNA, belonging to the family of box C/D antisense snoRNAs, through transient formation of a specific base-pairing at the rRNA modification site. In prokaryotes, the pattern of rRNA ribose methylations has been fully characterized in a single species so far, Escherichia coli, which contains only four ribose methylated rRNA nucleotides. However, the hyperthermophile archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus contains, like eukaryotes, a large number of (yet unmapped) rRNA ribose methylations and homologs of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar ribonuclear proteins have been identified in archaeal genomes. We have therefore searched archaeal genomes for potential homologs of eukaryotic methylation guide small nucleolar RNAs, by combining searches for structured motifs with homology searches. We have identified a family of 46 small RNAs, conserved in the genomes of three hyperthermophile Pyrococcus species, which we have experimentally characterized in Pyrococcus abyssi. The Pyrococcus small RNAs, the first reported homologs of methylation guide small nucleolar RNAs in organisms devoid of a nucleus, appear as a paradigm of minimalist box C/D antisense RNAs. They differ from their eukaryotic homologs by their outstanding structural homogeneity, extended consensus box motifs and the quasi-systematic presence of two (instead of one) rRNA antisense elements. Remarkably, for each small RNA the two antisense elements always match rRNA sequences close to each other in rRNA structure, suggesting an important role in rRNA folding. Only a few of the predicted P. abyssi rRNA ribose methylations have been detected so far. Further analysis of these archaeal small RNAs could provide new insights into

  8. Role of Polysulfides in Reduction of Elemental Sulfur by the Hyperthermophilic Archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus†

    PubMed Central

    Blumentals, I. I.; Itoh, M.; Olson, G. J.; Kelly, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Polysulfides formed through the breakdown of elemental sulfur or other sulfur compounds were found to be reduced to H2S by the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus during growth. Metabolism of polysulfides by the organism was dissimilatory, as no incorporation of 35S-labeled elemental sulfur was detected. However, [35S]cysteine and [35S]methionine were incorporated into cellular protein. Contact between the organism and elemental sulfur is not necessary for metabolism. The sulfide generated from metabolic reduction of polysulfides dissociates to a strong nucleophile, HS−, which in turn opens up the S8 elemental sulfur ring. In addition to H2S, P. furiosus cultures produced methyl mercaptan in a growth-associated fashion. PMID:16348181

  9. Structure of an octameric form of the minichromosome maintenance protein from the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Giuseppe; Visentin, Silvia; Palud, Adeline; Henneke, Ghislaine; Spagnolo, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Cell division is a complex process that requires precise duplication of genetic material. Duplication is concerted by replisomes. The Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) replicative helicase is a crucial component of replisomes. Eukaryotic and archaeal MCM proteins are highly conserved. In fact, archaeal MCMs are powerful tools for elucidating essential features of MCM function. However, while eukaryotic MCM2-7 is a heterocomplex made of different polypeptide chains, the MCM complexes of many Archaea form homohexamers from a single gene product. Moreover, some archaeal MCMs are polymorphic, and both hexameric and heptameric architectures have been reported for the same polypeptide. Here, we present the structure of the archaeal MCM helicase from Pyrococcus abyssi in its single octameric ring assembly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a full-length octameric MCM helicase. PMID:28176822

  10. Biochemical adaptations of two sugar kinases from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    Verhees, Corné H; Koot, Denise G M; Ettema, Thijs J G; Dijkema, Cor; de Vos, Willem M; van der Oost, John

    2002-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus possesses a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway, including an unusual ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADP-GLK) and an ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase. In the present study, we report the characterization of a P. furiosus galactokinase (GALK) and its comparison with the P. furiosus ADP-GLK. The pyrococcal genes encoding the ADP-GLK and GALK were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were subsequently purified to homogeneity. Both enzymes are specific kinases with an optimal activity at approx. 90 degrees C. Biochemical characterization of these enzymes confirmed that the ADP-GLK is unable to use ATP as the phosphoryl group donor, but revealed that GALK is ATP-dependent and has an extremely high affinity for ATP. There is a discussion about whether the unusual features of these two classes of kinases might reflect adaptations to a relatively low intracellular ATP concentration in the hyperthermophilic archaeon P. furiosus. PMID:11978175

  11. Biochemical adaptations of two sugar kinases from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Verhees, Corné H; Koot, Denise G M; Ettema, Thijs J G; Dijkema, Cor; de Vos, Willem M; van der Oost, John

    2002-08-15

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus possesses a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway, including an unusual ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADP-GLK) and an ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase. In the present study, we report the characterization of a P. furiosus galactokinase (GALK) and its comparison with the P. furiosus ADP-GLK. The pyrococcal genes encoding the ADP-GLK and GALK were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were subsequently purified to homogeneity. Both enzymes are specific kinases with an optimal activity at approx. 90 degrees C. Biochemical characterization of these enzymes confirmed that the ADP-GLK is unable to use ATP as the phosphoryl group donor, but revealed that GALK is ATP-dependent and has an extremely high affinity for ATP. There is a discussion about whether the unusual features of these two classes of kinases might reflect adaptations to a relatively low intracellular ATP concentration in the hyperthermophilic archaeon P. furiosus.

  12. Crystal structure of a novel carboxypeptidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Joseph W; Hao, Bing; Ramakrishnan, Vijay; Cheng, Timothy; Chan, Sunney I; Chan, Michael K

    2002-02-01

    The structure of Pyrococcus furiosus carboxypeptidase (PfuCP) has been determined to 2.2 A resolution using multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) methods. PfuCP represents the first structure of the new M32 family of carboxypeptidases. The overall structure is comprised of a homodimer. Each subunit is mostly helical with its most pronounced feature being a deep substrate binding groove. The active site lies at the bottom of this groove and contains an HEXXH motif that coordinates the metal ion required for catalysis. Surprisingly, the structure is similar to the recently reported rat neurolysin. Comparison of these structures as well as sequence analyses with other homologous proteins reveal several conserved residues. The roles for these conserved residues in the catalytic mechanism are inferred based on modeling and their location.

  13. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a hypothetical acetyltransferase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Biarrotte-Sorin, Sabrina; Mayer, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    The GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily has a primordial role in cellular processes such as transcription initiation and regulation by histone acetylation, aminoglycoside resistance and melatonin metabolism. To date, no acetyltransferase from the archaeal domain of life has been studied. This paper describes the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of a Pyrococcus furiosus hypothetical acetyltransferase PfGNAT (MW = 22 007 Da). The crystals belong to space group P622, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 82.6, c = 105.92 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Crystals diffract X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source. Determination of this structure will provide new insights into the substrate-specificity of this acetyltransferase and the thermal stability of the N-acetyltransferase domain. PMID:16511014

  14. Bioenergetic studies of sulfur reduction in the hyperthermophilic archaebacteria Pyrodictium brockii and Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Schicho, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    The central focus of this work was the investigation of the central energy generating pathways of two hyperthermophilic sulfidogenic archaebacteria, Pyrodictium brockii and Pyrococcus furiosus. A potential application of these organisms in the desulfurization of coals was investigated. An effective ;means of removing elemental sulfur (S[degrees]) was developed. Analytical and processing applications are discussed. The rates of sulfur removal by the hyperthermophiles were 5 fold those measured of the mesophile, Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The primary energy generating pathway of Pyrodicutium brockii has been termed hydrogen-sulfur autotrophy and is characterized by the oxidation of H[sub 2] and reduction of S[degrees]. The goals of this part of the work were to quantify the stoichiometry of this organism and to estimate Y[sub s[sup MAX

  15. Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex in the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    DOE PAGES

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nguyen, Diep M. N.; ...

    2016-01-29

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificialmore » chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100° C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80° C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.« less

  16. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nguyen, Diep M. N.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms. PMID:26858706

  17. Minimal Amino Acid Requirements of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi, Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    PubMed Central

    Watrin, L.; Martin-Jezequel, V.; Prieur, D.

    1995-01-01

    A minimal growth medium containing only nine amino acids and vitamins as the sole carbon and energy sources allowed the growth of Pyrococcus abyssi GE 5, a novel hyperthermophilic sulfur-metabolizing archaeon isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The generation time in this medium was about 40 min, and cell densities up to 5 x 10(sup8) cells ml(sup-1) were attained. These results are similar to those obtained previously with complex proteinaceous media. PMID:16534963

  18. Replication slippage of the thermophilic DNA polymerases B and D from the Euryarchaeota Pyrococcus abyssi

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Lizardo, Melissa; Henneke, Ghislaine; Viguera, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Replication slippage or slipped-strand mispairing involves the misalignment of DNA strands during the replication of repeated DNA sequences, and can lead to genetic rearrangements such as microsatellite instability. Here, we show that PolB and PolD replicative DNA polymerases from the archaeal model Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab) slip in vitro during replication of a single-stranded DNA template carrying a hairpin structure and short direct repeats. We find that this occurs in both their wild-type (exo+) and exonuclease deficient (exo-) forms. The slippage behavior of PabPolB and PabPolD, probably due to limited strand displacement activity, resembles that observed for the high fidelity P. furiosus (Pfu) DNA polymerase. The presence of PabPCNA inhibited PabPolB and PabPolD slippage. We propose a model whereby PabPCNA stimulates strand displacement activity and polymerase progression through the hairpin, thus permitting the error-free replication of repetitive sequences. PMID:25177316

  19. Replication slippage of the thermophilic DNA polymerases B and D from the Euryarchaeota Pyrococcus abyssi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lizardo, Melissa; Henneke, Ghislaine; Viguera, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Replication slippage or slipped-strand mispairing involves the misalignment of DNA strands during the replication of repeated DNA sequences, and can lead to genetic rearrangements such as microsatellite instability. Here, we show that PolB and PolD replicative DNA polymerases from the archaeal model Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab) slip in vitro during replication of a single-stranded DNA template carrying a hairpin structure and short direct repeats. We find that this occurs in both their wild-type (exo+) and exonuclease deficient (exo-) forms. The slippage behavior of PabPolB and PabPolD, probably due to limited strand displacement activity, resembles that observed for the high fidelity P. furiosus (Pfu) DNA polymerase. The presence of PabPCNA inhibited PabPolB and PabPolD slippage. We propose a model whereby PabPCNA stimulates strand displacement activity and polymerase progression through the hairpin, thus permitting the error-free replication of repetitive sequences.

  20. Extreme resistance to thermally induced DNA backbone breaks in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    Peak, M J; Robb, F T; Peak, J G

    1995-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus is a hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows optimally at 100 degrees C. It is not conceivable that these organisms could survive with genomic DNA that was subject to thermal destruction, yet the mechanisms protecting the genomes of this and other hyperthermophiles against such destruction are obscure. We have determined the effect of elevated temperatures up to 110 degrees C on the molecular weight of DNA in intact P. furiosus cells, compared with the effect of elevated temperatures on DNA in the mesothermophilic bacterium Escherichia coli. At 100 degrees C, DNA in P. furiosus cells is about 20 times more resistant to thermal breakage than that in E. coli cells, and six times fewer breaks were found in P. furiosus DNA after exposure to 110 degrees C for 30 min than in E. coli DNA at 95 degrees C. Our hypothesis for this remarkable stability of DNA in a hyperthermophile is that this hyperthermophile possesses DNA-binding proteins that protect against hydrolytic damage, as well as other endogenous protective mechanisms and DNA repair enzyme systems. PMID:7592404

  1. Characterization of the glycolytic enzyme enolase which is abundant in the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Peak, M.J.; Peak, J.G.; Stevens, F.J.; Blamey, J.; Mai, X.; Zhou, Z.H.; Adams, M.W.W.

    1993-12-31

    High enolase activity, as measured by the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolphyruvate, was found in the cytoplasm of Pyrococcus (an anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows optimally at 100{degree}C). In this organism, the enzyme probably functions in a sugar fermentation pathway. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity. It had a temperature optimum of >90 {degree}C, and a pH optimum of 8.1. The enzyme was extremely thermostable with a half time for inactivation at 100{degree}C of 40 min. In contrast, an enolase from yeast was inactivated in 1 min at 88{degree}C. Both the P. furiosus and yeast enzymes required a metal ion for activity, but whereas the yeast enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mg{sup ++} the P. furiosus enolase was equally active in the presence of Mn{sup ++}. Both enzymes were competitively inhibited by citrate. P. furiosus enolase, as for mesophilic enolases, probably has a homodimeric structure with subunit M{sub r} greater than 45,000. A highly conserved sequence of eight amino acids in the N-terminal region was found in enolases from P. furiosus and a wide range of other organisms including bacteria, yeast, birds, and mammals.

  2. A cryo-crystallographic time course for peroxide reduction by rubrerythrin from Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Dillard, Bret D.; Demick, Jonathan M.; Adams, Michael W.W.; Lanzilotta, William N.

    2011-09-06

    High-resolution crystal structures of Pyrococcus furiosus rubrerythrin (PfRbr) in the resting (all-ferrous) state and at time points following exposure of the crystals to hydrogen peroxide are reported. This approach was possible because of the relativity slow turnover of PfRbr at room temperature. To this end, we were able to perform time-dependent peroxide treatment of the fully reduced enzyme, under strictly anaerobic conditions, in the crystalline state. In this work we demonstrate, for the first time, that turnover of a thermophilic rubrerythrin results in approximately 2-{angstrom} movement of one iron atom in the diiron site from a histidine to a carboxylate ligand. These results confirm that, despite the domain-swapped architecture, the hyperthermophilic rubrerythrins also utilize the classic combination of iron sites together with redox-dependent iron toggling to selectively reduce hydrogen peroxide over dioxygen. In addition, we have identified previously unobserved intermediates in the reaction cycle and observed structural changes that may explain the enzyme precipitation observed for the all-iron form of PfRbr upon oxidation to the all-ferric state.

  3. A new strategy to express the extracellular α-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Peili; Tian, Jian; Yu, Xiaoxia; Chang, Meihui; Chu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Ningfeng

    2016-02-26

    Extracellular α-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PFA) shows great starch-processing potential for industrial application due to its thermostability, long half-life and optimal activity at low pH; however, it is difficult to produce in large quantities. In contrast, α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BAA) can be produced in larger quantities, but shows lower stability at high temperatures and low pH. Here, we describe a BAA protein expression pattern-mimicking strategy to express PFA in B. amyloliquefaciens using the expression and secretion elements of BAA, including the codon usage bias and mRNA structure of gene, promoter, signal peptide, host and cultivation conditions. This design was assessed to be successful by comparing the various genes (mpfa and opfa), promoters (PamyA and P43), and strains (F30, F31, F32 and F30-∆amyA). The final production of PFA yielded 2714 U/mL, about 3000- and 14-fold that reportedly produced in B. subtilis or E. coli, respectively. The recombinant PFA was optimally active at ~100 °C and pH 5 and did not require Ca(2+) for activity or thermostability, and >80% of the enzyme activity was retained after treatment at 100 °C for 4 h.

  4. Kinetic study of the thermal denaturation of a hyperthermostable extracellular α-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Brown, I; Dafforn, T R; Fryer, P J; Cox, P W

    2013-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic enzymes are of industrial importance and interest, especially due to their denaturation kinetics at commercial sterilisation temperatures inside safety indicating time-temperature integrators (TTIs). The thermal stability and irreversible thermal inactivation of native extracellular Pyrococcus furiosus α-amylase were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Denaturation of the amylase was irreversible above a Tm of approximately 106°C and could be described by a one-step irreversible model. The activation energy at 121°C was found to be 316kJ/mol. Using CD and FT-IR spectroscopy it was shown that folding and stability greatly increase with temperature. Under an isothermal holding temperature of 121°C, the structure of the PFA changes during denaturation from an α-helical structure, through a β-sheet structure to an aggregated protein. Such data reinforces the use of P. furiosus α-amylase as a labile species in TTIs.

  5. Crystal structure and functional implications of Pyrococcus furiosus hef helicase domain involved in branched DNA processing.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Tatsuya; Komori, Kayoko; Tsuchiya, Daisuke; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    DNA and RNA frequently form various branched intermediates that are important for the transmission of genetic information. Helicases play pivotal roles in the processing of these transient intermediates during nucleic acid metabolism. The archaeal Hef helicase/ nuclease is a representative protein that processes flap- or fork-DNA structures, and, intriguingly, its C-terminal half belongs to the XPF/Mus81 nuclease family. Here, we report the crystal structure of the helicase domain of the Hef protein from Pyrococcus furiosus. The structure reveals a novel helical insertion between the two conserved helicase core domains. This positively charged extra region, structurally similar to the "thumb" domain of DNA polymerase, plays critical roles in fork recognition. The Hef helicase/nuclease exhibits sequence similarity to the Mph1 helicase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; XPF/Rad1, involved in DNA repair; and a putative Hef homolog identified in mammals. Hence, our findings provide a structural basis for the functional mechanisms of this helicase/nuclease family.

  6. Hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides by a thermostable β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Bi-Na; Kim, Yeong-Su; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2012-02-15

    The recombinant β-glucosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was purified with a specific activity of 330 U/mg for genistin by His-trap chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme followed the order genistin > daidzin > glycitin> malonyl glycitin > malonyl daidzin > malonyl genistin. The hydrolytic activity for genistin was highest at pH 6.0 and 95 °C with a half-life of 59 h, a K(m) of 0.5 mM, and a k(cat) of 6050 1/s. The enzyme completely hydrolyzed 1.0 mM genistin, daidzin, and glycitin within 100, 140, and 180 min, respectively. The soybean flour extract at 7.5% (w/v) contained 1.0 mM genistin, 0.9 mM daidzin, and 0.3 mM glycitin. Genistin, daidzin, and glycitin in the soybean flour extract were completely hydrolyzed after 60, 75, and 120 min, respectively. Of the reported β-glucosidases, P. furiosusβ-glucosidase exhibited the highest thermostability, k(cat), k(cat)/K(m), yield, and productivity for hydrolyzing genistin. These results suggest that this enzyme may be useful for the industrial hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides.

  7. Molybdenum Incorporation in Tungsten Aldehyde Oxidoreductase Enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sevcenco, Ana-Maria; Bevers, Loes E.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Krijger, Gerard C.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; Hagen, Wilfred R.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon

    2010-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus expresses five aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR) enzymes, all containing a tungsto-bispterin cofactor. The growth of this organism is fully dependent on the presence of tungsten in the growth medium. Previous studies have suggested that molybdenum is not incorporated in the active site of these enzymes. Application of the radioisotope 99Mo in metal isotope native radioautography in gel electrophoresis (MIRAGE) technology to P. furiosus shows that molybdenum can in fact be incorporated in all five AOR enzymes. Mo(V) signals characteristic for molybdopterin were observed in formaldehyde oxidoreductase (FOR) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-monitored redox titrations. Our finding that the aldehyde oxidation activity of FOR and WOR5 (W-containing oxidoreductase 5) correlates only with the residual tungsten content suggests that the Mo-containing AORs are most likely inactive. An observed W/Mo antagonism is indicative of tungstate-dependent negative feedback of the expression of the tungstate/molybdate ABC transporter. An intracellular selection mechanism for tungstate and molybdate processing has to be present, since tungsten was found to be preferentially incorporated into the AORs even under conditions with comparable intracellular concentrations of tungstate and molybdate. Under the employed growth conditions of starch as the main carbon source in a rich medium, no tungsten- and/or molybdenum-associated proteins are detected in P. furiosus other than the high-affinity transporter, the proteins of the metallopterin insertion machinery, and the five W-AORs. PMID:20562313

  8. Electrogenic Cation Binding in the Electroneutral Na+/H+ Antiporter of Pyrococcus abyssi.

    PubMed

    Călinescu, Octavian; Linder, Mark; Wöhlert, David; Yildiz, Özkan; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Fendler, Klaus

    2016-12-23

    Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in the CPA1 branch of the cation proton antiporter family drive the electroneutral exchange of H(+) against Na(+) ions and ensure pH homeostasis in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Although their transport cycle is overall electroneutral, specific partial reactions are electrogenic. Here, we present an electrophysiological study of the PaNhaP Na(+)/H(+) antiporter from Pyrococcus abyssi reconstituted into liposomes. Positive transient currents were recorded upon addition of Na(+) to PaNhaP proteoliposomes, indicating a reaction where positive charge is rapidly displaced into the proteoliposomes with a rate constant of k >200 s(-1) We attribute the recorded currents to an electrogenic reaction that includes Na(+) binding and possibly occlusion. Subsequently, positive charge is transported out of the cell associated with H(+) binding, so that the overall reaction is electroneutral. We show that the differences in pH profile and Na(+) affinity of PaNhaP and the related MjNhaP1 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii can be attributed to an additional negatively charged glutamate residue in PaNhaP. The results are discussed in the context of the physiological function of PaNhaP and other microbial Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. We propose that both, electroneutral and electrogenic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, represent a carefully tuned self-regulatory system, which drives the cytoplasmic pH back to neutral after any deviation.

  9. Electrogenic Cation Binding in the Electroneutral Na+/H+ Antiporter of Pyrococcus abyssi*

    PubMed Central

    Călinescu, Octavian; Linder, Mark; Wöhlert, David; Yildiz, Özkan; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Na+/H+ antiporters in the CPA1 branch of the cation proton antiporter family drive the electroneutral exchange of H+ against Na+ ions and ensure pH homeostasis in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Although their transport cycle is overall electroneutral, specific partial reactions are electrogenic. Here, we present an electrophysiological study of the PaNhaP Na+/H+ antiporter from Pyrococcus abyssi reconstituted into liposomes. Positive transient currents were recorded upon addition of Na+ to PaNhaP proteoliposomes, indicating a reaction where positive charge is rapidly displaced into the proteoliposomes with a rate constant of k >200 s−1. We attribute the recorded currents to an electrogenic reaction that includes Na+ binding and possibly occlusion. Subsequently, positive charge is transported out of the cell associated with H+ binding, so that the overall reaction is electroneutral. We show that the differences in pH profile and Na+ affinity of PaNhaP and the related MjNhaP1 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii can be attributed to an additional negatively charged glutamate residue in PaNhaP. The results are discussed in the context of the physiological function of PaNhaP and other microbial Na+/H+ exchangers. We propose that both, electroneutral and electrogenic Na+/H+ antiporters, represent a carefully tuned self-regulatory system, which drives the cytoplasmic pH back to neutral after any deviation. PMID:27821589

  10. Electricity generation by Pyrococcus furiosus in microbial fuel cells operated at 90 °C.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Narendran; Wu, Chang-Hao; Adams, Michael W W; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P

    2017-02-20

    Hyperthermophiles are microorganisms that thrive in extremely hot environments with temperatures near and even above 100 (°) C. They are the most deeply rooted microorganisms on phylogenetic trees suggesting they may have evolved to survive in the early hostile earth. The simple respiratory systems of some of these hyperthermophiles made them potential candidates to develop microbial fuel cells (MFC) that can generate power at temperatures approaching the boiling point. We explored extracellular electron transfer ability of a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) by studying its ability to generate electricity in a two-chamber MFC. Pf growing in defined medium functioned as an anolyte in a MFC operated at 90 (°) C, generating a maximum current density of 2 A m(-2) and a peak power density of 225 mW m(-2) without the addition of any external redox mediator. Electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the anode with the attached Pf biofilm demonstrated bio-electrochemical behavior that led to electricity generation in MFC via direct electron transfer. This proof of concept study reveals for the first time that a hyperthermophile such as Pf can generate electricity in MFC at extreme temperatures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel endonuclease that may be responsible for damaged DNA base repair in Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Miyako; Ishino, Sonoko; Yamagami, Takeshi; Egashira, Yuriko; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2015-01-01

    DNA is constantly damaged by endogenous and environmental influences. Deaminated adenine (hypoxanthine) tends to pair with cytosine and leads to the A:T→G:C transition mutation during DNA replication. Endonuclease V (EndoV) hydrolyzes the second phosphodiester bond 3′ from deoxyinosine in the DNA strand, and was considered to be responsible for hypoxanthine excision repair. However, the downstream pathway after EndoV cleavage remained unclear. The activity to cleave the phosphodiester bond 5′ from deoxyinosine was detected in a Pyrococcus furiosus cell extract. The protein encoded by PF1551, obtained from the mass spectrometry analysis of the purified fraction, exhibited the corresponding cleavage activity. A putative homolog from Thermococcus kodakarensis (TK0887) showed the same activity. Further biochemical analyses revealed that the purified PF1551 and TK0887 proteins recognize uracil, xanthine and the AP site, in addition to hypoxanthine. We named this endonuclease Endonuclease Q (EndoQ), as it may be involved in damaged base repair in the Thermococcals of Archaea. PMID:25694513

  12. Expression of Pyrococcus furiosus superoxide reductase in Arabidopsis enhances heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Im, Yang Ju; Ji, Mikyoung; Lee, Alice; Killens, Rushyannah; Grunden, Amy M; Boss, Wendy F

    2009-10-01

    Plants produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to environmental stresses sending signaling cues, which, if uncontrolled, result in cell death. Like other aerobic organisms, plants have ROS-scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), which removes superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) and prevents the production and buildup of toxic free radicals. However, increasing the expression of cytosolic SODs is complex, and increasing their production in vivo has proven to be challenging. To avoid problems with endogenous regulation of gene expression, we expressed a gene from the archaeal hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus that reduces O(2)(-). P. furiosus uses superoxide reductase (SOR) rather than SOD to remove superoxide. SOR is a thermostable enzyme that reduces O(2)(-) in a one-electron reduction without producing oxygen. We show that P. furiosus SOR can be produced as a functional enzyme in planta and that plants producing SOR have enhanced tolerance to heat, light, and chemically induced ROS. Stress tolerance in the SOR-producing plants correlates positively with a delayed increase in ROS-sensitive transcripts and a decrease in ascorbate peroxidase activity. The SOR plants provide a good model system to study the impact of cytosolic ROS on downstream signaling in plant growth and development. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that this synthetic approach for reducing cytosolic ROS holds promise as a means for improving stress tolerance in crop plants.

  13. Mutation studies in the active site of β-glycosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghoon; Alli, Inteaz; Park, Kwanhwa; Oh, Byungchul; Lee, Byonghoon

    2013-01-01

    Sequence alignments and homology modeling of Pyrococcus furiosus thermostable glycosidase (PFTG) showed that the residue 150 is conserved as tryptophan in β-glycosidase and in other related enzymes such as β- mannosidase and β-galactosidase. To elucidate the relationship between the substrate size and geometric shape of the catalytic site of thermophilic β-glycosidase and category of PFTG, the Q77, Q150 and D206 located at the interface of the dimer were replaced with Trp and Asn. Also, to confirm the role of active sites of PFTG, the Q77R/Q150W double mutant was created through subcloning. Temperature and pH optima of both mutants and native enzyme were same at 100 °C and pH 5.0 in sodium citrate buffer, respectively. The catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) of the mutants on synthetic and natural substrates by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry were slightly changed, but indicated the characteristics of β-glycosidase activity. Kinetic parameters of the mutant enzymes indicated that they possess characteristics of both β- galactosidase and β-mannosidase activities. Although the mutant enzymes showed similar substrate specificities compared to the recombinant enzyme, they had more affinity (K(m)) to substrates with low turnover number (k(cat)).

  14. Preliminary neutron crystallographic analysis of selectively CH3-protonated, deuterated rubredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Kevin L; Meilleur, Flora; Blakeley, Matthew; Myles, Dean A A

    2008-01-01

    Neutron crystallography is used to locate hydrogen atoms in biological materials and can distinguish between negatively scattering hydrogen and positively scattering deuterium substituted positions in isomorphous neutron structures. Recently, Hauptman and Langs (2003) have shown that neutron diffraction data can be used to solve macromolecular structures by direct methods and that solution is aided by the presence of negatively scattering hydrogen atoms in the structure. Selective labeling protocols allow the design and production of H/D-labeled macromolecular structures in which the ratio of hydrogen to deuterium atoms can be precisely controlled. We have applied methyl-selective labeling protocols to introduce (1H-delta methyl)-leucine and (1H-gamma methyl)-valine into deuterated rubredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfRd). Here we report on the production, crystallization, and preliminary neutron analysis of the selectively CH3-protonated, deuterated PfRd sample, which provided a high quality neutron data set extending to 1.75 resolution at the new LADI-III instrument at the Insititut Laue-Langevin. Preliminary analysis of neutron density maps allows unambiguous assignment of the positions of hydrogen atoms at the methyl groups of the valine and leucine residues in the otherwise deuterated rubredoxin structure.

  15. Random mutagenesis of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus using in vitro mariner transposition and natural transformation

    PubMed Central

    Guschinskaya, Natalia; Brunel, Romain; Tourte, Maxime; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Oger, Philippe; Charpentier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Transposition mutagenesis is a powerful tool to identify the function of genes, reveal essential genes and generally to unravel the genetic basis of living organisms. However, transposon-mediated mutagenesis has only been successfully applied to a limited number of archaeal species and has never been reported in Thermococcales. Here, we report random insertion mutagenesis in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The strategy takes advantage of the natural transformability of derivatives of the P. furiosus COM1 strain and of in vitro Mariner-based transposition. A transposon bearing a genetic marker is randomly transposed in vitro in genomic DNA that is then used for natural transformation of P. furiosus. A small-scale transposition reaction routinely generates several hundred and up to two thousands transformants. Southern analysis and sequencing showed that the obtained mutants contain a single and random genomic insertion. Polyploidy has been reported in Thermococcales and P. furiosus is suspected of being polyploid. Yet, about half of the mutants obtained on the first selection are homozygous for the transposon insertion. Two rounds of isolation on selective medium were sufficient to obtain gene conversion in initially heterozygous mutants. This transposition mutagenesis strategy will greatly facilitate functional exploration of the Thermococcales genomes. PMID:27824140

  16. A new strategy to express the extracellular α-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Peili; Tian, Jian; Yu, Xiaoxia; Chang, Meihui; Chu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Ningfeng

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular α-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PFA) shows great starch-processing potential for industrial application due to its thermostability, long half-life and optimal activity at low pH; however, it is difficult to produce in large quantities. In contrast, α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BAA) can be produced in larger quantities, but shows lower stability at high temperatures and low pH. Here, we describe a BAA protein expression pattern-mimicking strategy to express PFA in B. amyloliquefaciens using the expression and secretion elements of BAA, including the codon usage bias and mRNA structure of gene, promoter, signal peptide, host and cultivation conditions. This design was assessed to be successful by comparing the various genes (mpfa and opfa), promoters (PamyA and P43), and strains (F30, F31, F32 and F30-∆amyA). The final production of PFA yielded 2714 U/mL, about 3000- and 14-fold that reportedly produced in B. subtilis or E. coli, respectively. The recombinant PFA was optimally active at ~100 °C and pH 5 and did not require Ca2+ for activity or thermostability, and >80% of the enzyme activity was retained after treatment at 100 °C for 4 h. PMID:26916714

  17. Cloning, purification and crystallization of a Walker-type Pyrococcus abyssi ATPase family member

    SciTech Connect

    Uhring, Muriel; Bey, Gilbert; Lecompte, Odile; Cavarelli, Jean; Moras, Dino; Poch, Olivier

    2005-10-01

    The Walker-type ATPase PABY2304 of P. abyssi has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data from selenomethionine-derivative crystals have been collected to 2.6 Å. The structure has been solved by MAD techniques. Several ATPase proteins play essential roles in the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in archaea. Walker-type ATPases are defined by their conserved Walker A and B motifs, which are associated with nucleotide binding and ATP hydrolysis. A family of 28 ATPase proteins with non-canonical Walker A sequences has been identified by a bioinformatics study of comparative genomics in Pyrococcus genomes. A high-throughput structural study on P. abyssi has been started in order to establish the structure of these proteins. 16 genes have been cloned and characterized. Six out of the seven soluble constructs were purified in Escherichia coli and one of them, PABY2304, has been crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected from selenomethionine-derivative crystals using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.41, b = 48.63, c = 108.77 Å, and diffract to beyond 2.6 Å resolution.

  18. Argonaute of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is a DNA-guided nuclease that targets cognate DNA

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Daan C.; Hegge, Jorrit W.; Hinojo, Ismael; Shiimori, Masami; Ellis, Michael A.; Dumrongkulraksa, Justin; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.; van der Oost, John

    2015-01-01

    Functions of prokaryotic Argonautes (pAgo) have long remained elusive. Recently, Argonautes of the bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Thermus thermophilus were demonstrated to be involved in host defense. The Argonaute of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PfAgo) belongs to a different branch in the phylogenetic tree, which is most closely related to that of RNA interference-mediating eukaryotic Argonautes. Here we describe a functional and mechanistic characterization of PfAgo. Like the bacterial counterparts, archaeal PfAgo contributes to host defense by interfering with the uptake of plasmid DNA. PfAgo utilizes small 5′-phosphorylated DNA guides to cleave both single stranded and double stranded DNA targets, and does not utilize RNA as guide or target. Thus, with respect to function and specificity, the archaeal PfAgo resembles bacterial Argonautes much more than eukaryotic Argonautes. These findings demonstrate that the role of Argonautes is conserved through the bacterial and archaeal domains of life and suggests that eukaryotic Argonautes are derived from DNA-guided DNA-interfering host defense systems. PMID:25925567

  19. Argonaute of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is a DNA-guided nuclease that targets cognate DNA.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Daan C; Hegge, Jorrit W; Hinojo, Ismael; Shiimori, Masami; Ellis, Michael A; Dumrongkulraksa, Justin; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P; van der Oost, John

    2015-05-26

    Functions of prokaryotic Argonautes (pAgo) have long remained elusive. Recently, Argonautes of the bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Thermus thermophilus were demonstrated to be involved in host defense. The Argonaute of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PfAgo) belongs to a different branch in the phylogenetic tree, which is most closely related to that of RNA interference-mediating eukaryotic Argonautes. Here we describe a functional and mechanistic characterization of PfAgo. Like the bacterial counterparts, archaeal PfAgo contributes to host defense by interfering with the uptake of plasmid DNA. PfAgo utilizes small 5'-phosphorylated DNA guides to cleave both single stranded and double stranded DNA targets, and does not utilize RNA as guide or target. Thus, with respect to function and specificity, the archaeal PfAgo resembles bacterial Argonautes much more than eukaryotic Argonautes. These findings demonstrate that the role of Argonautes is conserved through the bacterial and archaeal domains of life and suggests that eukaryotic Argonautes are derived from DNA-guided DNA-interfering host defense systems.

  20. Cloning, overexpression, and characterization of a thermostable nitrilase from an Antarctic Pyrococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ma Ángeles; Blamey, Jenny M

    2017-07-25

    Nitriles are important chemical building blocks for the synthesis of intermediates in fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Here, we report a new highly thermostable nitrilase from an Antarctic Pyrococcus sp. MC-FB, a hyperthermophilic archaeon. A gene that encoded a nitrilase was identified and subsequently cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant nitrilase, named NitMC-FB, is active as a homodimer (60 kDa) with an optimal temperature and pH of 90 °C and 7.0, respectively. NitMC-FB hydrolyzes preferentially aromatic nitriles, being the first aromatic nitrilase from an archaeon described so far. The K M and V max parameters were determined to be 13.9 mM and 3.7 μmol/min*mg, respectively, with 2-cyanopyridine as the substrate. Additionally, the recombinant nitrilase is highly thermostable with a half-life of 8 h at 90 °C.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus sp. Strain ST04, Isolated from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Holden, James F.; Seo, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hakdong; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Wooki; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-01-01

    Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na+ gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence analysis results of Pyrococcus sp. ST04 and report the major findings from the genome annotation, with a focus on its saccharolytic and metabolite production potential. PMID:22843576

  2. Complete genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Holden, James F; Seo, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hakdong; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Wooki; Ryu, Sangryeol; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2012-08-01

    Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na(+) gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence analysis results of Pyrococcus sp. ST04 and report the major findings from the genome annotation, with a focus on its saccharolytic and metabolite production potential.

  3. Identification and Characterization of an Archaeal Kojibiose Catabolic Pathway in the Hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus sp. Strain ST04

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Dong-Ho; Holden, James F.

    2014-01-01

    A unique gene cluster responsible for kojibiose utilization was identified in the genome of Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04. The proteins it encodes hydrolyze kojibiose, a disaccharide product of glucose caramelization, and form glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) in two steps. Heterologous expression of the kojibiose-related enzymes in Escherichia coli revealed that two genes, Py04_1502 and Py04_1503, encode kojibiose phosphorylase (designated PsKP, for Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 kojibiose phosphorylase) and β-phosphoglucomutase (PsPGM), respectively. Enzymatic assays show that PsKP hydrolyzes kojibiose to glucose and β-glucose-1-phosphate (β-G1P). The Km values for kojibiose and phosphate were determined to be 2.53 ± 0.21 mM and 1.34 ± 0.04 mM, respectively. PsPGM then converts β-G1P into G6P in the presence of 6 mM MgCl2. Conversion activity from β-G1P to G6P was 46.81 ± 3.66 U/mg, and reverse conversion activity from G6P to β-G1P was 3.51 ± 0.13 U/mg. The proteins are highly thermostable, with optimal temperatures of 90°C for PsKP and 95°C for PsPGM. These results indicate that Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 converts kojibiose into G6P, a substrate of the glycolytic pathway. This is the first report of a disaccharide utilization pathway via phosphorolysis in hyperthermophilic archaea. PMID:24391053

  4. Coupled TLC and MALDI-TOF/MS Analyses of the Lipid Extract of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Lobasso, Simona; Lopalco, Patrizia; Angelini, Roberto; Vitale, Rita; Huber, Harald; Müller, Volker; Corcelli, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The lipidome of the marine hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was studied by means of combined thin-layer chromatography and MALDI-TOF/MS analyses of the total lipid extract. 80–90% of the major polar lipids were represented by archaeol lipids (diethers) and the remaining part by caldarchaeol lipids (tetraethers). The direct analysis of lipids on chromatography plate showed the presence of the diphytanylglycerol analogues of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol, the N-acetylglucosamine-diphytanylglycerol phosphate plus some caldarchaeol lipids different from those previously described. In addition, evidence for the presence of the dimeric ether lipid cardiolipin is reported, suggesting that cardiolipins are ubiquitous in archaea. PMID:23193375

  5. Repair of extensive ionizing-radiation DNA damage at 95 degrees C in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    DiRuggiero, J; Santangelo, N; Nackerdien, Z; Ravel, J; Robb, F T

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus for DNA repair by measuring survival at high levels of 60Co gamma-irradiation. The P. furiosus 2-Mb chromosome was fragmented into pieces ranging from 500 kb to shorter than 30 kb at a dose of 2,500 Gy and was fully restored upon incubation at 95 degrees C. We suggest that recombination repair could be an extremely active repair mechanism in P. furiosus and that it might be an important determinant of survival of hyperthermophiles at high temperatures. PMID:9226280

  6. A novel and remarkably thermostable ferredoxin from the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    Aono, S; Bryant, F O; Adams, M W

    1989-01-01

    The archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus is a strict anaerobe that grows optimally at 100 degrees C by a fermentative-type metabolism in which H2 and CO2 are the only detectable products. A ferredoxin, which functions as the electron donor to the hydrogenase of this organism was purified under anaerobic reducing conditions. It had a molecular weight of approximately 12,000 and contained 8 iron atoms and 8 cysteine residues/mol but lacked histidine or arginine residues. Reduction and oxidation of the ferredoxin each required 2 electrons/mol, which is consistent with the presence of two [4Fe-4S] clusters. The reduced protein gave rise to a broad rhombic electronic paramagnetic resonance spectrum, with gz = 2.10, gy = 1.86, gx = 1.80, and a midpoint potential of -345 mV (at pH 8). However, this spectrum represented a minor species, since it quantitated to only approximately 0.3 spins/mol. P. furiosus ferredoxin is therefore distinct from other ferredoxins in that the bulk of its iron is not present as iron-sulfur clusters with an S = 1/2 ground state. The apoferredoxin was reconstituted with iron and sulfide to give a protein that was indistinguishable from the native ferredoxin by its iron content and electron paramagnetic resonance properties, which showed that the novel iron-sulfur clusters were not artifacts of purification. The reduced ferredoxin also functioned as an electron donor for H2 evolution catalyzed by the hydrogenase of the mesophilic eubacterium Clostridium pasteurianum. P. furiosus ferredoxin was resistant to denaturation by sodium dodecyl sulfate (20%, wt/vol) and was remarkably thermostable. Its UV-visible absorption spectrum and electron carrier activity to P. furiosus hydrogenase were unaffected by a 12-h incubation of 95 degrees C. PMID:2542225

  7. A mutant ('lab strain') of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, lacking flagella, has unusual growth physiology.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Derrick L; Notey, Jaspreet S; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K; Loder, Andrew J; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    A mutant ('lab strain') of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus DSM3638 exhibited an extended exponential phase and atypical cell aggregation behavior. Genomic DNA from the mutant culture was sequenced and compared to wild-type (WT) DSM3638, revealing 145 genes with one or more insertions, deletions, or substitutions (12 silent, 33 amino acid substitutions, and 100 frame shifts). Approximately, half of the mutated genes were transposases or hypothetical proteins. The WT transcriptome revealed numerous changes in amino acid and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathways coincidental with growth phase transitions, unlike the mutant whose transcriptome reflected the observed prolonged exponential phase. Targeted gene deletions, based on frame-shifted ORFs in the mutant genome, in a genetically tractable strain of P. furiosus (COM1) could not generate the extended exponential phase behavior observed for the mutant. For example, a putative radical SAM family protein (PF2064) was the most highly up-regulated ORF (>25-fold) in the WT between exponential and stationary phase, although this ORF was unresponsive in the mutant; deletion of this gene in P. furiosus COM1 resulted in no apparent phenotype. On the other hand, frame-shifting mutations in the mutant genome negatively impacted transcription of a flagellar biosynthesis operon (PF0329-PF0338).Consequently, cells in the mutant culture lacked flagella and, unlike the WT, showed minimal evidence of exopolysaccharide-based cell aggregation in post-exponential phase. Electron microscopy of PF0331-PF0337 deletions in P. furiosus COM1 showed that absence of flagella impacted normal cell aggregation behavior and, furthermore, indicated that flagella play a key role, beyond motility, in the growth physiology of P. furiosus.

  8. Characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant proteolytic activity in the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Blumentals, I.I.; Robinson, A.S.; Kelly, R.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Cell extracts from Pyrococcus furiosus were found to contain five proteases, two of which (S66 and S102) are resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) denaturation. Cell extracts incubated at 98{degree}C in the presence of 1% SDS for 24 h exhibited substantial cellular proteolysis such that only four proteins could be visualized by amido black-Coomassie brilliant blue staining of SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The SDS-treated extract retained 19% of the initial proteolytic activity as represented by two proteases, S66 (66 kilodaltons (kDa)) and S102 (102 kDa). Immunoblot analysis with guinea pig sera containing antibodies against protease S66 indicated that S66 is related neither to S102 nor to the other proteases. The results of this analysis also suggest that S66 might be the hydrolysis product of a 200-kDa precursor which does not have proteolytic activity. The 24-h SDS-treated extract showed unusually thermostable proteolytic activity; the measured half-life at 98{degree}C was found to be 33 h. Proteases S66 and S102 were also resistant to denaturation by 8 M urea, 80 mM dithiothreitol, and 5% {beta}-mercaptoethanol. Purified protease S66 was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate but not by EDTA, ethylene glycol-bis({beta}-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetraacetic acid, or iodoacetic acid. These results indicate that S66 is a serine protease. Amino acid ester hydrolysis studies showed that protease S66 was hydrolytically active towards N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester.

  9. The CRISPR-associated Csx1 protein of Pyrococcus furiosus is an adenosine-specific endoribonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Nolan F.; Glover, Claiborne V.C.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotes are frequently exposed to potentially harmful invasive nucleic acids from phages, plasmids, and transposons. One method of defense is the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system. Diverse CRISPR-Cas systems form distinct ribonucleoprotein effector complexes that target and cleave invasive nucleic acids to provide immunity. The Type III-B Cmr effector complex has been found to target the RNA and DNA of the invader in the various bacterial and archaeal organisms where it has been characterized. Interestingly, the gene encoding the Csx1 protein is frequently located in close proximity to the Cmr1-6 genes in many genomes, implicating a role for Csx1 in Cmr function. However, evidence suggests that Csx1 is not a stably associated component of the Cmr effector complex, but is necessary for DNA silencing by the Cmr system in Sulfolobus islandicus. To investigate the function of the Csx1 protein, we characterized the activity of recombinant Pyrococcus furiosus Csx1 against various nucleic acid substrates. We show that Csx1 is a metal-independent, endoribonuclease that acts selectively on single-stranded RNA and cleaves specifically after adenosines. The RNA cleavage activity of Csx1 is dependent upon a conserved HEPN motif located within the C-terminal domain of the protein. This motif is also key for activity in other known ribonucleases. Collectively, the findings indicate that invader silencing by Type III-B CRISPR-Cas systems relies both on RNA and DNA nuclease activities from the Cmr effector complex as well as on the affiliated, trans-acting Csx1 endoribonuclease. PMID:26647461

  10. Two functionally distinct NADP(+)-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases maintain the primary redox balance of Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diep M N; Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Poudel, Saroj; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Leslie A; Dinsmore, Jessica T; Nixon, William J; Boyd, Eric S; Bothner, Brian; Peters, John W; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-09-01

    Electron bifurcation has recently gained acceptance as the third mechanism of energy conservation in which energy is conserved through the coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions. A structure-based mechanism of bifurcation has been elucidated recently for the flavin-based enzyme NADH-dependent ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase I (NfnI) from the hyperthermophillic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. NfnI is thought to be involved in maintaining the cellular redox balance, producing NADPH for biosynthesis by recycling the two other primary redox carriers, NADH and ferredoxin. The P. furiosus genome encodes an NfnI paralog termed NfnII, and the two are differentially expressed, depending on the growth conditions. In this study, we show that deletion of the genes encoding either NfnI or NfnII affects the cellular concentrations of NAD(P)H and particularly NADPH. This results in a moderate to severe growth phenotype in deletion mutants, demonstrating a key role for each enzyme in maintaining redox homeostasis. Despite their similarity in primary sequence and cofactor content, crystallographic, kinetic, and mass spectrometry analyses reveal that there are fundamental structural differences between the two enzymes, and NfnII does not catalyze the NfnI bifurcating reaction. Instead, it exhibits non-bifurcating ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase-type activity. NfnII is therefore proposed to be a bifunctional enzyme and also to catalyze a bifurcating reaction, although its third substrate, in addition to ferredoxin and NADP(H), is as yet unknown. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Ethanol production by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by expression of bacterial bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew W; Lipscomb, Gina L; Nguyen, Diep M; Crowley, Alexander T; Schut, Gerrit J; Scott, Israel; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-02-14

    Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear. As acetyl-CoA is a key central metabolite that can be generated from a wide range of substrates, AdhE can serve as a single gene fuel module to produce ethanol through primary metabolic pathways. The focus here is on the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows by fermenting sugar to acetate, CO2 and H2 . Previously, by the heterologous expression of adhA from a thermophilic bacterium, P. furiosus was shown to produce ethanol by a novel mechanism from acetate, mediated by AdhA and the native enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR). In this study, the AOR gene was deleted from P. furiosus to evaluate ethanol production directly from acetyl-CoA by heterologous expression of the adhE gene from eight thermophilic bacteria. Only AdhEs from two Thermoanaerobacter strains showed significant activity in cell-free extracts of recombinant P. furiosus and supported ethanol production in vivo. In the AOR deletion background, the highest amount of ethanol (estimated 61% theoretical yield) was produced when adhE and adhA from Thermoanaerobacter were co-expressed.

  12. Bioprocessing analysis of Pyrococcus furiosus strains engineered for CO2-based 3-hydroxypropionate production

    DOE PAGES

    Hawkins, Aaron B.; Lian, Hong; Zeldes, Benjamin M.; ...

    2015-06-11

    In this paper, metabolically engineered strains of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (Topt 95–100°C), designed to produce 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) from maltose and CO2 using enzymes from the Metallosphaera sedula (Topt 73°C) carbon fixation cycle, were examined with respect to the impact of heterologous gene expression on metabolic activity, fitness at optimal and sub-optimal temperatures, gas-liquid mass transfer in gas-intensive bioreactors, and potential bottlenecks arising from product formation. Transcriptomic comparisons of wild-type P. furiosus, a genetically-tractable, naturally-competent mutant (COM1), and COM1-based strains engineered for 3HP production revealed numerous differences after being shifted from 95°C to 72°C, where product formation catalyzed by themore » heterologously-produced M. sedula enzymes occurred. At 72°C, significantly higher levels of metabolic activity and a stress response were evident in 3HP-forming strains compared to the non-producing parent strain (COM1). Gas–liquid mass transfer limitations were apparent, given that 3HP titers and volumetric productivity in stirred bioreactors could be increased over 10-fold by increased agitation and higher CO2 sparging rates, from 18 mg/L to 276 mg/L and from 0.7 mg/L/h to 11 mg/L/h, respectively. 3HP formation triggered transcription of genes for protein stabilization and turnover, RNA degradation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. Lastly, the results here support the prospects of using thermally diverse sources of pathways and enzymes in metabolically engineered strains designed for product formation at sub-optimal growth temperatures.« less

  13. Bioprocessing analysis of Pyrococcus furiosus strains engineered for CO₂-based 3-hydroxypropionate production.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Aaron B; Lian, Hong; Zeldes, Benjamin M; Loder, Andrew J; Lipscomb, Gina L; Schut, Gerrit J; Keller, Matthew W; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-08-01

    Metabolically engineered strains of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (T(opt) 95-100°C), designed to produce 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) from maltose and CO2 using enzymes from the Metallosphaera sedula (T(opt) 73°C) carbon fixation cycle, were examined with respect to the impact of heterologous gene expression on metabolic activity, fitness at optimal and sub-optimal temperatures, gas-liquid mass transfer in gas-intensive bioreactors, and potential bottlenecks arising from product formation. Transcriptomic comparisons of wild-type P. furiosus, a genetically-tractable, naturally-competent mutant (COM1), and COM1-based strains engineered for 3HP production revealed numerous differences after being shifted from 95°C to 72°C, where product formation catalyzed by the heterologously-produced M. sedula enzymes occurred. At 72°C, significantly higher levels of metabolic activity and a stress response were evident in 3HP-forming strains compared to the non-producing parent strain (COM1). Gas-liquid mass transfer limitations were apparent, given that 3HP titers and volumetric productivity in stirred bioreactors could be increased over 10-fold by increased agitation and higher CO2 sparging rates, from 18 mg/L to 276 mg/L and from 0.7 mg/L/h to 11 mg/L/h, respectively. 3HP formation triggered transcription of genes for protein stabilization and turnover, RNA degradation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The results here support the prospects of using thermally diverse sources of pathways and enzymes in metabolically engineered strains designed for product formation at sub-optimal growth temperatures.

  14. Studies on Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria after Anaerobic Fermentation of Starch by a Hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitate, Toshihiro; Fukatsu, Makoto; Ishimi, Katsuhiro; Kohno, Hideki; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Jun; Asada, Yasuo

    In order to establish the sequential hydrogen production from waste starch using a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, and a photosynthetic bacterium, basic studies were done. P. furiosus produced hydrogen and acetate by anaerobic fermentation at 90°C. A photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV, was able to produce hydrogen from acetate under anaerobic and light conditions at 30°C. However, Rb. sphaeroides RV was not able to produce hydrogen from acetate in the presence of sodium chloride that was essential for the growth and hydrogen production of P. furiosus although it produced hydrogen from lactate at a reduced rate with 1% sodium chloride. A newly isolated strain, CST-8, from natural environment was, however, able to produce hydrogen from acetate, especially with 3 mM L-alanine and in the presence of 1% sodium chloride. The sequential hydrogen production with P. furiosus and salt-tolerant photosynthetic bacteria could be probable at least in the laboratory experiment scale.

  15. Anaerobic desulfurization of ground rubber with the thermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus--a new method for rubber recycling.

    PubMed

    Bredberg, K; Persson, J; Christiansson, M; Stenberg, B; Holst, O

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic sulfur-reducing archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was investigated regarding its capacity to desulfurize rubber material. The microorganism's sensitivity towards common rubber elastomers and additives was tested and several were shown to be toxic to P. furiosus. The microorganism was shown to utilize sulfur in vulcanized natural rubber and an increase in cell density was obtained when cultivated in the presence of spent tire rubber. Ethanol-leached cryo-ground tire rubber treated with P. furiosus for 10 days was vulcanized together with virgin rubber material (15% w/w) and the mechanical properties of the resulting material were determined. The increase in the stress at break value and the decrease in swell ratio and stress relaxation rate obtained for material containing microbially treated rubber (compared to untreated material) show the positive effects of microbial desulfurization on rubber.

  16. Analyzing the binding of Co(II)-specific inhibitors to the methionyl aminopeptidases from Escherichia coli and Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sanghamitra; Sheppard, George; Wang, Jieyi; Bennett, Brian; Holz, Richard C

    2009-05-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) represent a unique class of protease that is capable of the hydrolytic removal of an N-terminal methionine residue from nascent polypeptide chains. MetAPs are physiologically important enzymes; hence, there is considerable interest in developing inhibitors that can be used as antiangiogenic and antimicrobial agents. A detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study has been performed to probe the binding of a triazole-based inhibitor and a bestatin-based inhibitor to both Mn(II)- and Co(II)-loaded type-I (Escherichia coli) and type-II (Pyrococcus furiosus) MetAPs. Both inhibitors were found to be moderate competitive inhibitors. The triazole-type inhibitor was found to interact with both active-site metal ions, while the bestatin-type inhibitor was capable of switching its mode of binding depending on the metal in the active site and the type of MetAP enzyme.

  17. Structure of a double hexamer of the Pyrococcus furiosus minichromosome maintenance protein N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Martin; Enemark, Eric J.

    2016-06-22

    The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of thePyrococcus furiosusminichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein as a double hexamer is described. The MCM complex is a ring-shaped helicase that unwinds DNA at the replication fork of eukaryotes and archaea. Prior to replication initiation, the MCM complex assembles as an inactive double hexamer at specific sites of DNA. The presented structure is highly consistent with previous MCM double-hexamer structures and shows two MCM hexamers with a head-to-head interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain. Minor differences include a diminished head-to-head interaction and a slightly reduced inter-hexamer rotation.

  18. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a distinct type of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Verhees, Corné H; Akerboom, Jasper; Schiltz, Emile; de Vos, Willem M; van der Oost, John

    2002-06-01

    The Pyrococcus furiosus fbpA gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase produced was subsequently purified and characterized. The dimeric enzyme showed a preference for fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, with a K(m) of 0.32 mM and a V(max) of 12.2 U/mg. The P. furiosus fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was strongly inhibited by Li(+) (50% inhibitory concentration, 1 mM). Based on the presence of conserved sequence motifs and the substrate specificity of the P. furiosus fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, we propose that this enzyme belongs to a new family, class IV fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

  19. Mutations of Asp540 and the domain-connecting residues synergistically enhance Pyrococcus furiosus DNA ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Maiko; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Nishida, Hirokazu

    2014-01-21

    The structure of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA ligase (PfuLig), which architecturally resembles human DNA ligase I (hLigI), revealed that the C-terminal helix stabilizes the closed conformation through several ionic interactions between two domains (adenylylation domain (AdD) and C-terminal OB-fold domain (OBD)). This helix is oriented differently in DNA-bound hLigI, suggesting that the disruption of its interactions with AdD facilitates DNA binding. Previously, we demonstrated that the replacement of Asp540 with arginine improves the ligation activity. Here we report that the combination of the Asp540-replacement and the elimination of ionic residues in the helix, forming interactions with AdD, effectively enhanced the activity.

  20. Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex in the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nguyen, Diep M. N.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-01-29

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100° C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80° C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.

  1. Pyrococcus yayanosii sp. nov., an obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Birrien, Jean-Louis; Zeng, Xiang; Jebbar, Mohamed; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Quérellou, Joël; Oger, Philippe; Bienvenu, Nadège; Xiao, Xiang; Prieur, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    An obligate piezophilic anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon, designated strain CH1(T), was isolated from a hydrothermal vent site named 'Ashadze', which is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at a depth of 4100 m. Enrichment and isolation of the strain were carried out at 95 °C under a hydrostatic pressure of 42 MPa. Cells of strain CH1(T) were highly motile irregular cocci with a diameter of ~1-1.5 µm. Growth was recorded at 80-108 °C (optimum 98 °C) and at pressures of 20-120 MPa (optimum 52 MPa). No growth was observed under atmospheric pressures at 60-110 °C. Growth was observed at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum 7.5-8.0) and in 2.5-5.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3.5%). Strain CH1(T) was strictly anaerobic and grew on complex proteinaceous substrates, such as yeast extract, Peptone, and casein, as well as on sucrose, starch, chitin, pyruvate, acetate and glycerol without electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.0±0.5 mol%. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CH1(T) belongs to the genus Pyrococcus. Based on its physiological properties and similarity levels between ribosomal proteins, strain CH1(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Pyrococcus yayanosii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CH1(T) (=JCM 16557). This strain is also available by request from the Souchothèque de Bretagne (catalogue LMBE) culture collection (collection no. 3310).

  2. Cell-free transcription at 95 degrees: thermostability of transcriptional components and DNA topology requirements of Pyrococcus transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Hethke, C; Bergerat, A; Hausner, W; Forterre, P; Thomm, M

    1999-01-01

    Cell-free transcription of archaeal promoters is mediated by two archaeal transcription factors, aTBP and TFB, which are orthologues of the eukaryotic transcription factors TBP and TFIIB. Using the cell-free transcription system described for the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by Hethke et al., the temperature limits and template topology requirements of archaeal transcription were investigated. aTBP activity was not affected after incubation for 1 hr at 100 degrees. In contrast, the half-life of RNA polymerase activity was 23 min and that of TFB activity was 3 min. The half-life of a 328-nt RNA product was 10 min at 100 degrees. Best stability of RNA was observed at pH 6, at 400 mm K-glutamate in the absence of Mg(2+) ions. Physiological concentrations of K-glutamate were found to stabilize protein components in addition, indicating that salt is an important extrinsic factor contributing to thermostability. Both RNA and proteins were stabilized by the osmolyte betaine at a concentration of 1 m. The highest activity for RNA synthesis at 95 degrees was obtained in the presence of 1 m betaine and 400 mm K-glutamate. Positively supercoiled DNA, which was found to exist in Pyrococcus cells, can be transcribed in vitro both at 70 degrees and 90 degrees. However, negatively supercoiled DNA was the preferred template at all temperatures tested. Analyses of transcripts from plasmid topoisomers harboring the glutamate dehydrogenase promoter and of transcription reactions conducted in the presence of reverse gyrase indicate that positive supercoiling of DNA inhibits transcription from this promoter. PMID:10430563

  3. Cell-free transcription at 95 degrees: thermostability of transcriptional components and DNA topology requirements of Pyrococcus transcription.

    PubMed

    Hethke, C; Bergerat, A; Hausner, W; Forterre, P; Thomm, M

    1999-08-01

    Cell-free transcription of archaeal promoters is mediated by two archaeal transcription factors, aTBP and TFB, which are orthologues of the eukaryotic transcription factors TBP and TFIIB. Using the cell-free transcription system described for the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by Hethke et al., the temperature limits and template topology requirements of archaeal transcription were investigated. aTBP activity was not affected after incubation for 1 hr at 100 degrees. In contrast, the half-life of RNA polymerase activity was 23 min and that of TFB activity was 3 min. The half-life of a 328-nt RNA product was 10 min at 100 degrees. Best stability of RNA was observed at pH 6, at 400 mm K-glutamate in the absence of Mg(2+) ions. Physiological concentrations of K-glutamate were found to stabilize protein components in addition, indicating that salt is an important extrinsic factor contributing to thermostability. Both RNA and proteins were stabilized by the osmolyte betaine at a concentration of 1 m. The highest activity for RNA synthesis at 95 degrees was obtained in the presence of 1 m betaine and 400 mm K-glutamate. Positively supercoiled DNA, which was found to exist in Pyrococcus cells, can be transcribed in vitro both at 70 degrees and 90 degrees. However, negatively supercoiled DNA was the preferred template at all temperatures tested. Analyses of transcripts from plasmid topoisomers harboring the glutamate dehydrogenase promoter and of transcription reactions conducted in the presence of reverse gyrase indicate that positive supercoiling of DNA inhibits transcription from this promoter.

  4. The phosphoglucose isomerase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is a unique glycolytic enzyme that belongs to the cupin superfamily.

    PubMed

    Verhees, C H; Huynen, M A; Ward, D E; Schiltz, E; de Vos, W M; van der Oost, J

    2001-11-02

    Pyrococcus furiosus uses a variant of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway during growth on sugars. All but one of the genes that encode the glycolytic enzymes of P. furiosus have previously been identified, either by homology searching of its genome or by reversed genetics. We here report the isolation of the missing link of the pyrococcal glycolysis, the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), which was purified to homogeneity from P. furiosus and biochemically characterized. The P. furiosus PGI, a dimer of identical 23.5-kDa subunits, catalyzes the reversible isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate, with K(m) values of 1.99 and 0.63 mm, respectively. An optimum pH of 7.0 has been determined in both directions, and at its optimum temperature of 90 degrees C the enzyme has a half-life of 2.4 h. The N-terminal sequence was used for the identification of the pgiA gene in the P. furiosus genome. The pgiA transcription start site has been determined, and a monocistronic messenger was detected in P. furiosus during growth on maltose and pyruvate. The pgiA gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The deduced amino acid sequence of this first archaeal PGI revealed that it is not related to its bacterial and eukaryal counterparts. In contrast, this archaeal PGI shares similarity with the cupin superfamily that consists of a variety of proteins that are generally involved in sugar metabolism in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. As for the P. furiosus PGI, distinct phylogenetic origins have previously been reported for other enzymes from the pyrococcal glycolytic pathway. Apparently, convergent evolution by recruitment of several unique enzymes has resulted in the unique Pyrococcus glycolysis.

  5. Biochemical and phylogenetic characterization of a novel terrestrial hyperthermophilic archaeon pertaining to the genus Pyrococcus from an Algerian hydrothermal hot spring.

    PubMed

    Kecha, Mouloud; Benallaoua, Said; Touzel, Jean Pierre; Bonaly, Roger; Duchiron, Francis

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic anaerobic archeon, strain HT3, was isolated from hydrothermal hot spring in Northeast Algeria. The strain is a regular coccus, highly motile, obligatory anaerobic, heterotrophic. It utilizes proteinaceous complex media (peptone, tryptone or yeast extract). Sulfur is reduced to Hydrogen sulfide and enhances growth. It shares with other Pyrococcus species the heterotrophic mode of nutrition, the hyperthermophily, the ability to utilize amino acids as sole carbon and nitrogen sources and the ether lipid composition. The optimal growth occurs at 80-85 degrees C, pH 7.5 and 1.5% NaCl. The G + C content was 43 mol%. Considering its morphology, physiological properties, nutritional features and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, this strain is described as a new terrestrial isolate pertaining to the genus Pyrococcus.

  6. Cloning, expression, and molecular characterization of the gene encoding an extremely thermostable [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    Heltzel, A; Smith, E T; Zhou, Z H; Blamey, J M; Adams, M W

    1994-01-01

    The gene for ferredoxin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The coding region confirmed the determined amino acid sequence. Putative archaeon-type transcriptional regulatory elements were identified. The fdxA gene appears to be an independent transcriptional unit. Recombinant ferredoxin was indistinguishable from the protein purified from P. furiosus in its thermal stability and in the potentiometric and spectroscopic properties of its [4Fe-4S] cluster. PMID:8045914

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Piezophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus kukulkanii NCB100 Isolated from the Rebecca’s Roost Hydrothermal Vent in the Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    Callac, Nolwenn; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the order Thermococcales are common inhabitants of high-temperature hydrothermal vent systems (black smokers) that are represented in clone libraries mostly by isolates from the Thermococcus genus. We report the complete sequence of a novel species from the Pyrococcus genus, P. kukulkanii strain NCB100, which has been isolated from a flange fragment of the Rebecca’s Roost hydrothermal vent system in the Guaymas Basin. PMID:28209839

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Piezophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus kukulkanii NCB100 Isolated from the Rebecca's Roost Hydrothermal Vent in the Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    Oger, Philippe M; Callac, Nolwenn; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Jebbar, Mohamed; Godfroy, Anne

    2017-02-16

    Members of the order Thermococcales are common inhabitants of high-temperature hydrothermal vent systems (black smokers) that are represented in clone libraries mostly by isolates from the Thermococcus genus. We report the complete sequence of a novel species from the Pyrococcus genus, P. kukulkanii strain NCB100, which has been isolated from a flange fragment of the Rebecca's Roost hydrothermal vent system in the Guaymas Basin.

  9. Overexpression and divalent metal binding properties of the methionyl aminopeptidase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lu; Ruebush, Shane; D'souza, Ventris M; Copik, Alicja J; Tsunasawa, Susumu; Holz, Richard C

    2002-06-11

    The gene encoding for the methionyl aminopeptidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PfMetAP-II; EC 3.4.11.18) has been inserted into a pET 27b(+) vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The new expression system resulted in a 5-fold increase in purified enzyme obtained from a 5 L fermentor growth. The as-purified PfMetAP-II enzyme, to which no exogenous metal ions or EDTA was added, was found to have 1.2 equiv of zinc and 0.1 equiv of iron present by ICP-AES analysis. This enzyme had a specific activity of 5 units/mg, a 60-fold decrease from the fully loaded Fe(II) enzymes. When an additional 2 equiv of Zn(II) was added to the as-purified PfMetAP-II, no activity could be detected. The combination of these data with previously reported whole cell studies on EcMetAP-I further supports the suggestion that the in vivo metal ion for all MetAP's is Fe(II). Both Co(II)- and Fe(II)-loaded PfMetAP-II showed similar substrate specificities to EcMetAP-I. Substrate binding was largely affected by the amino acid in the P1 position and the length of the polypeptide. The substrates MSSHRWDW and MP-p-NA showed the smallest K(m) values while the substrates MGMM and MP-p-NA provided the highest turnover. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of PfMetAP-II for MP-p-NA at 30 degrees C was 799 500 and 340 930 M(-1) s(-1) for Co(II)- and Fe(II)-loaded PfMetAP-II, respectively. Maximum catalytic activity was obtained with 1 equiv of Co(II) or Fe(II), and the dissociation constants (K(d)) for the first metal binding site were found to be 50 +/- 15 and 20 +/- 15 nM for Co(II)- and Fe(II)-substituted PfMetAP-II, respectively. Electronic absorption spectral titration of a 1 mM sample of apo-PfMetAP-II with Co(II) provided a dissociation constant of 0.35 +/- 0.02 mM for the second metal binding site, a 17500-fold increase compared to the first metal binding site. The electronic absorption data also indicated that both Co(II) ions reside in a pentacoordinate

  10. Hyperthermophile Protein Behavior: Partially-Structured Conformations of Pyrococcus furiosus Rubredoxin Monomers Generated through Forced Cold-Denaturation and Refolding

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shubbir; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2014-01-01

    Some years ago, we showed that thermo-chemically denatured, partially-unfolded forms of Pyrococcus furiosus triosephosphateisomerase (PfuTIM) display cold-denaturation upon cooling, and heat-renaturation upon reheating, in proportion with the extent of initial partial unfolding achieved. This was the first time that cold-denaturation was demonstrated for a hyperthermophile protein, following unlocking of surface salt bridges. Here, we describe the behavior of another hyperthermophile protein, the small, monomeric, 53 residues-long rubredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfRd), which is one of the most thermostable proteins known to man. Like PfuTIM, PfRd too displays cold-denaturation after initial thermo-chemical perturbation, however, with two differences: (i) PfRd requires considerably higher temperatures as well as higher concentrations of guanidium hydrochloride (Gdm.HCl) than PfuTIM; (ii) PfRd's cold-denaturation behavior during cooling after thermo-chemical perturbation is incompletely reversible, unlike PfuTIM's, which was clearly reversible (from each different conformation generated). Differential cold-denaturation treatments allow PfRd to access multiple partially-unfolded states, each of which is clearly highly kinetically-stable. We refer to these as ‘Trishanku’ unfolding intermediates (or TUIs). Fascinatingly, refolding of TUIs through removal of Gdm.HCl generates multiple partially-refolded, monomeric, kinetically-trapped, non-native ‘Trishanku’ refolding intermediates (or TRIs), which differ from each other and from native PfRd and TUIs, in structural content and susceptibility to proteolysis. We find that the occurrence of cold denaturation and observations of TUI and TRI states is contingent on the oxidation status of iron, with redox agents managing to modulate the molecule's behavior upon gaining access to PfRd's iron atom. Mass spectrometric examination provides no evidence of the formation of disulfide bonds, but other experiments suggest

  11. Genomewide and biochemical analyses of DNA-binding activity of Cdc6/Orc1 and Mcm proteins in Pyrococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Fujihiko; Glatigny, Annie; Mucchielli-Giorgi, Marie-Hélène; Agier, Nicolas; Delacroix, Hervé; Marisa, Laetitia; Durosay, Patrice; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Aggerbeck, Lawrence; Forterre, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The origin of DNA replication (oriC) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi contains multiple ORB and mini-ORB repeats that show sequence similarities to other archaeal ORB (origin recognition box). We report here that the binding of Cdc6/Orc1 to a 5 kb region containing oriC in vivo was highly specific both in exponential and stationary phases, by means of chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with hybridization on a whole genome microarray (ChIP-chip). The oriC region is practically the sole binding site for the Cdc6/Orc1, thereby distinguishing oriC in the 1.8 M bp genome. We found that the 5 kb region contains a previously unnoticed cluster of ORB and mini-ORB repeats in the gene encoding the small subunit (dp1) for DNA polymerase II (PolD). ChIP and the gel retardation analyses further revealed that Cdc6/Orc1 specifically binds both of the ORB clusters in oriC and dp1. The organization of the ORB clusters in the dp1 and oriC is conserved during evolution in the order Thermococcales, suggesting a role in the initiation of DNA replication. Our ChIP-chip analysis also revealed that Mcm alters the binding specificity to the oriC region according to the growth phase, consistent with its role as a licensing factor.

  12. Flagella of Pyrococcus furiosus: multifunctional organelles, made for swimming, adhesion to various surfaces, and cell-cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Näther, Daniela J; Rachel, Reinhard; Wanner, Gerhard; Wirth, Reinhard

    2006-10-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus ("rushing fireball") was named for the ability of this archaeal coccus to rapidly swim at its optimal growth temperature, around 100 degrees C. Early electron microscopic studies identified up to 50 cell surface appendages originating from one pole of the coccus, which have been called flagella. We have analyzed these putative motility organelles and found them to be composed primarily (>95%) of a glycoprotein that is homologous to flagellins from other archaea. Using various electron microscopic techniques, we found that these flagella can aggregate into cable-like structures, forming cell-cell connections between ca. 5% of all cells during stationary growth phase. P. furiosus cells could adhere via their flagella to carbon-coated gold grids used for electron microscopic analyses, to sand grains collected from the original habitat (Porto di Levante, Vulcano, Italy), and to various other surfaces. P. furiosus grew on surfaces in biofilm-like structures, forming microcolonies with cells interconnected by flagella and adhering to the solid supports. Therefore, we concluded that P. furiosus probably uses flagella for swimming but that the cell surface appendages also enable this archaeon to form cable-like cell-cell connections and to adhere to solid surfaces.

  13. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a penicillin-binding protein homologue from Pyrococcus abyssi

    SciTech Connect

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Mayer, Claudine

    2005-11-01

    The crystallization of a hypothetical penicillin-binding protein from the archaeon P. abyssi in space group C2 by hanging-drop vapour diffusion is reported. The genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi contains a gene (pab0087) encoding a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) homologue. This sequence consists of 447 residues and shows significant sequence similarity to low-molecular-weight PBPs and class C β-lactamases. The Pab0087 protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data from two different crystal forms were collected to 2.7 and 2.0 Å resolution. Both crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 160.59, b = 135.74, c = 113.02 Å, β = 117.36° and a = 166.97, b = 131.25, c = 189.39 Å, β = 113.81°, respectively. The asymmetric unit contains four and eight molecules, respectively, with fourfold non-crystallographic symmetry.

  14. Characterization of the Recombinant Thermostable Lipase (Pf2001) from Pyrococcus furiosus: Effects of Thioredoxin Fusion Tag and Triton X-100

    PubMed Central

    Alquéres, Sylvia Maria Campbell; Branco, Roberta Vieira; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Alves, Tito Lívio Moitinho; Martins, Orlando Bonifácio; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the lipase from Pyrococcus furiosus encoded by ORF PF2001 was expressed with a fusion protein (thioredoxin) in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes with the thioredoxin tag (TRX−PF2001Δ60) and without the thioredoxin tag (PF2001Δ60) were characterized, and various influences of Triton X-100 were determined. The optimal temperature for both enzymes was 80°C. Although the thioredoxin presence did not influence the optimum temperature, the TRX−PF2001Δ60 presented specific activity twice lower than the enzyme PF2001Δ60. The enzyme PF2001Δ60 was assayed using MUF-acetate, MUF-heptanoate, and MUF-palmitate. MUF-heptanoate was the preferred substrate of this enzyme. The chelators EDTA and EGTA increased the enzyme activity by 97 and 70%, respectively. The surfactant Triton X-100 reduced the enzyme activity by 50% and lowered the optimum temperature to 60°C. However, the thermostability of the enzyme PF2001Δ60 was enhanced with Triton X-100. PMID:21760993

  15. Expression and Characterization of a Novel Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase from Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 That Possesses Lysophospholipase D Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fanghua; Lai, Linhui; Liu, Yanhua; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GDPD) are enzymes which degrade various glycerophosphodiesters to produce glycerol-3-phosphate and the corresponding alcohol moiety. Apart from this, a very interesting finding is that this enzyme could be used in the degradation of toxic organophosphorus esters, which has resulted in much attention on the biochemical and application research of GDPDs. In the present study, a novel GDPD from Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 (pfGDPD) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. This enzyme hydrolyzed bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate, one substrate analogue of organophosphorus diester, with an optimal reaction temperature 55 °C and pH 8.5. The activity of pfGDPD was strongly dependent on existing of bivalent cations. It was strongly stimulated by Mn2+ ions, next was Co2+ and Ni2+ ions. Further investigations were conducted on its substrate selectivity towards different phospholipids. The results indicated that except of glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), this enzyme also possessed lysophospholipase D activity toward both sn1-lysophosphatidylcholine (1-LPC) and sn2-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-LPC). Higher activity was found for 1-LPC than 2-LPC; however, no hydrolytic activity was found for phosphatidylcholine (PC). Molecular docking based on the 3D-modeled structure of pfGDPD was conducted in order to provide a structural foundation for the substrate selectivity. PMID:27248999

  16. Characterization of Ten Heterotetrameric NDP-Dependent Acyl-CoA Synthetases of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    DOE PAGES

    Scott, Joseph W.; Poole, Farris L.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Tmore » he hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grows by fermenting peptides and carbohydrates to organic acids. In the terminal step, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) isoenzymes convert acyl-CoA derivatives to the corresponding acid and conserve energy in the form of ATP. ACS1 and ACS2 were previously purified from P. furiosus and have α 2 β 2 structures but the genome contains genes encoding three additional α -subunits.he ten possible combinations of α and β genes were expressed in E. coli and each resulted in stable and active α 2 β 2 isoenzymes.he α -subunit of each isoenzyme determined CoA-based substrate specificity and between them they accounted for the CoA derivatives of fourteen amino acids.he β -subunit determined preference for adenine or guanine nucleotides.he GTP-generating isoenzymes are proposed to play a role in gluconeogenesis by producing GTP for GTP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and for other GTP-dependent processes.ranscriptional and proteomic data showed that all ten isoenzymes are constitutively expressed indicating that both ATP and GTP are generated from the metabolism of most of the amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the ACSs of P. furiosus and other members of thehermococcales are evolutionarily distinct from those found throughout the rest of biology, including those of other hyperthermophilic archaea.« less

  17. Crystal structure of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD: archaeon specificity and catalytic mechanism of adenylate formation.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, E; Moulinier, L; Fujiwara, S; Imanaka, T; Thierry, J C; Moras, D

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS) from Pyrococcus kodakaraensis was solved at 1.9 A resolution. The sequence and three-dimensional structure of the catalytic domain are highly homologous to those of eukaryotic AspRSs. In contrast, the N-terminal domain, whose function is to bind the tRNA anticodon, is more similar to that of eubacterial enzymes. Its structure explains the unique property of archaeal AspRSs of accommodating both tRNAAsp and tRNAAsn. Soaking the apo-enzyme crystals with ATP and aspartic acid both separately and together allows the adenylate formation to be followed. Due to the asymmetry of the dimeric enzyme in the crystalline state, different steps of the reaction could be visualized within the same crystal. Four different states of the aspartic acid activation reaction could thus be characterized, revealing the functional correlation of the observed conformational changes. The binding of the amino acid substrate induces movement of two invariant loops which secure the position of the peptidyl moiety for adenylate formation. An unambiguous spatial and functional assignment of three magnesium ion cofactors can be made. This study shows the important role of residues present in both archaeal and eukaryotic AspRSs, but absent from the eubacterial enzymes. PMID:9724658

  18. X-ray crystalline structures of pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase from a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, and its cys-free mutant.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Chinami, M; Mizushima, T; Ogasahara, K; Ota, M; Tsukihara, T; Yutani, K

    2001-07-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of the thermostability of proteins from hyperthermophiles, X-ray crystalline structures of pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase from a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus (PfPCP), and its mutant protein with Ser substituted at Cys142 and Cys188 were determined at 2.2 and 2.7 A resolution, respectively. The obtained structures were compared with those previously reported for pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidases from a hyperthermophilie, Thermococcus litoralis (TlPCP), and from a mesophile, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BaPCP). The PfPCP structure is a tetramer of four identical subunits similar to that of the TlPCP and BaPCP. The largest structural changes among the three PCPs were detected in the C-terminal protrusion, which interacts with that of another subunit. A comparison of the three structures indicated that the high stability of PfPCP is caused by increases in hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, the formation of an intersubunit ion-pair network, and improvement to an ideal conformation. On the basis of the structures of the three proteins, it can be concluded that PfPCP does not have any special factors responsible for its extremely high stability and that the conformational structure of PfPCP is superior in its combination of positive and negative stabilizing factors compared with BaPCP.

  19. Crystal structure and nucleic acid-binding activity of the CRISPR-associated protein Csx1 of Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Kwan; Kim, Yeon-Gil; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2013-02-01

    In many prokaryotic organisms, chromosomal loci known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (CAS) genes comprise an acquired immune defense system against invading phages and plasmids. Although many different Cas protein families have been identified, the exact biochemical functions of most of their constituents remain to be determined. In this study, we report the crystal structure of PF1127, a Cas protein of Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 that is composed of 480 amino acids and belongs to the Csx1 family. The C-terminal domain of PF1127 has a unique β-hairpin structure that protrudes out of an α-helix and contains several positively charged residues. We demonstrate that PF1127 binds double-stranded DNA and RNA and that this activity requires an intact β-hairpin and involve the homodimerization of the protein. In contrast, another Csx1 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 that is composed of 377 amino acids does not have the β-hairpin structure and exhibits no DNA-binding properties under the same experimental conditions. Notably, the C-terminal domain of these two Csx1 proteins is greatly diversified, in contrast to the conserved N-terminal domain, which appears to play a common role in the homodimerization of the protein. Thus, although P. furiosus Csx1 is identified as a nucleic acid-binding protein, other Csx1 proteins are predicted to exhibit different individual biochemical activities.

  20. N-Linked Glycans Are Assembled on Highly Reduced Dolichol Phosphate Carriers in the Hyperthermophilic Archaea Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Michelle M.; Imperiali, Barbara; Eichler, Jerry; Guan, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    In all three domains of life, N-glycosylation begins with the assembly of glycans on phosphorylated polyisoprenoid carriers. Like eukaryotes, archaea also utilize phosphorylated dolichol for this role, yet whereas the assembled oligosaccharide is transferred to target proteins from dolichol pyrophosphate in eukaryotes, archaeal N-linked glycans characterized to date are derived from a dolichol monophosphate carrier, apart from a single example. In this study, glycan-charged dolichol phosphate from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was identified and structurally characterized. Normal and reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed the existence of dolichol phosphate charged with the heptasaccharide recently described in in vitro studies of N-glycosylation on this species. As with other described archaeal dolichol phosphates, the α- and ω-terminal isoprene subunits of the P. furiosus lipid are saturated, in contrast to eukaryal phosphodolichols that present only a saturated α-position isoprene subunit. Interestingly, an additional 1-4 of the 12-14 isoprene subunits comprising P. furiosus dolichol phosphate are saturated, making this lipid not only the longest archaeal dolichol phosphate described to date but also the most highly saturated. PMID:26098850

  1. RNA at 92 °C: the non-coding transcriptome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi.

    PubMed

    Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Ott, Alban; Crozat, Estelle; Nguyen, An N; Zytnicki, Matthias; Leclerc, Fabrice; Forterre, Patrick; Bouloc, Philippe; Gautheret, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The non-coding transcriptome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi is investigated using the RNA-seq technology. A dedicated computational pipeline analyzes RNA-seq reads and prior genome annotation to identify small RNAs, untranslated regions of mRNAs, and cis-encoded antisense transcripts. Unlike other archaea, such as Sulfolobus and Halobacteriales, P. abyssi produces few leaderless mRNA transcripts. Antisense transcription is widespread (215 transcripts) and targets protein-coding genes that are less conserved than average genes. We identify at least three novel H/ACA-like guide RNAs among the newly characterized non-coding RNAs. Long 5' UTRs in mRNAs of ribosomal proteins and amino-acid biosynthesis genes strongly suggest the presence of cis-regulatory leaders in these mRNAs. We selected a high-interest subset of non-coding RNAs based on their strong promoters, high GC-content, phylogenetic conservation, or abundance. Some of the novel small RNAs and long 5' UTRs display high GC contents, suggesting unknown structural RNA functions. However, we were surprised to observe that most of the high-interest RNAs are AU-rich, which suggests an absence of stable secondary structure in the high-temperature environment of P. abyssi. Yet, these transcripts display other hallmarks of functionality, such as high expression or high conservation, which leads us to consider possible RNA functions that do not require extensive secondary structure.

  2. Hydrolase and glycosynthase activity of endo-1,3-β-glucanase from the thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Van Lieshout, J.; Faijes, M.; Nieto, J.; Van Der Oost, J.; Planas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus laminarinase (LamA, PF0076) is an endo-glycosidase that hydrolyzes β-1,3-gluco-oligosaccharides, but not β-1,4-gluco-oligosaccharides. We studied the specificity of LamA towards small saccharides by using 4-methylumbelliferyl β-glucosides with different linkages. Besides endo-activity, wild-type LamA has some exo-activity, and catalyzes the hydrolysis of mixed-linked oligosaccharides (Glcβ4Glcβ3Glcβ-MU (Glc = glucosyl, MU = 4-methylumbelliferyl)) with both β-1,4 and β-1,3 specificities. The LamA mutant E170A had severely reduced hydrolytic activity, which is consistent with Glu170 being the catalytic nucleophile. The E170A mutant was active as a glycosynthase, catalyzing the condensation of α-laminaribiosyl fluoride to different acceptors. The best condensation yields were found at pH 6.5 and 50 °C, but did not exceed 30%. Depending on the acceptor, the synthase generated either a β-1,3 or a β-1,4 linkage. PMID:15810439

  3. Homology modelling of two subtilisin-like proteases from the hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermococcus stetteri.

    PubMed

    Voorhorst, W G; Warner, A; de Vos, W M; Siezen, R J

    1997-08-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus produces an extracellular, glycosylated hyperthermostable subtilisin-like serine protease, termed pyrolysin (Voorhorst,W.G.B., Eggen,R.I.L., Geerling,A.C.M., Platteeuw,C., Siezen,R.J. and de Vos,W.M. (1996) J. Biol. Chem., 271, 20426-20431). Based on the pyrolysin coding sequence, a pyrolysin-like gene fragment was cloned and characterized from the extreme thermophilic archaeon Thermococcus stetteri. Like pyrolysin, the deduced sequence of this serine protease, designated stetterlysin, contains a catalytic domain with high homology with other subtilases, allowing homology modelling starting from known crystal structures. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional models of the catalytic domain of stetterlysin and pyrolysin with the crystal structure of subtilases from mesophilic and thermophilic origin, i.e. subtilisin BPN' and thermitase, and the homology model of subtilisin S41 from psychrophilic origin, led to the identification of features that could be related to protein stabilization. Higher thermostability was found to be correlated with an increased number of residues involved in pairs and networks of charge-charge and aromatic-aromatic interactions. These highly thermostable proteases have several extra surface loops and inserts with a relatively high frequency of aromatic residues and Asn residues. The latter are often present in putative N-glycosylation sites. Results from modelling of known substrates in the substrate-binding region support the broad substrate range and the autocatalytic activation previously suggested for pyrolysin.

  4. N-Linked Glycans Are Assembled on Highly Reduced Dolichol Phosphate Carriers in the Hyperthermophilic Archaea Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Michelle M; Imperiali, Barbara; Eichler, Jerry; Guan, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    In all three domains of life, N-glycosylation begins with the assembly of glycans on phosphorylated polyisoprenoid carriers. Like eukaryotes, archaea also utilize phosphorylated dolichol for this role, yet whereas the assembled oligosaccharide is transferred to target proteins from dolichol pyrophosphate in eukaryotes, archaeal N-linked glycans characterized to date are derived from a dolichol monophosphate carrier, apart from a single example. In this study, glycan-charged dolichol phosphate from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was identified and structurally characterized. Normal and reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed the existence of dolichol phosphate charged with the heptasaccharide recently described in in vitro studies of N-glycosylation on this species. As with other described archaeal dolichol phosphates, the α- and ω-terminal isoprene subunits of the P. furiosus lipid are saturated, in contrast to eukaryal phosphodolichols that present only a saturated α-position isoprene subunit. Interestingly, an additional 1-4 of the 12-14 isoprene subunits comprising P. furiosus dolichol phosphate are saturated, making this lipid not only the longest archaeal dolichol phosphate described to date but also the most highly saturated.

  5. Isolation and characterization of the hyperthermostable serine protease, pyrolysin, and its gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Voorhorst, W G; Eggen, R I; Geerling, A C; Platteeuw, C; Siezen, R J; Vos, W M

    1996-08-23

    The hyperthermostable serine protease pyrolysin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was purified from membrane fractions. Two proteolytically active fractions were obtained, designated high (HMW) and low (LMW) molecular weight pyrolysin, that showed immunological cross-reaction and identical NH2-terminal sequences in which the third residue could be glycosylated. The HMW pyrolysin showed a subunit mass of 150 kDa after acid denaturation. Incubation of HMW pyrolysin at 95 degrees C resulted in the formation of LMW pyrolysin, probably as a consequence of COOH-terminal autoproteolysis. The 4194-base pair pls gene encoding pyrolysin was isolated and characterized, and its transcription initiation site was identified. The deduced pyrolysin sequence indicated a prepro-enzyme organization, with a 1249-residue mature protein composed of an NH2-terminal catalytic domain with considerable homology to subtilisin-like serine proteases and a COOH-terminal domain that contained most of the 32 possible N-glycosylation sites. The archaeal pyrolysin showed highest homology with eucaryal tripeptidyl peptidases II on the amino acid level but a different cleavage specificity as shown by its endopeptidase activity toward caseins, casein fragments including alphaS1-casein and synthetic peptides.

  6. Flagella of Pyrococcus furiosus: Multifunctional Organelles, Made for Swimming, Adhesion to Various Surfaces, and Cell-Cell Contacts†

    PubMed Central

    Näther, Daniela J.; Rachel, Reinhard; Wanner, Gerhard; Wirth, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus (“rushing fireball”) was named for the ability of this archaeal coccus to rapidly swim at its optimal growth temperature, around 100°C. Early electron microscopic studies identified up to 50 cell surface appendages originating from one pole of the coccus, which have been called flagella. We have analyzed these putative motility organelles and found them to be composed primarily (>95%) of a glycoprotein that is homologous to flagellins from other archaea. Using various electron microscopic techniques, we found that these flagella can aggregate into cable-like structures, forming cell-cell connections between ca. 5% of all cells during stationary growth phase. P. furiosus cells could adhere via their flagella to carbon-coated gold grids used for electron microscopic analyses, to sand grains collected from the original habitat (Porto di Levante, Vulcano, Italy), and to various other surfaces. P. furiosus grew on surfaces in biofilm-like structures, forming microcolonies with cells interconnected by flagella and adhering to the solid supports. Therefore, we concluded that P. furiosus probably uses flagella for swimming but that the cell surface appendages also enable this archaeon to form cable-like cell-cell connections and to adhere to solid surfaces. PMID:16980494

  7. Effect of glucose, maltose, soluble starch, and CO2 on the growth of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Biller, Kai F; Kato, Isao; Märkl, Herbert

    2002-04-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was cultivated in batch and continuous fermentations on different carbon substrates. The cultivation of P furiosus on soluble starch as the only carbon source resulted in cell densities three times higher than in cultivations on maltose, 1.06 x 10(10) cells/ml compared to 3.4 x 10(9) cells/ml. The yield coefficient, Y(x/y) = 0.12 g/g, and the growth rate, mu = 0.33 h(-1), were almost equal on soluble starch and on maltose, but on glucose no growth could be detected. An inhibitory effect of glucose, when added to other carbon substrates, also could not be found. Isobutyric and isovaleric acid were detected as novel metabolites produced by P. furiosus. Inhibitory effects of these acids, as well as of the well-known products acetic acid, propionic acid, and alanine, could be precluded. Concentrations of 10% CO2 in the gas supply respective to the exhaust gas enhanced the growth of P furiosus significantly. The maximum cell number was two orders of magnitude higher than was observed with pure nitrogen. Further increase of the CO2 concentration up to 100% had no significant effect on the growth of P. furiosus.

  8. Accurate computation of reduction potentials of 4Fe-4S clusters indicates a carboxylate shift in Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper P; Ooi, Bee-Lean; Christensen, Hans E M

    2007-10-15

    This work describes the computation and accurate reproduction of subtle shifts in reduction potentials for two mutants of the iron-sulfur protein Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin. The computational models involved only first-sphere ligands and differed with respect to one ligand, either acetate (aspartate), thiolate (cysteine), or methoxide (serine). Standard procedures using vacuum optimization gave qualitatively wrong results and errors up to 0.07 V. Using electrostatically screened geometries and large basis sets for expanding the wave functions gave quantitatively correct results, with errors of only 0.03 V. Correspondingly, only this approach predicted a change in the coordination mode of aspartate (i.e., a carboxylate shift) accompanying the reduction of the wild-type cluster, confirming results from synthetic models and explaining why electrostatic screening is necessary. Hence, the carboxylate shift appears to occur in the proteins from which data were collected. The results represent the most accurate predictions of shifts in reduction potentials for modified proteins, the success in part being due to the similar nature of the three amino acid ligands involved. The predicted carboxylate shift is expected to tune aspartate's degree of electron donation to the cluster's two oxidation states, thus making the reversible redox reaction feasible.

  9. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    van der Oost, J; Voorhorst, W G; Kengen, S W; Geerling, A C; Wittenhorst, V; Gueguen, Y; de Vos, W M

    2001-05-01

    The gene encoding a short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase, AdhA, has been identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, as part of an operon that encodes two glycosyl hydrolases, the beta-glucosidase CelB and the endoglucanase LamA. The adhA gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and AdhA was subsequently purified to homogeneity. The quaternary structure of AdhA is a dimer of identical 26-kDa subunits. AdhA is an NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase that converts alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes/ketones and vice versa, with a rather broad substrate specificity. Maximal specific activities were observed with 2-pentanol (46 U x mg(-1)) and pyruvaldehyde (32 U x mg(-1)) in the oxidative and reductive reaction, respectively. AdhA has an optimal activity at 90 degrees C, at which temperature it has a half life of 22.5 h. The expression of the adhA gene in P. furiosus was demonstrated by activity measurements and immunoblot analysis of cell extracts. A role of this novel type of archaeal alcohol dehydrogenase in carbohydrate fermentation is discussed.

  10. DNA targeting by the type I-G and type I-A CRISPR–Cas systems of Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Joshua; Deighan, Trace; Westpheling, Jan; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR–Cas systems silence plasmids and viruses in prokaryotes. CRISPR–Cas effector complexes contain CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that include sequences captured from invaders and direct CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to destroy corresponding invader nucleic acids. Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) harbors three CRISPR–Cas immune systems: a Cst (Type I-G) system with an associated Cmr (Type III-B) module at one locus, and a partial Csa (Type I-A) module (lacking known invader sequence acquisition and crRNA processing genes) at another locus. The Pfu Cmr complex cleaves complementary target RNAs, and Csa systems have been shown to target DNA, while the mechanism by which Cst complexes silence invaders is unknown. In this study, we investigated the function of the Cst as well as Csa system in Pfu strains harboring a single CRISPR–Cas system. Plasmid transformation assays revealed that the Cst and Csa systems both function by DNA silencing and utilize similar flanking sequence information (PAMs) to identify invader DNA. Silencing by each system specifically requires its associated Cas3 nuclease. crRNAs from the 7 shared CRISPR loci in Pfu are processed for use by all 3 effector complexes, and Northern analysis revealed that individual effector complexes dictate the profile of mature crRNA species that is generated. PMID:26519471

  11. Expression cloning and characterization of a novel gene that encodes the RNA-binding protein FAU-1 from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Akio; Oida, Hanako; Matsuura, Nana; Doi, Hirofumi

    2003-05-15

    We systematically screened a genomic DNA library to identify proteins of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus using an expression cloning method. One gene product, which we named FAU-1 (P. furiosus AU-binding), demonstrated the strongest binding activity of all the genomic library-derived proteins tested against an AU-rich RNA sequence. The protein was purified to near homogeneity as a 54 kDa single polypeptide, and the gene locus corresponding to this FAU-1 activity was also sequenced. The FAU-1 gene encoded a 472-amino-acid protein that was characterized by highly charged domains consisting of both acidic and basic amino acids. The N-terminal half of the gene had a degree of similarity (25%) with RNase E from Escherichia coli. Five rounds of RNA-binding-site selection and footprinting analysis showed that the FAU-1 protein binds specifically to the AU-rich sequence in a loop region of a possible RNA ligand. Moreover, we demonstrated that the FAU-1 protein acts as an oligomer, and mainly as a trimer. These results showed that the FAU-1 protein is a novel heat-stable protein with an RNA loop-binding characteristic.

  12. Structures of the Signal Recognition Particle Receptor From the Archaeon Pyrococcus Furiosus: Implications for the Targeting Step at the Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Egea, P.F.; Tsuruta, H.; Leon, G.P.de; Napetschnig, J.; Walter, P.; Stroud, R.M.

    2009-05-18

    In all organisms, a ribonucleoprotein called the signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor (SR) target nascent proteins from the ribosome to the translocon for secretion or membrane insertion. We present the first X-ray structures of an archeal FtsY, the receptor from the hyper-thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu), in its free and GDP {center_dot} magnesium-bound forms. The highly charged N-terminal domain of Pfu-FtsY is distinguished by a long N-terminal helix. The basic charges on the surface of this helix are likely to regulate interactions at the membrane. A peripheral GDP bound near a regulatory motif could indicate a site of interaction between the receptor and ribosomal or SRP RNAs. Small angle X-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation indicate that the crystal structure of Pfu-FtsY correlates well with the average conformation in solution. Based on previous structures of two sub-complexes, we propose a model of the core of archeal and eukaryotic SRP {center_dot} SR targeting complexes.

  13. Improving the Thermostability and Optimal Temperature of a Lipase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by Covalent Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Roberta V.; Gutarra, Melissa L. E.; Freire, Denise M. G.; Almeida, Rodrigo V.; Palomo, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    A recombinant thermostable lipase (Pf2001Δ60) from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PFUL) was immobilized by hydrophobic interaction on octyl-agarose (octyl PFUL) and by covalent bond on aldehyde activated-agarose in the presence of DTT at pH = 7.0 (one-point covalent attachment) (glyoxyl-DTT PFUL) and on glyoxyl-agarose at pH 10.2 (multipoint covalent attachment) (glyoxyl PFUL). The enzyme's properties, such as optimal temperature and pH, thermostability, and selectivity, were improved by covalent immobilization. The highest enzyme stability at 70°C for 48 h incubation was achieved for glyoxyl PFUL (around 82% of residual activity), whereas glyoxyl-DTT PFUL maintained around 69% activity, followed by octyl PFUL (27% remaining activity). Immobilization on glyoxyl-agarose improved the optimal temperature to 90°C, while the optimal temperature of octyl PFUL was 70°C. Also, very significant changes in activity with different substrates were found. In general, the covalent bond derivatives were more active than octyl PFUL. The E value also depended substantially on the derivative and the conditions used. It was observed that the reaction of glyoxyl-DTT PFUL using methyl mandelate as a substrate at pH 7 presented the best results for enantioselectivity (E = 22) and enantiomeric excess (ee (%) = 91). PMID:25839031

  14. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Glycoconjugates by Transgalactosylation with Recombinant Thermostable β-Glycosidase from Pyrococcus

    PubMed Central

    Henze, Manja; Merker, Dorothee; Elling, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The potential of the hyperthermophilic β-glycosidase from Pyrococcus woesei (DSM 3773) for the synthesis of glycosides under microwave irradiation (MWI) at low temperatures was investigated. Transgalactosylation reactions with β-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine as acceptor substrate (GlcNAc-linker-tBoc) under thermal heating (TH, 85 °C) and under MWI at 100 and 300 W resulted in the formation of (Galβ(1,4)GlcNAc-linker-tBoc) as the main product in all reactions. Most importantly, MWI at temperatures far below the temperature optimum of the hyperthermophilic glycosidase led to higher product yields with only minor amounts of side products β(1,6-linked disaccharide and trisaccharides). At high acceptor concentrations (50 mM), transgalactosylation reactions under MWI at 300 W gave similar product yields when compared to TH at 85 °C. In summary, we demonstrate that MWI is useful as a novel experimental set-up for the synthesis of defined galacto-oligosaccharides. In conclusion, glycosylation reactions under MWI at low temperatures have the potential as a general strategy for regioselective glycosylation reactions of hyperthermophilic glycosidases using heat-labile acceptor or donor substrates. PMID:26861292

  15. Preparation of lactose-free pasteurized milk with a recombinant thermostable β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zemin; Li, Shiwu; Donelan, William; Wang, Xingli; Cui, Taixing; Tang, Dongqi

    2013-09-21

    Lactose intolerance is a common health concern causing gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidance of dairy products by afflicted individuals. Since milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D, lactose intolerant individuals often obtain insufficient amounts of these nutrients which may lead to adverse health outcomes. Production of lactose-free milk can provide a solution to this problem, although it requires use of lactase from microbial sources and increases potential for contamination. Use of thermostable lactase enzymes can overcome this issue by functioning under pasteurization conditions. A thermostable β-glucosidase gene from Pyrococcus furiosus was cloned in frame with the Saccharomyces cerecisiae a-factor secretory signal and expressed in Pichia pastoris strain X-33. The recombinant enzyme was purified by a one-step method of weak anion exchange chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH for this β-glucosidase activity was 100°C and pH 6.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by Ca2+. We tested the additive amount, hydrolysis time, and the influence of glucose on the enzyme during pasteurization and found that the enzyme possessed a high level of lactose hydrolysis in milk that was not obviously influenced by glucose. The thermostablity of this recombinant β-glucosidase, combined with its neutral pH activity and favorable temperature activity optima, suggest that this enzyme is an ideal candidate for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk, and it would be suitable for application in low-lactose milk production during pasteurization.

  16. A mutant (‘lab strain’) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, lacking flagella, has unusual growth physiology

    DOE PAGES

    Lewis, Derrick L.; Notey, Jaspreet S.; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.; ...

    2014-12-04

    In this paper, a mutant (‘lab strain’) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus DSM3638 exhibited an extended exponential phase and atypical cell aggregation behavior. Genomic DNA from the mutant culture was sequenced and compared to wild-type (WT) DSM3638, revealing 145 genes with one or more insertions, deletions, or substitutions (12 silent, 33 amino acid substitutions, and 100 frame shifts). Approximately, half of the mutated genes were transposases or hypothetical proteins. The WT transcriptome revealed numerous changes in amino acid and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathways coincidental with growth phase transitions, unlike the mutant whose transcriptome reflected the observed prolonged exponential phase. Targetedmore » gene deletions, based on frame-shifted ORFs in the mutant genome, in a genetically tractable strain of P. furiosus (COM1) could not generate the extended exponential phase behavior observed for the mutant. For example, a putative radical SAM family protein (PF2064) was the most highly up-regulated ORF (>25-fold) in the WT between exponential and stationary phase, although this ORF was unresponsive in the mutant; deletion of this gene in P. furiosus COM1 resulted in no apparent phenotype. On the other hand, frame-shifting mutations in the mutant genome negatively impacted transcription of a flagellar biosynthesis operon (PF0329-PF0338).Consequently, cells in the mutant culture lacked flagella and, unlike the WT, showed minimal evidence of exopolysaccharide-based cell aggregation in post-exponential phase. Finally, electron microscopy of PF0331-PF0337 deletions in P. furiosus COM1 showed that absence of flagella impacted normal cell aggregation behavior and, furthermore, indicated that flagella play a key role, beyond motility, in the growth physiology of P. furiosus.« less

  17. An Extended Network of Genomic Maintenance in the Archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi Highlights Unexpected Associations between Eucaryotic Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Pluchon, Pierre-François; Fouqueau, Thomas; Crezé, Christophe; Laurent, Sébastien; Briffotaux, Julien; Hogrel, Gaëlle; Palud, Adeline; Henneke, Ghislaine; Godfroy, Anne; Hausner, Winfried; Thomm, Michael; Nicolas, Jacques; Flament, Didier

    2013-01-01

    In Archaea, the proteins involved in the genetic information processing pathways, including DNA replication, transcription, and translation, share strong similarities with those of eukaryotes. Characterizations of components of the eukaryotic-type replication machinery complex provided many interesting insights into DNA replication in both domains. In contrast, DNA repair processes of hyperthermophilic archaea are less well understood and very little is known about the intertwining between DNA synthesis, repair and recombination pathways. The development of genetic system in hyperthermophilic archaea is still at a modest stage hampering the use of complementary approaches of reverse genetics and biochemistry to elucidate the function of new candidate DNA repair gene. To gain insights into genomic maintenance processes in hyperthermophilic archaea, a protein-interaction network centred on informational processes of Pyrococcus abyssi was generated by affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry. The network consists of 132 interactions linking 87 proteins. These interactions give insights into the connections of DNA replication with recombination and repair, leading to the discovery of new archaeal components and of associations between eucaryotic homologs. Although this approach did not allow us to clearly delineate new DNA pathways, it provided numerous clues towards the function of new molecular complexes with the potential to better understand genomic maintenance processes in hyperthermophilic archaea. Among others, we found new potential partners of the replication clamp and demonstrated that the single strand DNA binding protein, Replication Protein A, enhances the transcription rate, in vitro, of RNA polymerase. This interaction map provides a valuable tool to explore new aspects of genome integrity in Archaea and also potentially in Eucaryotes. PMID:24244547

  18. Pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, functions as a CoA-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Ma, K; Hutchins, A; Sung, S J; Adams, M W

    1997-09-02

    Pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) has been previously purified from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, an organism that grows optimally at 100 degrees C by fermenting carbohydrates and peptides. The enzyme contains thiamine pyrophosphate and catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO2 and reduces P. furiosus ferredoxin. Here we show that this enzyme also catalyzes the formation of acetaldehyde from pyruvate in a CoA-dependent reaction. Desulfocoenzyme A substituted for CoA showing that the cofactor plays a structural rather than a catalytic role. Ferredoxin was not necessary for the pyruvate decarboxylase activity of POR, nor did it inhibit acetaldehyde production. The apparent Km values for CoA and pyruvate were 0.11 mM and 1.1 mM, respectively, and the optimal temperature for acetaldehyde formation was above 90 degrees C. These data are comparable to those previously determined for the pyruvate oxidation reaction of POR. At 80 degrees C (pH 8.0), the apparent Vm value for pyruvate decarboxylation was about 40% of the apparent Vm value for pyruvate oxidation rate (using P. furiosus ferredoxin as the electron acceptor). Tentative catalytic mechanisms for these two reactions are presented. In addition to POR, three other 2-keto acid ferredoxin oxidoreductases are involved in peptide fermentation by hyperthermophilic archaea. It is proposed that the various aldehydes produced by these oxidoreductases in vivo are used by two aldehyde-utilizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase, the physiological roles of which were previously unknown.

  19. Characterization and Low-Resolution Structure of an Extremely Thermostable Esterase of Potential Biotechnological Interest from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, F; Gonçalves, T A; Gandin, C A; Oliveira, A C P; Oliveira Neto, M; Squina, F M

    2016-11-01

    Enzymes isolated from extremophiles often exhibit superior performance and potential industrial applications. There are several advantages performing biocatalysis at elevated temperatures, including enhanced reaction rates, increased substrate solubility and decreased risks of contamination. Furthermore, thermophilic enzymes usually exhibit high resistance against many organic solvents and detergents, and are also more resistant to proteolytic attack. In this study, we subcloned and characterized an esterase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf_Est) that exhibits optimal activity around 80 °C using naphthol-derived substrates and p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP). According to the circular dichroism spectra, the secondary structure of P. furiosus esterase, which is predominantly formed by a β-sheet structure, is very stable, even after incubation at 120°C. We performed SAXS to determine the low-resolution structure of Pf_Est, which is monomeric in solution at 80 °C and has a molecular weight of 28 kDa. The Km and V max values for this esterase acting on pNPP were 0.53 mmol/L and 6.5 × 10(-3) U, respectively. Pf_Est was most active in the immiscible solvents and retained more than 50 % in miscible solvents. Moreover, Pf_Est possesses transesterification capacity, presenting better results when isobutanol was used as an acyl acceptor (2.69 ± 0.14 × 10(-2) μmol/min mg) and the highest hydrolytic activity toward olive oil among different types of oils testes in this study. Collectively, these biophysical and catalytic properties are of interest for several biotechnological applications that require harsh conditions, including high temperature and the presence of organic solvents.

  20. The L7Ae protein binds to two kink-turns in the Pyrococcus furiosus RNase P RNA

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Stella M.; Lai, Lien B.; Foster, Mark P.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein L7Ae, known for its role in translation (as part of ribosomes) and RNA modification (as part of sn/oRNPs), has also been identified as a subunit of archaeal RNase P, a ribonucleoprotein complex that employs an RNA catalyst for the Mg2+-dependent 5′ maturation of tRNAs. To better understand the assembly and catalysis of archaeal RNase P, we used a site-specific hydroxyl radical-mediated footprinting strategy to pinpoint the binding sites of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) L7Ae on its cognate RNase P RNA (RPR). L7Ae derivatives with single-Cys substitutions at residues in the predicted RNA-binding interface (K42C/C71V, R46C/C71V, V95C/C71V) were modified with an iron complex of EDTA-2-aminoethyl 2-pyridyl disulfide. Upon addition of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate, these L7Ae-tethered nucleases were expected to cleave the RPR at nucleotides proximal to the EDTA-Fe–modified residues. Indeed, footprinting experiments with an enzyme assembled with the Pfu RPR and five protein cofactors (POP5, RPP21, RPP29, RPP30 and L7Ae–EDTA-Fe) revealed specific RNA cleavages, localizing the binding sites of L7Ae to the RPR's catalytic and specificity domains. These results support the presence of two kink-turns, the structural motifs recognized by L7Ae, in distinct functional domains of the RPR and suggest testable mechanisms by which L7Ae contributes to RNase P catalysis. PMID:25361963

  1. Presence of a structurally novel type ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD1.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, S; Maeda, N; Kishimoto, T; Atomi, H; Imanaka, T

    1999-02-19

    We have characterized the gene encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD1. The gene encoded a protein consisting of 444 amino acid residues, corresponding in size to the large subunit of previously reported Rubiscos. Rubisco of P. kodakaraensis KOD1 (Pk-Rubisco) showed only 51.4% similarity with the large subunit of type I Rubisco from spinach and 47.3% with that of type II Rubisco from Rhodospirillum rubrum, suggesting that the enzyme was not a member of either type. Active site residues identified from type I and type II Rubiscos were conserved. We expressed the gene in Escherichia coli, and we obtained a soluble protein with the expected molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence. Purification of the recombinant protein revealed that Pk-Rubisco was an L8 type homo-octamer. Pk-Rubisco showed highest specific activity of 19.8 x 10(3) nmol of CO2 fixed per min/mg, and a tau value of 310 at 90 degreesC, both higher than any previously characterized Rubisco. The optimum pH was 8.3, and the enzyme possessed extreme thermostability, with a half-life of 15 h at 80 degreesC. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the gene was transcribed in P. kodakaraensis KOD1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis with cell-free extract of P. kodakaraensis KOD1 clearly indicated the presence of Pk-Rubisco in the native host cells.

  2. Structural Basis of Thermal Stability of the Tungsten Cofactor Synthesis Protein MoaB from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Havarushka, Nastassia; Fischer-Schrader, Katrin; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Schwarz, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten cofactors share a similar pterin-based scaffold, which hosts an ene-dithiolate function being essential for the coordination of either molybdenum or tungsten. The biosynthesis of both cofactors involves a multistep pathway, which ends with the activation of the metal binding pterin (MPT) by adenylylation before the respective metal is incorporated. In the hyperthermophilic organism Pyrococcus furiosus, the hexameric protein MoaB (PfuMoaB) has been shown to catalyse MPT-adenylylation. Here we determined the crystal structure of PfuMoaB at 2.5 Å resolution and identified key residues of α3-helix mediating hexamer formation. Given that PfuMoaB homologues from mesophilic organisms form trimers, we investigated the impact on PfuMoaB hexamerization on thermal stability and activity. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, we successfully disrupted the hexamer interface in PfuMoaB. The resulting PfuMoaB-H3 variant formed monomers, dimers and trimers as determined by size exclusion chromatography. Circular dichroism spectroscopy as well as chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry confirmed a wild-type-like fold of the protomers as well as inter-subunits contacts. The melting temperature of PfuMoaB-H3 was found to be reduced by more than 15°C as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, thus demonstrating hexamerization as key determinant for PfuMoaB thermal stability. Remarkably, while a loss of activity at temperatures higher than 50°C was observed in the PfuMoaB-H3 variant, at lower temperatures, we determined a significantly increased catalytic activity. The latter suggests a gain in conformational flexibility caused by the disruption of the hexamerization interface. PMID:24465852

  3. Aspartate transcarbamylase from the deep-sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi: genetic organization, structure, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Purcarea, C; Hervé, G; Ladjimi, M M; Cunin, R

    1997-01-01

    The genes coding for aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) in the deep-sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi were cloned by complementation of a pyrB Escherichia coli mutant. The sequence revealed the existence of a pyrBI operon, coding for a catalytic chain and a regulatory chain, as in Enterobacteriaceae. Comparison of primary sequences of the polypeptides encoded by the pyrB and pyrI genes with those of homologous eubacterial and eukaryotic chains showed a high degree of conservation of the residues which in E. coli ATCase are involved in catalysis and allosteric regulation. The regulatory chain shows more-extensive divergence with respect to that of E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae than the catalytic chain. Several substitutions suggest the existence in P. abyssi ATCase of additional hydrophobic interactions and ionic bonds which are probably involved in protein stabilization at high temperatures. The catalytic chain presents a secondary structure similar to that of the E. coli enzyme. Modeling of the tridimensional structure of this chain provides a folding close to that of the E. coli protein in spite of several significant differences. Conservation of numerous pairs of residues involved in the interfaces between different chains or subunits in E. coli ATCase suggests that the P. abyssi enzyme has a quaternary structure similar to that of the E. coli enzyme. P. abyssi ATCase expressed in transgenic E. coli cells exhibited reduced cooperativity for aspartate binding and sensitivity to allosteric effectors, as well as a decreased thermostability and barostability, suggesting that in P. abyssi cells this enzyme is further stabilized through its association with other cellular components. PMID:9209027

  4. Relationship between glycosyl hydrolase inventory and growth physiology of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus on carbohydrate-based media.

    PubMed

    Driskill, L E; Kusy, K; Bauer, M W; Kelly, R M

    1999-03-01

    Utilization of a range of carbohydrates for growth by the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was investigated by examining the spectrum of glycosyl hydrolases produced by this microorganism and the thermal labilities of various saccharides. Previously, P. furiosus had been found to grow in batch cultures on several alpha-linked carbohydrates and cellobiose but not on glucose or other beta-linked sugars. Although P. furiosus was not able to grow on any nonglucan carbohydrate or any form of cellulose in this study (growth on oat spelt arabinoxylan was attributed to glucan contamination of this substrate), significant growth at 98 degrees C occurred on beta-1,3- and beta-1,3-beta-1,4-linked glucans. Oligosaccharides generated by digestion with a recombinant laminarinase derived from P. furiosus were the compounds that were most effective in stimulating growth of the microorganism. In several cases, periodic addition of beta-glucan substrates to fed-batch cultures limited adverse thermochemical modifications of the carbohydrates (i.e., Maillard reactions and caramelization) and led to significant increases (as much as two- to threefold) in the cell yields. While glucose had only a marginally positive effect on growth in batch culture, the final cell densities nearly tripled when glucose was added by the fed-batch procedure. Nonenzymatic browning reactions were found to be significant at 98 degrees C for saccharides with degrees of polymerization (DP) ranging from 1 to 6; glucose was the most labile compound on a mass basis and the least labile compound on a molar basis. This suggests that for DP of 2 or greater protection of the nonreducing monosaccharide component may be a factor in substrate availability. For P. furiosus, carbohydrate utilization patterns were found to reflect the distribution of the glycosyl hydrolases which are known to be produced by this microorganism.

  5. A thermostable hybrid cluster protein from Pyrococcus furiosus: effects of the loss of a three helix bundle subdomain.

    PubMed

    Overeijnder, Marieke L; Hagen, Wilfred R; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon

    2009-06-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus hybrid cluster protein (HCP) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. This is the first archaeal and thermostable HCP to be isolated. Compared with the protein sequences of previously characterized HCPs from mesophiles, the protein sequence of P. furiosus HCP exhibits a deletion of approximately 13 kDa as a single amino acid stretch just after the N-terminal cysteine motif, characteristic for class-III HCPs from (hyper)thermophilic archaea and bacteria. The protein was expressed as a thermostable, soluble homodimeric protein. Hydroxylamine reductase activity of P. furiosus HCP showed a K(m) value of 0.40 mM and a k(cat) value of 3.8 s(-1) at 70 degrees C and pH 9.0. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed evidence for the presence of a spin-admixed, S = 3/2 [4Fe-4S](+) cubane cluster and of the hybrid cluster. The cubane cluster of P. furiosus HCP is presumably coordinated by a CXXC-X(7)-C-X(5)-C motif close to the N-terminus, which is similar to the CXXC-X(8)-C-X(5)-C motif of the Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio vulgaris HCPs. Amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling of P. furiosus HCP reveal that the deletion results in a loss of one of the two three-helix bundles of domain 1. Clearly the loss of one of the three-helix bundles of domain 1 does not diminish the hydroxylamine reduction activity and the incorporation of the iron-sulfur clusters.

  6. Mutational Analyses of the Enzymes Involved in the Metabolism of Hydrogen by the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Nixon, William J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Scott, Robert A.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus grows optimally near 100°C by fermenting carbohydrates to produce hydrogen (H2) or, if elemental sulfur (S0) is present, hydrogen sulfide instead. It contains two cytoplasmic hydrogenases, SHI and SHII, that use NADP(H) as an electron carrier and a membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) that utilizes the redox protein ferredoxin. We previously constructed deletion strains lacking SHI and/or SHII and showed that they exhibited no obvious phenotype. This study has now been extended to include biochemical analyses and growth studies using the ΔSHI and ΔSHII deletion strains together with strains lacking a functional MBH (ΔmbhL). Hydrogenase activity in cytoplasmic extracts of various strains demonstrate that SHI is responsible for most of the cytoplasmic hydrogenase activity. The ΔmbhL strain showed no growth in the absence of S0, confirming the hypothesis that, in the absence of S0, MBH is the only enzyme that can dispose of reductant (in the form of H2) generated during sugar oxidation. Under conditions of limiting sulfur, a small but significant amount of H2 was produced by the ΔmbhL strain, showing that SHI can produce H2 from NADPH in vivo, although this does not enable growth of ΔmbhL in the absence of S0. We propose that the physiological function of SHI is to recycle H2 and provide a link between external H2 and the intracellular pool of NADPH needed for biosynthesis. This likely has a distinct energetic advantage in the environment, but it is clearly not required for growth of the organism under the usual laboratory conditions. The function of SHII, however, remains unknown. PMID:22557999

  7. Experimental silicification of the extremophilic Archaea Pyrococcus abyssi and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii: applications in the search for evidence of life in early Earth and extraterrestrial rocks.

    PubMed

    Orange, F; Westall, F; Disnar, J-R; Prieur, D; Bienvenu, N; Le Romancer, M; Défarge, Ch

    2009-09-01

    Hydrothermal activity was common on the early Earth and associated micro-organisms would most likely have included thermophilic to hyperthermophilic species. 3.5-3.3 billion-year-old, hydrothermally influenced rocks contain silicified microbial mats and colonies that must have been bathed in warm to hot hydrothermal emanations. Could they represent thermophilic or hyperthermophilic micro-organisms and if so, how were they preserved? We present the results of an experiment to silicify anaerobic, hyperthermophilic micro-organisms from the Archaea Domain Pyrococcus abyssi and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, that could have lived on the early Earth. The micro-organisms were placed in a silica-saturated medium for periods up to 1 year. Pyrococcus abyssi cells were fossilized but the M. jannaschii cells lysed naturally after the exponential growth phase, apart from a few cells and cell remains, and were not silicified although their extracellular polymeric substances were. In this first simulated fossilization of archaeal strains, our results suggest that differences between species have a strong influence on the potential for different micro-organisms to be preserved by fossilization and that those found in the fossil record represent probably only a part of the original diversity. Our results have important consequences for biosignatures in hydrothermal or hydrothermally influenced deposits on Earth, as well as on early Mars, as environmental conditions were similar on the young terrestrial planets and traces of early Martian life may have been similarly preserved as silicified microfossils.

  8. MAGGIE Component 1: Identification and Purification of Native and Recombinant Multiprotein Complexes and Modified Proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Michael W.; W. W. Adams, Michael

    2014-01-07

    Virtualy all cellular processes are carried out by dynamic molecular assemblies or multiprotein complexes (PCs), the composition of which is largely unknown. Structural genomics efforts have demonstrated that less than 25% of the genes in a given prokaryotic genome will yield stable, soluble proteins when expressed using a one-ORF-at-a-time approach. We proposed that much of the remaining 75% of the genes encode proteins that are part of multiprotein complexes or are modified post-translationally, for example, with metals. The problem is that PCs and metalloproteins (MPs) cannot be accurately predicted on a genome-wide scale. The only solution to this dilemma is to experimentally determine PCs and MPs in biomass of a model organism and to develop analytical tools that can then be applied to the biomass of any other organism. In other words, organisms themselves must be analyzed to identify their PCs and MPs: “native proteomes” must be determined. This information can then be utilized to design multiple ORF expression systems to produce recombinant forms of PCs and MPs. Moreover, the information and utility of this approach can be enhanced by using a hyperthermophile, one that grows optimally at 100°C, as a model organism. By analyzing the native proteome at close to 100 °C below the optimum growth temperature, we will trap reversible and dynamic complexes, thereby enabling their identification, purification, and subsequent characterization. The model organism for the current study is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows optimally at 100°C. It is grown up to 600-liter scale and kg quantities of biomass are available. In this project we identified native PCs and MPs using P. furiosus biomass (with MS/MS analyses to identify proteins by component 4). In addition, we provided samples of abundant native PCs and MPs for structural characterization (using SAXS by component 5). We also designed and evaluated generic bioinformatics and

  9. DNA Microarray Analysis of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus: Evidence for a New Type of Sulfur-Reducing Enzyme Complex

    PubMed Central

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Zhou, Jizhong; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2001-01-01

    DNA microarrays were constructed by using 271 open reading frame (ORFs) from the genome of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. They were used to investigate the effects of elemental sulfur (S°) on the levels of gene expression in cells grown at 95°C with maltose as the carbon source. The ORFs included those that are proposed to encode proteins mainly involved in the pathways of sugar and peptide catabolism, in the metabolism of metals, and in the biosynthesis of various cofactors, amino acids, and nucleotides. The expression of 21 ORFs decreased by more than fivefold when cells were grown with S° and, of these, 18 encode subunits associated with three different hydrogenase systems. The remaining three ORFs encode homologs of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and HypF, both of which appear to be involved in hydrogenase biosynthesis, as well as a conserved hypothetical protein. The expression of two previously uncharacterized ORFs increased by more than 25-fold when cells were grown with S°. Their products, termed SipA and SipB (for sulfur-induced proteins), are proposed to be part of a novel S°-reducing, membrane-associated, iron-sulfur cluster-containing complex. Two other previously uncharacterized ORFs encoding a putative flavoprotein and a second FeS protein were upregulated more than sixfold in S°-grown cells, and these are also thought be involved in S° reduction. Four ORFs that encode homologs of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism were similarly upregulated in S°-grown cells, a finding consistent with the fact that growth on peptides is a S°-dependent process. An ORF encoding a homolog of the eukaryotic rRNA processing protein, fibrillarin, was also upregulated sixfold in the presence of S°, although the reason for this is as yet unknown. Of the 20 S°-independent ORFs that are the most highly expressed (at more than 20 times the detection limit), 12 of them represent enzymes purified from P. furiosus, but none of the products of the 34 S

  10. Whole-Genome DNA Microarray Analysis of a Hyperthermophile and an Archaeon: Pyrococcus furiosus Grown on Carbohydrates or Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Brehm, Scott D.; Datta, Susmita; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2003-01-01

    The first complete-genome DNA microarray was constructed for a hyperthermophile or a nonhalophilic archaeon by using the 2,065 open reading frames (ORFs) that have been annotated in the genome of Pyrococcus furiosus (optimal growth temperature, 100°C). This was used to determine relative transcript levels in cells grown at 95°C with either peptides or a carbohydrate (maltose) used as the primary carbon source. Approximately 20% (398 of 2065) of the ORFs did not appear to be significantly expressed under either growth condition. Of the remaining 1,667 ORFs, the expression of 125 of them (8%) differed by more than fivefold between the two cultures, and 82 of the 125 (65%) appear to be part of operons, indicating extensive coordinate regulation. Of the 27 operons that are regulated, 5 of them encode (conserved) hypothetical proteins. A total of 18 operons are up-regulated (greater than fivefold) in maltose-grown cells, including those responsible for maltose transport and for the biosynthesis of 12 amino acids, of ornithine, and of citric acid cycle intermediate products. A total of nine operons are up-regulated (greater than fivefold) in peptide-grown cells, including those encoding enzymes involved in the production of acyl and aryl acids and 2-ketoacids, which are used for energy conservation. Analyses of the spent growth media confirmed the production of branched-chain and aromatic acids during growth on peptides. In addition, six nonlinked enzymes in the pathways of sugar metabolism were regulated more than fivefold—three in maltose-grown cells that are unique to the unusual glycolytic pathway and three in peptide-grown cells that are unique to gluconeogenesis. The catalytic activities of 16 metabolic enzymes whose expression appeared to be highly regulated in the two cell types correlated very well with the microarray data. The degree of coordinate regulation revealed by the microarray data was unanticipated and shows that P. furiosus can readily adapt to a

  11. Normal mode analysis of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin via nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and resonance raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuming; Wang, Hongxin; George, Simon J; Smith, Matt C; Adams, Michael W W; Jenney, Francis E; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, Ercan E; Zhao, Jiyong; Yoda, Y; Dey, Abishek; Solomon, Edward I; Cramer, Stephen P

    2005-10-26

    We have used (57)Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study the Fe(S(cys))(4) site in reduced and oxidized rubredoxin (Rd) from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf). The oxidized form has also been investigated by resonance Raman spectroscopy. In the oxidized Rd NRVS, strong asymmetric Fe-S stretching modes are observed between 355 and 375 cm(-1); upon reduction these modes shift to 300-320 cm(-1). This is the first observation of Fe-S stretching modes in a reduced Rd. The peak in S-Fe-S bend mode intensity is at approximately 150 cm(-1) for the oxidized protein and only slightly lower in the reduced case. A third band occurs near 70 cm(-1) for both samples; this is assigned primarily as a collective motion of entire cysteine residues with respect to the central Fe. The (57)Fe partial vibrational density of states (PVDOS) were interpreted by normal mode analysis with optimization of Urey-Bradley force fields. The three main bands were qualitatively reproduced using a D(2)(d) Fe(SC)(4) model. A C(1) Fe(SCC)(4) model based on crystallographic coordinates was then used to simulate the splitting of the asymmetric stretching band into at least 3 components. Finally, a model employing complete cysteines and 2 additional neighboring atoms was used to reproduce the detailed structure of the PVDOS in the Fe-S stretch region. These results confirm the delocalization of the dynamic properties of the redox-active Fe site. Depending on the molecular model employed, the force constant K(Fe-S) for Fe-S stretching modes ranged from 1.24 to 1.32 mdyn/A. K(Fe-S) is clearly diminished in reduced Rd; values from approximately 0.89 to 1.00 mdyn/A were derived from different models. In contrast, in the final models the force constants for S-Fe-S bending motion, H(S-Fe-S), were 0.18 mdyn/A for oxidized Rd and 0.15 mdyn/A for reduced Rd. The NRVS technique demonstrates great promise for the observation and quantitative interpretation of the dynamical properties of Fe-S proteins.

  12. Four Inserts within the Catalytic Domain Confer Extra Stability and Activity to Hyperthermostable Pyrolysin from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaowei; Zeng, Jing; Yi, Huawei; Zhang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pyrolysin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is the prototype of the pyrolysin family of the subtilisin-like serine protease superfamily (subtilases). It contains four inserts (IS147, IS29, IS27, and IS8) of unknown function in the catalytic domain. We performed domain deletions and showed that three inserts are either essential (IS147 and IS27) or important (IS8) for efficient maturation of pyrolysin at high temperatures, whereas IS29 is dispensable. The large insert IS147 contains Ca3 and Ca4, two calcium-binding Dx[DN]xDG motifs that are conserved in many pyrolysin-like proteases. Mutagenesis revealed that the Ca3 site contributes to enzyme thermostability and the Ca4 site is necessary for pyrolysin to fold into a maturation-competent conformation. Mature insert-deletion variants were characterized and showed that IS29 and IS8 contribute to enzyme activity and stability, respectively. In the presence of NaCl, pyrolysin undergoes autocleavage at two sites: one within IS29 and the other in IS27. Disrupting the ion pairs in IS27 and IS8 induces autocleavage in the absence of salts. Interestingly, autocleavage products combine noncovalently to form an active, nicked enzyme that is resistant to SDS and urea denaturation. Additionally, a single mutation in IS29 increases resistance to salt-induced autocleavage and further increases enzyme thermostability. Our results suggest that these extra structural elements play a crucial role in adapting pyrolysin to hyperthermal environments. IMPORTANCE Pyrolysin-like proteases belong to the subtilase superfamily and are characterized by large inserts and long C-terminal extensions; however, the role of the inserts in enzyme function is unclear. Our results demonstrate that four inserts in the catalytic domain of hyperthermostable pyrolysin contribute to the folding, maturation, stability, and activity of the enzyme at high temperatures. The modification of extra structural elements in pyrolysin

  13. Isolation of a minD-like gene in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus AL585, and phylogenetic characterization of related proteins in the three domains of life.

    PubMed

    Gérard, E; Labedan, B; Forterre, P

    1998-11-05

    The region upstream of the dinF-like gene of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus strain AL585 has been cloned and sequenced. This region contains an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a polypeptide with a high similarity to MinD proteins and their Mrp paralogues. Transcripts of the dinF-like and the minD-like genes were detected by RT-PCR, indicating that they are both expressed in vivo. The MinD and MinD-like proteins belong to a broad family of ATPases involved in chromosome and plasmid partitioning. MinD-like proteins can be defined by specific amino-acid sequence signatures. A systematic search for proteins sharing these signatures in current databases and newly sequenced genomes show that MinD-like proteins are present in all archaeal genomes sequenced so far, often in several copies. Phylogenetic analysis identifies two groups of MinD-like proteins which are also characterized by more conserved amino-acid motifs. A first group, which includes the Escherichia coli MinD and the Pyrococcus AL585 MinDL protein, contains only procaryotic proteins. This group can be further divided into a subgroup of archaeal proteins and two subgroups of bacterial proteins. A second group includes proteins more related to the E. coli Mrp protein and contains representants of the three domains of life. The conservation of MinD-like proteins in the three domains of life suggests that these proteins play a central role in cellular metabolism.

  14. Solution-state structure by NMR of zinc-substituted rubredoxin from the marine hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, P. R.; Park, J. B.; Zhou, Z. H.; Hare, D. R.; Adams, M. W.; Summers, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional solution-state structure is reported for the zinc-substituted form of rubredoxin (Rd) from the marine hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus, an organism that grows optimally at 100 degrees C. Structures were generated with DSPACE by a hybrid distance geometry (DG)-based simulated annealing (SA) approach that employed 403 nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE)-derived interproton distance restraints, including 67 interresidue, 124 sequential (i-j = 1), 75 medium-range (i-j = 2-5), and 137 long-range (i-j > 5) restraints. All lower interproton distance bounds were set at the sum of the van Der Waals radii (1.8 A), and upper bounds of 2.7 A, 3.3 A, and 5.0 A were employed to represent qualitatively observed strong, medium, and weak NOE cross peak intensities, respectively. Twenty-three backbone-backbone, six backbone-sulfur (Cys), two backbone-side chain, and two side chain-side chain hydrogen bond restraints were include for structure refinement, yielding a total of 436 nonbonded restraints, which averages to > 16 restraints per residue. A total of 10 structures generated from random atom positions and 30 structures generated by molecular replacement using the backbone coordinates of Clostridium pasteurianum Rd converged to a common conformation, with the average penalty (= sum of the square of the distance bounds violations; +/- standard deviation) of 0.024 +/- 0.003 A2 and a maximum total penalty of 0.035 A2. Superposition of the backbone atoms (C, C alpha, N) of residues A1-L51 for all 40 structures afforded an average pairwise root mean square (rms) deviation value (+/- SD) of 0.42 +/- 0.07 A. Superposition of all heavy atoms for residues A1-L51, including those of structurally undefined external side chains, afforded an average pairwise rms deviation of 0.72 +/- 0.08 A. Qualitative comparison of back-calculated and experimental two-dimensional NOESY spectra indicate that the DG/SA structures are consistent with the experimental

  15. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Nanofibril Films from Bleached Eucalyptus Pulp by Endoglucanase Treatment and Microfluidization

    Treesearch

    Wangxia Wang; Ronald C. Sabo; Michael D. Mozuch; Phil Kersten; J. Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2015-01-01

    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase (Ph-GH5) from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii and a commercial endoglucanase (FR) were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and subsequently to CNF films. TEM imaging indicated that Ph-GH5 produced longer and more entangled CNF than FR with the same number...

  16. DNA polymerases BI and D from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus both bind to proliferating cell nuclear antigen with their C-terminal PIP-box motifs.

    PubMed

    Tori, Kazuo; Kimizu, Megumi; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2007-08-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the sliding clamp that is essential for the high processivity of DNA synthesis during DNA replication. Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon, has at least two DNA polymerases, polymerase BI (PolBI) and PolD. Both of the two DNA polymerases interact with the archaeal P. furiosus PCNA (PfuPCNA) and perform processive DNA synthesis in vitro. This phenomenon, in addition to the fact that both enzymes display 3'-5' exonuclease activity, suggests that both DNA polymerases work in replication fork progression. We demonstrated here that both PolBI and PolD functionally interact with PfuPCNA at their C-terminal PIP boxes. The mutant PolBI and PolD enzymes lacking the PIP-box sequence do not respond to the PfuPCNA at all in an in vitro primer extension reaction. This is the first experimental evidence that the PIP-box motif, located at the C termini of the archaeal DNA polymerases, is actually critical for PCNA binding to form a processive DNA-synthesizing complex.

  17. Specific interaction between DNA polymerase II (PolD) and RadB, a Rad51/Dmc1 homolog, in Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, I; Morikawa, K; Ishino, Y

    1999-12-15

    Pyrococcus furiosus has an operon containing the DNA polymerase II (PolD) gene and three other genes. Using a two-hybrid screening to examine the interactions of the proteins encoded by the operon, we identified a specific interaction between the second subunit of PolD (DP1) and a Rad51/Dmc1 homologous protein (RadB). To ensure the specific interaction between these two proteins, each gene in the operon was expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells separately and the products were purified. The in vitro analyses using the purified proteins also showed the interaction between DP1 and RadB. The deletion mutant analysis of DP1 revealed that a region important for binding with RadB is located in the central part of the sequence (amino acid residues 206-498). This region has an overlap to the C-terminal half (amino acids 334-613), which is highly conserved among euryarchaeal DP1s and is essential for the activity of PolD. Our results suggest that, although RadB does not noticeably affect the primer extension ability of PolD in vitro, PolD may utilize the RadB protein in DNA synthesis under certain conditions.

  18. 'Super-perfect' enzymes: Structural stabilities and activities of recombinant triose phosphate isomerases from Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermococcus onnurineus produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prerna; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2015-05-08

    Triose phosphate isomerases (TIMs) are considered to be 'kinetically perfect' enzymes, limited in their activity only by the rates of diffusion of substrate and product molecules. Most studies conducted thus far have been on mesophile-derived TIMs. Here, we report studies of two extremophile-derived TIMs produced in Escherichia coli: (i) TonTIM, sourced from the genome of the thermophile archaeon, Thermococcus onnurineus, and (ii) PfuTIM, sourced from the genome of the hyperthermophile archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus (PfuTIM). Although these enzymes are presumed to have evolved to function optimally at temperatures close to the boiling point of water, we find that TonTIM and PfuTIM display second-order rate-constants of activity (k(cat)/K(m) values) comparable to mesophile-derived TIMs, at 25 °C. At 90 °C, TonTIM and PfuTIM reach maximum velocities of reaction of ∼ 10(6)-10(7) μmol/s/mg, and display k(cat)/K(m) values in the range of ∼ 10(10)-10(11) M(-1) s(-1), which are three orders of magnitude higher than those reported for mesophile TIMs. Further, the two enzymes display no signs of having undergone any structural unfolding at 90 °C. Such enzymes could thus probably be called 'super-perfect' enzymes.

  19. Tungsten transport protein A (WtpA) in Pyrococcus furiosus: the first member of a new class of tungstate and molybdate transporters.

    PubMed

    Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Krijger, Gerard C; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2006-09-01

    A novel tungstate and molybdate binding protein has been discovered from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. This tungstate transport protein A (WtpA) is part of a new ABC transporter system selective for tungstate and molybdate. WtpA has very low sequence similarity with the earlier-characterized transport proteins ModA for molybdate and TupA for tungstate. Its structural gene is present in the genome of numerous archaea and some bacteria. The identification of this new tungstate and molybdate binding protein clarifies the mechanism of tungstate and molybdate transport in organisms that lack the known uptake systems associated with the ModA and TupA proteins, like many archaea. The periplasmic protein of this ABC transporter, WtpA (PF0080), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, WtpA was observed to bind tungstate (dissociation constant [K(D)] of 17 +/- 7 pM) and molybdate (K(D) of 11 +/- 5 nM) with a stoichiometry of 1.0 mol oxoanion per mole of protein. These low K(D) values indicate that WtpA has a higher affinity for tungstate than do ModA and TupA and an affinity for molybdate similar to that of ModA. A displacement titration of molybdate-saturated WtpA with tungstate showed that the tungstate effectively replaced the molybdate in the binding site of the protein.

  20. A Holliday junction resolvase from Pyrococcus furiosus: Functional similarity to Escherichia coli RuvC provides evidence for conserved mechanism of homologous recombination in Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Kayoko; Sakae, Shinzi; Shinagawa, Hideo; Morikawa, Kosuke; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    1999-01-01

    The Holliday junction is an essential intermediate of homologous recombination. RecA of Bacteria, Rad51 of Eukarya, and RadA of Archaea are structural and functional homologs. These proteins play a pivotal role in the formation of Holliday junctions from two homologous DNA duplexes. RuvC is a specific endonuclease that resolves Holliday junctions in Bacteria. A Holliday junction-resolving activity has been found in both yeast and mammalian cells. To examine whether the paradigm of homologous recombination apply to Archaea, we assayed and found the activity to resolve a synthetic Holliday junction in crude extract of Pyrococcus furiosus cells. The gene, hjc (Holliday junction cleavage), encodes a protein composed of 123 amino acids, whose sequence is not similar to that of any proteins with known function. However, all four archaea, whose total genome sequences have been published, have the homologous genes. The purified Hjc protein cleaved the recombination intermediates formed by RecA in vitro. These results support the notion that the formation and resolution of Holliday junction is the common mechanism of homologous recombination in the three domains of life. PMID:10430863

  1. The 2.35 A structure of the TenA homolog from Pyrococcus furiosus supports an enzymatic function in thiamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Benach, Jordi; Edstrom, William C; Lee, Insun; Das, Kalyan; Cooper, Bonnie; Xiao, Rong; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard; Acton, Thomas B; Montelione, Gaetano T; Hunt, John F

    2005-05-01

    TenA (transcriptional enhancer A) has been proposed to function as a transcriptional regulator based on observed changes in gene-expression patterns when overexpressed in Bacillus subtilis. However, studies of the distribution of proteins involved in thiamine biosynthesis in different fully sequenced genomes have suggested that TenA may be an enzyme involved in thiamine biosynthesis, with a function related to that of the ThiC protein. The crystal structure of PF1337, the TenA homolog from Pyrococcus furiosus, is presented here. The protomer comprises a bundle of alpha-helices with a similar tertiary structure and topology to that of human heme oxygenase-1, even though there is no significant sequence homology. A solvent-sequestered cavity lined by phylogenetically conserved residues is found at the core of this bundle in PF1337 and this cavity is observed to contain electron density for 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine phosphate, the product of the ThiC enzyme. In contrast, the modestly acidic surface of PF1337 shows minimal levels of sequence conservation and a dearth of the basic residues that are typically involved in DNA binding in transcription factors. Without significant conservation of its surface properties, TenA is unlikely to mediate functionally important protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. Therefore, the crystal structure of PF1337 supports the hypothesis that TenA homologs have an indirect effect in altering gene-expression patterns and function instead as enzymes involved in thiamine metabolism.

  2. The crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus ornithine carbamoyltransferase reveals a key role for oligomerization in enzyme stability at extremely high temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Villeret, Vincent; Clantin, Bernard; Tricot, Catherine; Legrain, Christianne; Roovers, Martine; Stalon, Victor; Glansdorff, Nicolas; Van Beeumen, Jozef

    1998-01-01

    The Pyrococcus furiosus (PF) ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTCase; EC 2.1.3.3) is an extremely heat-stable enzyme that maintains about 50% of its activity after heat treatment for 60 min at 100°C. To understand the molecular basis of thermostability of this enzyme, we have determined its three-dimensional structure at a resolution of 2.7 Å and compared it with the previously reported structures of OTCases isolated from mesophilic bacteria. Most OTCases investigated up to now are homotrimeric and devoid of allosteric properties. A striking exception is the catabolic OTCase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is allosterically regulated and built up of four trimers disposed in a tetrahedral manner, an architecture that actually underlies the allostery of the enzyme. We now report that the thermostable PF OTCase (420 kDa) presents the same 23-point group symmetry. The enzyme displays Michaelis–Menten kinetics. A detailed comparison of the two enzymes suggests that, in OTCases, not only allostery but also thermophily was achieved through oligomerization of a trimer as a common catalytic motif. Thermal stabilization of the PF OTCase dodecamer is mainly the result of hydrophobic interfaces between trimers, at positions where allosteric binding sites have been identified in the allosteric enzyme. The present crystallographic analysis of PF OTCase provides a structural illustration that oligomerization can play a major role in extreme thermal stabilization. PMID:9501170

  3. DNA Polymerases BI and D from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus Both Bind to Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen with Their C-Terminal PIP-Box Motifs▿

    PubMed Central

    Tori, Kazuo; Kimizu, Megumi; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2007-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the sliding clamp that is essential for the high processivity of DNA synthesis during DNA replication. Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon, has at least two DNA polymerases, polymerase BI (PolBI) and PolD. Both of the two DNA polymerases interact with the archaeal P. furiosus PCNA (PfuPCNA) and perform processive DNA synthesis in vitro. This phenomenon, in addition to the fact that both enzymes display 3′-5′ exonuclease activity, suggests that both DNA polymerases work in replication fork progression. We demonstrated here that both PolBI and PolD functionally interact with PfuPCNA at their C-terminal PIP boxes. The mutant PolBI and PolD enzymes lacking the PIP-box sequence do not respond to the PfuPCNA at all in an in vitro primer extension reaction. This is the first experimental evidence that the PIP-box motif, located at the C termini of the archaeal DNA polymerases, is actually critical for PCNA binding to form a processive DNA-synthesizing complex. PMID:17496095

  4. Specific interaction between DNA polymerase II (PolD) and RadB, a Rad51/Dmc1 homolog, in Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, I; Morikawa, K; Ishino, Y

    1999-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus has an operon containing the DNA polymerase II (PolD) gene and three other genes. Using a two-hybrid screening to examine the interactions of the proteins encoded by the operon, we identified a specific interaction between the second subunit of PolD (DP1) and a Rad51/Dmc1 homologous protein (RadB). To ensure the specific interaction between these two proteins, each gene in the operon was expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells separately and the products were purified. The in vitro analyses using the purified proteins also showed the interaction between DP1 and RadB. The deletion mutant analysis of DP1 revealed that a region important for binding with RadB is located in the central part of the sequence (amino acid residues 206-498). This region has an overlap to the C-terminal half (amino acids 334-613), which is highly conserved among euryarchaeal DP1s and is essential for the activity of PolD. Our results suggest that, although RadB does not noticeably affect the primer extension ability of PolD in vitro, PolD may utilize the RadB protein in DNA synthesis under certain conditions. PMID:10572168

  5. Temperature-dependent acetoin production by Pyrococcus furiosus is catalyzed by a biosynthetic acetolactate synthase and its deletion improves ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diep M N; Lipscomb, Gina L; Schut, Gerrit J; Vaccaro, Brian J; Basen, Mirko; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2016-03-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, grows optimally near 100°C by fermenting sugars to acetate, carbon dioxide and molecular hydrogen as the major end products. The organism has recently been exploited to produce biofuels using a temperature-dependent metabolic switch using genes from microorganisms that grow near 70°C. However, little is known about its metabolism at the lower temperatures. We show here that P. furiosus produces acetoin (3-hydroxybutanone) as a major product at temperatures below 80°C. A novel type of acetolactate synthase (ALS), which is involved in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, is responsible and deletion of the als gene abolishes acetoin production. Accordingly, deletion of als in a strain of P. furiosus containing a novel pathway for ethanol production significantly improved the yield of ethanol. These results also demonstrate that P. furiosus is a potential platform for the biological production of acetoin at temperatures in the 70-80°C range. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory evolution of Pyrococcus furiosus alcohol dehydrogenase to improve the production of (2S,5S)-hexanediol at moderate temperatures.

    PubMed

    Machielsen, Ronnie; Leferink, Nicole G H; Hendriks, Annemarie; Brouns, Stan J J; Hennemann, Hans-Georg; Daussmann, Thomas; van der Oost, John

    2008-07-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of enantioselective alcohol dehydrogenases for the production of enantio- and diastereomerically pure diols, which are important building blocks for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and fine chemicals. Due to the need for a stable alcohol dehydrogenase with activity at low-temperature process conditions (30 degrees C) for the production of (2S,5S)-hexanediol, we have improved an alcohol dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (AdhA). A stable S-selective alcohol dehydrogenase with increased activity at 30 degrees C on the substrate 2,5-hexanedione was generated by laboratory evolution on the thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase AdhA. One round of error-prone PCR and screening of approximately 1,500 mutants was performed. The maximum specific activity of the best performing mutant with 2,5-hexanedione at 30 degrees C was tenfold higher compared to the activity of the wild-type enzyme. A 3D-model of AdhA revealed that this mutant has one mutation in the well-conserved NADP(H)-binding site (R11L), and a second mutation (A180V) near the catalytic and highly conserved threonine at position 183.

  7. Determinants of protein hyperthermostability: Purification and amino acid sequence of rubredoxin from the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus and secondary structure of the zinc adduct by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, P.R.; Summers, M.F. ); Park, J.B.; Bryant, F.O.; Aono, Shigetoshi; Adams, M.W.W. ); Magnuson, J.K.; Eccleston, E.; Howard, J.B. )

    1991-11-12

    The purification, amino acid sequence, and two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR results are reported for the rubredoxin (Rd) from the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus, an organism that grows optimally at 100C. The molecular mass (5397 Da), iron content UV-vis spectrophotometric properties, and amino acid sequence are found to be typical of this class of redox protein. However, P. furiosus Rd is remarkably thermostable, being unaffected after incubation for 24 h at 95C. One- and two-dimensional {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the oxidized (Fe(III)Rd) and reduced (Fe(II)Rd) forms of P. furiosus Rd exhibited substantial paramagnetic line broadening, and this precluded detailed 3D structural studies. The apoprotein was not readily amenable to NMR studies due to apparent protein oxidation involving the free cysteine sulfhydryls. Secondary structural elements were determined from qualitative analysis of 2D Overhauser effect spectra. These structural elements are similar to those observed by X-ray crystallography for native Rd from the mesophile C. pasteurianum. From analysis of the secondary structure, potentially stabilizing electrostatic interactions involving the charged groups of residues Ala(1), Glu(14), and Glu(52) are proposed. These interactions, which are not present in rubredoxins from mesophilic organisms, may prevent the {beta}-sheet from unzipping' at elevated temperatures.

  8. An Integrative Genomic Island Affects the Adaptations of the Piezophilic Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus yayanosii to High Temperature and High Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Li, Xuegong; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments are characterized by high hydrostatic pressure and sharp temperature and chemical gradients. Horizontal gene transfer is thought to play an important role in the microbial adaptation to such an extreme environment. In this study, a 21.4-kb DNA fragment was identified as a genomic island, designated PYG1, in the genomic sequence of the piezophilic hyperthermophile Pyrococcus yayanosii. According to the sequence alignment and functional annotation, the genes in PYG1 could tentatively be divided into five modules, with functions related to mobility, DNA repair, metabolic processes and the toxin-antitoxin system. Integrase can mediate the site-specific integration and excision of PYG1 in the chromosome of P. yayanosii A1. Gene replacement of PYG1 with a SimR cassette was successful. The growth of the mutant strain ΔPYG1 was compared with its parent strain P. yayanosii A2 under various stress conditions, including different pH, salinity, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure. The ΔPYG1 mutant strain showed reduced growth when grown at 100°C, while the biomass of ΔPYG1 increased significantly when cultured at 80 MPa. Differential expression of the genes in module III of PYG1 was observed under different temperature and pressure conditions. This study demonstrates the first example of an archaeal integrative genomic island that could affect the adaptation of the hyperthermophilic piezophile P. yayanosii to high temperature and high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27965650

  9. Molecular analysis of the role of two aromatic aminotransferases and a broad-specificity aspartate aminotransferase in the aromatic amino acid metabolism of Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Donald E.; de Vos, William M.; van der Oost, John

    2002-01-01

    The genes encoding aromatic aminotransferase II (AroAT II) and aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) from Pyrococcus furiosus have been identified, expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant proteins characterized. The AroAT II enzyme was specific for the transamination reaction of the aromatic amino acids, and uses α-ketoglutarate as the amino acceptor. Like the previously characterized AroAT I, AroAT II has highest efficiency for phenylalanine (kcat/Km = 923 s–1 mM–1). Northern blot analyses revealed that AroAT I was mainly expressed when tryptone was the primary carbon and energy source. Although the expression was significantly lower, a similar trend was observed for AroAT II. These observations suggest that both AroATs are involved in amino acid degradation. Although AspAT exhibited highest activity with aspartate and α-ketoglutarate (kcat ~105 s–1), it also showed significant activity with alanine, glutamate and the aromatic amino acids. With aspartate as the amino donor, AspAT catalyzed the amination of α-ketoglutarate, pyruvate and phenylpyruvate. No activity was detected with either branched-chain amino acids or α-keto acids. The AspAT gene (aspC) was expressed as a polycistronic message as part of the aro operon, with expression observed only when the aromatic amino acids were absent from the growth medium, indicating a role in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids. PMID:15803651

  10. Uncovering the stoichiometry of Pyrococcus furiosus RNase P, a multi-subunit catalytic ribonucleoprotein complex, by surface-induced dissociation and ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Lai, Lien B; Lai, Stella M; Tanimoto, Akiko; Foster, Mark P; Wysocki, Vicki H; Gopalan, Venkat

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate that surface-induced dissociation (SID) coupled with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is a powerful tool for determining the stoichiometry of a multi-subunit ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex assembled in a solution containing Mg(2+). We investigated Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) RNase P, an archaeal RNP that catalyzes tRNA 5' maturation. Previous step-wise, Mg(2+)-dependent reconstitutions of Pfu RNase P with its catalytic RNA subunit and two interacting protein cofactor pairs (RPP21⋅RPP29 and POP5⋅RPP30) revealed functional RNP intermediates en route to the RNase P enzyme, but provided no information on subunit stoichiometry. Our native MS studies with the proteins showed RPP21⋅RPP29 and (POP5⋅RPP30)2 complexes, but indicated a 1:1 composition for all subunits when either one or both protein complexes bind the cognate RNA. These results highlight the utility of SID and IM-MS in resolving conformational heterogeneity and yielding insights on RNP assembly.

  11. Exploitation of the S-layer self-assembly system for site directed immobilization of enzymes demonstrated for an extremophilic laminarinase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Tschiggerl, Helga; Breitwieser, Andreas; de Roo, Guy; Verwoerd, Theo; Schäffer, Christina; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2008-02-01

    A fusion protein based on the S-layer protein SbpA from Bacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 and the enzyme laminarinase (LamA) from Pyrococcus furiosus was designed and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Due to the construction principle, the S-layer fusion protein fully retained the self-assembly capability of the S-layer moiety, while the catalytic domain of LamA remained exposed at the outer surface of the formed protein lattice. The enzyme activity of the S-layer fusion protein monolayer obtained upon recrystallization on silicon wafers, glass slides and different types of polymer membranes was determined colorimetrically and related to the activity of sole LamA that has been immobilized with conventional techniques. LamA aligned within the S-layer fusion protein lattice in a periodic and orientated fashion catalyzed twice the glucose release from the laminarin polysaccharide substrate in comparison to the randomly immobilized enzyme. In combination with the good shelf-life and the high resistance towards temperature and diverse chemicals, these novel composites are regarded a promising approach for site-directed enzyme immobilization.

  12. Characterization of Amylolytic Enzymes, Having Both α-1,4 and α-1,6 Hydrolytic Activity, from the Thermophilic Archaea Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermococcus litoralis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen H.; Kelly, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Extracellular pullulanases were purified from cell-free culture supernatants of the marine thermophilic archaea Thermococcus litoralis (optimal growth temperature, 90°C) and Pyrococcus furiosus (optimal growth temperature, 98°C). The molecular mass of the T. litoralis enzyme was estimated at 119,000 Da by electrophoresis, while the P. furiosus enzyme exhibited a molecular mass of 110,000 Da under the same conditions. Both enzymes tested positive for bound sugar by the periodic acid-Schiff technique and are therefore glycoproteins. The thermoactivity and thermostability of both enzymes were enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+, and under these conditions, enzyme activity could be measured at temperatures of up to 130 to 140°C. The addition of Ca2+ also affected substrate binding, as evidenced by a decrease in Km for both enzymes when assayed in the presence of this metal. Each of these enzymes was able to hydrolyze, in addition to the α-1,6 linkages in pullulan, α-1,4 linkages in amylose and soluble starch. Neither enzyme possessed activity against maltohexaose or other smaller α-1,4-linked oligosaccharides. The enzymes from T. litoralis and P. furiosus appear to represent highly thermostable amylopullulanases, versions of which have been isolated from less-thermophilic organisms. The identification of these enzymes further defines the saccharide-metabolizing systems possessed by these two organisms. PMID:16349019

  13. A mutant (‘lab strain’) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, lacking flagella, has unusual growth physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Derrick L.; Notey, Jaspreet S.; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.; Loder, Andrew J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2014-12-04

    In this paper, a mutant (‘lab strain’) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus DSM3638 exhibited an extended exponential phase and atypical cell aggregation behavior. Genomic DNA from the mutant culture was sequenced and compared to wild-type (WT) DSM3638, revealing 145 genes with one or more insertions, deletions, or substitutions (12 silent, 33 amino acid substitutions, and 100 frame shifts). Approximately, half of the mutated genes were transposases or hypothetical proteins. The WT transcriptome revealed numerous changes in amino acid and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathways coincidental with growth phase transitions, unlike the mutant whose transcriptome reflected the observed prolonged exponential phase. Targeted gene deletions, based on frame-shifted ORFs in the mutant genome, in a genetically tractable strain of P. furiosus (COM1) could not generate the extended exponential phase behavior observed for the mutant. For example, a putative radical SAM family protein (PF2064) was the most highly up-regulated ORF (>25-fold) in the WT between exponential and stationary phase, although this ORF was unresponsive in the mutant; deletion of this gene in P. furiosus COM1 resulted in no apparent phenotype. On the other hand, frame-shifting mutations in the mutant genome negatively impacted transcription of a flagellar biosynthesis operon (PF0329-PF0338).Consequently, cells in the mutant culture lacked flagella and, unlike the WT, showed minimal evidence of exopolysaccharide-based cell aggregation in post-exponential phase. Finally, electron microscopy of PF0331-PF0337 deletions in P. furiosus COM1 showed that absence of flagella impacted normal cell aggregation behavior and, furthermore, indicated that flagella play a key role, beyond motility, in the growth physiology of P. furiosus.

  14. Enhancing Heat Tolerance of the Little Dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with Introduction of a Superoxide Reductase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xing-Min; Liu, Xiang; Ji, Mikyoung; Hoffmann, William A; Grunden, Amy; Xiang, Qiu-Yun J

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP) was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  15. X-ray crystal structures of the oxidized and reduced forms of the rubredoxin from the marine hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    Day, M. W.; Hsu, B. T.; Joshua-Tor, L.; Park, J. B.; Zhou, Z. H.; Adams, M. W.; Rees, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    The structures of the oxidized and reduced forms of the rubredoxin from the archaebacterium, Pyrococcus furiosus, an organism that grows optimally at 100 degrees C, have been determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.8 A. Crystals of this rubredoxin grow in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with room temperature cell dimensions a = 34.6 A, b = 35.5 A, and c = 44.4 A. Initial phases were determined by the method of molecular replacement using the oxidized form of the rubredoxin from the mesophilic eubacterium, Clostridium pasteurianum, as a starting model. The oxidized and reduced models of P. furiosus rubredoxin each contain 414 nonhydrogen protein atoms comprising 53 residues. The model of the oxidized form contains 61 solvent H2O oxygen atoms and has been refined with X-PLOR and TNT to a final R = 0.178 with root mean square (rms) deviations from ideality in bond distances and bond angles of 0.014 A and 2.06 degrees, respectively. The model of the reduced form contains 37 solvent H2O oxygen atoms and has been refined to R = 0.193 with rms deviations from ideality in bond lengths of 0.012 A and in bond angles of 1.95 degrees. The overall structure of P. furiosus rubredoxin is similar to the structures of mesophilic rubredoxins, with the exception of a more extensive hydrogen-bonding network in the beta-sheet region and multiple electrostatic interactions (salt bridge, hydrogen bonds) of the Glu 14 side chain with groups on three other residues (the amino-terminal nitrogen of Ala 1; the indole nitrogen of Trp 3; and the amide nitrogen group of Phe 29). The influence of these and other features upon the thermostability of the P. furiosus protein is discussed. PMID:1303768

  16. Enhancing Heat Tolerance of the Little Dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with Introduction of a Superoxide Reductase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xing-Min; Liu, Xiang; Ji, Mikyoung; Hoffmann, William A.; Grunden, Amy; Xiang, Qiu-Yun J.

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP) was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR. PMID:26858741

  17. Observation of terahertz vibrations in Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin via impulsive coherent vibrational spectroscopy and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy--interpretation by molecular mechanics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Xiao, Yuming; Cannistraro, Salvatore; Ichiye, Toshiko; Manzoni, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio; Adams, Michael W W; Jenney, Francis E; Cramer, Stephen P

    2007-03-01

    We have used impulsive coherent vibrational spectroscopy (ICVS) to study the Fe(S-Cys)(4) site in oxidized rubredoxin (Rd) from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf). In this experiment, a 15 fs visible laser pulse is used to coherently pump the sample to an excited electronic state, and a second <10 fs pulse is used to probe the change in transmission as a function of the time delay. PfRd was observed to relax to the ground state by a single exponential decay with time constants of approximately 255-275 fs. Superimposed on this relaxation are oscillations caused by coherent excitation of vibrational modes in both excited and ground electronic states. Fourier transformation reveals the frequencies of these modes. The strongest ICV mode with 570 nm excitation is the symmetric Fe-S stretching mode near 310 cm(-1), compared to 313 cm(-1) in the low temperature resonance Raman. If the rubredoxin is pumped at 520 nm, a set of strong bands occurs between 20 and 110 cm(-1). Finally, there is a mode at approximately 500 cm(-1) which is similar to features near 508 cm(-1) in blue Cu proteins that have been attributed to excited state vibrations. Normal mode analysis using 488 protein atoms and 558 waters gave calculated spectra that are in good agreement with previous nuclear resonance vibrational spectra (NRVS) results. The lowest frequency normal modes are identified as collective motions of the entire protein or large segments of polypeptide. Motion in these modes may affect the polar environment of the redox site and thus tune the electron transfer functions in rubredoxins.

  18. Structural features underlying the selective cleavage of a novel exo-type maltose-forming amylase from Pyrococcus sp. ST04.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang-Hyun; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Park, Sung-Goo; Lee, Myeong-Eun; Holden, James F; Park, Cheon-Seok; Woo, Eui-Jeon

    2014-06-01

    A novel maltose-forming α-amylase (PSMA) was recently found in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. ST04. This enzyme shows <13% amino-acid sequence identity to other known α-amylases and displays a unique enzymatic property in that it hydrolyzes both α-1,4-glucosidic and α-1,6-glucosidic linkages of substrates, recognizing only maltose units, in an exo-type manner. Here, the crystal structure of PSMA at a resolution of 1.8 Å is reported, showing a tight ring-shaped tetramer with monomers composed of two domains: an N-domain (amino acids 1-341) with a typical GH57 family (β/α)7-barrel fold and a C-domain (amino acids 342-597) composed of α-helical bundles. A small closed cavity observed in proximity to the catalytic residues Glu153 and Asp253 at the domain interface has the appropriate volume and geometry to bind a maltose unit, accounting for the selective exo-type maltose hydrolysis of the enzyme. A narrow gate at the putative subsite +1 formed by residue Phe218 and Phe452 is essential for specific cleavage of glucosidic bonds. The closed cavity at the active site is connected to a short substrate-binding channel that extends to the central hole of the tetramer, exhibiting a geometry that is significantly different from classical maltogenic amylases or β-amylases. The structural features of this novel exo-type maltose-forming α-amylase provide a molecular basis for its unique enzymatic characteristics and for its potential use in industrial applications and protein engineering.

  19. DNA polymerase hybrids derived from the family-B enzymes of Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermococcus kodakarensis: improving performance in the polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Elshawadfy, Ashraf M.; Keith, Brian J.; Ee Ooi, H'Ng; Kinsman, Thomas; Heslop, Pauline; Connolly, Bernard A.

    2014-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely applied across the biosciences, with archaeal Family-B DNA polymerases being preferred, due to their high thermostability and fidelity. The enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu-Pol) is more frequently used than the similar protein from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tkod-Pol), despite the latter having better PCR performance. Here the two polymerases have been comprehensively compared, confirming that Tkod-Pol: (1) extends primer-templates more rapidly; (2) has higher processivity; (3) demonstrates superior performance in normal and real time PCR. However, Tkod-Pol is less thermostable than Pfu-Pol and both enzymes have equal fidelities. To understand the favorable properties of Tkod-Pol, hybrid proteins have been prepared. Single, double and triple mutations were used to site arginines, present at the “forked-point” (the junction of the exonuclease and polymerase channels) of Tkod-Pol, at the corresponding locations in Pfu-Pol, slightly improving PCR performance. The Pfu-Pol thumb domain, responsible for double-stranded DNA binding, has been entirely replaced with that from Tkod-Pol, again giving better PCR properties. Combining the “forked-point” and thumb swap mutations resulted in a marked increase in PCR capability, maintenance of high fidelity and retention of the superior thermostability associated with Pfu-Pol. However, even the arginine/thumb swap mutant falls short of Tkod-Pol in PCR, suggesting further improvement within the Pfu-Pol framework is attainable. The significance of this work is the observation that improvements in PCR performance are easily attainable by blending elements from closely related archaeal polymerases, an approach that may, in future, be extended by using more polymerases from these organisms. PMID:24904539

  20. Bioprocessing analysis of Pyrococcus furiosus strains engineered for CO2-based 3-hydroxypropionate production

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, Aaron B.; Lian, Hong; Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Loder, Andrew J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Schut, Gerrit J.; Keller, Matthew W.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-06-11

    In this paper, metabolically engineered strains of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (Topt 95–100°C), designed to produce 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) from maltose and CO2 using enzymes from the Metallosphaera sedula (Topt 73°C) carbon fixation cycle, were examined with respect to the impact of heterologous gene expression on metabolic activity, fitness at optimal and sub-optimal temperatures, gas-liquid mass transfer in gas-intensive bioreactors, and potential bottlenecks arising from product formation. Transcriptomic comparisons of wild-type P. furiosus, a genetically-tractable, naturally-competent mutant (COM1), and COM1-based strains engineered for 3HP production revealed numerous differences after being shifted from 95°C to 72°C, where product formation catalyzed by the heterologously-produced M. sedula enzymes occurred. At 72°C, significantly higher levels of metabolic activity and a stress response were evident in 3HP-forming strains compared to the non-producing parent strain (COM1). Gas–liquid mass transfer limitations were apparent, given that 3HP titers and volumetric productivity in stirred bioreactors could be increased over 10-fold by increased agitation and higher CO2 sparging rates, from 18 mg/L to 276 mg/L and from 0.7 mg/L/h to 11 mg/L/h, respectively. 3HP formation triggered transcription of genes for protein stabilization and turnover, RNA degradation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. Lastly, the results here support the prospects of using thermally diverse sources of pathways and enzymes in metabolically engineered strains designed for product formation at sub-optimal growth temperatures.

  1. Hydrolysis of flavanone glycosides by β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus and its application to the production of flavanone aglycones from citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Nam, Hyun-Koo; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-11-27

    The hydrolytic activity of the recombinant β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus for the flavanone glycoside hesperidin was optimal at pH 5.5 and 95 °C in the presence of 0.5% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 0.1% (w/v) Tween 40 with a half-life of 88 h, a Km of 1.6 mM, and a kcat of 68.4 1/s. The specific activity of the enzyme for flavonoid glycosides followed the order hesperidin > neohesperidin > naringin > narirutin > poncirin > diosmin > neoponcirin > rutin. The specific activity for flavanone was higher than that for flavone or flavonol. DMSO at 10% (v/v) was used to increase the solubility of flavanone glycosides as substrates. The enzyme completely converted flavanone glycosides (1 g/L) to flavanone aglycones and disaccharides via one-step reaction. The major flavanone in grapefruit peel, grapefruit pulp, or orange peel extract was naringin (47.5 mg/g), naringin (16.6 mg/g), or hesperidin (18.2 mg/g), respectively. β-Glucosidase from P. furiosus completely converted naringin and narirutin in 100% (w/v) grapefruit peel extract to 22.5 g/L naringenin after 12 h, with a productivity of 1.88 g L(-1) h(-1); naringin and narirutin in 100% (w/v) grapefruit pulp extract to 8.1 g/L naringenin after 9 h, with a productivity of 0.90 g L(-1) h(-1); and hesperidin in 100% (w/v) orange peel extract to 9.0 g/L hesperetin after 9 h, with a productivity of 1.00 g L(-1) h(-1). The conversion yields, concentrations, and productivities of flavanone aglycones in this study are the highest among those obtained from citrus extracts. Thus, this enzyme may be useful for the industrial hydrolysis of flavanone glycosides in citrus extracts.

  2. Replication factor C from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi does not need ATP hydrolysis for clamp-loading and contains a functionally conserved RFC PCNA-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Henneke, Ghislaine; Gueguen, Yannick; Flament, Didier; Azam, Philippe; Querellou, Joël; Dietrich, Jacques; Hübscher, Ulrich; Raffin, Jean-Paul

    2002-11-08

    The molecular organization of the replication complex in archaea is similar to that in eukaryotes. Only two proteins homologous to subunits of eukaryotic replication factor C (RFC) have been detected in Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab). The genes encoding these two proteins are arranged in tandem. We cloned these two genes and co-expressed the corresponding recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Two inteins present in the gene encoding the small subunit (PabRFC-small) were removed during cloning. The recombinant protein complex was purified by anion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Also, the PabRFC-small subunit could be purified, while the large subunit (PabRFC-large) alone was completely insoluble. The highly purified PabRFC complex possessed an ATPase activity, which was not enhanced by DNA. The Pab proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) activated the PabRFC complex in a DNA-dependent manner, but the PabRFC-small ATPase activity was neither DNA-dependent nor PCNA-dependent. The PabRFC complex was able to stimulate PabPCNA-dependent DNA synthesis by the Pabfamily D heterodimeric DNA polymerase. Finally, (i) the PabRFC-large fraction cross-reacted with anti-human-RFC PCNA-binding domain antibody, corroborating the conservation of the protein sequence, (ii) the human PCNA stimulated the PabRFC complex ATPase activity in a DNA-dependent way and (iii) the PabRFC complex could load human PCNA onto primed single-stranded circular DNA, suggesting that the PCNA-binding domain of RFC has been functionally conserved during evolution. In addition, ATP hydrolysis was not required either for DNA polymerase stimulation or PCNA-loading in vitro.

  3. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding glutamine synthetase I from the archaeum Pyrococcus woesei: anomalous phylogenies inferred from analysis of archaeal and bacterial glutamine synthetase I sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Tiboni, O; Cammarano, P; Sanangelantoni, A M

    1993-01-01

    The gene glnA encoding glutamine synthetase I (GSI) from the archaeum Pyrococcus woesei was cloned and sequenced with the Sulfolobus solfataricus glnA gene as the probe. An operon reading frame of 448 amino acids was identified within a DNA segment of 1,528 bp. The encoded protein was 49% identical with the GSI of Methanococcus voltae and exhibited conserved regions characteristic of the GSI family. The P. woesei GSI was aligned with available homologs from other archaea (S. solfataricus, M. voltae) and with representative sequences from cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, and gram-positive bacteria. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from both the amino acid and the nucleotide sequence alignments. In accordance with the sequence similarities, archaeal and bacterial sequences did not segregate on a phylogeny. On the basis of sequence signatures, the GSI trees could be subdivided into two ensembles. One encompassed the GSI of cyanobacteria and proteobacteria, but also that of the high-G + C gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor (all of which are regulated by the reversible adenylylation of the enzyme subunits); the other embraced the GSI of the three archaea as well as that of the low-G + C gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium acetobutilycum, Bacillus subtilis) and Thermotoga maritima (none of which are regulated by subunit adenylylation). The GSIs of the Thermotoga and the Bacillus-Clostridium lineages shared a direct common ancestor with that of P. woesei and the methanogens and were unrelated to their homologs from cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, and S. coelicolor. The possibility is presented that the GSI gene arose among the archaea and was then laterally transferred from some early methanogen to a Thermotoga-like organism. However, the relationship of the cyanobacterial-proteobacterial GSIs to the Thermotoga GSI and the GSI of low-G+C gram-positive bacteria remains unexplained. PMID:8098326

  4. Survival and growth of two heterotrophic hydrothermal vent archaea, Pyrococcus strain GB-D and Thermococcus fumicolans, under low pH and high sulfide concentrations in combination with high temperature and pressure regimes.

    PubMed

    Edgcomb, Virginia P; Molyneaux, Stephen J; Böer, Simone; Wirsen, Carl O; Saito, Mak; Atkins, Michael S; Lloyd, Karen; Teske, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    Growth and survival of hyperthermophilic archaea in their extreme hydrothermal vent and subsurface environments are controlled by chemical and physical key parameters. This study examined the effects of elevated sulfide concentrations, temperature, and acidic pH on growth and survival of two hydrothermal vent archaea (Pyrococcus strain GB-D and Thermococcus fumicolans) under high temperature and pressure regimes. These two strains are members of the Thermococcales, a family of hyperthermophilic, heterotrophic, sulfur-reducing archaea that occur in high densities at vent sites. As actively growing cells, these two strains tolerated regimes of pH, pressure, and temperature that were in most cases not tolerated under severe substrate limitation. A moderate pH of 5.5-7 extends their survival and growth range over a wider range of sulfide concentrations, temperature and pressure, relative to lower pH conditions. T. fumicolans and Pyrococcus strain GB-D grew under very high pressures that exceeded in-situ pressures typical of hydrothermal vent depths, and included deep subsurface pressures. However, under the same conditions, but in the absence of carbon substrates and electron acceptors, survival was generally lower, and decreased rapidly when low pH stress was combined with high pressure and high temperature.

  5. Insights into the metabolism of elemental sulfur by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus: characterization of a coenzyme A- dependent NAD(P)H sulfur oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Schut, Gerrit J; Bridger, Stephanie L; Adams, Michael W W

    2007-06-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus uses carbohydrates as a carbon source and produces acetate, CO2, and H2 as end products. When S(0) is added to a growing culture, within 10 min the rate of H2 production rapidly decreases and H(2)S is detected. After 1 hour cells contain high NADPH- and coenzyme A-dependent S(0) reduction activity (0.7 units/mg, 85 degrees C) located in the cytoplasm. The enzyme responsible for this activity was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity (specific activity, 100 units/mg) and is termed NAD(P)H elemental sulfur oxidoreductase (NSR). NSR is a homodimeric flavoprotein (M(r), 100,000) and is encoded by PF1186. This designation was previously assigned to the gene encoding an enzyme that reduces coenzyme A disulfide, which is a side reaction of NSR. Whole-genome DNA microarray and quantitative PCR analyses showed that the expression of NSR is up-regulated up to sevenfold within 10 min of S(0) addition. This primary response to S(0) also involves the up-regulation (>16-fold) of a 13-gene cluster encoding a membrane-bound oxidoreductase (MBX). The cluster encoding MBX is proposed to replace the homologous 14-gene cluster that encodes the ferredoxin-oxidizing, H2-evolving membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), which is down-regulated >12-fold within 10 min of S(0) addition. Although an activity for MBX could not be demonstrated, it is proposed to conserve energy by oxidizing ferredoxin and reducing NADP, which is used by NSR to reduce S(0). A secondary response to S(0) is observed 30 min after S(0) addition and includes the up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis and iron metabolism, as well as two so-called sulfur-induced proteins termed SipA and SipB. This novel S(0)-reducing system involving NSR and MBX has been found so far only in the heterotrophic Thermococcales and is in contrast to the cytochrome- and quinone-based S(0)-reducing system in autotrophic archaea and bacteria.

  6. Characterization of the celB gene coding for beta-glucosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and its expression and site-directed mutation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Voorhorst, W G; Eggen, R I; Luesink, E J; de Vos, W M

    1995-01-01

    The celB gene encoding the cellobiose-hydrolyzing enzyme beta-glucosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus has been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The transcription and translation gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in high-level (up to 20% of total protein) production of beta-glucosidase that could be purified by a two-step purification procedure. The beta-glucosidase produced by E. coli had kinetic and stability properties similar to those of the beta-glucosidase purified from P. furiosus. The deduced amino acid sequence of CelB showed high similarity with those of beta-glycosidases that belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 1, implicating a conserved structure. Replacement of the conserved glutamate 372 in the P. furiosus beta-glucosidase by an aspartate or a glutamine led to a high reduction in specific activity (200- or 1,000-fold, respectively), indicating that this residue is the active site nucleophile involved in catalysis above 100 degrees C. PMID:8522516

  7. Dynamics of the [4Fe-4S] Cluster in Pyrococcus furiosus D14C Ferredoxin via Nuclear Resonance Vibrational and Resonance Raman Spectroscopies, Force Field Simulations, and Density Functional Theory Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Devrani; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Guo, Yisong; Case, David A.; Wang, Hongxin; Dong, Weibing; Tan, Ming-Liang; Ichiye, Toshiko; Jenney, Francis E.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Zhao, Jiyong; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    We have used 57Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study oxidized and reduced forms of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in the D14C variant ferredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf D14C Fd). To assist the normal mode assignments, we recorded the NRVS of D14C ferredoxin samples with 36S substituted into the [4Fe-4S] cluster bridging sulfide positions, and a model compound without ligand side chains: (Ph4P)2[Fe4S4Cl4]. Several distinct regions of NRVS intensity are identified, ranging from `protein' and torsional modes below 100 cm−1, through bending and breathing modes near 150 cm−1, to strong bands from Fe-S stretching modes between 250 cm−1 and ~400 cm−1. The oxidized ferredoxin samples were also investigated by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. We found good agreement between NRVS and RR frequencies, but because of different selection rules, the intensities vary dramatically between the two types of spectra. The 57Fe partial vibrational densities of states (PVDOS) for the oxidized samples were interpreted by normal mode analysis with optimization of Urey-Bradley force fields for local models of the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Full protein model calculations were also conducted using a supplemented CHARMM force field, and these calculations revealed low frequency modes that may be relevant to electron transfer with Pf Fd partners. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations complemented these empirical analyses, and DFT was used to estimate the reorganization energy associated with the [Fe4S4]2+/1+ redox cycle. Overall, the NRVS technique demonstrates great promise for the observation and quantitative interpretation of the dynamical properties of Fe-S proteins. PMID:21500788

  8. Dynamics of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in Pyrococcus furiosus D14C ferredoxin via nuclear resonance vibrational and resonance Raman spectroscopies, force field simulations, and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Devrani; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Guo, Yisong; Case, David A; Wang, Hongxin; Dong, Weibing; Tan, Ming-Liang; Ichiye, Toshiko; Jenney, Francis E; Adams, Michael W W; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Zhao, Jiyong; Cramer, Stephen P

    2011-06-14

    We have used (57)Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study oxidized and reduced forms of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in the D14C variant ferredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf D14C Fd). To assist the normal-mode assignments, we conducted NRVS with D14C ferredoxin samples with (36)S substituted into the [4Fe-4S] cluster bridging sulfide positions, and a model compound without ligand side chains, (Ph(4)P)(2)[Fe(4)S(4)Cl(4)]. Several distinct regions of NRVS intensity are identified, ranging from "protein" and torsional modes below 100 cm(-1), through bending and breathing modes near 150 cm(-1), to strong bands from Fe-S stretching modes between 250 and ∼400 cm(-1). The oxidized ferredoxin samples were also investigated by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. We found good agreement between NRVS and RR frequencies, but because of different selection rules, the intensities vary dramatically between the two types of spectra. The (57)Fe partial vibrational densities of states for the oxidized samples were interpreted by normal-mode analysis with optimization of Urey-Bradley force fields for local models of the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Full protein model calculations were also conducted using a supplemented CHARMM force field, and these calculations revealed low-frequency modes that may be relevant to electron transfer with Pf Fd partners. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations complemented these empirical analyses, and DFT was used to estimate the reorganization energy associated with the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+/+) redox cycle. Overall, the NRVS technique demonstrates great promise for the observation and quantitative interpretation of the dynamical properties of Fe-S proteins.

  9. Crystal Structures of the Iron–Sulfur Cluster-Dependent Quinolinate Synthase in Complex with Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate, Iminoaspartate Analogues, and Quinolinate

    SciTech Connect

    Fenwick, Michael K.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2016-07-12

    The quinolinate synthase of prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, NadA, contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster with unknown function. We report crystal structures of Pyrococcus horikoshii NadA in complex with dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), iminoaspartate analogues, and quinolinate. DHAP adopts a nearly planar conformation and chelates the [4Fe-4S] cluster via its keto and hydroxyl groups. The active site architecture suggests that the cluster acts as a Lewis acid in enediolate formation, like zinc in class II aldolases. The DHAP and putative iminoaspartate structures suggest a model for a condensed intermediate. The ensemble of structures suggests a two-state system, which may be exploited in early steps.

  10. Use of cellobiohydrolase-free cellulase blends for the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and sugarcane bagasse pretreated by either ball milling or ionic liquid [Emim][Ac].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Kim, Han-Woo; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Endo, Takashi; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Bon, Elba P S

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the requirement of cellobiohydrolases (CBH) for saccharification of microcrystalline cellulose and sugarcane bagasse pretreated either by ball milling (BM) or by ionic liquid (IL) [Emim][Ac]. Hydrolysis was done using CBH-free blends of Pyrococcus horikoshii endoglucanase (EG) plus Pyrococcus furiosus β-glucosidase (EGPh/BGPf) or Optimash™ BG while Acremonium Cellulase was used as control. IL-pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed more effectively by CBH-free enzymes than were the BM-pretreated substrates. IL-treatment decreased the crystallinity and increased the specific surface area (SSA), whereas BM-treatment decreased the crystallinity without increasing the SSA. The hydrolysis of IL-treated cellulose by EGPh/BGPf showed a saccharification rate of 3.92 g/Lh and a glucose yield of 81% within 9h. These results indicate the efficiency of CBH-free enzymes for the hydrolysis of IL-treated substrates.

  11. Combining biomass wet disk milling and endoglucanase/β-glucosidase hydrolysis for the production of cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Woo; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Endo, Takashi; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Bon, Elba P S

    2015-09-05

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), a biomaterial with high added value, were obtained from pure cellulose, Eucalyptus holocellulose, unbleached Kraft pulp, and sugarcane bagasse, by fibrillating these biomass substrates using wet disk milling (WDM) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis using endoglucanase/β-glucosidase. The hydrolysis experiments were conducted using the commercial enzyme OptimashBG or a blend of Pyrococcus horikoshii endoglucanase and Pyrococcus furiosus β-glucosidase. The fibrillated materials and CNCs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and the specific surface area (SSA) was measured. WDM resulted in the formation of long and twisted microfibers of 1000-5000 nm in length and 4-35 nm in diameter, which were hydrolyzed into shorter and straighter CNCs of 500-1500 nm in length and 4-12 nm in diameter, with high cellulose crystallinity. Therefore, the CNC's aspect ratio was successfully adjusted by endoglucanases under mild reaction conditions, relative to the reported acidic hydrolysis method.

  12. Diphthamide biosynthesis requires an Fe-S enzyme-generated organic radical

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xuling; Torelli, Andrew T.; Lee, Michael; Dzikovski, Boris; Koralewski, Rachel M.; Wang, Eileen; Freed, Jack; Krebs, Carsten; Ealick, Steven E.; Lin, Hening

    2010-01-01

    Summary Archaeal and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 contain a unique posttranslationally modified histidine residue called “diphthamide”, the target of diphtheria toxin. The biosynthesis of diphthamide were proposed to involve three steps, with the first step being the formation of a C-C bond between the histidine residue and the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). However, details of the biosynthesis have remained unknown. Here we present structural and biochemical evidence showing that the first step of diphthamide biosynthesis in the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii uses a novel iron-sulfur cluster enzyme, Dph2. Dph2 is a homodimer and each monomer contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Biochemical data suggest that unlike the enzymes in the radical SAM superfamily, Dph2 does not form the canonical 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical. Instead, it breaks the Cγ,Met-S bond of SAM and generates a 3-amino-3-carboxylpropyl radical. This work suggests that Pyrococcus horikoshii Dph2 represents a novel SAM-dependent [4Fe-4S]-containing enzyme that catalyzes unprecedented chemistry. PMID:20559380

  13. Crystal structure determination and site-directed mutagenesis of the Pyrococcus abyssi aCBF5–aNOP10 complex reveal crucial roles of the C-terminal domains of both proteins in H/ACA sRNP activity

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    In archaeal rRNAs, the isomerization of uridine into pseudouridine (Ψ) is achieved by the H/ACA sRNPs and the minimal set of proteins required for RNA:Ψ-synthase activity is the aCBF5–aNOP10 protein pair. The crystal structure of the aCBF5–aNOP10 heterodimer from Pyrococcus abyssi was solved at 2.1 Å resolution. In this structure, protein aNOP10 has an extended shape, with a zinc-binding motif at the N-terminus and an α-helix at the C-terminus. Both motifs contact the aCBF5 catalytic domain. Although less efficiently as does the full-length aNOP10, the aNOP10 C-terminal domain binds aCBF5 and stimulates the RNA-guided activity. We show that the C-terminal domain of aCBF5 (the PUA domain), which is wrapped by an N-terminal extension of aCBF5, plays a crucial role for aCBF5 binding to the guide sRNA. Addition of this domain in trans partially complement particles assembled with an aCBF5ΔPUA truncated protein. In the crystal structure, the aCBF5–aNOP10 complex forms two kinds of heterotetramers with parallel and perpendicular orientations of the aNOP10 terminal α-helices, respectively. By gel filtration assay, we showed that aNOP10 can dimerize in solution. As both residues Y41 and L48 were needed for dimerization, the dimerization likely takes place by interaction of parallel α-helices. PMID:16456033

  14. The genomics of LUCA.

    PubMed

    Mat, Wai-Kin; Xue, Hong; Wong, Jeffrey Tze-Fei

    2008-05-01

    To understand the nature and evolution of LUCA, or Last Universal Common Ancestor, the minimum genome of LUCA has been identified based on the genes common to the eight primitive Euryarchaea and Crenarchaea species Methanopyrus kandleri, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicum, Methanococcus jannaschii, Pyrococcus abyssi, Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Aeropyrum pernix and Pyrobaculum aerophilum, together with the methanogenesis genes of the primitive methanogens. The 424 protein encoding genes in the minimum LUCA genome exceed significantly the 150-340 genes estimated to be present in a minimal proteome compatible with life. Thus LUCA was not a minimal organism but the first modern organism equipped with a DNA genome and the universal genetic code. The hyperthermophilic, Methanopyrus-proximal LUCA is consistent with a Hot Cross Origin of life which proposes that early heterotrophic life forms in the cooler temperature zones invented methanogenesis and a DNA genome upon their adaptation to the hydrothermal vents, where life flourished massively on lithoautotrophy supported by carbon dioxide and hydrogen, thereby leading to the rise of LUCA.

  15. An archaeal peptidase assembles into two different quaternary structures: A tetrahedron and a giant octahedron.

    PubMed

    Schoehn, Guy; Vellieux, Frédéric M D; Asunción Durá, M; Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique; Fabry, Céline M S; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Ebel, Christine; Roussel, Alain; Franzetti, Bruno

    2006-11-24

    Cellular proteolysis involves large oligomeric peptidases that play key roles in the regulation of many cellular processes. The cobalt-activated peptidase TET1 from the hyperthermophilic Archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhTET1) was found to assemble as a 12-subunit tetrahedron and as a 24-subunit octahedral particle. Both quaternary structures were solved by combining x-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy data. The internal organization of the PhTET1 particles reveals highly self-compartmentalized systems made of networks of access channels extended by vast catalytic chambers. The two edifices display aminopeptidase activity, and their organizations indicate substrate navigation mechanisms different from those described in other large peptidase complexes. Compared with the tetrahedron, the octahedron forms a more expanded hollow structure, representing a new type of giant peptidase complex. PhTET1 assembles into two different quaternary structures because of quasi-equivalent contacts that previously have only been identified in viral capsids.

  16. Refinement of the Central Steps of Substrate Transport by the Aspartate Transporter GltPh: Elucidating the Role of the Na2 Sodium Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, SanthoshKannan; Saha, Kusumika; Sohail, Azmat; Sandtner, Walter; Freissmuth, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Sitte, Harald H.; Stockner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate homeostasis in the brain is maintained by glutamate transporter mediated accumulation. Impaired transport is associated with several neurological disorders, including stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Crystal structures of the homolog transporter GltPh from Pyrococcus horikoshii revealed large structural changes. Substrate uptake at the atomic level and the mechanism of ion gradient conversion into directional transport remained enigmatic. We observed in repeated simulations that two local structural changes regulated transport. The first change led to formation of the transient Na2 sodium binding site, triggered by side chain rotation of T308. The second change destabilized cytoplasmic ionic interactions. We found that sodium binding to the transiently formed Na2 site energized substrate uptake through reshaping of the energy hypersurface. Uptake experiments in reconstituted proteoliposomes confirmed the proposed mechanism. We reproduced the results in the human glutamate transporter EAAT3 indicating a conserved mechanics from archaea to humans. PMID:26485255

  17. Orientation of growing crystals of Co- or Gd-containing L-threonine dehydrogenase by magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Syou; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Ataka, Mitsuo

    2009-12-01

    L-Threonine dehydrogenase from Pyrococcus horikoshii (TDH) is a water-soluble metalloenzyme, the molecular structure of which has been unknown until recently. The Zn 2+ ion in the native TDH, prepared as a recombinant protein, is replaced artificially with Co 2+, Ni 2+ or Gd 3+. These samples are crystallized in homogeneous magnetic fields of 2-10 T. Half of the Co- or Gd-substituted crystals show magnetic orientation in a field of 2 T at 278 K whereas the crystals of the native TDH require a 4 T magnetic field for half orientation. The sensitivity to magnetic orientation can thus be increased by metal substitution. On the other hand, we cannot assign clear changes in the size, number, and quality of the native and metal-substituted crystals with and without the presence of the magnetic field.

  18. Crystal structure of stable protein CutA1 from psychrotrophic bacterium Shewanella sp. SIB1

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Aya; Yokotani, Sonoko; Tadokoro, Takashi; Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2011-01-01

    CutA1 is widely found in bacteria, plants and animals, including humans. The functions of CutA1, however, have not been well clarified. It is known that CutA1s from Pyrococcus horikoshii, Thermus thermophilus and Oryza sativa unfold at temperatures remarkably higher than the growth temperatures of the host organisms. In this work the crystal structure of CutA1 from the psychrotrophic bacterium Shewanella sp. SIB1 (SIB1–CutA1) in a trimeric form was determined at 2.7 Å resolution. This is the first crystal structure of a psychrotrophic CutA1. The overall structure of SIB1–CutA1 is similar to those of CutA1 from Homo sapiens, Escherichia coli, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Thermus thermophilus, Termotoga maritima, Oryza sativa and Rattus norvergicus. A peculiarity is observed in the β2 strand. The β2 strand is divided into two short β strands, β2a and β2b, in SIB1–CutA1. A thermal denaturation experiment revealed that SIB1–CutA1 does not unfold completely at 363 K at pH 7.0, although Shewanella sp. SIB1 cannot grow at temperatures exceeding 303 K. These results indicate that the trimeric structural motif of CutA1 is the critical factor in its unusually high stability and suggest that CutA1 needs to maintain its high stability in order to function, even in psychrotrophs. PMID:21169681

  19. Diphthamide biosynthesis requires an organic radical generated by an iron-sulphur enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xuling; Torelli, Andrew T; Lee, Michael; Dzikovski, Boris; Koralewski, Rachel M; Wang, Eileen; Freed, Jack; Krebs, Carsten; Ealick, Steve E; Lin, Hening

    2010-08-30

    Archaeal and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 contain a unique post-translationally modified histidine residue called diphthamide, which is the target of diphtheria toxin. The biosynthesis of diphthamide was proposed to involve three steps, with the first being the formation of a C-C bond between the histidine residue and the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). However, further details of the biosynthesis remain unknown. Here we present structural and biochemical evidence showing that the first step of diphthamide biosynthesis in the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii uses a novel iron-sulphur-cluster enzyme, Dph2. Dph2 is a homodimer and each of its monomers can bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Biochemical data suggest that unlike the enzymes in the radical SAM superfamily, Dph2 does not form the canonical 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical. Instead, it breaks the Cγ,Met-S bond of SAM and generates a 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl radical. Our results suggest that P. horikoshii Dph2 represents a previously unknown, SAM-dependent, [4Fe-4S]-containing enzyme that catalyses unprecedented chemistry.

  20. Structural basis for activation of an archaeal ribonuclease P RNA by protein cofactors.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an endoribonuclease that catalyzes the processing of the 5'-leader sequence of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA) in all phylogenetic domains. We have found that RNase P in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 consists of RNase P RNA (PhopRNA) and five protein cofactors designated PhoPop5, PhoRpp21, PhoRpp29, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp38. Biochemical characterizations over the past 10 years have revealed that PhoPop5 and PhoRpp30 fold into a heterotetramer and cooperate to activate a catalytic domain (C-domain) in PhopRNA, whereas PhoRpp21 and PhoRpp29 form a heterodimer and function together to activate a specificity domain (S-domain) in PhopRNA. PhoRpp38 plays a role in elevation of the optimum temperature of RNase P activity, binding to kink-turn (K-turn) motifs in two stem-loops in PhopRNA. This review describes the structural and functional information on P. horikoshii RNase P, focusing on the structural basis for the PhopRNA activation by the five RNase P proteins.

  1. The intein of the Thermoplasma A-ATPase A subunit: Structure, evolution and expression in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Senejani, Alireza G; Hilario, Elena; Gogarten, J Peter

    2001-01-01

    Background Inteins are selfish genetic elements that excise themselves from the host protein during post translational processing, and religate the host protein with a peptide bond. In addition to this splicing activity, most reported inteins also contain an endonuclease domain that is important in intein propagation. Results The gene encoding the Thermoplasma acidophilum A-ATPase catalytic subunit A is the only one in the entire T. acidophilum genome that has been identified to contain an intein. This intein is inserted in the same position as the inteins found in the ATPase A-subunits encoding gene in Pyrococcus abyssi, P. furiosus and P. horikoshii and is found 20 amino acids upstream of the intein in the homologous vma-1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the other inteins in catalytic ATPase subunits, the T. acidophilum intein does not contain an endonuclease domain. T. acidophilum has different codon usage frequencies as compared to Escherichia coli. Initially, the low abundance of rare tRNAs prevented expression of the T. acidophilum A-ATPase A subunit in E. coli. Using a strain of E. coli that expresses additional tRNAs for rare codons, the T. acidophilum A-ATPase A subunit was successfully expressed in E. coli. Conclusions Despite differences in pH and temperature between the E. coli and the T. acidophilum cytoplasms, the T. acidophilum intein retains efficient self-splicing activity when expressed in E. coli. The small intein in the Thermoplasma A-ATPase is closely related to the endonuclease containing intein in the Pyrococcus A-ATPase. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that this intein was horizontally transferred between Pyrococcus and Thermoplasma, and that the small intein has persisted in Thermoplasma apparently without homing. PMID:11722801

  2. Biochemical and structural characterization of a novel family of cystathionine beta-synthase domain proteins fused to a Zn ribbon-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Proudfoot, Michael; Sanders, Stephen A.; Singer, Alex; Zhang, Rongguang; Brown, Greg; Binkowski, Andrew; Xu, Linda; Lukin, Jonathan A.; Murzin, Alexey G.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Edwards, Aled M.; Savchenko, Alexei V.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified a novel family of proteins, in which the N-terminal Cystathionine Beta-Synthase (CBS) domain is fused to the C-terminal Zn ribbon domain. Four proteins were over-expressed in E. coli and purified: TA0289 from Thermoplasma acidophilum, TV1335 from Thermoplasma vulcanum, PF1953 from Pyrococcus furiosus, and PH0267 from Pyrococcus horikoshii. The purified proteins had red/purple color in solution and an absorption spectrum typical of rubredoxins. Metal analysis of purified proteins revealed the presence of several metals with iron and zinc being the most abundant metals (2 to 67% of iron and 12 to 74% of zinc). Crystal structures of both mercury- and iron-bound TA0289 (1.5–2.0 Å resolution) revealed a dimeric protein whose inter-subunit contacts are formed exclusively by the α helices of two CBS sub-domains, whereas the C-terminal domain has a classical Zn-ribbon planar architecture. All proteins were reversibly reduced by chemical reductants (ascorbate or dithionite) or by the general rubredoxin reductase NorW from E. coli in the presence of NADH. Reduced TA0289 was found to be able to transfer electrons to cytochrome C from horse heart. Likewise, the purified Zn ribbon protein KTI11 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae had purple color in solution and a rubredoxin-like absorption spectrum, contained both iron and zinc, and was reduced by the rubredoxin reductase NorW from E. coli. Thus, recombinant Zn ribbon domains from archaea and yeast demonstrate a rubredoxin-like electron carrier activity in vitro. We suggest that in vivo some Zn ribbon domains might also bind iron and therefore possess an electron carrier activity adding another physiological role to this large family of important proteins. PMID:18021800

  3. Gene Transfer & Hybridization Studies in Hyperthermophilic Species

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Karen E.

    2005-10-14

    A. ABSTRACT The importance of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of microbial species has become increasingly evident with each completed microbial genome sequence. Most significantly, the genome of Thermotoga maritima MSB8, a hyperthermophilic bacterium isolated by Karl Stetter and workers from Vulcano Italy in 1986, and sequenced at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville Maryland in 1999, revealed extensive LGT between % . this bacterium and members of the archaeal domain (in particular Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Pyracoccus frcriosus species). Based on whole genome comparisons, it was estimated that 24% of the genetic information in this organism was acquired by genetic exchange with archaeal species, Independent analyses including periodicity analysis of the T. maritimu genomic DNA sequence, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genes that appear archaeal-like, and codon and amino acid usage, have provided additional evidence for LGT between T. maritima and the archaea. More recently, DiRuggiero and workers have identified a very recent LGT event between two genera of hyperthermophilic archaea, where a nearly identical DNA fragment of 16 kb in length flanked by insertion sequence (IS) elements, exists. Undoubtedly, additional examples of LGT will be identified as more microbial genomes are completed. For the present moment however, the genome sequence of T. maritima and other hyperthermophiles including P. furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Pyrococcus abyssi, A. fulgidus, and Aquifex aeolicus, have significantly increased out awareness of evolution being a web of life rather than a tree of life, as suggested by single gene phylogenies. In this proposal, we will aim to determine the extent of LGT across the hyperthemophiles, employing iY maritima as the model organism. A variety of biochemical techniques and phylogenetic reconstructions will allow for a detailed and thorough characterization of the extent of LGT in this species. The

  4. ADPase activity of recombinantly expressed thermotolerant ATPases may be caused by copurification of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B.Tracy

    2009-10-06

    Except for apyrases, ATPases generally target only the {gamma}-phosphate of a nucleotide. Some non-apyrase ATPases from thermophilic microorganisms are reported to hydrolyze ADP as well as ATP, which has been described as a novel property of the ATPases from extreme thermophiles. Here, we describe an apparent ADP hydrolysis by highly purified preparations of the AAA+ ATPase NtrC1 from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Aquifex aeolicus. This activity is actually a combination of the activities of the ATPase and contaminating adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli, which is present at 1/10 000 of the level of the ATPase. AK catalyzes conversion of two molecules of ADP into AMP and ATP, the latter being a substrate for the ATPase. We raise concern that the observed thermotolerance of E. coli AK and its copurification with thermostable proteins by commonly used methods may confound studies of enzymes that specifically catalyze hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates or triphosphates. For example, contamination with E. coli AK may be responsible for reported ADPase activities of the ATPase chaperonins from Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Methanococcus jannaschii and Thermoplasma acidophilum; the ATP/ADP-dependent DNA ligases from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Staphylothermus marinus; or the reported ATP-dependent activities of ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase of P. furiosus. Purification methods developed to separate NtrC1 ATPase from AK also revealed two distinct forms of the ATPase. One is tightly bound to ADP or GDP and able to bind to Q but not S ion exchange matrixes. The other is nucleotide-free and binds to both Q and S ion exchange matrixes.

  5. Features for instantaneous emissions of low-level infrared signals of glucokinase enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sergio; Mella, Héctor; Reyes, Claudio; Meza, Pablo; Gallardo, Maria J; Staforelli, Juan P

    2015-03-10

    A noncontact infrared (IR) imaging-based methodology and signal recovery tools are applied on an enzyme reaction as a test target. The method is implemented by a long-wave (8-12 μm) IR microbolometer imaging array and a germanium-based IR optical vision. The reaction is carried out by the glucokinase, which produces a rapid exothermal release of energy that is weak, and, even worse, the IR video captured by the uncooled microbolometer detector is affected by spatial and temporal noise with specific complexities. Hitherto, IR-based signal recovery tools have worked with a standard acquisition frequency, which is clearly beyond the time scale of a real scenario. The implications of this (and similar) rapid reactions motivate the designs of a signal recovery method using prior information of the processes to extract and quantify the spontaneity of the enzymatic reaction in a three-dimensional (space and time) single and noncontact online measurement.

  6. Structural Analysis and Bioengineering of Thermostable Pyrococcus Furiosus Prolidase for Optimization of Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Detoxification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Hata et al. 1987). Mutations in the gene coding for human prolidase can cause prolidase deficiency , an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by...264(33): 19659-65. Endo, F., A. Hata, Y. Indo, K. Motohara and I. Matsuda (1987). Immunochemical analysis of prolidase deficiency and molecular... prolidase and molecular analyses of prolidase deficiency . J Inherit Metab Dis 12(3): 351-4. Fernandez-Espla, M. D., M. C. Martin-Hernandez and P. F

  7. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. [Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  8. Crystal structures of type III{sub H} NAD-dependent D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from two thermophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.M.; Pampa, K.J.; Manjula, M.; Hemantha Kumar, G.; Kunishima, Naoki; Lokanath, N.K.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Determined the crystal structures of PGDH from two thermophiles. • Monomer is composed of nucleotide binding domain and substrate binding domain. • Crystal structures of type III{sub H} PGDH. - Abstract: In the L-Serine biosynthesis, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) catalyzes the inter-conversion of D-3-phosphoglycerate to phosphohydroxypyruvate. PGDH belongs to 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases family. We have determined the crystal structures of PGDH from Sulfolobus tokodaii (StPGDH) and Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhPGDH) using X-ray diffraction to resolution of 1.77 Å and 1.95 Å, respectively. The PGDH protomer from both species exhibits identical structures, consisting of substrate binding domain and nucleotide binding domain. The residues and water molecules interacting with the NAD are identified. The catalytic triad residues Glu-His-Arg are highly conserved. The residues involved in the dimer interface and the structural features responsible for thermostability are evaluated. Overall, structures of PGDHs with two domains and histidine at the active site are categorized as type III{sub H} and such PGDHs structures having this type are reported for the first time.

  9. Identification and characterization of a novel thermostable gh-57 gene from metagenomic fosmid library of the Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothemal vent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Gong, Yingxue; Xie, Wei; Xiao, Wenjuan; Wang, Junmei; Zheng, Yangyang; Hu, Jia; Liu, Zehuan

    2011-08-01

    A novel glycoside hydrolases family 57 gene (gh-57) was found from a metagenomic fosmid library constructed from a black smoker chimney sample 4143-1 from the Mothra hydrothermal vent at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sequence and homology analysis using BLAST revealed that it had high similarity to gh-57 family. Conserved domain research revealed that the novel gh-57 contained a Glyco-hydro-57 domain and five conserved regions, including two putative catalytic residues Glu¹⁵⁴ and Asp²⁶³. The three-dimensional features of the protein and its homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 known as α-amylase were generated by homology modeling. The gh-57 gene was cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli using pQE system. Enzyme activity revealed that the recombinant protein could hydrolyze soluble starch and demonstrated amylase activity. It showed an optimal pH of 7.5, an optimal temperature of 90 °C, and its thermostability at 90 °C could remain over 50% enzyme activity for 4 h. The enzyme activity could be increased by DTT and Mg²⁺ while an inhibitory effect was observed with EDTA, ATP, and Ca²⁺. These results showed that the gh-57 gene was a novel thermostable amylase from oceanic microorganisms.

  10. Analysis of complete genomes suggests that many prokaryotes do not rely on hairpin formation in transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Washio, T; Sasayama, J; Tomita, M

    1998-12-01

    Free energy values of mRNA tertiary structures around stop codons were systematically calculated to surmise the hairpin-forming potential for all genes in each of the 16 complete prokaryote genomes. Instead of trying to detect each individual hairpin, we averaged the free energy values around the stop codons over the entire genome to predict how extensively the organism relies on hairpin formation in the process of transcription termination. The free energy values of Escherichia coli K-12 shows a sharp drop, as expected, at 30 bp downstream of the stop codon, presumably due to hairpin-forming sequences. Similar drops are observed for Haemophilus influenzae Rd, Bacillus subtilis and Chlamydia trachomatis, suggesting that these organisms also form hairpins at their transcription termination sites. On the other hand, 12 other prokaryotes- Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Synechocystis PCC6803, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Methanococcus jannaschii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Aquifex aeolicus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Treponema pallidum -show no apparent decrease in free energy value at the corresponding regions. This result suggests that these prokaryotes, or at least some of them, may never form hairpins at their transcription termination sites.

  11. Structure of RNA 3′-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Kevin K.; Bingman, Craig A.; Cheng, Chin L.; Phillips, George N.

    2014-01-01

    RNA 3′-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3′-phosphate to form a 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA–AMP and RNA(3′)pp(5′)A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3′-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3′-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3′-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P–N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to Nε of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3′-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3′-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme. PMID:25161314

  12. Structure of RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kevin K; Bingman, Craig A; Cheng, Chin L; Phillips, George N; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-10-01

    RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3'-phosphate to form a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3'-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3'-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3'-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P-N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to N(ε) of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3'-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3'-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme. © 2014 Desai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Comparison of Three Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Cellulases by Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Vance; Burney, Patrick; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2015-01-01

    We have employed molecular dynamics to investigate the differences in ionic liquid tolerance among three distinct family 5 cellulases from Trichoderma viride, Thermogata maritima, and Pyrococcus horikoshii. Simulations of the three cellulases were conducted at a range of temperatures in various binary mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate with water. Our analysis demonstrates that the effects of ionic liquids on the enzymes vary in each individual case from local structural disturbances to loss of much of one of the enzyme’s secondary structure. Enzymes with more negatively charged surfaces tend to resist destabilization by ionic liquids. Specific and unique structural changes in the enzymes are induced by the presence of ionic liquids. Disruption of the secondary structure, changes in dynamical motion, and local changes in the binding pocket are observed in less tolerant enzymes. Ionic-liquid-induced denaturation of one of the enzymes is indicated over the 500 ns timescale. In contrast, the most tolerant cellulase behaves similarly in water and in ionic-liquid-containing mixtures. Unlike the heuristic approaches that attempt to predict enzyme stability using macroscopic properties, molecular dynamics allows us to predict specific atomic-level structural and dynamical changes in an enzyme’s behavior induced by ionic liquids and other mixed solvents. Using these insights, we propose specific experimentally testable hypotheses regarding the origin of activity loss for each of the systems investigated in this study. PMID:25692593

  14. Crystal structure of TET protease reveals complementary protein degradation pathways in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Borissenko, Ljudmila; Groll, Michael

    2005-03-11

    Protein degradation is an essential and strictly controlled process with proteasome and functionally related proteases representing its central part. Tricorn protease (TRI) has been shown to act downstream of the proteasome, degrading produced peptides. Recently, a novel large prokaryotic aminopeptidase oligomeric complex, named TET, has been identified. This complex degrades peptides of different length in organisms where TRI is not present. We determined the crystal structure of TET from the thermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii at 1.6 A resolution in native form and in complex with the inhibitor amastatin. We demonstrate that, beside the novel tetrahedral oligomerisation pattern, TET possesses a unique mechanism of substrate attraction and orientation. TET sequentially degrades peptides produced by the proteasome to single amino acids. Furthermore, we reconstituted in vitro the minimal protein degradation system from initial unfolding of labelled protein substrates, up to release of free amino acids. We propose that TET and TRI act as functional analogues in different organisms, with TET being more widely distributed. Thus, TET and TRI represent two evolutionarily diverged pathways of peptide degradation in prokaryotes.

  15. Multisite-specific archaeosine tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (ArcTGT) from Thermoplasma acidophilum, a thermo-acidophilic archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Takuya; Hirata, Akira; Ohno, Satoshi; Nomura, Yuichiro; Nagano, Tomoko; Nameki, Nobukazu; Yokogawa, Takashi; Hori, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Archaeosine (G+), which is found only at position 15 in many archaeal tRNA, is formed by two steps, the replacement of the guanine base with preQ0 by archaeosine tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (ArcTGT) and the subsequent modification of preQ0 to G+ by archaeosine synthase. However, tRNALeu from Thermoplasma acidophilum, a thermo-acidophilic archaeon, exceptionally has two G+13 and G+15 modifications. In this study, we focused on the biosynthesis mechanism of G+13 and G+15 modifications in this tRNALeu. Purified ArcTGT from Pyrococcus horikoshii, for which the tRNA recognition mechanism and structure were previously characterized, exchanged only the G15 base in a tRNALeu transcript with 14C-guanine. In contrast, T. acidophilum cell extract exchanged both G13 and G15 bases. Because T. acidophilum ArcTGT could not be expressed as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli, we employed an expression system using another thermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus kodakarensis. The arcTGT gene in T. kodakarensis was disrupted, complemented with the T. acidophilum arcTGT gene, and tRNALeu variants were expressed. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified tRNALeu variants revealed the modifications of G+13 and G+15 in the wild-type tRNALeu. Thus, T. acidophilum ArcTGT has a multisite specificity and is responsible for the formation of both G+13 and G+15 modifications. PMID:26721388

  16. Large scale production of the active human ASCT2 (SLC1A5) transporter in Pichia pastoris--functional and kinetic asymmetry revealed in proteoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Piero; Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Hedfalk, Kristina; Indiveri, Cesare

    2013-09-01

    The human glutamine/neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 (hASCT2) was over-expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified by Ni(2+)-chelating and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein was reconstituted in liposomes by detergent removal with a batch-wise procedure. Time dependent [(3)H]glutamine/glutamine antiport was measured in proteoliposomes which was active only in the presence of external Na(+). Internal Na(+) slightly stimulated the antiport. Optimal activity was found at pH7.0. A substantial inhibition of the transport was observed by Cys, Thr, Ser, Ala, Asn and Met (≥70%) and by mercurials and methanethiosulfonates (≥80%). Heterologous antiport of [(3)H]glutamine with other neutral amino acids was also studied. The transporter showed asymmetric specificity for amino acids: Ala, Cys, Val, Met were only inwardly transported, while Gln, Ser, Asn, and Thr were transported bi-directionally. From kinetic analysis of [(3)H]glutamine/glutamine antiport Km values of 0.097 and 1.8mM were measured on the external and internal sides of proteoliposomes, respectively. The Km for Na(+) on the external side was 32mM. The homology structural model of the hASCT2 protein was built using the GltPh of Pyrococcus horikoshii as template. Cys395 was the only Cys residue externally exposed, thus being the potential target of SH reagents inhibition and, hence, potentially involved in the transport mechanism.

  17. Structure of the dodecamer of the aminopeptidase APDkam598 from the archaeon Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, T. E.; Slutskaya, E. S.; Boyko, K. M.; Sokolova, O. S.; Rakitina, T. V.; Korzhenevskiy, D. A.; Gorbacheva, M. A.; Bezsudnova, E. Y.; Popov, V. O.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the aminopeptidase APDkam589 from the thermophilic crenarchaeon Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis was determined at a resolution of 3.0 Å. In the crystal, the monomer of APDkam589 and its symmetry-related monomers are densely packed to form a 12-subunit complex. Single-particle electron-microscopy analysis confirms that APDkam589 is present as a compact dodecamer in solution. The APDkam589 molecule is built similarly to the molecules of the PhTET peptidases, which have the highest sequence identity to APDkam589 among known structures and were isolated from the more thermostable archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii. A comparison of the interactions of the subunits in APDkam589 with those in PhTET1, PhTET2 and PhTET3 reveals that APDkam589 has a much lower total number of salt bridges, which correlates with the lower thermostability of APDkam589. The monomer of APDkam589 has six Trp residues, five of which are on the external surface of the dodecamer. A superposition of the structure of APDkam589 with those having a high sequence similarity to APDkam589 reveals that, although the positions of Trp45, Trp252 and Trp358 are not conserved in the sequences, the spatial locations of the Trp residues in these models are similar. PMID:25760701

  18. Tuning the ion selectivity of glutamate transporter–associated uncoupled conductances

    PubMed Central

    Cater, Rosemary J.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of glutamate within a glutamatergic synapse is tightly regulated by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). In addition to their primary role in clearing extracellular glutamate, the EAATs also possess a thermodynamically uncoupled Cl− conductance. This conductance is activated by the binding of substrate and Na+, but the direction of Cl− flux is independent of the rate or direction of substrate transport; thus, the two processes are thermodynamically uncoupled. A recent molecular dynamics study of the archaeal EAAT homologue GltPh (an aspartate transporter from Pyrococcus horikoshii) identified an aqueous pore at the interface of the transport and trimerization domains, through which anions could permeate, and it was suggested that an arginine residue at the most restricted part of this pathway might play a role in determining anion selectivity. In this study, we mutate this arginine to a histidine in the human glutamate transporter EAAT1 and investigate the role of the protonation state of this residue on anion selectivity and transporter function. Our results demonstrate that a positive charge at this position is crucial for determining anion versus cation selectivity of the uncoupled conductance of EAAT1. In addition, because the nature of this residue influences the turnover rate of EAAT1, we reveal an intrinsic link between the elevator movement of the transport domain and the Cl− channel. PMID:27296367

  19. Active-site models for complexes of quinolinate synthase with substrates and intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Soriano, Erika V.; Zhang, Yang; Colabroy, Keri L.; Sanders, Jennie M.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2013-09-01

    Structural studies of quinolinate synthase suggest a model for the enzyme–substrate complex and an enzyme–intermediate complex with a [4Fe–4S] cluster. Quinolinate synthase (QS) catalyzes the condensation of iminoaspartate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate to form quinolinate, the universal precursor for the de novo biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. QS has been difficult to characterize owing either to instability or lack of activity when it is overexpressed and purified. Here, the structure of QS from Pyrococcus furiosus has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. The structure is a homodimer consisting of three domains per protomer. Each domain shows the same topology with a four-stranded parallel β-sheet flanked by four α-helices, suggesting that the domains are the result of gene triplication. Biochemical studies of QS indicate that the enzyme requires a [4Fe–4S] cluster, which is lacking in this crystal structure, for full activity. The organization of domains in the protomer is distinctly different from that of a monomeric structure of QS from P. horikoshii [Sakuraba et al. (2005 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.280, 26645–26648]. The domain arrangement in P. furiosus QS may be related to protection of cysteine side chains, which are required to chelate the [4Fe–4S] cluster, prior to cluster assembly.

  20. Comparison of three ionic liquid-tolerant cellulases by molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Vance; Burney, Patrick; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2015-02-17

    We have employed molecular dynamics to investigate the differences in ionic liquid tolerance among three distinct family 5 cellulases from Trichoderma viride, Thermogata maritima, and Pyrococcus horikoshii. Simulations of the three cellulases were conducted at a range of temperatures in various binary mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate with water. Our analysis demonstrates that the effects of ionic liquids on the enzymes vary in each individual case from local structural disturbances to loss of much of one of the enzyme's secondary structure. Enzymes with more negatively charged surfaces tend to resist destabilization by ionic liquids. Specific and unique structural changes in the enzymes are induced by the presence of ionic liquids. Disruption of the secondary structure, changes in dynamical motion, and local changes in the binding pocket are observed in less tolerant enzymes. Ionic-liquid-induced denaturation of one of the enzymes is indicated over the 500 ns timescale. In contrast, the most tolerant cellulase behaves similarly in water and in ionic-liquid-containing mixtures. Unlike the heuristic approaches that attempt to predict enzyme stability using macroscopic properties, molecular dynamics allows us to predict specific atomic-level structural and dynamical changes in an enzyme's behavior induced by ionic liquids and other mixed solvents. Using these insights, we propose specific experimentally testable hypotheses regarding the origin of activity loss for each of the systems investigated in this study.

  1. The impact of CRISPR repeat sequence on structures of a Cas6 protein-RNA complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruiying; Zheng, Han; Preamplume, Gan; Shao, Yaming; Li, Hong

    2012-03-15

    The repeat-associated mysterious proteins (RAMPs) comprise the most abundant family of proteins involved in prokaryotic immunity against invading genetic elements conferred by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system. Cas6 is one of the first characterized RAMP proteins and is a key enzyme required for CRISPR RNA maturation. Despite a strong structural homology with other RAMP proteins that bind hairpin RNA, Cas6 distinctly recognizes single-stranded RNA. Previous structural and biochemical studies show that Cas6 captures the 5' end while cleaving the 3' end of the CRISPR RNA. Here, we describe three structures and complementary biochemical analysis of a noncatalytic Cas6 homolog from Pyrococcus horikoshii bound to CRISPR repeat RNA of different sequences. Our study confirms the specificity of the Cas6 protein for single-stranded RNA and further reveals the importance of the bases at Positions 5-7 in Cas6-RNA interactions. Substitutions of these bases result in structural changes in the protein-RNA complex including its oligomerization state.

  2. Using lanthanoid complexes to phase large macromolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Talon, Romain; Kahn, Richard; Durá, M Asunción; Maury, Olivier; Vellieux, Frédéric M D; Franzetti, Bruno; Girard, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Lanthanoid ions exhibit extremely large anomalous X-ray scattering at their L(III) absorption edge. They are thus well suited for anomalous diffraction experiments. A novel class of lanthanoid complexes has been developed that combines the physical properties of lanthanoid atoms with functional chemical groups that allow non-covalent binding to proteins. Two structures of large multimeric proteins have already been determined by using such complexes. Here the use of the luminescent europium tris-dipicolinate complex [Eu(DPA)(3)](3-) to solve the low-resolution structure of a 444 kDa homododecameric aminopeptidase, called PhTET1-12s from the archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii, is reported. Surprisingly, considering the low resolution of the data, the experimental electron density map is very well defined. Experimental phases obtained by using the lanthanoid complex lead to maps displaying particular structural features usually observed in higher-resolution maps. Such complexes open a new way for solving the structure of large molecular assemblies, even with low-resolution data.

  3. Post-translational environmental switch of RadA activity by extein–intein interactions in protein splicing

    PubMed Central

    Topilina, Natalya I.; Novikova, Olga; Stanger, Matthew; Banavali, Nilesh K.; Belfort, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational control based on an environmentally sensitive intervening intein sequence is described. Inteins are invasive genetic elements that self-splice at the protein level from the flanking host protein, the exteins. Here we show in Escherichia coli and in vitro that splicing of the RadA intein located in the ATPase domain of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii is strongly regulated by the native exteins, which lock the intein in an inactive state. High temperature or solution conditions can unlock the intein for full activity, as can remote extein point mutations. Notably, this splicing trap occurs through interactions between distant residues in the native exteins and the intein, in three-dimensional space. The exteins might thereby serve as an environmental sensor, releasing the intein for full activity only at optimal growth conditions for the native organism, while sparing ATP consumption under conditions of cold-shock. This partnership between the intein and its exteins, which implies coevolution of the parasitic intein and its host protein may provide a novel means of post-translational control. PMID:26101259

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of the Nip7 proteins from the marine deep- and shallow-water Pyrococcus species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The identification of the mechanisms of adaptation of protein structures to extreme environmental conditions is a challenging task of structural biology. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the Nip7 protein involved in RNA processing from the shallow-water (P. furiosus) and the deep-water (P. abyssi) marine hyperthermophylic archaea at different temperatures (300 and 373 K) and pressures (0.1, 50 and 100 MPa). The aim was to disclose similarities and differences between the deep- and shallow-sea protein models at different temperatures and pressures. Results The current results demonstrate that the 3D models of the two proteins at all the examined values of pressures and temperatures are compact, stable and similar to the known crystal structure of the P. abyssi Nip7. The structural deviations and fluctuations in the polypeptide chain during the MD simulations were the most pronounced in the loop regions, their magnitude being larger for the C-terminal domain in both proteins. A number of highly mobile segments the protein globule presumably involved in protein-protein interactions were identified. Regions of the polypeptide chain with significant difference in conformational dynamics between the deep- and shallow-water proteins were identified. Conclusions The results of our analysis demonstrated that in the examined ranges of temperatures and pressures, increase in temperature has a stronger effect on change in the dynamic properties of the protein globule than the increase in pressure. The conformational changes of both the deep- and shallow-sea protein models under increasing temperature and pressure are non-uniform. Our current results indicate that amino acid substitutions between shallow- and deep-water proteins only slightly affect overall stability of two proteins. Rather, they may affect the interactions of the Nip7 protein with its protein or RNA partners. PMID:25315147

  5. TrmBL2 from Pyrococcus furiosus Interacts Both with Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wierer, Sebastian; Daldrop, Peter; Ud Din Ahmad, Misbha; Boos, Winfried; Drescher, Malte; Welte, Wolfram; Seidel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    In many hyperthermophilic archaea the DNA binding protein TrmBL2 or one of its homologues is abundantly expressed. TrmBL2 is thought to play a significant role in modulating the chromatin architecture in combination with the archaeal histone proteins and Alba. However, its precise physiological role is poorly understood. It has been previously shown that upon binding TrmBL2 covers double-stranded DNA, which leads to the formation of a thick and fibrous filament. Here we investigated the filament formation process as well as the stabilization of DNA by TrmBL2 from Pyroccocus furiosus in detail. We used magnetic tweezers that allow to monitor changes of the DNA mechanical properties upon TrmBL2 binding on the single-molecule level. Extended filaments formed in a cooperative manner and were considerably stiffer than bare double-stranded DNA. Unlike Alba, TrmBL2 did not form DNA cross-bridges. The protein was found to bind double- and single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. In mechanical disruption experiments of DNA hairpins this led to stabilization of both, the double- (before disruption) and the single-stranded (after disruption) DNA forms. Combined, these findings suggest that the biological function of TrmBL2 is not limited to modulating genome architecture and acting as a global repressor but that the protein acts additionally as a stabilizer of DNA secondary structure. PMID:27214207

  6. Extremophilic 50S Ribosomal RNA-Binding Protein L35Ae as a Basis for Engineering of an Alternative Protein Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Lomonosova, Anna V.; Ovchinnikova, Elena V.; Kazakov, Alexei S.; Denesyuk, Alexander I.; Sofin, Alexander D.; Mikhailov, Roman V.; Ulitin, Andrei B.; Mirzabekov, Tajib A.; Permyakov, Eugene A.; Permyakov, Sergei E.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their remarkably high structural stability, proteins from extremophiles are particularly useful in numerous biological applications. Their utility as alternative protein scaffolds could be especially valuable in small antibody mimetic engineering. These artificial binding proteins occupy a specific niche between antibodies and low molecular weight substances, paving the way for development of innovative approaches in therapeutics, diagnostics, and reagent use. Here, the 50S ribosomal RNA-binding protein L35Ae from the extremophilic archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii has been probed for its potential to serve as a backbone in alternative scaffold engineering. The recombinant wild type L35Ae has a native-like secondary structure, extreme thermal stability (mid-transition temperature of 90°C) and a moderate resistance to the denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride (half-transition at 2.6 M). Chemical crosslinking and dynamic light scattering data revealed that the wild type L35Ae protein has a propensity for multimerization and aggregation correlating with its non-specific binding to a model cell surface of HEK293 cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry. To suppress these negative features, a 10-amino acid mutant (called L35Ae 10X) was designed, which lacks the interaction with HEK293 cells, is less susceptible to aggregation, and maintains native-like secondary structure and thermal stability. However, L35Ae 10X also shows lowered resistance to guanidine hydrochloride (half-transition at 2.0M) and is more prone to oligomerization. This investigation of an extremophile protein’s scaffolding potential demonstrates that lowered resistance to charged chemical denaturants and increased propensity to multimerization may limit the utility of extremophile proteins as alternative scaffolds. PMID:26247602

  7. A Rigidifying Salt-Bridge Favors the Activity of Thermophilic Enzyme at High Temperatures at the Expense of Low-Temperature Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Sonia Y.; Yeung, Rachel C. Y.; Yu, Tsz-Ha; Sze, Kong-Hung; Wong, Kam-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermophilic enzymes are often less active than their mesophilic homologues at low temperatures. One hypothesis to explain this observation is that the extra stabilizing interactions increase the rigidity of thermophilic enzymes and hence reduce their activity. Here we employed a thermophilic acylphosphatase from Pyrococcus horikoshii and its homologous mesophilic acylphosphatase from human as a model to study how local rigidity of an active-site residue affects the enzymatic activity. Methods and Findings Acylphosphatases have a unique structural feature that its conserved active-site arginine residue forms a salt-bridge with the C-terminal carboxyl group only in thermophilic acylphosphatases, but not in mesophilic acylphosphatases. We perturbed the local rigidity of this active-site residue by removing the salt-bridge in the thermophilic acylphosphatase and by introducing the salt-bridge in the mesophilic homologue. The mutagenesis design was confirmed by x-ray crystallography. Removing the salt-bridge in the thermophilic enzyme lowered the activation energy that decreased the activation enthalpy and entropy. Conversely, the introduction of the salt-bridge to the mesophilic homologue increased the activation energy and resulted in increases in both activation enthalpy and entropy. Revealed by molecular dynamics simulations, the unrestrained arginine residue can populate more rotamer conformations, and the loss of this conformational freedom upon the formation of transition state justified the observed reduction in activation entropy. Conclusions Our results support the conclusion that restricting the active-site flexibility entropically favors the enzymatic activity at high temperatures. However, the accompanying enthalpy-entropy compensation leads to a stronger temperature-dependency of the enzymatic activity, which explains the less active nature of the thermophilic enzymes at low temperatures. PMID:21423654

  8. First Crystal Structure of l-Lysine 6-Dehydrogenase as an NAD-dependent Amine Dehydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Kazunari; Fukuda, Junya; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    A gene encoding an l-lysine dehydrogenase was identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii. The gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its product was purified and characterized. The expressed enzyme is the most thermostable l-lysine dehydrogenase yet described, with a half-life of 180 min at 100 °C. The product of the enzyme's catalytic activity is Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, which makes this enzyme an l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.18) that catalyzes the reductive deamination of the ϵ- amino group and a type of NAD-dependent amine dehydrogenase. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined using the mercury-based multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion method at a resolution of 2.44 Å in the presence of NAD and sulfate ion. The asymmetric unit consisted of two subunits, and a crystallographic 2-fold axis generated the functional dimer. Each monomer consisted of a Rossmann fold domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain, and the fold of the catalytic domain showed similarity to that of saccharopine reductase. Notably, the structures of subunits A and B differed significantly. In subunit A, the active site contained a sulfate ion that was not seen in subunit B. Consequently, subunit A adopted a closed conformation, whereas subunit B adopted an open one. In each subunit, one NAD molecule was bound to the active site in an anti-conformation, indicating that the enzyme makes use of pro-R-specific hydride transfer between the two hydrides at C-4 of NADH (type A specificity). This is the first description of the three-dimensional structure of l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase as an NAD-dependent amine dehydrogenase. PMID:20056607

  9. Derivative of Extremophilic 50S Ribosomal Protein L35Ae as an Alternative Protein Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Lomonosova, Anna V.; Ulitin, Andrei B.; Kazakov, Alexei S.; Mirzabekov, Tajib A.; Permyakov, Eugene A.

    2017-01-01

    Small antibody mimetics, or alternative binding proteins (ABPs), extend and complement antibody functionality with numerous applications in research, diagnostics and therapeutics. Given the superiority of ABPs, the last two decades have witnessed development of dozens of alternative protein scaffolds (APSs) for the design of ABPs. Proteins from extremophiles with their high structural stability are especially favorable for APS design. Here, a 10X mutant of the 50S ribosomal protein L35Ae from hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii has been probed as an APS. A phage display library of L35Ae 10X was generated by randomization of its three CDR-like loop regions (repertoire size of 2×108). Two L35Ae 10X variants specific to a model target, the hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL), were isolated from the resulting library using phage display. The affinity of these variants (L4 and L7) to HEL ranges from 0.10 μM to 1.6 μM, according to surface plasmon resonance data. While L4 has 1–2 orders of magnitude lower affinity to HEL homologue, bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA), L7 is equally specific to HEL and BLA. The reference L35Ae 10X is non-specific to both HEL and BLA. L4 and L7 are more resistant to denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride compared to the reference L35Ae 10X (mid-transition concentration is higher by 0.1–0.5 M). Chemical crosslinking experiments reveal an increased propensity of L4 and L7 to multimerization. Overall, the CDR-like loop regions of L35Ae 10X represent a proper interface for generation of functional ABPs. Hence, L35Ae is shown to extend the growing family of protein scaffolds dedicated to the design of novel binding proteins. PMID:28103321

  10. Synthetic metabolic engineering-a novel, simple technology for designing a chimeric metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoting; Honda, Kohsuke; Sakai, Takaaki; Okano, Kenji; Omasa, Takeshi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Ohtake, Hisao

    2012-09-06

    The integration of biotechnology into chemical manufacturing has been recognized as a key technology to build a sustainable society. However, the practical applications of biocatalytic chemical conversions are often restricted due to their complexities involving the unpredictability of product yield and the troublesome controls in fermentation processes. One of the possible strategies to overcome these limitations is to eliminate the use of living microorganisms and to use only enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway. Use of recombinant mesophiles producing thermophilic enzymes at high temperature results in denaturation of indigenous proteins and elimination of undesired side reactions; consequently, highly selective and stable biocatalytic modules can be readily prepared. By rationally combining those modules together, artificial synthetic pathways specialized for chemical manufacturing could be designed and constructed. A chimeric Embden-Meyerhof (EM) pathway with balanced consumption and regeneration of ATP and ADP was constructed by using nine recombinant E. coli strains overproducing either one of the seven glycolytic enzymes of Thermus thermophilus, the cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase of Pyrococcus horikoshii, or the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Thermococcus kodakarensis. By coupling this pathway with the Thermus malate/lactate dehydrogenase, a stoichiometric amount of lactate was produced from glucose with an overall ATP turnover number of 31. In this study, a novel and simple technology for flexible design of a bespoke metabolic pathway was developed. The concept has been testified via a non-ATP-forming chimeric EM pathway. We designated this technology as "synthetic metabolic engineering". Our technology is, in principle, applicable to all thermophilic enzymes as long as they can be functionally expressed in the host, and thus would be potentially applicable to the biocatalytic manufacture of any chemicals

  11. Recyclable Thermoresponsive Polymer-Cellulase Bioconjugates for Biomass Depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Katherine J.; Francis, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the construction and characterization of a recoverable, thermoresponsive polymer-endoglucanase bioconjugate that matches the activity of unmodified enzymes on insoluble cellulose substrates. Two copolymers exhibiting a thermoresponsive lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were created through the copolymerization of an aminooxy-bearing methacrylamide with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) or N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NIPMa). The aminooxy group provided a handle through which the LCST was adjusted through small-molecule quenching. This allowed materials with LCSTs ranging from 20.9 °C to 60.5 °C to be readily obtained after polymerization. The thermostable endoglucanase EGPh from the hypothermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii was transaminated with pyridoxal-5’-phosphate to produce a ketone-bearing protein, which was then site-selectively modified through oxime linkage with benzylalkoxyamine or 5 kDa-poly(ethylene glycol)-alkoxyamine. These modified proteins showed activity comparable to the controls when assayed on an insoluble cellulosic substrate. Two polymer bioconjugates were then constructed using transaminated EGPh and the aminooxy-bearing copolymers. After twelve hours, both bioconjugates produced an equivalent amount of free reducing sugars as the unmodified control using insoluble cellulose as a substrate. The recycling ability of the NIPAm copolymer-EGPh conjugate was determined through three rounds of activity, maintaining over 60% activity after two cycles of reuse and affording significantly more soluble carbohydrates than unmodified enzyme alone. When assayed on acid-pretreated Miscanthus, this bioconjugate increased the amount of reducing sugars by 2.8-fold over three rounds of activity. The synthetic strategy of this bioconjugate allows the LCST of the material to be changed readily from a common stock of copolymer and the method of attachment is applicable to a variety of proteins, enabling the same approach to be amenable to

  12. Small-angle neutron scattering reveals the assembly mode and oligomeric architecture of TET, a large, dodecameric aminopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Appolaire, Alexandre; Girard, Eric; Colombo, Matteo; Durá, M. Asunción; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Franzetti, Bruno; Gabel, Frank

    2014-11-01

    The present work illustrates that small-angle neutron scattering, deuteration and contrast variation, combined with in vitro particle reconstruction, constitutes a very efficient approach to determine subunit architectures in large, symmetric protein complexes. In the case of the 468 kDa heterododecameric TET peptidase machine, it was demonstrated that the assembly of the 12 subunits is a highly controlled process and represents a way to optimize the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The specific self-association of proteins into oligomeric complexes is a common phenomenon in biological systems to optimize and regulate their function. However, de novo structure determination of these important complexes is often very challenging for atomic-resolution techniques. Furthermore, in the case of homo-oligomeric complexes, or complexes with very similar building blocks, the respective positions of subunits and their assembly pathways are difficult to determine using many structural biology techniques. Here, an elegant and powerful approach based on small-angle neutron scattering is applied, in combination with deuterium labelling and contrast variation, to elucidate the oligomeric organization of the quaternary structure and the assembly pathways of 468 kDa, hetero-oligomeric and symmetric Pyrococcus horikoshii TET2–TET3 aminopeptidase complexes. The results reveal that the topology of the PhTET2 and PhTET3 dimeric building blocks within the complexes is not casual but rather suggests that their quaternary arrangement optimizes the catalytic efficiency towards peptide substrates. This approach bears important potential for the determination of quaternary structures and assembly pathways of large oligomeric and symmetric complexes in biological systems.

  13. Transport rates of a glutamate transporter homologue are influenced by the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    McIlwain, Benjamin C; Vandenberg, Robert J; Ryan, Renae M

    2015-04-10

    The aspartate transporter from Pyrococcus horikoshii (GltPh) is a model for the structure of the SLC1 family of amino acid transporters. Crystal structures of GltPh provide insight into mechanisms of ion coupling and substrate transport; however, structures have been solved in the absence of a lipid bilayer so they provide limited information regarding interactions that occur between the protein and lipids of the membrane. Here, we investigated the effect of the lipid environment on aspartate transport by reconstituting GltPh into liposomes of defined lipid composition where the primary lipid is phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or its methyl derivatives. We showed that the rate of aspartate transport and the transmembrane orientation of GltPh were influenced by the primary lipid in the liposomes. In PE liposomes, we observed the highest transport rate and showed that 85% of the transporters were orientated right-side out, whereas in trimethyl PE liposomes, 50% of transporters were right-side out, and we observed a 4-fold reduction in transport rate. Differences in orientation can only partially explain the lipid composition effect on transport rate. Crystal structures of GltPh revealed a tyrosine residue (Tyr-33) that we propose interacts with lipid headgroups during the transport cycle. Based on site-directed mutagenesis, we propose that a cation-π interaction between Tyr-33 and the lipid headgroups can influence conformational flexibility of the trimerization domain and thus the rate of transport. These results provide a specific example of how interactions between membrane lipids and membrane-bound proteins can influence function and highlight the importance of the role of the membrane in transporter function.

  14. Characterization of the biosynthetic pathway of glucosylglycerate in the archaeon Methanococcoides burtonii.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Empadinhas, Nuno; Gonçalves, Luís; Lamosa, Pedro; Santos, Helena; da Costa, Milton S

    2006-02-01

    The pathway for the synthesis of the organic solute glucosylglycerate (GG) is proposed based on the activities of the recombinant glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) and glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase (GpgP) from Methanococcoides burtonii. A mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase gene homologue (mpgP) was found in the genome of M. burtonii (http://www.jgi.doe.gov), but an mpgS gene coding for mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (MpgS) was absent. The gene upstream of the mpgP homologue encoded a putative glucosyltransferase that was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant product had GpgS activity, catalyzing the synthesis of glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate (GPG) from GDP-glucose and d-3-phosphoglycerate, with a high substrate specificity. The recombinant MpgP protein dephosphorylated GPG to GG and was also able to dephosphorylate mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate (MPG) but no other substrate tested. Similar flexibilities in substrate specificity were confirmed in vitro for the MpgPs from Thermus thermophilus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, and "Dehalococcoides ethenogenes." GpgS had maximal activity at 50 degrees C. The maximal activity of GpgP was at 50 degrees C with GPG as the substrate and at 60 degrees C with MPG. Despite the similarity of the sugar donors GDP-glucose and GDP-mannose, the enzymes for the synthesis of GPG or MPG share no amino acid sequence identity, save for short motifs. However, the hydrolysis of GPG and MPG is carried out by phosphatases encoded by homologous genes and capable of using both substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the elucidation of a biosynthetic pathway for glucosylglycerate.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of unusually thermostable CutA1 protein from human brain and its protease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Sawano, Masahide; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Takehira, Michiyo; Kunishima, Naoki; Katoh, Etsuko; Yutani, Katsuhide

    2015-03-01

    Unusually stable proteins are a disadvantage for the metabolic turnover of proteins in cells. The CutA1 proteins from Pyrococcus horikoshii and from Oryza sativa (OsCutA1) have unusually high denaturation temperatures (Td) of nearly 150 and 100 °C, respectively, at pH 7.0. It seemed that the CutA1 protein from the human brain (HsCutA1) also has a remarkably high stability. Therefore, the thermodynamic stabilities of HsCutA1 and its protease susceptibility were examined. The Td was remarkably high, being over 95 °C at pH 7.0. The unfolding Gibbs energy (ΔG(0)H2O) was 174 kJ/mol at 37 °C from the denaturant denaturation. The thermodynamic analysis showed that the unfolding enthalpy and entropy values of HsCutA1 were considerably lower than those of OsCutA1 with a similar stability to HsCutA1, which should be related to flexibility of the unstructured properties in both N- and C-terminals of HsCutA1. HsCutA1 was almost completely digested after 1-day incubation at 37 °C by subtilisin, although OsCutA1 was hardly digested at the same conditions. These results indicate that easily available fragmentation of HsCutA1 with remarkably high thermodynamic stability at the body temperature should be important for its protein catabolism in the human cells.

  16. Novel glyoxalases from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kyu; Choi, Dongwook; Hyun, Jae Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Baek, Kwanghee; Park, Chankyu

    2013-07-01

    We examined six Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the DJ-1/PfpI superfamily for similarity to the recently characterized bacterial and animal glyoxalases. Based on their sequence similarities, the six genes were classified into two sub-groups consisting of homologs of the human DJ-1 gene and the PH1704 gene of Pyrococcus horikoshii. Unlike the homologs from other species, all the A. thaliana genes have two tandem domains, which may have been created by gene duplication. The six AtDJ-1 proteins (a-f) were expressed in Escherichia coli for enzymatic assays with glyoxals. The DJ-1d protein, which belongs to the PH1704 sub-group, exhibits the highest activity against methylglyoxal and glyoxal, and K(m) values of 0.10 and 0.27 mm were measured for these two substrates, respectively, while the corresponding k(cat) values were 1700 and 2200 min(-1), respectively. The DJ-1a and DJ-1b glyoxalases exhibited higher specificity towards glyoxal. The other three proteins have either no or extremely low activity for glyoxals. For the DJ-1d enzyme, the residues, Cys120/313 and Glu19/212 at the active site and His121/314 and Glu94/287 at the oligomeric interface were mutated to alanines. As in other enzymes characterized to date, mutation of either the Cys or the Glu residues of the active site completely abolished enzyme activity, whereas mutation of the interface residues produced a variable decrease in activity. DJ-1d differs from its animal and bacterial homologs with respect to the configuration of its catalytic residues and the oligomeric property of the enzyme. When the wild-type DJ-1d enzyme was expressed in E. coli, the bacteria became resistant to glyoxals. © 2013 FEBS.

  17. Modeling of tRNA-assisted mechanism of Arg activation based on a structure of Arg-tRNA synthetase, tRNA, and an ATP analog (ANP).

    PubMed

    Konno, Michiko; Sumida, Tomomi; Uchikawa, Emiko; Mori, Yukie; Yanagisawa, Tatsuo; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Yokoyama, Shigeuki

    2009-09-01

    The ATP-pyrophosphate exchange reaction catalyzed by Arg-tRNA, Gln-tRNA and Glu-tRNA synthetases requires the assistance of the cognate tRNA. tRNA also assists Arg-tRNA synthetase in catalyzing the pyrophosphorolysis of synthetic Arg-AMP at low pH. The mechanism by which the 3'-end A76, and in particular its hydroxyl group, of the cognate tRNA is involved with the exchange reaction catalyzed by those enzymes has yet to be established. We determined a crystal structure of a complex of Arg-tRNA synthetase from Pyrococcus horikoshii, tRNA(Arg)(CCU) and an ATP analog with Rfactor = 0.213 (Rfree = 0.253) at 2.0 A resolution. On the basis of newly obtained structural information about the position of ATP bound on the enzyme, we constructed a structural model for a mechanism in which the formation of a hydrogen bond between the 2'-OH group of A76 of tRNA and the carboxyl group of Arg induces both formation of Arg-AMP (Arg + ATP --> Arg-AMP + pyrophosphate) and pyrophosphorolysis of Arg-AMP (Arg-AMP + pyrophosphate --> Arg + ATP) at low pH. Furthermore, we obtained a structural model of the molecular mechanism for the Arg-tRNA synthetase-catalyzed deacylation of Arg-tRNA (Arg-tRNA + AMP --> Arg-AMP + tRNA at high pH), in which the deacylation of aminoacyl-tRNA bound on Arg-tRNA synthetase and Glu-tRNA synthetase is catalyzed by a quite similar mechanism, whereby the proton-donating group (-NH-C+(NH2)2 or -COOH) of Arg and Glu assists the aminoacyl transfer from the 2'-OH group of tRNA to the phosphate group of AMP at high pH.

  18. Characterization of the Biosynthetic Pathway of Glucosylglycerate in the Archaeon Methanococcoides burtonii

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Joana; Empadinhas, Nuno; Gonçalves, Luís; Lamosa, Pedro; Santos, Helena; da Costa, Milton S.

    2006-01-01

    The pathway for the synthesis of the organic solute glucosylglycerate (GG) is proposed based on the activities of the recombinant glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) and glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase (GpgP) from Methanococcoides burtonii. A mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase gene homologue (mpgP) was found in the genome of M. burtonii (http://www.jgi.doe.gov), but an mpgS gene coding for mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (MpgS) was absent. The gene upstream of the mpgP homologue encoded a putative glucosyltransferase that was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant product had GpgS activity, catalyzing the synthesis of glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate (GPG) from GDP-glucose and d-3-phosphoglycerate, with a high substrate specificity. The recombinant MpgP protein dephosphorylated GPG to GG and was also able to dephosphorylate mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate (MPG) but no other substrate tested. Similar flexibilities in substrate specificity were confirmed in vitro for the MpgPs from Thermus thermophilus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, and “Dehalococcoides ethenogenes.” GpgS had maximal activity at 50°C. The maximal activity of GpgP was at 50°C with GPG as the substrate and at 60°C with MPG. Despite the similarity of the sugar donors GDP-glucose and GDP-mannose, the enzymes for the synthesis of GPG or MPG share no amino acid sequence identity, save for short motifs. However, the hydrolysis of GPG and MPG is carried out by phosphatases encoded by homologous genes and capable of using both substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the elucidation of a biosynthetic pathway for glucosylglycerate. PMID:16428406

  19. Catalytic pathway, substrate binding and stability in SAICAR synthetase: A structure and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Kavyashree; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2015-07-01

    The de novo purine biosynthesis is one of the highly conserved pathways among all organisms and is essential for the cell viability. A clear understanding of the enzymes in this pathway would pave way for the development of antimicrobial and anticancer drugs. Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide (SAICAR) synthetase is one of the enzymes in this pathway that catalyzes ATP dependent ligation of carboxyaminoimidazole ribotide (CAIR) with l-aspartate (ASP). Here, we describe eight crystal structures of this enzyme, in C2221 and H3 space groups, bound to various substrates and substrate mimics from a hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii along with molecular dynamics simulations of the structures with substrates. Complexes exhibit minimal deviation from its apo structure. The CAIR binding site displays a preference for pyrimidine nucleotides. In the ADP·TMP·ASP complex, the ASP binds at a position equivalent to that found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae structure (PDB: 2CNU) and thus, clears the ambiguity regarding ASP's position. A possible mode for the inhibition of the enzyme by CTP and UTP, observed earlier in the yeast enzyme, is clearly illustrated in the structures bound to CMP and UMP. The ADP.Mg(2+)·PO4·CD/MP complex having a phosphate ion between the ATP and CAIR sites strengthens one of the two probable pathways (proposed in Escherichia coli study) of catalytic mechanism and suggests the possibility of a phosphorylation taking place before the ASP's attack on CAIR. Molecular dynamic simulations of this enzyme along with its substrates at 90°C reveal the relative strengths of substrate binding, possible antagonism and the role of Mg(2+) ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Archaeal ribosomal stalk protein interacts with translation factors in a nucleotide-independent manner via its conserved C terminus

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Naoko; Honda, Takayoshi; Baba, Kentaro; Naganuma, Takao; Tanzawa, Takehito; Arisaka, Fumio; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min; Uchiumi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Protein synthesis on the ribosome requires translational GTPase factors to bind to the ribosome in the GTP-bound form, take individual actions that are coupled with GTP hydrolysis, and dissociate, usually in the GDP-bound form. The multiple copies of the flexible ribosomal stalk protein play an important role in these processes. Using biochemical approaches and the stalk protein from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus horikoshii, we here provide evidence that the conserved C terminus of the stalk protein aP1 binds directly to domain I of the elongation factor aEF-2, irrespective of whether aEF-2 is bound to GTP or GDP. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that four hydrophobic amino acids at the C terminus of aP1, Leu-100, 103, 106, and Phe-107, are crucial for the direct binding. P1 was also found to bind to the initiation factor aIF5B, as well as aEF-1α, but not aIF2γ, via its C terminus. Moreover, analytical ultracentrifugation and gel mobility shift analyses showed that a heptameric complex of aP1 and aP0, aP0(aP1)2(aP1)2(aP1)2, can bind multiple aEF-2 molecules simultaneously, which suggests that individual copies of the stalk protein are accessible to the factor. The functional significance of the C terminus of the stalk protein was also shown using the eukaryotic proteins P1/P2 and P0. It is likely that the conserved C terminus of the stalk proteins of archaea and eukaryotes can bind to translation factors both before and after GTP hydrolysis. This consistent binding ability of the stalk protein may contribute to maintaining high concentrations of translation factors around the ribosome, thus promoting translational efficiency. PMID:22355137

  1. The CP2 domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase is crucial for amino acid activation and post-transfer editing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Long; Zhu, Bin; Wang, En-Duo

    2008-12-26

    Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) has an insertion domain, called connective peptide 2 (CP2), either directly preceding or following the editing domain (CP1 domain), depending on the species. The global structures of the CP2 domains from all LeuRSs are similar. Although the CP1 domain has been extensively explored to be responsible for hydrolysis of mischarged tRNALeu, the role of the CP2 domain remains undefined. In the present work, deletion of the CP2 domain of Giardia lamblia LeuRS (GlLeuRS) showed that the CP2 domain is indispensable for amino acid activation and post-transfer editing and that it contributes to LeuRS-tRNALeu binding affinity. In addition, its functions are conserved in both eukaryotic/archaeal and prokaryotic LeuRSs from G. lamblia, Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhLeuRS), and Escherichia coli (EcLeuRS). Alanine scanning and site-directed mutagenesis assays of the CP2 domain identified several residues that are crucial for its various functions. Data from the chimeric mutants, which replaced the CP2 domain of GlLeuRS with either PhLeuRS or EcLeuRS, showed that the CP2 domain of PhLeuRS but not that of EcLeuRS can partially restore amino acid activation and post-transfer editing functions, suggesting that the functions of the CP2 domain are dependent on its location in the primary sequence of LeuRS.

  2. The 3-4 loop of an archaeal glutamate transporter homolog experiences ligand-induced structural changes and is essential for transport.

    PubMed

    Compton, Emma L R; Taylor, Erin M; Mindell, Joseph A

    2010-07-20

    Glutamatergic synaptic transmission is terminated by members of the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) family of proteins that remove glutamate from the synaptic cleft by transporting it into surrounding glial cells. Recent structures of a bacterial homolog suggest that major motions within the transmembrane domain translocate the substrate across the membrane. However, the events leading to this large structural rearrangement are much less clear. Two reentrant loops have been proposed to act as extracellular and intracellular gates, but whether other regions of these proteins play a role in the transport process is unknown. We hypothesized that transport-related conformational changes could change the solvent accessibilities of affected residues, as reflected in protease sensitivity or small-molecule reactivity. In the model system Glt(Ph), an archaeal EAAT homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii, limited trypsin proteolysis experiments initially identified a site in the long extracellular loop that stretches between helices 3 and 4 that becomes protected from proteolysis in the presence of a substrate, L-aspartate, or an inhibitor, DL-TBOA in the presence of Na(+), the cotransported ion. Using a combination of site-directed cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and fluorescein-5-maleimide labeling we found that positions throughout the loop experience these ligand-induced conformational changes. By selectively cleaving the 3-4 loop (via introduced Factor Xa sites) we demonstrate that it plays a vital role in the transport process; though structurally intact, the cleaved proteins are unable to transport aspartate. These results inculcate the 3-4 loop as an important player in the transport process, a finding not predicted by any of the available crystal structures of Glt(Ph).

  3. PspGI, a type II restriction endonuclease from the extreme thermophile Pyrococcus sp.: structural and functional studies to investigate an evolutionary relationship with several mesophilic restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pingoud, Vera; Conzelmann, Charlotte; Kinzebach, Steffen; Sudina, Anna; Metelev, Valeri; Kubareva, Elena; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Lurz, Rudi; Lüder, Gerhild; Xu, Shuang-Yong; Pingoud, Alfred

    2003-06-20

    We present here the first detailed biochemical analysis of an archaeal restriction enzyme. PspGI shows sequence similarity to SsoII, EcoRII, NgoMIV and Cfr10I, which recognize related DNA sequences. We demonstrate here that PspGI, like SsoII and unlike EcoRII or NgoMIV and Cfr10I, interacts with and cleaves DNA as a homodimer and is not stimulated by simultaneous binding to two recognition sites. PspGI and SsoII differ in their basic biochemical properties, viz. stability against chemical denaturation and proteolytic digestion, DNA binding and the pH, MgCl(2) and salt-dependence of their DNA cleavage activity. In contrast, the results of mutational analyses and cross-link experiments show that PspGI and SsoII have a very similar DNA binding site and catalytic center as NgoMIV and Cfr10I (whose crystal structures are known), and presumably also as EcoRII, in spite of the fact that these enzymes, which all recognize variants of the sequence -/CC-GG- (/ denotes the site of cleavage), are representatives of different subgroups of type II restriction endonucleases. A sequence comparison of all known restriction endonuclease sequences, furthermore, suggests that several enzymes recognizing other DNA sequences also share amino acid sequence similarities with PspGI, SsoII and EcoRII in the region of the presumptive active site. These results are discussed in an evolutionary context.

  4. Comparison of small- and large-scale expression of selected Pyrococcus furiosus genes as an aid to high-throughput protein production.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Frank J; Jenney, Francis E; Poole, Farris L; Brereton, Phillip S; Izumi, Michi; Shah, Claudia; Adams, Michael W W

    2005-01-01

    As the natural extension of the genomic sequencing projects, the goal of the various world-wide Structural Genomics projects is development of techniques for high throughput (HTP) cloning, protein overexpression, purification and structural determination, with the ultimate goal of determining all possible protein structures. Rapid (small-scale) screening of potential expression clones under different growth conditions is presumed to be possible and a viable way to increase throughput of protein expression. In order to test the utility of screening for soluble, heterologous protein expression, we have compared the production of recombinant proteins on a small scale (1 ml cultures in 96-well plates) in Escherichia coli under two growth conditions [a rich medium and a defined (minimal) medium] using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the affinity tag, with the amount of recombinant protein produced during the large-scale (500 ml) growth of E. coli. The large-scale expression products were examined after a single step affinity purification by visualization on SDS-PAGE gels. Of the open reading frames that were successfully expressed on the 1 ml scale as judged by immunodetection, 80% of them successfully scaled-up to 500 ml in a rich medium and 81% of them scaled-up in a defined medium. This is significantly higher than would be expected by a randomly selected expression condition and validates the use of small-scale expression as a screening tool for more efficient protein production.

  5. An archaeal RNA binding protein, FAU-1, is a novel ribonuclease related to rRNA stability in Pyrococcus and Thermococcus.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshiki; Okada, Yasuhiro; Sato, Asako; Kanai, Tamotsu; Tomita, Masaru; Atomi, Haruyuki; Kanai, Akio

    2017-10-04

    Ribosome biogenesis and turnover are processes necessary for cell viability and proliferation, and many kinds of proteins are known to regulate these processes. However, many questions still remain, especially in the Archaea. Generally, several ribonucleases are required to process precursor rRNAs to their mature forms, and to degrade rRNAs for quality control. Here, we found that FAU-1, which is known to be an RNA binding protein, possesses an RNase activity against precursor 5S rRNA derived from P. furiosus and T. kodakarensis in the order Thermococcales in vitro. An in vitro analysis revealed that UA sequences in the upstream of 5S rRNA were preferentially degraded by addition of FAU-1. Moreover, a fau-1 gene deletion mutant of T. kodakarensis showed a delay of exponential phase, reduction of maximum cell number and significant changes in the nucleotide sequence lengths of its 5S, 16S, and 23S rRNAs in early exponential phase. Our results suggest that FAU-1 is a potential RNase involved in rRNA stability through maturation and/or degradation processes.

  6. In silico analysis suggests that PH0702 and PH0208 encode for methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase and ribose-1,5-bisphosphate isomerase, respectively, rather than aIF2Bβ and aIF2Bδ.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Prerana; Srivastava, Ambuj; Jayaprakash, Prajisha; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The overall process of protein biosynthesis across all domains of life is similar; however, detailed insights reveal a range of differences in the proteins involved. For decades, the process of protein translation in archaea has been considered to be closer to eukaryotes than to bacteria. In archaea, however, several homologues of eukaryotic proteins involved in translation initiation have not yet been identified; one of them being the initiation factor eIF2B consisting of five subunits (α, β, γ, δ and ε). Three open reading frames (PH0440, PH0702 and PH0208) in Pyrococcus horikoshii have been proposed to encode for the α-, β- and δ-subunits of aIF2B, respectively. The crystal structure of PH0440 shows similarity toward the α-subunit of eIF2B. However, the capability of PH0702 and PH0208 to function as the β- and δ-subunits of eIF2B, respectively, remains uncertain. In this study, we have taken up the task of annotating PH0702 and PH0208 using bioinformatics methods. The phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences belonging to IF2B-like family along with PH0702 and PH0208 revealed that PH0702 belonged to methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase (MTNA) group of proteins, whereas, PH0208 was found to be clustered in the group of ribose-1,5-bisphosphate isomerase (R15PI) proteins. A careful analysis of protein sequences and structures available for eIF2B, MTNA and R15PI confirms that PH0702 and PH0208 contain residues essential for the enzymatic activity of MTNA and R15PI, respectively. Additionally, the protein PH0208 comprises of the residues required for the dimer formation which is essential for the biological activity of R15PI. This prompted us to examine all eIF2B-like proteins from archaea and to annotate their function. The results reveal that majority of these proteins are homologues of the α-subunit of eIF2B, even though they lack the residues essential for their functional activity. A better understanding of the mechanism of GTP exchange during

  7. A Toolkit to Enable Hydrocarbon Conversion in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Eva K.; Schipper, Kira; Bongaerts, Nadine; Voges, Mathias J.; Abate, Alessandro; Wahl, S. Aljoscha

    2012-01-01

    This work puts forward a toolkit that enables the conversion of alkanes by Escherichia coli and presents a proof of principle of its applicability. The toolkit consists of multiple standard interchangeable parts (BioBricks)9 addressing the conversion of alkanes, regulation of gene expression and survival in toxic hydrocarbon-rich environments. A three-step pathway for alkane degradation was implemented in E. coli to enable the conversion of medium- and long-chain alkanes to their respective alkanols, alkanals and ultimately alkanoic-acids. The latter were metabolized via the native β-oxidation pathway. To facilitate the oxidation of medium-chain alkanes (C5-C13) and cycloalkanes (C5-C8), four genes (alkB2, rubA3, rubA4and rubB) of the alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia sp. TF68,21 were transformed into E. coli. For the conversion of long-chain alkanes (C15-C36), theladA gene from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was implemented. For the required further steps of the degradation process, ADH and ALDH (originating from G. thermodenitrificans) were introduced10,11. The activity was measured by resting cell assays. For each oxidative step, enzyme activity was observed. To optimize the process efficiency, the expression was only induced under low glucose conditions: a substrate-regulated promoter, pCaiF, was used. pCaiF is present in E. coli K12 and regulates the expression of the genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon sources. The last part of the toolkit - targeting survival - was implemented using solvent tolerance genes, PhPFDα and β, both from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3. Organic solvents can induce cell stress and decreased survivability by negatively affecting protein folding. As chaperones, PhPFDα and β improve the protein folding process e.g. under the presence of alkanes. The expression of these genes led to an improved hydrocarbon tolerance shown by an increased growth rate (up to 50%) in the presences of 10% n-hexane in the culture

  8. 4-Demethylwyosine Synthase from Pyrococcus abyssi Is a Radical-S-adenosyl-l-methionine Enzyme with an Additional [4Fe-4S]+2 Cluster That Interacts with the Pyruvate Co-substrate*

    PubMed Central

    Perche-Letuvée, Phanélie; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Berggren, Gustav; Clemancey, Martin; Latour, Jean-Marc; Maurel, Vincent; Douki, Thierry; Armengaud, Jean; Mulliez, Etienne; Fontecave, Marc; Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Gambarelli, Serge; Atta, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Wybutosine and its derivatives are found in position 37 of tRNA encoding Phe in eukaryotes and archaea. They are believed to play a key role in the decoding function of the ribosome. The second step in the biosynthesis of wybutosine is catalyzed by TYW1 protein, which is a member of the well established class of metalloenzymes called “Radical-SAM.” These enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster, chelated by three cysteines in a CX3CX2C motif, and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to generate a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical that initiates various chemically challenging reactions. Sequence analysis of TYW1 proteins revealed, in the N-terminal half of the enzyme beside the Radical-SAM cysteine triad, an additional highly conserved cysteine motif. In this study we show by combining analytical and spectroscopic methods including UV-visible absorption, Mössbauer, EPR, and HYSCORE spectroscopies that these additional cysteines are involved in the coordination of a second [4Fe-4S] cluster displaying a free coordination site that interacts with pyruvate, the second substrate of the reaction. The presence of two distinct iron-sulfur clusters on TYW1 is reminiscent of MiaB, another tRNA-modifying metalloenzyme whose active form was shown to bind two iron-sulfur clusters. A possible role for the second [4Fe-4S] cluster in the enzyme activity is discussed. PMID:23043105

  9. 4-Demethylwyosine synthase from Pyrococcus abyssi is a radical-S-adenosyl-L-methionine enzyme with an additional [4Fe-4S](+2) cluster that interacts with the pyruvate co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Perche-Letuvée, Phanélie; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Berggren, Gustav; Clemancey, Martin; Latour, Jean-Marc; Maurel, Vincent; Douki, Thierry; Armengaud, Jean; Mulliez, Etienne; Fontecave, Marc; Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Gambarelli, Serge; Atta, Mohamed

    2012-11-30

    Wybutosine and its derivatives are found in position 37 of tRNA encoding Phe in eukaryotes and archaea. They are believed to play a key role in the decoding function of the ribosome. The second step in the biosynthesis of wybutosine is catalyzed by TYW1 protein, which is a member of the well established class of metalloenzymes called "Radical-SAM." These enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster, chelated by three cysteines in a CX(3)CX(2)C motif, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to generate a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical that initiates various chemically challenging reactions. Sequence analysis of TYW1 proteins revealed, in the N-terminal half of the enzyme beside the Radical-SAM cysteine triad, an additional highly conserved cysteine motif. In this study we show by combining analytical and spectroscopic methods including UV-visible absorption, Mössbauer, EPR, and HYSCORE spectroscopies that these additional cysteines are involved in the coordination of a second [4Fe-4S] cluster displaying a free coordination site that interacts with pyruvate, the second substrate of the reaction. The presence of two distinct iron-sulfur clusters on TYW1 is reminiscent of MiaB, another tRNA-modifying metalloenzyme whose active form was shown to bind two iron-sulfur clusters. A possible role for the second [4Fe-4S] cluster in the enzyme activity is discussed.

  10. Role of loop dynamics in thermal stability of mesophilic and thermophilic adenylosuccinate synthetase: a molecular dynamics and normal mode analysis study.

    PubMed

    Vemparala, Satyavani; Mehrotra, Sonali; Balaram, Hemalatha

    2011-05-01

    Enzymes from thermophiles are poorly active at temperatures at which their mesophilic homologs exhibit high activity and attain corresponding active states at high temperatures. In this study, comparative molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, supplemented by normal mode analysis, have been performed on an enzyme Adenylosuccinate synthetase (AdSS) from E. coli (mesophilic) and P. horikoshii (thermophilic) systems to understand the effects of loop dynamics on thermal stability of AdSS. In mesophilic AdSS, both ligand binding and catalysis are facilitated through the coordinated movement of five loops on the protein. The simulation results suggest that thermophilic P. horikoshii preserves structure and catalytic function at high temperatures by using the movement of only a subset of loops (two out of five) for ligand binding and catalysis unlike its mesophilic counterpart in E. coli. The pre-arrangement of the catalytic residues in P. horikoshii is well-preserved and salt bridges remain stable at high temperature (363K). The simulations suggest a general mechanism (including pre-arrangement of catalytic residues, increased polar residue content, stable salt bridges, increased rigidity, and fewer loop movements) used by thermophilic enzymes to preserve structure and be catalytically active at elevated temperatures.

  11. Revisiting the structure/function relationships of H/ACA(-like) RNAs: a unified model for Euryarchaea and Crenarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Gautheret, Daniel; Leclerc, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    A structural and functional classification of H/ACA and H/ACA-like motifs is obtained from the analysis of the H/ACA guide RNAs which have been identified previously in the genomes of Euryarchaea (Pyrococcus) and Crenarchaea (Pyrobaculum). A unified structure/function model is proposed based on the common structural determinants shared by H/ACA and H/ACA-like motifs in both Euryarchaea and Crenarchaea. Using a computational approach, structural and energetic rules for the guide:target RNA-RNA interactions are derived from structural and functional data on the H/ACA RNP particles. H/ACA(-like) motifs found in Pyrococcus are evaluated through the classification and their biological relevance is discussed. Extra-ribosomal targets found in both Pyrococcus and Pyrobaculum might support the hypothesis of a gene regulation mediated by H/ACA(-like) guide RNAs in archaea. PMID:26240384

  12. Production of cellulose nanofibrils from bleached eucalyptus fibers by hyperthermostable endoglucanase treatment and subsequent microfluidization

    Treesearch

    Wangxia Wang; Michael D. Mozuch; Ronald C. Sabo; Phil Kersten; J.Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2015-01-01

    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase from the archaeon Pyrococcus honkoshii (ph-GH5) and a commercial endoglucanase FR were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) through subsequent microfluidization Enzymatic treatments facilitated CNF production due to the reduced degree of polymerization (DP)...

  13. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) of rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yisong; Brecht, Eric; Aznavour, Kristen; Nix, Jay C; Xiao, Yuming; Wang, Hongxin; George, Simon J; Bau, Robert; Keable, Stephen; Peters, John W; Adams, Michael W W; Jenney, Francis; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, Ercan E; Zhao, Jiyong; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Cramer, Stephen P

    2013-12-01

    We have applied (57)Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) for the first time to study the dynamics of Fe centers in Fe-S protein crystals, including oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus, and the MoFe protein of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii. Thanks to the NRVS selection rule, selectively probed vibrational modes have been observed in both oriented rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals. The NRVS work was complemented by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) measurements on oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus. The EXAFS spectra revealed the Fe-S bond length difference in oxidized Pf Rd protein, which is qualitatively consistent with the X-ray crystal structure.

  14. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) of rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yisong; Brecht, Eric; Aznavour, Kristen; Nix, Jay C.; Xiao, Yuming; Wang, Hongxin; George, Simon J.; Bau, Robert; Keable, Stephen; Peters, John W.; Adams, Michael W. W.; , Francis E. Jenney, Jr.; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, Ercan E.; Zhao, Jiyong; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2013-12-01

    We have applied 57Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) for the first time to study the dynamics of Fe centers in Iron-sulfur protein crystals, including oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus, and the MoFe protein of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii. Thanks to the NRVS selection rule, selectively probed vibrational modes have been observed in both oriented rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals. The NRVS work was complemented by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) measurements on oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus. The EXAFS spectra revealed the Fe-S bond length difference in oxidized Pf Rd protein, which is qualitatively consistent with the crystal structure.

  15. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) of rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yisong; Brecht, Eric; Aznavour, Kristen; Nix, Jay C.; Xiao, Yuming; Wang, Hongxin; George, Simon J.; Bau, Robert; Keable, Stephen; Peters, John W.; Adams, Michael W.W.; Jenney, Francis; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, Ercan E.; Zhao, Jiyong; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied 57Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) for the first time to study the dynamics of Fe centers in Fe-S protein crystals, including oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus, and the MoFe protein of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii. Thanks to the NRVS selection rule, selectively probed vibrational modes have been observed in both oriented rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals. The NRVS work was complemented by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) measurements on oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus. The EXAFS spectra revealed the Fe-S bond length difference in oxidized Pf Rd protein, which is qualitatively consistent with the X-ray crystal structure. PMID:26052177

  16. Biogeography and evolution of Thermococcus isolates from hydrothermal vent systems of the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Price, Mark T; Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L

    2015-01-01

    Thermococcus is a genus of hyperthermophilic archaea that is ubiquitous in marine hydrothermal environments growing in anaerobic subsurface habitats but able to survive in cold oxygenated seawater. DNA analyses of Thermococcus isolates were applied to determine the relationship between geographic distribution and relatedness focusing primarily on isolates from the Juan de Fuca Ridge and South East Pacific Rise. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to resolve genomic differences in 90 isolates of Thermococcus, making biogeographic patterns and evolutionary relationships apparent. Isolates were differentiated into regionally endemic populations however there was also evidence in some lineages of cosmopolitan distribution. The biodiversity identified in Thermococcus isolates and presence of distinct lineages within the same vent site suggests the utilization of varying ecological niches in this genus. In addition to resolving biogeographic patterns in Thermococcus, this study has raised new questions about the closely related Pyrococcus genus. The phylogenetic placement of Pyrococcus type strains shows the close relationship between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus and the unresolved divergence of these two genera.

  17. Non-discriminating and discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetases differ in the anticodon-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Christophe; Roy, Hervé; Blaise, Mickael; Giegé, Richard; Kern, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In most organisms, tRNA aminoacylation is ensured by 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). In eubacteria, however, synthetases can be duplicated as in Thermus thermophilus, which contains two distinct AspRSs. While AspRS-1 is specific, AspRS-2 is non-discriminating and aspartylates tRNAAsp and tRNAAsn. The structure at 2.3 Å resolution of AspRS-2, the first of a non-discriminating synthetase, was solved. It differs from that of AspRS-1 but has resemblance to that of discriminating and archaeal AspRS from Pyrococcus kodakaraensis. The protein presents non-conventional features in its OB-fold anticodon-binding domain, namely the absence of a helix inserted between two β-strands of this fold and a peculiar L1 loop differing from the large loops known to interact with tRNAAsp identity determinant C36 in conventional AspRSs. In AspRS-2, this loop is small and structurally homologous to that in AsnRSs, including conservation of a proline. In discriminating Pyrococcus AspRS, the L1 loop, although small, lacks this proline and is not superimposable with that of AspRS-2 or AsnRS. Its particular status is demonstrated by a loop-exchange experiment that renders the Pyrococcus AspRS non-discriminating. PMID:12660169

  18. Revisiting the structure/function relationships of H/ACA(-like) RNAs: a unified model for Euryarchaea and Crenarchaea.

    PubMed

    Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Gautheret, Daniel; Leclerc, Fabrice

    2015-09-18

    A structural and functional classification of H/ACA and H/ACA-like motifs is obtained from the analysis of the H/ACA guide RNAs which have been identified previously in the genomes of Euryarchaea (Pyrococcus) and Crenarchaea (Pyrobaculum). A unified structure/function model is proposed based on the common structural determinants shared by H/ACA and H/ACA-like motifs in both Euryarchaea and Crenarchaea. Using a computational approach, structural and energetic rules for the guide:target RNA-RNA interactions are derived from structural and functional data on the H/ACA RNP particles. H/ACA(-like) motifs found in Pyrococcus are evaluated through the classification and their biological relevance is discussed. Extra-ribosomal targets found in both Pyrococcus and Pyrobaculum might support the hypothesis of a gene regulation mediated by H/ACA(-like) guide RNAs in archaea. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Biogeography and evolution of Thermococcus isolates from hydrothermal vent systems of the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Price, Mark T.; Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L.

    2015-01-01

    Thermococcus is a genus of hyperthermophilic archaea that is ubiquitous in marine hydrothermal environments growing in anaerobic subsurface habitats but able to survive in cold oxygenated seawater. DNA analyses of Thermococcus isolates were applied to determine the relationship between geographic distribution and relatedness focusing primarily on isolates from the Juan de Fuca Ridge and South East Pacific Rise. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to resolve genomic differences in 90 isolates of Thermococcus, making biogeographic patterns and evolutionary relationships apparent. Isolates were differentiated into regionally endemic populations however there was also evidence in some lineages of cosmopolitan distribution. The biodiversity identified in Thermococcus isolates and presence of distinct lineages within the same vent site suggests the utilization of varying ecological niches in this genus. In addition to resolving biogeographic patterns in Thermococcus, this study has raised new questions about the closely related Pyrococcus genus. The phylogenetic placement of Pyrococcus type strains shows the close relationship between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus and the unresolved divergence of these two genera. PMID:26441901

  20. Updating carbamoylphosphate synthase (CPS) phylogenies: occurrence and phylogenetic identity of archaeal CPS genes.

    PubMed

    Cammarano, Piero; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Johann, Andre

    2002-08-01

    Among Bacteria the carA and carB genes encoding the small (CarA) and large (CarB) subunits of carbamoylphosphate synthase (CPS) have been lost in certain symbionts (Haemophylus influenzae) and in most obligate intracellular parasites (Chlamydiae, Spirochaetes, Mycoplasmatales, Rickettsiae) having genome sizes in the 0.7- to 1.1-Mb range. Compared to Bacteria, Archaea exhibit a more varied pattern of CPS gene losses and an unusual propensity to incorporate CPS genes derived from both Bacteria and other Archaea. Schematically they fall into three groups. Group 1 taxa (the crenarchaeon Aeropyrum pernix and the euryarchaea Pyrococcus horikoshi and Pyrococcus abyssii) lack CPS genes altogether. Group 2 taxa (comprising Halobacteriales, Thermoplasmales, Methanococcales, Methanomicrobiales, Archaeoglobales) harbor CPS genes whose encoded CarB and CarA subunit proteins are ostensibly bacterial in origin; that is, they are intermixed with bacterial homologues on a phylogeny of concatenated CarA and CarB sequences and are not distinguishable from bacterial sequences after searching for domain-specific amino acid residue positions. Group 3 taxa (the crenarchaea Pyrobaculum aerophilum, Sulfolobus solfataricus, and Sulfolobus tokodaii and the euryarchaeon Pyrococcus furiosus) harbor CPS genes whose encoded proteins appear to be archaeal: consistent with an archaeal origin, the CarA and CarB sequences in this group possess both unique signatures and signatures affiliating them to Eukarya. Based on the topology of the clade comprising the four Group 3 taxa, we argue that CPS genes of P. furiosus (a euryarchaeon) and those of the crenarchaea P. aerophilum, S. solfataricus, and S. tokodaii are of a single type, resulting from the two genes being laterally transferred from a crenarchaeon to P. furiosus.

  1. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  2. Sulfide Ameliorates Metal Toxicity for Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Archaea†

    PubMed Central

    Edgcomb, Virginia P.; Molyneaux, Stephen J.; Saito, Mak A.; Lloyd, Karen; Böer, Simone; Wirsen, Carl O.; Atkins, Michael S.; Teske, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The chemical stress factors for microbial life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents include high concentrations of heavy metals and sulfide. Three hyperthermophilic vent archaea, the sulfur-reducing heterotrophs Thermococcus fumicolans and Pyrococcus strain GB-D and the chemolithoautotrophic methanogen Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, were tested for survival tolerance to heavy metals (Zn, Co, and Cu) and sulfide. The sulfide addition consistently ameliorated the high toxicity of free metal cations by the formation of dissolved metal-sulfide complexes as well as solid precipitates. Thus, chemical speciation of heavy metals with sulfide allows hydrothermal vent archaea to tolerate otherwise toxic metal concentrations in their natural environment. PMID:15066859

  3. Sulfide ameliorates metal toxicity for deep-sea hydrothermal vent archaea.

    PubMed

    Edgcomb, Virginia P; Molyneaux, Stephen J; Saito, Mak A; Lloyd, Karen; Böer, Simone; Wirsen, Carl O; Atkins, Michael S; Teske, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    The chemical stress factors for microbial life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents include high concentrations of heavy metals and sulfide. Three hyperthermophilic vent archaea, the sulfur-reducing heterotrophs Thermococcus fumicolans and Pyrococcus strain GB-D and the chemolithoautotrophic methanogen Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, were tested for survival tolerance to heavy metals (Zn, Co, and Cu) and sulfide. The sulfide addition consistently ameliorated the high toxicity of free metal cations by the formation of dissolved metal-sulfide complexes as well as solid precipitates. Thus, chemical speciation of heavy metals with sulfide allows hydrothermal vent archaea to tolerate otherwise toxic metal concentrations in their natural environment.

  4. The Thy Pol-2 intein of Thermococcus hydrothermalis is an isoschizomer of PI-TliI and PI-TfuII endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Saves, Isabelle; Eleaume, Heïdy; Dietrich, Jacques; Masson, Jean-Michel

    2000-01-01

    Thy Pol-2 intein, from Thermococcus hydrothermalis, belongs to the same allelic family as Tli Pol-2 (PI-TliI), Tfu Pol-2 (PI-TfuII) and TspTY Pol-3 mini-intein, all inserted at the pol-c site of archaeal DNA polymerase genes. This new intein was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The intein is a specific endonuclease (PI-ThyI) which cleaves the inteinless sequence of the Thy DNA pol gene. Moreover, PI-TliI, PI-TfuII and PI-ThyI are very similar endonucleases which cleave DNA in the same optimal conditions at 70°C yielding similar 3′-hydroxyl overhangs of 4 bp and the reaction is subject to product inhibition. The three enzymes are able to cleave the three DNA sequences spanning the pol-c site and a 24 bp consensus cleavage site was defined for the three isoschizomers. However, the exact size of the minimal cleavage site depends both on the substrate sequence and the endonuclease. The inability of the isoschizomers to cleave the inteinless DNA polymerase gene from Pyrococcus spp. KOD is due to point substitutions on the 5′ side of the pol-c site, suggesting that the absence of inteins of this allelic family in DNA polymerase genes from Pyrococcus spp. can be linked to small differences in the target site sequence. PMID:11058140

  5. Box C/D RNA guides for the ribose methylation of archaeal tRNAs. The tRNATrp intron guides the formation of two ribose-methylated nucleosides in the mature tRNATrp

    PubMed Central

    d’Orval, Béatrice Clouet; Bortolin, Marie-Line; Gaspin, Christine; Bachellerie, Jean-Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Following a search of the Pyrococcus genomes for homologs of eukaryotic methylation guide small nucleolar RNAs, we have experimentally identified in Pyrococcus abyssi four novel box C/D small RNAs predicted to direct 2′-O-ribose methylations onto the first position of the anticodon in tRNALeu(CAA), tRNALeu(UAA), elongator tRNAMet and tRNATrp, respectively. Remarkably, one of them corresponds to the intron of its presumptive target, pre-tRNATrp. This intron is predicted to direct in cis two distinct ribose methylations within the unspliced tRNA precursor, not only onto the first position of the anticodon in the 5′ exon but also onto position 39 (universal tRNA numbering) in the 3′ exon. The two intramolecular RNA duplexes expected to direct methylation, which both span an exon–intron junction in pre-tRNATrp, are phylogenetically conserved in euryarchaeotes. We have experimentally confirmed the predicted guide function of the box C/D intron in halophile Haloferax volcanii by mutagenesis analysis, using an in vitro splicing/RNA modification assay in which the two cognate ribose methylations of pre-tRNATrp are faithfully reproduced. Euryarchaeal pre-tRNATrp should provide a unique system to further investigate the molecular mechanisms of RNA-guided ribose methylation and gain new insights into the origin and evolution of the complex family of archaeal and eukaryotic box C/D small RNAs. PMID:11713301

  6. Effects of dissolved sulfide, pH, and temperature on growth and survival of marine hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Karen G; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Molyneaux, Stephen J; Böer, Simone; Wirsen, Carl O; Atkins, Michael S; Teske, Andreas

    2005-10-01

    The ability of metabolically diverse hyperthermophilic archaea to withstand high temperatures, low pHs, high sulfide concentrations, and the absence of carbon and energy sources was investigated. Close relatives of our study organisms, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Archaeoglobus profundus, Thermococcus fumicolans, and Pyrococcus sp. strain GB-D, are commonly found in hydrothermal vent chimney walls and hot sediments and possibly deeper in the subsurface, where highly dynamic hydrothermal flow patterns and steep chemical and temperature gradients provide an ever-changing mosaic of microhabitats. These organisms (with the possible exception of Pyrococcus strain GB-D) tolerated greater extremes of low pH, high sulfide concentration, and high temperature when actively growing and metabolizing than when starved of carbon sources and electron donors/acceptors. Therefore these organisms must be actively metabolizing in the hydrothermal vent chimneys, sediments, and subsurface in order to withstand at least 24 h of exposure to extremes of pH, sulfide, and temperature that occur in these environments.

  7. Identification of a mismatch-specific endonuclease in hyperthermophilic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ishino, Sonoko; Nishi, Yuki; Oda, Soichiro; Uemori, Takashi; Sagara, Takehiro; Takatsu, Nariaki; Yamagami, Takeshi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-01-01

    The common mismatch repair system processed by MutS and MutL and their homologs was identified in Bacteria and Eukarya. However, no evidence of a functional MutS/L homolog has been reported for archaeal organisms, and it is not known whether the mismatch repair system is conserved in Archaea. Here, we describe an endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA containing a mismatched base pair, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The corresponding gene revealed that the activity originates from PF0012, and we named this enzyme Endonuclease MS (EndoMS) as the mismatch-specific Endonuclease. The sequence similarity suggested that EndoMS is the ortholog of NucS isolated from Pyrococcus abyssi, published previously. Biochemical characterizations of the EndoMS homolog from Thermococcus kodakarensis clearly showed that EndoMS specifically cleaves both strands of double-stranded DNA into 5′-protruding forms, with the mismatched base pair in the central position. EndoMS cleaves G/T, G/G, T/T, T/C and A/G mismatches, with a more preference for G/T, G/G and T/T, but has very little or no effect on C/C, A/C and A/A mismatches. The discovery of this endonuclease suggests the existence of a novel mismatch repair process, initiated by the double-strand break generated by the EndoMS endonuclease, in Archaea and some Bacteria. PMID:27001046

  8. Two novel families of plasmids from hyperthermophilic archaea encoding new families of replication proteins

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Nicolas; Marguet, Evelyne; Cortez, Diego; Desnoues, Nicole; Keller, Jenny; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Sezonov, Guennadi; Forterre, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Thermococcales (phylum Euryarchaeota) are model organisms for physiological and molecular studies of hyperthermophiles. Here we describe three new plasmids from Thermococcales that could provide new tools and model systems for genetic and molecular studies in Archaea. The plasmids pTN2 from Thermococcus nautilus sp. 30-1 and pP12-1 from Pyrococcus sp. 12-1 belong to the same family. They have similar size (∼12 kb) and share six genes, including homologues of genes encoded by the virus PAV1 from Pyrococcus abyssi. The plasmid pT26-2 from Thermococcus sp. 26-2 (21.5 kb), that corresponds to another plasmid family, encodes many proteins having homologues in virus-like elements integrated in several genomes of Thermococcales and Methanococcales. Our analyses confirm that viruses and plasmids are evolutionary related and co-evolve with their hosts. Whereas all plasmids previously isolated from Thermococcales replicate by the rolling circle mechanism, the three plasmids described here probably replicate by the theta mechanism. The plasmids pTN2 and pP12-1 encode a putative helicase of the SFI superfamily and a new family of DNA polymerase, whose activity was demonstrated in vitro, whereas pT26-2 encodes a putative new type of helicase. This strengthens the idea that plasmids and viruses are a reservoir of novel protein families involved in DNA replication. PMID:20403814

  9. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation study of archaeal leucyl-tRNA synthetase in complex with different mischarged tRNA in editing conformation.

    PubMed

    Rayevsky, A V; Sharifi, M; Tukalo, M A

    2017-09-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play important roles in maintaining the accuracy of protein synthesis. Some aaRSs accomplish this via editing mechanisms, among which leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) edits non-cognate amino acid norvaline mainly by post-transfer editing. However, the molecular basis for this pathway for eukaryotic and archaeal LeuRS remain unclear. In this study, a complex of archaeal P. horikoshii LeuRS (PhLeuRS) with misacylated tRNA(Leu) was modeled wherever tRNA's acceptor stem was oriented directly into the editing site. To understand the distinctive features of organization we reconstructed a complex of PhLeuRS with tRNA and visualize post-transfer editing interactions mode by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. To study molecular basis for substrate selectivity by PhLeuRS's editing site we utilized MD simulation of the entire LeuRS complexes using a diverse charged form of tRNAs, namely norvalyl-tRNA(Leu) and isoleucyl-tRNA(Leu). In general, the editing site organization of LeuRS from P.horikoshii has much in common with bacterial LeuRS. The MD simulation results revealed that the post-transfer editing substrate norvalyl-A76, binds more strongly than isoleucyl-A76. Moreover, the branched side chain of isoleucine prevents water molecules from being closer and hence the hydrolysis reaction slows significantly. To investigate a possible mechanism of the post-transfer editing reaction, by PhLeuRS we have determined that two water molecules (the attacking and assisting water molecules) are localized near the carbonyl group of the amino acid to be cleaved off. These water molecules approach the substrate from the opposite side to that observed for Thermus thermophilus LeuRS (TtLeuRS). Based on the results obtained, it was suggested that the post-transfer editing mechanism of PhLeuRS differs from that of prokaryotic TtLeuRS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating the mechanism of ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase from the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cheryl P; Khan, Kirin; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl

    2017-02-01

    ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACD) catalyzes the interconversion of acetyl-CoA and acetate. The related succinyl-CoA synthetase follows a three-step mechanism involving a single phosphoenzyme, but a novel four-step mechanism with two phosphoenzyme intermediates was proposed for Pyrococcus ACD. Characterization of enzyme variants of Entamoeba ACD in which the two proposed phosphorylated His residues were individually altered revealed that only His252 is essential for enzymatic activity. Analysis of variants altered at two residues proposed to interact with the phosphohistidine loop that swings between distinct parts of the active site are consistent with a mechanism involving a single phosphoenzyme intermediate. Our results suggest ACDs with different subunit structures may employ slightly different mechanisms to bridge the span between active sites I and II. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.

    2009-07-20

    We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.

  12. A simple procedure to determine the infectivity and host range of viruses infecting anaerobic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Gorlas, Aurore; Geslin, Claire

    2013-03-01

    Plaque assay is the method traditionally used to isolate and purify lytic viruses, to determine the viral titer and host range. Whereas most bacterioviruses are either temperate or lytic, the majority of known archeoviruses are not lytic (i.e. they are temperate or chronic). In view of the widespread occurrence of such viruses in extreme environments, we designed an original method, called the inverted spot test, to determine the host range and infectivity of viruses isolated from anaerobic hyperthermophilic and sulfur-reducing microorganisms. Here, we used this approach to prove for the first time the infectivity of Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1) and to confirm the host range of Thermococcus prieurii virus 1 (TPV1), the only two viruses isolated so far from any of the described marine hyperthermophilic archaea (Euryarchaeota phylum, Thermococcales order).

  13. Diversity of CRISPR systems in the euryarchaeal Pyrococcales

    PubMed Central

    Norais, Cédric; Moisan, Annick; Gaspin, Christine; Clouet-d'Orval, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrococcales are members of the order Thermococcales, a group of hyperthermophilic euryarchaea that are frequently found in deep sea hydrothermal vents. Infectious genetic elements, such as plasmids and viruses, remain a threat even in this remote environment and these microorganisms have developed several ways to fight their genetic invaders. Among these are the recently discovered CRISPR systems. In this review, we have combined and condensed available information on genetic elements infecting the Thermococcales and on the multiple CRISPR systems found in the Pyrococcales to fight them. Their organization and mode of action will be presented with emphasis on the Type III-B system that is the only CRISPR system known to target RNA molecules in a process reminiscent of RNA interference. The intriguing case of Pyrococcus abyssi, which is among the rare strains to present a CRISPR system devoid of the universal cas1 and cas2 genes, is also discussed. PMID:23422322

  14. Microbial metalloproteomes explored using MIRAGE.

    PubMed

    Sevcenco, Ana-Maria; Hagen, Wilfred R; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon

    2012-09-01

    Metalloproteomics is a rapidly developing field of science that involves the comprehensive analysis of all metal-containing or metal-binding proteins in a biological sample. The purpose of this review is to offer an overview of the research involving Metal Isotope native RadioAutography in Gel Electrophoresis (MIRAGE), a powerful new method to visualize and study the proteome of a particular metal ion. MIRAGE involves four steps: i) labelling of target proteins with a radioisotope; ii) separation of intact holo-proteins using native isoelectric focusing (1D) combined with Blue Native PAGE (2D); iii) spot visualization and quantification using autoradiography; and iv) protein identification by tandem mass spectrometry. MIRAGE Investigations of the soluble Cu, Zn, and Fe metalloproteomes of Escherichia coli, and of the soluble Mo and W proteomes of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. The Lrp family of transcription regulators in archaea.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Eveline; Charlier, Daniel

    2010-11-30

    Archaea possess a eukaryotic-type basal transcription apparatus that is regulated by bacteria-like transcription regulators. A universal and abundant family of transcription regulators are the bacterial/archaeal Lrp-like regulators. The Lrp family is one of the best studied regulator families in archaea, illustrated by investigations of proteins from the archaeal model organisms: Sulfolobus, Pyrococcus, Methanocaldococcus, and Halobacterium. These regulators are extremely versatile in their DNA-binding properties, response to effector molecules, and molecular regulatory mechanisms. Besides being involved in the regulation of the amino acid metabolism, they also regulate central metabolic processes. It appears that these regulatory proteins are also involved in large regulatory networks, because of hierarchical regulations and the possible combinatorial use of different Lrp-like proteins. Here, we discuss the recent developments in our understanding of this important class of regulators.

  16. Residue cluster additivity of thermodynamic stability in the hydrophobic core of mesophile vs. hyperthermophile rubredoxins.

    PubMed

    LeMaster, David M; Hernández, Griselda

    2007-02-01

    The branched sidechain residues 24 and 33 in the hydrophobic core of rubredoxin differ between the Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp) and Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) sequences. Their X-ray structures indicate that these two sidechains are in van der Waals contact with each other, while neither appears to significantly interact with the other nonconserved residues. The simultaneous interchange of residues 24 and 33 between the Cp and Pf rubredoxin sequences yield a complementary pair of hybrid proteins for which the sum of their thermodynamic stabilities equals that of the parental rubredoxins. The 1.2 kcal/mol change arising from this two residues interchange accounts for 21% of the differential thermodynamic stability between the mesophile and hyperthermophile proteins. The additional interchange of the sole nonconserved aromatic residue in the hydrophobic core yields a 0.78 kcal/mol deviation from thermodynamic additivity.

  17. Characterization of aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase gene defective mutant in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1.

    PubMed

    Wahyudi, Aris Tri; Takeyama, Haruko; Okamura, Yoshiko; Fukuda, Yorikane; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2003-03-28

    A non-magnetic mutant of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, designated as NMA21, was generated by mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis to identify genes involved in bacterial magnetic particle (BMP) synthesis. Alignment of the DNA sequences flanking the transposon allowed the isolation of an open reading frame (ORF2) within an operon consisting of five genes. The amino acid sequence of ORF2 showed homology with tungsten-containing aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) from Pyrococcus furiosus (48% identity and 64% similarity), which functions for aldehyde oxidation. AOR was found to be expressed under microaerobic conditions and localized in the cytoplasm of AMB-1. Iron uptake and growth of NMA21 were lower than wild type. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of NMA21 revealed that no BMPs were completely synthesized, but polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-like granules were persistently produced. These results indicate that AOR may contribute to ferric iron reduction during BMP synthesis in M. magneticum AMB-1 under microaerobic respiration.

  18. Cloning and sequencing of an acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) gene from the amitochondriate protist, Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, L B; Morrison, H G; Sogin, M L; Müller, M

    1999-06-11

    A Giardia lamblia gene, Glacs, was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escheria Coli. This gene codes for a 726 residue long acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming). This enzyme is responsible for the formation of acetate, a metabolic endproduct of G. lamblia. It is known from only two Type I amitochondriate eukaryotes, G. lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica and from the archaebacterium, Pyrococcus furiosus. With Glacs as query, homologous unidentified open reading frames were detected in the complete genomes of only a few archaebacteria and eubacteria. These form a new protein family present in all three domains of life, which probably plays a central role in the acyl-CoA metabolism but is of restricted taxonomic distribution.

  19. A variable-temperature direct electrochemical study of metalloproteins from hyperthermophilic microorganisms involves in hydrogen production from pyruvate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.T.; Blamey, J.; Zhou, Z.Z.; Adams, M.W.W.

    1995-05-30

    The hyperthomophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima and the hyperthermolic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grow optimally at 80{degrees} and 100{degrees}C, respectively, by the fermentation of carbohydrates to organic acids, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. Pyruvate is a major source of reductant for H{sub 2} production during fermentation, and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), a 4Fe-type ferredoxin, and hydrogenase have been previously purified from both species. P. furiosus utilizes copper-iron-containing POR and a nickel-iron-containing hydrogenase, whereas the POR of T. maritima lacks copper and its hydrogenase lacks nickel. For all four enzymes and for the two ferredoxins, we have determined their reproduction potentials (E{degrees}` and, where possible, thermodynamic parameters associated with electron transfer {Delta}S{degrees} and {Delta}H{degrees}), using differential pulse voltammetry at temperatures ranging from 25 to 95{degrees}C. 55 refs., 7 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  1. Proteolysis in hyperthermophilic microorganisms

    DOE PAGES

    Ward, Donald E.; Shockley, Keith R.; Chang, Lara S.; ...

    2002-01-01

    Proteases are found in every cell, where they recognize and break down unneeded or abnormal polypeptides or peptide-based nutrients within or outside the cell. Genome sequence data can be used to compare proteolytic enzyme inventories of different organisms as they relate to physiological needs for protein modification and hydrolysis. In this review, we exploit genome sequence data to compare hyperthermophilic microorganisms from the euryarchaeotal genus Pyrococcus , the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus , and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima . An overview of the proteases in these organisms is given based on those proteases that have been characterized and on putativemore » proteases that have been identified from genomic sequences, but have yet to be characterized. The analysis revealed both similarities and differences in the mechanisms utilized for proteolysis by each of these hyperthermophiles and indicated how these mechanisms relate to proteolysis in less thermophilic cells and organisms.« less

  2. Directed evolution of the tryptophan synthase β-subunit for stand-alone function recapitulates allosteric activation

    PubMed Central

    Buller, Andrew R.; Brinkmann-Chen, Sabine; Romney, David K.; Herger, Michael; Murciano-Calles, Javier; Arnold, Frances H.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes in heteromeric, allosterically regulated complexes catalyze a rich array of chemical reactions. Separating the subunits of such complexes, however, often severely attenuates their catalytic activities, because they can no longer be activated by their protein partners. We used directed evolution to explore allosteric regulation as a source of latent catalytic potential using the β-subunit of tryptophan synthase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfTrpB). As part of its native αββα complex, TrpB efficiently produces tryptophan and tryptophan analogs; activity drops considerably when it is used as a stand-alone catalyst without the α-subunit. Kinetic, spectroscopic, and X-ray crystallographic data show that this lost activity can be recovered by mutations that reproduce the effects of complexation with the α-subunit. The engineered PfTrpB is a powerful platform for production of Trp analogs and for further directed evolution to expand substrate and reaction scope. PMID:26553994

  3. The first evidence of anaerobic CO oxidation coupled with H2 production by a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Tatyana G; Jeanthon, Christian; Kostrikina, Nadezhda A; Chernyh, Nikolai A; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Stackebrandt, Erko; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2004-08-01

    From 24 samples of hydrothermal venting structures collected at the East Pacific Rise (13 degrees N), 13 enrichments of coccoid cells were obtained which grew on CO, producing H2 and CO2 at 80 degrees C. A hyperthermophilic archaeon capable of lithotrophic growth on CO coupled with equimolar production of H2 was isolated. Based on its 16S rRNA sequence analysis, this organism was affiliated with the genus Thermococcus. Other strains of Thermococcales species ( Pyrococcus furiosus, Thermococcus peptonophilus, T. profundus, T. chitonophagus, T. stetteri, T. gorgonarius, T. litoralis, and T. pacificus) were shown to be unable to grow on CO. Searches in sequence databases failed to reveal deposited sequences of genes related to CO metabolism in Thermococcales. Our work provides the first evidence of anaerobic CO oxidation coupled with H2 production performed by an archaeon as well as the first documented case of lithotrophic growth of a Thermococcales representative.

  4. Molecular characterization of phosphoglycerate mutase in archaea.

    PubMed

    van der Oost, John; Huynen, Martijn A; Verhees, Corné H

    2002-06-18

    The interconversion of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate during glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is catalyzed by phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM). In bacteria and eukaryotes two structurally distinct enzymes have been found, a cofactor-dependent and a cofactor-independent (iPGM) type. Sequence analysis of archaeal genomes did not find PGMs of either kind, but identified a new family of proteins, distantly related to iPGMs. In this study, these predicted archaeal PGMs from Pyrococcus furiosus and Methanococcus jannaschii have been functionally produced in Escherichia coli, and characterization of the purified proteins has confirmed that they are iPGMs. Analysis of the available microbial genomes indicates that this new type of iPGM is widely distributed among archaea and also encoded in several bacteria. In addition, as has been demonstrated in certain bacteria, some archaea appear to possess an alternative, cofactor-dependent PGM.

  5. The RNA polymerase trigger loop functions in all three phases of the transcription cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fouqueau, Thomas; Zeller, Mirijam E.; Cheung, Alan C.; Cramer, Patrick; Thomm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The trigger loop (TL) forms a conserved element in the RNA polymerase active centre that functions in the elongation phase of transcription. Here, we show that the TL also functions in transcription initiation and termination. Using recombinant variants of RNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus and a reconstituted transcription system, we demonstrate that the TL is essential for initial RNA synthesis until a complete DNA–RNA hybrid is formed. The archaeal TL is further important for transcription fidelity during nucleotide incorporation, but not for RNA cleavage during proofreading. A conserved glutamine residue in the TL binds the 2’-OH group of the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to discriminate NTPs from dNTPs. The TL also prevents aberrant transcription termination at non-terminator sites. PMID:23737452

  6. DJ-1 family Maillard deglycases prevent acrylamide formation.

    PubMed

    Richarme, Gilbert; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-09-23

    The presence of acrylamide in food is a worldwide concern because it is carcinogenic, reprotoxic and neurotoxic. Acrylamide is generated in the Maillard reaction via condensation of reducing sugars and glyoxals arising from their decomposition, with asparagine, the amino acid forming the backbone of the acrylamide molecule. We reported recently the discovery of the Maillard deglycases (DJ-1/Park7 and its prokaryotic homologs) which degrade Maillard adducts formed between glyoxals and lysine or arginine amino groups, and prevent glycation damage in proteins. Here, we show that these deglycases prevent acrylamide formation, likely by degrading asparagine/glyoxal Maillard adducts. We also report the discovery of a deglycase from the hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus furiosus, which prevents acrylamide formation at 100 °C. Thus, Maillard deglycases constitute a unique enzymatic method to prevent acrylamide formation in food without depleting the components (asparagine and sugars) responsible for its formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Additivity in both thermodynamic stability and thermal transition temperature for rubredoxin chimeras via hybrid native partitioning.

    PubMed

    LeMaster, David M; Hernández, Griselda

    2005-08-01

    Given any operational definition of pairwise interaction, the set of residues that differ between two structurally homologous proteins can be uniquely partitioned into subsets of clusters for which no such interactions occur between clusters. Although hybrid protein sequences that preserve such clustering are consistent with tertiary structures composed of only parental native-like interactions, the stability of such predicted structures will depend upon the physical robustness of the assumed interaction potential. A simple distance cutoff criterion was applied to the most thermostable protein known to predict such a seven-residue cluster in the metal binding site region of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin and a mesophile homolog. Both conformational stability and thermal transition temperature measurements demonstrate that 39% of the differential stability arises from these seven residues.

  8. Formate production through carbon dioxide hydrogenation with recombinant whole cell biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Alissandratos, Apostolos; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Easton, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    The biological conversion of CO2 and H2 into formate offers a sustainable route to a valuable commodity chemical through CO2 fixation, and a chemical form of hydrogen fuel storage. Here we report the first example of CO2 hydrogenation utilising engineered whole-cell biocatalysts. Escherichia coli JM109(DE3) cells transformed for overexpression of either native formate dehydrogenase (FDH), the FDH from Clostridium carboxidivorans, or genes from Pyrococcus furiosus and Methanobacterium thermoformicicum predicted to express FDH based on their similarity to known FDH genes were all able to produce levels of formate well above the background, when presented with H2 and CO2, the latter in the form of bicarbonate. In the case of the FDH from P. furiosus the yield was highest, reaching more than 1 g L(-1)h(-1) when a hydrogen-sparging reactor design was used.

  9. Evolution of translational elongation factor (EF) sequences: reliability of global phylogenies inferred from EF-1 alpha(Tu) and EF-2(G) proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Creti, R; Ceccarelli, E; Bocchetta, M; Sanangelantoni, A M; Tiboni, O; Palm, P; Cammarano, P

    1994-01-01

    The EF-2 coding genes of the Archaea Pyrococcus woesei and Desulfurococcus mobilis were cloned and sequenced. Global phylogenies were inferred by alternative tree-making methods from available EF-2(G) sequence data and contrasted with phylogenies constructed from the more conserved but shorter EF-1 alpha(Tu) sequences. Both the monophyly (sensu Hennig) of Archaea and their subdivision into the kingdoms Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota are consistently inferred by analysis of EF-2(G) sequences, usually at a high bootstrap confidence level. In contrast, EF-1 alpha(Tu) phylogenies tend to be inconsistent with one another and show low bootstrap confidence levels. While evolutionary distance and DNA maximum parsimony analyses of EF-1 alpha(Tu) sequences do show archaeal monophyly, protein parsimony and DNA maximum-likelihood analyses of these data do not. In no case, however, do any of the tree topologies inferred from EF-1 alpha(Tu) sequence analyses receive significant bootstrap support. PMID:8159735

  10. DNA replication in thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Majerník, A I; Jenkinson, E R; Chong, J P J

    2004-04-01

    DNA replication enzymes in the thermophilic Archaea have previously attracted attention due to their obvious use in methods such as PCR. The proofreading ability of the Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase has resulted in a commercially successful product (Pfu polymerase). One of the many notable features of the Archaea is the fact that their DNA processing enzymes appear on the whole to be more like those found in eukaryotes than bacteria. These proteins also appear to be simpler versions of those found in eukaryotes. For these reasons, archaeal organisms make potentially interesting model systems to explore the molecular mechanisms of processes such as DNA replication, repair and recombination. Why archaeal DNA-manipulation systems were adopted over bacterial systems by eukaryotic cells remains a most interesting question that we suggest may be linked to thermophily.

  11. Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors.

  12. Phylogenetic and Comparative Sequence Analysis of Thermostable Alpha Amylases of kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Huma, Tayyaba; Maryam, Arooma; Rehman, Shahid Ur; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Shaheen, Tayyaba; Haque, Asma; Shaheen, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Alpha amylase family is generally defined as a group of enzymes that can hydrolyse and transglycosylase α-(1, 4) or α-(1, 6) glycosidic bonds along with the preservation of anomeric configuration. For the comparative analysis of alpha amylase family, nucleotide sequences of seven thermo stable organisms of Kingdom Archea i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Kingdom Prokaryotes i.e. Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C), Bacillus subtilis (70°C) and Bacillus KSM K38 (55°C) and Eukaryotes i.e. Aspergillus oryzae (60°C) were selected from NCBI. Primary structure composition analysis and Conserved sequence analysis were conducted through Bio Edit tools. Results from BioEdit shown only three conserved regions of base pairs and least similarity in MSA of the above mentioned alpha amylases. In Mega 5.1 Phylogeny of thermo stable alpha amylases of Kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryote was handled by Neighbor-Joining (NJ) algorithm. Mega 5.1 phylogenetic results suggested that alpha amylases of thermo stable organisms i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C) are more distantly related as compared to less thermo stable organisms. By keeping in mind the characteristics of most thermo stable alpha amylases novel and improved features can be introduced in less thermo stable alpha amylases so that they become more thermo tolerant and productive for industry.

  13. Characterization of Two Members among the Five ADP-Forming Acyl Coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) Synthetases Reveals the Presence of a 2-(Imidazol-4-yl)Acetyl-CoA Synthetase in Thermococcus kodakarensis

    PubMed Central

    Awano, Tomotsugu; Wilming, Anja; Tomita, Hiroya; Yokooji, Yuusuke; Fukui, Toshiaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Thermococcus kodakarensis, along with those of most Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species, harbors five paralogous genes encoding putative α subunits of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP)-forming acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases. The substrate specificities of the protein products for three of these paralogs have been clarified through studies on the individual enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus and T. kodakarensis. Here we have examined the biochemical properties of the remaining two acyl-CoA synthetase proteins from T. kodakarensis. The TK0944 and TK2127 genes encoding the two α subunits were each coexpressed with the β subunit-encoding TK0943 gene. In both cases, soluble proteins with an α2β2 structure were obtained and their activities toward various acids in the ADP-forming reaction were examined. The purified TK0944/TK0943 protein (ACS IIITk) accommodated a broad range of acids that corresponded to those generated in the oxidative metabolism of Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe, and Cys. In contrast, the TK2127/TK0943 protein exhibited relevant levels of activity only toward 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate, a metabolite of His degradation, and was thus designated 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase (ICSTk), a novel enzyme. Kinetic analyses were performed on both proteins with their respective substrates. In T. kodakarensis, we found that the addition of histidine to the medium led to increases in intracellular ADP-forming 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase activity, and 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate was detected in the culture medium, suggesting that ICSTk participates in histidine catabolism. The results presented here, together with those of previous studies, have clarified the substrate specificities of all five known NDP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase proteins in the Thermococcales. PMID:24163338

  14. Characterization of two members among the five ADP-forming acyl coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) synthetases reveals the presence of a 2-(Imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase in Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    PubMed

    Awano, Tomotsugu; Wilming, Anja; Tomita, Hiroya; Yokooji, Yuusuke; Fukui, Toshiaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Thermococcus kodakarensis, along with those of most Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species, harbors five paralogous genes encoding putative α subunits of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP)-forming acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases. The substrate specificities of the protein products for three of these paralogs have been clarified through studies on the individual enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus and T. kodakarensis. Here we have examined the biochemical properties of the remaining two acyl-CoA synthetase proteins from T. kodakarensis. The TK0944 and TK2127 genes encoding the two α subunits were each coexpressed with the β subunit-encoding TK0943 gene. In both cases, soluble proteins with an α2β2 structure were obtained and their activities toward various acids in the ADP-forming reaction were examined. The purified TK0944/TK0943 protein (ACS IIITk) accommodated a broad range of acids that corresponded to those generated in the oxidative metabolism of Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe, and Cys. In contrast, the TK2127/TK0943 protein exhibited relevant levels of activity only toward 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate, a metabolite of His degradation, and was thus designated 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase (ICSTk), a novel enzyme. Kinetic analyses were performed on both proteins with their respective substrates. In T. kodakarensis, we found that the addition of histidine to the medium led to increases in intracellular ADP-forming 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase activity, and 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate was detected in the culture medium, suggesting that ICSTk participates in histidine catabolism. The results presented here, together with those of previous studies, have clarified the substrate specificities of all five known NDP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase proteins in the Thermococcales.

  15. Chagas disease: a homology model for the three-dimensional structure of the Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P0 antigenic protein.

    PubMed

    Gomez Barroso, Juan Arturo; Aguilar, Carlos Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Ribosomal P proteins form a "stalk" complex in the large subunit of the ribosomes. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, the complex is formed by five P protein members: TcP0, TcP1α, TcP1β, TcP2α and TcP2β. The TcP0 protein has 34 kDa, and TcP1 and TcP2 proteins have 10 kDa. The structure of T. cruzi P0 and the stalk complex TcP0-TcP1α-TcP1β-TcP2α-TcP2β have not been solved to date. In this work, we constructed a three-dimensional molecular model for TcP0 using homology modeling as implemented in the MODELLER 9v12 software. The model was constructed using different templates: the X-ray structures of the protein P0 from Pirococcus horikoshii, a segment from the Danio renio Ca(+2)/K(+) channel and the C-terminal peptide (C13) from T. cruzi ribosomal P2 protein; the Cryo-EM structure of Triticum aestivum P0 protein and the NMR structure of Homo sapiens P1 ribosomal protein. TcP0 has a 200-residue-long N-terminal, which is an α/β globular stable domain, and a flexible C-terminal, 120-residue-long domain. The molecular surface electrostatic potential and hydrophobic surface were calculated. The surface properties are important for the C-terminal's antigenic properties. They are also responsible for P0-specific binding to RNA26S and the binding to the P1-P2 proteins. We explored and identified protein interactions that may be involved in conformational stability. The structure proposed in this work represents a first structural report for the TcP0 protein.

  16. Molecular dynamics perspective on the protein thermal stability: a case study using SAICAR synthetase.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Kavyashree; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2013-09-23

    The enzyme SAICAR synthetase ligates aspartate with CAIR (5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole) forming SAICAR (5-amino-4-imidazole-N-succinocarboxamide ribonucleotide) in the presence of ATP. In continuation with our previous study on the thermostability of this enzyme in hyper-/thermophiles based on the structural aspects, here, we present the dynamic aspects that differentiate the mesophilic (E. coli, E. chaffeensis), thermophilic (G. kaustophilus), and hyperthermophilic (M. jannaschii, P. horikoshii) SAICAR synthetases by carrying out a total of 11 simulations. The five functional dimers from the above organisms were simulated using molecular dynamics for a period of 50 ns each at 300 K, 363 K, and an additional simulation at 333 K for the thermophilic protein. The basic features like root-mean-square deviations, root-mean-square fluctuations, surface accessibility, and radius of gyration revealed the instability of mesophiles at 363 K. Mean square displacements establish the reduced flexibility of hyper-/thermophiles at all temperatures. At the simulations time scale considered here, the long-distance networks are considerably affected in mesophilic structures at 363 K. In mesophiles, a comparatively higher number of short-lived (having less percent existence time) Cα, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions are formed, and long-lived (with higher percentage existence time) contacts are lost. The number of time-averaged salt-bridges is at least 2-fold higher in hyperthermophiles at 363 K. The change in surface accessibility of salt-bridges at 363 K from 300 K is nearly doubled in mesophilic protein compared to proteins from other temperature classes.

  17. Bacillus mesophilus sp. nov., an alginate-degrading bacterium isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Guo-Hong; Liu, Bo; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated SA4(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern at Wendeng, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells were observed to be rod shaped, alginase positive, catalase positive and motile. The strain was found to grow at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 °C (optimum 35 °C), and pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) with 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum NaCl 3.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SA4(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus and exhibits 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.6, 96.5, 96.3 and 96.2 % with Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T), Bacillus acidicola 105-2(T), Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435(T) and Bacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 420(T), respectively. The menaquinone was identified as MK-7 and the major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids detected were anteiso-C15:0 (22.3 %), iso-C15:0 (22.6 %), iso-C16:0 (14.8 %) and iso-C14:0 (14.7 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicated that isolate SA4(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mesophius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA4(T) (=DSM 101000(T)=CCTCC AB 2015209(T)).

  18. Engineering a hyperthermophilic archaeon for temperature-dependent product formation.

    PubMed

    Basen, Mirko; Sun, Junsong; Adams, Michael W W

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms growing near the boiling point have enormous biotechnological potential but only recently have molecular engineering tools become available for them. We have engineered the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C, to switch its end products of fermentation in a temperature-controlled fashion without the need for chemical inducers. The recombinant strain (LAC) expresses a gene (ldh) encoding lactate dehydrogenase from the moderately thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor bescii (optimal growth temperature [T(opt)] of 78°C) controlled by a "cold shock" promoter that is upregulated when cells are transferred from 98°C to 72°C. At 98°C, the LAC strain fermented sugar to produce acetate and hydrogen as end products, and lactate was not detected. When the LAC strain was grown at 72°C, up to 3 mM lactate was produced instead. Expression of a gene from a moderately thermophilic bacterium in a hyperthermophilic archaeon at temperatures at which the hyperthermophile has low metabolic activity provides a new perspective to engineering microorganisms for bioproduct and biofuel formation. Extremely thermostable enzymes from microorganisms that grow near or above the boiling point of water are already used in biotechnology. However, the use of hyperthermophilic microorganisms themselves for biotechnological applications has been limited by the lack of their genetic accessibility. Recently, a genetic system for Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally near 100°C, was developed in our laboratory. In this study, we present the first heterologous protein expression system for a microorganism that grows optimally at 100°C, a first step towards the potential expression of genes involved in biomass degradation or biofuel production in hyperthermophiles. Moreover, we developed the first system for specific gene induction in P. furiosus. As the cold shock promoter for protein expression used in this study is activated at

  19. A computational framework for proteome-wide pursuit and prediction of metalloproteins using ICP-MS and MS/MS data.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, W Andrew; Praissman, Jeremy L; Poole, Farris L; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Menon, Angeli Lal; Scott, Joseph W; Jenney, Francis E; Thorgersen, Michael P; Kalisiak, Ewa; Apon, Junefredo V; Trauger, Sunia A; Siuzdak, Gary; Tainer, John A; Adams, Michael W W

    2011-02-28

    Metal-containing proteins comprise a diverse and sizable category within the proteomes of organisms, ranging from proteins that use metals to catalyze reactions to proteins in which metals play key structural roles. Unfortunately, reliably predicting that a protein will contain a specific metal from its amino acid sequence is not currently possible. We recently developed a generally-applicable experimental technique for finding metalloproteins on a genome-wide scale. Applying this metal-directed protein purification approach (ICP-MS and MS/MS based) to the prototypical microbe Pyrococcus furiosus conclusively demonstrated the extent and diversity of the uncharacterized portion of microbial metalloproteomes since a majority of the observed metal peaks could not be assigned to known or predicted metalloproteins. However, even using this technique, it is not technically feasible to purify to homogeneity all metalloproteins in an organism. In order to address these limitations and complement the metal-directed protein purification, we developed a computational infrastructure and statistical methodology to aid in the pursuit and identification of novel metalloproteins. We demonstrate that our methodology enables predictions of metal-protein interactions using an experimental data set derived from a chromatography fractionation experiment in which 870 proteins and 10 metals were measured over 2,589 fractions. For each of the 10 metals, cobalt, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc, clusters of proteins frequently occurring in metal peaks (of a specific metal) within the fractionation space were defined. This resulted in predictions that there are from 5 undiscovered vanadium- to 13 undiscovered cobalt-containing proteins in Pyrococcus furiosus. Molybdenum and nickel were chosen for additional assessment producing lists of genes predicted to encode metalloproteins or metalloprotein subunits, 22 for nickel including seven from

  20. Engineering a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon for Temperature-Dependent Product Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Basen, M; Sun, JS; Adams, MWW

    2012-02-24

    Microorganisms growing near the boiling point have enormous biotechnological potential but only recently have molecular engineering tools become available for them. We have engineered the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100 degrees C, to switch its end products of fermentation in a temperature-controlled fashion without the need for chemical inducers. The recombinant strain (LAC) expresses a gene (ldh) encoding lactate dehydrogenase from the moderately thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor bescii (optimal growth temperature [T-opt] of 78 degrees C) controlled by a "cold shock" promoter that is upregulated when cells are transferred from 98 degrees C to 72 degrees C. At 98 degrees C, the LAC strain fermented sugar to produce acetate and hydrogen as end products, and lactate was not detected. When the LAC strain was grown at 72 degrees C, up to 3 mM lactate was produced instead. Expression of a gene from a moderately thermophilic bacterium in a hyperthermophilic archaeon at temperatures at which the hyperthermophile has low metabolic activity provides a new perspective to engineering microorganisms for bioproduct and biofuel formation. IMPORTANCE Extremely thermostable enzymes from microorganisms that grow near or above the boiling point of water are already used in biotechnology. However, the use of hyperthermophilic microorganisms themselves for biotechnological applications has been limited by the lack of their genetic accessibility. Recently, a genetic system for Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally near 100 degrees C, was developed in our laboratory. In this study, we present the first heterologous protein expression system for a microorganism that grows optimally at 100 degrees C, a first step towards the potential expression of genes involved in biomass degradation or biofuel production in hyperthermophiles. Moreover, we developed the first system for specific gene induction in P. furiosus. As the cold shock promoter

  1. Structure and substrate ion binding in the sodium/proton antiporter PaNhaP

    PubMed Central

    Wöhlert, David; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Yildiz, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    Sodium/proton antiporters maintain intracellular pH and sodium levels. Detailed structures of antiporters with bound substrate ions are essential for understanding how they work. We have resolved the substrate ion in the dimeric, electroneutral sodium/proton antiporter PaNhaP from Pyrococcus abyssi at 3.2 Å, and have determined its structure in two different conformations at pH 8 and pH 4. The ion is coordinated by three acidic sidechains, a water molecule, a serine and a main-chain carbonyl in the unwound stretch of trans-membrane helix 5 at the deepest point of a negatively charged cytoplasmic funnel. A second narrow polar channel may facilitate proton uptake from the cytoplasm. Transport activity of PaNhaP is cooperative at pH 6 but not at pH 5. Cooperativity is due to pH-dependent allosteric coupling of protomers through two histidines at the dimer interface. Combined with comprehensive transport studies, the structures of PaNhaP offer unique new insights into the transport mechanism of sodium/proton antiporters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03579.001 PMID:25426802

  2. Transcription Start Site Associated RNAs (TSSaRNAs) Are Ubiquitous in All Domains of Life

    PubMed Central

    ten-Caten, Felipe; Baliga, Nitin S.; Koide, Tie

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of non-coding RNAs has been discovered using high-resolution transcriptomics tools, indicating that transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is much more complex than previously appreciated. Small RNAs associated with transcription start sites of annotated coding regions (TSSaRNAs) are pervasive in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Here, we provide evidence for existence of TSSaRNAs in several archaeal transcriptomes including: Halobacterium salinarum, Pyrococcus furiosus, Methanococcus maripaludis, and Sulfolobus solfataricus. We validated TSSaRNAs from the model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 by deep sequencing two independent small-RNA enriched (RNA-seq) and a primary-transcript enriched (dRNA-seq) strand-specific libraries. We identified 652 transcripts, of which 179 were shown to be primary transcripts (∼7% of the annotated genome). Distinct growth-associated expression patterns between TSSaRNAs and their cognate genes were observed, indicating a possible role in environmental responses that may result from RNA polymerase with varying pausing rhythms. This work shows that TSSaRNAs are ubiquitous across all domains of life. PMID:25238539

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the CRISPR-Cas RNA-silencing Cmr complex.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takuo; Inanaga, Hideko; Numata, Tomoyuki

    2015-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-derived RNA (crRNA) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute a prokaryotic adaptive immune system (CRISPR-Cas system) that targets and degrades invading genetic elements. The type III-B CRISPR-Cas Cmr complex, composed of the six Cas proteins (Cmr1-Cmr6) and a crRNA, captures and cleaves RNA complementary to the crRNA guide sequence. Here, a Cmr1-deficient functional Cmr (CmrΔ1) complex composed of Pyrococcus furiosus Cmr2-Cmr3, Archaeoglobus fulgidus Cmr4-Cmr5-Cmr6 and the 39-mer P. furiosus 7.01-crRNA was prepared. The CmrΔ1 complex was cocrystallized with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) complementary to the crRNA guide by the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory. The crystals belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.5, b = 76.2, c = 139.2 Å, α = 90.3, β = 104.8, γ = 118.6°. The asymmetric unit of the crystals is expected to contain one CmrΔ1-ssDNA complex, with a Matthews coefficient of 2.03 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 39.5%.

  4. Crystal structure and CRISPR RNA-binding site of the Cmr1 subunit of the Cmr interference complex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiali; Jeon, Jae-Hyun; Shin, Minsang; Shin, Ho-Chul; Oh, Byung-Ha; Kim, Jeong-Sun

    2014-02-01

    A multi-subunit ribonucleoprotein complex termed the Cmr RNA-silencing complex recognizes and destroys viral RNA in the CRISPR-mediated immune defence mechanism in many prokaryotes using an as yet unclear mechanism. In Archaeoglobus fulgidus, this complex consists of six subunits, Cmr1-Cmr6. Here, the crystal structure of Cmr1 from A. fulgidus is reported, revealing that the protein is composed of two tightly associated ferredoxin-like domains. The domain located at the N-terminus is structurally most similar to the N-terminal ferredoxin-like domain of the CRISPR RNA-processing enzyme Cas6 from Pyrococcus furiosus. An ensuing mutational analysis identified a highly conserved basic surface patch that binds single-stranded nucleic acids specifically, including the mature CRISPR RNA, but in a sequence-independent manner. In addition, this subunit was found to cleave single-stranded RNA. Together, these studies elucidate the structure and the catalytic activity of the Cmr1 subunit.

  5. Role of Mn2+ and Compatible Solutes in the Radiation Resistance of Thermophilic Bacteria and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Kimberly M.; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-resistant bacteria have garnered a great deal of attention from scientists seeking to expose the mechanisms underlying their incredible survival abilities. Recent analyses showed that the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum is dependent upon Mn-antioxidant complexes responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiation. Here we examined the role of the compatible solutes trehalose, mannosylglycerate, and di-myo-inositol phosphate in the radiation resistance of aerobic and anaerobic thermophiles. We found that the IR resistance of the thermophilic bacteria Rubrobacter xylanophilus and Rubrobacter radiotolerans was highly correlated to the accumulation of high intracellular concentration of trehalose in association with Mn, supporting the model of Mn2+-dependent ROS scavenging in the aerobes. In contrast, the hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus gammatolerans and Pyrococcus furiosus did not contain significant amounts of intracellular Mn, and we found no significant antioxidant activity from mannosylglycerate and di-myo-inositol phosphate in vitro. We therefore propose that the low levels of IR-generated ROS under anaerobic conditions combined with highly constitutively expressed detoxification systems in these anaerobes are key to their radiation resistance and circumvent the need for the accumulation of Mn-antioxidant complexes in the cell. PMID:23209374

  6. MCM ring hexamerization is a prerequisite for DNA-binding

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, Clifford A.; Nourse, Amanda; Enemark, Eric J.

    2015-09-13

    The hexameric Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) protein complex forms a ring that unwinds DNA at the replication fork in eukaryotes and archaea. Our recent crystal structure of an archaeal MCM N-terminal domain bound to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) revealed ssDNA associating across tight subunit interfaces but not at the loose interfaces, indicating that DNA-binding is governed not only by the DNA-binding residues of the subunits (MCM ssDNA-binding motif, MSSB) but also by the relative orientation of the subunits. We now extend these findings to show that DNA-binding by the MCM N-terminal domain of the archaeal organism Pyrococcus furiosus occurs specifically in the hexameric oligomeric form. We show that mutants defective for hexamerization are defective in binding ssDNA despite retaining all the residues observed to interact with ssDNA in the crystal structure. One mutation that exhibits severely defective hexamerization and ssDNA-binding is at a conserved phenylalanine that aligns with the mouse Mcm4(Chaos3) mutation associated with chromosomal instability, cancer, and decreased intersubunit association.

  7. MCM ring hexamerization is a prerequisite for DNA-binding

    DOE PAGES

    Froelich, Clifford A.; Nourse, Amanda; Enemark, Eric J.

    2015-09-13

    The hexameric Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) protein complex forms a ring that unwinds DNA at the replication fork in eukaryotes and archaea. Our recent crystal structure of an archaeal MCM N-terminal domain bound to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) revealed ssDNA associating across tight subunit interfaces but not at the loose interfaces, indicating that DNA-binding is governed not only by the DNA-binding residues of the subunits (MCM ssDNA-binding motif, MSSB) but also by the relative orientation of the subunits. We now extend these findings to show that DNA-binding by the MCM N-terminal domain of the archaeal organism Pyrococcus furiosus occurs specifically in themore » hexameric oligomeric form. We show that mutants defective for hexamerization are defective in binding ssDNA despite retaining all the residues observed to interact with ssDNA in the crystal structure. One mutation that exhibits severely defective hexamerization and ssDNA-binding is at a conserved phenylalanine that aligns with the mouse Mcm4(Chaos3) mutation associated with chromosomal instability, cancer, and decreased intersubunit association.« less

  8. A new crystal form of a hyperthermophilic endocellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, Misumi; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-06-18

    The hyperthermostable endocellulase from P. furiosus was crystallized at pH 5.5. The new crystal form has symmetry consistent with space group C2 and exhibits a structure different from that of the protein crystallized at pH 9.0. The hyperthermophilic glycoside hydrolase family endocellulase 12 from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (EGPf; Gene ID PF0854; EC 3.2.1.4) catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of the β-1,4-glucosidic linkage in β-glucan in lignocellulose biomass. A crystal of EGPf was previously prepared at pH 9.0 and its structure was determined at an atomic resolution of 1.07 Å. This article reports the crystallization of EGPf at the more physiologically relevant pH of 5.5. Structure determination showed that this new crystal form has the symmetry of space group C2. Two molecules of the enzyme are observed in the asymmetric unit. Crystal packing is weak at pH 5.5 owing to two flexible interfaces between symmetry-related molecules. Comparison of the EGPf structures obtained at pH 9.0 and pH 5.5 reveals a significant conformational difference at the active centre and in the surface loops. The interfaces in the vicinity of the flexible surface loops impact the quality of the EGPf crystal.

  9. Reconstitution of archaeal H/ACA small ribonucleoprotein complexes active in pseudouridylation.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Bruno; Muller, Sébastien; Branlant, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    Pseudouridine (Psi) are frequently modified residues in RNA. In Eukarya, their formation is catalyzed by enzymes or by ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) containing H/ACA snoRNAs. H/ACA sRNA and putative ORFs for H/ACA sRNP proteins (L7Ae, aCBF5, aNOP10 and aGAR1) were found in Archaea. Here, by using Pyrococcus abyssi recombinant proteins and an in vitro transcribed P.abyssi H/ACA sRNA, we obtained the first complete in vitro reconstitution of an active H/ACA RNP. Both L7Ae and the aCBF5 RNA:Psi synthase bind directly the sRNA; aCBF5 also interacts directly and independently with aNOP10 and aGAR1. Presence of aCBF5, aNOP10 and a U residue at the pseudouridylation site in the target RNA are required for RNA target recruitment. In agreement, we found that the aCBF5-aNOP10 pair is the minimal set of proteins needed for the formation of a particle active for pseudouridylation. However, particles more efficient in targeted pseudouridylation can be formed with the addition of proteins L7Ae and/or aGAR1. Although necessary for optimal activity, the conserved ACA motif in the sRNA was found to be not essential.

  10. A functional endonuclease Q exists in the bacterial domain: identification and characterization of endonuclease Q from Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Miyako; Ishino, Sonoko; Cann, Isaac; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2017-05-01

    DNA base deamination occurs spontaneously under physiological conditions and is promoted by high temperature. Therefore, hyperthermophiles are expected to have efficient repair systems of the deaminated bases in their genomes. Endonuclease Q (EndoQ) was originally identified from the hyperthermophlic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, as a hypoxanthine-specific endonuclease recently. Further biochemical analyses revealed that EndoQ also recognizes uracil, xanthine, and the AP site in DNA, and is probably involved in a specific repair process for damaged bases. Initial phylogenetic analysis showed that an EndoQ homolog is found only in the Thermococcales and some of the methanogens in Archaea, and is not present in most members of the domains Bacteria and Eukarya. A better understanding of the distribution of the EndoQ-mediated repair system is, therefore, of evolutionary interest. We showed here that an EndoQ-like polypeptide from Bacillus pumilus, belonging to the bacterial domain, is functional and has similar properties with the archaeal EndoQs.

  11. Cupin-Type Phosphoglucose Isomerases (Cupin-PGIs) Constitute a Novel Metal-Dependent PGI Family Representing a Convergent Line of PGI Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Schlichting, Bettina; Felgendreher, Martina; Schönheit, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Cupin-type phosphoglucose isomerases (cPGIs) were identified in some archaeal and bacterial genomes and the respective coding function of cpgi's from the euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Methanosarcina mazei, as well as the bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Ensifer meliloti, was proven by functional overexpression. These cPGIs and the cPGIs from Pyrococcus and Thermococcus spp. represent the cPGI family and were compared with respect to kinetic, inhibitory, thermophilic, and metal-binding properties. cPGIs showed a high specificity for the substrates fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate and were inhibited by millimolar concentrations of sorbitol-6-phosphate, erythrose-4-phosphate, and 6-phosphogluconate. Treatment of cPGIs with EDTA resulted in a complete loss of catalytic activity, which could be regained by the addition of some divalent cations, most effectively by Fe2+ and Ni2+, indicating a metal dependence of cPGI activity. The motifs TX3PX3GXEX3TXGHXHX6-11EXY and PPX3HX3N were deduced as the two signature patterns of the novel cPGI family. Phylogenetic analysis suggests lateral gene transfer for the bacterial cPGIs from euryarchaeota. PMID:15716432

  12. Tuned by metals: the TET peptidase activity is controlled by 3 metal binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Matteo; Girard, Eric; Franzetti, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    TET aminopeptidases are dodecameric particles shared in the three life domains involved in various biological processes, from carbon source provider in archaea to eye-pressure regulation in humans. Each subunit contains a dinuclear metal site (M1 and M2) responsible for the enzyme catalytic activity. However, the role of each metal ion is still uncharacterized. Noteworthy, while mesophilic TETs are activated by Mn2+, hyperthermophilic TETs prefers Co2+. Here, by means of anomalous x-ray crystallography and enzyme kinetics measurements of the TET3 aminopeptidase from the hyperthermophilic organism Pyrococcus furiosus (PfTET3), we show that M2 hosts the catalytic activity of the enzyme, while M1 stabilizes the TET3 quaternary structure and controls the active site flexibility in a temperature dependent manner. A new third metal site (M3) was found in the substrate binding pocket, modulating the PfTET3 substrate preferences. These data show that TET activity is tuned by the molecular interplay among three metal sites. PMID:26853450

  13. The resistance to ionizing radiation of hyperthermophilic archaea isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, E.; L'Haridon, S.; Corre, E.; Gérard, E.; Myllykallio, H.; Forterre, P.; Prieur, D.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we present many results on radioresistance of hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Effects of gamma (γ) irradiation was first tested with Pyrococcus abyssi and showed that this micro-organism did not show any loss of viability until 2 kGy of γ-irradiation. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis conducted with different species belonging to Archaea and Bacteria suggest that no specific DNA protection system exist that could explain the radioresistance of P. abyssi. Moreover, the genomic DNA completely fragmented after 2 kGy is fully restored in vivo under optimal growth conditions. The DNA replication or irradiated cells at 2,5 kGy is delayed by a lag phase which could coincide to this DNA repair. An associated mechanism of DNA repair by excision could act with the recombinational DNA repair. In parallel to these studies three hyperthermophilic archaeons highly resistant to ionizing radiation were isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents after the enrichment cultures were submitted to elevated irradiation doses (up to 20 and 30 kGy). All these novel species were more radioresistant than P. abyssi.

  14. A novel microbial habitat in the mid-ocean ridge subseafloor.

    PubMed

    Summit, M; Baross, J A

    2001-02-27

    The subseafloor at the mid-ocean ridge is predicted to be an excellent microbial habitat, because there is abundant space, fluid flow, and geochemical energy in the porous, hydrothermally influenced oceanic crust. These characteristics also make it a good analog for potential subsurface extraterrestrial habitats. Subseafloor environments created by the mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids and seawater are predicted to be particularly energy-rich, and hyperthermophilic microorganisms that broadly reflect such predictions are ejected from these systems in low-temperature ( approximately 15 degrees C), basalt-hosted diffuse effluents. Seven hyperthermophilic heterotrophs isolated from low-temperature diffuse fluids exiting the basaltic crust in and near two hydrothermal vent fields on the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, were compared phylogenetically and physiologically to six similarly enriched hyperthermophiles from samples associated with seafloor metal sulfide structures. The 13 organisms fell into four distinct groups: one group of two organisms corresponding to the genus Pyrococcus and three groups corresponding to the genus Thermococcus. Of these three groups, one was composed solely of sulfide-derived organisms, and the other two related groups were composed of subseafloor organisms. There was no evidence of restricted exchange of organisms between sulfide and subseafloor habitats, and therefore this phylogenetic distinction indicates a selective force operating between the two habitats. Hypotheses regarding the habitat differences were generated through comparison of the physiology of the two groups of hyperthermophiles; some potential differences between these habitats include fluid flow stability, metal ion concentrations, and sources of complex organic matter.

  15. Structural basis for the drug extrusion mechanism by a MATE multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiki; Hipolito, Christopher J; Maturana, Andrés D; Ito, Koichi; Kuroda, Teruo; Higuchi, Takashi; Katoh, Takayuki; Kato, Hideaki E; Hattori, Motoyuki; Kumazaki, Kaoru; Tsukazaki, Tomoya; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Suga, Hiroaki; Nureki, Osamu

    2013-04-11

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family transporters are conserved in the three primary domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya), and export xenobiotics using an electrochemical gradient of H(+) or Na(+) across the membrane. MATE transporters confer multidrug resistance to bacterial pathogens and cancer cells, thus causing critical reductions in the therapeutic efficacies of antibiotics and anti-cancer drugs, respectively. Therefore, the development of MATE inhibitors has long been awaited in the field of clinical medicine. Here we present the crystal structures of the H(+)-driven MATE transporter from Pyrococcus furiosus in two distinct apo-form conformations, and in complexes with a derivative of the antibacterial drug norfloxacin and three in vitro selected thioether-macrocyclic peptides, at 2.1-3.0 Å resolutions. The structures, combined with functional analyses, show that the protonation of Asp 41 on the amino (N)-terminal lobe induces the bending of TM1, which in turn collapses the N-lobe cavity, thereby extruding the substrate drug to the extracellular space. Moreover, the macrocyclic peptides bind the central cleft in distinct manners, which correlate with their inhibitory activities. The strongest inhibitory peptide that occupies the N-lobe cavity may pave the way towards the development of efficient inhibitors against MATE transporters.

  16. A euryarchaeal histone modulates strand displacement synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Huang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, the two main lineages of the domain Archaea, encode different chromatin proteins and differ in the use of replicative DNA polymerases. Crenarchaea possess a single family B DNA polymerase (PolB), which is capable of strand displacement modulated by the chromatin proteins Cren7 and Sul7d. Euryarchaea have two distinct replicative DNA polymerases, PolB and PolD, a family D DNA polymerase. Here we characterized the strand displacement activities of PolB and PolD from the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and investigated the influence of HPfA1, a homolog of eukaryotic histones from P. furiosus, on these activities. We showed that both PolB and PolD were efficient in strand displacement. HPfA1 inhibited DNA strand displacement by both DNA polymerases but exhibited little effect on the displacement of a RNA strand annealed to single-stranded template DNA. This is consistent with the finding that HPfA1 bound more tightly to double-stranded DNA than to a RNA:DNA hybrid. Our results suggest that, although crenarchaea and euryarchaea differ in chromosomal packaging, they share similar mechanisms in modulating strand displacement by DNA polymerases during lagging strand DNA synthesis.

  17. Shared active site architecture between archaeal PolD and multi-subunit RNA polymerases revealed by X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Raia, Pierre; Henneke, Ghislaine; Delarue, Marc

    2016-08-22

    Archaeal replicative DNA polymerase D (PolD) constitute an atypical class of DNA polymerases made of a proofreading exonuclease subunit (DP1) and a larger polymerase catalytic subunit (DP2), both with unknown structures. We have determined the crystal structures of Pyrococcus abyssi DP1 and DP2 at 2.5 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively, revealing a catalytic core strikingly different from all other known DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Rather, the PolD DP2 catalytic core has the same 'double-psi β-barrel' architecture seen in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) superfamily, which includes multi-subunit transcriptases of all domains of life, homodimeric RNA-silencing pathway RNAPs and atypical viral RNAPs. This finding bridges together, in non-viral world, DNA transcription and DNA replication within the same protein superfamily. This study documents further the complex evolutionary history of the DNA replication apparatus in different domains of life and proposes a classification of all extant DNAPs.

  18. Role of disulfide bridges in archaeal family-B DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Killelea, Tom; Connolly, Bernard A

    2011-06-14

    The family-B DNA polymerases obtained from the order Thermococcales, for example, Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu-Pol) are commonly used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) because of their high thermostability and low error rates. Most of these polymerases contain four cysteines, arranged as two disulfide bridges. With Pfu-Pol C429-C443 forms one of the disulfides (DB1) and C507-C510 (DB2) the other. Although the disulfides are well conserved in the enzymes from the hyperthermophilic Thermococcales, they are less prevalent in euryarchaeal polymerases from other orders, and tend to be only found in other hyperthermophiles. Here, we report on the effects of deleting the disulfide bridges by mutating the relevant cysteines to serines. A variety of techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry and differential scanning fluorimetry, have shown that both disulfides make a contribution to thermostability, with DB1 being more important than DB2. However, even when both disulfides are removed, sufficient thermostability remains for normal (identical to the wild type) performance in PCR and quantitative (real-time) PCR. Therefore, polymerases totally lacking cysteine are fully compatible with most PCR-based applications. This observation opens the way to further engineering of polymerases by introduction of a single cysteine followed by appropriate chemical modification. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. An archaeal immune system can detect multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) to target invader DNA.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Susan; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stoll, Britta; Brendel, Jutta; Fischer, Eike; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Marchfelder, Anita

    2012-09-28

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system provides adaptive and heritable immunity against foreign genetic elements in most archaea and many bacteria. Although this system is widespread and diverse with many subtypes, only a few species have been investigated to elucidate the precise mechanisms for the defense of viruses or plasmids. Approximately 90% of all sequenced archaea encode CRISPR/Cas systems, but their molecular details have so far only been examined in three archaeal species: Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus islandicus, and Pyrococcus furiosus. Here, we analyzed the CRISPR/Cas system of Haloferax volcanii using a plasmid-based invader assay. Haloferax encodes a type I-B CRISPR/Cas system with eight Cas proteins and three CRISPR loci for which the identity of protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) was unknown until now. We identified six different PAM sequences that are required upstream of the protospacer to permit target DNA recognition. This is only the second archaeon for which PAM sequences have been determined, and the first CRISPR group with such a high number of PAM sequences. Cells could survive the plasmid challenge if their CRISPR/Cas system was altered or defective, e.g. by deletion of the cas gene cassette. Experimental PAM data were supplemented with bioinformatics data on Haloferax and Haloquadratum.

  20. A New Thermophilic Nitrilase from an Antarctic Hyperthermophilic Microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Dennett, Geraldine V.; Blamey, Jenny M.

    2016-01-01

    Several environmental samples from Antarctica were collected and enriched to search for microorganisms with nitrilase activity. A new thermostable nitrilase from a novel hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus sp. M24D13 was purified and characterized. The activity of this enzyme increased as the temperatures rise from 70 up to 85°C. Its optimal activity occurred at 85°C and pH 7.5. This new enzyme shows a remarkable resistance to thermal inactivation retaining more than 50% of its activity even after 8 h of incubation at 85°C. In addition, this nitrilase is highly versatile demonstrating activity toward different substrates, such as benzonitrile (60 mM, aromatic nitrile) and butyronitrile (60 mM, aliphatic nitrile), with a specific activity of 3286.7 U mg−1 of protein and 4008.2 U mg−1 of protein, respectively. Moreover the enzyme NitM24D13 also presents cyanidase activity. The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) and Vmáx of this Nitrilase for benzonitrile were 0.3 mM and 333.3 μM min−1, respectively, and the specificity constant (kcat/Km) for benzonitrile was 2.05 × 105 s−1 M−1. PMID:26973832

  1. Structure of the EndoMS-DNA Complex as Mismatch Restriction Endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Setsu; Hijikata, Atsushi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Yonezawa, Kouki; Kouyama, Ken-Ichi; Mayanagi, Kouta; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-11-01

    Archaeal NucS nuclease was thought to degrade the single-stranded region of branched DNA, which contains flapped and splayed DNA. However, recent findings indicated that EndoMS, the orthologous enzyme of NucS, specifically cleaves double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) containing mismatched bases. In this study, we determined the structure of the EndoMS-DNA complex. The complex structure of the EndoMS dimer with dsDNA unexpectedly revealed that the mismatched bases were flipped out into binding sites, and the overall architecture most resembled that of restriction enzymes. The structure of the apo form was similar to the reported structure of Pyrococcus abyssi NucS, indicating that movement of the C-terminal domain from the resting state was required for activity. In addition, a model of the EndoMS-PCNA-DNA complex was preliminarily verified with electron microscopy. The structures strongly support the idea that EndoMS acts in a mismatch repair pathway.

  2. Cloning and Characterization of an Alpha-amylase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus Thioreducens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Marc L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular a-amylase, TTA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Primary structural analysis revealed high similarity with other a-amylases from the Thermococcus and Pyrococcus genera, as well as the four highly conserved regions typical for a-amylases. The 1374 bp gene encodes a protein of 457 amino acids, of which 435 constitute the mature protein preceded by a 22 amino acid signal peptide. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 43 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Maximal enzymatic activity of recombinant TTA was observed at 90 C and pH 5.5 in the absence of exogenous Ca(2+), and the enzyme was considerably stable even after incubation at 90 C for 2 hours. The thermostability at 90 and 102 C was enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+). The extraordinarily high specific activity (about 7.4 x 10(exp 3) U/mg protein at 90 C, pH 5.5 with soluble starch as substrate) together with its low pH optimum makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for starch processing applications.

  3. Cloning and Characterization of an alpha-amylase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus Thioreducens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Mark L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular alpha-amylase, TTA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Primary structural analysis revealed high similarity with other a-amylases from the Thermococcus and Pyrococcus genera, as well as the four highly conserved regions typical for a-amylases. The 1374 bp gene encodes a protein of 457 amino acids, of which 435 constitute the mature protein preceded by a 22 amino acid signal peptide. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 43 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Maximal enzymatic activity of recombinant TTA was observed at 90 C and pH 5.5 in the absence of exogenous Ca(2+), and the enzyme was considerably stable even after incubation at 90 C for 2 hours. The thermostability at 90 and 102 C was enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+). The extraordinarily high specific activity (about 7.4 x 10(exp 3) U/mg protein at 90 C, pH 5.5 with soluble starch as substrate) together with its low pH optimum makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for starch processing applications.

  4. Comparative analysis and "expression space" coverage of the production of prokaryotic membrane proteins for structural genomics.

    PubMed

    Surade, Sachin; Klein, Markus; Stolt-Bergner, Peggy C; Muenke, Cornelia; Roy, Ankita; Michel, Hartmut

    2006-09-01

    Membrane proteins comprise up to one-third of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, but only a very small number of membrane protein structures are known. Membrane proteins are challenging targets for structural biology, primarily due to the difficulty in producing and purifying milligram quantities of these proteins. We are evaluating different methods to produce and purify large numbers of prokaryotic membrane proteins for subsequent structural and functional analysis. Here, we present the comparative expression data for 37 target proteins, all of them secondary transporters, from the mesophilic organism Salmonella typhimurium and the two hyperthermophilic organisms Aquifex aeolicus and Pyrococcus furiosus in three different Escherichia coli expression vectors. In addition, we study the use of Lactococcus lactis as a host for integral membrane protein expression. Overall, 78% of the targets were successfully produced under at least one set of conditions. Analysis of these results allows us to assess the role of different variables in increasing "expression space" coverage for our set of targets. This analysis implies that to maximize the number of nonhomologous targets that are expressed, orthologous targets should be chosen and tested in two vectors with different types of promoters, using C-terminal tags. In addition, E. coli is shown to be a robust host for the expression of prokaryotic transporters, and is superior to L. lactis. These results therefore suggest appropriate strategies for high-throughput heterologous overproduction of membrane proteins.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of ST1022, a putative member of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators isolated from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Noboru; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri Matsunaga, Emiko; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-11-01

    A putative member of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators, ST1022 from S. tokodaii strain 7, has been purified and crystallized in the absence and presence of the effector l-glutamine. A molecular-replacement solution was found using the FL11 transcriptional regulator from Pyrococcus sp. OT3 as a model and structural refinement is under way. The Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators, also known as feast/famine transcriptional regulators, are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea. This family of proteins are likely to be involved in cellular metabolism, with exogenous amino acids functioning as effectors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ST1022, a member of the Lrp/AsnC family of proteins, is reported with and without exogenous glutamine as the effector molecule. The crystals of native ST1022 and of the putative complex belong to the tetragonal space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.771, c = 73.297 Å and a = b = 103.846, c = 73.992 Å, respectively. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis and molecular-replacement solution revealed the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  6. Dispersion interactions govern the strong thermal stability of a protein.

    PubMed

    Vondrásek, Jirí; Kubar, Tomás; Jenney, Francis E; Adams, Michael W W; Kozísek, Milan; Cerný, Jirí; Sklenár, Vladimír; Hobza, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Rubredoxin from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf Rd) is an extremely thermostable protein, which makes it an attractive subject of protein folding and stability studies. A fundamental question arises as to what the reason for such extreme stability is and how it can be elucidated from a complex set of interatomic interactions. We addressed this issue first theoretically through a computational analysis of the hydrophobic core of the protein and its mutants, including the interactions taking place inside the core. Here we show that a single mutation of one of phenylalanine's residues inside the protein's hydrophobic core results in a dramatic decrease in its thermal stability. The calculated unfolding Gibbs energy as well as the stabilization energy differences between a few core residues follows the same trend as the melting temperature of protein variants determined experimentally by microcalorimetry measurements. NMR spectroscopy experiments have shown that the only part of the protein affected by mutation is the reasonably rearranged hydrophobic core. It is hence concluded that stabilization energies, which are dominated by London dispersion, represent the main source of stability of this protein.

  7. Solution Structure of Pfu RPP21, a Component of the Archaeal RNase P Holoenzyme, and Interactions with its RPP29 Protein Partner

    PubMed Central

    Amero, Carlos D; Boomershine, William P; Xu, Yiren; Foster, Mark

    2009-01-01

    RNase P is the ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein metalloenzyme responsible for cleaving the 5′-leader sequence of precursor tRNAs during their maturation. While the RNA subunit is catalytically active on its own at high monovalent and divalent ion concentration, four proteins subunits are associated with archaeal RNase P activity in vivo: RPP21, RPP29, RPP30 and POP5. These proteins have been shown to function in pairs: RPP21-RPP29 and POP5-RPP30. We have determined the solution structure of RPP21 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) using conventional and paramagnetic NMR techniques. Pfu RPP21 in solution consists of an unstructured N-terminus, two alpha helices, a zinc binding motif, and an unstructured C-terminus. Moreover, we have used chemical shift perturbations to characterize the interaction of RPP21 with Pfu RPP29. The data show that the primary contact with RPP29 is localized to the two helices of RPP21. This information represents a fundamental step towards understanding structure-function relationships of the archaeal RNase P holoenzyme. PMID:18922021

  8. Shared active site architecture between archaeal PolD and multi-subunit RNA polymerases revealed by X-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Raia, Pierre; Henneke, Ghislaine; Delarue, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Archaeal replicative DNA polymerase D (PolD) constitute an atypical class of DNA polymerases made of a proofreading exonuclease subunit (DP1) and a larger polymerase catalytic subunit (DP2), both with unknown structures. We have determined the crystal structures of Pyrococcus abyssi DP1 and DP2 at 2.5 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively, revealing a catalytic core strikingly different from all other known DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Rather, the PolD DP2 catalytic core has the same ‘double-psi β-barrel' architecture seen in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) superfamily, which includes multi-subunit transcriptases of all domains of life, homodimeric RNA-silencing pathway RNAPs and atypical viral RNAPs. This finding bridges together, in non-viral world, DNA transcription and DNA replication within the same protein superfamily. This study documents further the complex evolutionary history of the DNA replication apparatus in different domains of life and proposes a classification of all extant DNAPs. PMID:27548043

  9. Anion binding in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  10. Essential structural and functional roles of the Cmr4 subunit in RNA cleavage by the Cmr CRISPR-Cas complex.

    PubMed

    Ramia, Nancy F; Spilman, Michael; Tang, Li; Shao, Yaming; Elmore, Joshua; Hale, Caryn; Cocozaki, Alexis; Bhattacharya, Nilakshee; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P; Li, Hong; Stagg, Scott M

    2014-12-11

    The Cmr complex is the multisubunit effector complex of the type III-B clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas immune system. The Cmr complex recognizes a target RNA through base pairing with the integral CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and cleaves the target at multiple regularly spaced locations within the complementary region. To understand the molecular basis of the function of this complex, we have assembled information from electron microscopic and X-ray crystallographic structural studies and mutagenesis of a complete Pyrococcus furiosus Cmr complex. Our findings reveal that four helically packed Cmr4 subunits, which make up the backbone of the Cmr complex, act as a platform to support crRNA binding and target RNA cleavage. Interestingly, we found a hook-like structural feature associated with Cmr4 that is likely the site of target RNA binding and cleavage. Our results also elucidate analogies in the mechanisms of crRNA and target molecule binding by the distinct Cmr type III-A and Cascade type I-E complexes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  12. PCNA is involved in the EndoQ-mediated DNA repair process in Thermococcales

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Miyako; Ishino, Sonoko; Yoshida, Kotaro; Yamagami, Takeshi; Cann, Isaac; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-01-01

    To maintain genome integrity for transfer to their offspring, and to maintain order in cellular processes, all living organisms have DNA repair systems. Besides the well-conserved DNA repair machineries, organisms thriving in extreme environments are expected to have developed efficient repair systems. We recently discovered a novel endonuclease, which cleaves the 5′ side of deoxyinosine, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. The novel endonuclease, designated as Endonulcease Q (EndoQ), recognizes uracil, abasic site and xanthine, as well as hypoxanthine, and cuts the phosphodiester bond at their 5′ sides. To understand the functional process involving EndoQ, we searched for interacting partners of EndoQ and identified Proliferating Cell Nuclear Angigen (PCNA). The EndoQ activity was clearly enhanced by addition of PCNA in vitro. The physical interaction between the two proteins through a PIP-motif of EndoQ and the toroidal structure of PCNA are critical for the stimulation of the endonuclease activity. These findings provide us a clue to elucidate a unique DNA repair system in Archaea. PMID:27150116

  13. The Cm56 tRNA modification in archaea is catalyzed either by a specific 2′-O-methylase, or a C/D sRNP

    PubMed Central

    RENALIER, MARIE-HÉLÈNE; JOSEPH, NICOLE; GASPIN, CHRISTINE; THEBAULT, PATRICIA; MOUGIN, ANNIE

    2005-01-01

    We identified the first archaeal tRNA ribose 2′-O-methylase, aTrm56, belonging to the Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) 1303 that contains archaeal genes only. The corresponding protein exhibits a SPOUT S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferase domain found in bacterial and yeast G18 tRNA 2′-O-methylases (SpoU, Trm3). We cloned the Pyrococcus abyssi PAB1040 gene belonging to this COG, expressed and purified the corresponding protein, and showed that in vitro, it specifically catalyzes the AdoMet-dependent 2′-O-ribose methylation of C at position 56 in tRNA transcripts. This tRNA methylation is present only in archaea, and the gene for this enzyme is present in all the archaeal genomes sequenced up to now, except in the crenarchaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum. In this archaea, the C56 2′-O-methylation is provided by a C/D sRNP. Our work is the first demonstration that, within the same kingdom, two different mechanisms are used to modify the same nucleoside in tRNAs. PMID:15987815

  14. Structure of a hexameric form of RadA recombinase from Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqin; Luo, Yu

    2012-05-01

    Archaeal RadA proteins are close homologues of eukaryal Rad51 and DMC1 proteins and are remote homologues of bacterial RecA proteins. For the repair of double-stranded breaks in DNA, these recombinases promote a pivotal strand-exchange reaction between homologous single-stranded and double-stranded DNA substrates. This DNA-repair function also plays a key role in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and in the resistance of bacterial cells to antibiotics. A hexameric form of a truncated Methanococcus voltae RadA protein devoid of its small N-terminal domain has been crystallized. The RadA hexamers further assemble into two-ringed assemblies. Similar assemblies can be observed in the crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus RadA and Homo sapiens DMC1. In all of these two-ringed assemblies the DNA-interacting L1 region of each protomer points inward towards the centre, creating a highly positively charged locus. The electrostatic characteristics of the central channels can be utilized in the design of novel recombinase inhibitors.

  15. Anaerobic High-Throughput Cultivation Method for Isolation of Thermophiles Using Biomass-Derived Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Allman, Steve L; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Elkins, James G

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) techniques have been developed for sorting mesophilic organisms, but the difficulty increases if the target microbes are thermophilic anaerobes. We demonstrate a reliable, high-throughput method of screening thermophilic anaerobic organisms using FCM and 96-well plates for growth on biomass-relevant substrates. The method was tested using the cellulolytic thermophiles Clostridium ther- mocellum (Topt = 55 C), Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis (Topt = 78 C) and the fermentative hyperthermo- philes, Pyrococcus furiosus (Topt = 100 C) and Thermotoga maritima (Topt = 80 C). Multi-well plates were incubated at various temperatures for approximately 72 120 h and then tested for growth. Positive growth resulting from single cells sorted into individual wells containing an anaerobic medium was verified by OD600. Depending on the growth substrate, up to 80 % of the wells contained viable cultures, which could be transferred to fresh media. This method was used to isolate thermophilic microbes from Rabbit Creek, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Substrates for enrichment cultures including crystalline cellulose (Avicel), xylan (from Birchwood), pretreated switchgrass and Populus were used to cultivate organisms that may be of interest to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  16. Crystal structures of the bifunctional tRNA methyltransferase Trm5a

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caiyan; Jia, Qian; Chen, Ran; Wei, Yuming; Li, Juntao; Ma, Jie; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    tRNA methyltransferase Trm5 catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to G37 in eukaryotes and archaea. The N1-methylated guanosine is the product of the initial step of the wyosine hypermodification, which is essential for the maintenance of the reading frame during translation. As a unique member of this enzyme family, Trm5a from Pyrococcus abyssi (PaTrm5a) catalyses not only the methylation of N1, but also the further methylation of C7 on 4-demethylwyosine at position 37 to produce isowyosine, but the mechanism for the double methylation is poorly understood. Here we report four crystal structures of PaTrm5a ranging from 1.7- to 2.3-Å, in the apo form or in complex with various SAM analogues. These structures reveal that Asp243 specifically recognises the base moiety of SAM at the active site. Interestingly, the protein in our structures all displays an extended conformation, quite different from the well-folded conformation of Trm5b from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii reported previously, despite their similar overall architectures. To rule out the possibilities of crystallisation artefacts, we conducted the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. The FRET data suggested that PaTrm5a adopts a naturally extended conformation in solution, and therefore the open conformation is a genuine state of PaTrm5a. PMID:27629654

  17. Crystal Structure and Function of 5-Formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleotide Synthetase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; White, Robert H.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-08-06

    Purine biosynthesis requires 10 enzymatic steps in higher organisms, while prokaryotes require an additional enzyme for step 6. In most organisms steps 9 and 10 are catalyzed by the purH gene product, a bifunctional enzyme with both 5-formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (FAICAR) synthase and inosine monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase activity. Recently it was discovered that Archaea utilize different enzymes to catalyze steps 9 and 10. An ATP-dependent FAICAR synthetase is encoded by the purP gene, and IMP cyclohydrolase is encoded by the purO gene. We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of FAICAR synthetase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii complexed with various ligands, including the tertiary substrate complex and product complex. The enzyme belongs to the ATP grasp superfamily and is predicted to use a formyl phosphate intermediate formed by an ATP-dependent phosphorylation. In addition, we have determined the structures of a PurP orthologue from Pyrococcus furiosus, which is functionally unclassified, in three crystal forms. With approximately 50% sequence identity, P. furiosus PurP is structurally homologous to M. jannaschii PurP. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to explore the possible role of this functionally unclassified PurP.

  18. Structural fold, conservation and Fe(II) binding of the intracellular domain of prokaryote FeoB

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Kuo-Wei; Chang, Yi-Wei; Eng, Edward T.; Chen, Jai-Hui; Chen, Yi-Chung; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Dong, Gang; Spasov, Krasimir A.; Unger, Vinzenz M.; Huang, Tai-huang

    2010-09-17

    FeoB is a G-protein coupled membrane protein essential for Fe(II) uptake in prokaryotes. Here, we report the crystal structures of the intracellular domain of FeoB (NFeoB) from Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpNFeoB) and Pyrococcus furiosus (PfNFeoB) with and without bound ligands. In the structures, a canonical G-protein domain (G domain) is followed by a helical bundle domain (S-domain), which despite its lack of sequence similarity between species is structurally conserved. In the nucleotide-free state, the G-domain's two switch regions point away from the binding site. This gives rise to an open binding pocket whose shallowness is likely to be responsible for the low nucleotide-binding affinity. Nucleotide binding induced significant conformational changes in the G5 motif which in the case of GMPPNP binding was accompanied by destabilization of the switch I region. In addition to the structural data, we demonstrate that Fe(II)-induced foot printing cleaves the protein close to a putative Fe(II)-binding site at the tip of switch I, and we identify functionally important regions within the S-domain. Moreover, we show that NFeoB exists as a monomer in solution, and that its two constituent domains can undergo large conformational changes. The data show that the S-domain plays important roles in FeoB function.

  19. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J.; Nguyen, Diep M.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Benn, Robert A.; Prybol, Cameron J.; Vaccaro, Brian J.; Poole, Farris L.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways. PMID:25368184

  20. Probing the mechanism of rubredoxin thermal unfolding in the absence of salt bridges by temperature jump experiments.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Bárbara J; Saraiva, Lígia M; Gomes, Cláudio M

    2005-08-05

    Rubredoxins are the simplest type of iron-sulphur proteins and in recent years they have been used as model systems in protein folding and stability studies, especially the proteins from thermophilic sources. Here, we report our studies on the rubredoxin from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii (T opt = 85 degrees C), which was investigated in respect to its thermal unfolding kinetics by temperature jump experiments. Different spectroscopic probes were used to monitor distinct structural protein features during the thermal transition: the integrity of the iron-sulphur centre was monitored by visible absorption spectroscopy, whereas tertiary structure was followed by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and exposure of protein hydrophobic patches was sensed by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate fluorescence. The studies were performed at acidic pH conditions in which any stabilising contributions from salt bridges are annulled due to protonation of protein side chain groups. In these conditions, M. jannaschii rubredoxin assumes a native-like, albeit more flexible and open conformation, as indicated by a red shift in the tryptophan emission maximum and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate binding. Temperature jumps were monitored by the three distinct techniques and showed that the protein undergoes thermal denaturation via a simple two step mechanism, as loss of tertiary structure, hydrophobic collapse, and disintegration of the iron-sulphur centre are concomitant processes. The proposed mechanism is framed with the multiphasic one proposed for Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin, showing that a common thermal unfolding mechanism is not observed between these two closely related thermophilic rubredoxins.

  1. Extending the sub-sea-floor biosphere.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Bonavita, Marie-Anne Cambon; Querellou, Joël; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Prieur, Daniel; Parkes, R John

    2008-05-23

    Sub-sea-floor sediments may contain two-thirds of Earth's total prokaryotic biomass. However, this has its basis in data extrapolation from ~500-meter to 4-kilometer depths, whereas the deepest documented prokaryotes are from only 842 meters. Here, we provide evidence for low concentrations of living prokaryotic cells in the deepest (1626 meters below the sea floor), oldest (111 million years old), and potentially hottest (~100 degrees C) marine sediments investigated. These Newfoundland margin sediments also have DNA sequences related to thermophilic and/or hyperthermophilic Archaea. These form two unique clusters within Pyrococcus and Thermococcus genera, suggesting unknown, uncultured groups are present in deep, hot, marine sediments (~54 degrees to 100 degrees C). Sequences of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea were also present, suggesting a deep biosphere partly supported by methane. These findings demonstrate that the sub-sea-floor biosphere extends to at least 1600 meters below the sea floor and probably deeper, given an upper temperature limit for prokaryotic life of at least 113 degrees C and increasing thermogenic energy supply with depth.

  2. Role of Mn2+ and compatible solutes in the radiation resistance of thermophilic bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Webb, Kimberly M; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-resistant bacteria have garnered a great deal of attention from scientists seeking to expose the mechanisms underlying their incredible survival abilities. Recent analyses showed that the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum is dependent upon Mn-antioxidant complexes responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiation. Here we examined the role of the compatible solutes trehalose, mannosylglycerate, and di-myo-inositol phosphate in the radiation resistance of aerobic and anaerobic thermophiles. We found that the IR resistance of the thermophilic bacteria Rubrobacter xylanophilus and Rubrobacter radiotolerans was highly correlated to the accumulation of high intracellular concentration of trehalose in association with Mn, supporting the model of Mn(2+)-dependent ROS scavenging in the aerobes. In contrast, the hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus gammatolerans and Pyrococcus furiosus did not contain significant amounts of intracellular Mn, and we found no significant antioxidant activity from mannosylglycerate and di-myo-inositol phosphate in vitro. We therefore propose that the low levels of IR-generated ROS under anaerobic conditions combined with highly constitutively expressed detoxification systems in these anaerobes are key to their radiation resistance and circumvent the need for the accumulation of Mn-antioxidant complexes in the cell.

  3. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    SciTech Connect

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  4. Engineering hydrogen gas production from formate in a hyperthermophile by heterologous production of an 18-subunit membrane-bound complex.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Gina L; Schut, Gerrit J; Thorgersen, Michael P; Nixon, William J; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2014-01-31

    Biohydrogen gas has enormous potential as a source of reductant for the microbial production of biofuels, but its low solubility and poor gas mass transfer rates are limiting factors. These limitations could be circumvented by engineering biofuel production in microorganisms that are also capable of generating H2 from highly soluble chemicals such as formate, which can function as an electron donor. Herein, the model hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally near 100 °C by fermenting sugars to produce H2, has been engineered to also efficiently convert formate to H2. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome vector, the 16.9-kb 18-gene cluster encoding the membrane-bound, respiratory formate hydrogen lyase complex of Thermococcus onnurineus was inserted into the P. furiosus chromosome and expressed as a functional unit. This enabled P. furiosus to utilize formate as well as sugars as an H2 source and to do so at both 80° and 95 °C, near the optimum growth temperature of the donor (T. onnurineus) and engineered host (P. furiosus), respectively. This accomplishment also demonstrates the versatility of P. furiosus for metabolic engineering applications.

  5. A First Analysis of Metallome Biosignatures of Hyperthermophilic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Vyllinniskii; House, Christopher H.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no experimental data has been reported for the metallome of hyperthermophilic microorganisms although their metal requirements for growth are known to be unique. Here, experiments were conducted to determine (i) cellular trace metal concentrations of the hyperthermophilic Archaea Methanococcus jannaschii and Pyrococcus furiosus, and (ii) a first estimate of the metallome for these hyperthermophilic species via ICP-MS. The metal contents of these cells were compared to parallel experiments using the mesophilic bacterium Escherichia coli grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Fe and Zn were typically the most abundant metals in cells. Metal concentrations for E. coli grown aerobically decreased in the order Fe > Zn > Cu > Mo > Ni > W > Co. In contrast, M. jannaschii and P. furiosus show almost the reverse pattern with elevated Ni, Co, and W concentrations. Of the three organisms, a biosignature is potentially demonstrated for the methanogen M. jannaschii that may, in part, be related to the metallome requirements of methanogenesis. The bioavailability of trace metals more than likely has varied through time. If hyperthermophiles are very ancient, then the trace metal patterns observed here may begin to provide some insights regarding Earth's earliest cells and in turn, early Earth chemistry. PMID:23243390

  6. Cloning and Characterization of an alpha-amylase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus Thioreducens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Mark L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular alpha-amylase, TTA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Primary structural analysis revealed high similarity with other a-amylases from the Thermococcus and Pyrococcus genera, as well as the four highly conserved regions typical for a-amylases. The 1374 bp gene encodes a protein of 457 amino acids, of which 435 constitute the mature protein preceded by a 22 amino acid signal peptide. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 43 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Maximal enzymatic activity of recombinant TTA was observed at 90 C and pH 5.5 in the absence of exogenous Ca(2+), and the enzyme was considerably stable even after incubation at 90 C for 2 hours. The thermostability at 90 and 102 C was enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+). The extraordinarily high specific activity (about 7.4 x 10(exp 3) U/mg protein at 90 C, pH 5.5 with soluble starch as substrate) together with its low pH optimum makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for starch processing applications.

  7. Cloning and Characterization of an Alpha-amylase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus Thioreducens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Marc L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular a-amylase, TTA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Primary structural analysis revealed high similarity with other a-amylases from the Thermococcus and Pyrococcus genera, as well as the four highly conserved regions typical for a-amylases. The 1374 bp gene encodes a protein of 457 amino acids, of which 435 constitute the mature protein preceded by a 22 amino acid signal peptide. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 43 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Maximal enzymatic activity of recombinant TTA was observed at 90 C and pH 5.5 in the absence of exogenous Ca(2+), and the enzyme was considerably stable even after incubation at 90 C for 2 hours. The thermostability at 90 and 102 C was enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+). The extraordinarily high specific activity (about 7.4 x 10(exp 3) U/mg protein at 90 C, pH 5.5 with soluble starch as substrate) together with its low pH optimum makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for starch processing applications.

  8. Bipartite recognition of target RNAs activates DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR–Cas system

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Joshua R.; Sheppard, Nolan F.; Ramia, Nancy; Deighan, Trace; Li, Hong; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR–Cas systems eliminate nucleic acid invaders in bacteria and archaea. The effector complex of the Type III-B Cmr system cleaves invader RNAs recognized by the CRISPR RNA (crRNA ) of the complex. Here we show that invader RNAs also activate the Cmr complex to cleave DNA. As has been observed for other Type III systems, Cmr eliminates plasmid invaders in Pyrococcus furiosus by a mechanism that depends on transcription of the crRNA target sequence within the plasmid. Notably, we found that the target RNA per se induces DNA cleavage by the Cmr complex in vitro. DNA cleavage activity does not depend on cleavage of the target RNA but notably does require the presence of a short sequence adjacent to the target sequence within the activating target RNA (rPAM [RNA protospacer-adjacent motif]). The activated complex does not require a target sequence (or a PAM) in the DNA substrate. Plasmid elimination by the P. furiosus Cmr system also does not require the Csx1 (CRISPR-associated Rossman fold [CARF] superfamily) protein. Plasmid silencing depends on the HD nuclease and Palm domains of the Cmr2 (Cas10 superfamily) protein. The results establish the Cmr complex as a novel DNA nuclease activated by invader RNAs containing a crRNA target sequence and a rPAM. PMID:26848045

  9. Production of chitooligosaccharides from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710 cells by chitosanase digestion.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Maria; Shinya, Shoko; Masaki, Eiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Brzezinski, Ryszard; Mazumder, Tapan K; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Narihiro, Kazue; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2014-01-13

    The intact cells of Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710, whose cell walls are abundant source of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN), were digested with three chitinolytic enzymes, a GH-46 chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174 (CsnN174), a chitinase from Pyrococcus furiosus, and a chitinase from Trichoderma viride, respectively. Solubilization of the intact cells by CsnN174 was found to be the most efficient from solid state CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Chitosanase products from Rhizopus cells were purified by cation exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 and gel-filtration on Cellulofine Gcl-25m. NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses of the purified products revealed that GlcN-GlcNAc, (GlcN)2-GlcNAc, and (GlcN)2 were produced by the enzymatic digestion of the intact cells. The chitosanase digestion of Rhizopus cells was found to be an excellent system for the conversion of fungal biomass without any environmental impact.

  10. Regulation of riboflavin biosynthesis and transport genes in bacteria by transcriptional and translational attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Vitreschak, Alexey G.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Mironov, Andrey A.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2002-01-01

    The riboflavin biosynthesis in bacteria was analyzed using comparative analysis of genes, operons and regulatory elements. A model for regulation based on formation of alternative RNA structures involving the RFN elements is suggested. In Gram-positive bacteria including actinomycetes, Thermotoga, Thermus and Deinococcus, the riboflavin metabolism and transport genes are predicted to be regulated by transcriptional attenuation, whereas in most Gram-negative bacteria, the riboflavin biosynthesis genes seem to be regulated on the level of translation initiation. Several new candidate riboflavin transporters were identified (impX in Desulfitobacterium halfniense and Fusobacterium nucleatum; pnuX in several actinomycetes, including some Corynebacterium species and Strepto myces coelicolor; rfnT in Rhizobiaceae). Traces of a number of likely horizontal transfer events were found: the complete riboflavin operon with the upstream regulatory element was transferred to Haemophilus influenzae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from some Gram-positive bacterium; non-regulated riboflavin operon in Pyrococcus furiousus was likely transferred from Thermotoga; and the RFN element was inserted into the riboflavin operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from some other Pseudomonas species, where it had regulated the ribH2 gene. PMID:12136096

  11. An extra dimension in protein tagging by quantifying universal proteotypic peptides using targeted proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Vandemoortele, Giel; Staes, An; Gonnelli, Giulia; Samyn, Noortje; De Sutter, Delphine; Vandermarliere, Elien; Timmerman, Evy; Gevaert, Kris; Martens, Lennart; Eyckerman, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The use of protein tagging to facilitate detailed characterization of target proteins has not only revolutionized cell biology, but also enabled biochemical analysis through efficient recovery of the protein complexes wherein the tagged proteins reside. The endogenous use of these tags for detailed protein characterization is widespread in lower organisms that allow for efficient homologous recombination. With the recent advances in genome engineering, tagging of endogenous proteins is now within reach for most experimental systems, including mammalian cell lines cultures. In this work, we describe the selection of peptides with ideal mass spectrometry characteristics for use in quantification of tagged proteins using targeted proteomics. We mined the proteome of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus to obtain two peptides that are unique in the proteomes of all known model organisms (proteotypic) and allow sensitive quantification of target proteins in a complex background. By combining these ’Proteotypic peptides for Quantification by SRM’ (PQS peptides) with epitope tags, we demonstrate their use in co-immunoprecipitation experiments upon transfection of protein pairs, or after introduction of these tags in the endogenous proteins through genome engineering. Endogenous protein tagging for absolute quantification provides a powerful extra dimension to protein analysis, allowing the detailed characterization of endogenous proteins. PMID:27264994

  12. Development of Novel Sugar Isomerases by Optimization of Active Sites in Phosphosugar Isomerases for Monosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yeong-Su

    2013-01-01

    Phosphosugar isomerases can catalyze the isomerization of not only phosphosugar but also of monosaccharides, suggesting that the phosphosugar isomerases can be used as sugar isomerases that do not exist in nature. Determination of active-site residues of phosphosugar isomerases, including ribose-5-phosphate isomerase from Clostridium difficile (CDRPI), mannose-6-phosphate isomerase from Bacillus subtilis (BSMPI), and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PFGPI), was accomplished by docking of monosaccharides onto the structure models of the isomerases. The determinant residues, including Arg133 of CDRPI, Arg192 of BSMPI, and Thr85 of PFGPI, were subjected to alanine substitutions and found to act as phosphate-binding sites. R133D of CDRPI, R192 of BSMPI, and T85Q of PFGPI displayed the highest catalytic efficiencies for monosaccharides at each position. These residues exhibited 1.8-, 3.5-, and 4.9-fold higher catalytic efficiencies, respectively, for the monosaccharides than the wild-type enzyme. However, the activities of these 3 variant enzymes for phosphosugars as the original substrates disappeared. Thus, R133D of CDRPI, R192 of BSMPI, and T85Q of PFGPI are no longer phosphosugar isomerases; instead, they are changed to a d-ribose isomerase, an l-ribose isomerase, and an l-talose isomerase, respectively. In this study, we used substrate-tailored optimization to develop novel sugar isomerases which are not found in nature based on phosphosugar isomerases. PMID:23204422

  13. Structural and functional analyses of an archaeal XPF/Rad1/Mus81 nuclease: asymmetric DNA binding and cleavage mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Tatsuya; Komori, Kayoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2005-08-01

    XPF/Rad1/Mus81/Hef proteins recognize and cleave branched DNA structures. XPF and Rad1 proteins cleave the 5' side of nucleotide excision repair bubble, while Mus81 and Hef cleave similar sites of the nicked Holliday junction, fork, or flap structure. These proteins all function as dimers and consist of catalytic and helix-hairpin-helix DNA binding (HhH) domains. We have determined the crystal structure of the HhH domain of Pyrococcus furiosus Hef nuclease (HefHhH), which revealed the distinct mode of protein dimerization. Our structural and biochemical analyses also showed that each of the catalytic and HhH domains binds to distinct regions within the fork-structured DNA: each HhH domain from two separate subunits asymmetrically binds to the arm region, while the catalytic domain binds near the junction center. Upon binding to DNA, Hef nuclease disrupts base pairs near the cleavage site. It is most likely that this bipartite binding mode is conserved in the XPF/Rad1/Mus81 nuclease family.

  14. Insights on how the activity of an endoglucanase is affected by physical properties of insoluble celluloses.

    PubMed

    Bragatto, Juliano; Segato, Fernando; Cota, Junio; Mello, Danilo B; Oliveira, Marcelo M; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Squina, Fabio M; Driemeier, Carlos

    2012-05-31

    Cellulose physical properties like crystallinity, porosity, and particle size are known to influence cellulase activity, but knowledge is still insufficient for activity prediction from such measurable substrate characteristics. With the aim of illuminating enzyme-substrate relationships, this work evaluates a purified hyperthermophilic endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (from Pyrococcus furiosus) acting on 13 celluloses characterized for crystallinity and crystal width (by X-ray diffraction), wet porosity (by thermoporometry), and particle size (by light scattering). Activities are analyzed by the Michaelis-Menten kinetic equation, which is justified by low enzyme-substrate affinity. Michaelis-Menten coefficients K(m) and k(cat) are reinterpreted in the context of heterogeneous cellulose hydrolysis. For a set of as-received and milled microcrystalline celluloses, activity is successfully described as a function of accessible substrate concentration, with accessibility proportional to K(m)(-1). Accessibility contribution from external particle areas, pore areas, and crystalline packing are discriminated to have comparable magnitudes, implying that activity prediction demands all these substrate properties to be considered. Results additionally suggest that looser crystalline packing increases the lengths of released cello-oligomers as well as the maximum endoglucanase specific activity (k(cat)).

  15. The Achilles' Heel of "Ultrastable" Hyperthermophile Proteins: Submillimolar Concentrations of SDS Stimulate Rapid Conformational Change, Aggregation, and Amyloid Formation in Proteins Carrying Overall Positive Charge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed M; Sharma, Prerna; Arora, Kanika; Kishor, Nitin; Kaila, Pallavi; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2016-07-19

    Low concentrations (<3.0 mM) of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) have been shown to induce the formation of amyloid fibers in more than 20 different mesophile-derived proteins in the cationic state. It is not known whether SDS has similar effects on hyperthermophile-derived proteins, which are otherwise thought to be "ultrastable" and inordinately resistant to structural perturbations at room temperature. Here, we show that low (<4.5 mM) concentrations of SDS rapidly induce the formation of aggregates and amyloid fibers in five different ultrastable Pyrococcus furiosus proteins in the cationic state. We also show that amyloid formation is accompanied by the development of a characteristic, negative circular dichroism band at ∼230 nm. These effects are not seen if the proteins have a net negative charge or when higher concentrations of SDS are used (which induce helix formation instead). Our results appear to reveal a potential weakness or "Achilles' heel" in ultrastable proteins from hyperthermophiles. They also provide very strong support for the view that SDS initially interacts with proteins through electrostatic interactions, and not hydrophobic interactions, eliciting similar effects entirely regardless of protein molecular weight, or structural features such as quaternary structure or tertiary structural stability.

  16. A New Class of Tungsten-Containing Oxidoreductase in Caldicellulosiruptor, a Genus of Plant Biomass-Degrading Thermophilic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Israel M.; Rubinstein, Gabe M.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J.; Rhaesa, Amanda M.; Lancaster, W. Andrew; Poole, Farris L.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor bescii grows optimally at 78°C and is able to decompose high concentrations of lignocellulosic plant biomass without the need for thermochemical pretreatment. C. bescii ferments both C5 and C6 sugars primarily to hydrogen gas, lactate, acetate, and CO2 and is of particular interest for metabolic engineering applications given the recent availability of a genetic system. Developing optimal strains for technological use requires a detailed understanding of primary metabolism, particularly when the goal is to divert all available reductant (electrons) toward highly reduced products such as biofuels. During an analysis of the C. bescii genome sequence for oxidoreductase-type enzymes, evidence was uncovered to suggest that the primary redox metabolism of C. bescii has a completely uncharacterized aspect involving tungsten, a rarely used element in biology. An active tungsten utilization pathway in C. bescii was demonstrated by the heterologous production of a tungsten-requiring, aldehyde-oxidizing enzyme (AOR) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Furthermore, C. bescii also contains a tungsten-based AOR-type enzyme, here termed XOR, which is phylogenetically unique, representing a completely new member of the AOR tungstoenzyme family. Moreover, in C. bescii, XOR represents ca. 2% of the cytoplasmic protein. XOR is proposed to play a key, but as yet undetermined, role in the primary redox metabolism of this cellulolytic microorganism. PMID:26276113

  17. Accurate placement of substrate RNA by Gar1 in H/ACA RNA-guided pseudouridylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Lijiang; Gao, Yi Qin; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2015-01-01

    H/ACA RNA-guided ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP), the most complicated RNA pseudouridylase so far known, uses H/ACA guide RNA for substrate capture and four proteins (Cbf5, Nop10, L7Ae and Gar1) for pseudouridylation. Although it was shown that Gar1 not only facilitates the product release, but also enhances the catalytic activity, the chemical role that Gar1 plays in this complicated machinery is largely unknown. Kinetics measurement on Pyrococcus furiosus RNPs at different temperatures making use of fluorescence anisotropy showed that Gar1 reduces the catalytic barrier through affecting the activation entropy instead of enthalpy. Site-directed mutagenesis combined with molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that V149 in the thumb loop of Cbf5 is critical in placing the target uridine to the right position toward catalytic D85 of Cbf5. The enzyme elegantly aligns the position of uridine in the catalytic site with the help of Gar1. In addition, conversion of uridine to pseudouridine results in a rigid syn configuration of the target nucleotide in the active site and causes Gar1 to pull out the thumb. Both factors guarantee the efficient release of the product. PMID:26206671

  18. Thermodynamic stability and folding of proteins from hyperthermophilic organisms.

    PubMed

    Luke, Kathryn A; Higgins, Catherine L; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2007-08-01

    Life grows almost everywhere on earth, including in extreme environments and under harsh conditions. Organisms adapted to high temperatures are called thermophiles (growth temperature 45-75 degrees C) and hyperthermophiles (growth temperature >or= 80 degrees C). Proteins from such organisms usually show extreme thermal stability, despite having folded structures very similar to their mesostable counterparts. Here, we summarize the current data on thermodynamic and kinetic folding/unfolding behaviors of proteins from hyperthermophilic microorganisms. In contrast to thermostable proteins, rather few (i.e. less than 20) hyperthermostable proteins have been thoroughly characterized in terms of their in vitro folding processes and their thermodynamic stability profiles. Examples that will be discussed include co-chaperonin proteins, iron-sulfur-cluster proteins, and DNA-binding proteins from hyperthermophilic bacteria (i.e. Aquifex and Theromotoga) and archea (e.g. Pyrococcus, Thermococcus, Methanothermus and Sulfolobus). Despite the small set of studied systems, it is clear that super-slow protein unfolding is a dominant strategy to allow these proteins to function at extreme temperatures.

  19. Evolution of tRNAPhe:imG2 methyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of wyosine derivatives in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Urbonavičius, Jaunius; Rutkienė, Rasa; Lopato, Anželika; Tauraitė, Daiva; Stankevičiūtė, Jonita; Aučynaitė, Agota; Kaliniene, Laura; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Meškys, Rolandas

    2016-01-01

    Tricyclic wyosine derivatives are found at position 37 of eukaryotic and archaeal tRNAPhe. In Archaea, the intermediate imG-14 is targeted by three different enzymes that catalyze the formation of yW-86, imG, and imG2. We have suggested previously that a peculiar methyltransferase (aTrm5a/Taw22) likely catalyzes two distinct reactions: N1-methylation of guanosine to yield m1G; and C7-methylation of imG-14 to yield imG2. Here we show that the recombinant aTrm5a/Taw22-like enzymes from both Pyrococcus abyssi and Nanoarchaeum equitans indeed possess such dual specificity. We also show that substitutions of individual conservative amino acids of P. abyssi Taw22 (P260N, E173A, and R174A) have a differential effect on the formation of m1G/imG2, while replacement of R134, F165, E213, and P262 with alanine abolishes the formation of both derivatives of G37. We further demonstrate that aTrm5a-type enzyme SSO2439 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, which has no N1-methyltransferase activity, exhibits C7-methyltransferase activity, thereby producing imG2 from imG-14. We thus suggest renaming such aTrm5a methyltransferases as Taw21 to distinguish between monofunctional and bifunctional aTrm5a enzymes. PMID:27852927

  20. Enzymatic production of hydrogen from glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this research is to optimize conditions for the enzymatic production of hydrogen gas from biomass-derived glucose. This new project is funded at 0.5 PY level of effort for FY 1995. The rationale for the work is that cellulose is, potentially, a vast source of hydrogen and that enzymes offer a specific and efficient method for its extraction with minimal environmental impact. This work is related to the overall hydrogen program goal of technology development and validation. The approach is based on knowledge that glucose is oxidized by the NADP{sup +} requiring enzyme glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and that the resulting NADPH can donate its electrons to hydrogenase (H{sub 2}ase) which catalyzes the evolution of H{sub 2}. Thus hydrogen production from glucose was achieved using calf liver GDH and Pyrococcus furiosus H{sub 2}ase yielding 17% of theoretical maximum expected. The cofactor NADP{sup +} for this reaction was regenerated and recycled. Current and future work includes understanding the rate limiting steps of this process and the stabilization/immobilization of the enzymes for long term hydrogen production. Cooperative interactions with the Universities of Georgia and Bath for obtaining thermally stable enzymes are underway.

  1. Salt-mediated electrostatics in the association of TATA binding proteins to DNA: a combined molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann study.

    PubMed

    Bredenberg, Johan H; Russo, Cristina; Fenley, Marcia O

    2008-06-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a key component of the archaea ternary preinitiation transcription assembly. The archaeon TBP, from the halophile/hyperthermophile organism Pyrococcus woesei, is adapted to high concentrations of salt and high-temperature environments. Although most eukaryotic TBPs are mesophilic and adapted to physiological conditions of temperature and salt, they are very similar to their halophilic counterparts in sequence and fold. However, whereas the binding affinity to DNA of halophilic TBPs increases with increasing salt concentration, the opposite is observed for mesophilic TBPs. We investigated these differences in nonspecific salt-dependent DNA-binding behavior of halophilic and mesophilic TBPs by using a combined molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann approach. Our results are qualitatively in good agreement with experimentally observed salt-dependent DNA-binding for mesophilic and halophilic TBPs, and suggest that the distribution and the total number of charged residues may be the main underlying contributor in the association process. Therefore, the difference in the salt-dependent binding behavior of mesophilic and halophilic TBPs to DNA may be due to the very unique charge and electrostatic potential distribution of these TBPs, which consequently alters the number of repulsive and attractive electrostatic interactions.

  2. Effects of Metal Ions on Stability and Activity of Hyperthermophilic Pyrolysin and Further Stabilization of This Enzyme by Modification of a Ca2+-Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Gao, Xiaowei; Dai, Zheng; Tang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysin is an extracellular subtilase produced by the marine hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. This enzyme functions at high temperatures in seawater, but little is known about the effects of metal ions on the properties of pyrolysin. Here, we report that the supplementation of Na+, Ca2+, or Mg2+ salts at concentrations similar to those in seawater destabilizes recombinant pyrolysin but leads to an increase in enzyme activity. The destabilizing effect of metal ions on pyrolysin appears to be related to the disturbance of surface electrostatic interactions of the enzyme. In addition, mutational analysis of two predicted high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites (Ca1 and Ca2) revealed that the binding of Ca2+ is important for the stabilization of this enzyme. Interestingly, Asn substitutions at residues Asp818 and Asp820 of the Ca2 site, which is located in the C-terminal extension of pyrolysin, resulted in improvements in both enzyme thermostability and activity without affecting Ca2+-binding affinity. These effects were most likely due to the elimination of unfavorable electrostatic repulsion at the Ca2 site. Together, these results suggest that metal ions play important roles in modulating the stability and activity of pyrolysin. PMID:24561589

  3. RNase H-dependent PCR (rhPCR): improved specificity and single nucleotide polymorphism detection using blocked cleavable primers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly used to detect the presence of nucleic acid sequences both in research and diagnostic settings. While high specificity is often achieved, biological requirements sometimes necessitate that primers are placed in suboptimal locations which lead to problems with the formation of primer dimers and/or misamplification of homologous sequences. Results Pyrococcus abyssi (P.a.) RNase H2 was used to enable PCR to be performed using blocked primers containing a single ribonucleotide residue which are activated via cleavage by the enzyme (rhPCR). Cleavage occurs 5'-to the RNA base following primer hybridization to the target DNA. The requirement of the primer to first hybridize with the target sequence to gain activity eliminates the formation of primer-dimers and greatly reduces misamplification of closely related sequences. Mismatches near the scissile linkage decrease the efficiency of cleavage by RNase H2, further increasing the specificity of the assay. When applied to the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rhPCR was found to be far more sensitive than standard allele-specific PCR. In general, the best discrimination occurs when the mismatch is placed at the RNA:DNA base pair. Conclusion rhPCR eliminates the formation of primer dimers and markedly improves the specificity of PCR with respect to off-target amplification. These advantages of the assay should find utility in challenging qPCR applications such as genotyping, high level multiplex assays and rare allele detection. PMID:21831278

  4. RNA at 92°C

    PubMed Central

    Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Ott, Alban; Crozat, Estelle; Nguyen, An N.; Zytnicki, Matthias; Leclerc, Fabrice; Forterre, Patrick; Bouloc, Philippe; Gautheret, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The non-coding transcriptome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi is investigated using the RNA-seq technology. A dedicated computational pipeline analyzes RNA-seq reads and prior genome annotation to identify small RNAs, untranslated regions of mRNAs, and cis-encoded antisense transcripts. Unlike other archaea, such as Sulfolobus and Halobacteriales, P. abyssi produces few leaderless mRNA transcripts. Antisense transcription is widespread (215 transcripts) and targets protein-coding genes that appear to evolve more rapidly than average genes. We identify at least three novel H/ACA-like guide RNAs among the newly characterized non-coding RNAs. Long 5′ UTRs in mRNAs of ribosomal proteins and amino-acid biosynthesis genes strongly suggest the presence of cis-regulatory leaders in these mRNAs. We selected a high-interest subset of non-coding RNAs based on their strong promoters, high GC-content, phylogenetic conservation, or abundance. Some of the novel small RNAs and long 5′ UTRs display high GC contents, suggesting unknown structural RNA functions. However, we were surprised to observe that most of the high-interest RNAs are AU-rich, which suggests an absence of stable secondary structure in the high-temperature environment of P. abyssi. Yet, these transcripts display other hallmarks of functionality, such as high expression or high conservation, which leads us to consider possible RNA functions that do not require extensive secondary structure. PMID:23884177

  5. Comparative structural biology of eubacterial and archaeal oligosaccharyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Maita, Nobuo; Nyirenda, James; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Kohda, Daisuke

    2010-02-12

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the transfer of an oligosaccharide from a lipid donor to an asparagine residue in nascent polypeptide chains. In the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, a single-subunit membrane protein, PglB, catalyzes N-glycosylation. We report the 2.8 A resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of PglB and its comparison with the previously determined structure from the archaeon Pyrococcus AglB. The two distantly related oligosaccharyltransferases share unexpected structural similarity beyond that expected from the sequence comparison. The common architecture of the putative catalytic sites revealed a new catalytic motif in PglB. Site-directed mutagenesis analyses confirmed the contribution of this motif to the catalytic function. Bacterial PglB and archaeal AglB constitute a protein family of the catalytic subunit of OST along with STT3 from eukaryotes. A structure-aided multiple sequence alignment of the STT3/PglB/AglB protein family revealed three types of OST catalytic centers. This novel classification will provide a useful framework for understanding the enzymatic properties of the OST enzymes from Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria.

  6. Selective control of oligosaccharide transfer efficiency for the N-glycosylation sequon by a point mutation in oligosaccharyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Igura, Mayumi; Kohda, Daisuke

    2011-04-15

    Asn-linked glycosylation is the most ubiquitous posttranslational protein modification in eukaryotes and archaea, and in some eubacteria. Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. Inefficient oligosaccharide transfer results in glycoprotein heterogeneity, which is particularly bothersome in pharmaceutical glycoprotein production. Amino acid variation at the X position of the Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon is known to modulate the glycosylation efficiency. The best amino acid at X is valine, for an archaeal Pyrococcus furiosus OST. We performed a systematic alanine mutagenesis study of the archaeal OST to identify the essential and dispensable amino acid residues in the three catalytic motifs. We then investigated the effects of the dispensable mutations on the amino acid preference in the N-glycosylation sequon. One residue position was found to selectively affect the amino acid preference at the X position. This residue is located within the recently identified DXXKXXX(M/I) motif, suggesting the involvement of this motif in N-glycosylation sequon recognition. In applications, mutations at this position may facilitate the design of OST variants adapted to particular N-glycosylation sites to reduce the heterogeneity of glycan occupancy. In fact, a mutation at this position led to 9-fold higher activity relative to the wild-type enzyme, toward a peptide containing arginine at X in place of valine. This mutational approach is potentially applicable to eukaryotic and eubacterial OSTs for the production of homogenous glycoproteins in engineered mammalian and Escherichia coli cells.

  7. New oligosaccharyltransferase assay method.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2007-11-01

    We developed a new in vitro assay for oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. The asparagine residues reside in the sequon, Asn-X-Thr/Ser, where X can be any amino acid residue except Pro. We demonstrate the potency of our assay using the OST from yeast. In our method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate the glycopeptide products from the peptide substrates. The substrate peptide is fluorescently labeled and the formation of glycopeptides is analyzed by fluorescence gel imaging. Two in vitro OST assay methods are now widely used, but both the methods depend on previous knowledge of the oligosaccharide moiety: One method uses lectin binding as the separation mechanism and the other method uses biosynthetically or chemoenzymatically synthesized lipid-linked oligosaccharides as donors. N-linked protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life, but little is known about the N-glycosylation in Archaea. Thus, our new assay, which does not require a priori knowledge of the oligosaccharides, will be useful in such cases. Indeed, we have detected the OST activity in the membrane fraction from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus.

  8. A New Thermophilic Nitrilase from an Antarctic Hyperthermophilic Microorganism.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Geraldine V; Blamey, Jenny M

    2016-01-01

    Several environmental samples from Antarctica were collected and enriched to search for microorganisms with nitrilase activity. A new thermostable nitrilase from a novel hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus sp. M24D13 was purified and characterized. The activity of this enzyme increased as the temperatures rise from 70 up to 85°C. Its optimal activity occurred at 85°C and pH 7.5. This new enzyme shows a remarkable resistance to thermal inactivation retaining more than 50% of its activity even after 8 h of incubation at 85°C. In addition, this nitrilase is highly versatile demonstrating activity toward different substrates, such as benzonitrile (60 mM, aromatic nitrile) and butyronitrile (60 mM, aliphatic nitrile), with a specific activity of 3286.7 U mg(-1) of protein and 4008.2 U mg(-1) of protein, respectively. Moreover the enzyme NitM24D13 also presents cyanidase activity. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K m) and V máx of this Nitrilase for benzonitrile were 0.3 mM and 333.3 μM min(-1), respectively, and the specificity constant (k cat/K m) for benzonitrile was 2.05 × 10(5) s(-1) M(-1).

  9. Quantitative assessment of the preferences for the amino acid residues flanking archaeal N-linked glycosylation sites.

    PubMed

    Igura, Mayumi; Kohda, Daisuke

    2011-05-01

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the transfer of an oligosaccharide to an asparagine residue in polypeptide chains. Using positional scanning peptide libraries, we assessed the effects of amino acid variations on the in vitro glycosylation efficiency within and adjacent to an N-glycosylation consensus, Asn-X-Ser/Thr, with an archaeal OST from Pyrococcus furiosus. The amino acid variations at the X(-2), X(-1) and X(+1) positions in the sequence X(-2)-X(-1)-Asn-X-Ser/Thr-X(+1) strongly influenced the glycosylation efficiency to a similar extent at position X. The rank orders of the amino acid preferences were unique at each site. We experimentally confirmed that the archaeal OST does not require an acidic residue at the -2 position, unlike the eubacterial OSTs. Pro was disfavored at the -1 and +1 positions, although the exclusion was not as strict as that at X, whereas Pro was the most favored amino acid residue among those studied at the -2 position. The overall amino acid preferences are correlated with a conformational propensity to extend around the sequon. The results of the library experiments revealed that the optimal acceptor sequence was PYNVTK, with a K(m) of 10 µM. The heat-stable, single-subunit OST of P. furiosus is a potential candidate enzyme for the production of recombinant glycoproteins in bacterial cells. Quantitative assessment of the amino acid preferences of the OST enzyme will facilitate the proper design of a production system.

  10. Characterization of PCR products from bacilli using electrospray ionization FTICR mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Muddiman, D.C.; Liu, C.; Pasa-Tolic, L.; Anderson, G.A.; Smith, R.D.; Wunschel, D.S.; Fox, K.F.; Fox, A.

    1996-11-01

    A procedure for rapid purification of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products allowing precise molecular weight determination using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry is described. PCR amplification utilized the DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) which , unlike Taq, does not incorporate a nontemplated terminal deoxyadenosine phosphate. An 89-base pair nucleotide portion of the spacer region between the 16S and 23S ribosomal rRNA genes was amplified from the genome of three members of Bacillus cereus group and a 114 nucleotide region from the Bacillus subtilis. PCR involves polymerization of nucleotide precursors using two oligonucleotide primers and an amplification enzyme, as well as the presence of metal ions. The molecular weights of the PCR products determined by nucleotide sequence and MS analysis were in excellent agreement, and several PCR products were analyzed where mass differences corresponding to single base substitutions could be accurately assigned. These assignments were possible due to the high mass precision, accuracy, and resolution FTICR inherently affords. This constitutes the first report demonstrating the ionization and detection of PCR products by mass spectrometry with mass precision and accuracy for assignment of such modifications or substitutions. 45 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Proton Inventory and Dynamics in the Nia-S to Nia-C Transition of a [NiFe] Hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Greene, Brandon L; Wu, Chang-Hao; Vansuch, Gregory E; Adams, Michael W W; Dyer, R Brian

    2016-03-29

    Hydrogenases (H2ases) represent one of the most striking examples of biological proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) chemistry, functioning in facile proton reduction and H2 oxidation involving long-range proton and electron transport. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of the [NiFe] H2ases have identified several catalytic intermediates, but the details of their interconversion are still a matter of debate. Here we use steady state and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, sensitive to the CO ligand of the active site iron, as a probe of the proton inventory as well as electron and proton transfer dynamics in the soluble hydrogenase I from Pyrococcus furiosus. Subtle shifts in infrared signatures associated with the Nia-C and Nia-S states as a function of pH revealed an acid-base equilibrium associated with an ionizable amino acid near the active site. Protonation of this residue was found to correlate with the photoproduct distribution that results from hydride photolysis of the Nia-C state, in which one of the two photoproduct states becomes inaccessible at low pH. Additionally, the ability to generate Nia-S via PCET from Nia-C was weakened at low pH, suggesting prior protonation of the proton acceptor. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of electron and proton transfer with respect to the various proton inventories was utilized to develop a chemical model for reversible hydride oxidation involving two intermediates differing in their hydrogen bonding character.

  12. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area. PMID:26494982

  13. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Cecilia R; Patrick, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area.

  14. The orientation of DNA in an archaeal transcription initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, M S; Thomm, M; Geiduschek, E P

    2000-09-01

    RNA polymerase from the hyperthermophile archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) forms specific and transcriptionally active complexes with its conjugate transcription factors TBP (the archaeal TATA binding protein homolog) and TFB (the archaeal homolog of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II and III transcription factors TFIIB and Brf) at the Pfu glutamate dehydrogenase promoter. A photochemical crosslinking method was used to map the vicinity of the catalytic subunits of Pfu RNA polymerase to DNA locations distributed along the polymerase-promoter interface. The largest component of this archaeal polymerase is split into two subunits, A' and A", whose relatively sharp boundary of DNA crosslinking (probed on the transcribed strand) is centered five to six base pairs downstream of the transcriptional start site. A strong argument based on this information, on the well-defined homology between the core bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic RNA polymerase subunits, and on the recently determined structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase specifies the directionality of DNA in the archaeal transcription complex and its trajectory downstream of the transcriptional start site.

  15. Structural determinant for switching between the polymerase and exonuclease modes in the PCNA-replicative DNA polymerase complex

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hirokazu; Mayanagi, Kouta; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Sato, Yuichi; Oyama, Takuji; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is responsible for the processivity of DNA polymerase. We determined the crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase (PfuPol) complexed with the cognate monomeric PCNA, which allowed us to construct a convincing model of the polymerase-PCNA ring interaction, with unprecedented configurations of the two molecules. Electron microscopic analyses indicated that this complex structure exists in solution. Our structural study revealed that an interaction occurs between a stretched loop of PCNA and the PfuPol Thumb domain, in addition to the authentic PCNA-polymerase recognition site (PIP box). Comparisons of the present structure with the previously reported structures of polymerases complexed with DNA, suggested that the second interaction plays a crucial role in switching between the polymerase and exonuclease modes, by inducing a PCNA-polymerase complex configuration that favors synthesis over editing. This putative mechanism for fidelity control of replicative DNA polymerases is supported by experiments, in which mutations at the second interaction site caused enhancements in the exonuclease activity in the presence of PCNA. PMID:19934045

  16. Assessing the Chemical Accuracy of Protein Structures via Peptide Acidity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Janet S.; Hernández, Griselda; LeMaster, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the protein native state is a Boltzmann conformational ensemble, practical applications often require a representative model from the most populated region of that distribution. The acidity of the backbone amides, as reflected in hydrogen exchange rates, is exquisitely sensitive to the surrounding charge and dielectric volume distribution. For each of four proteins, three independently determined X-ray structures of differing crystallographic resolution were used to predict exchange for the static solvent-exposed amide hydrogens. The average correlation coefficients range from 0.74 for ubiquitin to 0.93 for Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin, reflecting the larger range of experimental exchange rates exhibited by the latter protein. The exchange prediction errors modestly correlate with the crystallographic resolution. MODELLER 9v6-derived homology models at ~60% sequence identity (36% identity for chymotrypsin inhibitor CI2) yielded correlation coefficients that are ~0.1 smaller than for the cognate X-ray structures. The most recently deposited NOE-based ubiquitin structure and the original NMR structure of CI2 fail to provide statistically significant predictions of hydrogen exchange. However, the more recent RECOORD refinement study of CI2 yielded predictions comparable to the X-ray and homology model-based analyses. PMID:23182463

  17. Transcription factor IID in the Archaea: sequences in the Thermococcus celer genome would encode a product closely related to the TATA-binding protein of eukaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, T. L.; Reich, C. I.; Whitelock, R. B.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The first step in transcription initiation in eukaryotes is mediated by the TATA-binding protein, a subunit of the transcription factor IID complex. We have cloned and sequenced the gene for a presumptive homolog of this eukaryotic protein from Thermococcus celer, a member of the Archaea (formerly archaebacteria). The protein encoded by the archaeal gene is a tandem repeat of a conserved domain, corresponding to the repeated domain in its eukaryotic counterparts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the two halves of the repeat are consistent with the duplication occurring before the divergence of the archael and eukaryotic domains. In conjunction with previous observations of similarity in RNA polymerase subunit composition and sequences and the finding of a transcription factor IIB-like sequence in Pyrococcus woesei (a relative of T. celer) it appears that major features of the eukaryotic transcription apparatus were well-established before the origin of eukaryotic cellular organization. The divergence between the two halves of the archael protein is less than that between the halves of the individual eukaryotic sequences, indicating that the average rate of sequence change in the archael protein has been less than in its eukaryotic counterparts. To the extent that this lower rate applies to the genome as a whole, a clearer picture of the early genes (and gene families) that gave rise to present-day genomes is more apt to emerge from the study of sequences from the Archaea than from the corresponding sequences from eukaryotes.

  18. Thermostable tag (TST) protein expression system: engineering thermotolerant recombinant proteins and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Luke, Jeremy M; Carnes, Aaron E; Sun, Ping; Hodgson, Clague P; Waugh, David S; Williams, James A

    2011-02-10

    Methods to increase temperature stability of vaccines and adjuvants are needed to reduce dependence on cold chain storage. We report herein creation and application of pVEX expression vectors to improve vaccine and adjuvant manufacture and thermostability. Defined media fermentation yields of 6g/L thermostable toll-like receptor 5 agonist flagellin were obtained using an IPTG inducible pVEX-flagellin expression vector. Alternative pVEX vectors encoding Pyrococcus furiosus maltodextrin-binding protein (pfMBP) as a fusion partner improved Influenza hemagglutinin antigen vaccine solubility and thermostability. A pfMBP hemagglutinin HA2 domain fusion protein was a potent immunogen. Manufacturing processes that combined up to 5 g/L defined media fermentation yields with rapid, selective, thermostable pfMBP fusion protein purification were developed. The pVEX pfMBP-based thermostable tag (TST) platform is a generic protein engineering approach to enable high yield manufacture of thermostable recombinant protein vaccine components. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Probing the mechanism of rubredoxin thermal unfolding in the absence of salt bridges by temperature jump experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Henriques, Barbara J.; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Gomes, Claudio M. . E-mail: gomes@itqb.unl.pt

    2005-08-05

    Rubredoxins are the simplest type of iron-sulphur proteins and in recent years they have been used as model systems in protein folding and stability studies, especially the proteins from thermophilic sources. Here, we report our studies on the rubredoxin from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii (T {sub opt} = 85 deg C), which was investigated in respect to its thermal unfolding kinetics by temperature jump experiments. Different spectroscopic probes were used to monitor distinct structural protein features during the thermal transition: the integrity of the iron-sulphur centre was monitored by visible absorption spectroscopy, whereas tertiary structure was followed by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and exposure of protein hydrophobic patches was sensed by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate fluorescence. The studies were performed at acidic pH conditions in which any stabilising contributions from salt bridges are annulled due to protonation of protein side chain groups. In these conditions, M. jannaschii rubredoxin assumes a native-like, albeit more flexible and open conformation, as indicated by a red shift in the tryptophan emission maximum and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate binding. Temperature jumps were monitored by the three distinct techniques and showed that the protein undergoes thermal denaturation via a simple two step mechanism, as loss of tertiary structure, hydrophobic collapse, and disintegration of the iron-sulphur centre are concomitant processes. The proposed mechanism is framed with the multiphasic one proposed for Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin, showing that a common thermal unfolding mechanism is not observed between these two closely related thermophilic rubredoxins.

  20. Genomic characterization of methanomicrobiales reveals three classes of methanogens.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-06-04

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  1. Crystal Structure of the First Eubacterial Mre11 Nuclease Reveals Novel Features that may Discriminate Substrates During DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debanu; Moiani, Davide; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Miller, Mitchell D.; McMullan, Daniel; Jin, Kevin K.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Burra, Prasad; Carlton, Dennis; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ernst, Dustin; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Tainer, John A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Mre11 nuclease plays a central role in the repair of cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As x-ray structural information has only been available for the Pyrococcus furiosus enzyme (PfMre11), the conserved and variable features of this nuclease across the domains of life have not been experimentally defined. Our crystal structure and biochemical studies demonstrate that TM1635 from Thermotoga maritima, originally annotated as a putative nuclease, is the Mre11 endo/exonuclease from T. maritima (TmMre11) and the first such structure from eubacteria. TmMre11 and PfMre11 display similar overall structures, despite sequence identity in the twilight zone of only ∼20%. However, they differ substantially in their DNA specificity domains and in their dimeric organization. Residues in the nuclease domain are highly conserved, but those in the DNA specificity domain are not. The structural differences likely affect how Mre11s from different organisms recognize and interact with single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA and DNA hairpin structures during DNA repair. The TmMre11 nuclease active site has no bound metal ions, but is conserved in sequence and structure with exception of a histidine that is important in PfMre11 nuclease activity. Nevertheless, biochemical characterization confirms that TmMre11 possesses both endonuclease and exonuclease activities on ssDNA and dsDNA substrates, respectively. PMID:20122942

  2. Engineering Hydrogen Gas Production from Formate in a Hyperthermophile by Heterologous Production of an 18-Subunit Membrane-bound Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Gina L.; Schut, Gerrit J.; Thorgersen, Michael P.; Nixon, William J.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Biohydrogen gas has enormous potential as a source of reductant for the microbial production of biofuels, but its low solubility and poor gas mass transfer rates are limiting factors. These limitations could be circumvented by engineering biofuel production in microorganisms that are also capable of generating H2 from highly soluble chemicals such as formate, which can function as an electron donor. Herein, the model hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally near 100 °C by fermenting sugars to produce H2, has been engineered to also efficiently convert formate to H2. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome vector, the 16.9-kb 18-gene cluster encoding the membrane-bound, respiratory formate hydrogen lyase complex of Thermococcus onnurineus was inserted into the P. furiosus chromosome and expressed as a functional unit. This enabled P. furiosus to utilize formate as well as sugars as an H2 source and to do so at both 80° and 95 °C, near the optimum growth temperature of the donor (T. onnurineus) and engineered host (P. furiosus), respectively. This accomplishment also demonstrates the versatility of P. furiosus for metabolic engineering applications. PMID:24318960

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a hyperthermophilic Rieske protein variant (SDX-triple) with an engineered rubredoxin-like mononuclear iron site

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Toshio Kounosu, Asako; Ohmori, Daijiro; Kumasaka, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    A hyperthermophilic archaeal Rieske iron–sulfur protein (sulredoxin) variant, SDX-triple (H44I/A45C/H64C), having a rationally designed rubredoxin-like mononuclear iron site in place of a Rieske [2Fe–2S] centre, has been crystallized. The P1 crystals of the SDX-triple variant diffract to 1.63 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. In place of the Rieske [2Fe–2S] cluster, an archetypal mononuclear iron site has rationally been designed into a hyperthermophilic archaeal Rieske [2Fe–2S] protein (sulredoxin) from Sulfolobus tokodaii by three residue replacements with reference to the Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin sequence. The resulting sulredoxin variant, SDX-triple (H44I/A45C/H64C), has been purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 65%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, 0.025 M citric acid and 0.075 M sodium acetate trihydrate pH 4.3. The crystals diffract to 1.63 Å resolution and belong to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.56, b = 76.54, c = 80.28 Å, α = 88.12, β = 78.82, γ = 73.46°. The asymmetric unit contains eight protein molecules.

  4. RNA-Guided RNA Cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas Protein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Caryn R.; Zhao, Peng; Olson, Sara; Duff, Michael O.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Wells, Lance; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Compelling evidence indicates that the CRISPR-Cas system protects prokaryotes from viruses and other potential genome invaders. This adaptive prokaryotic immune system arises from the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) found in prokaryotic genomes, which harbor short invader-derived sequences, and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein-coding genes. Here we have identified a CRISPR-Cas effector complex that is comprised of small invader-targeting RNAs from the CRISPR loci (termed prokaryotic silencing (psi)RNAs) and the RAMP module (or Cmr) Cas proteins. The psiRNA-Cmr protein complexes cleave complementary target RNAs at a fixed distance from the 3' end of the integral psiRNAs. In Pyrococcus furiosus, psiRNAs occur in two size forms that share a common 5' sequence tag but have distinct 3' ends that direct cleavage of a given target RNA at two distinct sites. Our results indicate that prokaryotes possess a unique RNA silencing system that functions by homology-dependent cleavage of invader RNAs. PMID:19945378

  5. Archaeal fibrillarin-Nop5 heterodimer 2'-O-methylates RNA independently of the C/D guide RNP particle.

    PubMed

    Tomkuvienė, Miglė; Ličytė, Janina; Olendraitė, Ingrida; Liutkevičiūtė, Zita; Clouet-d'Orval, Béatrice; Klimašauskas, Saulius

    2017-09-01

    Archaeal fibrillarin (aFib) is a well-characterized S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent RNA 2'-O-methyltransferase that is known to act in a large C/D ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex together with Nop5 and L7Ae proteins and a box C/D guide RNA. In the reaction, the guide RNA serves to direct the methylation reaction to a specific site in tRNA or rRNA by sequence complementarity. Here we show that a Pyrococcus abyssi aFib-Nop5 heterodimer can alone perform SAM-dependent 2'-O-methylation of 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs in vitro independently of L7Ae and C/D guide RNAs. Using tritium-labeling, mass spectrometry, and reverse transcription analysis, we identified three in vitro 2'-O-methylated positions in the 16S rRNA of P. abyssi, positions lying outside of previously reported pyrococcal C/D RNP methylation sites. This newly discovered stand-alone activity of aFib-Nop5 may provide an example of an ancestral activity retained in enzymes that were recruited to larger complexes during evolution. © 2017 Tomkuvienė et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Production of hydrogen from α-1,4- and β-1,4-linked saccharides by marine hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    PubMed

    Oslowski, Daniel M; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Dong-Ho; Park, Cheon-Seok; Holden, James F

    2011-05-01

    Nineteen hyperthermophilic heterotrophs from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, plus the control organism Pyrococcus furiosus, were examined for their ability to grow and produce H₂ on maltose, cellobiose, and peptides and for the presence of the genes encoding proteins that hydrolyze starch and cellulose. All of the strains grew on these disaccharides and peptides and converted maltose and peptides to H₂ even when elemental sulfur was present as a terminal electron acceptor. Half of the strains had at least one gene for an extracellular starch hydrolase, but only P. furiosus had a gene for an extracellular β-1,4-endoglucanase. P. furiosus was serially adapted for growth on CF11 cellulose and H₂ production, which is the first reported instance of hyperthermophilic growth on cellulose, with a doubling time of 64 min. Cell-specific H₂ production rates were 29 fmol, 37 fmol, and 54 fmol of H₂ produced cell⁻¹ doubling⁻¹ on α-1,4-linked sugars, β-1,4-linked sugars, and peptides, respectively. The highest total community H₂ production rate came from growth on starch (2.6 mM H₂ produced h⁻¹). Hyperthermophilic heterotrophs may serve as an important alternate source of H₂ for hydrogenotrophic microorganisms in low-H₂ hydrothermal environments, and some are candidates for H₂ bioenergy production in bioreactors.

  7. Insights into dynamics of mobile genetic elements in hyperthermophilic environments from five new Thermococcus plasmids.

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Gonnet, Mathieu; Hania, Wajdi Ben; Forterre, Patrick; Erauso, Gaël

    2013-01-01

    Mobilome of hyperthermophilic archaea dwelling in deep-sea hydrothermal vents is poorly characterized. To gain insight into genetic diversity and dynamics of mobile genetic elements in these environments we have sequenced five new plasmids from different Thermococcus strains that have been isolated from geographically remote hydrothermal vents. The plasmids were ascribed to two subfamilies, pTN2-like and pEXT9a-like. Gene content and phylogenetic analyses illuminated a robust connection between pTN2-like plasmids and Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1), with roughly half of the viral genome being composed of genes that have homologues in plasmids. Unexpectedly, pEXT9a-like plasmids were found to be closely related to the previously sequenced plasmid pMETVU01 from Methanocaldococcus vulcanius M7. Our data suggests that the latter observation is most compatible with an unprecedented horizontal transfer of a pEXT9a-like plasmid from Thermococcales to Methanococcales. Gene content analysis revealed that thermococcal plasmids encode Hfq-like proteins and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of two different families, VapBC and RelBE. Notably, although abundant in archaeal genomes, to our knowledge, TA and hfq-like genes have not been previously found in archaeal plasmids or viruses. Finally, the plasmids described here might prove to be useful in developing new genetic tools for hyperthermophiles.

  8. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Hooper, Sean; Lykidis, A; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla L.; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  9. ADP-dependent phosphofructokinases in mesophilic and thermophilic methanogenic archaea.

    PubMed

    Verhees, C H; Tuininga, J E; Kengen, S W; Stams, A J; van der Oost, J; de Vos, W M

    2001-12-01

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a key enzyme of the glycolytic pathway in all domains of life. Two related PFKs, ATP-dependent and PP(i)-dependent PFK, have been distinguished in bacteria and eucarya, as well as in some archaea. Hyperthermophilic archaea of the order Thermococcales, including Pyrococcus and Thermococcus spp., have recently been demonstrated to possess a unique ADP-dependent PFK (ADP-PFK) that appears to be phylogenetically distinct. Here, we report the presence of ADP-PFKs in glycogen-producing members of the orders Methanococcales and Methanosarcinales, including both mesophilic and thermophilic representatives. To verify the substrate specificities of the methanogenic kinases, the gene encoding the ADP-PFK from Methanococcus jannaschii was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the produced enzyme was purified and characterized in detail. Compared to its counterparts from the two members of the order Thermococcales, the M. jannaschii ADP-PFK has an extremely low K(m) for fructose 6-phosphate (9.6 microM), and it accepts both ADP and acetyl-phosphate as phosphoryl donors. Phylogenetic analysis of the ADP-PFK reveals it to be a key enzyme of the modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway of heterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic archaea. Interestingly, uncharacterized homologs of this unusual kinase are present in several eucarya.

  10. Crystal structure of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-lisinopril complex.

    PubMed

    Natesh, Ramanathan; Schwager, Sylva L U; Sturrock, Edward D; Acharya, K Ravi

    2003-01-30

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has a critical role in cardiovascular function by cleaving the carboxy terminal His-Leu dipeptide from angiotensin I to produce a potent vasopressor octapeptide, angiotensin II. Inhibitors of ACE are a first line of therapy for hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic nephropathy. Notably, these inhibitors were developed without knowledge of the structure of human ACE, but were instead designed on the basis of an assumed mechanistic homology with carboxypeptidase A. Here we present the X-ray structure of human testicular ACE and its complex with one of the most widely used inhibitors, lisinopril (N2-[(S)-1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-L-lysyl-L-proline; also known as Prinivil or Zestril), at 2.0 A resolution. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of ACE shows that it bears little similarity to that of carboxypeptidase A, but instead resembles neurolysin and Pyrococcus furiosus carboxypeptidase--zinc metallopeptidases with no detectable sequence similarity to ACE. The structure provides an opportunity to design domain-selective ACE inhibitors that may exhibit new pharmacological profiles.

  11. The hyperthermophilic α-amylase from Thermococcus sp. HJ21 does not require exogenous calcium for thermostability because of high-binding affinity to calcium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huaixu; Luo, Zhidan; Lu, Mingsheng; Gao, Song; Wang, Shujun

    2017-05-01

    The hyperthermophilic α-amylase from Thermococcus sp. HJ21 does not require exogenous calcium ions for thermostability, and is a promising alternative to commercially available α-amylases to increase the efficiency of industrial processes like the liquefaction of starch. We analyzed the amino acid sequence of this α-amylase by sequence alignments and structural modeling, and found that this α-amylase closely resembles the α-amylase from Pyrococcus woesei. The gene of this α-amylase was cloned in Escherichia coli and the recombinant α-amylase was overexpressed and purified with a combined renaturation-purification procedure. We confirmed thermostability and exogenous calcium ion independency of the recombinant α-amylase and further investigated the mechanism of the independency using biochemical approaches. The results suggested that the α-amylase has a high calcium ion binding affinity that traps a calcium ion that would not dissociate at high temperatures, providing a direct explanation as to why the addition of calcium ions is not required for thermostability. Understanding of the mechanism offers a strong base on which to further engineer properties of this α-amylase for better potential applications in industrial processes.

  12. Structural Determinant for Switching between the Polymerase and Exonuclease Modes in the PCNA-Replicative DNA Polymerase Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Hirokazu; Mayanagi, Kouta; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is responsible for the processivity of DNA polymerase. We determined the crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase (PfuPol) complexed with a cognate monomeric PCNA, which allowed us to construct a convincing model of the polymerase-PCNA ring interaction. Electron microscopy analyses confirmed that this complex structure exists among the multiple functional configurations in solution. Together with data from mutational analyses, this structural study indicated that the novel interaction between a stretched loop of PCNA and the PfuPol Thumb domain is quite important, in addition to the authentic PCNA-polymerase recognition site (PIP box). A comparison of the present structures with the previously reported structures of polymerases complexed with DNA suggested that the second interaction site plays a crucial role in switching between the polymerase and exonuclease modes, by stabilizing only the polymerase mode. This proposed mechanism of fidelity control of replicative DNA polymerases was supported by experiments, in which a mutation within the second interaction site caused an enhancement in the exonuclease activity in the presence of PCNA.

  13. The critical role of the loops of triosephosphate isomerase for its oligomerization, dynamics, and functionality

    PubMed Central

    Katebi, Ataur R; Jernigan, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyzes the reaction to convert dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and vice versa. In most organisms, its functional oligomeric state is a homodimer; however, tetramer formation in hyperthermophiles is required for functional activity. The tetrameric TIM structure also provides added stability to the structure, enabling it to function at more extreme temperatures. We apply Principal Component Analysis to find that the TIM structure space is clearly divided into two groups—the open and the closed TIM structures. The distribution of the structures in the open set is much sparser than that in the closed set, showing a greater conformational diversity of the open structures. We also apply the Elastic Network Model to four different TIM structures—an engineered monomeric structure, a dimeric structure from a mesophile—Trypanosoma brucei, and two tetrameric structures from hyperthermophiles Thermotoga maritima and Pyrococcus woesei. We find that dimerization not only stabilizes the structures, it also enhances their functional dynamics. Moreover, tetramerization of the hyperthermophilic structures increases their functional loop dynamics, enabling them to function in the destabilizing environment of extreme temperatures. Computations also show that the functional loop motions, especially loops 6 and 7, are highly coordinated. In summary, our computations reveal the underlying mechanism of the allosteric regulation of the functional loops of the TIM structures, and show that tetramerization of the structure as found in the hyperthermophilic organisms is required to maintain the coordination of the functional loops at a level similar to that in the dimeric mesophilic structure. PMID:24318986

  14. Insights into Dynamics of Mobile Genetic Elements in Hyperthermophilic Environments from Five New Thermococcus Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Krupovic, Mart; Gonnet, Mathieu; Hania, Wajdi Ben; Forterre, Patrick; Erauso, Gaël

    2013-01-01

    Mobilome of hyperthermophilic archaea dwelling in deep-sea hydrothermal vents is poorly characterized. To gain insight into genetic diversity and dynamics of mobile genetic elements in these environments we have sequenced five new plasmids from different Thermococcus strains that have been isolated from geographically remote hydrothermal vents. The plasmids were ascribed to two subfamilies, pTN2-like and pEXT9a-like. Gene content and phylogenetic analyses illuminated a robust connection between pTN2-like plasmids and Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1), with roughly half of the viral genome being composed of genes that have homologues in plasmids. Unexpectedly, pEXT9a-like plasmids were found to be closely related to the previously sequenced plasmid pMETVU01 from Methanocaldococcus vulcanius M7. Our data suggests that the latter observation is most compatible with an unprecedented horizontal transfer of a pEXT9a-like plasmid from Thermococcales to Methanococcales. Gene content analysis revealed that thermococcal plasmids encode Hfq-like proteins and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of two different families, VapBC and RelBE. Notably, although abundant in archaeal genomes, to our knowledge, TA and hfq-like genes have not been previously found in archaeal plasmids or viruses. Finally, the plasmids described here might prove to be useful in developing new genetic tools for hyperthermophiles. PMID:23326305

  15. Pressure Stabilization of Proteins from Extreme Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Hei, Derek J.; Clark, Douglas S.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the stabilization by pressure of enzymes, including a hydrogenase from Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic deep-sea methanogen. This is the first published report of proteins from thermophiles being stabilized by pressure. Inactivation studies of partially purified hydrogenases from an extreme thermophile (Methanococcus igneus), a moderate thermophile (Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus), and a mesophile (Methanococcus maripaludis), all from shallow marine sites, show that pressure stabilization is not unique to enzymes isolated from high-pressure environments. These studies suggest that pressure stabilization of an enzyme may be related to its thermophilicity. Further experiments comparing the effects of increased pressure on the stability of α-glucosidases from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae support this possibility. We have also examined pressure effects on several highly homologous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from mesophilic and thermophilic sources and a rubredoxin from P. furiosus. The results suggest that hydrophobic interactions, which have been implicated in the stabilization of many thermophilic proteins, contribute to the pressure stabilization of enzymes from thermophiles. PMID:16349220

  16. Structure of a (Cys3His) zinc ribbon, a ubiquitous motif in archaeal and eucaryal transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H. T.; Legault, P.; Glushka, J.; Omichinski, J. G.; Scott, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) is an essential component in the formation of the transcription initiation complex in eucaryal and archaeal transcription. TFIIB interacts with a promoter complex containing the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to facilitate interaction with RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) and the associated transcription factor IIF (TFIIF). TFIIB contains a zinc-binding motif near the N-terminus that is directly involved in the interaction with RNA pol II/TFIIF and plays a crucial role in selecting the transcription initiation site. The solution structure of the N-terminal residues 2-59 of human TFIIB was determined by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of a nearly tetrahedral Zn(Cys)3(His)1 site confined by type I and "rubredoxin" turns, three antiparallel beta-strands, and disordered loops. The structure is similar to the reported zinc-ribbon motifs in several transcription-related proteins from archaea and eucarya, including Pyrococcus furiosus transcription factor B (PfTFB), human and yeast transcription factor IIS (TFIIS), and Thermococcus celer RNA polymerase II subunit M (TcRPOM). The zinc-ribbon structure of TFIIB, in conjunction with the biochemical analyses, suggests that residues on the beta-sheet are involved in the interaction with RNA pol II/TFIIF, while the zinc-binding site may increase the stability of the beta-sheet. PMID:11045620

  17. When contemporary aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases invent their cognate amino acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Hervé; Becker, Hubert Dominique; Reinbolt, Joseph; Kern, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Faithful protein synthesis relies on a family of essential enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, assembled in a piecewise fashion. Analysis of the completed archaeal genomes reveals that all archaea that possess asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) also display a second ORF encoding an AsnRS truncated from its anticodon binding-domain (AsnRS2). We show herein that Pyrococcus abyssi AsnRS2, in contrast to AsnRS, does not sustain asparaginyl-tRNAAsn synthesis but is instead capable of converting aspartic acid into asparagine. Functional analysis and complementation of an Escherichia coli asparagine auxotrophic strain show that AsnRS2 constitutes the archaeal homologue of the bacterial ammonia-dependent asparagine synthetase A (AS-A), therefore named archaeal asparagine synthetase A (AS-AR). Primary sequence- and 3D-based phylogeny shows that an archaeal AspRS ancestor originated AS-AR, which was subsequently transferred into bacteria by lateral gene transfer in which it underwent structural changes producing AS-A. This study provides evidence that a contemporary aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase can be recruited to sustain amino acid metabolism. PMID:12874385

  18. Unwinding of primer-templates by archaeal family-B DNA polymerases in response to template-strand uracil.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Tomas T; Wu, Xiaohua; Keith, Brian J; Heslop, Pauline; Jones, Anita C; Connolly, Bernard A

    2013-02-01

    Archaeal family-B DNA polymerases bind tightly to deaminated bases and stall replication on encountering uracil in template strands, four bases ahead of the primer-template junction. Should the polymerase progress further towards the uracil, for example, to position uracil only two bases in front of the junction, 3'-5' proof-reading exonuclease activity becomes stimulated, trimming the primer and re-setting uracil to the +4 position. Uracil sensing prevents copying of the deaminated base and permanent mutation in 50% of the progeny. This publication uses both steady-state and time-resolved 2-aminopurine fluorescence to show pronounced unwinding of primer-templates with Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) polymerase-DNA complexes containing uracil at +2; much less strand separation is seen with uracil at +4. DNA unwinding has long been recognized as necessary for proof-reading exonuclease activity. The roles of M247 and Y261, amino acids suggested by structural studies to play a role in primer-template unwinding, have been probed. M247 appears to be unimportant, but 2-aminopurine fluorescence measurements show that Y261 plays a role in primer-template strand separation. Y261 is also required for full exonuclease activity and contributes to the fidelity of the polymerase.

  19. Tuned by metals: the TET peptidase activity is controlled by 3 metal binding sites.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Matteo; Girard, Eric; Franzetti, Bruno

    2016-02-08

    TET aminopeptidases are dodecameric particles shared in the three life domains involved in various biological processes, from carbon source provider in archaea to eye-pressure regulation in humans. Each subunit contains a dinuclear metal site (M1 and M2) responsible for the enzyme catalytic activity. However, the role of each metal ion is still uncharacterized. Noteworthy, while mesophilic TETs are activated by Mn(2+), hyperthermophilic TETs prefers Co(2+). Here, by means of anomalous x-ray crystallography and enzyme kinetics measurements of the TET3 aminopeptidase from the hyperthermophilic organism Pyrococcus furiosus (PfTET3), we show that M2 hosts the catalytic activity of the enzyme, while M1 stabilizes the TET3 quaternary structure and controls the active site flexibility in a temperature dependent manner. A new third metal site (M3) was found in the substrate binding pocket, modulating the PfTET3 substrate preferences. These data show that TET activity is tuned by the molecular interplay among three metal sites.

  20. Construction, Expression, and Characterization of Recombinant Pfu DNA Polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Qingsong; Bi, Qun

    2016-04-01

    Pfu DNA polymerase (Pfu) is a DNA polymerase isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. With its excellent thermostability and high fidelity, Pfu is well known as one of the enzymes widely used in the polymerase chain reaction. In this study, the recombinant plasmid pLysS His6-tagged Pfu-pET28a was constructed. His-tagged Pfu was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells and then successfully purified with the ÄKTAprime plus compact one-step purification system by Ni(2+) chelating affinity chromatography after optimization of the purification conditions. The authenticity of the purified Pfu was further confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting. A bio-assay indicated that its activity in the polymerase chain reaction was equivalent to that of commercial Pfu and its isoelectric point was found to be between 6.85 and 7.35. These results will be useful for further studies on Pfu and its wide application in the future.

  1. Growth requirements of hyperthermophilic sulfur-dependent heterotrophic archaea isolated from a shallow submarine geothermal system with reference to their essential amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Hoaki, T; Nishijima, M; Kato, M; Adachi, K; Mizobuchi, S; Hanzawa, N; Maruyama, T

    1994-01-01

    Three hyperthermophilic sulfur-dependent heterotrophs were isolated from a shallow submarine hydrothermal system at an inlet of Kodakara-jima island, Kagoshima, Japan. The isolates grew at 60 to 97 degrees C, with the optimum temperatures at 85 to 90 degrees C. Sensitivity to rifampin and the existence of ether lipids indicated that the isolates are hyperthermophilic archaea. Partial sequencing of the genes coding for 16S rRNA showed that the three isolates are closely related to the genus Thermococcus. They grew on proteinaceous mixtures, such as yeast extract, Casamino Acids, and purified proteins (e.g., casein and gelatin), but not on carbohydrates or organic acids as sole carbon and energy sources. Nine amino acids were essential for growth of isolate KS-1 (Thr, Leu, Ile, Val, Met, Phe, His, Tyr, and Arg). Isolate KS-2 required Lys in addition to the nine amino acids, and KS-8 required Lys instead of Tyr. In comparative studies, it was shown that Thermococcus celer DSM 2476 required 10 amino acids (Thr, Leu, Ile, Val, Met, Phe, Tyr, Trp, Lys, and Arg) while Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 required only Ile and Val. The hyperthermophilic fermentative eubacterium Thermotoga neapolitana DSM 4359 did not require any amino acids for growth. Images PMID:8085828

  2. Molecular basis of transcription initiation in Archaea.

    PubMed

    De Carlo, Sacha; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Taatjes, Dylan J; Hoenger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Compared with eukaryotes, the archaeal transcription initiation machinery-commonly known as the Pre-Initiation Complex-is relatively simple. The archaeal PIC consists of the TFIIB ortholog TFB, TBP, and an 11-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP). The relatively small size of the entire archaeal PIC makes it amenable to structural analysis. Using purified RNAP, TFB, and TBP from the thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus, we assembled the biochemically active PIC at 65ºC. The intact archaeal PIC was isolated by implementing a cross-linking technique followed by size-exclusion chromatography, and the structure of this 440 kDa assembly was determined using electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction techniques. Combining difference maps with crystal structure docking of various sub-domains, TBP and TFB were localized within the macromolecular PIC. TBP/TFB assemble near the large RpoB subunit and the RpoD/L "foot" domain behind the RNAP central cleft. This location mimics that of yeast TBP and TFIIB in complex with yeast RNAP II. Collectively, these results define the structural organization of the archaeal transcription machinery and suggest a conserved core PIC architecture.

  3. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Circular Substrates for an Archaeal RNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Becker, Hubert F; Heliou, Alice; Djaout, Kamel; Lestini, Roxane; Regnier, Mireille; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2017-03-09

    It is only recently that the abundant presence of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in all kingdoms of Life, including the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi, has emerged. This led us to investigate the physiological significance of a previously observed weak intramolecular ligation activity of Pab1020 RNA ligase. Here we demonstrate that this enzyme, despite sharing significant sequence similarity with DNA ligases, is indeed an RNA-specific polynucleotide ligase efficiently acting on physiologically significant substrates. Using a combination of RNA immunoprecipitation assays and RNA-seq, our genome-wide studies revealed 133 individual circRNA loci in P. abyssi. The large majority of these loci interacted with Pab1020 in cells and circularization of selected C/D Box and 5S rRNA transcripts was confirmed biochemically. Altogether these studies revealed that Pab1020 is required for RNA circularization. Our results further suggest the functional speciation of an ancestral NTase domain and/or DNA ligase towards RNA ligase activity and prompt for further characterization of the widespread functions of circular RNAs in prokaryotes. Detailed insight into the cellular substrates of Pab1020 may facilitate the development of new biotechnological applications e.g. in ligation of preadenylated adaptors to RNA molecules.

  4. Transcription factor IID in the Archaea: sequences in the Thermococcus celer genome would encode a product closely related to the TATA-binding protein of eukaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, T. L.; Reich, C. I.; Whitelock, R. B.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The first step in transcription initiation in eukaryotes is mediated by the TATA-binding protein, a subunit of the transcription factor IID complex. We have cloned and sequenced the gene for a presumptive homolog of this eukaryotic protein from Thermococcus celer, a member of the Archaea (formerly archaebacteria). The protein encoded by the archaeal gene is a tandem repeat of a conserved domain, corresponding to the repeated domain in its eukaryotic counterparts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the two halves of the repeat are consistent with the duplication occurring before the divergence of the archael and eukaryotic domains. In conjunction with previous observations of similarity in RNA polymerase subunit composition and sequences and the finding of a transcription factor IIB-like sequence in Pyrococcus woesei (a relative of T. celer) it appears that major features of the eukaryotic transcription apparatus were well-established before the origin of eukaryotic cellular organization. The divergence between the two halves of the archael protein is less than that between the halves of the individual eukaryotic sequences, indicating that the average rate of sequence change in the archael protein has been less than in its eukaryotic counterparts. To the extent that this lower rate applies to the genome as a whole, a clearer picture of the early genes (and gene families) that gave rise to present-day genomes is more apt to emerge from the study of sequences from the Archaea than from the corresponding sequences from eukaryotes.

  5. On the mineral core of ferritin-like proteins: structural and magnetic characterization.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, A; Alonso, J; Muñoz, D; Marcano, L; Abad Díaz de Cerio, A; Fernández de Luis, R; Orue, I; Mathon, O; Muela, A; Fdez-Gubieda, M L

    2016-01-14

    It is generally accepted that the mineral core synthesized by ferritin-like proteins consists of a ferric oxy-hydroxide mineral similar to ferrihydrite in the case of horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and an oxy-hydroxide-phosphate phase in plant and prokaryotic ferritins. The structure reflects a dynamic process of deposition and dissolution, influenced by different biological, chemical and physical variables. In this work we shed light on this matter by combining a structural (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Fe K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)) and a magnetic study of the mineral core biomineralized by horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and three prokaryotic ferritin-like proteins: bacterial ferritin (FtnA) and bacterioferritin (Bfr) from Escherichia coli and archaeal ferritin (PfFtn) from Pyrococcus furiosus. The prokaryotic ferritin-like proteins have been studied under native conditions and inside the cells for the sake of preserving their natural attributes. They share with HoSF a nanocrystalline structure rather than an amorphous one as has been frequently reported. However, the presence of phosphorus changes drastically the short-range order and magnetic response of the prokaryotic cores with respect to HoSF. The superparamagnetism observed in HoSF is absent in the prokaryotic proteins, which show a pure atomic-like paramagnetic behaviour attributed to phosphorus breaking the Fe-Fe exchange interaction.

  6. Cas6 is an endoribonuclease that generates guide RNAs for invader defense in prokaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Carte, Jason; Wang, Ruiying; Li, Hong; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2010-11-09

    An RNA-based gene silencing pathway that protects bacteria and archaea from viruses and other genome invaders is hypothesized to arise from guide RNAs encoded by CRISPR loci and proteins encoded by the cas genes. CRISPR loci contain multiple short invader-derived sequences separated by short repeats. The presence of virus-specific sequences within CRISPR loci of prokaryotic genomes confers resistance against corresponding viruses. The CRISPR loci are transcribed as long RNAs that must be processed to smaller guide RNAs. Here we identified Pyrococcus furiosus Cas6 as a novel endoribonuclease that cleaves CRISPR RNAs within the repeat sequences to release individual invader targeting RNAs. Cas6 interacts with a specific sequence motif in the 5{prime} region of the CRISPR repeat element and cleaves at a defined site within the 3{prime} region of the repeat. The 1.8 angstrom crystal structure of the enzyme reveals two ferredoxin-like folds that are also found in other RNA-binding proteins. The predicted active site of the enzyme is similar to that of tRNA splicing endonucleases, and concordantly, Cas6 activity is metal-independent. cas6 is one of the most widely distributed CRISPR-associated genes. Our findings indicate that Cas6 functions in the generation of CRISPR-derived guide RNAs in numerous bacteria and archaea.

  7. Structure of the Cmr2 Subunit of the CRISPR-Cas RNA Silencing Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Cocozaki, Alexis I.; Ramia, Nancy F.; Shao, Yaming; Hale, Caryn R.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.; Li, Hong

    2012-08-10

    Cmr2 is the largest and an essential subunit of a CRISPR RNA-Cas protein complex (the Cmr complex) that cleaves foreign RNA to protect prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. Cmr2 is thought to be the catalytic subunit of the effector complex because of its N-terminal HD nuclease domain. Here, however, we report that the HD domain of Cmr2 is not required for cleavage by the complex in vitro. The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus Cmr2 (lacking the HD domain) reveals two adenylyl cyclase-like and two {alpha}-helical domains. The adenylyl cyclase-like domains are arranged as in homodimeric adenylyl cyclases and bind ADP and divalent metals. However, mutagenesis studies show that the metal- and ADP-coordinating residues of Cmr2 are also not critical for cleavage by the complex. Our findings suggest that another component provides the catalytic function and that the essential role by Cmr2 does not require the identified ADP- or metal-binding or HD domains in vitro.

  8. Bioenergetic and physiological studies of hyperthermophilic archaea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.M.

    1999-03-01

    This project focuses on physiological and bioenergetic characteristics of two representative hyperthermophilic archaea: Thermococcus litoralis (T{sub opt} 88 C) and Pyrococcus furiosus (T{sub opt} 98 C). Both are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs which grow in the presence or absence of reducible sulfur compounds. T. litoralis was studied in relation to information previously developed for P. furiosus: effect of sulfur reduction on bioenergetics, preferred fermentation patterns, tungsten requirement, etc. A defined medium was developed for T. litoralis consisting of amino acids, vitamins and nucleotides. This serves as the basis for continuous culture studies probing metabolic response to media changes. P. furiosus and T. litoralis have also been found to produce a polysaccharide in the presence of maltose and yeast extract. The composition and chemical structure of this polysaccharide was investigated as well as the metabolic motivation for its production. A novel and, perhaps, primitive intracellular proteolytic complex (previously designated as protease S66) in P. furiosus was isolated and the gene encoding the subunit of the complex was cloned, sequenced and the protease expressed in active form in Eschericia coli. Among other issues, the role of this complex in protein turnover and stress response was examined in the context of this organism in addition to comparing it to other complexes in eubacterial and eukaryotic cells. Biochemical characteristics of the protease have been measured in addition to examining other proteolytic species in P. furiosus.

  9. Bioinformatic and biochemical analysis of a novel maltose-forming α-amylase of the GH57 family in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus sp. CL1.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eun-Jung; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Dong-Ho; Jung, Dong-Hyun; Holden, James F; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2014-06-10

    Maltose-forming α-amylase is a glycoside hydrolase family 57 (GH57) member that is unique because it displays dual hydrolysis activity toward α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic linkages and only recognizes maltose. This enzyme was previously identified only in Pyrococcus sp. ST04 (PSMA); however, we recently found two homologs subgroups in Thermococcus species. One subgroup (subgroup A) showed relatively high amino acid sequence similarity to PSMA (>71%), while the other subgroup (subgroup B) showed lower homology with PSMA (<59%). To characterize the subgroup B maltose-forming α-amylase from Thermococcus species (TCMA), we cloned the CL1_0868 gene from Thermococcus sp. CL1 and then successfully expressed the gene in Escherichia coli. Although TCMA has a different oligomeric state relative to PSMA, TCMA showed similar substrate specificity. However, TCMA was shown to hydrolyze maltooligosaccharides more easily than PSMA. Also, TCMA displayed different optimum conditions depending on the glycosidic linkage of the substrate. TCMA had the highest activity at 85°C and at pH 5.0 for α-1,4-glycosidic linkage hydrolysis whereas it showed its maximal activity to cleave α-1,6-glycosidic linkages at 98°C and pH 6.0.

  10. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon.

    PubMed

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J; Nguyen, Diep M; Lipscomb, Gina L; Benn, Robert A; Prybol, Cameron J; Vaccaro, Brian J; Poole, Farris L; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  11. Thermostable single domain antibody-maltose binding protein fusion for Bacillus anthracis spore protein BclA detection.

    PubMed

    Walper, Scott A; Battle, Shawna R; Audrey Brozozog Lee, P; Zabetakis, Dan; Turner, Kendrick B; Buckley, Patricia E; Calm, Alena M; Welsh, Heather S; Warner, Candice R; Zacharko, Melody A; Goldman, Ellen R; Anderson, George P

    2014-02-15

    We constructed a genetic fusion of a single domain antibody (sdAb) with the thermal stable maltose binding protein from the thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (PfuMBP). Produced in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm with high yield, it proved to be a rugged and effective immunoreagent. The sdAb-A5 binds BclA, a Bacillus anthracis spore protein, with high affinity (K(D) ∼ 50 pM). MBPs, including the thermostable PfuMBP, have been demonstrated to be excellent folding chaperones, improving production of many recombinant proteins. A three-step purification of E. coli shake flask cultures of PfuMBP-sdAb gave a yield of approximately 100mg/L highly purified product. The PfuMBP remained stable up to 120 °C, whereas the sdAb-A5 portion unfolded at approximately 68 to 70 °C but could refold to regain activity. This fusion construct was stable to heating at 1mg/ml for 1h at 70 °C, retaining nearly 100% of its binding activity; nearly one-quarter (24%) activity remained after 1h at 90 °C. The PfuMBP-sdAb construct also provides a stable and effective method to coat gold nanoparticles. Most important, the construct was found to provide enhanced detection of B. anthracis Sterne strain (34F2) spores relative to the sdAb-A5 both as a capture reagent and as a detection reagent.

  12. ATP-driven Rad50 conformations regulate DNA tethering, end resection, and ATM checkpoint signaling.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Rajashree A; Williams, Gareth J; Limbo, Oliver; Williams, R Scott; Kuhnlein, Jeff; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Classen, Scott; Guenther, Grant; Russell, Paul; Tainer, John A; Paull, Tanya T

    2014-03-03

    The Mre11-Rad50 complex is highly conserved, yet the mechanisms by which Rad50 ATP-driven states regulate the sensing, processing and signaling of DNA double-strand breaks are largely unknown. Here we design structure-based mutations in Pyrococcus furiosus Rad50 to alter protein core plasticity and residues undergoing ATP-driven movements within the catalytic domains. With this strategy we identify Rad50 separation-of-function mutants that either promote or destabilize the ATP-bound state. Crystal structures, X-ray scattering, biochemical assays, and functional analyses of mutant PfRad50 complexes show that the ATP-induced 'closed' conformation promotes DNA end binding and end tethering, while hydrolysis-induced opening is essential for DNA resection. Reducing the stability of the ATP-bound state impairs DNA repair and Tel1 (ATM) checkpoint signaling in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, double-strand break resection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and ATM activation by human Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 in vitro, supporting the generality of the P. furiosus Rad50 structure-based mutational analyses. These collective results suggest that ATP-dependent Rad50 conformations switch the Mre11-Rad50 complex between DNA tethering, ATM signaling, and 5' strand resection, revealing molecular mechanisms regulating responses to DNA double-strand breaks.

  13. A New Class of Tungsten-Containing Oxidoreductase in Caldicellulosiruptor, a Genus of Plant Biomass-Degrading Thermophilic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Scott, Israel M; Rubinstein, Gabe M; Lipscomb, Gina L; Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J; Rhaesa, Amanda M; Lancaster, W Andrew; Poole, Farris L; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2015-10-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor bescii grows optimally at 78°C and is able to decompose high concentrations of lignocellulosic plant biomass without the need for thermochemical pretreatment. C. bescii ferments both C5 and C6 sugars primarily to hydrogen gas, lactate, acetate, and CO2 and is of particular interest for metabolic engineering applications given the recent availability of a genetic system. Developing optimal strains for technological use requires a detailed understanding of primary metabolism, particularly when the goal is to divert all available reductant (electrons) toward highly reduced products such as biofuels. During an analysis of the C. bescii genome sequence for oxidoreductase-type enzymes, evidence was uncovered to suggest that the primary redox metabolism of C. bescii has a completely uncharacterized aspect involving tungsten, a rarely used element in biology. An active tungsten utilization pathway in C. bescii was demonstrated by the heterologous production of a tungsten-requiring, aldehyde-oxidizing enzyme (AOR) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Furthermore, C. bescii also contains a tungsten-based AOR-type enzyme, here termed XOR, which is phylogenetically unique, representing a completely new member of the AOR tungstoenzyme family. Moreover, in C. bescii, XOR represents ca. 2% of the cytoplasmic protein. XOR is proposed to play a key, but as yet undetermined, role in the primary redox metabolism of this cellulolytic microorganism. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Green, Phyllis A.; Bassett, Noel L.; Adams, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h. PMID:26257948

  15. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Watten, Barnaby J; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Green, Phyllis A; Bassett, Noel L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  16. Cloning, Sequencing, and Characterization of a Heat- and Alkali-Stable Type I Pullulanase from Anaerobranca gottschalkii

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldo, Costanzo; Armbrecht, Martin; Becker, Fiona; Schäfer, Thomas; Antranikian, Garabed; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding a type I pullulanase was identified from the genome sequence of the anaerobic thermoalkaliphilic bacterium Anaerobranca gottschalkii. In addition, the homologous gene was isolated from a gene library of Anaerobranca horikoshii and sequenced. The proteins encoded by these two genes showed 39% amino acid sequence identity to the pullulanases from the thermophilic anaerobic bacteria Fervidobacterium pennivorans and Thermotoga maritima. The pullulanase gene from A. gottschalkii (encoding 865 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 98 kDa) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) so that the protein did not have the signal peptide. Accordingly, the molecular mass of the purified recombinant pullulanase (rPulAg) was 96 kDa. Pullulan hydrolysis activity was optimal at pH 8.0 and 70°C, and under these physicochemical conditions the half-life of rPulAg was 22 h. By using an alternative expression strategy in E. coli Tuner(DE3)(pLysS), the pullulanase gene from A. gottschalkii, including its signal peptide-encoding sequence, was cloned. In this case, the purified recombinant enzyme was a truncated 70-kDa form (rPulAg′). The N-terminal sequence of purified rPulAg′ was found 252 amino acids downstream from the start site, presumably indicating that there was alternative translation initiation or N-terminal protease cleavage by E. coli. Interestingly, most of the physicochemical properties of rPulAg′ were identical to those of rPulAg. Both enzymes degraded pullulan via an endo-type mechanism, yielding maltotriose as the final product, and hydrolytic activity was also detected with amylopectin, starch, β-limited dextrins, and glycogen but not with amylose. This substrate specificity is typical of type I pullulanases. rPulAg was inhibited by cyclodextrins, whereas addition of mono- or bivalent cations did not have a stimulating effect. In addition, rPulAg′ was stable in the presence of 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 20% Tween

  17. On the mineral core of ferritin-like proteins: structural and magnetic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Prieto, A.; Alonso, J.; Muñoz, D.; Marcano, L.; Abad Díaz de Cerio, A.; Fernández de Luis, R.; Orue, I.; Mathon, O.; Muela, A.; Fdez-Gubieda, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    It is generally accepted that the mineral core synthesized by ferritin-like proteins consists of a ferric oxy-hydroxide mineral similar to ferrihydrite in the case of horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and an oxy-hydroxide-phosphate phase in plant and prokaryotic ferritins. The structure reflects a dynamic process of deposition and dissolution, influenced by different biological, chemical and physical variables. In this work we shed light on this matter by combining a structural (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Fe K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)) and a magnetic study of the mineral core biomineralized by horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and three prokaryotic ferritin-like proteins: bacterial ferritin (FtnA) and bacterioferritin (Bfr) from Escherichia coli and archaeal ferritin (PfFtn) from Pyrococcus furiosus. The prokaryotic ferritin-like proteins have been studied under native conditions and inside the cells for the sake of preserving their natural attributes. They share with HoSF a nanocrystalline structure rather than an amorphous one as has been frequently reported. However, the presence of phosphorus changes drastically the short-range order and magnetic response of the prokaryotic cores with respect to HoSF. The superparamagnetism observed in HoSF is absent in the prokaryotic proteins, which show a pure atomic-like paramagnetic behaviour attributed to phosphorus breaking the Fe-Fe exchange interaction.It is generally accepted that the mineral core synthesized by ferritin-like proteins consists of a ferric oxy-hydroxide mineral similar to ferrihydrite in the case of horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and an oxy-hydroxide-phosphate phase in plant and prokaryotic ferritins. The structure reflects a dynamic process of deposition and dissolution, influenced by different biological, chemical and physical variables. In this work we shed light on this matter by combining a structural (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM

  18. Autonomous Microbial Sampler (AMS), a device for the uncontaminated collection of multiple microbial samples from submarine hydrothermal vents and other aquatic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Craig D.; Doherty, Kenneth W.; Molyneaux, Stephen J.; Morrison, Archie T.; Billings, John D.; Engstrom, Ivory B.; Pfitsch, Don W.; Honjo, Susumu

    2006-05-01

    An Autonomous Microbial Sampler (AMS) is described that will obtain uncontaminated and exogenous DNA-free microbial samples from most marine, freshwater and hydrothermal ecosystems. Sampling with the AMS may be conducted using manned submersibles, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), or when tethered to a hydrowire during hydrocast operations on research vessels. The modular device consists of a titanium nozzle for sampling in potentially hot environments (>350 °C) and fluid-handling components for the collection of six independent filtered or unfiltered samples. An onboard microcomputer permits sampling to be controlled by the investigator, by external devices (e.g., AUV computer), or by internal programming. Temperature, volume pumped and other parameters are recorded during sampling. Complete protection of samples from microbial contamination was observed in tests simulating deployment of the AMS in coastal seawater, where the sampling nozzle was exposed to seawater containing 1×10 6 cells ml -1 of a red pigmented tracer organism, Serratia marinorubra. Field testing of the AMS at a hydrothermal vent field was successfully undertaken in 2000. Results of DNA destruction studies have revealed that exposure of samples of the Eukaryote Euglena and the bacterium S. marinorubra to 0.5 N sulfuric acid at 23 °C for 1 h was sufficient to remove polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifiable DNA. Studies assessing the suitability of hydrogen peroxide as a sterilizing and DNA-destroying agent showed that 20% or 30% hydrogen peroxide sterilized samples of Serratia in 1 h and destroyed the DNA of Serratia in 3 h, but not 1 or 2 h. DNA AWAY™ killed Serratia and destroyed the DNA of both Serratia and the vent microbe (GB-D) of the genus Pyrococcus in 1 h.

  19. A c subunit with four transmembrane helices and one ion (Na+)-binding site in an archaeal ATP synthase: implications for c ring function and structure.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Florian; Leone, Vanessa; Langer, Julian D; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Müller, Volker

    2012-11-16

    The ion-driven membrane rotors of ATP synthases consist of multiple copies of subunit c, forming a closed ring. Subunit c typically comprises two transmembrane helices, and the c ring features an ion-binding site in between each pair of adjacent subunits. Here, we use experimental and computational methods to study the structure and specificity of an archaeal c subunit more akin to those of V-type ATPases, namely that from Pyrococcus furiosus. The c subunit was purified by chloroform/methanol extraction and determined to be 15.8 kDa with four predicted transmembrane helices. However, labeling with DCCD as well as Na(+)-DCCD competition experiments revealed only one binding site for DCCD and Na(+), indicating that the mature c subunit of this A(1)A(O) ATP synthase is indeed of the V-type. A structural model generated computationally revealed one Na(+)-binding site within each of the c subunits, mediated by a conserved glutamate side chain alongside other coordinating groups. An intriguing second glutamate located in-between adjacent c subunits was ruled out as a functional Na(+)-binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the c ring of P. furiosus is highly Na(+)-specific under in vivo conditions, comparable with the Na(+)-dependent V(1)V(O) ATPase from Enterococcus hirae. Interestingly, the same holds true for the c ring from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, whose c subunits also feature a V-type architecture but carry two Na(+)-binding sites instead. These findings are discussed in light of their physiological relevance and with respect to the mode of ion coupling in A(1)A(O) ATP synthases.

  20. Archaea box C/D enzymes methylate two distinct substrate rRNA sequences with different efficiency.

    PubMed

    Graziadei, Andrea; Masiewicz, Pawel; Lapinaite, Audrone; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    RNA modifications confer complexity to the 4-nucleotide polymer; nevertheless, their exact function is mostly unknown. rRNA 2'-O-ribose methylation concentrates to ribosome functional sites and is important for ribosome biogenesis. The methyl group is transferred to rRNA by the box C/D RNPs: The rRNA sequence to be methylated is recognized by a complementary sequence on the guide RNA, which is part of the enzyme. In contrast to their eukaryotic homologs, archaeal box C/D enzymes can be assembled in vitro and are used to study the mechanism of 2'-O-ribose methylation. In Archaea, each guide RNA directs methylation to two distinct rRNA sequences, posing the question whether this dual architecture of the enzyme has a regulatory role. Here we use methylation assays and low-resolution structural analysis with small-angle X-ray scattering to study the methylation reaction guided by the sR26 guide RNA fromPyrococcus furiosus We find that the methylation efficacy at sites D and D' differ substantially, with substrate D' turning over more efficiently than substrate D. This observation correlates well with structural data: The scattering profile of the box C/D RNP half-loaded with substrate D' is similar to that of the holo complex, which has the highest activity. Unexpectedly, the guide RNA secondary structure is not responsible for the functional difference at the D and D' sites. Instead, this difference is recapitulated by the nature of the first base pair of the guide-substrate duplex. We suggest that substrate turnover may occur through a zip mechanism that initiates at the 5'-end of the product.

  1. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Lakshmi, Lakshmi Dharmarajan; Rodriquez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, I.; Ulrich, Luke; Mavromatis, K; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B; Whitman, W. B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. Results The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. Conclusion The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  2. Two complementary enzymes for threonylation of tRNA in crenarchaeota: crystal structure of Aeropyrum pernix threonyl-tRNA synthetase lacking a cis-editing domain.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satoru; Juan, Ella Czarina Magat; Sato, Yoshiteru; Miyashita, Yu-Ichiro; Hoque, Md Mominul; Suzuki, Kaoru; Sagara, Tsubasa; Tsunoda, Masaru; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Takénaka, Akio

    2009-11-27

    In protein synthesis, threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) must recognize threonine (Thr) from the 20 kinds of amino acids and the cognate tRNA(Thr) from different tRNAs in order to generate Thr-tRNA(Thr). In general, an organism possesses one kind of gene corresponding to ThrRS. However, it has been recently found that some organisms have two different genes for ThrRS in the genome, suggesting that their proteins ThrRS-1 and ThrRS-2 function separately and complement each other in the threonylation of tRNA(Thr), one for catalysis and the other for trans-editing of misacylated Ser-tRNA(Thr). In order to clarify their three-dimensional structures, we performed X-ray analyses of two putatively assigned ThrRSs from Aeropyrum pernix (ApThrRS-1 and ApThrRS-2). These proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and crystallized. The crystal structure of ApThrRS-1 has been successfully determined at 2.3 A resolution. ApThrRS-1 is a dimeric enzyme composed of two identical subunits, each containing two domains for the catalytic reaction and for anticodon binding. The essential editing domain is completely missing as expected. These structural features reveal that ThrRS-1 catalyzes only the aminoacylation of the cognate tRNA, suggesting the necessity of the second enzyme ThrRS-2 for trans-editing. Since the N-terminal sequence of ApThrRS-2 is similar to the sequence of the editing domain of ThrRS from Pyrococcus abyssi, ApThrRS-2 has been expected to catalyze deaminoacylation of a misacylated serine moiety at the CCA terminus.

  3. Geochemical Constraints on Archaeal Diversity in the Vulcano Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Amend, J. P.

    2006-12-01

    The shallow marine hydrothermal system of Vulcano, Italy hosts a wide diversity of cultured thermophilic Archaea, including Palaeococcus helgesonii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Pyrococcus furiosus, to name a few. However, recent studies have revealed a plethora of uncultured archaeal lineages in the Vulcano system. For example, a 16S rRNA gene survey of an onshore geothermal well identified a diverse archaeal community including deeply-branching uncultured Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Additionally, culture-independent hybridization techniques suggested that Archaea account for nearly half of the microbial community in the Vulcano system. Furthermore, geochemical characterization of fluids revealed numerous lithotrophic and heterotrophic exergonic reactions that could support as yet uncultured organisms. Archaeal diversity throughout the Vulcano hydrothermal system was investigated using 16S rRNA gene surveys at five submarine vents and an onshore sediment seep. Overall, archaeal diversity was higher (10 groups) at submarine vents with moderate temperatures (59°C) compared with higher temperature (94°C) vents (4 groups). Archaeal communities at the moderately thermal vents were dominated by Thermococcales and also contained Archaeoglobales, Thermoproteales, and uncultured archaea among the Korarchaeota, Marine Group I, and the Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeota (DHVE). Fluid composition also affects the microbial community structure. At two high-temperature sites variations in archaeal diversity can be attributed to differences in iron and hydrogen concentrations, and pH. Comparing sites with similar temperature and pH conditions suggests that the presence of Desulfurococcales is limited to sites at which metabolic energy yields exceed 10 kJ per mole of electrons transferred. The Vulcano hydrothermal system hosts diverse archaeal communities, containing both cultured and uncultured species, whose distribution appears to be constrained by

  4. A novel microbial habitat in the mid-ocean ridge subseafloor

    PubMed Central

    Summit, Melanie; Baross, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The subseafloor at the mid-ocean ridge is predicted to be an excellent microbial habitat, because there is abundant space, fluid flow, and geochemical energy in the porous, hydrothermally influenced oceanic crust. These characteristics also make it a good analog for potential subsurface extraterrestrial habitats. Subseafloor environments created by the mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids and seawater are predicted to be particularly energy-rich, and hyperthermophilic microorganisms that broadly reflect such predictions are ejected from these systems in low-temperature (≈15°C), basalt-hosted diffuse effluents. Seven hyperthermophilic heterotrophs isolated from low-temperature diffuse fluids exiting the basaltic crust in and near two hydrothermal vent fields on the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, were compared phylogenetically and physiologically to six similarly enriched hyperthermophiles from samples associated with seafloor metal sulfide structures. The 13 organisms fell into four distinct groups: one group of two organisms corresponding to the genus Pyrococcus and three groups corresponding to the genus Thermococcus. Of these three groups, one was composed solely of sulfide-derived organisms, and the other two related groups were composed of subseafloor organisms. There was no evidence of restricted exchange of organisms between sulfide and subseafloor habitats, and therefore this phylogenetic distinction indicates a selective force operating between the two habitats. Hypotheses regarding the habitat differences were generated through comparison of the physiology of the two groups of hyperthermophiles; some potential differences between these habitats include fluid flow stability, metal ion concentrations, and sources of complex organic matter. PMID:11226209

  5. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  6. Dynamics and unfolding pathways of a hyperthermophilic and a mesophilic rubredoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Lazaridis, T.; Lee, I.; Karplus, M.

    1997-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations in solution are performed for a rubredoxin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (RdPf) and one from the mesophilic organism Desulfovibrio vulgaris (RdDv). The two proteins are simulated at four temperatures: 300 K, 373 K, 473 K (two sets), and 500 K; the various simulations extended from 200 ps to 1,020 ps. At room temperature, the two proteins are stable, remain close to the crystal structure, and exhibit similar dynamic behavior; the RMS residue fluctuations are slightly smaller in the hyperthermophilic protein. An analysis of the average energy contributions in the two proteins is made; the results suggest that the intraprotein energy stabilizes RdPf relative to RdDv. At 373 K, the mesophilic protein unfolds rapidly (it begins to unfold at 300 ps), whereas the hyperthermophilic does not unfold over the simulation of 600 ps. This is in accord with the expected stability of the two proteins. At 473 K, where both proteins are expected to be unstable, unfolding behavior is observed within 200 ps and the mesophilic protein unfolds faster than the hyperthermophilic one. At 500 K, both proteins unfold; the hyperthermophilic protein does so faster than the mesophilic protein. The unfolding behavior for the two proteins is found to be very similar. Although the exact order of events differs from one trajectory to another, both proteins unfold first by opening of the loop region to expose the hydrophobic core. This is followed by unzipping of the beta-sheet. The results obtained in the simulation are discussed in terms of the factors involved in flexibility and thermostability. PMID:9416608

  7. Crystal structure of the archaeal asparagine synthetase: interrelation with aspartyl-tRNA and asparaginyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Blaise, Mickaël; Fréchin, Mathieu; Oliéric, Vincent; Charron, Christophe; Sauter, Claude; Lorber, Bernard; Roy, Hervé; Kern, Daniel

    2011-09-23

    Asparagine synthetase A (AsnA) catalyzes asparagine synthesis using aspartate, ATP, and ammonia as substrates. Asparagine is formed in two steps: the β-carboxylate group of aspartate is first activated by ATP to form an aminoacyl-AMP before its amidation by a nucleophilic attack with an ammonium ion. Interestingly, this mechanism of amino acid activation resembles that used by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which first activate the α-carboxylate group of the amino acid to form also an aminoacyl-AMP before they transfer the activated amino acid onto the cognate tRNA. In a previous investigation, we have shown that the open reading frame of Pyrococcus abyssi annotated as asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) 2 is, in fact, an archaeal asparagine synthetase A (AS-AR) that evolved from an ancestral aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS). We present here the crystal structure of this AS-AR. The fold of this protein is similar to that of bacterial AsnA and resembles the catalytic cores of AspRS and AsnRS. The high-resolution structures of AS-AR associated with its substrates and end-products help to understand the reaction mechanism of asparagine formation and release. A comparison of the catalytic core of AS-AR with those of archaeal AspRS and AsnRS and with that of bacterial AsnA reveals a strong conservation. This study uncovers how the active site of the ancestral AspRS rearranged throughout evolution to transform an enzyme activating the α-carboxylate group into an enzyme that is able to activate the β-carboxylate group of aspartate, which can react with ammonia instead of tRNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure of intact AhpF reveals a mirrored thioredoxin-like active site and implies large domain rotations during catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Z A; Poole, L B; Karplus, P A

    2001-04-03

    AhpF, a homodimer of 57 kDa subunits, is a flavoenzyme which catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of redox-active disulfide bonds in the peroxidase AhpC, a member of the recently identified peroxiredoxin class of antioxidant enzymes. The structure of AhpF from Salmonella typhimurium at 2.0 A resolution, determined using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion, shows that the C-terminal portion of AhpF (residues 210-521) is structurally like Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase. In addition, AhpF has an N-terminal domain (residues 1-196) formed from two contiguous thioredoxin folds, but containing just a single redox-active disulfide (Cys129-Cys132). A flexible linker (residues 197-209) connects the domains, consistent with experiments showing that the N-terminal domain acts as an appended substrate, first being reduced by the C-terminal portion of AhpF, and subsequently reducing AhpC. Modeling studies imply that an intrasubunit electron transfer accounts for the reduction of the N-terminal domain in dimeric AhpF. Furthermore, comparing the N-terminal domain with protein disulfide oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosis, we describe a new class of protein disulfide oxidoreductases based on a novel mirror-image active site arrangement, with a distinct carboxylate (Glu86) being functionally equivalent to the key acid (Asp26) of E. coli thioredoxin. A final fortuitous result is that the N-terminal redox center is reduced and provides a high-resolution view of the thiol-thiolate hydrogen bond that has been predicted to stabilize the attacking thiolate in thioredoxin-like proteins.

  9. Self-assembly is prerequisite for catalysis of Fe(II) oxidation by catalytically active subunits of ferritin.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2015-10-30

    Fe(III) storage by ferritin is an essential process of the iron homeostasis machinery. It begins by translocation of Fe(II) from outside the hollow spherical shape structure of the protein, which is formed as the result of self-assembly of 24 subunits, to a di-iron binding site, the ferroxidase center, buried in the middle of each active subunit. The pathway of Fe(II) to the ferroxidase center has remained elusive, and the importance of self-assembly for the functioning of the ferroxidase center has not been investigated. Here we report spectroscopic and metal ion binding studies with a mutant of ferritin from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfFtn) in which self-assembly was abolished by a single amino acid substitution. We show that in this mutant metal ion binding to the ferroxidase center and Fe(II) oxidation at this site was obliterated. However, metal ion binding to a conserved third site (site C), which is located in the inner surface of each subunit in the vicinity of the ferroxidase center and is believed to be the path for Fe(II) to the ferroxidase center, was not disrupted. These results are the basis of a new model for Fe(II) translocation to the ferroxidase center: self-assembly creates channels that guide the Fe(II) ions toward the ferroxidase center directly through the protein shell and not via the internal cavity and site C. The results may be of significance for understanding the molecular basis of ferritin-related disorders such as neuroferritinopathy in which the 24-meric structure with 432 symmetry is distorted. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Differential Interaction Kinetics of a Bipolar Structure-Specific Endonuclease with DNA Flaps Revealed by Single-Molecule Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rezgui, Rachid; Lestini, Roxane; Kühn, Joëlle; Fave, Xenia; McLeod, Lauren; Myllykallio, Hannu; Alexandrou, Antigoni; Bouzigues, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    As DNA repair enzymes are essential for preserving genome integrity, understanding their substrate interaction dynamics and the regulation of their catalytic mechanisms is crucial. Using single-molecule imaging, we investigated the association and dissociation kinetics of the bipolar endonuclease NucS from Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab) on 5′ and 3′-flap structures under various experimental conditions. We show that association of the PabNucS with ssDNA flaps is largely controlled by diffusion in the NucS-DNA energy landscape and does not require a free 5′ or 3′ extremity. On the other hand, NucS dissociation is independent of the flap length and thus independent of sliding on the single-stranded portion of the flapped DNA substrates. Our kinetic measurements have revealed previously unnoticed asymmetry in dissociation kinetics from these substrates that is markedly modulated by the replication clamp PCNA. We propose that the replication clamp PCNA enhances the cleavage specificity of NucS proteins by accelerating NucS loading at the ssDNA/dsDNA junctions and by minimizing the nuclease interaction time with its DNA substrate. Our data are also consistent with marked reorganization of ssDNA and nuclease domains occurring during NucS catalysis, and indicate that NucS binds its substrate directly at the ssDNA-dsDNA junction and then threads the ssDNA extremity into the catalytic site. The powerful techniques used here for probing the dynamics of DNA-enzyme binding at the single-molecule have provided new insight regarding substrate specificity of NucS nucleases. PMID:25412080

  11. Differential interaction kinetics of a bipolar structure-specific endonuclease with DNA flaps revealed by single-molecule imaging.

    PubMed

    Rezgui, Rachid; Lestini, Roxane; Kühn, Joëlle; Fave, Xenia; McLeod, Lauren; Myllykallio, Hannu; Alexandrou, Antigoni; Bouzigues, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    As DNA repair enzymes are essential for preserving genome integrity, understanding their substrate interaction dynamics and the regulation of their catalytic mechanisms is crucial. Using single-molecule imaging, we investigated the association and dissociation kinetics of the bipolar endonuclease NucS from Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab) on 5' and 3'-flap structures under various experimental conditions. We show that association of the PabNucS with ssDNA flaps is largely controlled by diffusion in the NucS-DNA energy landscape and does not require a free 5' or 3' extremity. On the other hand, NucS dissociation is independent of the flap length and thus independent of sliding on the single-stranded portion of the flapped DNA substrates. Our kinetic measurements have revealed previously unnoticed asymmetry in dissociation kinetics from these substrates that is markedly modulated by the replication clamp PCNA. We propose that the replication clamp PCNA enhances the cleavage specificity of NucS proteins by accelerating NucS loading at the ssDNA/dsDNA junctions and by minimizing the nuclease interaction time with its DNA substrate. Our data are also consistent with marked reorganization of ssDNA and nuclease domains occurring during NucS catalysis, and indicate that NucS binds its substrate directly at the ssDNA-dsDNA junction and then threads the ssDNA extremity into the catalytic site. The powerful techniques used here for probing the dynamics of DNA-enzyme binding at the single-molecule have provided new insight regarding substrate specificity of NucS nucleases.

  12. Bacterial and archaeal resistance to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confalonieri, F.; Sommer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Organisms living in extreme environments must cope with large fluctuations of temperature, high levels of radiation and/or desiccation, conditions that can induce DNA damage ranging from base modifications to DNA double-strand breaks. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is known for its resistance to extremely high doses of ionizing radiation and for its ability to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Recently, extreme ionizing radiation resistance was also generated by directed evolution of an apparently radiation-sensitive bacterial species, Escherichia coli. Radioresistant organisms are not only found among the Eubacteria but also among the Archaea that represent the third kingdom of life. They present a set of particular features that differentiate them from the Eubacteria and eukaryotes. Moreover, Archaea are often isolated from extreme environments where they live under severe conditions of temperature, pressure, pH, salts or toxic compounds that are lethal for the large majority of living organisms. Thus, Archaea offer the opportunity to understand how cells are able to cope with such harsh conditions. Among them, the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp and several Pyrococcus or Thermococcus species, such as Thermococcus gammatolerans, were also shown to display high level of radiation resistance. The dispersion, in the phylogenetic tree, of radioresistant prokaryotes suggests that they have independently acquired radioresistance. Different strategies were selected during evolution including several mechanisms of radiation byproduct detoxification and subtle cellular metabolism modifications to help cells recover from radiation-induced injuries, protection of proteins against oxidation, an efficient DNA repair tool box, an original pathway of DNA double-strand break repair, a condensed nucleoid that may prevent the dispersion of the DNA fragments and specific radiation-induced proteins involved in

  13. The Investigation and Characterization of the Group 3 [Nickel-Iron]-Hydrogenases Using Protein Film Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Chelsea Lee

    Hydrogenases, the enzymes that reversibly convert protons and electrons to hydrogen, are used in all three domains of life. [NiFe]-hydrogenases are considered best suited for biotechnological applications because of their reversible inactivation with oxygen. Phylogenetically, there are four groups of [NiFe]-hydrogenases. The best characterized group, "uptake" hydrogenases, are membrane-bound and catalyze hydrogen oxidation in vivo. In contrast, the group 3 [NiFe]-hydrogenases are heteromultimeric, bifunctional enzymes that fulfill various cellular roles. In this dissertation, protein film electrochemistry (PFE) is used to characterize the catalytic properties of two group 3 [NiFe]-hydrogenases: HoxEFUYH from Synechocystsis sp. PCC 6803 and SHI from Pyrococcus furiosus. First, HoxEFUYH is shown to be biased towards hydrogen production. Upon exposure to oxygen, HoxEFUYH inactivates to two states, both of which can be reactivated on the timescale of seconds. Second, we show that PfSHI is the first example of an oxygen tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenase that produces two inactive states upon exposure to oxygen. Both inactive states are analogous to those characterized for HoxEFUYH, but oxygen exposed PfSHI produces a greater fraction that reactivates at high potentials, enabling hydrogen oxidation in the presence of oxygen. Third, it is shown that removing the NAD(P)-reducing subunits from PfSHI leads to a decrease in bias towards hydrogen oxidation and renders the enzyme oxygen sensitive. Both traits are likely due to impaired intramolecular electron transfer. Mechanistic hypotheseses for these functional differences are considered.

  14. Root of the universal tree of life based on ancient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene duplications.

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Doolittle, W F

    1995-03-28

    Universal trees based on sequences of single gene homologs cannot be rooted. Iwabe et al. [Iwabe, N., Kuma, K.-I., Hasegawa, M., Osawa, S. & Miyata, T. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 9355-9359] circumvented this problem by using ancient gene duplications that predated the last common ancestor of all living things. Their separate, reciprocally rooted gene trees for elongation factors and ATPase subunits showed Bacteria (eubacteria) as branching first from the universal tree with Archaea (archaebacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes) as sister groups. Given its topical importance to evolutionary biology and concerns about the appropriateness of the ATPase data set, an evaluation of the universal tree root using other ancient gene duplications is essential. In this study, we derive a rooting for the universal tree using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes, an extensive multigene family whose divergence likely preceded that of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. An approximately 1600-bp conserved region was sequenced from the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases of several species representing deep evolutionary branches of eukaryotes (Nosema locustae), Bacteria (Aquifex pyrophilus and Thermotoga maritima) and Archaea (Pyrococcus furiosus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius). In addition, a new valyl-tRNA synthetase was characterized from the protist Trichomonas vaginalis. Different phylogenetic methods were used to generate trees of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases rooted by valyl- and leucyl-tRNA synthetases. All isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase trees showed Archaea and Eucarya as sister groups, providing strong confirmation for the universal tree rooting reported by Iwabe et al. As well, there was strong support for the monophyly (sensu Hennig) of Archaea. The valyl-tRNA synthetase gene from Tr. vaginalis clustered with other eukaryotic ValRS genes, which may have been transferred from the mitochondrial genome to the nuclear genome, suggesting that this amitochondrial trichomonad once harbored an

  15. Use of a Tn5-based transposon system to create a cost-effective Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production from lignocelluloses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current methods of ethanol production from lignocelluloses generate a mixture of sugars, primarily glucose and xylose; the fermentation cells are always exposed to stresses like high temperature and low nutritional conditions that affect their growth and productivity. Stress-tolerant strains capable of using both glucose and xylose to produce ethanol with high yield are highly desirable. Results A recombinant Zymomonas mobilis (Z. mobilis) designated as HYMX was constructed by integrating seven genes (Pfu-sHSP, yfdZ, metB, xylA, xylB, tktA and talB) into the genome of Z. mobilis CP4 (CP4) via Tn5 transposon in the present study. The small heat shock protein gene (Pfu-sHSP) from Pyrococcus furious (P. furious) was used to increase the heat-tolerance, the yfdZ and metB genes from E. coli were used to decrease the nutritional requirement. To overcome the bottleneck of CP4 being unable to use pentose, xylose catabolic genes (xylA, xylB, tktA and talB) from E. coli were integrated into CP4 also for construction of the xylose utilizing metabolic pathway. Conclusions The genomic integration confers on Z. mobilis the ability to grow in medium containing xylose as the only carbon source, and to grow in simple chemical defined medium without addition of amino acid. The HYMX demonstrated not only the high tolerance to unfavorable stresses like high temperature and low nutrient, but also the capability of converting both glucose and xylose to ethanol with high yield at high temperature. What’s more, these genetic characteristics were stable up to 100 generations on nonselective medium. Although significant improvements were achieved, yeast extract is needed for ethanol production. PMID:23635356

  16. Intein-Promoted Cyclization of Aspartic Acid Flanking the Intein Leads to Atypical N-Terminal Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Christopher J; Siegart, Nicolle M; Colelli, Kathryn M; Liu, Xinyue; Linhardt, Robert J; Wang, Chunyu; Gomez, Alvin V; Reitter, Julie N; Mills, Kenneth V

    2017-02-28

    Protein splicing is a post-translational reaction facilitated by an intein, or intervening protein, which involves the removal of the intein and the ligation of the flanking polypeptides, or exteins. A DNA polymerase II intein from Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab PolII intein) can promote protein splicing in vitro on incubation at high temperature. Mutation of active site residues Cys1, Gln185, and Cys+1 to Ala results in an inactive intein precursor, which cannot promote the steps of splicing, including cleavage of the peptide bond linking the N-extein and intein (N-terminal cleavage). Surprisingly, coupling the inactivating mutations to a change of the residue at the C-terminus of the N-extein (N-1 residue) from the native Asn to Asp reactivates N-terminal cleavage at pH 5. Similar "aspartic acid effects" have been observed in other proteins and peptides but usually only occur at lower pH values. In this case, however, the unusual N-terminal cleavage is abolished by mutations to catalytic active site residues and unfolding of the intein, indicating that this cleavage effect is mediated by the intein active site and the intein fold. We show via mass spectrometry that the reaction proceeds through cyclization of Asp resulting in anhydride formation coupled to peptide bond cleavage. Our results add to the richness of the understanding of the mechanism of protein splicing and provide insight into the stability of proteins at moderately low pH. The results also explain, and may help practitioners avoid, a side reaction that may complicate intein applications in biotechnology.

  17. The enzymology of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) isoforms from Hordeum vulgare and other organisms, and the HvAlaAT crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Duff, Stephen M G; Rydel, Timothy J; McClerren, Amanda L; Zhang, Wenlan; Li, Jimmy Y; Sturman, Eric J; Halls, Coralie; Chen, Songyang; Zeng, Jiamin; Peng, Jiexin; Kretzler, Crystal N; Evdokimov, Artem

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we describe the expression, purification, kinetics and biophysical characterization of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) from the barley plant (Hordeum vulgare). This dimeric PLP-dependent enzyme is a pivotal element of several key metabolic pathways from nitrogen assimilation to carbon metabolism, and its introduction into transgenic plants results in increased yield. The enzyme exhibits a bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism with a K(m) for alanine, 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate and pyruvate of 3.8, 0.3, 0.8 and 0.2 mM, respectively. Barley AlaAT catalyzes the forward (alanine-forming) reaction with a k(cat) of 25.6 s(-1), the reverse (glutamate-forming) reaction with k(cat) of 12.1 s(-1) and an equilibrium constant of ~0.5. The enzyme is also able to utilize aspartate and oxaloacetate with ~10% efficiency as compared to the native substrates, which makes it much more specific than related bacterial/archaeal enzymes (that also have lower K(m) values). We have crystallized barley AlaAT in complex with PLP and l-cycloserine and solved the structure of this complex at 2.7 Å resolution. This is the first example of a plant AlaAT structure, and it reveals a canonical aminotransferase fold similar to structures of the Thermotoga maritima, Pyrococcus furiosus, and human enzymes. This structure bridges our structural understanding of AlaAT mechanism between three kingdoms of life and allows us to shed some light on the specifics of the catalysis performed by these proteins.

  18. Unique fluorophores in the dimeric archaeal histones hMfB and hPyA1 reveal the impact of nonnative structure in a monomeric kinetic intermediate.

    PubMed

    Stump, Matthew R; Gloss, Lisa M

    2008-02-01

    Homodimeric archaeal histones and heterodimeric eukaryotic histones share a conserved structure but fold through different kinetic mechanisms, with a correlation between faster folding/association rates and the population of kinetic intermediates. Wild-type hMfB (from Methanothermus fervidus) has no intrinsic fluorophores; Met35, which is Tyr in hyperthermophilic archaeal histones such as hPyA1 (from Pyrococcus strain GB-3A), was mutated to Tyr and Trp. Two Tyr-to-Trp mutants of hPyA1 were also characterized. All fluorophores were introduced into the long, central alpha-helix of the histone fold. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) indicated that the fluorophores did not significantly alter the helical content of the histones. The equilibrium unfolding transitions of the histone variants were two-state, reversible processes, with DeltaG degrees (H2O) values within 1 kcal/mol of the wild-type dimers. The hPyA1 Trp variants fold by two-state kinetic mechanisms like wild-type hPyA1, but with increased folding and unfolding rates, suggesting that the mutated residues (Tyr-32 and Tyr-36) contribute to transition state structure. Like wild-type hMfB, M35Y and M35W hMfB fold by a three-state mechanism, with a stopped-flow CD burst-phase monomeric intermediate. The M35 mutants populate monomeric intermediates with increased secondary structure and stability but exhibit decreased folding rates; this suggests that nonnative interactions occur from burial of the hydrophobic Tyr and Trp residues in this kinetic intermediate. These results implicate the long central helix as a key component of the structure in the kinetic monomeric intermediates of hMfB as well as the dimerization transition state in the folding of hPyA1.

  19. Evidence of Molecular Adaptation to Extreme Environments and Applicability to Space Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovic, M. D.; Ognjanovic, S.; Ognjanovic, M.

    2008-06-01

    This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile (non-hyperthermophile): Escherichia coli (E. coli K12), will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme temperatures. Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0° C (Metarhizium frigidum (M.~frigidum) and Methanococcoides burtonii (M.~burtonii)) and 110° C (Methanopyrus kandleri (M.~kandleri)). Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the chaperones known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved chaperons found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique chaperone TF55. Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The following hyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used for these studies: Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M.~jannaschii), M.~kandleri, Archaeoglobus fulgidus (A.~fulgidus) and three species of Pyrococcus. Common genes were annotated and grouped according to their roles in cellular processes where such information was available and proteins not previously implicated in the heat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additional experimental data are needed in order to learn more about these proteins. To address non-gene based components of thermal adaptation, all sequenced extremophiles were analysed for

  20. Topography of the euryarchaeal transcription initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael S; Thomm, Michael; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2004-02-13

    Transcription in the Archaea is carried out by RNA polymerases and transcription factors that are highly homologous to their eukaryotic counterparts, but little is known about the structural organization of the archaeal transcription complex. To address this, transcription initiation complexes have been formed with Pyrococcus furiosus transcription factors (TBP and TFB1), RNA polymerase, and a linear DNA fragment containing a strong promoter. The arrangement of proteins from base pair -35 to +20 (relative to the transcriptional start site) has been analyzed by photochemical protein-DNA cross-linking. TBP cross-links to the TATA box and TFB1 cross-links both upstream and downstream of the TATA box, as expected, but the sites of most prominent TFB1 cross-linking are located well downstream of the TATA box, reaching as far as the start site of transcription, suggesting a role for TFB1 in initiation of transcription that extends beyond polymerase recruitment. These cross-links indicate the transcription factor orientation in the initiation complex. The pattern of cross-linking of four RNA polymerase subunits (B, A', A", and H) to the promoter suggests a path for promoter DNA relative to the RNA polymerase surface in this archaeal transcription initiation complex. In addition, an unidentified protein approximately the size of TBP cross-links to the non-transcribed DNA strand near the upstream edge of the transcription bubble. Cross-linking is specific to the polymerase-containing initiation complex and requires the gdh promoter TATA box. The location of this protein suggests that it, like TFB1, could also have a role in transcription initiation following RNA polymerase recruitment.

  1. Comparative analysis of three hyperthermophilic GH1 and GH3 family members with industrial potential.

    PubMed

    Cota, Junio; Corrêa, Thamy L R; Damásio, André R L; Diogo, José A; Hoffmam, Zaira B; Garcia, Wanius; Oliveira, Leandro C; Prade, Rolf A; Squina, Fabio M

    2015-01-25

    Beta-glucosidases (BGLs) are enzymes of great potential for several industrial processes, since they catalyze the cleavage of glucosidic bonds in cellobiose and other short cellooligosaccharides. However, features such as good stability to temperature, pH, ions and chemicals are required characteristics for industrial applications. This work aimed to provide a comparative biochemical analysis of three thermostable BGLs from Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermotoga petrophila. The genes PfBgl1 (GH1 from P. furiosus), TpBgl1 (GH1 from T. petrophila) and TpBgl3 (GH3 from T. petrophila) were cloned and proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes are hyperthermophilic, showing highest activity at temperatures above 80°C at acidic (TpBgl3 and PfBgl1) and neutral (TpBgl1) pHs. The BGLs showed greatest stability to temperature mainly at pH 6.0. Activities using a set of different substrates suggested that TpBgl3 (GH3) is more specific than GH1 family members. In addition, the influence of six monosaccharides on BGL catalysis was assayed. While PfBgl1 and TpBgl3 seemed to be weakly inhibited by monosaccharides, TpBgl1 was activated, with xylose showing the strongest activation. Under the conditions tested, TpBgl1 showed the highest inhibition constant (Ki=1100.00mM) when compared with several BGLs previously characterized. The BGLs studied have potential for industrial use, specifically the enzymes belonging to the GH1 family, due to its broad substrate specificity and weak inhibition by glucose and other saccharides.

  2. Anomalous behavior of water inside the SecY translocon.

    PubMed

    Capponi, Sara; Heyden, Matthias; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Tobias, Douglas J; White, Stephen H

    2015-07-21

    The heterotrimeric SecY translocon complex is required for the cotranslational assembly of membrane proteins in bacteria and archaea. The insertion of transmembrane (TM) segments during nascent-chain passage through the translocon is generally viewed as a simple partitioning process between the water-filled translocon and membrane lipid bilayer, suggesting that partitioning is driven by the hydrophobic effect. Indeed, the apparent free energy of partitioning of unnatural aliphatic amino acids on TM segments is proportional to accessible surface area, which is a hallmark of the hydrophobic effect [Öjemalm K, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):E359-E364]. However, the apparent partitioning solvation parameter is less than one-half the value expected for simple bulk partitioning, suggesting that the water in the translocon departs from bulk behavior. To examine the state of water in a SecY translocon complex embedded in a lipid bilayer, we carried out all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations of the Pyrococcus furiosus SecYE, which was determined to be in a "primed" open state [Egea PF, Stroud RM (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(40):17182-17187]. Remarkably, SecYE remained in this state throughout our 450-ns simulation. Water molecules within SecY exhibited anomalous diffusion, had highly retarded rotational dynamics, and aligned their dipoles along the SecY transmembrane axis. The translocon is therefore not a simple water-filled pore, which raises the question of how anomalous water behavior affects the mechanism of translocon function and, more generally, the partitioning of hydrophobic molecules. Because large water-filled cavities are found in many membrane proteins, our findings may have broader implications.

  3. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Michael W

    2014-01-25

    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  4. Anomalous behavior of water inside the SecY translocon

    PubMed Central

    Capponi, Sara; Heyden, Matthias; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Tobias, Douglas J.; White, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    The heterotrimeric SecY translocon complex is required for the cotranslational assembly of membrane proteins in bacteria and archaea. The insertion of transmembrane (TM) segments during nascent-chain passage through the translocon is generally viewed as a simple partitioning process between the water-filled translocon and membrane lipid bilayer, suggesting that partitioning is driven by the hydrophobic effect. Indeed, the apparent free energy of partitioning of unnatural aliphatic amino acids on TM segments is proportional to accessible surface area, which is a hallmark of the hydrophobic effect [Öjemalm K, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):E359–E364]. However, the apparent partitioning solvation parameter is less than one-half the value expected for simple bulk partitioning, suggesting that the water in the translocon departs from bulk behavior. To examine the state of water in a SecY translocon complex embedded in a lipid bilayer, we carried out all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations of the Pyrococcus furiosus SecYE, which was determined to be in a “primed” open state [Egea PF, Stroud RM (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(40):17182–17187]. Remarkably, SecYE remained in this state throughout our 450-ns simulation. Water molecules within SecY exhibited anomalous diffusion, had highly retarded rotational dynamics, and aligned their dipoles along the SecY transmembrane axis. The translocon is therefore not a simple water-filled pore, which raises the question of how anomalous water behavior affects the mechanism of translocon function and, more generally, the partitioning of hydrophobic molecules. Because large water-filled cavities are found in many membrane proteins, our findings may have broader implications. PMID:26139523

  5. Enzymes and proteins from organisms that grow near and above 100 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Adams, M W

    1993-01-01

    Microorganisms that can grow at and above 100 degrees C were discovered a decade ago, and about 20 different genera are now known. These so-called hyperthermophiles are the most ancient of all extant life; all but two genera are classified as Archaea. All have been isolated from geothermal heated environments including deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This group includes some methanogenic and sulfate-reducing species, but the majority are strictly anaerobic heterotrophs that utilize complex peptide mixtures as sources of energy, carbon, and nitrogen. Only a few species are saccharolytic. Most of the hyperthermophiles absolutely depend on the reduction of elemental sulfur (S0) to H2S for significant growth, a property that severely limits their large-scale culture in conventional fermentation systems. Consequently, most physiological and metabolic studies have focused on those that can also grow in the absence of S0, including species of the Archaea, Pyrococcus and Thermococcus, and the bacterium Thermotoga. The fermentative pathways for the metabolism of both peptides and carbohydrates in the Archaea appear to depend upon enzymes that contain tungsten, an element seldom used in biological systems. The mechanisms of S0 reduction and energy conservation remain unclear. Enzymes purified from the S0-reducing hyperthermophiles include proteases, amylolytic-type enzymes, hydrogenases, redox proteins, various ferredoxin-linked oxidoreductases, dehydrogenases, and DNA polymerases, some of which are active up to 140 degrees C. However, complete amino acid sequences are known for only a handful of these proteins, and the three-dimensional structure of only one hyperthermophilic protein has been determined. Potential mechanisms by which proteins and various biological cofactors and organic intermediates are stabilized at extreme temperatures are only now beginning to emerge.

  6. Dynamics of RNA modification by a multi-site-specific tRNA methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Djemel; Guelorget, Amandine; Guérineau, Vincent; Golinelli-Pimpaneau, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    In most organisms, the widely conserved 1-methyl-adenosine58 (m1A58) tRNA modification is catalyzed by an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent, site-specific enzyme TrmI. In archaea, TrmI also methylates the adjacent adenine 57, m1A57 being an obligatory intermediate of 1-methyl-inosine57 formation. To study this multi-site specificity, we used three oligoribonucleotide substrates of Pyrococcus abyssi TrmI (PabTrmI) containing a fluorescent 2-aminopurine (2-AP) at the two target positions and followed the RNA binding kinetics and methylation reactions by stopped-flow and mass spectrometry. PabTrmI did not modify 2-AP but methylated the adjacent target adenine. 2-AP seriously impaired the methylation of A57 but not A58, confirming that PabTrmI methylates efficiently the first adenine of the A57A58A59 sequence. PabTrmI binding provoked a rapid increase of fluorescence, attributed to base unstacking in the environment of 2-AP. Then, a slow decrease was observed only with 2-AP at position 57 and SAM, suggesting that m1A58 formation triggers RNA release. A model of the protein–tRNA complex shows both target adenines in proximity of SAM and emphasizes no major tRNA conformational change except base flipping during the reaction. The solvent accessibility of the SAM pocket is not affected by the tRNA, thereby enabling S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine to be replaced by SAM without prior release of monomethylated tRNA. PMID:25217588

  7. Role of native-state structure in rubredoxin native-state hydrogen exchange.

    PubMed

    LeMaster, David M; Anderson, Janet S; Hernández, Griselda

    2006-08-22

    Amide exchange rates were measured for Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) rubredoxin substituted with either Zn(II), Ga(III), or Ge(IV). Base-catalyzed exchange rate constants increase up to 3000-fold per unit charge for the highly protected amides surrounding the active site metal, yielding apparent residue-specific conformational energy decreases of more than 8 kcal/mol in a comparison of the Zn(II)- and Ge(IV)-substituted proteins. However, the exchange kinetics for many of the other amides of the protein are insensitive to these metal substitutions. These differential rates are inversely correlated with the distance between the amide nitrogen and the metal in the X-ray structure, out to a distance of at least 12 A, consistent with an electrostatic potential-dependent shifting of the amide nitrogen pK. This strongly correlated distance dependence is consistent with a nativelike structure for the exchange-competent conformations. The electric field potential within the interior of the rubredoxin structure gives rise to a change of as much as a million-fold in the rate for the exchange-competent state of the individual amide hydrogens. Nevertheless, the strength of these electrostatic interactions in Pf rubredoxin appears to be comparable to those previously reported within other proteins. As a result, contrary to the conventional analysis of hydrogen exchange data, for exchange processes that occur via nonglobal transitions, the residual conformational structure will often modulate the observed rates. Although this necessarily complicates the estimation of the conformational equilibria of these exchange-competent states, this dependence on residual structure can provide insight into the conformation of these transient states.

  8. Self-assembly Is Prerequisite for Catalysis of Fe(II) Oxidation by Catalytically Active Subunits of Ferritin*

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2015-01-01

    Fe(III) storage by ferritin is an essential process of the iron homeostasis machinery. It begins by translocation of Fe(II) from outside the hollow spherical shape structure of the protein, which is formed as the result of self-assembly of 24 subunits, to a di-iron binding site, the ferroxidase center, buried in the middle of each active subunit. The pathway of Fe(II) to the ferroxidase center has remained elusive, and the importance of self-assembly for the functioning of the ferroxidase center has not been investigated. Here we report spectroscopic and metal ion binding studies with a mutant of ferritin from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfFtn) in which self-assembly was abolished by a single amino acid substitution. We show that in this mutant metal ion binding to the ferroxidase center and Fe(II) oxidation at this site was obliterated. However, metal ion binding to a conserved third site (site C), which is located in the inner surface of each subunit in the vicinity of the ferroxidase center and is believed to be the path for Fe(II) to the ferroxidase center, was not disrupted. These results are the basis of a new model for Fe(II) translocation to the ferroxidase center: self-assembly creates channels that guide the Fe(II) ions toward the ferroxidase center directly through the protein shell and not via the internal cavity and site C. The results may be of significance for understanding the molecular basis of ferritin-related disorders such as neuroferritinopathy in which the 24-meric structure with 432 symmetry is distorted. PMID:26370076

  9. Creation of active TIM barrel enzymes through genetic fusion of half-barrel domain constructs derived from two distantly related glycosyl hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prerna; Kaila, Pallavi; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2016-12-01

    Diverse unrelated enzymes that adopt the beta/alpha (or TIM) barrel topology display similar arrangements of beta/alpha units placed in a radial eight-fold symmetry around the barrel's axis. The TIM barrel was originally thought to be a single structural domain; however, it is now thought that TIM barrels arose from duplication and fusion of smaller half-barrels consisting of four beta/alpha units. We describe here the design, expression and purification, as well as characterization of folding, activity and stability, of chimeras of two TIM barrel glycosyl hydrolases, made by fusing different half-barrel domains derived from an endoglucanase from Clostridium cellulolyticum, CelCCA and a beta-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus, CelB. We show that after refolding following purification from inclusion bodies, the two half-barrel fusion chimeras (CelCCACelB and CelBCelCCA) display catalytic activity although they assemble into large soluble oligomeric aggregated species containing chains of mixed beta and alpha structure. CelBCelCCA displays hyperthermophile-like structural stability as well as significant stability to chemical denaturation (Cm of 2.6 m guanidinium hydrochloride), whereas CelCCACelB displays mesophile-like stability (Tm of ~ 71 °C). The endoglucanase activities of both chimeras are an order of magnitude lower than those of CelB or CelCCA, whereas the beta-glucosidase activity of CelBCelCCA is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of CelB. The chimera CelCCACelB shows no beta-glucosidase activity. Our results demonstrate that half-barrel domains from unrelated sources can fold, assemble and function, with scope for improvement.

  10. Enhanced thermal stability achieved without increased conformational rigidity at physiological temperatures: spatial propagation of differential flexibility in rubredoxin hybrids.

    PubMed

    LeMaster, David M; Tang, Jianzhong; Paredes, Diana I; Hernández, Griselda

    2005-11-15

    The extreme thermal stability of proteins from hyperthermophilic organisms is widely believed to arise from an increased conformational rigidity in the native state. In apparent contrast to this paradigm, both Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) rubredoxin, the most thermostable protein characterized to date, and its Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp) mesophile homolog undergo a transient conformational opening of their multi-turn segments, which is more favorable in hyperthermophile proteins below room temperature. Substitution of the hyperthermophile multi-turn sequence into the mesophile protein sequence yields a hybrid, (14-33(Pf)) Cp, that exhibits a 12 degrees increase in its reversible thermal unfolding transition midpoint. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnetization transfer-based hydrogen exchange was used to monitor backbone conformational dynamics in the subsecond time regime. Despite the substantially increased thermostability, flexibility throughout the entire main chain of the more thermostable hybrid is equal to or greater than that of the wild type mesophile rubredoxin near its normal growth temperature. In comparison to the identical core residues of the (14-33(Pf)) Cp rubredoxin hybrid, six spatially clustered residues in the parental mesophile protein exhibit a substantially larger temperature dependence of exchange. The exchange behavior of these six residues closely matches that observed in the multi-turn segment, consistent with a more extensive conformational process. These six core residues exhibit a much weaker temperature dependence of exchange in the (14-33(Pf)) Cp hybrid, similar to that observed for the multi-turn segment in its parental Pf rubredoxin. These results suggest that differential temperature dependence of flexibility can underlie variations in thermostability observed for mesophile versus hyperthermophile homologs.

  11. Exploiting microbial hyperthermophilicity to produce an industrial chemical, using hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, MW; Schut, GJ; Lipscomb, GL; Menon, AL; Iwuchukwu, IJ; Leuko, TT; Thorgersen, MP; Nixon, WJ; Hawkins, AS; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2013-04-09

    Microorganisms can be engineered to produce useful. products, including chemicals and fuels from sugars derived from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. An alternative method is to use low potential reducing power from nonbiomass sources, such as hydrogen gas or electricity, to reduce carbon dioxide directly into products. This approach circumvents the overall low efficiency of photosynthesis and the production of sugar intermediates. Although significant advances have been made in manipulating microorganisms to produce useful products from organic substrates, engineering them to use carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas has not been reported. Herein, we describe a unique temperature-dependent approach that confers on a microorganism (the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally on carbohydrates at 100 degrees C) the capacity to use carbon dioxide, a reaction that it does not accomplish naturally. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of five genes of the carbon fixation cycle of the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula, which grows autotrophically at 73 degrees C. The engineered P. furiosus strain is able to use hydrogen gas and incorporate carbon dioxide into 3-hydroxypropionic acid, one of the top 12 industrial chemical building blocks. The reaction can be accomplished by cell-free extracts and by whole cells of the recombinant P. furiosus strain. Moreover, it is carried out some 30 degrees C below the optimal growth temperature of the organism in conditions that support only minimal growth but maintain sufficient metabolic activity to sustain the production of 3-hydroxypropionate. The approach described here can be expanded to produce important organic chemicals, all through biological activation of carbon dioxide.

  12. Crystal structure of TBP-interacting protein (Tk-TIP26) and implications for its inhibition mechanism of the interaction between TBP and TATA-DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takahiko; Matsuda, Tomoki; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Morikawa, Masaaki; Kanaya, Shigenori; Kai, Yasushi

    2006-01-01

    TATA-binding protein (TBP)-interacting protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis strain KOD1 (Tk-TIP26) is a possible transcription regulatory protein in Thermococcales. Here, we report the crystal structure of Tk-TIP26 determined at 2.3 Å resolution with multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. The overall structure of Tk-TIP26 consists of two domains. The N-terminal domain forms an α/β structure, in which three α-helices enclose the central β-sheet. The topology of this domain is similar to that of holliday junction resolvase Hjc from Pyrococcus furiosus. The C-terminal domain comprises three α-helices, six β-strands, and two 310-helices. In the dimer structure of Tk-TIP26, two molecules are related with the crystallographic twofold axis, and these molecules rigidly interact with each other via hydrogen bonds. The complex of Tk-TIP26/Tk-TBP is isolated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration column chromatography, resulting in a stoichiometric ratio of the interaction between Tk-TIP26 and Tk-TBP of 4:2, i.e., two dimer molecules of Tk-TIP26 formed a complex with one dimeric TBP. The electrostatic surfaces of Tk-TIP26 and TBP from Pyrocuccus woesei (PwTBP) allowed us to build a model of the Tk-TIP26/TBP complex, and to propose the inhibition mechanism where two dimer molecules of Tk-TIP26 bind to a dimeric TBP, preventing its binding to TATA-DNA. PMID:16322571

  13. Insights into the Maturation of Hyperthermophilic Pyrolysin and the Roles of Its N-Terminal Propeptide and Long C-Terminal Extension

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zheng; Fu, Heting; Zhang, Yufeng; Zeng, Jing; Tang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysin-like proteases from hyperthermophiles are characterized by large insertions and long C-terminal extensions (CTEs). However, little is known about the roles of these extra structural elements or the maturation of these enzymes. Here, the recombinant proform of Pyrococcus furiosus pyrolysin (Pls) and several N- and C-terminal deletion mutants were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Pls was converted to mature enzyme (mPls) at high temperatures via autoprocessing of both the N-terminal propeptide and the C-terminal portion of the long CTE, indicating that the long CTE actually consists of the C-terminal propeptide and the C-terminal extension (CTEm), which remains attached to the catalytic domain in the mature enzyme. Although the N-terminal propeptide deletion mutant PlsΔN displayed weak activity, this mutant was highly susceptible to autoproteolysis and/or thermogenic hydrolysis. The N-terminal propeptide acts as an intramolecular chaperone to assist the folding of pyrolysin into its thermostable conformation. In contrast, the C-terminal propeptide deletion mutant PlsΔC199 was converted to a mature form (mPlsΔC199), which is the same size as but less stable than mPls, suggesting that the C-terminal propeptide is not essential for folding but is important for pyrolysin hyperthermostability. Characterization of the full-length (mPls) and CTEm deletion (mPlsΔC740) mature forms demonstrated that CTEm not only confers additional stability to the enzyme but also improves its catalytic efficiency for both proteineous and small synthetic peptide substrates. Our results may provide important clues about the roles of propeptides and CTEs in the adaptation of hyperthermophilic proteases to hyperthermal environments. PMID:22504813

  14. Insights into the maturation of hyperthermophilic pyrolysin and the roles of its N-terminal propeptide and long C-terminal extension.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zheng; Fu, Heting; Zhang, Yufeng; Zeng, Jing; Tang, Bing; Tang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysin-like proteases from hyperthermophiles are characterized by large insertions and long C-terminal extensions (CTEs). However, little is known about the roles of these extra structural elements or the maturation of these enzymes. Here, the recombinant proform of Pyrococcus furiosus pyrolysin (Pls) and several N- and C-terminal deletion mutants were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Pls was converted to mature enzyme (mPls) at high temperatures via autoprocessing of both the N-terminal propeptide and the C-terminal portion of the long CTE, indicating that the long CTE actually consists of the C-terminal propeptide and the C-terminal extension (CTEm), which remains attached to the catalytic domain in the mature enzyme. Although the N-terminal propeptide deletion mutant PlsΔN displayed weak activity, this mutant was highly susceptible to autoproteolysis and/or thermogenic hydrolysis. The N-terminal propeptide acts as an intramolecular chaperone to assist the folding of pyrolysin into its thermostable conformation. In contrast, the C-terminal propeptide deletion mutant PlsΔC199 was converted to a mature form (mPlsΔC199), which is the same size as but less stable than mPls, suggesting that the C-terminal propeptide is not essential for folding but is important for pyrolysin hyperthermostability. Characterization of the full-length (mPls) and CTEm deletion (mPlsΔC740) mature forms demonstrated that CTEm not only confers additional stability to the enzyme but also improves its catalytic efficiency for both proteineous and small synthetic peptide substrates. Our results may provide important clues about the roles of propeptides and CTEs in the adaptation of hyperthermophilic proteases to hyperthermal environments.

  15. Exploiting microbial hyperthermophilicity to produce an industrial chemical, using hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew W; Schut, Gerrit J; Lipscomb, Gina L; Menon, Angeli L; Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J; Leuko, Therese T; Thorgersen, Michael P; Nixon, William J; Hawkins, Aaron S; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2013-04-09

    Microorganisms can be engineered to produce useful products, including chemicals and fuels from sugars derived from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. An alternative method is to use low potential reducing power from nonbiomass sources, such as hydrogen gas or electricity, to reduce carbon dioxide directly into products. This approach circumvents the overall low efficiency of photosynthesis and the production of sugar intermediates. Although significant advances have been made in manipulating microorganisms to produce useful products from organic substrates, engineering them to use carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas has not been reported. Herein, we describe a unique temperature-dependent approach that confers on a microorganism (the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally on carbohydrates at 100°C) the capacity to use carbon dioxide, a reaction that it does not accomplish naturally. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of five genes of the carbon fixation cycle of the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula, which grows autotrophically at 73°C. The engineered P. furiosus strain is able to use hydrogen gas and incorporate carbon dioxide into 3-hydroxypropionic acid, one of the top 12 industrial chemical building blocks. The reaction can be accomplished by cell-free extracts and by whole cells of the recombinant P. furiosus strain. Moreover, it is carried out some 30°C below the optimal growth temperature of the organism in conditions that support only minimal growth but maintain sufficient metabolic activity to sustain the production of 3-hydroxypropionate. The approach described here can be expanded to produce important organic chemicals, all through biological activation of carbon dioxide.

  16. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zeldes, Benjamin M; Keller, Matthew W; Loder, Andrew J; Straub, Christopher T; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  17. Composition of archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryal RuBisCO genotypes in three Western Pacific arc hydrothermal vent systems.

    PubMed

    Elsaied, Hosam Easa; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    We studied the diversity of all forms of the RuBisCO large subunit-encoding gene cbbL in three RuBisCO uncharacterized hydrothermal vent communities. This diversity included the archaeal cbbL and the forms IC and ID, which have not previously been studied in the deep-sea environment, in addition to the forms IA, IB and II. Vent plume sites were Fryer and Pika in the Mariana arc and the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin, Japan. The cbbL forms were PCR amplified from plume bulk microbial DNA and then cloned and sequenced. Archaeal cbbL was detected in the Mariana samples only. Both forms IA and II were amplified from all samples, while the form IC was amplified only from the Pika and Suiyo samples. Only the Suiyo sample showed amplification of the form ID. The form IB was not recorded in any sample. Based on rarefaction analysis, nucleotide diversity and average pairwise difference, the archaeal cbbL was the most diverse form in Mariana samples, while the bacterial form IA was the most diverse form in the Suiyo sample. Also, the Pika sample harbored the highest diversity of cbbL phylogenetic lineages. Based on pairwise reciprocal library comparisons, the Fryer and Pika archaeal cbbL libraries showed the most significant difference, while Pika and Suiyo showed the highest similarity for forms IA and II libraries. This suggested that the Fryer supported the most divergent sequences. All archaeal cbbL sequences formed unique phylogenetic lineages within the branches of anaerobic thermophilic archaea of the genera Pyrococcus, Archaeoglobus, and Methanococcus. The other cbbL forms formed novel phylogenetic clusters distinct from any recorded previously in other deep-sea habitats. This is the first evidence for the diversity of archaeal cbbL in environmental samples.

  18. DNA repair systems in archaea: mementos from the last universal common ancestor?

    PubMed

    DiRuggiero, J; Brown, J R; Bogert, A P; Robb, F T

    1999-10-01

    DNA repair in the Archaea is relevant to the consideration of genome maintenance and replication fidelity in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) from two perspectives. First, these prokaryotes embody a mix of bacterial and eukaryal molecular features. Second, DNA repair proteins would have been essential in LUCA to maintain genome integrity, regardless of the environmental temperature. Yet we know very little of the basic molecular mechanisms of DNA damage and repair in the Archaea in general. Many studies on DNA repair in archaea have been conducted with hyperthermophiles because of the additional stress imposed on their macromolecules by high temperatures. In addition, of the six complete archaeal genome sequences published so far, five are thermophilic archaea. We have recently shown that the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus has an extraordinarily high capacity for repair of radiation-induced double-strand breaks and we have identified and sequenced several genes involved in DNA repair in P. furiosus. At the sequence level, only a few genes share homology with known bacterial repair genes. For instance, our phylogenetic analysis indicates that archaeal recombinases occur in two paralogous gene families, one of which is very deeply branched, and both recombinases are more closely related to the eukaryotic RAD51 and Dmc1 gene families than to the Escherichia coli recA gene. We have also identified a gene encoding a repair endo/exonuclease in the genomes of several Archaea. The archaeal sequences are highly homologous to those of the eukaryotic Rad2 family and they cluster with genes of the FEN-1 subfamily, which are known to be involved in DNA replication and repair in eukaryotes. We argue that there is a commonality of mechanisms and protein sequences, shared between prokaryotes and eukaryotes for several modes of DNA repair, reflecting diversification from a minimal set of genes thought to represent the genome of the LUCA.

  19. Crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of oligosaccharyltransferase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 1.75 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shunsuke; Igura, Mayumi; Nyirenda, James; Matsumoto, Masaki; Yuzawa, Satoru; Noda, Nobuo; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Kohda, Daisuke

    2012-05-22

    Protein N-glycosylation occurs in the three domains of life. Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) transfers glycan to asparagine in the N-glycosylation sequon. The catalytic subunit of OST is called STT3 in eukaryotes, AglB in archaea, and PglB in eubacteria. The genome of a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, encodes three AglB paralogs. Two of them are the shortest AglBs across all domains of life. We determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of the smallest AglB to identify the minimal structural unit. The Archaeoglobus AglB lacked a β-barrel-like structure, which had been found in other AglB and PglB structures. In agreement, the deletion in a larger Pyrococcus AglB confirmed its dispensability for the activity. By contrast, the Archaeoglobus AglB contains a kinked helix bearing a conserved motif, called DK/MI motif. The lysine and isoleucine residues in the motif participate in the Ser/Thr recognition in the sequon. The Archaeoglobus AglB structure revealed that the kinked helix contained an unexpected insertion. A revised sequence alignment based on this finding identified a variant type of the DK motif with the insertion. A mutagenesis study of the Archaeoglobus AglB confirmed the contribution of this particular type of the DK motif to the activity. When taken together with our previous results, this study defined the classification of OST: one group consisting of eukaryotes and most archaea possesses the DK-type Ser/Thr pocket, and the other group consisting of eubacteria and the remaining archaea possesses the MI-type Ser/Thr pocket. This classification provides a useful framework for OST studies.