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Sample records for pyrroles

  1. A sustainable catalytic pyrrole synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlik, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

    2013-02-01

    The pyrrole heterocycle is a prominent chemical motif and is found widely in natural products, drugs, catalysts and advanced materials. Here we introduce a sustainable iridium-catalysed pyrrole synthesis in which secondary alcohols and amino alcohols are deoxygenated and linked selectively via the formation of C-N and C-C bonds. Two equivalents of hydrogen gas are eliminated in the course of the reaction, and alcohols based entirely on renewable resources can be used as starting materials. The catalytic synthesis protocol tolerates a large variety of functional groups, which includes olefins, chlorides, bromides, organometallic moieties, amines and hydroxyl groups. We have developed a catalyst that operates efficiently under mild conditions.

  2. Pyrrole and Fused Pyrrole Compounds with Bioactivity against Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Said Fatahala, Samar; Hasabelnaby, Sherifa; Goudah, Ayman; Mahmoud, Ghada I; Helmy Abd-El Hameed, Rania

    2017-03-17

    A new series of pyrrolopyridines and pyrrolopyridopyrimidines have been synthesized from aminocyanopyrroles. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by FTIR, ¹H-NMR and mass spectroscopy. The final compounds have been screened for in vitro pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitory and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The biological results revealed that among all tested compounds some fused pyrroles, namely the pyrrolopyridines 3i and 3l, show promising activity. A docking study of the active synthesized molecules confirmed the biological results and revealed a new binding pose in the COX-2 binding site.

  3. Cyclo[n]pyrroles and methods thereto

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, Jonathan L.; Seidel, Daniel; Bolze, Frederic R.; Koehler, Thomas

    2006-01-10

    The present invention provides an oxidative coupling procedure that allows efficient synthesis of novel cyclo[n]pyrrole macrocycles. Therefore, the present invention provides cyclo[n]pyrroles where n is 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12, and derivatives, multimers, isomers, and ion and neutral molecule complexes thereof as new compositions of matter. A protonated form of cyclo[n]pyrrole displays a gap of up to 700 nm between strong Soret and Q-like absorption bands in the electronic spectrum, demonstrating no significant ground state absorption in the visible portion of the electronic spectrum. Uses of cyclo[n]pyrroles as separation media, nonlinear optical materials, information storage media and infrared filters are provided.

  4. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Picosecond spectroscopy of pyrrol pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, M. E.; Leitner, A.; Riegler, M.; Aussenegg, F. R.

    1982-05-01

    Picosecond fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy methods were used to study pyrromethenone, pyrromethene, and biliverdin. These methods made it possible to determine some details of the kinetics of various relaxation mechanisms. The results obtained provided a better understanding of the biological action of pyrrol pigments.

  5. Flexible supercapacitor based on electrochemically synthesized pyrrole formyl pyrrole copolymer coated on carbon microfibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Moozarm Nia, Pooria; Narimani, Leila; Sokhakian, Mehran; Alias, Yatimah

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of this work is to prepare a flexible supercapacitor using electrochemically synthesized pyrrole formyl pyrrole copolymer P(Py-co-FPy) coated on the carbon microfibers. Due to difficulties of working with carbon microfibers, glassy carbon was used to find out optimized conditions by varying mole ratio of pyrrole and formyl pyrrole monomers on the capacitance value. The prepared electrodes were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Then the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the optimized electrode. The specific capacitance is calculated using cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge method, and impedance spectroscopy. The charge/discharge study reveals that the best specific capacitance is estimated to be 220.3 mF cm-2 for equal mole fraction of pyrrole and formyl pyrrole Py (0.1)-FP (0.1) at discharge current of 3 × 10-4 A. This optimized electrode keeps about 92% of its capacitance value in high current of discharging. The specific capacitances calculated by all the mentioned methods are in agreement with each other. Finally, the found optimized conditions were successfully applied to produce a flexible supercapacitor on the surface of carbon microfibers.

  6. Electrochemical polypyrrole formation from pyrrole 'adlayer'.

    PubMed

    Plausinaitis, Deivis; Sinkevicius, Linas; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Plausinaitiene, Valentina; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2017-01-04

    In this research study, we investigated the morphology of polypyrrole nanostructures, which were formed during the electrochemical deposition of conducting polymer. An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) cell equipped with a flow-through system was employed to exchange solutions of different compositions within the EQCM cell. When bare PBS buffer in the EQCM cell was exchanged with PBS buffer with pyrrole we observed a distinct increase in the resonance frequency Δf. This change in the resonance frequency and electrical capacitance, which was calculated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data, illustrate that pyrrole on the surface of the gold electrode formed an adsorbed layer (adlayer). The formation of a pyrrole adlayer before the potential pulse that induced polymerization was investigated by QCM-based measurements. The electrochemical polymerization of this adlayer was induced by a single potential pulse and a nanostructured layer, which consisted of adsorbed polypyrrole (Ppy) nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nm, was formed. QCM and EIS data revealed that by the next cycle of the electrochemical formation of Ppy, which was investigated after flow-through-based exchange of solutions, the initially formed Ppy surface was covered by the adlayer of pyrrole. This adlayer was desorbed when pyrrole was removed from the solution. When electrochemical polymerization was performed using 50 potential pulses, a Ppy layer, which had more complex morphology, was formed on the EQCM crystal. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the conductivity of this layer was unequally distributed. We observed that the polypyrrole layer formed by electrochemical deposition, which was performed using potential pulses, was formed out of aggregated spherical Ppy particles with a diameter of 50 nm.

  7. Vibrational Overtone Spectroscopy of Pyrrole and Pyrrolidine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-23

    general pattern is a strong peak accompanied by two or three weaker peaks to lower energy. For instance, the 13,305 cm-I band in pyrrole has three weaker...Orza, J.M. Anales de Quimica 1984, 80, 59. 29. Navarro, R.; Orza, J.M. Anales de Quimica 1982, 79, 557. 30. Xie, Y; Fan, K.; Boggs,J., Molec. Phys

  8. Self-assembly of dimeric tetraurea calix[4]pyrrole capsules

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Pablo; Gil-Ramírez, Guzmán

    2009-01-01

    Calix[4]pyrroles having extended aromatic cavities have been functionalized with 4 ureas in the para position of their meso phenyl substituents. This elaboration of the upper rim was completed in 2 synthetic steps starting from the α,α,α,α-tetranitro isomer of the calix[4]pyrrole obtained in the acid catalyzed condensation of p-nitrophenyl methyl ketone and pyrrole. In dichloromethane solution and in the presence of 4,4′-bipyridine N-N′-dioxide the tetraurea calix[4]pyrrole dimerizes reversibly forming a cyclic array of 16 hydrogen bonds and encapsulating 1 molecule of bis-N-oxide. The encapsulated guest is bound in the cavity by hydrogen bonding to the 2 endohedral calix[4]pyrrole centers. Further evidence for dimerization of the tetraurea calix[4]pyrroles is provided by 1H-NMR experiments and by the formation of mixed capsules. PMID:19261848

  9. Probing the hydrolytic reactivity of 2-difluoromethyl pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Jennifer A; Figliola, Carlotta; Smithen, Deborah A; Kajetanowicz, Aleksandra K; Thompson, Alison

    2016-12-20

    α-Difluoromethyl pyrroles were found to be stable while N-protected with an electron-withdrawing group. Due to the propensity of pyrroles to access azafulvenium-like intermediates, the C-F bonds of an α-difluoromethyl substituent are labile under hydrolytic conditions. The presence of certain electron-withdrawing substituents about the pyrrolic ring can accelerate this process, as determined through a kinetic comparison of the deprotection and subsequent hydrolysis reactions of N-protected β-aryl α-difluoromethyl pyrroles.

  10. Photoejection of electrons from pyrrole into an aqueous environment: ab initio results on pyrrole-water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2000-05-01

    Ab initio (RHF, CASSCF and CASPT2) calculations in the ground and lowest excited singlet states have been performed on pyrrole and pyrrole-water clusters. Full geometry optimization in the 1πσ ∗ state, which is energetically accessible from the optically allowed 1ππ ∗ state, reveals the flow of the electronic charge from pyrrole towards the water molecules, i.e., the formation of a charge transfer-to-solvent state. The computational results indicate that pyrrole-water clusters are good models for the investigation of the mechanistic details of the electron solvation process occurring upon ultraviolet photoexcitation of organic chromophores in liquid water.

  11. Morphology and electrical properties of electrochemically synthesized pyrrole-formyl pyrrole copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Nia, Pooria Moozarm; Alias, Yatimah

    2015-12-01

    A direct electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole-formyl pyrrole (Py-co-FPy) was carried out by oxidative copolymerization of formyl pyrrole and pyrrole in LiClO4 aqueous solution through galvanostatic method. The (Py-co-FPy) copolymer was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-filtering transmission electron microscope (EFTEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The FESEM images showed that the synthesized copolymer had a hollow whelk-like helixes structure, which justifies the enhancement of charge transportation through the copolymer film. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of synthesized copolymer has improved and the surface coverage in copolymer enhanced 1.6 times compared to polypyrrole alone. Besides, (Py-co-FPy) copolymer showed 2.5 times lower electrochemical charge transfer resistance (Rct) value in impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, this copolymer has a strong potential to be used in several applications such as sensor applications.

  12. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activity of Some Pyrroles and Fused Pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Fatahala, Samar S; Mohamed, Mosaad S; Youns, Mahmoud; Abd-El Hameed, Rania H

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrole derivatives represent a very interesting class as biologically active compounds. The objective of our study was to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects and antioxidant activity of the newly synthesized pyrrole derivatives. A series of novel pyrroles and fused pyrroles (tetrahydroindoles, pyrrolopyrimidines, pyrrolopyridines and pyrrolotriazines) were synthesized and characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analysis techniques. The antiproliferative activity of our synthesized compounds and their modulatory effect apoptotic pathway were investigated. The effect on cellular proliferation and viability was monitored by resazurin assay. Apoptotic effect was evaluated by caspase glo 3/7 assay. Synthesized compounds are then tested for their anticancer activities against three different cell lines representing three different tumor types, namely; the HepG-2 (Human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line), the human MCF-7 cell line (breast cancer) and the pancreatic resistant Panc-1 cells. Compounds Ia-e, IIe, and IXc, d showed a promising anti-cancer activity on all tested cell lines. Antioxidant and wound healing invasion assays were examined for promising anticancer candidate compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Substituent effects on the structural features and nonlinear optical properties of the organic alkalide Li+ (calix[4]pyrrole)Li-.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Ming; Wu, Di; Li, Ying; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2013-02-04

    The effects of substituents on the structure, character, and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the organic alkalide Li(+) (calix[4]pyrrole)Li(-) were studied by density functional theory. Natural bond orbital analysis and vertical ionization energies reveal that electron-donating substituents strengthen the alkalide character of Li(+) (calix[4]pyrrole)Li(-) and that they are beneficial for a larger first hyperpolarizability (β(0) ) value. However, electron-withdrawing substituents have the opposite effect. The dependence of the NLO properties on the number of substituents and their relative position was detected in multisubstituted Li(+) (calix[4]pyrrole)Li(-) compounds. For both the amino- and methyl-substituted derivatives, the polarizabilities and the first hyperpolarizabilities increase as more pyrrole β-H atoms are substituted. Moreover, distribution of the substituents so that they are as far away from each other as possible resulted in an increase in the β(0) value. The new knowledge obtained in this study may provide an effective approach to enhance the NLO responses of alkalides by employing pyrrole derivatives as complexants.

  14. Pyrrole-pyridine and pyrrole-naphthyridine hosts for anion recognition.

    PubMed

    García, M Angeles; Farrán, M Angeles; María, Dolores Santa; Claramunt, Rosa M; Torralba, M Carmen; Torres, M Rosario; Jaime, Carlos; Elguero, José

    2015-05-27

    The association constants of the complexes formed by two hosts containing pyrrole, amide and azine (pyridine and 1,8-naphthyridine) groups and six guests, all monoanions (Cl-, CH3CO2-, NO3-, H2PO4-, BF4-, PF6-), have been determined using NMR titrations. The X-ray crystal structure of the host N2,N5-bis(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-3,4-diphenyl-1H-pyrrole- 2,5-dicarboxamide (1) has been solved (P21/c monoclinic space group). B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and calculations were carried out in an attempt to rationalize the trends observed in the experimental association constants.

  15. 2-[(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)meth­yl]-1H-pyrrole

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chong-Hyeak; Jeon, Yea-Sel; Lynch, Vincent; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Hwang, Kwang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C9H10N2, the two pyrrole ring planes are twisted by a dihedral angle of 69.07 (16)° and the C—C—C methane angle is 115.1 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected into layers in the bc plane by N—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:24454123

  16. Hydroquinone–pyrrole dyads with varied linkers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Karlsson, Christoffer; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C) has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV–vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO–LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices. PMID:26877811

  17. The harmonic force field and vibrational spectra of pyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yaoming; Fan, Kangnian; Boggs, James E.

    The complete harmonic vibrational force field of pyrrole has been calculated by the ab initio gradient method at the Hartree-Fock level using the 4-21 basis set. The force field was then scaled with a set of six factors transferred from benzene, and the vibrational spectrum of pyrrole was calculated. This a priori prediction, made with no reference to observations on pyrrole, agreed with the known experimental fundamental frequencies with a mean deviation of 12 cm-1 for in-plane modes and 20 cm-1 for out-of-plane modes except for the NH wagging and NH stretch. A new set of ten scale factors was next obtained by direct fitting of the computed force field to the observed pyrrole spectrum, producing the best force field obtainable by combined use of the theoretical and experimental information. This force field reproduced the entire pyrrole spectrum with mean deviations of 4·2 cm-1 (in-plane) and 5·9 cm-1 (out-of-plane). The spectra of three deuterated forms of pyrrole were also computed. Infrared absorption intensities were calculated and proved very useful in examining assignments of the two ring torsional modes and the CH stretching modes.

  18. Chemistry and Biology of the Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Lindel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    More than a decade after our last review on the chemistry of the pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, it was time to analyze once more the developments in that field. The comprehensive article focusses on the total syntheses of pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids that have appeared since 2005. The classic monomeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids have all been synthesized, sometimes primarily to demonstrate the usefulness of a new method, as in the case of the related molecules agelastatin A and cyclooroidin with more than 15 syntheses altogether. The phakellin skeleton has been made more than 10 times, too, with a focus on the target structure itself. Thus, some of the pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids are now available in gram amounts, and the supply problem has been solved. The total synthesis of the dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids is still mostly in its pioneering phase with two routes to palau'amine and massadine discovered and three routes to the axinellamines and ageliferin. In addition, the review summarizes recent discoveries regarding the biological activity of the pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids. Regarding the biosynthesis of sceptrin, a pathway is proposed that starts from nagelamide I and proceeds via two electrocyclizations and reduction.

  19. Photofragment slice imaging studies of pyrrole and the Xe⋯pyrrole cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Lago, L.; Zaouris, D.; Sakellariou, Y.; Sofikitis, D.; Kitsopoulos, T. N.; Wang, F.; Yang, X.; Cronin, B.; Devine, A. L.; King, G. A.; Nix, M. G. D.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Xantheas, S. S.

    2007-08-01

    The photolysis of pyrrole has been studied in a molecular beam at wavelengths of 250, 240, and 193.3nm, using two different carrier gases, He and Xe. A broad bimodal distribution of H-atom fragment velocities has been observed at all wavelengths. Near threshold at both 240 and 250nm, sharp features have been observed in the fast part of the H-atom distribution. Under appropriate molecular beam conditions, the entire H-atom lo iable index in order to predict the changes in the highest occupied molecular orbital eigenvalue due to doping.

  20. Electrogenerated poly(pyrrole-lactosyl) and poly(pyrrole-3'-sialyllactosyl) interfaces: towards the impedimetric detection of lectins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondran, Chantal; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Fort, Sebastien; Cosnier, Serge

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports on the impedimetric transduction of binding reaction between polymerized saccharides and target lectins. The controlled potential electro-oxidation of pyrrole-lactosyl and pyrrole-3’-sialyllactosyl at 0.95 V vs Ag/AgCl, provides thin and reproducible poly(pyrrole-saccharide) films. The affinity binding of two lectins: Arachis hypogaea, (PNA) and Maackia amurensis (MAA) onto poly(pyrrole-lactosyl) and poly(pyrrole-3’-sialyllactosyl) electrodes, was demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry in presence of ruthenium hexamine and hydroquinone. In addition, rotating disk experiments were carried out to determine the permeability of both polypyrrole films and its evolution after incubating with lectin target. Finally, the possibility of using the poly(pyrrole-lactosyl) or poly(pyrrole-3’-siallyllactosyl) films for the impedimetric transduction of the lectin binding reaction, was investigated with hydroquinone (2×10-3 mol L-1) as a redox probe in phosphate buffer. The resuting impedance spectra were interpreted and modeled as an equivalent circuit indicating that charge transfer resistance (Rct) and relaxation frequency (f°) parameters are sensitive to the lectin binding. Rct increases from 77 to 97 Ω cm2 for PNA binding and from 93 to 131 Ω cm2 for MAA binding. In parallel, f° decreases from 276 to 222 Hz for PNA binding and from 223 to 131 Hz for MAA binding. This evolution of both parameters reflects the steric hindrances generated by the immobilised lectins towards the permeation of the redox probe.

  1. Brønsted acid-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of pyrrole derivatives accelerated by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bachu, Prabhakar; Akiyama, Takahiko

    2009-07-15

    The Brønsted acid-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of pyrrole derivatives was developed. Microwave irradiation accelerated the Nazarov cyclization significantly at 40 degrees C to give cyclopenta[b]pyrrole derivatives in excellent yields with high trans selectivity.

  2. Versatile functionalization of nanoelectrodes by oligonucleotides via pyrrole electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Emeline; Nguyen, Khoa; Bouchain-Gautier, Christelle; Filoramo, Arianna; Goux-Capes, Laurence; Goffman, Marcello; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Mailley, Pascal; Livache, Thierry

    2010-11-15

    Surface modification at the nanometer scale is a challenge for the future of molecular electronics. In particular, the precise anchoring and electrical addressing of biological scaffolds such as complex DNA nanonetworks is of importance for generating bio-directed assemblies of nano-objects for nanocircuit purposes. Herein, we consider the individual modification of nanoelectrodes with different oligonucleotide sequences by an electrochemically driven co-polymerization process of pyrrole and modified oligonucleotide sequences bearing pyrrole monomers. We demonstrate that this one-step technique presents the advantages of simplicity, localization of surface modification, mechanical, biological and chemical stability of the coatings, and high lateral resolution.

  3. Structure-activity relationships of pyrrole based S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitors: pyrrole regioisomers and propionic acid replacement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xicheng; Qiu, Jian; Strong, Sarah A; Green, Louis S; Wasley, Jan W F; Colagiovanni, Dorothy B; Mutka, Sarah C; Blonder, Joan P; Stout, Adam M; Richards, Jane P; Chun, Lawrence; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2011-06-15

    S-Nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family (ADH) that regulates the levels of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) through catabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). GSNO and SNOs are implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including those in respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The pyrrole based N6022 was recently identified as a potent, selective, reversible, and efficacious GSNOR inhibitor which is currently undergoing clinical development. We describe here the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of novel pyrrole based analogues of N6022 focusing on scaffold modification and propionic acid replacement. We identified equally potent and novel GSNOR inhibitors having pyrrole regioisomers as scaffolds using a structure based approach.

  4. Influence of gamma irradiation on polymerization of pyrrole and glucose oxidase immobilization onto poly (pyrrole)/poly (vinyl alcohol) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Sarada; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.; Ratnam, Chantara Thevy; Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the immobilization of glucose oxidase, GOx onto polymer matrix comprising of poly(pyrrole), PPy and poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA using gamma irradiation technique. Py/PVA-GOx film was prepared by spreading PVA:GOx, 1:1 solution onto dried pyrrole film and exposed to gamma irradiation from cobalt 60 source at doses ranging from 0 to 60 kGy. The films were subjected to structural and morphological analyses by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Similar studies were also made on pristine pyrrole film which served as control. The SEM and FTIR spectra of Py/PVA-GOx film revealed that pyrrole has been successfully polymerized through irradiation-induced reactions. The results on the morphological properties of the samples characterize using FESEM, SEM and AFM further confirmed the occurrence of radiation-induced modification of Py/PVA-GOx film. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interaction between polymer matrix and GOx indicating that GOx had been successfully immobilized onto Ppy/PVA matrix by radiation-induced reactions. Results revealed that radiation induced reactions such as polymerization of pyrrole, crosslinking of PVA, grafting between the adjacent PVA and pyrrole molecules as well as immobilization of GOx onto Ppy/PVA matrix occurred simultaneously upon gamma irradiation. The optimum dose for GOx immobilization in the polymer matrix found to be 40 kGy. Therefore it is clear that this irradiation technique offered a simple single process to produce Py/PVA-GOx film without additional crosslinking and polymerization agents.

  5. Dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids: Synthetic approaches and biosynthetic hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaolei; De, Saptarshi; Ma, Yuyong

    2014-01-01

    The pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids are a group of structurally unique and biologically interesting marine sponge metabolites. Among them, the cyclic dimers have caught synthetic chemists’ attention particularly. Numerous synthetic strategies have been developed and various biosynthetic hypotheses have been proposed for these fascinating natural products. We discuss herein the synthetic approaches and the biosynthetic insights obtained from these studies. PMID:24828265

  6. Dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids: synthetic approaches and biosynthetic hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaolei; De, Saptarshi; Ma, Yuyong; Chen, Chuo

    2014-08-14

    The pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids are a group of structurally unique and biologically interesting marine sponge metabolites. Among them, the cyclic dimers have caught synthetic chemists' attention particularly. Numerous synthetic strategies have been developed and various biosynthetic hypotheses have been proposed for these fascinating natural products. We discuss herein the synthetic approaches and the biosynthetic insights obtained from these studies.

  7. Synthesis of polysubstituted pyrroles from sulfinimines (N-sulfinyl imines)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Franklin A.; Bowen, Kerisha A.; Xu, He; Velvadapu, Venkata

    2008-01-01

    Polysubstituted 2-carboxylate and 2-phosphonate pyrroles are prepared by aromatization of the corresponding 3-oxo 2-carboxylate and 2-phosphonate NH-pyrrolidines using air. Reaction of electrophiles with 3-oxo pyrrolidine dianions readily introduces substituents, regioselectively at C-4 in these pyrrolidines. PMID:19421309

  8. Efficient syntheses of permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A, a pyrrolic marine natural product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ruijuan; Jiang, Long; Wan, Shengbiao; Jiang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The pyrrole-derived alkaloids with marine origin, especially their permethyl derivatives, have unique structures and promising biological activities. Marine natural product neolamellarins are a collection of lamellarin-like phenolic pyrrole compounds, which can inhibit hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation. Many pyrrole-derived lamellarin-like alkaloids show potent MDR reversing activity. In this study, five permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A were synthesized with their MDR reversing activity studied in order to identify new MDR reversal agents. A convergent strategy was adopted to synthesize the permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A. Pyrrole was first converted into a corresponding N-trisisopropylsilyl (TIPS)-substituted derivative, then through iodination afforded 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole compound. The key intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, was obtained through desilylation of 3,4-disubstituent-1-TIPS pyrrole, which was prepared from 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole derivative and aryl boronic acid ester through Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between them. Then, the intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, reacted with fresh phenylacetyl chloride under n-BuLi/THF condition afforded the target compounds. Finally, we obtained five novel pyrrolic compounds, permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A 16a-e, in 30%-37% yield through five step reactions. The bioactivity testing of these compounds are in process.

  9. Oxoanion Recognition by Benzene-based Tripodal Pyrrolic Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Bill, Nathan; Kim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Sung Kuk; Park, Jung Su; Lynch, Vincent M.; Young, Neil J; Hay, Benjamin; Yang, Youjun; Anslyn, Eric; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Two new tripodal receptors based on pyrrole- and dipyrromethane-functionalised derivatives of a sterically geared precursor, 1,3,5-tris(aminomethyl)-2,4,6-triethylbenzene, are reported; these systems, compounds 1 and 2, display high affinity and selectivity for tetrahedral anionic guests, in particular dihydrogen phosphate, pyrophosphate and hydrogen sulphate, in acetonitrile as inferred from isothermal titration calorimetry measurements. Support for the anion-binding ability of these systems comes from theoretical calculations and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure of the 2:2 (host:guest) dihydrogen phosphate complex is obtained in the case of the pyrrole-based receptor system, 1. Keywords anion receptors, dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen sulphate, X-ray structure, theoretical calculations.

  10. Electrochemical synthesis and surface characterization of (pyrrole+2-methylfuran) copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaouane, Linda; Nessark, Belkacem; Sibous, Lakhdar

    2017-02-01

    Electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole (Py) and 2-methylfuran (2 MF) was performed on platinum and ITO substrates in acetonitrile/lithium perchlorate solution, using cyclic voltammetry method. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode surface by polypyrrole, poly(2-methylfuran) homopolymers and (pyrrole+2-methylfuran) copolymer was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cyclic voltammetry shows anodic and cathodic peaks which are characteristic of the oxidation and the reduction of the formed films. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed the results obtained by cyclic voltammetry. AFM and SEM analyses proved as well that the morphology and the electrochemical properties of the polypyrrole film are modified in the presence of 2-methylfuran.

  11. Pyrrolic molecular rotors acting as viscosity sensors with high fluorescence contrast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Chul; Heo, Jeongyun; Ryu, Jong-Wan; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kim, Sehoon; Tae, Joon-Sung; Rhee, Byung-Ohk; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kwon, O-Pil

    2016-11-17

    New pyrrolic viscosity sensors exhibit one order of magnitude higher fluorescence contrast compared to that of the conventional phenolic analogues due to the viscosity-sensitive rotation of the asymmetric pyrrole group and successfully demonstrate mapping of intracellular viscosity by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

  12. Enantioselective and Regioselective Indium(III)-Catalyzed Addition of Pyrroles to Isatins

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Elisa G.; Wong, Casey J.; Sahin, Aziza H.

    2011-01-01

    The indium(III)-catalyzed enantioselective and regioselective addition of pyrroles to isatins is described. The effects of metal and solvent on the reactivity and selectivity are compared and discussed, demonstrating that the indium(III)-indapybox complex provides the most effective catalyst. A case of divergent reactivity between pyrroles and indoles is presented. PMID:21992567

  13. Merging gold and organocatalysis: a facile asymmetric synthesis of annulated pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Hack, Daniel; Loh, Charles C J; Hartmann, Jan M; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    The combination of cinchona-alkaloid-derived primary amine and Au(I) -phosphine catalysts allowed the selective C-H functionalization of two adjacent carbon atoms of pyrroles under mild reaction conditions. This sequential dual activation provides seven-membered-ring-annulated pyrrole derivatives in excellent yields and enantioselectivities.

  14. Synthetic approaches to tetracyclic pyrrole imidazole marine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Takuya; Iwata, Makoto; Akimoto, Takafumi; Nagasawa, Kazuo

    2013-07-01

    Oroidin derived, pyrrole imidazole marine alkaloids (PIAs) are attractive targets for synthetic organic chemists because of their structural complexity and diversity, as well as their interesting biological activities. A number of efforts have been carried out to develop strategies for the synthesis of these natural products. Members of PIAs (eg., 2-7), which contain tetracyclic ring systems possessing characteristic cyclic guanidine or urea moieties, show significant biological activities including anticancer activity and agonistic activity against the adrenoceptor. In this review, investigations of the total synthesis of the representative tetracyclic PIAs, dibromophakellin (2) and dibromophakellstatin (3), are described.

  15. Electrochemically Initiated Chain Polymerization of Pyrrole in Aqueous Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-21

    ACCESSION NO. -1 .... :on., Virginia 22203:-1714 TITLE (inciuoe Security Classification) Liec-rochemica!ly initiated Chain Polynerization of Pyrrole in...ABSTRACT SECURITY C-ASSIFICATION " U4CLASS!FIED/UNUM’TTD E SAME AS P07, DTIC USERS S o$.C ff e 2a NAME O RESPONSIBLE INDIViDUAL 22 . TELEP H.ONE...electroacfive, resembling regular polypyrrole. Wudl et a123 have reported that electropolymerization of isothianaphthene in LiBF4 leads to the formatioi, of an

  16. Four pyrrole derivatives used as building blocks in the synthesis of minor-groove binders

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Alan R.; Khalaf, Abedawn I.; Suckling, Colin J.

    2017-01-01

    The title nitro­pyrrole-based compounds, C7H8N2O4, (I) (ethyl 4-nitro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxyl­ate), its derivative C12H14N2O4, (II) [ethyl 4-nitro-1-(4-pent­yn­yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxyl­ate], C15H26N4O3, (III) {N-[3-(di­methyamino)prop­yl]-1-isopentyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide}, and C20H27N9O5, (IV) {1-(3-azido­prop­yl)-4-(1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamido)-N-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)eth­yl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide}, are inter­mediates used in the synthesis of modified DNA minor-groove binders. In all four compounds, the nitro groups lie in the plane of the pyrrole ring. In compounds (I) and (II), the ester groups also lie in the plane of the pyrrole ring. In compound (III), both of the other substituents lie out of the plane of the pyrrole ring. In the case of compound (IV), the coplanarity extends to the second pyrrole ring and through both amide groups. In the crystals of all four compounds, layer-like structures are formed, via a combination of N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds for (I), (III) and (IV), but by only C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds for (II). PMID:28217354

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Protein Kinase Inhibitor Pyrrol Derivate

    PubMed Central

    Yena, Maryna S.; Kotlyar, Iryna P.; Ogloblya, Olexandr V.; Rybalchenko, Volodymyr K.

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of protein kinases inhibitor pyrrol derivate 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dione (MI-1) on rat colon cancer model. Therefore anti-inflammatory effect of MI-1 on rat acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis (UC) model was aimed to be discovered. The anti-inflammatory effects of MI-1 (2.7 mg/kg daily) compared to reference drug Prednisolone (0.7 mg/kg daily) after 14-day usage were evaluated on macro- and light microscopy levels and expressed in 21-grade scale. Redox status of bowel mucosa was also estimated. It was shown that in UC group the grade of total injury (GTI) was equal to 9.6 (GTIcontrol = 0). Increase of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) by 89% and protein carbonyl groups (PCG) by 60% and decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 40% were also observed. Prednisolone decreased GTI to 3 and leveled SOD activity, but MDA and PCG remained higher than control ones by 52% and 42%, respectively. MI-1 restored colon mucosa integrity and decreased mucosa inflammation down to GTI = 0.5 and leveled PCG and SOD. Thus, MI-1 possessed anti-inflammatory properties, which were more expressed that Prednisolone ones, as well as normalized mucosa redox balance, and so has a prospect for correction of inflammatory processes. PMID:28101521

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Protein Kinase Inhibitor Pyrrol Derivate.

    PubMed

    Kuznietsova, Halyna M; Yena, Maryna S; Kotlyar, Iryna P; Ogloblya, Olexandr V; Rybalchenko, Volodymyr K

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of protein kinases inhibitor pyrrol derivate 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dione (MI-1) on rat colon cancer model. Therefore anti-inflammatory effect of MI-1 on rat acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis (UC) model was aimed to be discovered. The anti-inflammatory effects of MI-1 (2.7 mg/kg daily) compared to reference drug Prednisolone (0.7 mg/kg daily) after 14-day usage were evaluated on macro- and light microscopy levels and expressed in 21-grade scale. Redox status of bowel mucosa was also estimated. It was shown that in UC group the grade of total injury (GTI) was equal to 9.6 (GTIcontrol = 0). Increase of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) by 89% and protein carbonyl groups (PCG) by 60% and decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 40% were also observed. Prednisolone decreased GTI to 3 and leveled SOD activity, but MDA and PCG remained higher than control ones by 52% and 42%, respectively. MI-1 restored colon mucosa integrity and decreased mucosa inflammation down to GTI = 0.5 and leveled PCG and SOD. Thus, MI-1 possessed anti-inflammatory properties, which were more expressed that Prednisolone ones, as well as normalized mucosa redox balance, and so has a prospect for correction of inflammatory processes.

  19. Site- and Regioselective Monoalkenylation of Pyrroles with Alkynes via Cp*Co(III) Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryo; Ikemoto, Hideya; Kanai, Motomu; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-04

    A site-, regio-, syn-, and monoselective alkenylation of dimethylcarbamoyl-protected pyrroles proceeded using a catalytic amount of [Cp*Co(CH3CN)3](SbF6)2 and KOAc. A variety of internal alkynes with several functional groups and a terminal alkyne afforded hydropyrrolation products in a selective manner in good to excellent yield. The site-selectivity (C2/C5 selectivity) observed for C3-substituted pyrroles is noteworthy because Cp*Rh(III)-catalyzed conditions afforded only a moderate yield and low selectivity. The conditions described here provide general and straightforward access to unsymmetrically mono- and disubstituted pyrrole derivatives.

  20. A Submarine Journey: The Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids †

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Barbara; Malgesini, Beatrice; Piutti, Claudia; Quartieri, Francesca; Scolaro, Alessandra; Papeo, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    In his most celebrated tale “The Picture of Dorian Gray”, Oscar Wilde stated that “those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril”. This sentence could be a prophetical warning for the practitioner who voluntarily challenges himself with trying to synthesize marine sponge-deriving pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids. This now nearly triple-digit membered community has been growing exponentially in the last 20 years, both in terms of new representatives and topological complexity – from simple, achiral oroidin to the breathtaking 12-ring stylissadines A and B, each possessing 16 stereocenters. While the biosynthesis and the role in the sponge economy of most of these alkaloids still lies in the realm of speculations, significant biological activities for some of them have clearly emerged. This review will account for the progress in achieving the total synthesis of the more biologically enticing members of this class of natural products. PMID:20098608

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of 4-formyl pyrrole derived aroylhydrazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.

    2015-03-01

    Two new 4-formyl pyrrole derived aroylhydrazones (3a, b) from ethyl 4-formyl-3,5-dimetyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and aroylhydrazides (3,5-dinitrobenzohydrazide/2-hydrazinocarbonyl-N-phenyl-acetamide) have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques 1H NMR, Mass, UV-Visible and FT-IR. The calculated thermodynamic parameters show that the formation of 3a as spontaneous, whereas 3b as non-spontaneous. TD-DFT has been used to calculate the absorption wavelengths, oscillator strength (f) and the nature of electronic excitations. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has been carried out to explore the various conjugative and hyperconjugative interactions and their second order stabilization energy (E(2)) within monomer and its dimer. The dimer formation of 3a, 3b due to result of intermolecular hydrogen bonding N1sbnd H30⋯O84, N1sbnd H28⋯O60 is obvious in 1H NMR, NBO and FT-IR as down field chemical shifts, n(O84) → σ∗(N1sbnd H30), n(O60) → σ∗(N1sbnd H28) interactions, vibrational red shifts, respectively. To determine the strength and nature of hydrogen bonding, topological parameters at bond critical points (BCP) have been analyzed by 'Quantum theory of Atoms in molecules' (QTAIM) in detail. The global electrophilicity index (ω) has been calculated to determine the relative electrophilic strength of molecules. The local reactivity descriptors analyses such as Fukui functions (fk+, fk-), local softnesses (sk+, sk-) and electrophilicity indices (ωk+, ωk-) have been performed to determine the reactive sites within molecules. The first hyperpolarizabilities (β0) of 3a, b have been computed to evaluate the non-linear optical (NLO) response of the investigated molecules.

  2. Auto-oligomerization and hydration of pyrrole revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice H.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J

    2009-05-29

    Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra have been measured at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges of the prototypical aromatic molecule, pyrrole, both in the gas phase and when solvated in water, and compared with spectra simulated using a combination of classical molecular dynamics and first principles density functional theory in the excited state core hole approximation. The excellent agreement enabled detailed assignments. Pyrrole is highly reactive, particularly in water, and reaction products formed by the auto-oligomerization of pyrrole are identified. The solvated spectra have been measured at two different temperatures, indicating that the final states remain largely unaffected by both hydration and temperature. This is somewhat unexpected, since the nitrogen in pyrrole can donate a hydrogen bond to water.

  3. Pyrrole as a promising electrolyte additive to trap polysulfides for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wu; Yang, Wang; Song, Ailing; Gao, Lijun; Sun, Gang; Shao, Guangjie

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising energy storage devices beyond conventional lithium ion batteries. However, the ;shuttle effect; of soluble polysulfides is a major barrier between electrodes, resulting in rapid capacity fading. To address above issue, pyrrole has been investigated as an electrolyte additive to trap polysulfides. When pyrrole is added into electrolyte, a surface protective layer of polypyrrole can be formed on the sulfur cathode, which not only acts as a conductive agent to provide an effective electron conduction path but also acts as an absorbing agent and barrier layer suppressing the diffusion of polysulfide intermediates. The results demonstrate that an appropriate amount of pyrrole added into the electrolyte leads to excellent cycling stability and rate capability. Apparently, pyrrole is an effective additive for the entrapment of polysulfides of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  4. One-Pot Conversion of Carbohydrates into Pyrrole-2-carbaldehydes as Sustainable Platform Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Nirmal Das; Kwon, Sunjeong; Chung, Wook-Jin; Koo, Sangho

    2015-08-07

    A practical conversion method of carbohydrates into N-substituted 5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrole-2-carbaldehydes (pyrralines) was developed by the reaction with primary amines and oxalic acid in DMSO at 90 °C. Further cyclization of the highly functionalized pyrralines afforded the pyrrole-fused poly-heterocyclic compounds as potential intermediates for drugs, food flavors, and functional materials. The mild Maillard variant of carbohydrates and amino esters in heated DMSO with oxalic acid expeditiously produced the pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde skeleton, which can be concisely transformed into the pyrrole alkaloid natural products, 2-benzyl- and 2-methylpyrrolo[1,4]oxazin-3-ones 8 and 9, lobechine 10, and (-)-hanishin 11 in 23-32% overall yields from each carbohydrate.

  5. Bipyrrole-Strapped Calix[4]pyrroles: Strong Anion Receptors That Extract the Sulfate Anion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Kuk; Lee, Juhoon; Williams, Neil J; Lynch, Vincent M.; Hay, Benjamin; Moyer, Bruce A; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Cage-type calix[4]pyrroles 2 and 3 bearing two additional pyrrole groups on the strap have been synthesized. Compared with the parent calix[4]pyrrole (1), they were found to exhibit remarkably enhanced affinities for anions, including the sulfate anion (TBA+ salts), in organic media (CD2Cl2). This increase is ascribed to participation of the bipyrrole units in anion binding. Receptors 2 and 3 extract the hydrophilic sulfate anion (as the methyltrialkyl(C8-10)ammonium (A336+) salt)) from aqueous media into a chloroform phase with significantly improved efficiency (>10-fold relative to calix[4]pyrrole 1). These two receptors also solubilize into chloroform the otherwise insoluble sulfate salt, (TMA)2SO4 (tetramethylammonium sulfate).

  6. An electrogenerated poly(pyrrole-benzophenone) film for the photografting of proteins.

    PubMed

    Cosnier, Serge; Senillou, Anne

    2003-02-07

    A photoreactive organic polymer was prepared by oxidative electrochemical polymerization of a pyrrole-benzophenone derivative on conductive surfaces; the resulting polypyrrolic film allowed, upon irradiation, the reagentless covalent grafting of proteins.

  7. Porphinogen Formation from the Co-Oligomerization of Formaldehyde and Pyrrole: Free Energy Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kua, Jeremy; Loli, Helen

    2017-09-29

    We have investigated the non-oxidative stepwise co-oligomerization of formaldehyde and pyrrole to form porphinogen using density functional theory calculations that include free energy corrections. While the addition of formaldehyde to the pyrrole nitrogen is kinetically favored, thermodynamics suggest that this reaction is reversible in aqueous solution. The more thermodynamically favorable addition of formaldehyde to the ortho-carbon of pyrrole begins a step-wise process forming dipyrromethane via an azafulvene intermediate. Subsequent additions of formaldehyde and pyrrole lead to bilanes (linear tetrapyrroles) which favorably cyclize to form porphinogen. Porphinogen is a precursor to porphin, the simplest unsubstituted porphyrin that could have played a role in primitive metabolism at the origin of life.

  8. Pyrrolnitrin and related pyrroles endowed with antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Di Santo, R; Costi, R; Artico, M; Massa, S; Lampis, G; Deidda, D; Pompei, R

    1998-10-20

    During development of nitroheterocycles with potential antimycobacterial activities we have tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis a number of pyrroles strictly related to pyrrolnitrin, an antifungal antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces pyrrocinia. Some of the tested arylpyrrole derivatives and pyrrolnitrin have shown appreciable inhibiting activity against M. tuberculosis and M. avium. SAR studies well correlate antimycobacterial potency with the presence of halogens in the phenyl ring and a nitro group at position 3 of pyrrole.

  9. Ultrafast internal conversion dynamics of highly excited pyrrole studied with VUV/UV pump probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Spencer L.; Liu, Yusong; Chakraborty, Pratip; Matsika, Spiridoula; Weinacht, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of pyrrole after excitation with an 8 eV pump pulse to a state just 0.2 eV below the ionization potential using vacuum ultraviolet/ultraviolet pump probe spectroscopy. Our measurements in conjunction with electronic structure calculations indicate that pyrrole undergoes rapid internal conversion to the ground state in less than 300 fs. We find that internal conversion to the ground state dominates over dissociation.

  10. Facile synthesis, structural elucidation and spectral analysis of pyrrole 4-imidazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam; Baboo, Vikas

    2015-12-01

    In this work pyrrole 4-imidazole derivatives (3A-3D): benzimidazoles and pyrrole 4-imidazoline have been synthesized by condensation, cyclization and oxidation of ethyl 4-formyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole carboxylate and phenylene diamine derivatives/ethylene diamine. The structure of these biheterocyclic compounds have been derived by elemental and spectroscopic - IR, UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR analysis as well as theoretical study. The static first hyperpolarizability, β0 values for pyrrole 4-imidazole derivatives, (3A-3D) have been calculated as 10.901 × 10-31, 19.607 × 10-31, 40.323 × 10-31, 5.686 × 10-31 esu, respectively. The gradual increase in β0 value of synthesized pyrrole-benzimidazole derivatives from 3A to 3C is due to addition of acceptors -Cl atom in 3B to -NO2 group in 3C on benzimidazole side. The experimental absorption spectra found to be in UV region and the high β0 values show that the synthesized pyrrole-imidazoles are suitable as non-linear optical (NLO) materials.

  11. Calix[4]pyrroles: highly selective stationary phases for gas chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Wang, Zhenzhong; Li, Qian; Qi, Meiling; Shao, Shijun; Fu, Ruonong

    2014-10-03

    Calix[4]pyrroles offer a great potential as stationary phases for gas chromatography (GC) due to their unique structures and physicochemical properties. Herein we present the first report of using two calix[4]pyrroles, namely meso-tetra-cyclohexylcalix[4]pyrrole (THCP) and meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (OMCP). These stationary phases were statically coated onto capillary columns and investigated in terms of column efficiency, polarity, separation performance, thermal stability and repeatability. The columns achieved column efficiencies of 2200-3000plates/m and exhibited nonpolar nature with an average polarity of 67 for THCP and 64 for OMCP, respectively. THCP stationary phase shows high selectivity for analytes of different polarity and exhibits nice peak shapes, especially for aldehydes, alcohols and anilines that are prone to severe peak tailing in GC analysis. Interestingly, THCP stationary phase possesses superior resolving ability for aniline and benzenediol positional isomers while OMCP shows preferential selectivity for nonpolar analytes such as hexane isomers. Moreover, calix[4]pyrrole columns also have good thermal stability up to 260°C and repeatability with a relative standard deviation (RSD%) of less than 0.10% for run-to-run and less than 5.2% for column-to-column. This work demonstrates the unique separation performance of calix[4]pyrroles and their promising future as a new class of GC stationary phases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Copper-mediated cross-coupling-cyclization-oxidation: a one-pot reaction to construct polysubstituted pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Liu, Jin-ling; Wang, Heng-shan; Pan, Ying-ming; Liang, Hong; Chen, Zhen-Feng

    2014-05-14

    A novel and efficient procedure for the synthesis of polysubstituted pyrroles has been developed in this work. The polysubsituted pyrroles were synthesized directly from terminal alkenes, amines and β-keto esters through cross-coupling-cyclization-oxidation in the presence of a catalytic amount of cuprous chloride. This method provides a one-pot synthesis route from terminal alkenes to polysubstituted pyrroles for the first time and opens a new area in cuprous catalysis.

  13. Biological Exposure Indices of Pyrrole Adducts in Serum and Urine for Hazard Assessment of n-Hexane Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hongyin; Zhang, Chunling; Guo, Ying; Shao, Xiaoying; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyrrole adducts might be used as a biomarker for monitoring occupational exposure to n-hexane, but the Biological Exposure Indices of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine are still unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the biological exposure limit of pyrrole adducts for hazard assessment of n-hexane. Methods Male Wistar rats were given daily dose of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 4000 mg/kg bw n-hexane by gavage for 24 weeks. The levels of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine were determined at 8, 24 hours postdose once a week. The Biological Exposure Indices was evaluated by neurological evaluation and the levels of pyrrole adducts. The difference in pyrrole adducts formation between humans and rats were estimated by using in vitro test. Results Dose-dependent effects were observed between the doses of n-hexane and pyrrole adducts in serum and urine, and the levels of pyrrole adduct in serum and urine approached a plateau at week 4. There was a significantly negative correlation between the time to paralysis and the level of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine, while a positive correlation between gait score and levels of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine was observed. In vitro, pyrrole adducts formed in human serum was about two times more than those in rat serum at the same level of 2,5-HD. Conclusion It was concluded that the BEIs of pyrrole adducts in humans were 23.1±5.91 nmol/ml in serum 8 h postdose, 11.7±2.64 nmol/ml in serum 24 h postdose, 253.8±36.3 nmol/ml in urine 8 h postdose and 54.6±15.42 nmol/ml in urine 24 h postdose. PMID:24465904

  14. Electropolymerized Pyrrole-Based Conductive Polymeric Ionic Liquids and Their Application for Solid-Phase Microextraction.

    PubMed

    Devasurendra, Amila M; Zhang, Cheng; Young, Joshua A; Tillekeratne, L M Viranga; Anderson, Jared L; Kirchhoff, Jon R

    2017-07-26

    Pyrrole was covalently bonded to 1-methyl and 1-benzylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) via an N-substituted alkyl linkage to prepare electropolymerizable IL monomers with excellent thermal stability. The methylimidazolium IL, [pyrrole-C6MIm](+), was then electropolymerized on macro- and microelectrode materials to form conductive polymeric IL (CPIL)-modified surfaces. Electrochemical characterization of a 1.6 mm diameter Pt disk electrode modified with poly[pyrrole-C6MIm](+) demonstrated a selective uptake for an anionic redox probe while rejecting a cationic redox probe. Furthermore, electropolymerization of [pyrrole-C6MIm](+) doped with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on 125 μm platinum wires produced 42 μm thick poly[pyrrole-C6MIm](+)/SWNT films compared to 17 μm in the absence of SWNT and 5 μm for the previously reported poly[thiophene-C6MIm](+) coatings. The poly[pyrrole-C6MIm](+)/SWNT films were prepared with reproducible thicknesses as well as thermal properties sufficient for high-temperature applications, such as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatographic analysis. The utilization of the CPIL sorbent materials in SPME experiments provided excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivity toward organic aromatic analytes. The CPIL sorbent coatings also yielded outstanding fiber-to-fiber reproducibility on the basis of extraction efficiencies and improved response for a range of analytes relative to commercial 100 μm poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers when normalized for differences in film thickness. Poly[pyrrole-C6MIm](+) CPIL coatings doped with SWNT are therefore promising new sorbent materials for SPME analyses.

  15. Organic-inorganic interactions in the system of pyrrole-hematite-water at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kangle

    2015-11-01

    The distribution and abundance of pyrrolic compounds in sediments and crude oils are most likely influenced by inorganic sedimentary components. In this paper, thermal simulation experiments on the system pyrrole-hematite-water were carried out at elevated temperatures and pressures in order to investigate the effect of organic-inorganic interactions on the preservation of pyrrolic compounds. Compositions of the reaction products were analyzed with GC-MS and GC-FID methods. In the closed system pyrrole-hematite-water, the nitrogen-oxygen exchange obviously occurred at temperatures above 350ºC in accordance with the thermochemical calculation. Large amounts of furan and ammonia were generated after simulation experiments, indicating that the conversion of pyrrole into furan was the dominant reaction. Thermochemical exchange effect between organic nitrogen and inorganic oxygen was obviously facilitated by elevated temperatures and found to be catalyzed by hematite, but inhibited by the increasing volume of water. Thermodynamically water spontaneously reacts with pyrrole above 300ºC. The reaction of pyrrole-hematite-water is an exothermic process in which the reaction heat positively correlates with temperature. The heat released was estimated as 9.0 KJ/(mol) pyrrole - 15.0 KJ/(mol) pyrrole in typical oil reservoirs (100ºC-150ºC) and 15.0-23.0 KJ/(mol) pyrrole in typical gas reservoirs (150ºC-200ºC). The calculated activation energy of the nitrogen-oxygen atom exchange is about 129.59 kJ/mol. According to the experimental results, a small amount of water may effectively initiate the nitrogen-oxygen exchange. The study would improve our evaluating of the preservation and fate of pyrrolic compounds in deeply buried geologic settings and further understanding of thermochemical processes behind the degradation of petroleum.

  16. Electrophilic surface sites as precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, Thomas; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove; Vogt, Patrick

    2015-03-14

    We report how the presence of electrophilic surface sites influences the adsorption mechanism of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces. For this purpose, we have investigated the adsorption behavior of pyrrole on different GaAs(001) reconstructions with different stoichiometries and thus different surface chemistries. The interfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy in a spectral range between 1.5 and 5 eV. On the As-rich c(4 × 4) reconstruction that exhibits only nucleophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to physisorb on the surface without any significant modification of the structural and electronic properties of the surface. On the Ga-rich GaAs(001)-(4 × 2)/(6 × 6) reconstructions which exhibit nucleophilic as well as electrophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to form stable covalent bonds mainly to the electrophilic (charge deficient) Ga atoms of the surface. These results clearly demonstrate that the existence of electrophilic surface sites is a crucial precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic analysis and theoretical study of new pyrrole-isoxazoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.; Baboo, Vikas; Niranjan, Priydarshni; Rani, Himanshu; Saxena, Rajat; Ahmad, Sartaj

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we have efficiently synthesized the pyrrole-isoxazoline derivatives (4a-d) by cyclization of substituted 4-chalconylpyrrole (3a-d) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The reactivity of substituted 4-chalconylpyrrole (3a-d), towards nucleophiles hydroxylamine hydrochloride was evaluated on the basis of electrophilic reactivity descriptors (fk+, sk+, ωk+) and they were found to be high at unsaturated β carbon of chalconylpyrrole indicating its more proneness to nucleophilic attack and thereby favoring the formation of reported new pyrrole-isoxazoline compounds (4a-d). The structures of newly synthesized pyrrole-isoxazoline derivatives were derived from IR, 1H NMR, Mass, UV-Vis and elemental analysis. All experimental spectral data corroborate well with the calculated spectral data. The FT-IR analysis shows red shifts in vN-H and vC = O stretching due to dimer formation through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. On basis set superposition error correction, the intermolecular interaction energy for (4a-d) is found to be 10.10, 9.99, 10.18, 11.01 and 11.19 kcal/mol respectively. The calculated first hyperpolarizability (β0) values of (4a-d) molecules are in the range of 7.40-9.05 × 10-30 esu indicating their suitability for non-linear optical (NLO) applications. Experimental spectral results, theoretical data, analysis of chalcone intermediates and pyrrole-isoxazolines find usefulness in advancement of pyrrole-azole chemistry.

  18. Contribution of phospholipid pyrrolization to the color reversion produced during deodorization of poorly degummed vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Olmo, Carmen; Navarro, José L; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2004-06-30

    The Ehrlich reaction was optimized to determine the formation of pyrrolized phospholipids in edible oils in an attempt to understand the color reversion produced during the deodorization of poorly degummed edible oils. The procedure consisted of the treatment of the oil with p-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde in tetrahydrofuran/2-propanol at a controlled acidity and temperature and the spectrophotometric determination of adducts produced. The extinction coefficient of Ehrlich adducts was calculated by using 1-[1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]propan-1-ol (1) as a standard and was 15 300 M(-)(1) cm(-)(1). The response was linear and reproducible within the range of 0.334-48.6 microM of compound 1. When the assay was applied to a soybean oil treated with 100-1000 ppm of phosphatidylethanolamine and submitted to deodorization, the formation of pyrrolized phospholipids was observed at the same time that the disappearance of the phospholipid and the oil darkening were produced. The main changes were observed during the first steps of the deodorization process, when the oil was heated between 80 and 160 degrees C. During the initial heating of the oil until achieving 200 degrees C, oil darkening, phosphatidylethanolamine disappearance, and pyrrolized phospholipid formation were correlated, therefore suggesting a contribution of phospholipid pyrrolization to the oil darkening produced.

  19. Structural Studies of Pyrrole-Benzene Complexes by Chirped-Pulse Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobsiger, Simon; Perez, Cristobal; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Pate, Brooks H.; Pfaffen, Chantal; Trachsel, Maria A.; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2013-06-01

    Non-covalent intermolecular interactions are important in structural biology. The N-H \\cdots π hydrogen bond between amino acid side chains is an important structural determinant and highly affects the secondary structure of proteins. The pyrrole-benzene complex can be viewed as a model system for studying these fundamental interactions. Previous IR and UV spectroscopic studies of the pyrrole-benzene complex by Dauster et al. support a T-shaped structure with an N-H \\cdots π hydrogen bond to the benzene ring. In order to obtain accurate structural information we have investigated the broadband rotational spectrum of the supersonic-jet cooled complexes of pyrrole with benzene and benzene-d_{1} in the 2-18 GHz frequency range. In addition to the hetero dimer we have also observed the two cyclic mixed trimers (pyrrole)_{2}-benzene and pyrrole-(benzene)_{2}. I. Dauster, C. A. Rice, P. Zielke, and M. A. Suhm Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. {10}, 2827 (2008) C. Pfaffen, D. Infanger, P. Ottiger, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. {13}, 14110 (2011)

  20. One-pot Unsymmetrical Ketone Synthesis Employing a Pyrrole-Bearing Formal Carbonyl Dication Linchpin Reagent.

    PubMed

    Heller, Stephen T; Newton, James N; Fu, Tingting; Sarpong, Richmond

    2015-08-17

    A one-pot procedure for the synthesis of unsymmetrical ketones utilizing a pyrrole-bearing carbonyl linchpin reagent (carbonyl linchpin N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine pyrrole; CLAmP) is reported. In contrast to other carbonyl dielectrophile equivalents, CLAmP enables the synthesis of ketones from a variety of organolithium and Grignard reagents. The electrophilic nature of CLAmP enables the addition of less reactive as well as thermally unstable nucleophiles. CLAmP was designed to form kinetically stable tetrahedral intermediates upon the addition of organometallic nucleophiles. Evidence for the existence of persistent tetrahedral intermediates was obtained through in situ IR studies.

  1. Octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1

    PubMed Central

    Manka, Jason T.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Venable, Daryl F.; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of SAR in an octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole series of negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1 using a functional cell-based assay is described in this Letter. The octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole scaffold was chosen as an isosteric replacement for the piperazine ring found in the initial hit compound. Characterization of selected compounds in protein binding assays was used to identify the most promising analogs, which were then profiled in P450 inhibition assays in order to further assess the potential for drug-likeness within this series of compounds. PMID:23932792

  2. Cognition and order in Langmuir-Blodgett films of a 3-hexadecyl pyrrole and ferrocene-derivatized pyrrole mixed monolayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelson, L.; Rahman, A. K. M.; Puglia, G. P.; Clough, S.; Tripathy, S.; Inagaki, T.; Yang, X. Q.; Skotheim, T. A.; Okamoto, Y.

    Novel, self-assembled materials were designed and produced from first principle to possess unique structural hierarchy and electronic and optical properties. The Langmuir-Blodgett technique was used to study the molecular organization of a mixed 3-hexadecyl pyrrole (3HDP) and ferrocene-derivatized pyrrole (Fc-Py) surfactant system. The pyrrole moiety was chosen for its' well established electronic and optical properties when polymerized, while ferrocene, it is theorized, if properly oriented into a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer film may show a layered array of transition metals which would be extremely valuable as a model for 2-D magnets. The ferrocene group may also provide the possibility of charge coupling between neutral ferrocene and oxidized ferricenium which could be controlled electrochemically or photochemically. It has been determined that stable monolayer films of the mixed system could be formed at the air-water interface. The growth and assembly process led to polypyrrole 2-D lattices with heretofore unsurpassed order. In fact, the process of template polymerization leads to a new crystal phase for the polypyrrole component of the thin film structure. Various monolayer and multilayer films were prepared on platinum coated substrates for surface spectroscopic characterization using synchrotron radiation. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure studies revealed that highly ordered multilayer structures are being formed.

  3. Cognition and order in Langmuir-Blodgett films of a 3-hexadecyl pyrrole and ferrocene-derivatized pyrrole mixed monolayer system

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, L.; Rahman, A.K.M.; Puglia, G.P.; Clough, S.; Tripathy, S.; Inagaki, T.; Yang, X.Q.; Skotheim, T.A.; Okamoto, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Novel, self-assembled materials have been designed and produced from first principle to possess unique structural hierarchy and electronic and optical properties. The Langmuir-Blodgett technique was used to study the molecular organization of a mixed 3-hexadecyl pyrrole (3HDP) and ferrocene-derivatized pyrrole (Fc-Py) surfactant system. The pyrrole moiety was chosen for its' well established electronic and optical properties when polymerized, while ferrocene, it is theorized, if properly oriented into a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer film may show a layered array of transition metals which would be extremely valuable as a model for two-dimensional magnets. The ferrocene group may also provide the possibility of charge coupling between neutral ferrocene and oxidized ferricenium which could be controlled electrochemically or photochemically. It has been determined that stable monolayer films of the mixed system could be formed at the air-water interface. The growth and assembly process led to polypyrrole 2-D lattices with heretofore unsurpassed order. In fact, the process of template polymerization leads to a new crystal phase for the polypyrrole component of the thin film structure. Various monolayer and multilayer films were prepared on platinum coated substrates for surface spectroscopic characterization using synchrotron radiation. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure studies revealed that highly ordered multilayer structures are being formed. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Enantiopure oxazolidinones as chiral acids in the asymmetric protonation of N-Boc pyrrole derived enolates.

    PubMed

    Carbery, David R; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2004-03-21

    The first use of geminally disubstituted oxazolidinones as chiral protonating agents is described: these new acids are able to directly protonate an enolate generated by the ammonia free partial reduction of an electron deficient pyrrole and give up to 68% ee in the pyrroline product.

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Pyrroles and Pyrrolopyrimidines as Anti-Hyperglycemic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, M. S.; Ali, S. A.; Abdelaziz, D. H. A.; Fathallah, Samar S.

    2014-01-01

    A series of pyrrole and pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives were examined for their in vivo antihyperglycemic activity. Compounds Ia–c,e, and IVg showed promising antihyperglycemic activity equivalent to a well-known standard antihyperglycemic drug, Glimepiride (Amaryl, 4 mg/kg). In this paper, we examine and discuss the structure-activity relationships and antihyperglycemic activity of these compounds. PMID:25054134

  6. Synthetic tripodal receptors for carbohydrates. Pyrrole, a hydrogen bonding partner for saccharidic hydroxyls.

    PubMed

    Francesconi, Oscar; Gentili, Matteo; Roelens, Stefano

    2012-09-07

    The carbohydrate recognition properties of synthetic tripodal receptors relying on H-bonding interactions have highlighted the crucial role played by the functional groups matching saccharidic hydroxyls. Herein, pyrrole and pyridine, which emerged as two of the most effective H-bonding groups, were quantitatively compared through their isostructural substitution within the architecture of a shape-persistent bicyclic cage receptor. NMR and ITC binding studies gave for the pyrrolic receptor a 20-fold larger affinity toward octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside in CDCl(3), demonstrating the superior recognition properties of pyrrole under conditions in which differences would depend on the intrinsic binding ability of the two groups. The three-dimensional structures of the two glucoside complexes in solution were elucidated by combined NMR and molecular mechanics computational techniques, showing that the origin of the stability difference between the two closely similar complex structures resides in the ability of pyrrole to establish shorter/stronger H-bonds with the glucosidic ligand compared to pyridine.

  7. Identification of a new electron-transfer relaxation pathway in photoexcited pyrrole dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Simon P.; Kirkby, Oliver M.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Worth, Graham A.; Fielding, Helen H.

    2016-04-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer is central to many biological processes and technological applications, such as the harvesting of solar energy and molecular electronics. The electron donor and acceptor units involved in electron transfer are often held in place by covalent bonds, π-π interactions or hydrogen bonds. Here, using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, we reveal the existence of a new, low-energy, photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism in molecules held together by an NH⋯π bond. Specifically, we capture the electron-transfer process in a pyrrole dimer, from the excited π-system of the donor pyrrole to a Rydberg orbital localized on the N-atom of the acceptor pyrrole, mediated by an N-H stretch on the acceptor molecule. The resulting charge-transfer state is surprisingly long lived and leads to efficient electronic relaxation. We propose that this relaxation pathway plays an important role in biological and technological systems containing the pyrrole building block.

  8. Calix[4]pyrrole: A New Ion-Pair Receptor As Demonstrated by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wintergerst, Mr. Matthieu; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Moyer, Bruce A; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene

    2008-01-01

    Solvent-extraction studies provide confirming evidence that meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole acts as an ion-pair receptor for cesium chloride and cesium bromide in nitrobenzene solution. The stoichiometry of the interaction under extraction conditions from water to nitrobenzene was determined from plots of the cesium distribution ratios vs cesium salt and receptor concentration, indicating the formation of an ionpaired 1:1:1 cesium:calix[4]pyrrole:halide complex. The extraction results were modeled to evaluate the equilibria inherent to the solvent-extraction system, with either chloride or bromide. The binding energy between the halide anion and the calix[4]pyrrole was found to be about 7 kJ/mol larger for cesium chloride than for the cesium bromide. The ion-pairing free energies between the calix[4]pyrrole-halide complex and the cesium cation are nearly the same within experimental uncertainty for either halide, consistent with a structural model in which the Cs+ cation resides in the calix bowl. These results are unexpected since nitrobenzene is a polar solvent that generally leads to dissociated complexes in the organic phase when used as a diluent in extraction studies of univalent ions. Control studies involving nitrate revealed no evidence of ion pairing for CsNO3 under conditions identical to those where it is observed for CsCl and CsBr.

  9. Calix[4]pyrrole: A New Ion-Pair Receptor As Demonstrated by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wintergerst, Mr. Matthieu; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Moyer, Bruce A; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene

    2008-01-01

    Solvent extraction studies provide confirming evidence that meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole acts as an ion-pair receptor for cesium chloride and cesium bromide in nitrobenzene solution. The stoichiometry of the interaction under extraction conditions from water to nitrobenzene was determined from plots of the cesium distribution ratios vs. cesium salt and receptor concentration, indicating the formation of an ion-paired 1:1:1 cesium:calix[4]pyrrole:halide complex. The extraction results were modeled to evaluate the equilibria inherent to the solvent extraction system, either with chloride or bromide. The binding energy between the halide anion and the calix[4]pyrrole was found to be about 7 kJ/mol larger for cesium chloride than for the cesium bromide. The ion-pairing free energies between the calix[4]pyrrole-halide complex and the cesium cation are nearly the same within experimental uncertainty for either halide, consistent with a structural model in which the Cs+ cation resides in the calix bowl. These results are unexpected since nitrobenzene is a very polar solvent that generally leads to dissociated complexes in the organic phase when used as a diluent in extraction studies of univalent ions. Control studies involving nitrate revealed no evidence of ion-pairing for CsNO3 under conditions identical to those where it is observed for CsCl and CsBr.

  10. Intramolecular redox reaction for the synthesis of N-aryl pyrroles catalyzed by Lewis acids.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong-Jin; Zhen, Le; Wen, Xiaoan; Xu, Qing-Long; Sun, Hongbin

    2014-12-21

    An efficient approach to synthesize N-aryl pyrroles via Lewis acid-mediated 1,5-hydride shift and isomerization of 2-(3-pyrroline-1-yl)arylaldehydes has been achieved in up to 89% yield. This methodology is applicable to the synthesis of fluorazene derivatives as electron donor (D)/acceptor (A) molecules.

  11. Ab initio quantum chemical and kinetic modeling study of the pyrolysis kinetics of pyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Martoprawiro, M.; Bacskay, G.B.; Mackie, J.C.

    1999-05-20

    The five-membered heterocyclic pyrrole moiety is an important structure in coals and derived tars, and the thermal decomposition reactions of pyrrole are important for production of precursors of the oxides of nitrogen, NO{sub x}, in the combustion of coals. The kinetics of pyrolysis of pyrrole have been investigated theoretically by ab initio quantum chemical techniques and by detailed chemical kinetic modeling of previously reported experimental results. The overall kinetics can be successfully modeled by a 117 step kinetic model that gives good agreement with temperature profiles of major products and also provides an acceptable fit for minor products. The thermochemistry and rate parameters of a number of key reactions have been obtained by ab initio calculations carried out at CASSCF, CASPT2, and G2(MP2) levels of theory. Several reaction pathways were investigated. The major product, HCN, arises principally from a hydrogen migration in pyrrole to form a cyclic carbene with the NH bond intact. Ring scission of this carbene leads to an allenic imine precursor of HCN and propyne. This is the decomposition pathway of lowest energy. Pyrolysis is preceded by the facile tautomerization of pyrrole to 2H-pyrrolenine. The latter can undergo CN fission to form an open chain biradical species, which is the precursor of the butenenitrile isomeric products, cis- and trans-crotononitrile and allyl cyanide. The biradical can also undergo facile H-fission to form cyanoallyl radical, which is an important precursor of acetylene, acetonitrile, and acrylonitrile, H{sub 2} also arises principally from H-fission of the biradical.

  12. Correlation between Levels of 2, 5-Hexanedione and Pyrrole Adducts in Tissues of Rats Exposure to n-Hexane for 5-Days

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hongyin; Guo, Ying; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2013-01-01

    Background The formation of pyrrole adducts might be responsible for peripheral nerve injury caused by n-hexane. The internal dose of pyrrole adducts would supply more information for the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. The current study was designed to investigate the tissue distributions of 2, 5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) and pyrrole adducts in rats exposed to n-hexane, and analyze the correlation between pyrrole adducts and 2,5-HD in tissues. Methods Male Wistar rats were given daily dose of 500,1000, 2000, 4000 mg/kg bw n-hexane by gavage for 5 days. The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration. The levels of 2, 5-hexanedione and pyrrole adducts in tissues were measured by gas chromatography and Ehrlich’s reagent, respectively. The correlations between 2, 5-hexanedione and pyrrole adducts were analyzed by linear regression Results Dose-dependent effects were observed between the dosage of n-hexane and 2, 5-hexanedione, and pyrrole adducts in tissues. The highest level of 2, 5-hexanedione was found in urine and the lowest in sciatic nerve, while the highest level of pyrrole adducts was seen in liver and the lowest in serum. There were significant correlations among the free 2, 5-hexanedione, total 2, 5-hexanedione and pyrrole adducts within the same tissues. Pyrrole adducts in serum showed the most significant correlation with free 2, 5-hexanedione or pyrrole adducts in tissues. Conclusion The findings suggested that pyrrole adducts in serum might be a better indicator for the internal dose of free 2, 5-hexanedione and pyrrole adducts in tissues. PMID:24098756

  13. Reaction of allenyl esters with sodium azide: an efficient synthesis of e-vinyl azides and polysubstituted pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian; Shen, Ruwei; Zhang, Tiexin

    2007-02-16

    The nucleophilic addition of sodium azide to 1,2-allenyl esters can generate vinyl azides in excellent yields with excellent regio- and stereoselectivities. Moreover, pyrroles are synthesized using 1-allyllic 1,2-allenyl esters as substrates in t-BuOH at 65 degrees C. The sequential reaction for pyrroles is developed on the basis of a novel domino process involving nucleophilic addition, cycloaddition, denitrogenation, and aromatization.

  14. H₈-BINOL chiral imidodiphosphoric acid catalyzed highly enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions of pyrroles and enamides/imines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Zhuo, Ming-Hua; Sha, Di; Fan, Yan-Sen; An, Dong; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Suoqin

    2015-05-11

    The first enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction between pyrroles and enamides has been achieved by using a novel H8-BINOL-type imidodiphosphoric acid catalyst. This methodology was also applied to the highly enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction between pyrroles and imines. The catalyst loadings in these two reactions are low (0.3-2 mol%). Both processes are amenable to gram scales.

  15. Photochemistry of o-pyrrolylstilbenes and formation of spiro-2H-pyrroles and their rearrangement to dihydroindoles.

    PubMed

    Basarić, Nikola; Marinić, Eljko; Sindler-Kulyk, Marija

    2006-12-08

    Excited states of stilbenylpyrroles 1a-1c deactivate by two photochemical processes: cis-trans-isomerization and hydrogen transfer of NH to the stilbene double bond. NH-transfer results in the formation of two quinone dimethane intermediates, 10 and 11, and biradicals 12. Intramolecular cyclization of intermediates 10-12 gives rise to polycyclic compounds spiro-2H-pyrroles 7, pyrroloisoindoles 3, and pyrroloisoquinolines 8. Spiro-2H-pyrroles 7 rearrange on silica gel, giving dihydroindoles 2.

  16. Pyrrole oxidation and protein cross-linking as necessary steps in the development of gamma-diketone neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Genter St Clair, M B; Amarnath, V; Moody, M A; Anthony, D C; Anderson, C W; Graham, D G

    1988-01-01

    It has been well documented that the gamma-diketone HD1 is the ultimate toxic metabolite of n-hexane. Furthermore, it has been shown that the pathogenetic mechanism by which HD exerts its neurotoxic effects is through binding to protein lysly residues and cyclization to pyrroles. The present study sought to determine whether the presence of pyrrole residues on NF1 proteins is sufficient to cause the NF-filled axonal swellings associated with n-hexane and other gamma-diketone neuropathies or whether pyrrole oxidation and protein cross-linking also have to occur in order for neurotoxicity to develop. We synthesized the HD analogue AcHD1 and assessed its rate of pyrrole formation in vitro, the ease of oxidation of its resulting pyrroles, and its ability to cross-link proteins in vitro. The in vivo effects of AcHD on rats were examined following daily ip1 injections. AcHD was found to have a rate of pyrrole formation comparable to that of the potent HD analogue DMHD1 at 35 degrees C. The pyrrole derived from AcHD was more resistant to oxidation than that derived from the neurotoxic compound HD. AcHD did not cross-link proteins in vitro. Pyrrole derivatives were demonstrated on hemoglobin isolated from animals treated with HD, DMHD, and AcHD. Cross-linked spectrin was detected in animals treated with HD and DMHD but not with AcHD. Rats receiving 0.1 or 0.25 mmol of AcHD/kg/day did not reach the end point of hindlimb paralysis observed in the gamma-diketone neuropathies, and the NF-filled axonal swellings seen following exposure to the neurotoxic gamma-diketones were not observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Pyrrolnitrin analogues. V. Knorr's pyrrole condensation between N-(4-nitrophenacyl)-3,5-dimethylaniline and ethyl acetoacetate.

    PubMed

    Filacchioni, G; Artico, M; Brosio, E; Conti, F

    1978-01-01

    The reaction between N-(4-nitrophenacyl)-3,5-dimethylaniline and ethyl acetoacetate in boiling ethanol afforded 3-carbethoxy-5-(1-carbethoxyacetonyl)-4,5-dihydro-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole and in low yield 3-carbethoxy-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole. Chemical transformation of the former compound into 5-acetonyl-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole is described. The structure of 3-carbethoxy-5-(1-carbethoxyacetonyl)-4,5-dihydro-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole has been established by the aid of N.M.R. spectral data. The above reaction, when carried out in boiling ethanol in the presence of a catalytic amount of 3,5-dimethylaniline hydrobromide, led to the formation of 3-carbethoxy-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole and 4,6-dimethyl-2-(4-nitrophenyl)indole, the former formed in a very good yield. Some pyrrolnitrin analogues have been prepared starting from 3-carbethoxy-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole.

  18. Pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrroles – from unprecedented solvatofluorochromism to two-photon absorption

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Daniel H.; Mikhaylov, Alexander; Krzeszewski, Maciej; Poronik, Yevgen M.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the two-photon absorption properties of a series of quadrupolar molecules possessing a highly electron-rich heterocyclic core, pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole is presented. In agreement with quantum-chemical calculations, we observe large two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-section values, σ2PA ~ 102–103 GM (1GM = 1050 cm4 s photon−1) at wavelengths 650–700 nm, corresponding to the 2-photon allowed but 1-photon forbidden transitions. The calculations also predict that increased planarity of this molecule via removal of two N-substituents leads to further increase in the σ2PA values. Surprisingly, the most quadrupolar pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole derivative bearing two 4-nitrophenyl substituents at positions 2 and 5 demonstrates very strong solvatofluorochromic effect, with the fluorescence quantum yield as high as 0.96 in cyclohexane, while the fluorescence vanishes in DMSO. PMID:26511232

  19. Ab initio multiple cloning simulations of pyrrole photodissociation: TKER spectra and velocity map imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Saita, Kenichiro; Martinez, Todd J.; ...

    2014-12-11

    In this study, we report a detailed computational simulation of the photodissociation of pyrrole using the ab initio Multiple Cloning (AIMC) method implemented within MOLPRO. The efficiency of the AIMC implementation, employing train basis sets, linear approximation for matrix elements, and Ehrenfest configuration cloning, allows us to accumulate significant statistics. We calculate and analyze the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectrum and Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) of pyrrole and compare the results directly with experimental measurements. Both the TKER spectrum and the structure of the velocity map image (VMI) are well reproduced. Previously, it has been assumed that the isotropicmore » component of the VMI arises from long time statistical dissociation. Instead, our simulations suggest that ultrafast dynamics contributes significantly to both low and high energy portions of the TKER spectrum.« less

  20. Ab initio multiple cloning simulations of pyrrole photodissociation: TKER spectra and velocity map imaging.

    PubMed

    Makhov, Dmitry V; Saita, Kenichiro; Martinez, Todd J; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V

    2015-02-07

    We report a detailed computational simulation of the photodissociation of pyrrole using the ab initio Multiple Cloning (AIMC) method implemented within MOLPRO. The efficiency of the AIMC implementation, employing train basis sets, linear approximation for matrix elements, and Ehrenfest configuration cloning, allows us to accumulate significant statistics. We calculate and analyze the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectrum and Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) of pyrrole and compare the results directly with experimental measurements. Both the TKER spectrum and the structure of the velocity map image (VMI) are well reproduced. Previously, it has been assumed that the isotropic component of the VMI arises from long time statistical dissociation. Instead, our simulations suggest that ultrafast dynamics contributes significantly to both low and high energy portions of the TKER spectrum.

  1. New pentasubstituted pyrrole hybrid atorvastatin-quinoline derivatives with antiplasmodial activity.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rita C C; Martins, Wagner A; Silva, Tayara P; Kaiser, Carlos R; Bastos, Mônica M; Pinheiro, Luiz C S; Krettli, Antoniana U; Boechat, Núbia

    2016-04-15

    Cerebral malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Atorvastatin (AVA) is a pentasubstituted pyrrole, which has been tested as an adjuvant in the treatment of cerebral malaria. Herein, a new class of hybrids of AVA and aminoquinolines (primaquine and chloroquine derivatives) has been synthesized. The quinolinic moiety was connected to the pentasubstituted pyrrole from AVA by a linker group (CH2)n=2-4 units. The activity of the compounds increased with the size of the carbons chain. Compound with n=4 and 7-chloroquinolinyl has displayed better activity (IC50=0.40 μM) than chloroquine. The primaquine derivative showed IC50=1.41 μM, being less toxic and more active than primaquine.

  2. Atomic force microscope characterization of self-assembly behaviors of cyclo[8] pyrrole on solid substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hai; Zhao, Siqi; Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Jinzhi; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Wenjie; Cai, Jianfeng

    2017-04-01

    Cyclo [8] pyrrole (CP) is a porphyrin analogue containing eight α-conjugated pyrrole units which are arranged in a nearly coplanar conformation. The π-π interactions between CP molecules lead to regular aggregations through a solution casting process. Using tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM), we investigated the morphology of self-assembled aggregates formed by deposition of different CP solutions on different substrates. We found that in the n-butanol solution, nanofibrous structures could be formed on the silicon or mica surface. Interestingly, on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, or silicon and mica surface with a toluene solution, only irregular spherical structures were identified. The difference in the nanomorphology may be attributed to distinct interactions between molecule-molecule, molecule-solvent and molecule-substrate.

  3. Structure-activity relationship of pyrrole based S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitors: carboxamide modification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xicheng; Qiu, Jian; Strong, Sarah A; Green, Louis S; Wasley, Jan W F; Blonder, Joan P; Colagiovanni, Dorothy B; Stout, Adam M; Mutka, Sarah C; Richards, Jane P; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2012-03-15

    The enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family (ADH) that regulates the levels of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) through catabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). GSNO and SNOs are implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including those in respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems. The pyrrole based N6022 was recently identified as a potent, selective, reversible, and efficacious GSNOR inhibitor which is currently in clinical development for acute asthma. We describe here the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of novel pyrrole based analogs of N6022 focusing on carboxamide modifications on the pendant N-phenyl moiety. We have identified potent and novel GSNOR inhibitors that demonstrate efficacy in an ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthma model in mice.

  4. Langmuir-Blodgett films of a pyrrole and ferrocene mixed surfactant system

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, L.; Rahman, A.K.M.; Clough, S.; Tripathy, S.; Hale, P.D.; Inagaki, T.; Skotheim, T.A.; Okamoto, Y. . Dept. of Chemistry; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett technique was used to study the molecular organization of a mixed 3-hexadecyl pyrrole (3HDP) and ferrocene-derivatized pyrrole (Fc-Py) surfactant system. It has been determined that stable monolayer films of the mixed system could be formed at the air-water interface. The growth and assembly process led to polypyrrole 2-D lattices with heretofore unsurpassed order. In fact, the process of template polymerization, it appears, leads to a new crystal phase for the polypyrrole component of the thin film structure. Various monolayer and multilayer films were prepared on platinum coated substrates for surface spectroscopic characterization. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) studies revealed that highly ordered multilayer structures are being formed. Electrochemical studies have been initiated to determine the feasibility of these films in molecular electronic device applications. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Aza-Friedel-Crafts Reaction of Cyclic Ketimines with Pyrroles using Imidazolinephosphoric Acid Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Matsuda, Nazumi; Ohara, Mutsuyo

    2016-07-04

    Organocatalytic enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions of cyclic ketimines with pyrroles or indoles were catalyzed by imidazoline/phosphoric acid catalysts. The reaction was applied to various 3H-indol-3-ones to afford products in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The chiral catalysts can be recovered by a single separation step using column chromatography and are reusable without further purification. Based on the experimental investigations, a possible transition state has been proposed to explain the origin of the asymmetric induction.

  6. Ternatusine A, a new pyrrole derivative with an epoxyoxepino ring from Ranunculus ternatus.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zhilai; Feng, Ziming; Yang, Yanan; Li, Li; Jiang, Jianshuang; Zhang, Peicheng

    2013-04-19

    Ternatusine A (1), a novel alkaloid with an unprecedented epoxyoxepino[4,5-c] pyrrole ring, was isolated from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus Thunb. Its unusual structure, including its absolute stereochemistry, was determined using UV, IR, HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR data and through comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. A possible biosynthetic pathway for ternatusine A was postulated.

  7. Interaction of the cesium cation with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole: Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polášek, Miroslav; Makrlík, Emanuel; Kvíčala, Jaroslav; Křížová, Věra; Petr Vaňura

    2017-02-01

    By using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it was proven experimentally that the univalent cesium cation (Cs+) forms with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (abbrev. 1) the cationic complex species 1.Cs+. Further, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, four different conformations of the resulting complex 1.Cs+ were derived. It means that under the present experimental conditions, this ligand 1 can be considered as a macrocyclic receptor for the cesium cation.

  8. Inhibition of endotoxin-induced airway epithelial cell injury by a novel family of pyrrol derivates.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Benítez, Nuria E; Pérez-Roth, Eduardo; Ramos-Nuez, Ángela; Sologuren, Ithaisa; Padrón, José M; Slutsky, Arthur S; Villar, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation and apoptosis are crucial mechanisms for the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Currently, there is no specific pharmacological therapy for ARDS. We have evaluated the ability of a new family of 1,2,3,5-tetrasubstituted pyrrol compounds for attenuating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and apoptosis in an in vitro LPS-induced airway epithelial cell injury model based on the first steps of the development of sepsis-induced ARDS. Human alveolar A549 and human bronchial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to LPS, either alone or in combination with the pyrrol derivatives. Rhein and emodin, two representative compounds with proven activity against the effects of LPS, were used as reference compounds. The pyrrol compound that was termed DTA0118 had the strongest inhibitory activity and was selected as the lead compound to further explore its properties. Exposure to LPS caused an intense inflammatory response and apoptosis in both A549 and BEAS-2B cells. DTA0118 treatment downregulated Toll-like receptor-4 expression and upregulated nuclear factor-κB inhibitor-α expression in cells exposed to LPS. These anti-inflammatory effects were accompanied by a significantly lower secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β. The observed antiapoptotic effect of DTA0118 was associated with the upregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and downregulation of proapoptotic Bax and active caspase-3 protein levels. Our findings demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties of the pyrrol DTA0118 compound and suggest that it could be considered as a potential drug therapy for the acute phase of sepsis and septic ARDS. Further investigations are needed to examine and validate these mechanisms and effects in a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis and sepsis-induced ARDS.

  9. An amperometric urea biosensor based on covalent immobilization of urease onto an electrochemically prepared copolymer poly (N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film.

    PubMed

    Rajesh; Bisht, Vandana; Takashima, Wataru; Kaneto, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    An amperometric biosensor has been developed for the quantitative determination of urea in aqueous solution. The principle is based on the use of pH-sensitive redox active dissolved hematein molecule. The enzyme, urease (Urs), was covalently immobilized on a conducting copolymer poly (N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, electrochemically prepared onto an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate. The covalent linkage of enzyme and porous morphology of the polymer film lead to high enzyme loading and an increased lifetime stability of the enzyme electrode. Amperometric response was measured as a function of concentration of urea, at fixed bias voltage of 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The electrode gives a linear response range of 0.16-5.02 mM for urea in aqueous medium. The response time is 40 s reaching to a 95% steady-state current value, and 80% of the enzyme activity is retained for about 2 months.

  10. Evaluation on the inhibition of pyrrol-2-yl ethanone derivatives to lactate dehydrogenase and anticancer activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na-Na; Weng, Zhao-Yue; Chen, Qiu-Yun; Boison, Daniel; Xiao, Xin-Xin; Gao, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a potentially important metabolic target for the inhibition of the highly activated glycolysis pathway in cancer cells. In order to develop bifunctional compounds as inhibitor of LDH-A and anticancer agents, two pyrrol-2-yl methanone (or ethanone) derivatives (PM1 and PM2) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of LDH-A based on the enzyme assay and cell assay by spectroscopy analysis. Fluorescence and CD spectra results demonstrated that both the change of second structure of LDH-A and the affinity interaction for compounds to LDH-A gave great effect on the activity of LDH-A. In particular, low concentration of compounds (1 μμ-25 μμ) could change the level of pyruvate in cancer cells. Moreover, the in vitro assay results demonstrated that pyrrol-2-yl ethanone derivatives can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Therefore, pyrrol-2-yl ethanone derivatives (PM2) can be both LDH-A inhibitor and anticancer agents.

  11. Ferroelectric switching and electrochemistry of pyrrole substituted trialkylbenzene‐1,3,5‐tricarboxamides

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiao; Gorbunov, Andrey V.; Christian Roelofs, W. S.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Janssen, René A. J.; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explore a new approach to organic ferroelectric diodes using a benzene‐tricarboxamide (BTA) core connected with C10 alkyl chains to pyrrole groups, which can be polymerized to provide a semiconducting ferroelectric material. The compound possesses a columnar hexagonal liquid crystalline (LC) phase and exhibits ferroelectric switching. At low switching frequencies, an additional process occurs, which leads to a high hysteretic charge density of up to ∼1000 mC/m2. Based on its slow rate, the formation of gas bubbles, and the emergence of characteristic polypyrrole absorption bands in the UV–Vis–NIR, the additional process is identified as the oxidative polymerization of pyrrole groups, enabled by the presence of amide groups. Polymerization of the pyrrole groups, which is essential to obtain semiconductivity, is limited to thin layers at the electrodes, amounting to ∼17 nm after cycling for 21 h. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2017, 55, 673–683 PMID:28344384

  12. Effects of a pyrrole-based, microtubule-depolymerizing compound on RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ciemniecki, John A; Lewis, Clarke P; Gupton, John T; Fischer-Stenger, Krista

    2016-02-25

    RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were exposed to the pyrrole-based compound 3,5-Dibromo-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (JG-03-14), which is a known microtubule depolymerizing agent with antitumor activity [1,2,3]. In this study exposure to JG-03-14 reduced the production of pro-inflammatory molecules by macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with the pyrrole-based compound decreased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) released from the macrophages. Exposure to JG-03-14 also decreased TNF-α mRNA expression levels and the protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the enzyme responsible for NO production in the activated macrophages. Furthermore, JG-03-14 treatment significantly changed the degradation profile of IκB-β, an inhibitor of the NF-κB transcription factor, which suggests that JG-03-14 may attenuate the activation of the LPS-induced NF-κB signaling pathway needed to produce the pro-inflammatory mediators. We conclude that JG-03-14 possesses anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. Electrochemical synthesis of poly(pyrrole-co-o-anisidine)/chitosan composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalçınkaya, Süleyman; Çakmak, Didem

    2017-05-01

    In this study, poly(pyrrole-co-o-anisidine)/chitosan composite films were electrochemically synthesized in various monomers feed ratio (pyrrole: o-anisidine; 9:1, 7:3, 1:1, 3:7 and 1:9) of pyrrole and o-anisidine on the platinum electrode. Electrochemical synthesis of the composite films was carried out via cyclic voltammetry technique. They were characterized by FT-IR, cyclic voltammetry, SEM micrographs, digital images, TGA and DSC techniques. The SEM results indicated that the particle size of the composite decreased with increasing o-anisidine ratio and the films became more likely to be smooth morphology. The TGA results proved that the film of the composite with 1:1 ratio showed highest final degradation temperature and lowest weight loss (83%) compared to copolymer and 9:1 1:9 composite films. The 1:1 composite film had higher thermal stability than copolymer and the other composite films (9:1 1:9). Meanwhile, electrochemical studies exhibited that the 1/9 composite film had good electrochemical stability as well.

  14. Absolute intensities of NH-stretching transitions in dimethylamine and pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin J; Du, Lin; Steel, Thomas J; Paul, Allanah J; Södergren, A Helena; Lane, Joseph R; Henry, Bryan R; Kjaergaard, Henrik G

    2012-01-12

    Vibrational spectra of vapor-phase dimethylamine (DMA) and pyrrole have been recorded in the 1000 to 13000 cm(-1) region using long path conventional spectroscopy techniques. We have focused on the absolute intensities of the NH-stretching fundamental and overtone transitions; Δν(NH) = 1-4 regions for DMA and the Δν(NH) = 1-3 regions for pyrrole. In the Δν(NH) = 1-3 regions for DMA, evidence of tunneling splitting associated with the NH-wagging mode is observed. For DMA, the fundamental NH-stretching transition intensity is weaker than the first NH-stretching overtone. Also, the fundamental NH-stretching transition in DMA is much weaker than the fundamental transition in pyrrole. We have used an anharmonic oscillator local mode model with ab initio calculated local mode parameters and dipole moment functions at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level to calculate the NH-stretching intensities and explain this intensity anomaly in DMA.

  15. Novel pyrrole derivatives bearing sulfonamide groups: Synthesis in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation, molecular docking and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavadi, Masoumeh; Niknam, Khodabakhsh; Shahraki, Omolbanin

    2017-10-01

    The synthesis of new derivatives of pyrrole substituted sulfonamide groups is described. The in vitro anticancer activity of these pyrroles was evaluated against MCF7, MOLT-4 and HL-60 cells using MTT assay. The target compounds showed inhibitory activity against tested cell lines. Among the compounds, compound 1a exhibited good cytotoxic activity. The potential of this analog to induce apoptosis was confirmed in a nuclear morphological assay by Hoechst 33258 staining in the PC-12 cells. Finally, molecular docking was performed to determine the probable binding mode of the designed pyrrole derivatives into the active site of FGFR1 protein. DFT calculations were carried out at the B3LYP levels of theory with 6-31+G (d,p) basis set for compound 1a. The point group (C1) of it was obtained based on the optimized structures; the calculation of the FT-IR vibrational frequencies, 1H NMR and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the compound were carried out and compared with those obtained experimentally.

  16. A reinterpretation of the electronic spectrum of pyrrole: A quantum dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, S. P.; Worth, G. A.

    2014-01-21

    The first band in the electronic spectrum of pyrrole is calculated from wavepacket propagations performed using the MCTDH method. To do so, two model Hamiltonians are constructed to describe seven low-lying excited electronic states of pyrrole. These Hamiltonians are based on the vibronic coupling model, and are parameterised via fitting to extensive CASPT2 and EOM-CCSD calculations. A detailed analysis of the structure of pyrrole's electronic spectrum in the range 5.5 to 6.5 eV is made. The role of intensity borrowing from transitions to ππ{sup *} states by lower-lying 3s and 3p Rydberg states is assessed, and reassignments of much of the spectrum are subsequently made which indicate that most of the states in the spectrum are predominantly Rydberg in character. The resulting conclusions drawn serve to highlight the limitations of assignments based on the matching of calculated vertical excitation energies and the positions of peak maxima observed in electronic spectra.

  17. ESI-MS Characterization of a Novel Pyrrole-Inosine Nucleoside that Interacts with Guanine Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Sarah E.; Sherman, Courtney L.; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Lawrence, Candace M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    Based on binding studies undertaken by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, a synthetic pyrrole-inosine nucleoside, 1, capable of forming an extended three-point Hoogsteen-type hydrogen-bonding interaction with guanine, is shown to form specific complexes with two different quadruplex DNA structures [dTG4T]4 and d(T2G4)4 as well as guanine rich duplex DNA. The binding interactions of two other analogs were evaluated in order to unravel the structural features that contribute to specific DNA recognition. The importance of the Hoogsteen interactions was confirmed through the absence of specific binding when the pyrrole NH hydrogen-bonding site was blocked or removed. While 2, with a large blocking group, was not found to interact with virtually any form of DNA, 3, with the pyrrole functionality missing, was found to interact non-specifically with several types of DNA. The specific binding of 1 to guanine rich DNA emphasizes the necessity of careful ligand design for specific sequence recognition. PMID:18790136

  18. Reactions of a Ruthenium Complex with Substituted N-Propargyl Pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Chia, Pi-Yeh; Huang, Shou-Ling; Liu, Yi-Hong; Lin, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-05

    In an investigation into the chemical reactions of N-propargyl pyrroles 1 a-c, containing aldehyde, keto, and ester groups on the pyrrole ring, with [Ru]-Cl ([Ru]=Cp(PPh3 )2 Ru; Cp=C5 H5 ), an aldehyde group in the pyrrole ring is found to play a crucial role in stimulating the cyclization reaction. The reaction of 1 a, containing an aldehyde group, with [Ru]-Cl in the presence of NH4 PF6 yields the vinylidene complex 2 a, which further reacts with allyl amine to give the carbene complex 6 a with a pyrrolizine group. However, if 1 a is first reacted with allyl amine to yield the iminenyne 8 a, then the reaction of 8 a with [Ru]-Cl in the presence of NH4 PF6 yields the ruthenium complex 9 a, containing a cationic pyrrolopyrazinium group, which has been fully characterized by XRD analysis. These results can be adequately explained by coordination of the triple bond of the propargyl group to the ruthenium metal center first, followed by two processes, that is, formation of a vinylidene intermediate or direct nucleophilic attack. Additionally, the deprotonation of 2 a by R4 NOH yields the neutral acetylide complex 3 a. In the presence of NH4 PF6 , the attempted alkylation of 3 a resulted in the formation the Fischer-type amino-carbene complex 5 a as a result of the presence of NH3, which served as a nucleophile. With KPF6, the alkylation of 3 a with ethyl and benzyl bromoacetates afforded the disubstituted vinylidene complexes 10 a and 11 a, containing ester groups, which underwent deprotonation reactions to give the furyl complexes 12 a and 13 a, respectively. For 13 a, containing an O-benzyl group, subsequent 1,3-migration of the benzyl group was observed to yield product 14 a with a lactone unit. Similar reactivity was not observed for the corresponding N-propargyl pyrroles 1 b and 1 c, which contained keto and ester groups, respectively, on the pyrrole ring. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Role of the ribose-specific marker furfuryl-amine in the formation of aroma active 1-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrrole (or furfuryl-pyrrole) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Plamen Y; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2012-10-10

    Furfuryl-pyrroles possess a diverse range of organoleptic properties described as roasted, chocolaty, green, horseradish-like, and mushroom-like and are detected in various foods such as coffee, chocolate, popcorn, and roasted chicken. Although their origin in food was attributed to furfuryl-amine, the latter has not been detected so far in Maillard model systems or in foods. In this study, furfuryl-amine was shown to be formed specifically from ribose through nitrogen atom transfer from the α-amino group of any amino acid. Such a transfer can be achieved through decarboxylation of the Schiff base adduct and isomerization followed by hydrolysis. Through the use of (15)Nα-lysine it was revealed that only the (15)Nα nitrogen atom was incorporated into its structure, indicating a specific role for the carboxylate moiety in the mechanism of its formation. Furthermore, isotope labeling studies have indicated that furfuryl-pyrrole derivatives can be formed by the interaction of 2 mol of furfuryl-amine with 3-deoxyribosone followed by dehydration and cyclization to form 1-(furan-2-yl)-N-{[1-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]methylidene}methanamine. After hydrolysis, this intermediate can generate furfuryl-formyl-pyrrole, furfuryl-pyrrole carboxylic acid, and furfuryl-pyrrole. In this study, the furfuryl-amine derivatives were also detected in different coffee beans after pyrolysis and analysis by GC-MS. The potential of these compounds to form in aqueous model systems at a temperature of 120 °C was also demonstrated.

  20. Pyrrole Derivatives and Diterpene Alkaloids from the South China Sea Sponge Agelas nakamurai.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mei-Jun; Tang, Xu-Li; Qin, Guo-Fei; Sun, Yan-Ting; Li, Lei; de Voogd, Nicole J; Li, Ping-Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2017-02-21

    Two pairs of new non-brominated racematic pyrrole derivatives, (±)-nakamurine D (1) and (±)-nakamurine E (2), two new diterpene alkaloids, iso-agelasine C (16), and iso-agelasidine B (21), together with fifteen known pyrrole derivatives((±)-3 - 15), five known diterpene alkaloids (17 - 20, 22) were isolated from the South China Sea sponge Agelas nakamurai. The racemic mixtures, compounds 1 - 4, were resolved into four pairs of enantiomers, (+)-1 and (-)-1, (+)-2 and (-)-2, (+)-3 and (-)-3, and (+)-4 and (-)-4, by chiral HPLC. The structures and absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, quantum chemical calculations, quantitative measurements of molar rotations, application of van't Hoff's principle of optical superposition, and comparison with the literature data. The NMR and MS data of compound 3 are reported for the first time, as the structure was listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. These non-brominated pyrrole derivatives were found in this species for the first time. Compound 18 showed valuable cytotoxicities against HL-60, K562, and HCT-116 cell lines with IC50 values of 12.4, 16.0, and 19.8 μM, respectively. Compounds 16 - 19, 21, and 22 showed potent antifungal activities against Candida albicans with MIC values ranging from 0.59 to 4.69 μg/mL. Compounds 16 - 19 exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against Proteusbacillus vulgaris (MIC values ranging from 9.38 to 18.75 μg/mL). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Copper-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H functionalization of ketones with vinyl azides: synthesis of substituted-1H-pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Donthiri, Ramachandra Reddy; Samanta, Supravat; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa

    2015-10-28

    Copper-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H functionalization of ketones with vinyl azides for the synthesis of substituted pyrroles has been developed. The method is a straightforward and efficient way to access a series of 2,3,5-trisubstituted-1H-pyrroles in modest to excellent yields with broad functional group tolerance under mild conditions.

  2. The Chemical and Physical Properties of Pyrrole-Based Conducting Polymers: The Characterization of As-Grown Films by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-07

    by identifying the existence of both, pyrrole rinp and perchlorate anions. It should be mentioned, however, that no significant density of states can...XPS indicates one tetrafluoroborate anion for 4 pyrrole rinp in PP+BF . More precisely, 0.26 boron atoms were found on an average over 4 samples

  3. Lipid-lowering effects of ethyl 2-phenacyl-3-aryl-1H-pyrrole- 4-carboxylates in rodents.

    PubMed

    Holub, Justin M; O'Toole-Colin, Kathy; Getzel, Adam; Argenti, Anthony; Evans, Michael A; Smith, Daniel C; Dalglish, Gerard A; Rifat, Shahzad; Wilson, Donna L; Taylor, Brett M; Miott, Ulander; Glersaye, Josephine; Lam, Kam Suet; McCranor, Bryan J; Berkowitz, Joshua D; Miller, Robert B; Lukens, John R; Krumpe, Keith; Gupton, John T; Burnham, Bruce S

    2004-02-28

    A series of substituted 2-phenacyl-3-phenyl-1H-pyrrole-4-carboxylates were prepared from substituted acetophenones in 6 steps. The final condensations between a chloroenal and an aminoketone were carried out under neutral conditions in parallel to yield the series listed below. Selected pyrrole derivatives proved to be potent hypolipidemic agents lowering serum triglyceride concentrations in CF-1 male mice after 14 days of I.P. administration. One agent orally lowered serum cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats at 2mg/kg/day after 14 days. The agents demonstrated a lowering of mouse serum LDL- cholesterol levels and selected compounds showed an elevation of serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The cholesterol concentrations in the liver were raised while the cholesterol and triglyceride contents of the aorta were significantly lowered by the selected trisubstituted pyrrole.

  4. Pyrrole and indole alkaloids from an endophytic Fusarium incarnatum (HKI00504) isolated from the mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Ya; Ding, Yi; Groth, Ingrid; Menzel, Klaus-Dieter; Peschel, Gundela; Voigt, Kerstin; Deng, Zi-Wei; Sattler, Isabel; Lin, Wen-Han

    2008-01-01

    Two new pyrrole alkaloids, N-[4-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrol-1-yl)-butyl]-acetamide (1) and N-[5-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrol-1-yl)-pentyl]-acetamide (2), and a new indole derivative (3aR,8aR)-3a-acetoxyl-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo-[2,3-b]indol (3) were isolated, together with ( - )-3a-hydroxyfuroindoline, (3aR,8aS)-1-acetyl-1,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo-[2,3-b]indol-3a-ol, and N-acetyltryptamine A, from an endophytic ascomycetous fungus, Fusarium incarnatum (HKI00504), which was isolated from the mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum. The structures of compounds 1-3 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analyses.

  5. Pyrrole- and dihydropyrrole-fused neonicotinoids: design, synthesis, and insecticidal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhenjun; Shi, Lina; Shao, Xusheng; Xu, Xiaoyong; Xu, Zhiping; Li, Zhong

    2013-01-16

    Versatile pyrrole- and dihydropyrrole-fused neonicotinoids were obtained from cyclic and non-cyclic nitroeneamines. Anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl₃) exhibited high catalytic selectivity for the synthesis of the titled etherified compounds at room temperature and the eliminated products under reflux conditions. The target molecules have been identified on the basis of satisfactory analytical and spectral [¹H and ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and X-ray] data. All synthesized compounds have been screened for insecticidal activity. The preliminary insecticidal activity results showed that some of the aimed compounds displayed excellent insecticidal activity against cowpea aphids (Aphis craccivora).

  6. Capping the calix: How toluene completes cesium(i) coordination with calix[4]pyrrole

    DOE PAGES

    Ellis, Ross J.; Reinhart, Benjamin; Williams, Neil J.; ...

    2017-05-04

    The role of solvent in molecular recognition systems is under-researched and often ignored, especially when the solvent is considered “non-interacting”. This study concerns the role of toluene solvent in cesium(I) recognition by calix[4]pyrrole. We show that π-donor interactions bind toluene molecules onto the open face of the cation-receptor complex, thus “capping the calix.” As a result, by characterizing this unusual aromatically-saturated complex, we show how “non-interacting” aromatic solvents can directly coordinate receptor-bound cations and thus influence recognition.

  7. Copper-diamine-catalyzed N-arylation of pyrroles, pyrazoles, indazoles, imidazoles, and triazoles.

    PubMed

    Antilla, Jon C; Baskin, Jeremy M; Barder, Timothy E; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2004-08-20

    This paper details the copper-catalyzed N-arylation of pi-excessive nitrogen heterocycles. The coupling of either aryl iodides or aryl bromides with common nitrogen heterocycles (pyrroles, pyrazoles, indazoles, imidazoles, and triazoles) was successfully performed in good yield with catalysts derived from diamine ligands and CuI. General conditions were found that tolerate functional groups such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, primary amines, and nitriles on the aryl halide or heterocycle. Hindered aryl halides or heterocycles were also found to be suitable substrates using the conditions reported herein. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  8. Solution-Phase Synthesis of a Tricyclic Pyrrole-2-Carboxamide Discovery Library Applying a Stetter-Paal-Knorr Reaction Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Pravin S.; Fodor, Matthew D.; Coleman, Claire M.; Twining, Leslie A.; Mitasev, Branko

    2012-01-01

    The solution phase synthesis of a discovery library of 178 tricyclic pyrrole-2-carboxamides was accomplished in nine steps and seven purifications starting with three benzoyl protected amino acid methyl esters. Further diversity was introduced by two glyoxaldehydes and forty-one primary amines. The combination of Pauson-Khand, Stetter and microwave assisted Paal Knorr reactions was applied as a key sequence. The discovery library was designed with the help of QikProp 2.1 and physicochemical data are presented for all pyrroles. Library members were synthesized and purified in parallel and analyzed by LC-MS. Selected compounds were fully characterized. PMID:16677007

  9. Sequential aza-Baylis-Hillman/ring closing metathesis/aromatization as a novel route for the synthesis of substituted pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Valérie; Ribière, Patrice; Martinez, Jean; Lamaty, Frédéric

    2004-11-26

    A new route to diverse 2-substituted-3-methoxycarbonyl pyrroles has been developed. Diverse SES protected alpha-methylene beta-aminoesters were obtained by a 3-component aza-Baylis-Hillman reaction. Diversity arose from the aryl aldehydes which can be used in this reaction. N-Alkylation with allyl bromide under mild conditions provided the corresponding dienes. These substituted dienes were cyclized by ring closing metathesis at room temperature or under microwave-activation with Grubbs-type II catalyst to yield SES-protected pyrroline intermediates. The final pyrroles were obtained by base-promoted dehydrodesulfinylation/aromatization. The scope of each of these reactions was explored.

  10. Highly enantioselective synthesis of beta-heteroaryl-substituted dihydrochalcones through Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles and pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Liu, Xiaohua; Cao, Weidi; Wang, Jun; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming

    2010-02-01

    A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts (F-C) alkylation of indoles and pyrrole with chalcone derivatives catalyzed by a chiral N,N'-dioxide-Sc(OTf)(3) complex has been developed that tolerates a wide range of substrates. The reaction proceeds in moderate to excellent yields and high enantioselectivities (85-92 % enantiomeric excess) using 2 mol % (for indole) or 0.5 mol % (for pyrrole) catalyst loading, which showed the potential value of the catalyst system. Meanwhile, a strong positive nonlinear effect was observed. On the basis of the experimental results and previous reports, a possible working model is proposed to explain the origin of the activation and asymmetric induction.

  11. Biological activity of two new pyrrole derivatives against stored-product species: influence of temperature and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Boukouvala, M C; Kavallieratos, N G; Athanassiou, C G; Hadjiarapoglou, L P

    2016-08-01

    Members of the pyrrole group are likely to have interesting properties that merit additional investigation as insecticides at the post-harvest stages of agricultural commodities. In the present work, the insecticidal effect of two new pyrrole derivatives, ethyl 3-(benzylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-carboxylate (3i) and isopropyl 3-(benzylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-carboxylate (3k) were studied as stored-wheat protectants against two major stored-product insect species, the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jaquelin du Val adults and larvae and the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller larvae at different doses (0.1, 1 and 10 ppm), exposure intervals (7, 14 and 21 days), temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) and relative humidity (55 and 75%) levels. For T. confusum adults, in the case of the pyrrole derivative 3i, mortality was low and it did not exceed 32.2% in wheat treated with 10 ppm 3i at 30°C and 55% relative humidity. Progeny production was very low (<1 individual/vial) in all combinations of 55% relative humidity, including control. In the case of the pyrrole derivative 3k, mortality reached 67.8% at 30°C and 55% relative humidity in wheat treated with 10 ppm after 21 days of exposure. Progeny production was low in all tested combinations (≤0.7 individuals/vial) of 55% relative humidity, including control. For T. confusum larvae, in the case of the pyrrole derivative 3i, at the highest dose, mortality was 82.2% at 25°C and 55% relative humidity whereas in the case of 3k it reached 77.8% at the same combination. In contrast, mortality at 75% relative humidity remained very low and did not exceed 13.3%. For E. kuehniella larvae, the highest mortalities, 44.4 and 63.3%, were observed in 10 ppm at 25°C and 55% relative humidity for both pyrrole derivatives. The compounds tested here have a certain insecticidal effect, but this effect is moderated by the exposure

  12. A novel gene silencer, pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 gene improves endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takahiro; Fukuda, Noboru; Tsunemi, Akiko; Yao, En-Hui; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Tahira, Kazunobu; Matsumoto, Taro; Matsumoto, Koichi; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sawamura, Tatsuya

    2009-03-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamide can be combined in antiparallel side-by-side dimeric complexes along the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are effective inhibitors of transcription factors as well as viral repressors and transactivators. Recently, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) was reported to be a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. In this study, we designed a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide specific for the LOX-1 gene and evaluated its effect on LOX-1 gene transcription. A pyrrole-imidazole polyamide was designed to target the AP-1 binding site of the LOX-1 gene and synthesized by solid phase methods. This pyrrole-imidazole polyamide significantly inhibited LOX-1 promoter activity in HEK293 cells, determined by the luciferase assay. LOX-1 mRNA expression was also inhibited by the pyrrole-imidazole polyamide at a concentration of 10-9 mol/l in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), determined by the real-time PCR method. HUVEC were treated by pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting the LOX-1 gene, and apoptosis was assessed using Hoechst stain, terminal deoxy nucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP end labeling method, and dye-uptake bioassay. Treatment of HUVEC for 72 h with LOX-1 targeted pyrrole-imidazole polyamide decreased apoptosis induced by angiotensin II and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) loading in all assays. This novel therapeutic agent, pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, could specifically inhibit LOX-1 gene expression by reducing the promoter activity of the gene. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamide seems to be a powerful promising new agent that can be used to explore therapies based on inhibition of transcription. Molecular recognition of DNA by small molecules could provide insight into the development of new human medicines.

  13. Pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrroles-From Unprecedented Solvatofluorochromism to Two-Photon Absorption.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Mikhaylov, Alexander; Krzeszewski, Maciej; Poronik, Yevgen M; Rebane, Aleksander; Ruud, Kenneth; Gryko, Daniel T

    2015-12-07

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the two-photon absorption (2PA) properties of a series of quadrupolar molecules possessing a highly electron-rich heterocyclic core, pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole, is presented. In agreement with quantum-chemical calculations, large 2PA cross-section values, σ2PA ≈10(2) -10(3)  GM (1 GM=10(50)  cm(4)  s photon(-1) ), are observed at wavelengths of 650-700 nm, which correspond to the two-photon allowed but one-photon forbidden transitions. The calculations also predict that increased planarity of this molecule through removal of two N-substituents leads to further increase in the σ2PA values. Surprisingly, the most quadrupolar pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole derivative, containing two 4-nitrophenyl substituents at positions 2 and 5, demonstrates a very strong solvatofluorochromic effect, with a fluorescence quantum yield as high as 0.96 in cyclohexane, whereas the fluorescence vanishes in DMSO.

  14. Synthesis, insecticidal, and acaricidal activities of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yongqiang; Ou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Pengxiang; Huang, Zhiqiang; Bi, Fuchun; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Qingmin

    2008-11-12

    A series of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm, mosquito, diamondback moth, green rice leafhopper, and bean aphids and acaricidal activities against spider mite of these new compounds were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that some of these title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal and acaricidal activities. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm of compounds IVa, IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVi, IVk, and IVp were equal to commercialized Chlorfenapyr, and the insecticidal activities of most of compounds IVb, IVc, IVd, IVf, IVg, IVj, IVk, IVl, IVs, IVt, IVu, IVw, IVx, IVz, and Chlorfenapyr against mosquito at 0.10 mg kg (-1) were 100%, and the acaricidal activities of compounds IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVh, IVi, and IVk were equal or superior to Chlorfenapyr. Especially, the results indicated that the acaricidal activity of [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrrol-1-yl]methyl 3-methylbutanoate ( IVg) against spider mite was 2.65-fold as high as that of Chlorfenapyr from the value of LC 50.

  15. NH stretching vibrations of pyrrole clusters studied by infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshiteru; Honma, Kenji

    2007-11-14

    The IR spectra for various sizes of pyrrole clusters were measured in the NH stretching vibration region by infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy. The hydrogen-bonded structures and normal modes of the pyrrole clusters were analyzed by a density functional theory calculation of the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Two types of pulsed nozzles, a slit and a large pinhole, were used to generate different cluster size distributions in a supersonic jet. A rotational contour analysis of the NH stretching vibration for the monomer revealed that the slit nozzle provides a warmer jet condition than the pinhole one. The IR spectra, measured under the warmer condition, showed the intense bands at 3444, 3392, and 3382 cm(-1), which were assigned to hydrogen-bonded NH stretching vibrations due to the dimer, the trimer, and the tetramer, respectively. On the other hand, the IR spectra measured under a lower temperature condition by a pinhole nozzle showed a broad absorption feature in addition to sharp bands. This broad absorption was reproduced by the sum of two Gaussians peaks at 3400 and 3372 cm(-1) with widths of 30 and 50 cm(-1) (FWHM), respectively. Compared with the spectra of the condensed phase, two bands at 3400 and 3372 cm(-1) were assigned to hydrogen-bonded NH stretching vibrations of larger clusters having liquid-like and solid-like structures, respectively.

  16. Effects of hydrogen bonding between pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde and nearest polar and nonpolar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Meenakshi; Chowdhury, Papia

    2017-10-01

    The present paper represents dominant effects of hydrogen bonding on the existence of different molecular aggregates in one of the heterocyclic pyrrole system: pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde (PCL). Theoretical and experimental Raman spectral evidence verifies the existence of different molecular aggregates like dimeric, monomeric, hydrated complex states in PCL. Atoms in molecules (AIMs) analysis and fluorescence decay profile provide a strong signature of intermolecular hydrogen bonding (IerHB) as the possible reason for the existence of cis form of dimeric (X) molecular aggregates. The high remnant polarization of 3.13 μCcm- 2 and smaller dielectric loss in solid form of PCL arise due to in X by ordering of dipoles as a result of IerHB. A remarkable high ferroelectric response in solid phase makes PCL a desirable candidate to be used as raw material for energy storage devices. For solution phase, in presence of external hydroxylic environment, PCL reacts with external water molecules through weak IerHB and creates different hydrated PCL/(H2O)n complexes by creating water bridge with number of water molecules from 1 to n. An increasing number of water molecules helps to form stronger hydrated complex by separation of charges by lowering the transferring energy barrier.

  17. Pyrrole-hyaluronic acid conjugates for decreasing cell binding to metals and conducting polymers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Young; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of electrically conductive biomaterials has been studied to improve biocompatibility for a number of applications, such as implantable sensors and microelectrode arrays. In this study, we electrochemically coated electrodes with biocompatible and non-cell adhesive hyaluronic acid (HA) to reduce cellular adhesion for potential use in neural prostheses. To this end, pyrrole-conjugated hyaluronic acid (PyHA) was synthesized and employed for electrochemical coating of platinum, indium-tin-oxide, and polystyrene sulfonate-doped polypyrrole electrodes. This PyHA conjugate consists of (1) a pyrrole moiety that allows the compound to be electrochemically deposited onto a conductive substrate and (2) non-adhesive HA to minimize cell adhesion and to potentially decrease inflammatory tissue responses. Our characterization results showed the presence of a hydrophilic p(PyHA) layer on the modified electrode, and impedance measurements revealed impedance that was statistically the same as the unmodified electrode. We found that the p(PyHA)-coated electrodes minimized adhesion and migration of fibroblasts and astrocytes for a minimum of up to 3 months. Also, the coating was stable in physiological solution for 3 months and also stable against enzymatic degradation by hyaluronidase. These studies suggest that this p(PyHA)-coating has the potential to be used to mask conducting electrodes from adverse glial responses that occur upon implantation. In addition, electrochemical coating with PyHA can be potentially extended for the surface modification of other metallic and conducting substances such as stents and biosensors. PMID:20558330

  18. Calix[4]pyrrole Schiff base macrocycles. Novel binucleating ligands for mu-oxo iron complexes.

    PubMed

    Veauthier, Jacqueline M; Cho, Won-Seob; Lynch, Vincent M; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2004-02-23

    New bimetallic mu-oxo diferric complexes of several previously reported calix[4]pyrrole Schiff base macrocycles are described. The synthesis of a new member of this class of macrocycles is also reported; it was prepared via an acid-catalyzed condensation between 1,9-bisformyl-5,5-dipropyldipyrromethane and o-phenylenediamine. Reactions of the free base macrocycles or their bis-HCl salts with Fe(II) mesitylene, followed by air oxidation, gave the binuclear mu-oxo bis-Fe(III) compounds 6-10 in moderate yield. X-ray crystallography data reveal two different coordination environments for the Fe-O-Fe subunit in 6-10 that it is suggested can be controlled by altering the reaction conditions. Structural properties of these metalated pyrrolic macrocycles are also compared to those of mu-oxo diferric porphyrins and mu-oxo diferric texaphyrin. Complexes 6-10 exhibit two distinct types of M-N bonds that are similar in length to the bonds observed in metallotexaphyrin complexes. However, the electronics of the present systems are very different from those of texaphyrins and porphyrins in that no delocalized bonding patterns are observed within the ligands as a whole.

  19. Active transport of amino acids by a guanidiniocarbonyl-pyrrole receptor.

    PubMed

    Urban, Christian; Schmuck, Carsten

    2010-08-16

    Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a transporter 9 for N-acetylated amino acids. Transporter 9 is a conjugate of a guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole cation, one of the most efficient carboxylate binding motifs reported so far, and a hydrophobic tris(dodecylbenzyl) group, which ensures solubility in organic solvents. In its protonated form, 9 binds N-acetylated amino acid carboxylates in wet organic solvents with association constants in the range of 10(4) M(-1) as estimated by extraction experiments. Aromatic amino acids are preferred due to additional cation-pi-interactions of the amino acid side chain with the guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole moiety. U-tube experiments established efficient transport across a bulk liquid chloroform phase with fluxes approaching 10(-6) mol m(-2) s(-1). In experiments with single substrates, the release rate of the amino acid from the receptor-substrate complex at the interface with the receiving phase is rate determining. In contrast to this, in competition experiments with several substrates, the thermodynamic affinity to 9 becomes decisive. As 9 can only transport anions in its protonated form and has a pK(a) value of approximately 7, pH-driven active transport of amino acids is also possible. Transport occurs as a symport of the amino acid carboxylate and a proton.

  20. Influence of substituents on the N K X-ray absorption near-edge structure of pyrrole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, C.; Hallmeier, K. H.; Bach, A.; Bender, S.; Franke, R.; Hormes, J.; Szargan, R.

    1996-08-01

    The X-ray absorption and electron yield spectra of monomeric pyrrole including derivatives with different substituents, thiazole and oxazole have been investigated. Inductive and mesomeric effects on the spectral features are discussed. Inductive effects create energy shifts of the π ∗ resonances: mesomeric effects cause a splitting and energy shifts of the π ∗ resonances.

  1. A Guided Inquiry Experiment for the Measurement of Activation Energies in the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory: Decarboxylation of Pyrrole-2-Carboxylate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Kelly M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Mettee, Howard D.; Smiley, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for undergraduate biophysical chemistry is described, in which the acid concentration and temperature dependences of the decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate are measured using a continuous ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric assay. Data collection and analysis are structured using principles of guided inquiry. Data…

  2. Assessment of conformational, spectral, antimicrobial activity, chemical reactivity and NLO application of Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxaldehyde bis(oxaloyldihydrazone).

    PubMed

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R N

    2015-04-05

    An orange colored pyrrole dihydrazone: Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxaldehyde bis(oxaloyldihydrazone) (PDBO) has been synthesized by reaction of oxalic acid dihydrazide with 2,5 diformyl-1H-pyrrole and has been characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR, UV-visible, FT-IR and DART Mass). The properties of the compound has been evaluated using B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p)/6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The symmetric (3319, 3320 cm(-1)) and asymmetric (3389, 3382 cm(-1)) stretching wave number confirm free NH2 groups in PDBO. NBO analysis shows, inter/intra molecular interactions within the molecule. Topological parameters have been analyzed by QTAIM theory and provide the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (N-H⋯O). The local reactivity descriptors analyses determine the reactive sites within molecule. The calculated first hyperpolarizability value (β0=23.83×10(-30) esu) of pyrrole dihydrazone shows its suitability for non-linear optical (NLO) response. The preliminary bioassay suggested that the PDBO exhibits relatively good antibacterial and fungicidal activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger. The local reactivity descriptors--Fukui functions (fk+, fk-), local softnesses (sk+, sk-) and electrophilicity indices (ωk+, ωk-) analyses have been used to determine the reactive sites within molecule.

  3. Lysine pyrrolation is a naturally-occurring covalent modification involved in the production of DNA mimic proteins.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Hiroaki; Chikazawa, Miho; Otaki, Natsuki; Hioki, Yusuke; Shimozu, Yuki; Nakashima, Fumie; Shibata, Takahiro; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Shoichi; Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Uchida, Koji

    2014-06-18

    Covalent modification of proteins exerts significant effects on their chemical properties and has important functional and regulatory consequences. We now report the identification and verification of an electrically-active form of modified proteins recognized by a group of small molecules commonly used to interact with DNA. This previously unreported property of proteins was initially discovered when the γ-ketoaldehydes were identified as a source of the proteins stained by the DNA intercalators. Using 1,4-butanedial, the simplest γ-ketoaldehyde, we characterized the structural and chemical criteria governing the recognition of the modified proteins by the DNA intercalators and identified N(ε)-pyrrolelysine as a key adduct. Unexpectedly, the pyrrolation conferred an electronegativity and electronic properties on the proteins that potentially constitute an electrical mimic to the DNA. In addition, we found that the pyrrolated proteins indeed triggered an autoimmune response and that the production of specific antibodies against the pyrrolated proteins was accelerated in human systemic lupus erythematosus. These findings and the apparent high abundance of N(ε)-pyrrolelysine in vivo suggest that protein pyrrolation could be an endogenous source of DNA mimic proteins, providing a possible link connecting protein turnover and immune disorders.

  4. Synthesis of furo[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxhydrazides and their Cu, Co and Ni complexes.

    PubMed

    Gašparová, Renata; Titiš, Ján; Kraic, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Carboxhydrazides 3 were synthesized by reaction of substituted furo[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxhydrazides 1 with 4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxaldehyde 2 in the presence of 3-methyl-benzenesulfonic acid in ethanol. Carboxhydrazides 3 were used as ligands for synthesis of Cu, Co, and Ni complexes 4.

  5. A Guided Inquiry Experiment for the Measurement of Activation Energies in the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory: Decarboxylation of Pyrrole-2-Carboxylate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Kelly M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Mettee, Howard D.; Smiley, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for undergraduate biophysical chemistry is described, in which the acid concentration and temperature dependences of the decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate are measured using a continuous ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric assay. Data collection and analysis are structured using principles of guided inquiry. Data…

  6. Synthesis of Furo[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxhydrazides and Their Cu, CO and Ni Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Gašparová, Renata; Titiš, Ján; Kraic, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Carboxhydrazides 3 were synthesized by reaction of substituted furo[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxhydrazides 1 with 4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxaldehyde 2 in the presence of 3-methyl-benzenesulfonic acid in ethanol. Carboxhydrazides 3 were used as ligands for synthesis of Cu, Co, and Ni complexes 4. PMID:22593710

  7. Assessment of conformational, spectral, antimicrobial activity, chemical reactivity and NLO application of Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxaldehyde bis(oxaloyldihydrazone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.

    2015-04-01

    An orange colored pyrrole dihydrazone: Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxaldehyde bis(oxaloyldihydrazone) (PDBO) has been synthesized by reaction of oxalic acid dihydrazide with 2,5 diformyl-1H-pyrrole and has been characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR, UV-visible, FT-IR and DART Mass). The properties of the compound has been evaluated using B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p)/6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The symmetric (3319, 3320 cm-1) and asymmetric (3389, 3382 cm-1) stretching wave number confirm free NH2 groups in PDBO. NBO analysis shows, inter/intra molecular interactions within the molecule. Topological parameters have been analyzed by QTAIM theory and provide the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (N-H⋯O). The local reactivity descriptors analyses determine the reactive sites within molecule. The calculated first hyperpolarizability value (β0 = 23.83 × 10-30 esu) of pyrrole dihydrazone shows its suitability for non-linear optical (NLO) response. The preliminary bioassay suggested that the PDBO exhibits relatively good antibacterial and fungicidal activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger. The local reactivity descriptors - Fukui functions (fk+, fk-), local softnesses (sk+, sk-) and electrophilicity indices (ωk+, ωk-) analyses have been used to determine the reactive sites within molecule.

  8. Photodissociation dynamics of pyrrole: evidence for mode specific dynamics from conical intersections.

    PubMed

    Wei, J; Riedel, J; Kuczmann, A; Renth, F; Temps, F

    2004-01-01

    The H and D atom elimination mechanisms in the photodissociation of jet cooled pyrrole and pyrrole-d1 have been studied by photofragment velocity map imaging. The molecules were excited to the 1 1A2 (pi sigma*) state at lambda = 243 nm and to the 1 1B2 (pi pi*) state at lambda = 217 nm. H/D atoms were detected by (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) at lambda = 243 nm. The analysis of the images and the resulting translational energy distributions from the 1 1A2 state demonstrates the existence of two decay pathways, fast mode-specific cleavage of the NH bond in the excited state (channel A) and internal conversion (IC) to the electronic ground state (S0) followed by unimolecular decomposition of the vibrationally hot S0 molecules (channel B). The angular distributions of the H/D atoms from the direct dissociation in the excited state are strongly anisotropic, whereas the decay of the S0 molecules leads to spatially isotropic distributions. The results at lambda = 217 nm indicate that the 1 1B2 state undergoes an ultrafast radiationless transition to 1 1A2 followed by the abovementioned direct mode-specific NH bond fission on the 1 1A2 potential energy surface (channel A') or conversion to S0 and subsequent unimolecular decomposition (channel B'). The latter pathway may also be initiated by a direct relaxation from 1 1B2 to S0. The anisotropy parameter of beta approximately -1 for the direct NH bond fission at lambda = 217 nm is in accordance with the expectations for a perpendicular electronic excitation and a dissociation lifetime that is short compared to the rotational period of the molecules. The fast decay dynamics of both excited electronic states can be rationalized with reference to the theoretically predicted conical intersections between the pi pi*, pi sigma*, and S0 potential energy surfaces and the antibonding nature of the pi sigma* potential energy surface with respect to the NH bond [A. L. Sobolewski, W. Domcke. C. Dedonder

  9. Phosphine-mediated cascade reaction of azides with MBH-acetates of acetylenic aldehydes to substituted pyrroles: a facile access to N-fused pyrrolo-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chada Raji; Reddy, Motatipally Damoder; Srikanth, Boinapally

    2012-06-07

    One-pot synthesis of substituted pyrroles by a cascade reaction of azides with Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates of acetylenic aldehydes is described and the reaction is efficiently mediated by triphenyl phosphine at room temperature. Sodium azide is successfully used to provide N-unsubstituted pyrroles, while alkyl azides afforded the corresponding N-alkylated pyrroles through a sequence of allylic substitution/azide reduction/cycloisomerization reactions. The obtained products have provided a new entry to indolizino indoles, pyrrolo isoquinolines and 8-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizine.

  10. Ethynyl-linked (pyreno)pyrrole-naphthyridine and aniline-naphthyridine molecules as fluorescent sensors of guanine via multiple hydrogen bondings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Hung; Selvi, Srinivasan; Fang, Jim-Min

    2007-01-05

    New fluorescent molecular sensors for 9-alkylguanines were constructed by conjugation of 2-acetamido-1,8-naphthyridine with N-Boc-pyrrole, N-Boc-pyreno[2,1-b]pyrrole, or acetanilide moieties via an ethynyl bridge. In combination with the triple hydrogen-bonding motif of 2-acetamidonaphthyridine toward alkylguanine, an additional binding site was provided by the substituent properly located on the pyrrole or aniline ring to enhance the affinity of these receptor molecules. Besides the ESI-MS analyses, the binding events were readily monitored by the absorption and fluorescence changes in the visible region.

  11. Substituent effect in the photochromism of two isomeric asymmetric diarylethenes having pyrrole and thiophene units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renjie; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Pu, Shouzhi; Liu, Gang; Dai, Yanfeng

    2017-02-01

    Two new asymmetric isomeric diarylethenes having pyrrole and thiophene units have been synthesized by one-pot reaction and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The two prepared diarylethenes had disparate crystal structures, and they exhibited distinctly different photochromic behavior, both in solution and in the solid state. Their photochromism, fatigue resistance, and fluorescence were investigated systematically. The methyl group at the reactive carbon atom could significantly enhance the quantum yield of cyclization step and decrease the quantum yield of cycloreversion step, whereas a cyano group at the same position could notably suppress the photocyclization reaction and promote the photocycloreversion reaction. The results indicated that the substituent at the reactive carbon atom could readily modulate the optoelectronic and physical properties for these diarylethenes.

  12. Colorimetric chemosensor for multi-signaling detection of metal ions using pyrrole based Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Udhayakumari, Duraisamy; Velmathi, Sivan

    2014-03-25

    Pyrrole based Schiff bases act as a highly sensitive probe for metal ions in aqueous medium. Both receptors R1 and R2 are sensitive towards Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Cr(3+) among the other metal ions. The sensing ability of the receptors are investigated via colorimetric, optical and emission spectroscopic studies. The binding stoichiometries of R1 and R2 with metal ions have been determined as 2:1 by using Job's plot. The colorimetric receptors exhibited high sensitivity with a low detection limit of μM levels. In the presence of metal ions both receptors shows fluorescence quenching. This might be due to the photo induced electron transfer mechanism. The quenching constant was further determined using Stern-Volmer plot. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Crystal structure of 1-benzyl-4-formyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carb­oxamide

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qi-Di; Hu, Sheng-Quan; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H12N2O2 (I), the mean planes of the pyrrole and benzyl rings are approximately perpendicular, forming a dihedral angle of 87.07 (4) °. There is an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond forming an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming inversion dimers. C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the dimers into chains along direction [10-1]. The chains are further linked by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions forming layers parallel to the ac plane. PMID:26958371

  14. Supramolecular biosensors based on electropolymerised pyrrole-cyclodextrin modified surfaces for antibody detection.

    PubMed

    Wajs, Ewelina; Fernández, Núria; Fragoso, Alex

    2016-06-07

    The self-assembly of an adamantane-appended polymer bearing an antigen fragment on a polypyrrole-cyclodextrin modified surface provides a highly sensitive immunosensor with low limits of detection for celiac disease related targets. The pyrrole-carboxylic acid films were formed on the surface of gold electrodes by electropolymerisation and followed by covalent attachment of cyclodextrin units. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed the role of the host/guest interactions between adamantane moieties and β-cyclodextrin hosts in the formation of the supramolecular sensor interface. Furthermore, this novel electrochemical supramolecular platform was effective in the amperometric detection of anti-gliadin antibodies in spiked serum samples with very good signal recovery.

  15. An iterative nonribosomal peptide synthetase assembles the pyrrole-amide antibiotic congocidine in Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Juguet, Maud; Lautru, Sylvie; Francou, François-Xavier; Nezbedová, Sárka; Leblond, Pierre; Gondry, Muriel; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2009-04-24

    Congocidine (netropsin) is a pyrrole-amide (oligopyrrole, oligopeptide) antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. We have identified, in the right terminal region of the S. ambofaciens chromosome, the gene cluster that directs congocidine biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of the cluster and in-frame deletions of 8 of the 22 genes confirm the involvement of this cluster in congocidine biosynthesis. Nine genes can be assigned specific functions in regulation, resistance, or congocidine assembly. In contrast, the biosynthetic origin of the precursors cannot be easily inferred from in silico analyses. Congocidine is assembled by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) constituted of a free-standing module and several single-domain proteins encoded by four genes. The iterative use of its unique adenylation domain, the utilization of guanidinoacetyl-CoA as a substrate by a condensation domain, and the control of 4-aminopyrrole-2-carboxylate polymerization constitute the most original features of this NRPS.

  16. Novel composite materials synthesized by the high-temperature interaction of pyrrole with layered oxide matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Alexandru Cezar

    The initial goal of the research presented herein was to develop the very first synthetic metal---high-temperature superconductor ceramic composite material, in the specific form of a polypyrrole---Bi2Sr2CaCu 2O8+delta nanocomposite. In the course of scientific investigation, this scope was broadened to encompass structurally and compositionally similar layered bismuthates and simpler layered oxides. The latter substrates were prepared through novel experimental procedures that enhanced the chance of yielding nanostructured morphologies. The designed novel synthesis approaches yielded a harvest of interesting results that may be further developed upon their dissemination in the scientific community. High-temperature interaction of pyrrole with molybdenum trioxide substrates with different crystalline phases and morphologies led to the formation of the first members of a new class of heterogeneous microcomposites characterized by incomplete occupancy by the metal oxide core of the volume encapsulated by the rigid, amorphous permeable polymeric membrane that reproduces the volume of the initial grain of precursor substrate. The method may be applied for various heterogeneous catalyst substrates for the precise determination of the catalytically active crystallographic planes. In a different project, room-temperature, templateless impregnation of molybdenum trioxide substrates with different crystalline phases and morphologies by a large excess of silver (I) cations led to the formation of 1-D nanostructured novel Ag-Mo-O ternary phase in what may be the simplest experimental procedure available to date that has yielded a 1-D nanostructure, regardless the nature of the constituent material. Interaction of this novel ternary phase with pyrrole vapors at high reaction temperatures led to heterogeneous nanostructured composites that exhibited a silver nanorod core. Nanoscrolls of vanadium pentoxide xerogel were synthesized through a novel, facile reflux-based method that

  17. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of bicyclic triple reuptake inhibitor 3-aryl octahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrole analogues.

    PubMed

    Shao, Liming; Hewitt, Michael C; Malcolm, Scott C; Wang, Fengjiang; Ma, Jianguo; Campbell, Una C; Spicer, Nancy A; Engel, Sharon R; Hardy, Larry W; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Schreiber, Rudy; Spear, Kerry L; Varney, Mark A

    2011-08-11

    The present work expands the chemical space known to offer potent inhibition of the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT) and discloses novel bicyclic octahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrole and octahydro-1H-isoindole scaffolds as potent triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) for the potential treatment of depression. Optimized compounds 22a (SERT, NET, DAT, IC(50) = 20, 109, 430 nM), 23a (SERT, NET, DAT, IC(50) = 29, 85, 168 nM), and 26a (SERT, NET, DAT, IC(50) = 53, 150, 140 nM) were highly brain penetrant, active in vivo in the mouse tail suspension test at 10 and 30 mpk PO, and were not generally motor stimulants at doses ranging from 1 to 30 mpk PO. Moderate in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP) and potassium ion channel Kv11.1 (hERG) inhibition were uncovered as potential liabilities for the chemical series.

  18. Electrochemical nitrate biosensor based on poly(pyrrole-viologen) film-nitrate reductase-clay composite.

    PubMed

    Cosnier, S; Da Silva, S; Shan, D; Gorgy, K

    2008-11-01

    The immobilization of nitrate reductase (NR) was performed by entrapment in a laponite clay gel and cross-linking by glutaraldehyde. In presence of nitrate and methyl viologen, a catalytic current appeared at -0.60 V illustrating the enzymatic reduction of nitrate into nitrite via the reduced form of the freely diffusing methyl viologen. The electropolymerization of a water-soluble pyrrole viologen derivative within the interlamellar spaces and channels of the host clay matrix successfully carried out the electrical wiring of the entrapped NR. Rotating disk measurements led to the determination of kinetic constants, namely k(2)=10.7 s(-1) and K(M)=7 microM. These parameters reflect the efficiency of the electro-enzymatic reduction of nitrate and the substrate affinity for the immobilized enzyme.

  19. Depopulation of Single-Phthalocyanine Molecular Orbitals upon Pyrrolic-Hydrogen Abstraction on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Néel, Nicolas; Lattelais, Marie; Bocquet, Marie-Laure; Kröger, Jörg

    2016-02-23

    Single-molecule chemistry with a scanning tunneling microscope has preponderantly been performed on metal surfaces. The molecule-metal hybridization, however, is often detrimental to genuine molecular properties and obscures their changes upon chemical reactions. We used graphene on Ir(111) to reduce the coupling between Ir(111) and adsorbed phthalocyanine molecules. By local electron injection from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope the two pyrrolic H atoms were removed from single phthalocyanines. The detachment of the H atom pair induced a strong modification of the molecular electronic structure, albeit with no change in the adsorption geometry. Spectra and maps of the differential conductance combined with density functional calculations unveiled the entire depopulation of the highest occupied molecular orbital upon H abstraction. Occupied π states of intact molecules are proposed to be emptied via intramolecular electron transfer to dangling σ states of H-free N atoms.

  20. Low-energy electron scattering from the aza-derivatives of pyrrole, furan, and thiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossoski, F.; Bettega, M. H. F.

    2013-06-01

    We report elastic integral and differential cross sections for electron scattering from the aza-derivatives of pyrrole, furan, and thiophene, namely, pyrazole, imidazole, isoxazole, oxazole, isothiazole, and thiazole. The calculations were performed within the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials, with inclusion of static, exchange, and polarization interactions, for energies up to 10 eV. We found two π* shape resonances and a high-lying σ* shape resonance in each system. A sharp low-energy σ* resonance was also identified in isothiazole and thiazole. Pyrazole and imidazole presented yet a broad low-lying σ* resonance. The positions of the resonances agree very well with existing experimental results. We discuss the similarities and differences among the resonances of these compounds.

  1. Targeting a DNA binding motif of the EVI1 protein by a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Sicot, Géraldine; Cui, Xiaohui; Vogel, Marion; Wuertzer, Charles A; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Wheeler, John; Harki, Daniel A; Muzikar, Katy A; Stolper, Daniel A; Dervan, Peter B; Perkins, Archibald S

    2011-12-06

    The zinc finger protein EVI1 is causally associated with acute myeloid leukemogenesis, and inhibition of its function with a small molecule therapeutic may provide effective therapy for EVI1-expressing leukemias. In this paper we describe the development of a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide to specifically block EVI1 binding to DNA. We first identify essential domains for leukemogenesis through structure-function studies on both EVI1 and the t(3;21)(q26;q22)-derived RUNX1-MDS1-EVI1 (RME) protein, which revealed that DNA binding to the cognate motif GACAAGATA via the first of two zinc finger domains (ZF1, encompassing fingers 1-7) is essential transforming activity. To inhibit DNA binding via ZF1, we synthesized a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide 1, designed to bind to a subsite within the GACAAGATA motif and thereby block EVI1 binding. DNase I footprinting and electromobility shift assays revealed a specific and high affinity interaction between polyamide 1 and the GACAAGATA motif. In an in vivo CAT reporter assay using NIH-3T3-derived cell line with a chromosome-embedded tet-inducible EVI1-VP16 as well as an EVI1-responsive reporter, polyamide 1 completely blocked EVI1-responsive reporter activity. Growth of a leukemic cell line bearing overexpressed EVI1 was also inhibited by treatment with polyamide 1, while a control cell line lacking EVI1 was not. Finally, colony formation by RME was attenuated by polyamide 1 in a serial replating assay. These studies provide evidence that a cell permeable small molecule may effectively block the activity of a leukemogenic transcription factor and provide a valuable tool to dissect critical functions of EVI1 in leukemogenesis.

  2. Catalytic formal [2+2+1] synthesis of pyrroles from alkynes and diazenes via Ti(II)/Ti(IV) redox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Zachary W; Hue, Ryan J; Tonks, Ian A

    2016-01-01

    Pyrroles are structurally important heterocycles. However, the synthesis of polysubstituted pyrroles is often challenging. Here, we report a multicomponent, Ti-catalysed formal [2+2+1] reaction of alkynes and diazenes for the oxidative synthesis of penta- and trisubstituted pyrroles: a nitrenoid analogue to classical Pauson-Khand-type syntheses of cyclopentenones. Given the scarcity of early transition-metal redox catalysis, preliminary mechanistic studies are presented. Initial stoichiometric and kinetic studies indicate that the mechanism of this reaction proceeds through a formally Ti(II)/Ti(IV) redox catalytic cycle, in which an azatitanacyclobutene intermediate, resulting from [2+2] alkyne + Ti imido coupling, undergoes a second alkyne insertion followed by reductive elimination to yield pyrrole and a Ti(II) species. The key component for catalytic turnover is the reoxidation of the Ti(II) species to a Ti(IV) imido via the disproportionation of an η(2)-diazene-Ti(II) complex.

  3. 2,2',5,5'-Tetra-methyl-1,1'-(hexane-1,6-di-yl)di-1H-pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana C; Ramos Silva, Manuela; Monsanto, Paula V; Matos Beja, Ana; Sobral, Abilio J F N

    2009-06-17

    The mol-ecule of the title compound, C(18)H(28)N(2), composed of two 2,5-dimethyl-pyrrole groups linked by a hexane chain, lies across a crystallographic inversion centre. The mean plane of the pyrrole ring is almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the central chain, making a dihedral angle of 89.09 (8)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  4. Polymerization of Conducting Polymers Confined to Free Surfaces: A comparison of the Langmuir-Blodgett Polymerization of 3-Alkyl Pyrroles and 2- Alkyl Anilines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-19

    Confined to Free Surfaces: A Comparison of the Langmuir-Blodgett Polymerization of 3- Alkyl Pyrroles and 2- Alkyl Anilines Submitted for Publication in...Surfaces: A Comparison of the Langmuir Blodgett Polymerizations of 3- alkyl pyrroles and 2- alkyl anilines R. S. Duran and H.C. Zhou Dept. of Chemistry...polymerization reactions in more detail and compare them. To do this, the polymerization reactions were run under two conditions. In the first case

  5. Vinyl azides derived from allenes: thermolysis leading to multisubstituted 1,4-pyrazines and Mn(III)-catalyzed photochemical reaction leading to pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Sajna, K V; Kumara Swamy, K C

    2012-10-05

    Thermolysis of phosphorus-based vinyl azides under solvent- and catalyst-free conditions furnished a new route for 1,4-pyrazines. A simple one-pot, Mn(III)-catalyzed photochemical route has been developed for multisubstituted pyrroles starting from allenes and 1,3-dicarbonyls via in situ-generated vinyl azides. The utility of new phosphorus-based pyrroles is also demonstrated in the Horner reaction. The structures of key products are unequivocally confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  6. Organocatalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones with bifunctional amine-thiourea catalysts bearing multiple hydrogen-bond donors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Liang; Yue, Deng-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Summary For the first time, a catalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones was achieved with a chiral bifunctional amine-thiourea as a catalyst possessing multiple hydrogen-bond donors. With this developed method, a range of 3-hydroxy-3-nitromethyl-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones bearing quaternary stereocenters were obtained in acceptable yield (up to 75%) and enantioselectivity (up to 73% ee). PMID:26977188

  7. Sigma and Pi Interactions of the Pyrrolic Ligand Sandwich-Like Lanthanide Phthalocyanines Determined from Magnetic Susceptibility and Ligand-Field Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-25

    ACCESSION NO. 11, TITLE (include Security Classification) UNCLASSIFIED: Sigma and Pi Interactions of the Pyrro- lic Ligand Sandwich-Like Lanthanide ...4135007---05 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 36 Sigma and Pi Interactions of the Pyrrolic Ligand Sandwich-Like Lanthanide Phthalocyanines Determined From Magnetic...Hill Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3290 Sigma and Pi Interactions of the Pyrrolic Ligand Sandwich-Like Lanthanide Phthalocyanines Determined From

  8. Catalyst-controlled divergence in cycloisomerisation reactions of N-propargyl-N-vinyl sulfonamides: gold-catalysed synthesis of 2-sulfonylmethyl pyrroles and dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Undeela, Sridhar; Thadkapally, Srinivas; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Menon, Rajeev S

    2015-09-18

    Gold-catalysed, divergent synthesis of 2-sulfonylmethyl pyrroles and dihydropyridines from N-propargyl-N-vinyl sulfonamides has been achieved. Echavarren's gold(I) catalyst promoted the formation of pyrrole derivatives whereas the combination of PPh3AuCl and AgSbF6 afforded dihydropyridines. The aza-enyne precursors for the cycloisomerisation reaction were prepared by a base-mediated formal vinylic substitution reaction of 2-bromoallyl sulfones.

  9. Ab initio multiple cloning simulations of pyrrole photodissociation: TKER spectra and velocity map imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Saita, Kenichiro; Martinez, Todd J.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.

    2014-12-11

    In this study, we report a detailed computational simulation of the photodissociation of pyrrole using the ab initio Multiple Cloning (AIMC) method implemented within MOLPRO. The efficiency of the AIMC implementation, employing train basis sets, linear approximation for matrix elements, and Ehrenfest configuration cloning, allows us to accumulate significant statistics. We calculate and analyze the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectrum and Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) of pyrrole and compare the results directly with experimental measurements. Both the TKER spectrum and the structure of the velocity map image (VMI) are well reproduced. Previously, it has been assumed that the isotropic component of the VMI arises from long time statistical dissociation. Instead, our simulations suggest that ultrafast dynamics contributes significantly to both low and high energy portions of the TKER spectrum.

  10. Both visual and fluorescent sensors for Zn2 + based on bis(pyrrol-2-yl-methyleneamine) platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Na; Mao, Pan-Dong; Jia, Lei; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Zhou-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Two bis(pyrrol-2-yl-methyleneamine) chemo-sensors, 1, 3- and 1, 4-bis[3,4-dimethyl-5-ethyloxy -carbonyl-pyrrol-2-yl-methyleneamine]benzene (H2L1 and H2L2, respectively) have been synthesized and characterized, which exhibit high selectivity as off-on fluorescence sensors toward Zn2 + in CH3CN/H2O (9:1, v/v) solution. The detection limits of both sensors are at the parts per million level. Moreover, the probes H2L1 and H2L2 could sense Zn2 + by "naked eye" with a color change from colorless to yellow, and from yellow to dark yellow, respectively. To test the practical use of the probes, the determination of Zn2 + in real water samples was also evaluated.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Antineoplastic Activity of C60 Fullerene with 5-Fluorouracil and Pyrrole Derivative In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynchak, O. V.; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; Rybalchenko, V. K.; Kyzyma, O. A.; Soloviov, D.; Kostjukov, V. V.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Ritter, U.; Scharff, P.

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor activity of pristine C60 fullerene aqueous solution (C60FAS) compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and pyrrole derivative 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2.5-dione (MI-1) cytostatic drugs was investigated and analyzed in detail using the model of colorectal cancer induced by 1.2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats. The number, size, and location of the tumors were measured, and the pathology was examined. It was found that the number of tumors and total lesion area decreased significantly under the action of C60FAS and MI-1. Because these drugs have different mechanisms of action, their simultaneous administration can potentially increase the effectiveness and significantly reduce the side effects of antitumor therapy.

  12. Bandgap Engineering in π-Extended Pyrroles. A Modular Approach to Electron-Deficient Chromophores with Multi-Redox Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhylitskaya, Halina; Cybińska, Joanna; Chmielewski, Piotr; Lis, Tadeusz; Stępień, Marcin

    2016-09-07

    A family of bandgap-tunable pyrroles structurally related to rylene dyes was computationally designed and prepared using robust, easily scalable chemistry. These pyrroles show highly variable fluorescence properties and can be used as building blocks for the synthesis of electron-deficient oligopyrroles. The latter application is demonstrated through the development of π-extended porphyrins containing naphthalenediamide or naphthalenediimide units. These new macrocycles exhibit simultaneously tunable visible and near-IR absorptions, an ability to accept up to 8 electrons via electrochemical reduction, and high internal molecular free volumes. When chemically reduced under inert conditions, the most electron-deficient of these macrocycles revealed reversible formation of eight charged states, characterized by remarkably red-shifted optical absorptions, extending beyond 2200 nm. Such features make these oligopyrroles of interest as functional chromophores, charge-storage materials, and tectons for crystal engineering.

  13. Pyrrole Oligoglycosides from the Starfish Acanthaster planci Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vien, Le Thi; Hanh, Tran Thi Hong; Huong, Phan Thi Thanh; Dang, Nguyen Hai; Thanh, Nguyen Van; Lyakhova, Ekaterina; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Kicha, Alla; Minh, Chau Van

    2016-11-01

    Two new pyrrole oligoglycosides, plancipyrrosides A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from methanol extract of the Vietnamese starfish Acanthaster planci using various chromatographic procedures. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one and two dimensional (1D- and 2D)-NMR and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-MS. The finding of 1 and 2 represents the third case of pyrrole oligoglycosides obtaining reported to date. Moreover, plancipyrroside B (2) exhibits a potent inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells with IC50 of 5.94±0.34 µM, whereas plancipyrroside A (1) shows this inhibitory activity with IC50 of 16.61±1.85 µM.

  14. Lipophilic 2,5-Disubstituted Pyrroles from the Marine Sponge Mycale sp. Inhibit Mitochondrial Respiration and HIF-1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shui-Chun; Liu, Yang; Morgan, J. Brian; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

    2010-01-01

    The lipid extract of the marine sponge Mycale sp. inhibited the activation of hypoxiainducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay. Bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation yielded 18 new lipophilic 2,5-disubstituted pyrroles, and eight structurally related known compounds. The active compounds inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF activation with moderate potency (IC50 values < 10 μM). Mechanistic studies revealed that the active compounds suppressed mitochondrial respiration by blocking NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) at concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation. Under hypoxic conditions, reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondrial complex III are believed to act as a signal of cellular hypoxia that leads to HIF-1α protein induction and activation. By inhibiting electron transport (or delivery) to complex III under hypoxic conditions, lipophilic Mycale pyrroles appear to disrupt mitochondrial ROS-regulated HIF-1 signaling. PMID:19845338

  15. Formation of pyrazines and a novel pyrrole in Maillard model systems of 1,3-dihydroxyacetone and 2-oxopropanal.

    PubMed

    Adams, An; Polizzi, Viviana; van Boekel, Martinus; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2008-03-26

    Alkylpyrazines are a very important class of Maillard flavor compounds, but their mechanism of formation is complex and consists of different pathways. The model reaction of 20 different amino acids with 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, as a precursor of 2-oxopropanal, was studied by means of SPME-GC-MS to investigate the involvement of the amino acid side chain in the substitution pattern of the resulting pyrazines. 2,5-Dimethylpyrazine was quantitatively the most important pyrazine formed from all of the amino acids. The amino acid side chain is not involved in its formation. The substituents of other less abundant pyrazines resulted mainly from the incorporation of the Strecker aldehyde or aldol condensation products in the intermediate dihydropyrazine. The importance of different reaction mechanisms was evaluated, taking into account the pattern of pyrazines identified. In the solvent extracts of aqueous model reactions of 2-oxopropanal with amino acids, the main reaction product was not a pyrazine but a novel pyrrole. This pyrrole was identified as 2,5-diacetyl-3-methyl-1 H-pyrrole by means of spectral analysis, secured by chemical synthesis. A reaction mechanism for its formation was proposed and evaluated. The influence of various reaction conditions on the formation of 2,5-diacetyl-3-methyl-1 H-pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine in the model reaction of alanine with 2-oxopropanal was studied. These results underscore the importance of the ratio of the different reagents and the presence of water in the resulting flavor formation in the Maillard reaction.

  16. Cation-π interaction of the univalent silver cation with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole: Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polášek, Miroslav; Kvíčala, Jaroslav; Makrlík, Emanuel; Křížová, Věra; Vaňura, Petr

    2017-02-01

    By using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it was proven experimentally that the univalent silver cation Ag+ forms with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (abbrev. 1) the cationic complex species 1·Ag+. Further, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, four different conformations of the resulting complex 1·Ag+ were derived. It means that under the present experimental conditions, this ligand 1 can be considered as a macrocyclic receptor for the silver cation.

  17. Visible-light-induced formal [3+2] cycloaddition for pyrrole synthesis under metal-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jun; Xia, Xu-Dong; Zeng, Ting-Ting; Feng, Zhu-Jia; Chen, Jia-Rong; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2014-05-26

    A photocatalytic formal [3+2] cycloaddition of 2H-azirines with alkynes has been achieved under irradiation by visible light in the presence of organic dye photocatalysts. This transformation provides efficient access to highly functionalized pyrroles in good yields and has been applied to the synthesis of drug analogues. A primary trial of photocascade catalysis merging energy transfer and redox neutral reactions was shown to be successful. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Identification of Binding Targets of a Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide KR12 in the LS180 Colorectal Cancer Genome

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takayoshi; Kuo, Tony; Shinozaki, Yoshinao; Takatori, Atsushi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Otsuki, Joe; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are versatile DNA minor groove binders and attractive therapeutic options against oncological targets, especially upon functionalization with an alkylating agent such as seco-CBI. These molecules also provide an alternative for oncogenes deemed “undruggable” at the protein level, where the absence of solvent-accessible pockets or structural crevices prevent the formation of protein-inhibitor ligands; nevertheless, the genome-wide effect of pyrrole-imidazole polyamide binding remain largely unclear to-date. Here we propose a next-generation sequencing-based workflow combined with whole genome expression arrays to address such issue using a candidate anti-cancer alkylating agent, KR12, against codon 12 mutant KRAS. Biotinylating KR12 enables the means to identify its genome-wide effects in living cells and possible biological implications via a coupled workflow of enrichment-based sequencing and expression microarrays. The subsequent computational pathway and expression analyses allow the identification of its genomic binding sites, as well as a route to explore a polyamide’s possible genome-wide effects. Among the 3,343 KR12 binding sites identified in the human LS180 colorectal cancer genome, the reduction of KR12-bound gene expressions was also observed. Additionally, the coupled microarray-sequencing analysis also revealed some insights about the effect of local chromatin structure on pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, which had not been fully understood to-date. A comparative analysis with KR12 in a different human colorectal cancer genome SW480 also showed agreeable agreements of KR12 binding affecting gene expressions. Combination of these analyses thus suggested the possibility of applying this approach to other pyrrole-imidazole polyamides to reveal further biological details about the effect of polyamide binding in a genome. PMID:27798693

  19. Pyrrole-2-Carboxylic Acid as a Ligand for the Cu-Catalyzed Reactions of Primary Anilines with Aryl Halides

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Ryan A.; Anderson, Kevin W.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    Pyrrole 2-carboxylic acid (L5) was found to be an effective ligand for the Cu-catalyzed mono-arylation of anilines with aryl iodides and bromides. Under the reported conditions (10% CuI/20% L5/DMSO/K3PO4/80–100 °C/20–24 h), a variety of useful functional groups were tolerated, and moderate to good yields of the diaryl amine products were obtained. PMID:18543973

  20. Identification of Binding Targets of a Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide KR12 in the LS180 Colorectal Cancer Genome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jason; Hiraoka, Kiriko; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Kuo, Tony; Shinozaki, Yoshinao; Takatori, Atsushi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Otsuki, Joe; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Horton, Paul; Nagase, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are versatile DNA minor groove binders and attractive therapeutic options against oncological targets, especially upon functionalization with an alkylating agent such as seco-CBI. These molecules also provide an alternative for oncogenes deemed "undruggable" at the protein level, where the absence of solvent-accessible pockets or structural crevices prevent the formation of protein-inhibitor ligands; nevertheless, the genome-wide effect of pyrrole-imidazole polyamide binding remain largely unclear to-date. Here we propose a next-generation sequencing-based workflow combined with whole genome expression arrays to address such issue using a candidate anti-cancer alkylating agent, KR12, against codon 12 mutant KRAS. Biotinylating KR12 enables the means to identify its genome-wide effects in living cells and possible biological implications via a coupled workflow of enrichment-based sequencing and expression microarrays. The subsequent computational pathway and expression analyses allow the identification of its genomic binding sites, as well as a route to explore a polyamide's possible genome-wide effects. Among the 3,343 KR12 binding sites identified in the human LS180 colorectal cancer genome, the reduction of KR12-bound gene expressions was also observed. Additionally, the coupled microarray-sequencing analysis also revealed some insights about the effect of local chromatin structure on pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, which had not been fully understood to-date. A comparative analysis with KR12 in a different human colorectal cancer genome SW480 also showed agreeable agreements of KR12 binding affecting gene expressions. Combination of these analyses thus suggested the possibility of applying this approach to other pyrrole-imidazole polyamides to reveal further biological details about the effect of polyamide binding in a genome.

  1. Direct detection of pyridine formation by the reaction of CH (CD) with pyrrole: a ring expansion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Soorkia, Satchin; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Trevitt, Adam J.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2010-03-16

    The reaction of the ground state methylidyne radical CH (X2Pi) with pyrrole (C4H5N) has been studied in a slow flow tube reactor using Multiplexed Photoionization Mass Spectrometry coupled to quasi-continuous tunable VUV synchrotron radiation at room temperature (295 K) and 90 oC (363 K), at 4 Torr (533 Pa). Laser photolysis of bromoform (CHBr3) at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) is used to produce CH radicals that are free to react with pyrrole molecules in the gaseous mixture. A signal at m/z = 79 (C5H5N) is identified as the product of the reaction and resolved from 79Br atoms, and the result is consistent with CH addition to pyrrole followed by Helimination. The Photoionization Efficiency curve unambiguously identifies m/z = 79 as pyridine. With deuterated methylidyne radicals (CD), the product mass peak is shifted by +1 mass unit, consistent with the formation of C5H4DN and identified as deuterated pyridine (dpyridine). Within detection limits, there is no evidence that the addition intermediate complex undergoes hydrogen scrambling. The results are consistent with a reaction mechanism that proceeds via the direct CH (CD) cycloaddition or insertion into the five-member pyrrole ring, giving rise to ring expansion, followed by H atom elimination from the nitrogen atom in the intermediate to form the resonance stabilized pyridine (d-pyridine) molecule. Implications to interstellar chemistry and planetary atmospheres, in particular Titan, as well as in gas-phase combustion processes, are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of molecular assembly, spectroscopic interpretation, intra-/inter molecular hydrogen bonding and chemical reactivity of two pyrrole precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of conformational, spectroscopic, hydrogen bonding and chemical reactivity of pyrrole precursor: ethyl 3,5 dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EDPC) and ethyl 3,4-dimethyl-4-acetyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EDAPC) for the convenient characterization, synthetic usefulness and comparative evaluations. All experimental spectral values of 1H NMR, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra coincide well with calculated values by DFT. The orbital interactions in EDPC and EDAPC are found to lengthen their Nsbnd H and Cdbnd O bonds and lowers their vibrational frequencies (red shift) resulting to dimer formation. The QTAIM and NBO analyses provide the strength of interactions and charge transfer in the hydrogen bonding unit and stability of dimers. The binding energy of EDPC and EDPAC dimer are found to be 9.92, 10.22 kcal/mol, respectively. In EDPAC and EDPC dimer, hyperconjugative interactions between monomer units is due to n1(O) → σ*(Nsbnd H) that stabilize the molecule up to 9.7 and 9.3 kcal/mol, respectively. On evaluation of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and electronic descriptors for EDPC it has been found that it is a good precursor for synthesis of formyl and acetyl derivatives whereas EDAPC has been found to be a good precursor for synthesis of schiff base, hydrazones, hydrazide-hydrazones and chalcones.

  3. Pyrrole Alkaloids with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity Isolated from a Goji Berry-Contaminated Commercial Sample of African Mango

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2–8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value of 16.7 μM, whereas 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid (2) was active in both the hydroxyl radical-scavenging (ED50 11.9 μM) and quinone reductase-induction [CD (concentration required to double QR activity) 2.4 μM)] assays used. The isolated compounds were shown to be absent in a taxonomically authenticated African mango sample but present in three separate authentic samples of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) using LC-MS and 1H NMR fingerprinting analysis, including one sample that previously showed inhibitory activity in vivo in a rat esophageal cancer model induced with N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Additionally, microscopic features characteristic of goji berry were observed in the commercial African mango sample. PMID:24792835

  4. Pyrrole alkaloids with potential cancer chemopreventive activity isolated from a goji berry-contaminated commercial sample of African mango.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Naman, C Benjamin; Deng, Ye; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2014-06-04

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2-8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value of 16.7 μM, whereas 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid (2) was active in both the hydroxyl radical-scavenging (ED50 11.9 μM) and quinone reductase-induction [CD (concentration required to double QR activity) 2.4 μM)] assays used. The isolated compounds were shown to be absent in a taxonomically authenticated African mango sample but present in three separate authentic samples of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) using LC-MS and (1)H NMR fingerprinting analysis, including one sample that previously showed inhibitory activity in vivo in a rat esophageal cancer model induced with N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Additionally, microscopic features characteristic of goji berry were observed in the commercial African mango sample.

  5. Synthesis and chemistry of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one--a heteroindoxyl.

    PubMed

    Gaywood, Alexander P; McNab, Hamish

    2009-06-05

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of 2-acetyl-3-azidothiophene gives 3-methylthieno[3,2-c]isoxazole as the major product at a furnace temperature of 350 degrees C whereas at temperatures above 550 degrees C the new heteroindoxyl 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one is exclusively formed. The heteroindoxyl exists predominantly as the keto tautomer. It is O-protonated by TFA, N-acetylated by acetic anhydride, N-nitrosated by nitrous acid, and provides an N-methylene Meldrum's acid derivative on treatment with methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid. Reactions of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one with diazonium salts, with isatin, and with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate take place at the methylene position to provide a hydrazone, an indirubin analogue, and a succinate derivative, respectively. Oxidation of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one gives a heteroindigotin, which shows a hypsochromic shift in the UV spectrum, relative to indigotin itself.

  6. Spiroheterocyclization of methyl 1-aryl-3-cinnamoyl-4,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylates by the action of 3-(arylamino)-1H-inden-1-ones.

    PubMed

    Silaichev, Pavel S; Filimonov, Valeriy O; Slepukhin, Pavel A; Maslivets, Andrey N

    2012-11-22

    Methyl 1-aryl-3-cinnamoyl-4,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylates interact with 3-(arylamino)-1H-inden-1-ones to give the corresponding 1,1'-diaryl-3'-cinnamoyl-4'-hydroxy-1H-spiro[indeno[1,2-b]pyrrole-3,2'-pyrrole]-2,4,5'(1'H)-triones in good yields.

  7. Fast Reactivity of Cyclic Nitrone-Calix[4]pyrrole Conjugate with Superoxide Radical Anion: Theoretical and Experimental Studies1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shang-U; Liu, Yangping; Nash, Kevin M.; Zweier, Jay L.; Rockenbauer, Antal; Villamena, Frederick A.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrone spin traps have been employed as probes for the identification of transient radical species in chemical and biological systems using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and have found pharmacological activity against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Since superoxide radical anion (O2•−) is a major precursor to most reactive oxygen species and that calix[4]pyrroles have shown to exhibit high affinity to anions, cyclic nitrone conjugate of calix[4]pyrrole (CalixMPO) was designed, synthesized, and characterized. Computational studies at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) suggest a pendant-type linkage between the calix[4]pyrrole and the nitrone to be the most efficient design for spin trapping of O2•−, giving exoergic reaction enthalpies (ΔH298K,aq) and free energies (ΔG298K,aq) of -16.9 and -2.1 kcal/mol, respectively. 1H NMR study revealed solvent-dependent conformational changes in CalixMPO leading to changes in electronic properties of the nitronyl group upon H-bonding with the pyrrole groups as also confirmed by calculations. CalixMPO spin trapping of O2•− exhibited distinctive EPR spectra. Kinetic analysis of O2•− adduct formation and decay in polar aprotic solvents using UV-vis stopped-flow and EPR method gave larger trapping rate constant for CalixMPO and longer half-life for its O2•− adduct compared to the commonly used nitrones. The unusually high reactivity of CalixMPO to O2•− was rationalized to be due to the synergy between α- and electrostatic effects by the calix[4]pyrrole moiety on the O2•− and nitrone, respectively. This work demonstrates for the first time the application of an anion receptor for the detection of one the most important radical intermediates in biological and chemical systems (i.e., O2•−). PMID:21070040

  8. Efficient Synthesis of Peptide and Protein Functionalized Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides Using Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Brian M G; van Ommeren, Sven P F I; Merkx, Maarten

    2015-06-04

    The advancement of DNA-based bionanotechnology requires efficient strategies to functionalize DNA nanostructures in a specific manner with other biomolecules, most importantly peptides and proteins. Common DNA-functionalization methods rely on laborious and covalent conjugation between DNA and proteins or peptides. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides, based on natural minor groove DNA-binding small molecules, can bind to DNA in a sequence specific fashion. In this study, we explore the use of Py-Im polyamides for addressing proteins and peptides to DNA in a sequence specific and non-covalent manner. A generic synthetic approach based on native chemical ligation was established that allows efficient conjugation of both peptides and recombinant proteins to Py-Im polyamides. The effect of Py-Im polyamide conjugation on DNA binding was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Although the synthesis of different protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates was successful, attenuation of DNA affinity was observed, in particular for the protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates. The practical use of protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates for addressing DNA structures in an orthogonal but non-covalent manner, therefore, remains to be established.

  9. Configurational Analysis of Tetracyclic Dimeric Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids using a Floating Chirality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Köck, Matthias; Schmidt, Gesine; Seiple, Ian B.; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-01-01

    The structure elucidation of the palau'amine congener tetrabromostyloguanidine (1), which used interproton distances from ROESY spectra as restraints in a computational approach, the so-called fc-rDG/DDD method, led to a revision of the relative configuration of palau'amine (2) and its congeners in 2007. The recent total synthesis of (±)-palau'amine (2) subsequently confirmed the computed structural revision of the relative configuration. In order to test a broader application range of the fc-rDG/DDD method, the present study investigated two additional dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, axinellamine A (3) and 3,7-epi-massadine chloride (4). These calculations allowed the simultaneous assignment of the relative configuration for all eight stereogenic centers of compounds 3 and 4 without using any information from the reported configurations. In contrast to the palau'amine congeners, the fc-rDG/DDD method confirmed the relative configuration originally described for axinellamine A (3) and 3,7-epi-massadine chloride (4). PMID:22332969

  10. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, Brendan T; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B

    2015-09-24

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine. Although efficient laboratory synthesis of alkaloids would enable the study and optimization of their biological properties, their preparation is often complicated by the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways--for example, through stereochemical instability and neighbouring group participation. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduces additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies. Here we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route uses several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages of beginning with aromatic reagents.

  11. Configurational analysis of tetracyclic dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids using a floating chirality approach.

    PubMed

    Köck, Matthias; Schmidt, Gesine; Seiple, Ian B; Baran, Phil S

    2012-02-24

    The structure elucidation of the palau'amine congener tetrabromostyloguanidine (1), which used interproton distances from ROESY spectra as restraints in a computational approach, the so-called fc-rDG/DDD method, led to a revision of the relative configuration of palau'amine (2) and its congeners in 2007. The recent total synthesis of (±)-palau'amine (2) subsequently confirmed the computed structural revision of the relative configuration. In order to test a broader application range of the fc-rDG/DDD method, the present study investigated two additional dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, axinellamine A (3) and 3,7-epi-massadine chloride (4). These calculations allowed the simultaneous assignment of the relative configuration for all eight stereogenic centers of compounds 3 and 4 without using any information from the reported configurations. In contrast to the palau'amine congeners, the fc-rDG/DDD method confirmed the relative configuration originally described for axinellamine A (3) and 3,7-epi-massadine chloride (4).

  12. Pyrrole-indolinone SU11652 targets the nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Plínio Salmazo; Souza, Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Zanphorlin, Letícia Maria; Severiano, Kelven Ulisses; Rocco, Silvana Aparecida; de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcante; Cordeiro, Artur Torres; Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; de Giuseppe, Priscila Oliveira; Murakami, Mário Tyago

    2017-07-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) are key enzymes in the purine-salvage pathway of trypanosomatids and have been associated with the maintenance of host-cell integrity for the benefit of the parasite, being potential targets for rational drug discovery and design. The NDK from Leishmania major (LmNDK) and mutants were expressed and purified to homogeneity. Thermal shift assays were employed to identify potential inhibitors for LmNDK. Calorimetric experiments, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular docking analysis were performed to validate the interaction and to evaluate the structural basis of ligand recognition. Furthermore, the anti-leishmanial activity of the newly identified and validated compound was tested in vitro against different Leishmania species. The molecule SU11652, a Sunitinib analog, was identified as a potential inhibitor for LmNDK and structural studies indicated that this molecule binds to the active site of LmNDK in a similar conformation to nucleotides, mimicking natural substrates. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments combined with site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the residues H50 and H117, considered essential for catalysis, play an important role in ligand binding. In vitro cell studies showed that SU11652 had similar efficacy to Amphotericin b against some Leishmania species. Together, our results indicate the pyrrole-indolinone SU11652 as a promising scaffold for the rational design of new drugs targeting the enzyme NDK from Leishmania parasites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel Pt(II) complexes containing pyrrole oxime; synthesis, characterization and DNA binding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Özalp-Yaman, Şeniz

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of anticancer activity and subsequent clinical success of cisplatin (cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2]), platinum-based compounds have since been widely synthesized and studied as potential chemotherapeutic agents. In this sense, three novel nuclease active Pt(II) complexes with general formula; [Pt(NH3)Cl(L)] (1), [Pt(L)2] (2), and K[PtCl2(L)] (3) in which L is 1-H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde oxime were synthesized. Characterization of complexes was performed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopy measurements. Interaction of complexes (1-3) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was investigated by using electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical methods and cleavage studies. The hyperchromic change in the electronic absorption spectrum of the Pt(II) complexes indicates an electrostatic interaction between the complexes and ct-DNA. Binding constant values between 4.42 × 103 and 5.09 × 103 M-1 and binding side size values between 2 and 3 base pairs were determined from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies.

  14. Pharmacological evaluation of anti-inflammatory pyrrole-acetic acid derivative eye drops.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, C; Spadaro, A

    1997-08-01

    The effects of mucoadhesive eye drops containing a pyrrole-acetic acid derivative (tolmetin) at 0.5% concentration on ocular inflammation produced by sodium arachidonate in the rabbit's eye were evaluated. Furthermore, the bioavailability of the mucoadhesive formulation in the aqueous humor against an aqueous-based solution was compared. Tolmetin eye drops significantly reduced the signs of ocular inflammation elicited by sodium arachidonate on conjunctiva and iris. Tolmetin treatment significantly reduced the levels of prostaglandin E2, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and protein concentration in aqueous samples obtained from the eyes treated with arachidonate. The de novo production of prostaglandin E2 by corneas obtained from rabbits sacrificed 2 hours after arachidonate instillation were significantly higher in samples taken from controls than in corneas obtained from the eyes treated with tolmetin eye drops. Furthermore, the drug treatment significantly reduced the rise in intraocular pressure arachidonate-induced. The mucoadhesive formulation showed a higher bioavailability in aqueous humor compared to the aqueous-based solution both in the uninflamed and in the inflamed rabbit eyes.

  15. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine1. Although the efficient laboratory syntheses of alkaloids would enable researchers to study and optimize their biological properties,2 the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways – for example, through stereochemical instability and neighboring group participation – complicates their preparation in the laboratory. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen3; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduce additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies4. In this manuscript, we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest-linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route employs several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages conferred by the use of aromatic starting materials. PMID:26375010

  16. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-09-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine. Although efficient laboratory synthesis of alkaloids would enable the study and optimization of their biological properties, their preparation is often complicated by the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways--for example, through stereochemical instability and neighbouring group participation. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduces additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies. Here we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route uses several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages of beginning with aromatic reagents.

  17. The 8-Pyrrole-Benzothiazinones Are Noncovalent Inhibitors of DprE1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Vadim; Neres, João; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Ryabova, Olga B; Kazakova, Elena; Šarkan, Michal; Huszár, Stanislav; Piton, Jérémie; Kolly, Gaëlle S; Vocat, Anthony; Conroy, Trent M; Mikušová, Katarína; Cole, Stewart T

    2015-08-01

    8-Nitro-benzothiazinones (BTZs), such as BTZ043 and PBTZ169, inhibit decaprenylphosphoryl-β-d-ribose 2'-oxidase (DprE1) and display nanomolar bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed the 8-nitro group of the BTZ scaffold to be crucial for the mechanism of action, which involves formation of a semimercaptal bond with Cys387 in the active site of DprE1. To date, substitution of the 8-nitro group has led to extensive loss of antimycobacterial activity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of the pyrrole-benzothiazinones PyrBTZ01 and PyrBTZ02, non-nitro-benzothiazinones that retain significant antimycobacterial activity, with MICs of 0.16 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis. These compounds inhibit DprE1 with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of <8 μM and present favorable in vitro absorption-distribution-metabolism-excretion/toxicity (ADME/T) and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles. The most promising compound, PyrBTZ01, did not show efficacy in a mouse model of acute tuberculosis, suggesting that BTZ-mediated killing through DprE1 inhibition requires a combination of both covalent bond formation and compound potency. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Vibrational overtone spectroscopy and intramolecular dynamics of C-H stretches in pyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnov, Alexander; Epshtein, Michael; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana

    2013-05-01

    Room-temperature photoacoustic spectra and jet-cooled action spectra of the regions of the first and second C-H stretch overtones of pyrrole were measured with the goal of gaining new insight on the vibrational patterns and the intramolecular energy flow out of the initially excited vibrational states. The rotational cooling of the action spectra helped in observing hitherto unresolved features, assisting determination of the existing multiple bands and their positions in each region. These bands were analyzed by building vibrational Hamiltonian matrices related to a simplified joint local-mode/normal-mode (LM/NM) model, accounting for two types of C-H stretches and their Fermi resonances with the CCH deformation modes. The diagonalization of the LM/NM vibrational Hamiltonians and the fitting of the eigenvalues to the band positions revealed model parameters, enabling assignment of the observed bands. The time dependences of the survival probabilities of the C-H stretches in the region of the first and second overtones, deduced from the vibrational Hamiltonian, show quantum beats due to the couplings to the deformations and decays driven by weaker interactions to the bath states. The C-H stretches, although somewhat lower in energy, show stronger coupling than the N-H stretches.

  19. Facile and controllable electrochemical fabrication of cell-adhesive polypyrrole electrodes using pyrrole-RGD peptides.

    PubMed

    Jang, Lindy K; Kim, Semin; Seo, Jiwon; Lee, Jae Young

    2017-10-11

    Electrically conductive polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy), have been widely used for the fabrication of various biosensors and tissue engineering scaffolds. For their biologically relevant applications, conductive biomaterials capable of intimate cellular interactions are highly desired. However, conventional methods to incorporate biomolecules into conductive polymers do not offer fine and easy control over the surface density of the biomolecules and/or their stability. We present a novel method to electrochemically immobilize cell adhesive Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) ligands on PPy electrode surfaces with a simple control over the peptide surface density by varying the electrodeposition time. Synthesized pyrrole-GGGRGDS conjugates were electrochemically incorporated onto the surfaces of PPy-coated electrodes. The electrochemical impedances of the RGD-grafted PPy electrodes were not significantly different from the unmodified PPy films. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the RGD motif on the surface of the modified electrodes. In vitro studies with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) showed higher adhesion and faster proliferation of hMSCs on the PPy with a higher RGD density. This facile electrochemical modification of electrode surfaces allowed for a good control over the peptide surface density and cellular interactions and will benefit the fabrication of cell-interactive scaffolds or bio-electrodes. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Selective Anion Binding by a Cofacial Binuclear Zinc Complex of a Schiff-Base Pyrrole Macrocycle

    PubMed Central

    Devoille, Aline M. J.; Richardson, Patricia; Bill, Nathan; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Love, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of the new cofacial binuclear zinc complex [Zn2(L)] of a Schiff-base pyrrole macrocycle is reported. It was discovered that the binuclear microenvironment between the two metals of [Zn2(L)] is suited for the encapsulation of anions, leading to the formation of [K(THF)6][Zn2(μ-Cl)(L)].2THF and [Bun4N][Zn2(μ-OH)(L)] which were characterized by X-ray crystallography. Unusually obtuse Zn-X-Zn angles (X=Cl: 150.54(9)° and OH: 157.4(3)°) illustrate the weak character of these interactions and the importance of the cleft pre-organization to stabilize the host. In the absence of added anion, aggregation of [Zn2(L)] was inferred and investigated by successive dilutions and by the addition of coordinating solvents to [Zn2(L)] solutions using NMR spectroscopy as well as isothermal microcalorimetry (ITC). On anion addition, evidence for de-aggregation of [Zn2(L)], combined with the formation of the 1:1 host-guest complex, was observed by NMR spectroscopy and ITC titrations. Furthermore, [Zn2(L)] binds to Cl− selectively in THF as deduced from the ITC analyses, while other halides induce only de-aggregation. These conclusions were reinforced by DFT calculations, which indicated that the binding energies of OH− and Cl− were significantly greater than for the other halides. PMID:21391550

  1. Investigation of irradiated 1H-Benzo[b]pyrrole by ESR, thermal methods and learning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algul, Gulay; Ceylan, Yusuf; Usta, Keziban; Yumurtaci Aydogmus, Hacer; Usta, Ayhan; Asik, Biray

    2016-05-01

    1H-Benzo[b]pyrrole samples were irradiated in the air with gamma source at 0.969 kGy per hour at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 h. After irradiation, electron spin resonance, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements were immediately carried out on the irradiated and unirradiated samples. The ESR measurements were performed between 320 and 400 K. ESR spectra were recorded from the samples irradiated for 48 and 72 h. The obtained spectra were observed to be dependent on temperature. Two radical-type centres were detected on the sample. Detected radiation-induced radicals were attributed to R-+•NH and R=•CC2H2. The g-values and hyperfine constants were calculated by means of the experimental spectra. It was also determined from TGA spectrum that both the unirradiated and irradiated samples were decomposed at one step with the rising temperature. Moreover, a theoretical study was presented. Success of the machine learning methods was tested. It was found that bagging techniques, which are widely used in the machine learning literature, could optimise prediction accuracy noticeably.

  2. Flexible electrochemical capacitors based on polypyrrole/carbon fibers via chemical polymerization of pyrrole vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Han, Gaoyi; Xiao, Yaoming; Chang, Yunzhen; Liu, Cuixian; Li, Miaoyu; Li, Yanping; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) has been deposited on the carbon fibers (CFs) via chemical oxidation of monomer vapor strategy, during which FeCl3·6H2O in acetonitrile adsorbed on CFs acts as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole vapor. The morphologies and capacitive properties of the PPy deposited on CFs (PPy/CFs) are strongly influenced by the concentration of oxidant used in the process. The assembled flexible capacitors by using PPy/CFs as electrodes and LiCl/polyvinyl alcohol as gel electrolyte have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the composites of PPy/CFs prepared by using 350 mg mL-1 FeCl3·6H2O as oxidant (PPy/CFs-350) exhibit relatively higher specific capacitance and good rate capability. Compared with PPy/CFs prepared by electrochemical deposition (retaining 5% of the initial capacitance), the PPy/CFs prepared by chemically polymerizing monomer vapor shows excellent stability (retaining 85% of initial capacitance after 5000 cycles). Furthermore, cells fabricated by PPy/CFs show a fairly good performance under various bending states, three cells of PPy/CFs-350 connected in series can light up a light emitting diode with a voltage threshold of about 2.5 V for approximate 10 min after being charged for about 3 min, revealing the potential of the cells' practical applications.

  3. Evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr against pyrethroid resistant and susceptible Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Oliver, S V; Kaiser, M L; Wood, O R; Coetzee, M; Rowland, M; Brooke, B D

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr, which has a novel non-neurotoxic mode of action and is a promising alternative to conventional adulticides, against Anopheles funestus. The toxicity of a range of concentrations of chlorfenapyr against pyrethroid resistant and susceptible laboratory reared southern African An. funestus was assessed using standard WHO protocols and analysed using probit analysis. The pyrethroid resistant strain showed consistently higher LD50 and LD95 values compared to the susceptible strain, but these differences were not statistically significant and the magnitude was twofold at most. The LD50 values recorded for An. funestus are approximately three-fold higher than those reported elsewhere for other species of anopheline. Monooxygenase based pyrethroid resistance in An. funestus does not influence the toxic effect of chlorfenapyr. It is unlikely that such a small decrease in susceptibility of An. funestus to chlorfenapyr relative to other anophelines would have any operational implications. Chlorfenapyr is an important addition to insecticides available for malaria vector control, and could be used as a resistance management tool to either circumvent or slow the development of resistance.

  4. Development of a novel gene silencer pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting human connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jian-Xin; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide can bind to specific sequences in the minor groove of double-helical DNA and inhibit transcription of the genes. We designed and synthesized a PI polyamide to target the human connective tissue growth factor (hCTGF) promoter region adjacent to the Smads binding site. Among coupling activators that yield PI polyamides, 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-5-chloro-1H-benzotriazolium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate (HCTU) was most effective in total yields of PI polyamides. A gel shift assay showed that a PI polyamide designed specifically for hCTGF (PI polyamide to hCTGF) bound the appropriate double-stranded oligonucleotide. A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated PI polyamide to CTGF permeated cell membranes and accumulated in the nuclei of cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs) and remained there for 48 h. The PI polyamide to hCTGF significantly decreased phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA)- or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated luciferase activity of the hCTGF promoter in cultured HMCs. The PI polyamide to hCTGF significantly decreased PMA- or TGF-β1-stimulated expression of hCTGF mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. The PI polyamide to hCTGF significantly decreased PMA- or TGF-β1-stimulated levels of hCTGF protein in HMCs. These results indicate that the developed synthetic PI polyamide to hCTGF could be a novel gene silencer for fibrotic diseases.

  5. Efficient Synthesis of Peptide and Protein Functionalized Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides Using Native Chemical Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Brian M. G.; van Ommeren, Sven P. F. I.; Merkx, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of DNA-based bionanotechnology requires efficient strategies to functionalize DNA nanostructures in a specific manner with other biomolecules, most importantly peptides and proteins. Common DNA-functionalization methods rely on laborious and covalent conjugation between DNA and proteins or peptides. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py–Im) polyamides, based on natural minor groove DNA-binding small molecules, can bind to DNA in a sequence specific fashion. In this study, we explore the use of Py–Im polyamides for addressing proteins and peptides to DNA in a sequence specific and non-covalent manner. A generic synthetic approach based on native chemical ligation was established that allows efficient conjugation of both peptides and recombinant proteins to Py–Im polyamides. The effect of Py–Im polyamide conjugation on DNA binding was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Although the synthesis of different protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates was successful, attenuation of DNA affinity was observed, in particular for the protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates. The practical use of protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates for addressing DNA structures in an orthogonal but non-covalent manner, therefore, remains to be established. PMID:26053396

  6. Theoretical study on nonlinear optical properties of the Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)dimer, trimer and its polymer with diffuse excess electrons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang Tao; Chen, Wei; Gu, Feng Long; Aoki, Yuriko

    2010-03-01

    The static (hyper)polarizabilities of the dimer and trimer with diffuse excess electrons, [Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)](n), are firstly investigated by the DFT(B3LYP) method in detail. For the dimer and trimer, a Li atom inside each calix[4]pyrrole unit is ionized to form a diffuse excess electron. The results show that the dimer and trimer containing two and three excess electrons, respectively, have very large first hyperpolarizablities as 2.3 x 10(4) and 4.0 x 10(4) au, which are 30 and 40 times larger than that of the corresponding [calix[4]pyrrole](n) (n = 2, 3) without Li atom. Also, beta values of dimer and trimer are twice and four times as large as that of monomer containing one excess electron. Obviously, not only excess electron but also the number of excess electron plays an important role in increasing the first hyperpolarizability. Moreover, the (hyper)polarizabilities of the [Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)](n) polymer are investigated at ab initio level by using the elongation finite-field (elongation FF) method. All the oligomers of the [Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)](n) with many excess electrons exhibit very large first hyperpolarizability and large second hyperpolarizability. The present investigation shows that by introducing several and more excess electrons into the nonlinear optical (NLO) materials will be an important strategy for improving their NLO properties, which will be helpful for design of NLO materials.

  7. Evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, K; Barik, T K; Bhatt, R M; Srivastava, H C; Sreehari, U; Dash, A P

    2011-04-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a widely distributed mosquito vector species in India and also in other tropical regions of the world. This species is implicated in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in many countries. This species is reported to be widely resistant to insecticides of different classes in current use. In the present study, bio-efficacy of chlorfenapyr, an insecticide of pyrrole class with a novel mode of action was tested for the control of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Studies were performed to determine the diagnostic dosage; residual efficacy on different artificially fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement+distemper; to assess cross-resistance with different insecticides; and synergism/antagonism using piperonyl butoxide (PBO). A dosage of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as diagnostic dosage with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period for assessing the susceptibility of mosquitoes. The residual efficacy was observed up to 34 weeks on wood and mud+lime substrates while on other substrates, it was about 15 weeks at a dosage of 400mg a.i./m(2). Laboratory-reared strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed cross-resistance, whereas field-collected mosquitoes showed absence of cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr. Potentiation bioassays showed antagonistic effect of PBO to chlorfenapyr toxicity owing to the involvement of oxidases in the initial step of a conversion of pro-insecticide chlorfenapyr to toxic form CL 303268. The present study results have shown that chlorfenapyr can be a potential insecticide for the control of multiple insecticide resistant strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, in countries where indoor residual spray (IRS) is not targeted for the control of this species, like in India, chlorfenapyr used in IRS for the control of malaria vectors in rural and peri-urban areas can additionally provide control of Cx. quinquefasciatus also.

  8. 2-(ω-Carboxyethyl)pyrrole Antibody as a New Inhibitor of Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunying; Wang, Xizhen; Tomko, Nicholas; Zhu, Junqing; Wang, William R; Zhu, Jinle; Wang, Yanming; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-09-22

    Angiogenesis is a fundamental process in the progression, invasion, and metastasis of tumors. Therapeutic drugs such as bevacizumab and ranibuzumab have thus been developed to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEFG)-promoted angiogenesis. While these anti-angiogenic drugs have been commonly used in the treatment of cancer, patients often develop significant resistance that limits the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapies to a short period of time. This is in part due to the fact that an independent pathway of angiogenesis exists, which is mediated by 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) in a TLR2 receptor-dependent manner that can compensate for inhibition of the VEGF-mediated pathway. In this work, we evaluated a CEP antibody as a new tumor growth inhibitor that blocks CEP-induced angiogenesis. We first evaluated the effectiveness of a CEP antibody as a monotherapy to impede tumor growth in two human tumor xenograft models. We then determined the synergistic effects of bevacizumab and CEP antibody in a combination therapy, which demonstrated that blocking of the CEP-mediated pathway significantly enhanced the anti-angiogenic efficacy of bevacizumab in tumor growth inhibition indicating that CEP antibody is a promising chemotherapeutic drug. To facilitate potential translational studies of CEP-antibody, we also conducted longitudinal imaging studies and identified that FMISO-PET is a non-invasive imaging tool that can be used to quantitatively monitor the anti-angiogenic effects of CEP-antibody in the clinical setting. That treatment with CEP antibody induces hypoxia in tumor tissue was indicated by 43% higher uptake of [18F]FMISO in CEP antibody-treated tumor xenografs than in the control PBS-treated littermates.

  9. Nerve cells culture from lumbar spinal cord on surfaces modified by plasma pyrrole polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga-Aguilar, E; Olayo, R; Ramírez-Fernández, O; Morales, J; Godínez, R

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are several techniques for modified cell culture surfaces under research to improve cell growth and adhesion. Recently, different methods have been used for surface coating, using biomolecules that enhance cell attachment and growth of nerve cells from spinal cord, such as the use of Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin. Plasma-polymerized pyrrole (PPy)-treated surfaces have showed improvement on surfaces biocompatibility with the cells in culture since they do not interfere with any of the biological cell functions. In the present work, we present a novel mouse nerve cell culture technique, using PPy-treated cell culture surfaces. A comparative study of cell survival using Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin-treated surfaces was performed. Our results of cell survival when compared with data already reported by other investigators, show that cells cultured on the PPy-modified surface increased survival up to 21 days when compared with Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin-coated culture, where 8 days cell survival was obtained. There were electrical and morphological differences in the nerve cells grown in the different surfaces. By comparing the peak ion currents of Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin-seeded cells for 8 days with cells grown for 21 days on PPy, an increase of 516% in the Na(+) current and 127% in K(+) currents in cells seeded on PPy were observed. Immunofluorescence techniques showed the presence of cell synapses and culture viability after 21 days. Our results then showed that PPy-modified surfaces are an alternative culture method that increases nerve cells survival from lumbar spinal cord cell culture by preserving its electrical and morphological features.

  10. Excess L-arginine restores endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired by monocrotaline pyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Wei; Oike, Masahiro . E-mail: moike@pharmaco.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ohnaka, Keizo; Koyama, Tetsuya; Ito, Yushi

    2005-09-15

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid plant toxin monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) causes pulmonary hypertension in experimental animals. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MCTP on the endothelium-dependent relaxation. We constructed an in vitro disease model of pulmonary hypertension by overlaying MCTP-treated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAEs) onto pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell-embedded collagen gel lattice. Acetylcholine (Ach) induced a relaxation of the control CPAEs-overlaid gels that were pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and the relaxation was inhibited by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). In contrast, when MCTP-treated CPAEs were overlaid, the pre-contracted gels did not show a relaxation in response to Ach in the presence of 0.5 mM L-arginine. Expression of endothelial NOS protein, Ach-induced Ca{sup 2+} transients and cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine were significantly smaller in MCTP-treated CPAEs than in control cells, indicating that these changes were responsible for the impaired NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. Since cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine linearly increased according to its extracellular concentration, we hypothesized that the excess concentration of extracellular L-arginine might restore NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. As expected, in the presence of 10 mM L-arginine, Ach showed a relaxation of the MCTP-treated CPAEs-overlaid gels. These results indicate that the impaired NO production in damaged endothelial cells can be reversed by supplying excess L-arginine.

  11. Targeting 24 bp within Telomere Repeat Sequences with Tandem Tetramer Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide Probes.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yusuke; Sasaki, Asuka; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Hashiya, Kaori; Ide, Satoru; Bando, Toshikazu; Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-10-03

    Synthetic molecules that bind sequence-specifically to DNA have been developed for varied biological applications, including anticancer activity, regulation of gene expression, and visualization of specific genomic regions. Increasing the number of base pairs targeted by synthetic molecules strengthens their sequence specificity. Our group has been working on the development of pyrrole-imidazole polyamides that bind to the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-specific manner without causing denaturation. Recently, we reported a simple synthetic method of fluorescent tandem dimer polyamide probes composed of two hairpin moieties with a linking hinge, which bound to 12 bp in human telomeric repeats (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') and could be used to specifically visualize telomeres in chemically fixed cells under mild conditions. We also performed structural optimization and extension of the target base pairs to allow more specific stain-ing of telomeres. In the present study, we synthesized tandem tetramer polyamides composed of four hairpin moieties, targeting 24 bp in telomeric repeats, the longest reported binding site for synthetic, non-nucleic-acid-based, sequence-specific DNA-binding molecules. The novel tandem tetramers bound with a nanomolar dissociation constant to 24 bp sequences made up of four telomeric repeats. Fluorescently labeled tandem tetramer polyamide probes could visualize human telomeres in chemically fixed cells with lower background signals than polyamide probes reported previously, suggesting that they had higher specificity for telomeres. Furthermore, high-throughput sequencing of human genomic DNA pulled down by the biotin-labeled tandem tetramer polyamide probe confirmed its effective binding to telomeric repeats in the complex chromatinized genome.

  12. Eco-friendly synthesis, spectral and computational study of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde salicylhydrazone (PCSH) for its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present eco-friendly synthesis of Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde salicylhydrazone (PCSH) and its molecular structural elucidation, spectral analysis and reactivity evaluation. Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde and salicyl hydrazide in water undergo condensation reaction to produce PCSH in good yield (88%). All results of quantum chemical calculation corroborate well with the experimental findings. The PCSH has been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-Visible, and ESI-Mass spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for PCSH by performing B3LYP functional using the standard basis set 6-31 + g (d, p), and additional basis sets 6D and 10F. Two most stable conformers for PCSH have been observed around the dihedral angle N1C5C6N7. The red shift observed in O-H stretching vibration in the FT-IR spectrum indicates the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The rotational barrier between syn-syn (closed) syn-syn (open) found to be 2966.9 kcal/mol. The presence of hydroxyl proton at 10.45 ppm downfield in experimental 1H NMR spectrum confirms the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in PCSH. Further, topological parameters analysis at the bond critical points using 'Atoms in molecules' theory reveals intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The energy of homonuclear intramolecular hydrogen bond (O17-H28⋯O10) is calculated to be 14.03 kcal/mol. The ellipticity results confirm the resonance assisted nature of this intramolecular hydrogen bond. In addition to this work, the reactive sites in PCSH have been explored using DFT descriptors, predicting nucleophilic reactions at carbonyl carbon and electrophilic reactions are possible at pyrrolic NH, amidic NH and double bond Cdbnd N leading to several heterocyclic products and metal complexes.

  13. Antimicrobial activity, structural evaluation and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) study of pyrrole containing vinyl derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta; Kumar, Yashvinder

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present structural and vibrational study of three vinylpyrrole derivatives: 2-Cyano-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-acrylamide (CPA), 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-Pent-1-en-3-one (PP) and 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-but-1-en-3-one (PB), using ab initio, DFT and experimental approaches. The quantum chemical calculation have been performed on B3LYP method and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set. The experimental FT-IR and Raman wavenumbers were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations and found to agree well. The experimental FT-IR and Raman study clearly indicate that the compound exist as dimer in solid state. The binding energies of (CPA), (PP) and (PB) dimers are found to be 20.95, 18.75 and 19.18 kcal/mol, respectively. The vibrational analysis shows red shifts in vN-H and vCdbnd O stretching as result of dimer formation. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Topological and energetic parameters reveal the nature of interactions in dimer. The local electronic descriptors analyses were used to predict the reactive sites in the molecule. Calculated first static hyperpolarizability of CPA, PP and PB is found to be 10.41 × 10- 30, 18.93 × 10- 30, 18.29 × 10- 30 esu, respectively, shows that investigated molecules will have non-linear optical response and might be used as non-linear optical (NLO) material. These vinylpyrrole compounds (CPA), (PP) and (PB) showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger and gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtili.

  14. A study of pyridyl nitrosyl iron(II) tetraphenyl 15N4-porphyrin. NO geometry and spin coupling to the pyrrole nitrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, D. C.; Dikanov, S. A.; Doetschman, D. C.; Smeija, J. A.

    1999-12-01

    Spin coupling with pyrrole nitrogens and NO geometry in pyridyl-NO-Fe(II) tetraphenyl- 15N4-porphyrin, examined with hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy (HYSCORE), was studied because of renewed interest in diatomic molecule bound ferrous hemes, e.g. the physiologically important NO synthase. Dipolar coupling locates the effective electron spin position (0.109±0.008 nm from the ring center, 0.106±0.006 nm above the ring plane and projecting 37±2° from the nearest pyrrole nitrogen). The NO projection in an X-ray study of the 4-methyl piperidine complex is 38.6°. The negative pyrrole nitrogen spin densities induced by the NO obey a sinusoidal angular relationship.

  15. Chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles: combining hydrogen bonds and anion-π interactions to achieve optimum performance.

    PubMed

    Sabek, Jad; Adriaenssens, Louis; Guinovart, Tomàs; Parra, Enrique J; Rius, F Xavier; Ballester, Pablo; Blondeau, Pascal

    2015-01-02

    The performance of chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles and multiwall carbon nanotubes is presented. The calix[4]pyrrole receptors bear two phenyl groups at opposite meso-positions. When the meso-phenyl groups are decorated with strong electron-withdrawing substituents, attractive anion-π interactions may exist between the receptor's aromatic walls and the sandwiched anion. These anion-π interactions are shown to significantly affect the selectivity of the electrodes. Calix[4]pyrrole, bearing a p-nitro withdrawing group on each of the meso-phenyl rings, afforded sensors that display anti-Hofmeister behavior against the lipophilic salicylate and nitrate anions. Based on the experimental data, a series of principles that help in predicting the suitability of synthetic receptors for use as anion-specific ionophores is discussed. Finally, the sensors deliver excellent results in the direct detection of chloride in bodily fluids.

  16. Synthesis of fused imidazoles, pyrroles, and indoles with a defined stereocenter α to nitrogen utilizing Mitsunobu alkylation followed by palladium-catalyzed cyclization.

    PubMed

    Laha, Joydev K; Cuny, Gregory D

    2011-10-21

    Nitrogen-containing fused heterocycles comprise many compounds that demonstrate interesting biological activities. A new synthetic approach involving Mitsunobu alkylation of imidazoles, pyrroles, and indoles followed by palladium-catalyzed cyclization has been developed providing access to fused heterocycles with a defined stereochemistry α to nitrogen. While ethyl imidazole or indole carboxylates are good substrates for Mitsunobu alkylation with optically pure secondary benzylic alcohols, the corresponding pyrroles are poor substrates presumably due to the increased pK(a) of the NH. The presence of a synthetically versatile trichloroacetyl functional group on the pyrroles significantly reduces the pK(a) and thereby facilitates Mitsunobu alkylation. Subsequent cyclization of the alkylated products mediated by palladium in the presence or absence of a ligand gave fused heterocycles in good to excellent yields.

  17. An investigations on the molecular structure, FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR spectra of 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrole by theoretical and experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Erdogdu, Y; Saglam, S; Gulluoglu, M T

    2015-07-05

    Fourier-Transform-Infrared, Fourier-Transform-Raman and Nuclear Magnetic Rezonans spectra of 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrole molecule have been recorded. In the powder form, vibrational spectra of 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrol molecule were investigated in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1), respectively. The conformational analysis, geometrical structure, molecular electrostatic potential map, HOMO-LUMO and vibrational spectroscopic properties of the isolated 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrole molecule have also been carried out at the Molecular Mechanic and Density Functional Theory approaches. Density Functional Theory results have been associated with Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field for fitting between the theoretical and the experimental frequencies.

  18. Correlation of the bond-length change and vibrational frequency shift in model hydrogen-bonded complexes of pyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Sean A. C.

    2017-04-01

    An MP2 computational study of model hydrogen-bonded pyrrole⋯YZ (YZ = NH3, NCH, BF, CO, N2, OC, FB) complexes was undertaken in order to examine the variation of the Nsbnd H bond length change and its associated vibrational frequency shift. The chemical hardness of Y, as well as the YZ dipole moment, were found to be important parameters in modifying the bond length change/frequency shift. The basis set effect on the computed properties was also assessed. A perturbative model, which accurately reproduced the ab initio Nsbnd H bond length changes and frequency shifts, was useful in rationalizing the observed trends.

  19. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of 2,5-bis(3'-indolyl)pyrroles, analogues of the marine alkaloid nortopsentin.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Anna; Parrino, Barbara; Barraja, Paola; Spanò, Virginia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Diana, Patrizia; Maier, Armin; Kelter, Gerhard; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert

    2013-03-01

    2,5-bis(3'-Indolyl)pyrroles, analogues of the marine alkaloid nortopsentin, were conveniently prepared through a three step procedure in good overall yields. Derivatives 1a and 1b exhibited concentration-dependent antitumor activity towards a panel of 42 human tumor cell lines with mean IC50 values of 1.54 μM and 0.67 μM, respectively. Investigating human tumor xenografts in an ex-vivo clonogenic assay revealed selective antitumor activity, whereas sensitive tumor models were scattered among various tumor histotypes.

  20. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of 2,5-bis(3′-Indolyl)pyrroles, Analogues of the Marine Alkaloid Nortopsentin

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Anna; Parrino, Barbara; Barraja, Paola; Spanò, Virginia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Diana, Patrizia; Maier, Armin; Kelter, Gerhard; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert

    2013-01-01

    2,5-bis(3′-Indolyl)pyrroles, analogues of the marine alkaloid nortopsentin, were conveniently prepared through a three step procedure in good overall yields. Derivatives 1a and 1b exhibited concentration-dependent antitumor activity towards a panel of 42 human tumor cell lines with mean IC50 values of 1.54 μM and 0.67 μM, respectively. Investigating human tumor xenografts in an ex-vivo clonogenic assay revealed selective antitumor activity, whereas sensitive tumor models were scattered among various tumor histotypes. PMID:23455514

  1. Addressable and unidirectional energy transfer along a DNA three-way junction programmed by pyrrole-imidazole polyamides

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wu; Bagshaw, Clive R.; Burley, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a photonic waveguide where FRET is routed uni-directionally along a double-stranded DNA track. The efficiency of FRET is modulated by the supramolecular control of fluorophores along double-stranded DNA using fluorophore-tethered Pyrrole-Imidazole polyamides (PAs). We show that uni-directional FRET is enhanced by the complete assembly of each of the constituent parts, resulting in the selective routing of light along simple DNA duplexes as well as a three-way junction (3WJ). PMID:23703234

  2. Preparation and sensing properties of a nitrogen-rich ferrocene-imidazole-quinoxaline triad decorated with pyrrole rings.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, María; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro

    2016-12-06

    The synthesis and sensing properties of the nitrogen-rich ferrocene-imidazole-quinoxaline triad 1 decorated with two pyrrole rings have been described. Due to its ditopic nature, this molecule behaves as an ion-pair receptor for Ni(2+)cations and AcO(-) anions, although no affinity for either of the discrete ions is observed. It also displays the rare property consistent with the cooperative AND recognition of ion pairs. Thus, this receptor shows an important enhancement for binding AcO(-) anions when it is co-bound to Hg(2+)cations, whereas no affinity for the free receptor by the anion is observed.

  3. One Step Continuous Flow Synthesis of Highly Substituted Pyrrole-3-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives via in situ Hydrolysis of tert-Butyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Ananda; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.

    2010-01-01

    The first one-step, continuous flow synthesis of pyrrole-3-carboxylic acids directly from tert-butyl acetoacetates, amines and 2-bromoketones is reported. The HBr generated as a by-product in the Hantzsch reaction was utilized in the flow method to saponify the t-butyl esters in situ to provide the corresponding acids in a single microreactor. The protocol was used in the multistep synthesis of pyrrole-3-carboxamides, including two CB1 inverse agonists, directly from commercially available starting materials in a single continuous process. PMID:20964284

  4. Electropolymerization of a calix[4]arene modified by N-substituted pyrrole moieties. New sensitive layer for ionic electrochemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffenoir, A.; Bidan, G.

    1998-06-01

    A calix[4]arene modified by grafting N-substituted pyrrole moieties at the upper rim was synthetised. Electropolymerisation of this new calix[4]arene in a Bu4NClO4 (10-1 M) - CH3CN solution is described. The obtained film presents a rather stable electroactivity to electrochemical cycling but its growing is limited to a few monolayers. It's the first example of homopolymerisation of a calix[4]arene modified by electropolymerisable monomers. Un calix[4]arène modifié sur sa couronne supérieure par des pyrroles N-substitués a été synthétisé. Son électropolymérisation en milieu Bu4NClO4 (10-1 M) - CH3CN par balayage de potentiels est décrite. Le film obtenu présente une électroactivité assez stable au cyclage électrochimique mais sa croissance est limitée à quelques monocouches. C'est le premier exemple d'homopolymérisation d'un calix[4]arène modifié par des monomères électropolymérisables.

  5. [Electrochemically reductive dechlorination of chloroform by palladium/polymeric pyrrole film/foam-nickel composite electrode in acidic system].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-Rong; Ge, Hui; Hu, Xiang; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2009-02-15

    Palladium/polymeric pyrrole film/foam-nickel (Pd/PPy/foam-Ni) composite electrode were prepared by the electrodeposition method with the electrodepositing current density of 5 mA x cm(-2) and the electrodepositing time of 40 min. Electrochemical reductive dechlorination of chloroform in acidic system was investigated using the Pd/PPy/foam-Ni electrode at ambient temperature. The electrochemical deposition behaviors of Pd/PPy/foam-Ni electrode were studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV). Cyclic voltammetry results reveal that the large hydrogen adsorption peak current of -100 mA on Pd/PPy/foam-Ni electrode was obtained at about -500 mV (vs Hg/Hg2 SO4). SEM micrographs show that the addition of polymeric pyrrole changed the distributing configuration of Pd microparticles on the electrode and Pd/PPy/foam-Ni electrode possessed a good spatial extension. Chloroform dechlorination experimentes were conducted in acid system. Dechlorination experimental results indicate that, with the integrated analysis of removal efficiency and current efficiency, with the high current efficiency of 44.17%, the removal efficiency of chloroform on Pd/PPy/foam-Ni electrode was 49.23%, under the optimum conditions of the dechlorination current density of 0.05 mA x cm(-2) and the dechlorination time of 180 min. In acid aqueous solution, with low initial concentration of chloroform, the results of dechlorination experiment were preferable.

  6. Pyrronazols, metabolites from the myxobacteria Nannocystis pusilla and N. exedens, are unusual chlorinated pyrone-oxazole-pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rolf; Sood, Sakshi; Huch, Volker; Kunze, Brigitte; Stadler, Marc; Müller, Rolf

    2014-02-28

    The chlorinated pyrrole-oxazole-pyrones pyrronazol A (1), pyrronazol A2 (2), and pyrronazol B (3) were isolated from Nannocystis pusilla strain Ari7, and two chlorinated pyrrole-oxazole isomers, pyrronazols C1 (4) and C2 (5), were isolated from N. pusilla strain Na a174. HRESIMS, NMR, and X-ray crystallographic analysis was used in the structure elucidation including the absolute configuration of pyrronazol A (1). In addition to pyrronazols, 1,6-phenazine-diol (6) and its glycosyl derivative, 1-hydroxyphenazin-6-yl-α-d-arabinofuranoside (7), were isolated and identified from the culture broth of N. pusilla strain Ari7. When tested for biological activity against bacteria, fungi, and yeasts, 1 showed weak antifungal activity against Mucor hiemalis (MIC 33.3 μg/mL) but no antibacterial activity, while 6 showed weak antibacterial and antifungal activity (MIC 33.3 μg/mL) against some of the strains tested. In cell culture experiments 1 showed no significant cytotoxicity, while 6 was active against several cell lines, especially the human ovarian carcinoma cells SK-OV-3 (LD50 2.59 μM).

  7. An experimental study of low-pressure premixed pyrrole/oxygen/argon flames with tunable synchrotron photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Zhenyu; Li, Yuyang; Zhang, Taichang; Qi, Fei; Zhu, Aiguo; Cui, Zhifeng

    2007-10-15

    Two premixed laminar pyrrole/oxygen/argon flames at 3.33 kPa (25 Torr) with equivalence ratios of 0.55 (C/O/N = 1:5.19:0.25) and 1.84 (C/O/N = 1:1.56:0.25) have been investigated using tunable synchrotron photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry techniques. All observed flame species, including some nitrogen-containing intermediates, have been identified by measurements of photoionization efficiency spectra. Mole fraction profiles of species including reactants, intermediates, and products have been determined by scanning burner position at some selected photon energies near ionization thresholds, and flame temperature has been measured by a Pt/Pt-13% Rh thermocouple. The results indicate that N{sub 2}, NO, and NO{sub 2} are the major nitrogenous products, while hydrogen cyanide, isocyanic acid, and 2-propenenitrile are the most important nitrogen-containing intermediates in pyrrole flames. Radicals such as methyl, propargyl, allyl, cyanomethyl, n-propyl, isobutyl, cyclopentadienyl, phenyl, cyclohexyl, phenoxy, and 4-methylbenzyl are observed as well. Moreover, ethenol and methylacrylonitrile are also detected. Reaction pathways involving the major species are proposed. The new results will be useful in developing a kinetic model of nitrogenous compound combustion. (author)

  8. Photodissociation of pyrrole-ammonia clusters by velocity map imaging: mechanism for the H-atom transfer reaction.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Lago, L; Amaral, G A; Oldani, A N; Rodríguez, J D; González, M G; Pino, G A; Bañares, L

    2011-01-21

    The photodissociation dynamics of pyrrole-ammonia clusters (PyH·(NH(3))(n), n = 2-6) has been studied using a combination of velocity map imaging and non-resonant detection of the NH(4)(NH(3))(n-1) products. The excited state hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism (ESHT) is evidenced through delayed ionization and presents a threshold around 236.6 nm, in agreement with previous reports. A high resolution determination of the kinetic energy distributions (KEDs) of the products reveals slow (∼0.15 eV) and structured distributions for all the ammonia cluster masses studied. The low values of the measured kinetic energy rule out the existence of a long-lived intermediate state, as it has been proposed previously. Instead, a direct N-H bond rupture, in the fashion of the photodissociation of bare pyrrole, is proposed. This assumption is supported by a careful analysis of the structure of the measured KEDs in terms of a discrete vibrational activity of the pyrrolyl co-fragment.

  9. Single side strapping: a new approach to fine tuning the anion recognition properties of calix[4]pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hee; Na, Hee-Kyung; Yoon, Dae-Wi; Won, Dong-Hoon; Cho, Won-Seob; Lynch, Vincent M; Shevchuk, Sergey V; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2003-06-18

    Three calix[4]pyrroles bearing m-orcinol-derived diether straps of different lengths on one side of the tetrapyrrolic core have been synthesized and characterized. Structural information for an analogous diester bridged strapped system reported previously (Yoon, D. W.; Hwang, H.; Lee, C. H. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 2002, 41, 1757-1759) is also provided as are bromide and chloride anion affinities for all four systems determined by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) in acetonitrile. Although both sets of the strapped calix[4]pyrroles displayed enhanced affinities for chloride and bromide anion, differences were seen among the various receptors that support the conclusion that the anion binding ability of calixpyrrole-type systems can be effectively tuned by modifying the length and nature of the bridging straps. In the specific case of the diether systems, the largest chloride affinity was seen with the shortest strap, whereas the largest affinity for bromide anion was recorded in the case of the longest strap. On the basis of these findings, as well as supporting (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies, it is postulated that not only cavity size per se, but also the ability of the aryl portion of the strap to serve as a CH hydrogen bond donor site are important in regulating the observed anion affinities.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of pyrrole-imidazole polyamides after intravenous administration in rat.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Akiko; Aoyama, Takahiko; Nagashima, Takashi; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2009-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of pyrrole (Py)-imidazole (Im) polyamides was studied in rats after the intravenous administration of these compounds. Py-Im polyamide (A) was composed of Ac-ImPyPy-ImPyPy-beta-Dp (beta: beta-alanine, Dp: N,N-dimethylaminopropylamide). Py-Im polyamide (B) was composed of Ac-PyIm-beta-ImIm-PyPy-beta-PyPy-beta-Dp. Py-Im polyamide (C) was composed of Ac-PyPy-beta-PyImPy-PyPyPy-beta-ImPy-beta-Dp. The molecular weight of Py-Im polyamide (A) was 1035.12, that of Py-Im polyamide (B) was 1422.51 and that of Py-Im polyamide (C) was 1665.78. After the intravenous injection of Py-Im polyamide (A) at 1.3, 2.0, 7.5 and 15.0 mg/kg, Py-Im polyamides (B) and (C) at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/kg, the average systemic clearance and the volume of distribution at the steady state obtained by a non-compartmental method were in the ranges of 4.6-6.4 ml/min/kg and 244-412 ml/kg, 8.9-10.3 ml/min/kg and 1990-4567 ml/kg, and 7.3-11.9 ml/min/kg and 407-667 ml/kg, respectively. Dose linearity of Py-Im polyamides was observed. The plasma concentration-time profiles after the intravenous administration of Py-Im polyamides (A) and (B) were fitted well by a two-compartment model. Py-Im polyamide (C) was observed at high concentrations in the lungs. The plasma concentration-time profiles after the intravenous administration of Py-Im polyamide (C) were described using a catenary two-compartment model. This model is useful for describing the time course after the administration of high-molecular-weight Py-Im polyamides. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Flow synthesis using gaseous ammonia in a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube reactor: Paal-Knorr pyrrole formation and gas concentration measurement by inline flow titration.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Philippa B; O'Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L; Koos, Peter; Polyzos, Anastasios; Peña-López, Miguel; Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-14

    Using a simple and accessible Teflon AF-2400 based tube-in-tube reactor, a series of pyrroles were synthesised in flow using the Paal-Knorr reaction of 1,4-diketones with gaseous ammonia. An inline flow titration technique allowed measurement of the ammonia concentration and its relationship to residence time and temperature.

  12. Synthesis, multiple interactions and spectroscopy analysis of ethyl-4-[(benzoyl)-hydrazonomethyl]-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate: Through experimental and quantum chemical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, R. K.; Rawat, Poonam

    2013-03-01

    The carboxaldehydes of pyrrole form important class of precursors for synthesis of acid hydrazide-hydrazones and their derivatives which show the various applications. A novel hydrazide-hydrazone of pyrrole: Ethyl-4-[(benzoyl)-hydrazonomethyl]-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (3) has been synthesized by condensation of ethyl-4-formyl-3,5-dimetyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and benzohydrazide. The product was characterized by spectroscopy methods (FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis and DART Mass) and quantum chemical calculations. The calculated thermodynamic parameters show that the formation of (3) is exothermic and spontaneous at room temperature. The local electronic descriptors analysis and molecular electrostatic potential surface were used to predict the sites and nature of interactions which indicate the dimer formation through multiple interaction through Nsbnd H⋯O and C-H⋯O. The vibrational analysis shows red shifts in vNsbnd H and vCdbnd O as result of dimer formation. Topological and energetic parameters generated by AIM show the nature of interactions in dimer. The interaction energies of dimer formation using DFT and AIM calculations are found to be 14.19 and 15.19 kcal/mol respectively. Ellipticity analysis confirms the presence of resonance assisted heteronuclear H-bonding in dimer.

  13. Concise synthesis of didebromohamacanthin A and demethylaplysinopsine: addition of ethylenediamine and guanidine derivatives to the pyrrole-amino acid diketopiperazines in oxidative conditions.

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, Ludmila; Zhaoyu, Hu; Lejeune, Clarisse; Vergne, Carine; Ratinaud, Céline; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Al-Mourabit, Ali

    2014-02-07

    Oxidative nucleophilic addition of ethylenediamine and guanidine derivatives to pyrrole-amino acid diketopiperazines was shown to provide substituted 5,6-dihydro-2(1H)-piperazinones, quinoxalinones, and 2-aminoimidazolones. On the basis of this methodology, a concise approach to natural products didebromohamacanthin A and demethylaplysinopsine has been demonstrated.

  14. Structures and photophysical properties of 3,4-diaryl-1H-pyrrol-2,5-diimines and 2,3-diarylmaleimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasenko, Anastasiia M.; Boyarskaya, Dina V.; Boyarskaya, Irina A.; Chulkova, Tatiana G.; Grigoriev, Yakov M.; Kolesnikov, Ilya E.; Avdontceva, Margarita S.; Panikorovskii, Taras L.; Panin, Andrej I.; Vereshchagin, Anatoly N.; Elinson, Michail N.

    2017-10-01

    Structural features of 3,4-diaryl-1H-pyrrol-2,5-diimines and their derivatives have been studied by molecular spectroscopy techniques, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and DFT calculations. According to the theoretical calculations, the diimino tautomeric form of 3,4-diaryl-1H-pyrrol-2,5-diimines is more stable in solution than the imino-enamino form. We also found that the structurally related 2,3-diarylmaleimides exist in the solid state in the dimeric diketo form. 3,4-Diaryl-1H-pyrrol-2,5-diimines and 2,3-diarylmaleimides exhibit fluorescence in the blue region of the visible spectrum. The fluorescence spectra have large Stokes shifts. Aryl substituents at the 3,4-positions of 1H-pyrrol-2,5-diimine do not significantly affect fluorescence properties. The insertion of donor substituents into 2,3-diarylmaleimides leads to bathochromic shift of emission bands with hyperchromic effect.

  15. Supramolecular organization of calix[4]pyrrole with a methyl-trialkylammonium anion exchanger leads to remarkable reversal of selectivity for sulfate extraction vs. nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, Christopher J.; Custelcean, Radu; Hay, Ben P.; Bill, Nathan L.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2011-06-13

    Here, meso-Octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (C4P) enhances sulfate selectivity in solvent extraction by Aliquat 336N, an effect ascribed to the supramolecular preorganization and thermodynamic stability imparted by insertion of the methyl group of the Aliquat cation into the cup of C4P in its cone conformation.

  16. Influence of chlorine or fluorine substitution on the estrogenic properties of 1-alkyl-2,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Anja; Wellner, Anja; Strauss, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Wolber, Gerhard; Gust, Ronald

    2012-11-26

    In continuation of our previous work, several 1-alkyl-2,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)aryl-1H-pyrroles with chlorine or fluorine substituents in the aryl residues were synthesized and tested for estrogen receptor (ER) binding at isolated ERα/ERβ receptors (HAP assay) and in transactivation assays using ERα-positive MCF-7/2a as well as U2-OS/ERα and U2-OS/ERβ cells. In the competition experiment at ERα the compounds displayed very high relative binding affinities of up to 37% (determined for 8m) but with restricted subtype selectivity (e.g., ERα/ERβ (8m) = 9). The highest estrogenic potency in ERα-positive MCF-7/2a cells was determined for 2,3,5-tris(2-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propyl-1H-pyrrole 8m (EC(50) = 23 nM), while in U2-OS/ERα cells 2-(2-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propyl-1H-pyrrole 8b (EC(50) = 0.12 nM) was the most potent agonist, only 30-fold less active than estradiol (E2, EC(50) = 0.004 nM). In U2-OS/ERβ cells for all pyrroles no transactivation could be observed, which indicates that they are selective ERα agonists in cellular systems.

  17. Mild and General Synthesis of Pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines and Related Polyheterocyclic Frameworks from Pyrrole Precursors Derived from a Mechanochemical Multicomponent Reaction.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Marco; Villacampa, Mercedes; Menéndez, J Carlos

    2017-03-03

    The combination of a three-component, solvent-free pyrrole synthesis performed under mechanochemical conditions with a TMSOTf-catalyzed oxonium-mediated cyclization gave general access to pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline derivatives under very mild conditions. The structural diversity generated by this method was extended by the preparation of six additional unusual polyheterocyclic frameworks.

  18. Double bonds in motion: bis(oxazolinylmethyl)pyrroles and their metal-induced planarization to a new class of rigid chiral C2-symmetric complexes.

    PubMed

    Mazet, Clément; Gade, Lutz H

    2003-04-14

    The synthesis of a new class of chiral C(2)-symmetric tridentate N-donor ligands, a series of 2,5-bis(2-oxazolinylmethyl)pyrroles, was achieved in four steps starting from the known 2,5-bis(trimethylammoniomethyl)pyrrole diiodide (1). Reaction of 1 with NaCN in dimethyl sulfoxide gave 2,5-bis(cyanomethyl)pyrrole (2) cleanly, which was then cyclized with amino alcohols to give the 2,5-bis(2-oxazolinylmethyl)pyrroles 3 a-c (3 a: bis[2-(4,4'-dimethyl-5-hydrooxazolyl)methyl]pyrrole; 3 b: (S,S)-bis[2-(4-isopropyl-4,5-dihydrooxazolyl)methyl]pyrrole; 3 c: (S,S)-bis[2-(4-tertiobutyl-4,5-dihydrooxazolyl)methyl]pyrrole). Metallation of 3 a-c with one molar equivalent of tBuLi and their subsequent reaction with a stoichiometric amount of [PdCl(2)(cod)] (cod=cyclooctadiene) gave the palladium(II) complexes 4 a-c. Whereas the arrangement of the N-donor atoms in the crystallographically characterized complex 4 a is almost ideally square planar, all three heterocycles in the ligand are twisted out of the coordination plane, leading to a chiral conformation of the complex. Attempts to freeze out these two conformers in solution at 200 K (NMR) failed, and this suggests that the activation barrier for conformational racemization is significantly below 10 kcal mol(-1). The palladium-induced shift of two double bonds as well as the porphyrinogen/porphyrin-type oxidation of the complexes 4 a-c led to the planarization of the 2,5-bis(oxazolinylmethyl)pyrrolide ligands in the palladium(II) complexes 5 a-c, 6 b, and 6 c, and to the formation of rigid chiral C(2)-symmetric systems as shown by X-ray diffraction studies. The formation of the conjugated system of double bonds in this transformation is accompanied by the emergence of an intra-ligand chromophore. This is evident in the absorption spectrum of 6 c which displays an intense band with a maximum at 485 nm attributable to an intra-ligand pi*<--pi transition and a characteristic vibrational progression of nu approximately 1350 cm(-1

  19. Non-radiative relaxation dynamics of pyrrole following excitation in the range 249.5-200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Oliver M.; Parkes, Michael A.; Neville, Simon P.; Worth, Graham A.; Fielding, Helen H.

    2017-09-01

    The non-radiative relaxation dynamics of pyrrole have been investigated using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum dynamics simulations. Following excitation of the A2 (11 πσ∗) state, we observe population flow out of the Franck-Condon region on a ≲ 50 fs timescale. Following excitation of the B2 (21 ππ∗) state, we observe population being transferred to the A2 (11 πσ∗) state on a <50 fs timescale and subsequently out of the Franck-Condon region, also on a <50 fs timescale. Quantum dynamics calculations suggest that population is transferred from the B2 (21 ππ∗) state through the A2 (1 π 3pz) state to the B1 (21 πσ∗) state before being transferred to the A2 (11 πσ∗) state.

  20. Accurate computations of the structures and binding energies of the imidazole⋯benzene and pyrrole⋯benzene complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, Sandra; Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D.; Trachsel, Maria A.; Leutwyler, Samuel; Klopper, Wim

    2014-09-01

    Using explicitly-correlated coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations, the intermolecular distances and interaction energies of the T-shaped imidazole⋯benzene and pyrrole⋯benzene complexes have been computed in a large augmented correlation-consistent quadruple-zeta basis set, adding also corrections for connected triple excitations and remaining basis-set-superposition errors. The results of these computations are used to assess other methods such as Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), spin-component-scaled MP2 theory, dispersion-weighted MP2 theory, interference-corrected explicitly-correlated MP2 theory, dispersion-corrected double-hybrid density-functional theory (DFT), DFT-based symmetry-adapted perturbation theory, the random-phase approximation, explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles theory, and double-hybrid DFT with a correlation energy computed in the random-phase approximation.

  1. A guided inquiry experiment for the measurement of activation energies in the biophysical chemistry laboratory: Decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Kelly M; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Mettee, Howard D; Smiley, Jeffrey A

    2005-03-01

    A laboratory experiment for undergraduate biophysical chemistry is described, in which the acid concentration and temperature dependences of the decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate are measured using a continuous ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric assay. Data collection and analysis are structured using principles of guided inquiry. Data leading to the calculation of multiple rate constants at varying temperatures and acid concentrations can be collected within one laboratory period, using inexpensive reagents and standard instrumentation. These experiments permit determination of activation energies that are lower at high acid concentration, indicative of a subtle change in the reaction mechanism with decreasing pH. The reaction is readily observable by students as they collect UV spectrophotometry data, and the decarboxylation reaction is related to biologically relevant enzymatic reactions.

  2. Large area in situ fabrication of poly(pyrrole)-nanowires on flexible thermoplastic films using nanocontact printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Cruz, Alvaro; Lee, Michael; Marote, Pedro; Zine, Nadia; Sigaud, Monique; Bonhomme, Anne; Pruna, Raquel; Lopez, Manuel; Bausells, Joan; Jaffrezic, Nicole; Errachid, Abdelhamid

    2016-08-01

    Highly efficient nano-engineering tools will certainly revolutionize the biomedical and sensing devices research and development in the years to come. Here, we present a novel high performance conducting poly(pyrrole) nanowires (PPy-NW) patterning technology on thermoplastic surfaces (poly(ethylene terephthalate (PETE), poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate (PEN), polyimide (PI), and cyclic olefin copolymer) using nanocontact printing and controlled chemical polymerization (nCP-CCP) technique. The technique uses a commercial compact disk as a template to produce nanopatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps. The PDMS nanopatterned stamp was applied to print the PPy-NWs and the developed technology of nCP-CCP produced 3D conducting nanostructures. This new and very promising nanopatterning technology was achieved in a single step and with a low cost of fabrication over large areas.

  3. Design, Synthesis, and Fungicidal Evaluation of Novel Pyrazole-furan and Pyrazole-pyrrole Carboxamide as Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Dou-Xin; Li, Zhong-Shan; Cheng, Jing-Li; Fang, Shao-Wei; Du, Yong-Jun; Zhao, Jin-Hao; Dong, Xiao-Wu; Zhu, Guo-Nian

    2017-07-05

    The identification of novel succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) inhibitors represents one of the most attractive directions in the field of fungicide research and development. During our continuous efforts to pursue inhibitors belonging to this class, some structurally novel pyrazole-furan carboxamide and pyrazole-pyrrole carboxamide derivatives have been discovered via the introduction of scaffold hopping and bioisosterism to compound 1, a remarkably potent lead obtained by pharmacophore-based virtual screening. As a result of the evaluation against three destructive fungi, including Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pyricularia grisea, a majority of them displayed potent fungicidal activities. In particular, compounds 12I-i, 12III-f, and 12III-o exhibited excellent fungicidal activity against S. sclerotiorum and R. solani comparable to that of commercial SDHI thifluzamide and 1.

  4. Hemispherand-Strapped Calix[4]pyrrole: An Ion-pair Receptor for the Recognition and Extraction of Lithium Nitrite.

    PubMed

    He, Qing; Zhang, Zhan; Brewster, James T; Lynch, Vincent M; Kim, Sung Kuk; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-08-10

    The hemispherand-strapped calix[4]pyrrole (1) acts as an ion pair receptor that exhibits selectivity for lithium salts. In organic media (CD2Cl2 and CD3OD, v/v, 9:1), receptor 1 binds LiCl with high preference relative to NaCl, KCl, and RbCl. DFT calculations provided support for the observed selectivity. Single crystal structures of five different lithium ion-pair complexes of 1 were obtained. In the case of LiCl, a single bridging water molecule between the lithium cation and chloride anion was observed, while tight contact ion pairs were observed in the case of the LiBr, LiI, LiNO3, and LiNO2 salts. Receptor 1 proved effective as an extractant for LiNO2 under both model solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extraction conditions.

  5. Pyrrole-Based Antitubulin Agents: Two Distinct Binding Modalities Are Predicted for C-2 Analogues in the Colchicine Site

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    3,5-Dibromo-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester is a promising antitubulin lead agent that targets the colchicine site of tubulin. C-2 analogues were synthesized and tested for microtubule depolymerizing and antiproliferative activity. Molecular modeling studies using both GOLD docking and HINT (Hydropathic INTeraction) scoring revealed two distinct binding modes that explain the structure–activity relationships and are in accord with the structural basis of colchicine binding to tubulin. The binding mode of higher activity compounds is buried deeper in the site and overlaps well with rings A and C of colchicine, while the lower activity binding mode shows fewer critical contacts with tubulin. The model distinguishes highly active compounds from those with weaker activities and provides novel insights into the colchicine site and compound design. PMID:22611477

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo for the x-ray absorption spectrum of pyrrole at the nitrogen K-edge

    SciTech Connect

    Zubarev, Dmitry Yu.; Austin, Brian M.; Lester, William A. Jr.

    2012-04-14

    Fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo (FNDMC) is used to simulate the x-ray absorption spectrum of a gas-phase pyrrole molecule at the nitrogen K-edge. Trial wave functions for core-excited states are constructed from ground-state Kohn-Sham determinants substituted with singly occupied natural orbitals from configuration interaction with single excitations calculations of the five lowest valence-excited triplet states. The FNDMC ionization potential (IP) is found to lie within 0.3 eV of the experimental value of 406.1 {+-} 0.1 eV. The transition energies to anti-bonding virtual orbitals match the experimental spectrum after alignment of IP values and agree with the existing assignments.

  7. Inhibition of KRAS codon 12 mutants using a novel DNA-alkylating pyrrole-imidazole polyamide conjugate.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kiriko; Inoue, Takahiro; Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Ken-ichi; Takatori, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Hirokazu; Maru, Yoshiaki; Denda, Tadamichi; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Balmain, Allan; Ozaki, Toshinori; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki

    2015-04-27

    Despite extensive efforts to target mutated RAS proteins, anticancer agents capable of selectively killing tumour cells harbouring KRAS mutations have remained unavailable. Here we demonstrate the direct targeting of KRAS mutant DNA using a synthetic alkylating agent (pyrrole-imidazole polyamide indole-seco-CBI conjugate; KR12) that selectively recognizes oncogenic codon 12 KRAS mutations. KR12 alkylates adenine N3 at the target sequence, causing strand cleavage and growth suppression in human colon cancer cells with G12D or G12V mutations, thus inducing senescence and apoptosis. In xenograft models, KR12 infusions induce significant tumour growth suppression, with low host toxicity in KRAS-mutated but not wild-type tumours. This newly developed approach may be applicable to the targeting of other mutant driver oncogenes in human tumours.

  8. Acylguanidine inhibitors of beta-secretase: optimization of the pyrrole ring substituents extending into the S1' substrate binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lee D; Cole, Derek C; Stock, Joseph R; Sukhdeo, Mohani N; Ellingboe, John W; Cowling, Rebecca; Jin, Guixian; Manas, Eric S; Fan, Kristi Y; Malamas, Michael S; Harrison, Boyd L; Jacobsen, Steve; Chopra, Rajiv; Lohse, Peter A; Moore, William J; O'Donnell, Mary-Margaret; Hu, Yun; Robichaud, Albert J; Turner, M James; Wagner, Erik; Bard, Jonathan

    2008-01-15

    The proteolytic enzyme beta-secretase (BACE-1) produces amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide, the primary constituent of neurofibrillary plaques, implicated in Alzheimer's disease, by cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. A small molecule inhibitor of BACE-1, (diaminomethylene)-2,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrole-1-acetamide (1, BACE-1 IC(50)=3.7 microM), was recently described, representing a new small molecule lead. Initial SAR investigation demonstrated the potential of accessing the nearby S(3) and S(1)(') substrate binding pockets of the BACE-1 enzyme by building substituents off one of the phenyl substituents and guanidinyl functional group. We report here the optimization of guanidinyl functional group substituents on 1, leading to potent submicromolar BACE-1 inhibitors.

  9. Porphodilactones as synthetic chlorophylls: relative orientation of β-substituents on a pyrrolic ring tunes NIR absorption.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xian-Sheng; Chang, Yi; Chen, Jia-Zhen; Tian, Jiangwei; Mack, John; Cheng, Xin; Shen, Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Long

    2014-07-09

    Porphodilactones represent the porphyrin analogues, in which the peripheral bonds of two pyrrole rings are replaced by lactone moieties. They provide an opportunity to investigate how β-substituent orientation of porphyrinoids modulates the electronic structures and optical properties, in a manner similar to what is observed with naturally occurring chlorophylls. In this work, a comprehensive description of the synthesis, characterization, and optical properties of meso-tetrakispentafluorophenylporphodilactone isomers is first reported. The β-dilactone moieties are found to lie at opposite pyrrole positions (trans- and cis-configurations are defined by the relative orientations of the carbonyl group when one lactone moiety is fixed), in accordance with earlier computational predictions (Gouterman, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 3702). The relative orientation of the β-dilactone moieties has a significant influence on the electronic structures and photophysical properties. For example, the Qy band of trans-porphodilactone is red-shifted by 19 nm relative to that of the cis-isomer, and there is a 2-fold increase in the absorption intensity, which resembles the similar trends that have been reported for natural chlorophyll f and d. An in depth analysis of magnetic circular dichroism spectral data and TD-DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory demonstrates that the trans- and cis-orientations of the dilactone moieties have a significant effect on the relative energies of the frontier π-molecular orbitals. Importantly, the biological behaviors of the isomers reveal their different photocytotoxicity in NIR region (>650 nm). The influence of the relative orientation of the β-substituents on the optical properties in this context provides new insights into the electronic structures of porphyrinoids which could prove useful during the development of near-infrared absorbing photosensitizers.

  10. Biological Characterization of an Improved Pyrrole-Based Colchicine Site Agent Identified through Structure-Based Design

    PubMed Central

    Rohena, Cristina C.; Telang, Nakul S.; Da, Chenxiao; Risinger, April L.; Sikorski, James A.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Gupton, John T.

    2016-01-01

    A refined model of the colchicine site on tubulin was used to design an improved analog of the pyrrole parent compound, JG-03-14. The optimized compound, NT-7-16, was evaluated in biological assays that confirm that it has potent activities as a new colchicine site microtubule depolymerizer. NT-7-16 exhibits antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities against multiple cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 10–16 nM, and it is able to overcome drug resistance mediated by the expression of P-glycoprotein and the βIII isotype of tubulin. NT-7-16 initiated the concentration-dependent loss of cellular microtubules and caused the formation of abnormal mitotic spindles, leading to mitotic accumulation. The direct interaction of NT-7-16 with purified tubulin was confirmed, and it was more potent than combretastatin A-4 in these assays. Binding studies verified that NT-7-16 binds to tubulin within the colchicine site. The antitumor effects of NT-7-16 were evaluated in an MDA-MB-435 xenograft model and it had excellent activity at concentrations that were not toxic. A second compound, NT-9-21, which contains dichloro moieties in place of the 3,5-dibromo substituents of NT-7-16, had a poorer fit within the colchicine site as predicted by modeling and the Hydropathic INTeractions score. Biological evaluations showed that NT-9-21 has 10-fold lower potency than NT-7-16, confirming the modeling predictions. These studies highlight the value of the refined colchicine-site model and identify a new pyrrole-based colchicine-site agent with potent in vitro activities and promising in vivo antitumor actions. PMID:26655304

  11. Excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of pyrrole: A time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Guorong; Neville, Simon P.; Worth, Graham A.; Schalk, Oliver; Sekikawa, Taro; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Stolow, Albert

    2015-02-21

    The dynamics of pyrrole excited at wavelengths in the range 242-217 nm are studied using a combination of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and wavepacket propagations performed using the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method. Excitation close to the origin of pyrrole’s electronic spectrum, at 242 and 236 nm, is found to result in an ultrafast decay of the system from the ionization window on a single timescale of less than 20 fs. This behaviour is explained fully by assuming the system to be excited to the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state, in accord with previous experimental and theoretical studies. Excitation at shorter wavelengths has previously been assumed to result predominantly in population of the bright A{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) and B{sub 2}(ππ{sup ∗}) states. We here present time-resolved photoelectron spectra at a pump wavelength of 217 nm alongside detailed quantum dynamics calculations that, together with a recent reinterpretation of pyrrole’s electronic spectrum [S. P. Neville and G. A. Worth, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 034317 (2014)], suggest that population of the B{sub 1}(πσ{sup ∗}) state (hitherto assumed to be optically dark) may occur directly when pyrrole is excited at energies in the near UV part of its electronic spectrum. The B{sub 1}(πσ{sup ∗}) state is found to decay on a timescale of less than 20 fs by both N-H dissociation and internal conversion to the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state.

  12. Crystal structure of 3-ferrocenyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrrole, [Fe(η5-C5H4 cC4H3 NPh)(η5-C5H5)

    PubMed Central

    Pfaff, Ulrike; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The mol­ecular structure of the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C15H12N)], consists of a ferrocene moiety with an N-phenyl­pyrrole heterocycle bound to one cyclo­penta­dienyl ring. The 1,3-disubstitution of the pyrrole results in an L-shaped arrangement of the mol­ecule with plane inter­sections of 2.78 (17)° between the pyrrole and the N-bonded phenyl ring and of 8.17 (18)° between the pyrrole and the cyclo­penta­dienyl ring. In the crystal, no remarkable inter­molecular inter­actions are observed PMID:26870594

  13. Silica sulfuric acid: a reusable solid catalyst for one pot synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins under solvent-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Sudipta; Debnath, Kamalesh; Pramanik, Animesh

    2013-01-01

    A convenient and efficient methodology for the synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins, which employs solid-supported silica sulfuric acid (SSA) as catalyst, has been developed. When the mixture of ninhydrin adducts of acetylacetone/ethyl acetoacetate and primary amines was heated on the solid surface of SSA under solvent-free conditions, the pyrrole-fused isocoumarins were formed in good yields. This synthetic method has several advantages such as the employment of solvent-free reaction conditions without the use of any toxic reagents and metal catalysts, the ease of product isolation, the use of a recyclable catalyst, the low cost, the easy availability of the starting materials, and the excellent yields of products.

  14. Electrochemical dechlorination of chloroform in neutral aqueous solution on palladium/foam-nickel and palladium/polymeric pyrrole film/foam-nickel electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhirong; Li, Baohua; Hu, Xiang; Shi, Min; Hou, Qingnan; Peng, Yongzhen

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical dechlorination of chloroform in neutral aqueous solution was investigated using palladium-loaded electrodes at ambient temperature. Palladium/foam-nickel (Pd/foam-Ni) and palladium/polymeric pyrrole film/foam-nickel (Pd/PPy/foam-Ni) composite electrodes which provided catalytic surface for reductive dechlorination of chloroform in aqueous solution were prepared using an electrodepositing method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that polymeric pyrrole film modified the electrode-surface characteristics and resulted in the uniform dispersion of needle-shaped palladium particles on foam-Ni supporting electrode. The experimental results of dechlorination indicated that the removal efficiency of chloroform and current efficiency in neutral aqueous solution on Pd/PPy/foam-Ni electrode could be up to 36.8% and 33.0% at dechlorination current of 0.1 mA and dechlorination time of 180 min, which is much higher than that of Pd/foam-Ni electrode.

  15. Deproto-metallation of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles using a mixed lithium–zinc base and regioselectivity-computed CH acidity relationship

    PubMed Central

    Messaoud, Mohamed Yacine Ameur; Hedidi, Madani; Derdour, Aïcha; Chevallier, Floris; Ivashkevich, Oleg A; Matulis, Vadim E; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles is documented, as well as their functionalization by deprotonative metallation using the base in situ prepared from LiTMP and ZnCl2·TMEDA (1/3 equiv). With N-phenylpyrrole and -indole, the reactions were carried out in hexane containing TMEDA which regioselectively afforded the 2-iodo derivatives after subsequent iodolysis. With pyrroles and indoles bearing N-substituents such as 2-thienyl, 3-pyridyl, 4-methoxyphenyl and 4-bromophenyl, the reactions all took place on the substituent, at the position either adjacent to the heteroatom (S, N) or ortho to the heteroatom-containing substituent (OMe, Br). The CH acidities of the substrates were determined in THF solution using the DFT B3LYP method in order to rationalize the experimental results. PMID:26425204

  16. Synthesis of γ-azido-β-ureido ketones and their transformation into functionalized pyrrolines and pyrroles via Staudinger/aza-Wittig reaction.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, Anastasia A; Shutalev, Anatoly D

    2013-02-01

    A simple two-step procedure yielding γ-azido-β-ureido ketones or/and their cyclic isomers, 6-(1-azidoalkyl)-4-hydroxyhexahydropyrimidin-2-ones, has been developed. The synthesis includes three-component condensation of acetals of 2-azidoaldehydes with urea or methylurea and p-toluenesulfinic acid in aqueous formic acid followed by reaction of the obtained N-[(2-azido-1-tosyl)alkyl]ureas with sodium enolates of α-functionalized ketones. The azido ketones or their cyclic isomers are transformed into ureido-substituted Δ(1)- or/and Δ(2)-pyrrolines via Staudinger/aza-Wittig reaction promoted by PPh(3). The obtained pyrrolines are converted into 3-functionalized 1H-pyrroles via elimination of urea under acidic conditions. Convenient one-pot syntheses of 1H-pyrroles starting from N-[(2-azido-1-tosyl)alkyl]ureas or γ-azido-β-ureido ketones have been also developed.

  17. Silica sulfuric acid: a reusable solid catalyst for one pot synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins under solvent-free conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Sudipta; Debnath, Kamalesh

    2013-01-01

    Summary A convenient and efficient methodology for the synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins, which employs solid-supported silica sulfuric acid (SSA) as catalyst, has been developed. When the mixture of ninhydrin adducts of acetylacetone/ethyl acetoacetate and primary amines was heated on the solid surface of SSA under solvent-free conditions, the pyrrole-fused isocoumarins were formed in good yields. This synthetic method has several advantages such as the employment of solvent-free reaction conditions without the use of any toxic reagents and metal catalysts, the ease of product isolation, the use of a recyclable catalyst, the low cost, the easy availability of the starting materials, and the excellent yields of products. PMID:24367398

  18. Selective Synthesis of 5- or 6-Aryl Octahydrocyclopenta[b]pyrroles from a Common Precursor Through Control of Competing Pathways in a Pd-Catalyzed Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Joshua E.; Wolfe, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The Pd/phosphine-catalyzed reaction of 1 with aryl bromides leads to the selective synthesis of either 6-aryl octahydrocyclopenta[b]pyrroles (3), the corresponding 5-aryl isomers 5, diarylamine 2, or hexahydrocyclopenta[b]pyrrole 4 depending on the structure of the phosphine ligand. These transformations are effective with a variety of different aryl bromides, and provide 3-5 with excellent levels of diastereoselectivity (dr ≥ 20:1). The changes in product distribution are believed to derive from the influence of Pd-catalyst structure on the relative rates of reductive elimination, β-hydride elimination, alkene insertion, and alkene dissociation processes in a mechanistically complex reaction. The effect of phosphine ligand structure on product distribution is described in detail, along with analysis of a proposed mechanism for these transformations. PMID:15954769

  19. Host-guest chemistry of aromatic-amide-linked bis- and tris-calix[4]pyrroles with bis-carboxylates and citrate anion.

    PubMed

    Cafeo, Grazia; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Kohnke, Franz H; Papanikolaou, Georgia; Profumo, Aldo; Rosano, Camillo

    2014-02-03

    A small library of polytopic receptors has been synthesized from meso-p- and meso-m-aminophenylcalix[4]pyrroles and p- or m-phthaloyl or trimesic chloride. Selected bis-carboxylates and the citrate anion, which either exhibit altered distribution profiles in cancerous tissues in comparison with healthy tissues or are metabolites of carcinogenic substances (for example, trans,trans-muconic acid from benzene exposure in humans) were tested as ligands. Varied affinities and binding modes were observed as a function of the number of calix[4]pyrroles and the topology of amide units present in each of the polytopic receptors. The structures of the 1:1 complexes derived by molecular modeling are in excellent agreement with the results of (1)H NMR complexation studies.

  20. Facile synthesis of chiral spirooxindole-based isotetronic acids and 5-1H-pyrrol-2-ones through cascade reactions with bifunctional organocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wengang; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Boyu; Shen, Shuai; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Peng; Liu, Yan; Li, Can

    2014-07-07

    Unprecedented organocatalyzed asymmetric cascade reactions have been developed for the facile synthesis of chiral spirooxindole-based isotetronic acids and 5-1H-pyrrol-2-ones.The asymmetric 1,2-addition reactions of α-ketoesters to isatins and imines by using an acid-base bifunctional 6'-OH cinchona alkaloid catalyst, followed by cyclization and enolization of the resulting adducts, gave chiral spiroisotetronic acids and 5-1H-pyrrol-2-ones, respectively, in excellent optical purities (up to 98 % ee). FT-IR analysis supported the existence of hydrogen-bonding interaction between the 6'-OH group of the cinchona catalyst and an isatin carbonyl group, an interaction that might be crucial for catalyst activity and stereocontrol. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Reversal of enantioselective Friedel-Crafts C3-alkylation of pyrrole by slightly tuning the amide units of N,N'-dioxide ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Yang, Na; Liu, Xiaohua; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Xiying; Lin, Lili; Hu, Changwei; Feng, Xiaoming

    2015-05-18

    Chiral Ni(ii)-complexes of N,N'-dioxides show high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity in catalysing the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts C3-alkylation of 2,5-dimethyl pyrrole to β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoesters. A dramatic reversal of enantioselectivity is realized with ligands derived from the same type of chiral source of l-ramipril, by slightly tuning the amide units.

  2. 1-{2-Hy­droxy-6-[3-(pyrrol-1-yl)prop­oxy]phen­yl}ethanone

    PubMed Central

    Ourari, Ali; Aggoun, Djouhra; Bouacida, Sofiane

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H17NO3, the mean planes of the pyrrole and benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 81.92 (7)°. The mol­ecule contains an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯π inter­actions link the mol­ecules into chains along [010]. PMID:22589947

  3. N-[(Z)-(1-Methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl-idene]-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-amine.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Hanif, Muhammad; Tahir, M Nawaz

    2008-12-10

    In the title compound, C(8)H(9)N(5), a Schiff base derived from N-methyl-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, the C=N double bond linking the two aromatic rings has a Z conformation. The two rings are twisted by 24.20 (5)°. A chain motif results from N-H⋯N hydrogen bonding.

  4. Trimethoxybenzene- and trimethylbenzene-based compounds bearing imidazole, indole and pyrrole groups as recognition units: synthesis and evaluation of the binding properties towards carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Rosien, Jan-Ruven; Seichter, Wilhelm; Mazik, Monika

    2013-10-14

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of trimethoxybenzene- and trimethylbenzene-based compounds bearing imidazole or indole groups as recognition sites in the complexation of carbohydrates. Representatives of these compounds were prepared and their binding properties toward selected carbohydrates evaluated. The results of the binding studies were compared with those obtained for the prepared pyrrole bearing analogues and for the previously described triethylbenzene-based receptors.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and computational study on ethyl 4-(3-Furan-2yl-acryloyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta

    2014-11-01

    As part of study on pyrrole derivatives, we have synthesized a pyrrole chalcone derivative: ethyl 4-(3-Furan-2yl-acryloyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EFADPC) by aldol condensation of ethyl 3, 5-dimethyl-4-actyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate with furan-2-carbaldehyde in the presence of strong hydroxyl base as catalyst. The product EFADPC has been confirmed by spectroscopic (FT-IR, 1H NMR, and UV-visible) analyses. Quantum chemical calculation also provides good correlation with experimental data. The molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEP), natural bond orbital interactions (NBO), electronic descriptors, quantum theory of atoms' in molecules (QTAIM) and experimental FT-IR spectrum have been used to predict the sites and nature of interactions which indicate that the dimer formation with multiple interactions through Nsbnd H···O and Csbnd H···O. The vibrational analysis shows red shifts in νNsbnd H and νCdbnd O as result of dimer formation. The binding energy of dimer is calculated as 13.82, 15.24 kcal/mol using DFT, QTAIM analysis, respectively. The result of ellipticity confirms the existence of resonance assisted hydrogen bonds (RAHB) in dimer. The MEP and local reactivity descriptors analyses have been performed and the results indicate that carbonyl carbon and β-carbon of chalcone frame have been prone to nucleophilic attack and lead to large number of heterocyclic compounds such as oxirane, oxazoles, pyrazoles, pyridines, pyrimidines, and pyran.

  6. A mild and efficient AgSbF6-catalyzed synthesis of fully substituted pyrroles through a sequential propargylation/amination/cycloisomerization reaction.

    PubMed

    Gujarathi, Satheesh; Liu, Xingui; Song, Lin; Hendrickson, Howard; Zheng, Guangrong

    2014-08-26

    Development of an efficient synthesis of fully substituted pyrroles via a sequential as a catalyst. The propargylation/amination/cycloisomerization was accomplished using AgSbF6 one-pot three-component reaction of propargylic alcohols, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and primary amines proceeds at a mild temperature, which prevents the formation of furan by-product. The reaction was also successfully applied to the more basic aliphatic amines with the addition of 1.1 eq. of acetic acid.

  7. Synthesis of protected (1-phenyl-1h-pyrrol-2-yl)-alkane-1-amines from phenylnitroso Diels-Alder adducts with 1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Berti, Francesco; Di Bussolo, Valeria; Pineschi, Mauro

    2013-07-19

    The reductive cleavage of nitrosobenzene-derived cycloadducts with appropriately protected 1,2-dihydropyridines allows a novel and simple obtainment of substituted N-[1-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)alkylamides. This synthesis can also be carried out in a very simple, mild, and practical one-pot procedure without isolation of the corresponding nitrosobenzene cycloadduct by means of catalytic amounts of CuCl.

  8. Potency of photoinduced electron transfer and antioxidant efficacy of pyrrole and pyridine based Cu(II)-Schiff complexes while binding with CT-DNA.

    PubMed

    Koley Seth, Banabithi; Ray, Aurkie; Saha, Arpita; Saha, Partha; Basu, Samita

    2014-03-05

    Here we report a systematic and comparative study to define a correlation between the structure and function of a series of simple, biologically active small inorganic Schiff base copper complexes for the occurrence of charge transfer phenomenon in calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using transient absorption spectroscopy corroborated with magnetic field effect. Four copper(II) Schiff base complexes with differently substituted heterocyclic ligands with antioxidant activity have been used. The binding constants of the order of ∼ 10(4) support the moderate binding affinity of the complexes towards CT-DNA. The methyl-substituted pyrrole complex shows maximum binding affinity (Kb: 8.33 × 10(4)) compared to others. The occurrence of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from CT-DNA to pyrrole containing complexes has been confirmed by identifying the corresponding transient radical ions whereas the extent of PET with pyridine substituted complexes is too small to be observed. The increase of the yield of radical ions in presence of magnetic field depicts that the initial spin correlation in geminate radical ion pair is triplet. The difference between experimental and calculated B½ values, the measure of hyperfine interactions (HFI) present in the system, arises due to hole hopping through intrastrand and interstrand DNA bases. The unsubstituted pyrrole complexes cleave DNA much more than the methyl-substituted one. Therefore, the probability of intrastrand superexchange increases with methyl-substituted complexes, that reduces the rate of hole hopping and hence the B½ value.

  9. α, α', α", α'"-meso-tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole: An easy-to-prepare, isomerically pure anion extractant with enhanced solubility in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Neil J.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Custelcean, Radu; Seipp, Charles A.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2016-01-29

    α, α', α", α'"-meso-Tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole is easily obtained as a single diastereomer in a one-pot reaction. It exhibits enhanced solubility in organic solvents, including aliphatic solvents, relative to its parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (1). Somewhat surprisingly, the tetrahexyl derivative 2 complexes with tributylmethylammonium chloride in chloroform more strongly than does 1 as shown by NMR titrations. However, 1 and 2 exhibit comparable complexation strength in extraction experiments, the difference between the NMR and extraction results being attributed to the effect of organic-phase water in the extraction systems. Mass-action analysis indicates the formation of the predominant complex TBMA+(1 or 2)Cl in both NMR and extraction systems, and equilibrium constants are reported. x-Ray crystal structures were obtained for the free ligand 2 and its complex with tetramethylammonium chloride. In addition, the free ligand crystallises in the 1,3-alt conformation with equatorial hexyl arms. In the chloride complex with 2 in its cone conformation, the hexyl arms adopt an axial orientation, enveloping the anion. DFT calculations show this binding conformation to be the most stable, mostly owing to destabilising steric interactions involving the pyrrole C–H and alkyl C–H groups positioned equatorially.

  10. α, α', α", α'"-meso-tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole: An easy-to-prepare, isomerically pure anion extractant with enhanced solubility in organic solvents

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Neil J.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Custelcean, Radu; ...

    2016-01-29

    α, α', α", α'"-meso-Tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole is easily obtained as a single diastereomer in a one-pot reaction. It exhibits enhanced solubility in organic solvents, including aliphatic solvents, relative to its parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (1). Somewhat surprisingly, the tetrahexyl derivative 2 complexes with tributylmethylammonium chloride in chloroform more strongly than does 1 as shown by NMR titrations. However, 1 and 2 exhibit comparable complexation strength in extraction experiments, the difference between the NMR and extraction results being attributed to the effect of organic-phase water in the extraction systems. Mass-action analysis indicates the formation of the predominant complex TBMA+(1 or 2)Cl– in both NMR andmore » extraction systems, and equilibrium constants are reported. x-Ray crystal structures were obtained for the free ligand 2 and its complex with tetramethylammonium chloride. In addition, the free ligand crystallises in the 1,3-alt conformation with equatorial hexyl arms. In the chloride complex with 2 in its cone conformation, the hexyl arms adopt an axial orientation, enveloping the anion. DFT calculations show this binding conformation to be the most stable, mostly owing to destabilising steric interactions involving the pyrrole C–H and alkyl C–H groups positioned equatorially.« less

  11. The effect of polyaromatic hydrocarbons on the spectral and photophysical properties of diaryl-pyrrole derivatives: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Pina, João; Pinheiro, Daniela; Nascimento, Bruno; Piñeiro, Marta; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio

    2014-09-14

    A new class of diaryl-pyrrole derivatives of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene were synthesized in a multicomponent reaction under microwave irradiation and studied in solution at room (293 K) and low (77 K) temperature. The study includes a complete spectroscopic evaluation (singlet-singlet and triplet-triplet absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra) as well as photophysical evaluation (fluorescence, phosphorescence and triplet lifetimes together with fluorescence and triplet occupation and singlet oxygen sensitization quantum yields). From the above evaluation, a complete set of deactivation rate constants (kF, kIC and kISC) could be obtained. The study was further complemented with TDDFT calculations. It is shown that, with the exception of the anthracene derivative, the diaryl-pyrrole moiety strongly influences the spectral and photophysical properties of the PAH and that with the exception of the benzene derivative, the excited state internal conversion deactivation channel of the diaryl-pyrrole derivatives is higher than that of the PAH counterparts.

  12. A theoretical study of N-H ··· π H-bond interaction of pyrrole: from clusters to the liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Feng, Huajie; Xuan, Xiaopeng; Chen, Liuping

    2012-09-01

    The N-H ... π H-bond interactions of clusters and liquid formed by pyrrole molecules were investigated by Quantum Mechanics (QM) and classical Molecular Dynamics (MD), respectively. Based on the optimized geometry at the B97-D/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory including dispersion correction, the nature and the origin of N-H ... π H-bond interactions were unveiled by atoms in molecules (AIM), natural bond orbital (NBO), and energy decomposition analysis (EDA). Among them, the AIM analysis gives evidence to the presence of N-H ... π H-bond interactions, the NBO examination reveals that π → σ* donor-acceptor orbital interaction is of great importance. EDA study indicates that N-H ... π interactions are governed by the electrostatic and dispersion term. Meanwhile, MD simulation with OPLS-AA (optimized potentials for liquid simulations all-atom) was applied to study the pure liquid pyrrole at different temperature. The results confirm the existence of the N-H ... π H-bond in the pure liquid pyrrole, and further characterized the structures of this H-bond which is somewhat different to the clusters.

  13. Synthesis and antitumor activity of duocarmycin derivatives: modification at C-8 position of A-ring pyrrole compounds bearing the simplified DNA-binding groups.

    PubMed

    Amishiro, N; Nagamura, S; Murakata, C; Okamoto, A; Kobayashi, E; Asada, M; Gomi, K; Tamaoki, T; Okabe, M; Yamaguchi, N; Yamaguchi, K; Saito, H

    2000-02-01

    A series of the 8-O-substituted A-ring pyrrole derivatives of duocarmycin bearing the simplified DNA-binding moieties such as cinnamoyl or heteroarylacryloyl groups were synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro anticellular activity against HeLa S3 cells and in vivo antitumor activity against murine sarcoma 180 in mice. In addition, the stability of the 8-O-substituted analogues in aqueous solution and the conversion to their active form (cyclopropane compound) from the 8-O-substituted analogues in mice or human serum were examined. The 8-O-substituted A-ring pyrrole derivatives bearing the simplified DNA-binding moieties showed remarkably potent in vivo antitumor activity and low peripheral blood toxicity compared with the 8-O-substituted A-ring pyrrole derivatives having the trimethoxyindole skeleton in segment-B (Seg-B), which were equal to 8-O-[(N-methylpiperazinyl)carbonyl] derivatives of 4'-methoxycinnamates and 4'-methoxy-beta-heteroarylacrylates. Moreover, among 8-O-substituted analogues, several compounds can be chemically or enzymatically converted to their active form in human serum. This result indicated that new 8-O-substituted derivatives were different prodrugs from KW-2189 and 8-O-substituted analogues being the same type of prodrug as KW-2189.

  14. Comparative neurotoxicity and pyrrole-forming potential of 2,5-hexanedione and perdeuterio-2,5-hexanedione in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    DeCaprio, A.P.; Briggs, R.G.; Jackowski, S.J.; Kim, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD), the neurotoxic metabolite of n-hexane, reacts with protein amines to form alkylpyrrole adducts. Pyrrolylation of neurofilament protein may be the initiating molecular event in 2,5-HD neuropathy. The present study compares the neurotoxic and pyrrole-forming potentials of 2,5-HD with those of perdeuterio-2,5-HD ((D10)-2,5-HD) in the rat. Due to a requirement for C-H bond breaking in the reaction mechanism, the latter derivative was expected to exhibit a primary isotope effect, thus forming the pyrrole at a slower rate. In vitro studies confirmed that (D10)-2,5-HD pyrrolylated protein at only one-third of the initial rate seen with native 2,5-HD. Prolonged incubation resulted in similar pyrrole concentrations with both derivatives. Adult, male Wistar rats were administered daily (5 days/week) ip doses of either 3.5 mmol 2,5-HD or (D10)-2,5-HD/kg/day for 17 days or 2.5 mmol/kg/day for 38 days. At termination, animals administered 2,5-HD and (D10)-2,5-HD exhibited 27 and 8% body weight loss, respectively. Moderate to severe hindlimb paralysis was present in the 2,5-HD groups while only mild effects were seen in (D10)-2,5-HD-dosed rats. Neuropathological changes were prominent in spinal cord sections from 2,5-HD-treated animals, while no effects were present in rats given the deuterated derivative. Pyrrole adduct concentrations in serum and axonal cytoskeletal proteins from 2,5-HD-treated animals were two- to threefold higher than in rats given equimolar doses of (D10)-2,5-HD. Levels of covalent crosslinking of axonal cytoskeletal proteins (assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) appeared to correlate with pyrrole concentrations. Tissue concentrations of each diketone isomer were not significantly different, indicating similar uptake of native and deuterated 2,5-HD.

  15. Sub-10 nm Platinum Nanocrystals with Size and Shape Control: Catalytic Study for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Kuhn, John N.; Huang, Wenyu; Aliaga, Cesar; Hung, Ling-I; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2009-03-02

    Platinum nanocubes and nanopolyhedra with tunable size from 5 to 9 nm were synthesized by controlling the reducing rate of metal precursor ions in a one-pot polyol synthesis. A two-stage process is proposed for the simultaneous control of size and shape. In the first stage, the oxidation state of the metal ion precursors determined the nucleation rate and consequently the number of nuclei. The reaction temperature controlled the shape in the second stage by regulation of the growth kinetics. These well-defined nanocrystals were loaded into MCF-17 mesoporous silica for examination of catalytic properties. Pt loadings and dispersions of the supported catalysts were determined by elemental analysis (ICP-MS) and H2 chemisorption isotherms, respectively. Ethylene hydrogenation rates over the Pt nanocrystals were independent of both size and shape and comparable to Pt single crystals. For pyrrole hydrogenation, the nanocubes enhanced ring-opening ability and thus showed a higher selectivity to n-butylamine as compared to nanopolyhedra.

  16. An alternative laser driven photodissociation mechanism of pyrrole via π*1σ/S0 conical intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandipati, K. R.; Lan, Z.; Singh, H.; Mahapatra, S.

    2017-06-01

    A first principles quantum dynamics study of N-H photodissociation of pyrrole on the S0-1π σ*(A12) coupled electronic states is carried out with the aid of an optimally designed UV-laser pulse. A new photodissociation path, as compared to the conventional barrier crossing on the π*1σ state, opens up upon electronic transitions under the influence of pump-dump laser pulses, which efficiently populate both the dissociation channels. The interplay of electronic transitions due both to vibronic coupling and the laser pulse is observed in the control mechanism and discussed in detail. The proposed control mechanism seems to be robust, and not discussed in the literature so far, and is expected to trigger future experiments on the π*1σ photochemistry of molecules of chemical and biological importance. The design of the optimal pulses and their application to enhance the overall dissociation probability is carried out within the framework of optimal control theory. The quantum dynamics of the system in the presence of pulse is treated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the semi-classical dipole approximation.

  17. Characterization of the Biosynthesis Gene Cluster for the Pyrrole Polyether Antibiotic Calcimycin (A23187) in Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiulin; Liang, Jingdan; Lin, Shuangjun; Zhou, Xiufen; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Zhijun

    2011-01-01

    The pyrrole polyether antibiotic calcimycin (A23187) is a rare ionophore that is specific for divalent cations. It is widely used as a biochemical and pharmacological tool because of its multiple, unique biological effects. Here we report on the cloning, sequencing, and mutational analysis of the 64-kb biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882. Gene replacements confirmed the identity of the gene cluster, and in silico analysis of the DNA sequence revealed 27 potential genes, including 3 genes for the biosynthesis of the α-ketopyrrole moiety, 5 genes that encode modular type I polyketide synthases for the biosynthesis of the spiroketal ring, 4 genes for the biosynthesis of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, an N-methyltransferase tailoring gene, a resistance gene, a type II thioesterase gene, 3 regulatory genes, 4 genes with other functions, and 5 genes of unknown function. We propose a pathway for the biosynthesis of calcimycin and assign the genes to the biosynthesis steps. Our findings set the stage for producing much desired calcimycin derivatives using genetic modification instead of chemical synthesis. PMID:21173184

  18. Molecular packing of high-mobility diketo pyrrolo-pyrrole polymer semiconductors with branched alkyl side chains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinran; Richter, Lee J; DeLongchamp, Dean M; Kline, R Joseph; Hammond, Matthew R; McCulloch, Iain; Heeney, Martin; Ashraf, Raja S; Smith, Jeremy N; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Schroeder, Bob; Geerts, Yves H; Fischer, Daniel A; Toney, Michael F

    2011-09-28

    We describe a series of highly soluble diketo pyrrolo-pyrrole (DPP)-bithiophene copolymers exhibiting field effect hole mobilities up to 0.74 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), with a common synthetic motif of bulky 2-octyldodecyl side groups on the conjugated backbone. Spectroscopy, diffraction, and microscopy measurements reveal a transition in molecular packing behavior from a preferentially edge-on orientation of the conjugated plane to a preferentially face-on orientation as the attachment density of the side chains increases. Thermal annealing generally reduces both the face-on population and the misoriented edge-on domains. The highest hole mobilities of this series were obtained from edge-on molecular packing and in-plane liquid-crystalline texture, but films with a bimodal orientation distribution and no discernible in-plane texture exhibited surprisingly comparable mobilities. The high hole mobility may therefore arise from the molecular packing feature common to the entire polymer series: backbones that are strictly oriented parallel to the substrate plane and coplanar with other backbones in the same layer.

  19. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of 3-(Substituted Aroyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Ping; Lan, Lan; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Kai; Xin, Yu-Xuan; Qi, Qi; Wang, Yao-Lin; Mao, Zhen-Min

    2017-02-01

    A series of 3-(substituted aroyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole derivatives were synthesized and determined for their anticancer activity against eleven cancer cell lines and two normal tissue cell lines using MTT assay. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 3f was the most potent compound against A375, CT-26, HeLa, MGC80-3, NCI-H460 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50  = 8.2 - 31.7 μm); 3g, 3n and 3a were the most potent compounds against CHO (IC50  = 8.2 μm), HCT-15 (IC50  = 21 μm) and MCF-7 cells (IC50  = 18.7 μm), respectively. Importantly, all the target compounds showed no cytotoxicity towards the normal tissue cell (IC50  > 100 μm). Thus, these compounds with the potent anticancer activity and low toxicity have potential for the development of new anticancer chemotherapy agents. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Electropolymerization of pyrrole and immobilization of glucose oxidase in a flow system: influence of the operating conditions on analytical performance.

    PubMed

    Vidal, J C; Garcia, E; Castillo, J R

    1998-03-01

    The in situ potentiostatic electropolymerization of pyrrole (Py) on a Pt electrode in a thin-layer amperometric cell and the entrapment of the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) for the determination of glucose are reported. Polypyrrole (PPy) is directly formed by continuous passage of a buffered solution of the monomer (0.4 M) and enzyme (250 U mL-1) at pH 7 at a flow rate of 0.05-0.1 mL min-1 under a constant applied potential of +0.85 V vs Ag/AgCl decreases. The electrosynthesis of PPy by injection of 500 microL of a Py + GOx solution in a carrier electrolyte consisting of 0.05 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 M KCl at pH 7.0 was also assayed. The influence of the electropolymerization conditions on the analytical response of the sensor to glucose was investigated. The analytical performance of the PPy/GOx sensor was also studied in terms of durability and storage life, as well as selectivity against electroactive species such as ascorbic acid and uric acid as a function of the thickness of the polymer film formed.

  1. Pharmacokinetic modeling and prediction of plasma pyrrole-imidazole polyamide concentration in rats using simultaneous urinary and biliary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Aoyama, Takahiko; Yokoe, Tsubasa; Fukasawa, Akiko; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    The use of urinary and/or biliary excretion data was considered as an alternative approach if the bioanalytical method lacked the appropriate sensitivity to adequately characterize the serum or plasma concentration-time profile. This approach is used for the analysis of plasma concentration-time profile under the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of various analytical instruments. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK) model that describes the plasma concentration-time profiles under LLOQ of HPLC using urinary and biliary excretion data. As model compounds, pyrrole (Py)-imidazole (Im) polyamides 1035 (MW, 1035.12) and 1666 (MW, 1665.78) were used. The cumulative urinary excretions of Py-Im polyamides 1035 and 1666 were 72.4+/-11.6 and 4.8+/-0.5% of the administered dose, respectively. The cumulative biliary excretion of Py-Im polyamide 1035 was 4.3+/-0.4% of the administered dose, and Py-Im polyamide 1666 was not detected. The plasma concentration-time profiles of Py-Im polyamide 1035 were adequately described using linear and non-linear output compartments. The developed PK model could be used to describe the plasma concentration profiles using the linear output compartment interpreted as the urine compartment and the non-linear output compartment interpreted as the bile compartment. This PK model will be able to provide a more accurate prediction of the plasma concentration profiles under LLOQ.

  2. Nuclear Localization and Gene Expression Modulation by a Fluorescent Sequence-Selective p-Anisyl-benzimidazolecarboxamido Imidazole-Pyrrole Polyamide.

    PubMed

    Kiakos, Konstantinos; Pett, Luke; Satam, Vijay; Patil, Pravin; Hochhauser, Daniel; Lee, Moses; Hartley, John A

    2015-07-23

    Synthetic pyrrole (P)-imidazole (I) containing polyamides can target predetermined DNA sequences and modulate gene expression by interfering with transcription factor binding. We have previously shown that rationally designed polyamides targeting the inverted CCAAT box 2 (ICB2) of the topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) promoter can inhibit binding of transcription factor NF-Y, re-inducing expression of the enzyme in confluent cells. Here, the A/T recognizing fluorophore, p-anisylbenzimidazolecarboxamido (Hx) was incorporated into the hybrid polyamide HxIP, which fluoresces upon binding to DNA, providing an intrinsic probe to monitor cellular uptake. HxIP targets the 5'-TACGAT-3' sequence of the 5' flank of ICB2 with high affinity and sequence specificity, eliciting an ICB2-selective inhibition/displacement of NF-Y. HxIP is readily taken up by NIH3T3 and A549 cells, and detected in the nucleus within minutes. Exposure to the polyamide at confluence resulted in a dose-dependent upregulation of topo IIα expression and enhanced formation of etoposide-induced DNA strand breaks.

  3. Attempt to improve the performance of pyrrole-containing dyes in dye sensitized solar cells by adjusting isolation groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Hou, Yingqin; Yang, Yizhou; Tang, Runli; Chen, Junnian; Wang, Heng; Han, Hongwei; Peng, Tianyou; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2013-12-11

    Four new pyrrole-based organic sensitizers with different isolation groups were conveniently synthesized and applied to dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The introduction of isolation group in the side chain could both suppress the formation of dye aggregates and electron recombination. Especially, when two pieces of D-π-A chromophore moieties shared one isolation group to construct the "H" type dye, the performance was further improved. Consequently, in the corresponding solar cell of LI-57, a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) was tested to be 13.85 mA cm(-2), while 0.72 V for the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc), 0.64 for the fill factor (FF), and 6.43% for the overall conversion efficiency (η), exceeding its analogue LI-55 (5.94%) with the same isolation group. The results demonstrated that both the size (bulk and shape) and the linkage mode between the D-π-A chromophores and the isolation groups, could affect the performance of sensitizers in DSCs in a large degree, providing a new approach to optimize the chemical structure of dyes to achieve high conversion efficiencies.

  4. Maleimides (1 H-pyrrole-2,5-diones) as molecular indicators of anoxygenic photosynthesis in ancient water columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Kliti; Gibbison, Robert; Atkinson, Jane E.; Schwark, Lorenz; Eckardt, Christian B.; Maxwell, James R.

    1996-10-01

    Maleimides (1 H-pyrrole-2,5-diones), degradation products of photosynthetic tetrapyrrole pigments, have been found for the first time in the polar fraction of the solvent extracts of two marine sediments deposited in restricted basins: Kupferschiefer (Permian) and Serpiano shale (Mid-Triassic). GC and GC—MS analyses of the TBDMS ( tertiary-butyldimethylsilyl) derivatives show a simple component distribution, dominated by Me Et maleimide, mainly of planktonic origin; Me n-Pr and Me i-Bu maleimides, present in low abundance, are thought on structural grounds to be derived from the bacteriochlorophylls c, d, or e of Chlorobiaceae (anoxygenic green sulfur bacteria). This is confirmed for Kupferschiefer by isotope ratio monitoring (irm) GCMS which shows them to be enriched in 13C as a result of their photosynthetic carbon assimilation, which takes place by the reversed tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The structurally more specific Me i-Bu maleimide is, however, slightly more enriched in 13C than Me n-Pr maleimide, suggesting that the latter is derived in part from reduction of the C 3-acid substituent at C-17 of phytoplanktonic chlorophyll. These results provide evidence for the existence in both depositional settings of microbial communities containing Chlorobiaceae. In turn, this indicates that there must have been periods when the water column was highly stratified and anoxia extended into the zone of light penetration.

  5. Pyrrole Hydrogenation over Rh(111) and Pt(111) Single-Crystal Surfaces and Hydrogenation Promotion Mediated by 1-Methylpyrrole: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kliewer, Christopher J.; Bieri, Marco; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-03-04

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of pyrrole over both Pt(111) and Rh(111) single-crystal surfaces at Torr pressures (3 Torr pyrrole, 30 Torr H{sub 2}) to form pyrrolidine and the minor product butylamine. Over Pt(111) at 298 K it was found that pyrrole adsorbs in an upright geometry cleaving the N-H bond to bind through the nitrogen evidenced by SFG data. Over Rh(111) at 298 K pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry relative to the surface through the p-aromatic system. A pyrroline surface reaction intermediate, which was not detected in the gas phase, was seen by SFG during the hydrogenation over both surfaces. Significant enhancement of the reaction rate was achieved over both metal surfaces by adsorbing 1-methylpyrrole before reaction. SFG vibrational spectroscopic results indicate that reaction promotion is achieved by weakening the bonding between the N-containing products and the metal surface because of lateral interactions on the surface between 1-methylpyrrole and the reaction species, reducing the desorption energy of the products. It was found that the ring-opening product butylamine was a reaction poison over both surfaces, but this effect can be minimized by treating the catalyst surfaces with 1-methylpyrrole before reaction. The reaction rate was not enhanced with elevated temperatures, and SFG suggests desorption of pyrrole at elevated temperatures.

  6. Chlorfenapyr: a pyrrole insecticide for the control of pyrethroid or DDT resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    N'Guessan, R; Boko, P; Odjo, A; Akogbéto, M; Yates, A; Rowland, M

    2007-04-01

    Owing to the development and spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae in Africa there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides to supplement the pyrethroids. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide first commercialized for the control of agricultural pests and termites. Performance against An. gambiae bearing kdr (pyrethroid and DDT resistance) or Ace-1(R) insensitive acetylcholinesterase (organophosphate and carbamate resistance) mechanisms was studied using a variety of adult bioassay tests including a simulated-experimental hut system (tunnel tests) that allows uninhibited mosquito behaviour/insecticide interactions. Strains resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates showed no cross resistance to chlorfenapyr. In cone bioassays on treated netting the mortality of adult mosquitoes showed an unexpected curvilinear response, with highest mortality occurring at intermediate dosages. Adults expressed irritability to chlorfenapyr at higher dosages, which might explain the dosage-mortality trend. Toxic activity of chlorfenapyr was slow compared to conventional neurotoxic insecticides and additional mortality occurred between 24h and 72 h. In tunnel tests, the dosage-mortality trend showed a more typical sigmoid response and most mortality occurred during the first 24h. Mosquito penetration through the holed, treated netting showed only limited inhibition and blood-feeding was not inhibited. Mortality rates in the kdr strain exposed to chlorfenapyr treated netting in tunnel tests were much higher than with permethrin treated netting over the same 100-500 mg/m(2) dosage range. Chlorfenapyr has potential for malaria control in treated-net or residual spraying applications in areas where mosquitoes are pyrethroid resistant. For treated-net applications chlorfenapyr might be combined with pyrethroid as a mixture to provide personal protection as well as to give control of resistant mosquitoes.

  7. Ion-regulated allosteric binding of fullerenes (C60 and C70) by tetrathiafulvalene-calix[4]pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christina M; Lim, Jong Min; Larsen, Karina R; Kim, Dong Sub; Sung, Young Mo; Lyons, Dani M; Lynch, Vincent M; Nielsen, Kent A; Jeppesen, Jan O; Kim, Dongho; Park, Jung Su; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2014-07-23

    The effect of ionic species on the binding of fullerenes (C60 and C70) by tetrathiafulvalene-calix[4]pyrrole (TTF-C4P) receptors and the nature of the resulting supramolecular complexes (TTF-C4P + fullerene + halide anion + tetraalkylammonium cation) was studied in the solid state through single crystal X-ray diffraction methods and in dichloromethane solution by means of continuous variation plots and UV-vis spectroscopic titrations. These analyses revealed a 1:1 stoichiometry between the anion-bound TTF-C4Ps and the complexed fullerenes. The latter guests are bound within the bowl-like cup of the C4P in a ball-and-socket binding mode. The interactions between the TTF-C4P receptors and the fullerene guests are highly influenced by both the nature of halide anions and their counter tetraalkylammonium cations. Three halides (F(-), Cl(-), and Br(-)) were studied. All three potentiate the binding of the two test fullerenes by inducing a conformational change from the 1,3-alternate to the cone conformer of the TTF-C4Ps, thus acting as positive heterotropic allosteric effectors. For a particular halide anion, the choice of tetraalkylammonium salts serves to modulate the strength of the TTF-C4P-fullerene host-guest binding interactions and, in conjunction with variations in the halide anion, can be exploited to alter the inherent selectivity of the host for a given fullerene. Differences in binding are reflected in the excited state optical properties. Overall, the present four-component system provides an illustration of how host-guest binding events involving appropriately designed artificial receptors can be fine-tuned via the addition of simple ionic species as allosteric modulators.

  8. Sequence-selective single-molecule alkylation with a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide visualized in a DNA nanoscaffold.

    PubMed

    Yoshidome, Tomofumi; Endo, Masayuki; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hidaka, Kumi; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-03-14

    We demonstrate a novel strategy for visualizing sequence-selective alkylation of target double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using a synthetic pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide in a designed DNA origami scaffold. Doubly functionalized PI polyamide was designed by introduction of an alkylating agent 1-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-benz[e]indole (seco-CBI) and biotin for sequence-selective alkylation at the target sequence and subsequent streptavidin labeling, respectively. Selective alkylation of the target site in the substrate DNA was observed by analysis using sequencing gel electrophoresis. For the single-molecule observation of the alkylation by functionalized PI polyamide using atomic force microscopy (AFM), the target position in the dsDNA (∼200 base pairs) was alkylated and then visualized by labeling with streptavidin. Newly designed DNA origami scaffold named "five-well DNA frame" carrying five different dsDNA sequences in its cavities was used for the detailed analysis of the sequence-selectivity and alkylation. The 64-mer dsDNAs were introduced to five individual wells, in which target sequence AGTXCCA/TGGYACT (XY = AT, TA, GC, CG) was employed as fully matched (X = G) and one-base mismatched (X = A, T, C) sequences. The fully matched sequence was alkylated with 88% selectivity over other mismatched sequences. In addition, the PI polyamide failed to attach to the target sequence lacking the alkylation site after washing and streptavidin treatment. Therefore, the PI polyamide discriminated the one mismatched nucleotide at the single-molecule level, and alkylation anchored the PI polyamide to the target dsDNA.

  9. PTCA (1H-pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) as a marker for oxidative hair treatment.

    PubMed

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Meier, Sylvia I; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-20

    Hair analysis for the assessment of alcohol or drug abstinence became a routine procedure in forensic toxicology. Hair coloration leading to loss of incorporated xenobiotics and to false negative results turned out to be a major problem. Currently only colored extracts provide hints of manipulations but not bleaching. A liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MSMS) method was developed and validated to determine 1H-pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA), a major oxidation product of melanin. PTCA was determined in natural hair samples (n=21) after treatment with 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 30 or 40 min with concentrations up to 12% for 40 min. In another series, 12 natural hair samples were submitted to different coloration procedures (henna, tinting, semi-permanent and permanent dyeing, bleaching) and the changes in PTCA content were determined. A significant increase in the PTCA content was found for both incubation times and increasing H2 O2 concentrations. Coloration with henna or tinting had no influence on PTCA levels detected, but a significant increase was observed after semi-permanent and permanent dyeing and bleaching. As PTCA concentrations in natural hair were found to be in a range of <2.1 - 16.4 ng/mg (8.4±3.8 ng/mg, mean±SD, n=33), a cut-off of 20 ng/mg is recommended for the distinction between natural vs. excessively oxidized hair. In case of naturally low melanin content (lightblond or white hair), no marked increase in PTCA may occur. The present study demonstrated that PTCA is formed during oxidative treatment of melanin in hair, which can be used to detect previous hair coloration including oxidation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular recognition of DNA base pairs by the formamido/pyrrole and formamido/imidazole pairings in stacked polyamides

    PubMed Central

    Buchmueller, Karen L.; Staples, Andrew M.; Uthe, Peter B.; Howard, Cameron M.; Pacheco, Kimberly A. O.; Cox, Kari K.; Henry, James A.; Bailey, Suzanna L.; Horick, Sarah M.; Nguyen, Binh; Wilson, W. David; Lee, Moses

    2005-01-01

    Polyamides containing an N-terminal formamido (f) group bind to the minor groove of DNA as staggered, antiparallel dimers in a sequence-specific manner. The formamido group increases the affinity and binding site size, and it promotes the molecules to stack in a staggered fashion thereby pairing itself with either a pyrrole (Py) or an imidazole (Im). There has not been a systematic study on the DNA recognition properties of the f/Py and f/Im terminal pairings. These pairings were analyzed here in the context of f-ImPyPy, f-ImPyIm, f-PyPyPy and f-PyPyIm, which contain the central pairing modes, –ImPy– and –PyPy–. The specificity of these triamides towards symmetrical recognition sites allowed for the f/Py and f/Im terminal pairings to be directly compared by SPR, CD and ΔTM experiments. The f/Py pairing, when placed next to the –ImPy– or –PyPy– central pairings, prefers A/T and T/A base pairs to G/C base pairs, suggesting that f/Py has similar DNA recognition specificity to Py/Py. With –ImPy– central pairings, f/Im prefers C/G base pairs (>10 times) to the other Watson–Crick base pairs; therefore, f/Im behaves like the Py/Im pair. However, the f/Im pairing is not selective for the C/G base pair when placed next to the –PyPy– central pairings. PMID:15703305

  11. Single-step substitution of all the α, β-positions in pyrrole: choice of binuclear versus multinuclear complex of the novel polydentate ligand.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Debasish; Mani, Ganesan

    2014-04-21

    The α and β-positions of pyrrole were substituted with 3,5-dimethylpyrazolylmethyl groups in a single step that involved the reaction between 2,5-dimethylaminomethylpyrrole and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole-1-carbinol, affording 2,3,4,5-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-ylmethyl)pyrrole LH in 40% yield. The coordination chemistry of this new polydentate ligand LH was explored by synthesizing several Pd(II), Cu(I), and Ag(I) complexes. When LH was used as a neutral ligand with [Pd(COD)Cl2], AgBF4, and CuX (X = Cl and I), compartmental type binuclear Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes such as [Pd2Cl4(μ-C4HN-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N)] and [Ag2(μ-C4HN-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N)(CH3CN)2](2+)[BF4(-)]2 and cage-like copper(I) complexes [Cu2(μ-X)(μ-C4HN-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N)](+)[CuX2](-) (X = Cl and I) containing a halide ion bridging in a bent fashion were obtained, respectively. Conversely, when the same metal precursors were treated with LH in the presence of n-BuLi, the multinuclear complexes [Pd2Cl3(μ-C4N-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N,N)], [(Cu2(μ-I){μ-C4N-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N,N})2Cu](+)I(-), and [Ag4(μ-C4N-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N)2](2+)[BF4(-)]2 were obtained. In addition, the treatment of LH with [Pd(OAc)2] gave the mononuclear complex, [Pd(OAc)(C4N-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N)]. The chloride analogue of this complex was obtained by the reaction of LH with [Pd(COD)Cl2] in the presence of triethylamine. The structures of all complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, which revealed interesting structural features, including pyrazole arms adopting different conformations with respect to the pyrrole ring plane and linear two- and three-coordinated copper(I) and silver(I) atoms exhibiting weak interactions between the metal and the pyrrolic carbon atoms and Ag(I)···Ag(I) interactions. The observed shorter metal pyrrolide nitrogen (M-N) bond distances and the elongation of the C-C double and single bond distances of the pyrrole

  12. Hx, a novel fluorescent, minor groove and sequence specific recognition element: design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of p-anisylbenzimidazole-imidazole/pyrrole-containing polyamides.

    PubMed

    Chavda, Sameer; Liu, Yang; Babu, Balaji; Davis, Ryan; Sielaff, Alan; Ruprich, Jennifer; Westrate, Laura; Tronrud, Christopher; Ferguson, Amanda; Franks, Andrew; Tzou, Samuel; Adkins, Chandler; Rice, Toni; Mackay, Hilary; Kluza, Jerome; Tahir, Sharjeel A; Lin, Shicai; Kiakos, Konstantinos; Bruce, Chrystal D; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2011-04-19

    With the aim of incorporating a recognition element that acts as a fluorescent probe upon binding to DNA, three novel pyrrole (P) and imidazole (I)-containing polyamides were synthesized. The compounds contain a p-anisylbenzimidazolecarboxamido (Hx) moiety attached to a PP, IP, or PI unit, giving compounds HxPP (2), HxIP (3), and HxPI (4), respectively. These fluorescent hybrids were tested against their complementary nonfluorescent, non-formamido tetraamide counterparts, namely, PPPP (5), PPIP (6), and PPPI (7) (cognate sequences 5'-AAATTT-3', 5'-ATCGAT-3', and 5'-ACATGT-3', respectively). The binding affinities for both series of polyamides for their cognate and noncognate sequences were ascertained by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies, which revealed that the Hx-containing polyamides gave binding constants in the 10(6) M(-1) range while little binding was observed for the noncognates. The binding data were further compared to the corresponding and previously reported formamido-triamides f-PPP (8), f-PIP (9), and f-PPI (10). DNase I footprinting studies provided additional evidence that the Hx moiety behaved similarly to two consecutive pyrroles (PP found in 5-7), which also behaved like a formamido-pyrrole (f-P) unit found in distamycin and many formamido-triamides, including 8-10. The biophysical characterization of polyamides 2-7 on their binding to the abovementioned DNA sequences was determined using thermal melts (ΔT(M)), circular dichroism (CD), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies. Density functional calculations (B3LYP) provided a theoretical framework that explains the similarity between PP and Hx on the basis of molecular electrostatic surfaces and dipole moments. Furthermore, emission studies on polyamides 2 and 3 showed that upon excitation at 322 nm binding to their respective cognate sequences resulted in an increase in fluorescence at 370 nm. These low molecular weight polyamides show promise for use as probes for monitoring

  13. Micro- to nanostructured poly(pyrrole-nitrilotriacetic acid) films via nanosphere templates: applications to 3D enzyme attachment by affinity interactions.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Andreea; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Sandulescu, Robert; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-02-01

    We report the combination of latex nanosphere lithography with electropolymerization of N-substituted pyrrole monomer bearing a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) moiety for the template-assisted nanostructuration of poly(pyrrole-NTA) films and their application for biomolecule immobilization. The electrodes were modified by casting latex beads (100 or 900 nm in diameter) on their surface followed by electropolymerization of the pyrrole-NTA monomer and the subsequent chelation of Cu(2+) ions. The dissolution of the nanobeads leads then to a nanostructured polymer film with increased surface. Thanks to the versatile affinity interactions between the (NTA)Cu(2+) complex and histidine- or biotin-tagged proteins, both tyrosinase and glucose oxidase were immobilized on the modified electrode. Nanostructuration of the polypyrrole via nanosphere lithography (NSL) using 900- and 100-nm latex beads allows an increase in surface concentration of enzymes anchored on the functionalized polypyrrole electrode. The nanostructured enzyme electrodes were characterized by fluorescence microscopy, 3D laser scanning confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical studies demonstrate the increase in the amount of immobilized biomolecules and associated biosensor performances when achieving NSL compared to conventional polymer formation without bead template. In addition, the decrease in nanobead diameter from 900 to 100 nm provides an enhancement in biosensor performance. Between biosensors based on films polymerized without nanobeads and with 100-nm nanobeads, maximum current density values increase from 4 to 56 μA cm(-2) and from 7 to 45 μA cm(-2) for biosensors based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase, respectively.

  14. Core Level Shifts of Hydrogenated Pyridinic and Pyrrolic Nitrogen in the Nitrogen-Containing Graphene-Based Electrocatalysts: In-Plane vs Edge Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Matanovic, Ivana; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Strand, Matthew B.; Dzara, Michael J.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-12-07

    A combination of N 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and first principles calculations of nitrogen-containing model electrocatalysts was used to elucidate the nature of the nitrogen defects that contribute to the binding energy (BE) range of the N 1s XPS spectra of these materials above ~400 eV. Experimental core level shifts were obtained for a set of model materials, namely N-doped carbon nanospheres, Fe–N–carbon nanospheres, polypyrrole, polypyridine, and pyridinium chloride, and were compared to the shifts calculated using density functional theory. The results confirm that the broad peak positioned at ~400.7 eV in the N 1s XPS spectra of N-containing catalysts, which is typically assigned to pyrrolic nitrogen, contains contributions from other hydrogenated nitrogen species such as hydrogenated pyridinic functionalities. Namely, N 1s BEs of hydrogenated pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N were calculated as 400.6 and 400.7 eV, respectively, using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional. A special emphasis was placed on the study of the differences in the XPS imprint of N-containing defects that are situated in the plane and on the edges of the graphene sheet. Density functional theory calculations for BEs of the N 1s of in-plane and edge defects show that hydrogenated N defects are more sensitive to the change in the chemical environment in the carbon matrix than the non-hydrogenated N defects. In conclusion, calculations also show that edge-hydrogenated pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N defects only contribute to the N 1s XPS peak located at ~400.7 eV if the graphene edges are oxygenated or terminated with bare carbon atoms.

  15. Core Level Shifts of Hydrogenated Pyridinic and Pyrrolic Nitrogen in the Nitrogen-Containing Graphene-Based Electrocatalysts: In-Plane vs Edge Defects

    DOE PAGES

    Matanovic, Ivana; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Strand, Matthew B.; ...

    2016-12-07

    A combination of N 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and first principles calculations of nitrogen-containing model electrocatalysts was used to elucidate the nature of the nitrogen defects that contribute to the binding energy (BE) range of the N 1s XPS spectra of these materials above ~400 eV. Experimental core level shifts were obtained for a set of model materials, namely N-doped carbon nanospheres, Fe–N–carbon nanospheres, polypyrrole, polypyridine, and pyridinium chloride, and were compared to the shifts calculated using density functional theory. The results confirm that the broad peak positioned at ~400.7 eV in the N 1s XPS spectra of N-containingmore » catalysts, which is typically assigned to pyrrolic nitrogen, contains contributions from other hydrogenated nitrogen species such as hydrogenated pyridinic functionalities. Namely, N 1s BEs of hydrogenated pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N were calculated as 400.6 and 400.7 eV, respectively, using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional. A special emphasis was placed on the study of the differences in the XPS imprint of N-containing defects that are situated in the plane and on the edges of the graphene sheet. Density functional theory calculations for BEs of the N 1s of in-plane and edge defects show that hydrogenated N defects are more sensitive to the change in the chemical environment in the carbon matrix than the non-hydrogenated N defects. In conclusion, calculations also show that edge-hydrogenated pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N defects only contribute to the N 1s XPS peak located at ~400.7 eV if the graphene edges are oxygenated or terminated with bare carbon atoms.« less

  16. Cobalt(II) Porphyrin-Catalyzed Intramolecular Cyclopropanation of N-Alkyl Indoles/Pyrroles with Alkylcarbene: Efficient Synthesis of Polycyclic N-Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Annapureddy Rajasekar; Hao, Fei; Wu, Kai; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-01-26

    A protocol on chemoselective cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of N-alkyl indoles/pyrroles with alkylcarbenes has been developed. The reaction enables the rapid construction of a range of nitrogen-containing polycyclic compounds in moderate to high yields from readily accessible materials. These N-containing polycyclic compounds can be converted into a variety of N-heterocycles with potential synthetic and biological interest. Compared to their N-tosylhydrazone counterparts, the use of bulky N-2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl hydrazones as carbene precursors allows cyclopropanation to occur under milder reaction conditions.

  17. Comparison of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole: Building toward an understanding of the electronic structure and photochemistry of porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beames, Joseph M.; Nix, Michael G. D.; Hudson, Andrew J.

    2009-11-01

    The photophysical properties of porphyrins have relevance for their use as light-activated drugs in cancer treatment and sensitizers in solid-state solar cells. However, the appearance of their UV-visible spectra is usually explained inadequately by qualitative molecular-orbital theories. We intend to gain a better insight into the intense absorption bands, and excited-state dynamics, that make porphyrins appropriate for both of these applications by gradually building toward an understanding of the macrocyclic structure, starting with studies of smaller pyrrolic subunits. We have recorded the (1+1) and (2+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole between 25 600 cm-1 (390 nm) and 48 500 cm-1 (206 nm). We did not observe a (1+1) REMPI signal through the optically bright B12 (ππ ∗) and A11 (ππ ∗) states in pyrrole due to ultrafast deactivation via conical intersections with the dissociative A12 (πσ ∗) and B11 (πσ ∗) states. However, we did observe (2+1) REMPI through Rydberg states with a dominant feature at 27 432 cm-1 (two-photon energy, 54 864 cm-1) assigned to a 3d←π transition. In contrast, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole has a broad and structured (1+1) REMPI spectrum between 36 000 and 42 500 cm-1 as a result of vibronic transitions to the B12 (ππ ∗) state, and it does not show the 3d←π Rydberg transition via (2+1) REMPI. We have complemented the experimental studies by a theoretical treatment of the excited states of both molecules using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and accounted for the contrasting features in the spectra. TD-DFT modeled the photochemical activity of both the optically dark π1σ∗ states (dissociative) and optically bright π1π∗ states well, predicting the barrierless deactivation of the B12 (ππ ∗) state of pyrrole and the bound minimum of the B12 (ππ ∗) state in 2,5-dimethylpyrrole. However, the quantitative agreement between vibronic

  18. Comparison of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole: Building toward an understanding of the electronic structure and photochemistry of porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Beames, Joseph M; Nix, Michael G D; Hudson, Andrew J

    2009-11-07

    The photophysical properties of porphyrins have relevance for their use as light-activated drugs in cancer treatment and sensitizers in solid-state solar cells. However, the appearance of their UV-visible spectra is usually explained inadequately by qualitative molecular-orbital theories. We intend to gain a better insight into the intense absorption bands, and excited-state dynamics, that make porphyrins appropriate for both of these applications by gradually building toward an understanding of the macrocyclic structure, starting with studies of smaller pyrrolic subunits. We have recorded the (1+1) and (2+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole between 25 600 cm(-1) (390 nm) and 48 500 cm(-1) (206 nm). We did not observe a (1+1) REMPI signal through the optically bright (1)B(2) (pipi( *)) and (1)A(1) (pipi( *)) states in pyrrole due to ultrafast deactivation via conical intersections with the dissociative (1)A(2) (pisigma( *)) and (1)B(1) (pisigma( *)) states. However, we did observe (2+1) REMPI through Rydberg states with a dominant feature at 27 432 cm(-1) (two-photon energy, 54 864 cm(-1)) assigned to a 3d<--pi transition. In contrast, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole has a broad and structured (1+1) REMPI spectrum between 36 000 and 42 500 cm(-1) as a result of vibronic transitions to the (1)B(2) (pipi( *)) state, and it does not show the 3d<--pi Rydberg transition via (2+1) REMPI. We have complemented the experimental studies by a theoretical treatment of the excited states of both molecules using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and accounted for the contrasting features in the spectra. TD-DFT modeled the photochemical activity of both the optically dark (1)pisigma( *) states (dissociative) and optically bright (1)pipi( *) states well, predicting the barrierless deactivation of the (1)B(2) (pipi( *)) state of pyrrole and the bound minimum of the (1)B(2) (pipi( *)) state in 2,5-dimethylpyrrole

  19. Low-cost synthesis and physical characterization of thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Berrouard, Philippe; Dufresne, Stéphane; Pron, Agnieszka; Veilleux, Justine; Leclerc, Mario

    2012-09-21

    The improved synthesis of thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) monomers, including Gewald thiophene ring formation, a Sandmeyer-type reaction, and neat condensation with an amine, is presented. This protocol enables faster, cheaper, and more efficient preparation of TPD units in comparison to traditional methods. Furthermore, a series of TPD homo- and pseudohomopolymers bearing various alkyl chains was synthesized via a direct heteroarylation polymerization (DHAP) procedure. UV-visible absorption and powder X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the relationship between the ratio of branched to linear alkyl chains and the optoelectronic properties of the polymers as well as their packing in the solid state.

  20. 1,4,10,13-Tetra-oxa-7,16-diazo-nia-cyclo-octa-decane bis-(1H-pyrrole-2-carboxyl-ate).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fanglei; Yin, Zhenming

    2013-01-01

    In the title salt, C12H28N2O4 (2+)·2C5H4NO2 (-), the 1,4,10,13-tetra-oxa-7,16-di-aza-cyclo-octa-decane dication possesses inversion symmetry. In the crystal, the pyrrole-carboxyl-ate anions are linked via pairs of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. These dimers are linked by the dications, via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [110].

  1. Macrocyclic bis(phenanthroline-pyrrole): a convenient one-pot synthesis, structure(s), spectroscopic, and redox properties, and the binding of amine guests, protons, and lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    McSkimming, Alex; Shrestha, Sumi; Bhadbhade, Mohan M; Thordarson, Pall; Colbran, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a convenient, one-pot, easily scalable and readily modifiable synthesis of a novel large-ring bis(1,10-phenanthrolinyl-2,5-pyrrole) macrocycle, H2LMC, and describes its spectroscopic and electrochemical properties, protonation, cooperative amine binding, electrocatalysis of the oxidation of primary amines, photosensitization of the decomposition of dichloromethane, and the first lanthanide complexes of the hexaaza-dianion LMC(2-) including the novel dimer, [(NO3)(LMC)Eu(μ-OH)Eu(LMC )(H2 O)2]·2py.

  2. 1,2,4-Triazolyl octahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrroles: A new series of potent and selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio; Bernardelli, Andrea; Bianchi, Federica; Braggio, Simone; Castelletti, Laura; Cavallini, Palmina; Cavanni, Paolo; Cremonesi, Susanna; Dal Cin, Michele; Feriani, Aldo; Oliosi, Beatrice; Semeraro, Teresa; Tarsi, Luca; Tomelleri, Silvia; Wong, Andrea; Visentini, Filippo; Zonzini, Laura; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-04-15

    A novel series of 1,2,4-triazolyl octahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrroles showing high affinity and selectivity at the DA D3 receptor is reported here. Compounds endowed with high selectivity over the hERG channel were identified and their pharmacokinetic properties thoroughly analyzed. A few derivatives with appropriate developability characteristics were selected for further studies and progression along the screening cascade. In particular, derivative 60a, (DA D3 pKi=8.4, DA D2 pKi=6.0 and hERG fpKi=5.2) showed a balanced profile and further refinements are in progress around this molecule.

  3. 2,2′,5,5′-Tetra­methyl-1,1′-(hexane-1,6-di­yl)di-1H-pyrrole

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ana C.; Ramos Silva, Manuela; Monsanto, Paula V.; Matos Beja, Ana; Sobral, Abilio J. F. N.

    2009-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C18H28N2, composed of two 2,5-dimethyl­pyrrole groups linked by a hexane chain, lies across a crystallographic inversion centre. The mean plane of the pyrrole ring is almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the central chain, making a dihedral angle of 89.09 (8)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:21582868

  4. A Biomimetic Route for the Construction of the [4+2] and [3+2] Core Skeletons of the Dimeric Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids and the Asymmetric Synthesis of Ageliferins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Xiaolei; Tan, Xianghui; Lu, Jianming; Cormier, Kevin W.; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    The pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids have fascinated chemists for decades because of their unique structures. The high nitrogen and halogen contents and the densely functionalized skeletons make their laboratory synthesis challenging. We describe herein an oxidative method for accessing the core skeletons of two classes of pyrrole-imidazole dimers. This synthetic strategy was inspired by the putative biosynthesis pathways and its development was facilitated by computational studies. Using this method, we have successfully prepared ageliferin, bromoageliferin, and dibromoageliferin in their natural enantiomeric form. PMID:23072663

  5. Structural Optimizations of Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole Derivatives for the Development of Metabolically Stable Inhibitors of Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Ching, Kuan-Chieh; Tran, Thi Ngoc Quy; Amrun, Siti Naqiah; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Ng, Lisa F P; Chai, Christina L L

    2017-04-04

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging vector-borne alphavirus, and there is no approved effective antiviral treatment currently available for CHIKV. We previously reported the discovery of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole 1b that displayed good antiviral activity against CHIKV infection in vitro. However, it has a short half-life in the presence of human liver microsomes (HLMs) (T1/2 = 2.91 min). Herein, we report further optimization studies in which potential metabolically labile sites on compound 1b were removed or modified, resulting in the identification of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole 20 and pyrrolo[2,3-d]thiazole 23c possessing up to 17-fold increase in metabolic half-lives in HLMs and good in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. Compound 20 not only attenuated viral RNA production and displayed broad-spectrum antiviral activity against other alphaviruses and CHIKV isolates but also exhibited limited cytotoxic liability (CC50 > 100 μM). These studies have identified two compounds that have the potential for further development as antiviral drugs against CHIKV infection.

  6. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of a pyrrole containing arylthioindole in human Jurkat leukemia cell line and multidrug-resistant Jurkat/A4 cells

    PubMed Central

    Philchenkov, Alex A; Zavelevich, Michael P; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P; Kuiava, Ludmila M; Blokhin, Dmitry Yu; Miura, Koh; Silvestri, Romano; Pogribny, Igor P

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a series of novel arylthioindole compounds, potent inhibitors of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth, were synthesized. In the present study the effects of 2-(1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-3-((3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)thio)-1H-indole (ATI5 compound) on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and induction of apoptosis in human T-cell acute leukemia Jurkat cells and their multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 subline were investigated. Treatment of the Jurkat cells with the ATI5 compound for 48 hrs resulted in a strong G2/M cell cycle arrest and p53-independent apoptotic cell death accompanied by the induction of the active form of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage. ATI5 treatment also caused non-cell death related mitotic arrest in multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 cells after 48 hrs of treatment suggesting promising opportunities for the further design of pyrrole-containing ATI compounds as anticancer agents. Cell death resistance of Jurkat/A4 cells to ATI5 compound was associated with alterations in the expression of pro-survival and anti-apoptotic protein-coding and microRNA genes. More importantly, findings showing that ATI5 treatment induced p53-independent apoptosis are of great importance from a therapeutic point of view since p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human neoplasms. PMID:26785947

  7. Reactions of β-alkoxyvinyl polyfluoroalkyl ketones with ethyl isocyanoacetate and its use for the synthesis of new polyfluoroalkyl pyrroles and pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Kondratov, Ivan S; Dolovanyuk, Violetta G; Tolmachova, Nataliya A; Gerus, Igor I; Bergander, Klaus; Fröhlich, Roland; Haufe, Günter

    2012-11-28

    The hitherto unreported reactions of β-alkoxyvinyl polyfluoroalkyl ketones with ethyl isocyanoacetate and equimolar amounts of potassium-tert-butoxide proceeded mainly in the β-position of the α,β-unsaturated ketones in cases of α-nonsubstituted 1a–e and α-methyl substituted ketones 1g–j. Other α- or β-substituted ketones 1f,k–o gave mainly products 4 of initial attack at the carbonyl carbon. Depending on the solvent, the major products of β-attack do exist in different tautomeric forms. Generally the openchain enol tautomers 5 predominate in the polar DMSO-d(6), while the cyclic γ-hemiaminals 8 are the major tautomers in the less polar CDCl(3). Acid treatment of the latter compounds 8 led to the hitherto unknown ethyl 5-polyfluoroalkyl-pyrrole-2-carboxylates 11 by elimination of formic acid. Catalytic hydrogenation of pyrrole 11a was used for the synthesis of earlier unknown 5-trifluoromethyl proline 16.

  8. The partial reduction of electron-deficient pyrroles: procedures describing both Birch (Li/NH3) and ammonia-free (Li/DBB) conditions.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Timothy J; Thomas, Rhian E

    2007-01-01

    The partial reduction of electron-deficient pyrroles using either Birch (Li/NH(3)) or ammonia-free (Li/di-tert-butyl biphenyl) conditions allows formation of pyrroline compounds in good yield and, when combined with a reductive alkylation or similar approach, leads to highly functionalized, synthetically useful compounds. This methodology has been proven in the syntheses of several complex natural products, all of which show interesting biological activity. This protocol describes in detail the following stages of the partial reduction procedure: formation of the reducing solution, partial reduction of the pyrrole compound and finally quench of the resulting anion/dianion using either protonating agents or an aldehyde. The ammonia-free conditions described herein are particularly useful for reactions requiring the use of reactive electrophiles, such as acid chlorides or enolizable aldehydes, which are incompatible with the standard Birch reduction conditions. The reaction procedure for the ammonia Birch reduction (procedure A) takes about 9.5 h to complete. Those described for the ammonia-free reductions, procedure B and procedure C, can be expected to take approximately 33 and 8 h, respectively.

  9. Organic materials utilizing first and second generation n-functionalized dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrroles: Synthesis, characterization, and application to electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenson, Sean Justin

    Polythiophenes are a class of conjugated polymers having good environmental stability. Due to their ease of synthetic modification, they are thought to represent the most versatile class of these polymers. Recently, such modified polythiophene materials utilizing fused-ring dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'- d]pyrroles (DTPs) have been shown to exhibit improved electronic and optical properties in comparison to typical polyalkylthiophenes. Further extending the family of DTP building blocks, a new class of second generation DTPs has been synthesized through the incorporation of electron-withdrawing acyl groups at the pyrrole nitrogen. Characterization of this new class of N-acylDTPs revealed a stabilization of the HOMO and LUMO energy levels and a significant reduction in the HOMO-LUMO gap, allowing for improved utility in device applications. An array of both first and second generation DTP materials were prepared, and material properties displayed photophysical and electronic property enhancements, further extending their potential in electronic device applications. Oligomeric DTP materials exhibited fluorescence quantum efficiencies up to 87% while both first and second generation DTP copolymers were successfully incorporated into OLED devices. In addition, analysis of first and second generation DTP materials showed that inclusion of the acyl functional groups proved to enhance not only the material fluorescence quantum yields but also modified the electronic properties making them more desirable for device applications.

  10. Detection of Human IgG on Poly(pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid) Thin Film by Electrochemical-Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmanee, Rapiphun; Baba, Akira; Phanichphant, Sukon; Sriwichai, Saengrawee; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2011-01-01

    An electrochemically controlled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been developed using poly(pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid) (PP3C) film. In this work, a pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid monomer was used for electropolymerization of a PP3C film on a gold-coated high-refractive-index glass slide. In situ electrochemical (EC)-SPR spectroscopy was performed to study the kinetic property and electroactivity property of the PP3C film. Moreover, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was performed to characterize the PP3C film. Finally, the immunosensor-based PP3C film was constructed. The carboxylic acid surface of the PP3C film was activated for the immobilization of anti-human IgG. The immunosensor electrode was used for probing the binding reaction of anti-human IgG/human IgG with several concentrations of human IgG at different constant applied potentials. The probe immobilization and immunosensing process were in situ monitored by EC-SPR technique. The sensitivity of the sensor was improved by controlling the morphology of the PP3C film by applying the potential.

  11. Crystal structure of 4-(2-azido-phen-yl)-5-benzoyl-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbo-nitrile.

    PubMed

    Vimala, G; Raja, J Kamal; Naaz, Y Amina; Preumal, P T; SubbiahPandi, A

    2015-05-01

    In the title compound, C26H16N6O, the dihedral angles between the central pyrrole ring and the pendant indole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.027 Å) and the azide-bearing benzene ring are 37.56 (8) and 51.62 (11)°, respectively. The azide group is almost coplanar with its attached benzene ring [C-C-N-N = 3.8 (3)°]. The benzoyl benzene ring is disordered over two orientations twisted with respect to each other by 9.29 (8)° in a 0.514 (2):0.486 (2) ratio. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of Np-H⋯O (p = pyrrole) hydrogen bonds generate R 2 (2)(10) loops. A second inversion dimer arises from a pair of Ni-H⋯Nc (i = indole and c = cyanide) hydrogen bonds, which generates an R 2 (2)(16) loop. Together, the hydrogen bonds lead to [011] chains in the crystal.

  12. Electrochemiluminescent disposable cholesterol biosensor based on avidin-biotin assembling with the electroformed luminescent conducting polymer poly(luminol-biotinylated pyrrole).

    PubMed

    Ballesta-Claver, J; Ametis-Cabello, J; Morales-Sanfrutos, J; Megía-Fernández, A; Valencia-Mirón, M C; Santoyo-González, F; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2012-11-19

    An electrochemiluminescent cholesterol disposable biosensor has been prepared by the formation of assembled layers on gold screen-printed cells. The detection layer is based on the electro-formation of new luminol copolymers with different synthesized biotinylated pyrroles prepared by click-chemistry, offering a new transduction layer with new electroluminescent properties on biosensors. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) luminol copolymers are electroformed by cyclic voltammetry (five cycles) at pH 7.0 uses a10(-3)M biotinylated pyrrole-luminol ratio of 1:10 in PBS buffer. With respect to the recognition layer, cholesterol oxidase was biotinylated by incubation with biotin vinyl sulfone, and immobilized on the copolymer by avidin-biotin interaction. The analytical signal of the biosensor is the ECL enzymatic initial rate working in chronoamperometric mode at 0.5V excitation potential with 10s between pulses at pH 9.5. The disposable device offers a cholesterol linear range from 1.5×10(-5)M to 8.0×10(-4)M with a limit of detection of 1.47×10(-5)M and accuracy of 7.9% for 9.0×10(-5)M and 14.1% for 2.0×10(-4)M, (n=5). Satisfactory results were obtained for cholesterol determination in serum samples compared to a reference procedure.

  13. Density Functional Study on A-Units Based on Thieno[3,4- c]pyrrole-4,6-dione for Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoqin; Shen, Wei; Fu, Zhiyong; Liu, Xiaorui; Li, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The use of polymer donor materials has allowed great progress in organic solar cells. To search for potential donor materials, we have designed a series of donor-acceptor (D-A)-type alternating polymers composed of dithieno[3,2- b:2',3'- d]pyrrole (DTP) electron-rich units and thieno[3,4- c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) electron-deficient units. Their electronic and optical properties have been investigated using density functional theory and Marcus theory. The calculation results demonstrate that introduction of cyclic compounds (furyl, thienyl, and phenyl) into electron-deficient units of the molecules can result in lower highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels and reorganization energies compared with the experimental molecule ( X 0 ). To investigate the effects of electron-withdrawing units, three electron-withdrawing substituents (-OCH3, -F, and -CN) were introduced into the thienyl. The results indicated that the polymer X 2-3 will show the best performance among the designed polymers, offering low-lying HOMO energy level (-5.47 eV), narrow energy gap (1.97 eV), and high hole mobility (7.45 × 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1). This work may provide a guideline for the design of efficient D-A polymers for organic solar cells with enhanced performance.

  14. Sulfur-containing constituents and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative from pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] fruit.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Ma, Jinyu; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chao, Jianfei; Zhu, Qin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-12-01

    Two sulfur-containing compounds, (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-carboxy-2-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)allylthio)ethyl-amino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (1) and (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-(carboxymethylamino)-3-((E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)allylthio)-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (2), and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative, 6-(3-(1H-pyrrole-2-carbonyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid (3), together with eighteen known phenolic compounds, were isolated from the fruits of pineapple. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. Some of these compounds showed inhibitory activities against tyrosinase. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values of compounds 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 are lower than 1 mM. These compounds may contribute to the well-known anti-browning effect of pineapple juice and be potential skin whitening agents in cosmetic applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Initial state-specific photodissociation dynamics of pyrrole via 1 π σ ∗/ S 0 conical intersection initiated with optimally controlled UV-laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandipati, K. R.; Kanakati, Arun Kumar; Singh, H.; Lan, Z.; Mahapatra, S.

    2017-09-01

    Optimal initiation of quantum dynamics of N-H photodissociation of pyrrole on the S0-1πσ∗(1A2) coupled electronic states by UV-laser pulses in an effort to guide the subsequent dynamics to dissociation limits is studied theoretically. Specifically, the task of designing optimal laser pulses that act on initial vibrational states of the system for an effective UV-photodissociation is considered by employing optimal control theory. The associated control mechanism(s) for the initial state dependent photodissociation dynamics of pyrrole in the presence of control pulses is examined and discussed in detail. The initial conditions determine implicitly the variation in the dissociation probabilities for the two channels, upon interaction with the field. The optimal pulse corresponds to the objective fixed as maximization of overall reactive flux subject to constraints of reasonable fluence and quantum dynamics. The simple optimal pulses obtained by the use of genetic algorithm based optimization are worth an experimental implementation given the experimental relevance of πσ∗-photochemistry in recent times.

  16. ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr (Pyrrole) and alphacypermethrin (Pyrethroid) for control of pyrethroid resistant Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Oxborough, Richard M; Kitau, Jovin; Matowo, Johnson; Feston, Emmanuel; Mndeme, Rajab; Mosha, Franklin W; Rowland, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and continued efficacy of pyrethroid ITNs is under threat. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action conferring no cross-resistance to existing public health insecticides. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr (CFP) and alphacypermethrin (alpha) may provide additional benefits over chlorfenapyr or alphacypermethrin used alone. An ITN mixture of CFP 100 mg/m(2)+alpha 25 mg/m(2) was compared with CFP 100 mg/m(2) and alpha 25 mg/m(2) in a small-scale experimental hut trial in an area of wild An. arabiensis. The same treatments were evaluated in tunnel tests against insectary-reared pyrethroid susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Performance was measured in terms of insecticide-induced mortality, and blood-feeding inhibition. Tunnel tests showed that mixtures of CFP 100+ alpha 25 were 1.2 and 1.5 times more effective at killing susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus than either Alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP 100 (P = 0.001) ITNs. Mixtures of CFP100+ alpha 25 were 2.2 and 1.2 times more effective against resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus than either alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP100 (P = 0.003) ITNs. CFP 100+ alpha 25 produced higher levels of blood-feeding inhibition than CFP alone for susceptible (94 vs 46%, P = 0.001) and resistant (84 vs 53%, P = 0.001) strains. In experimental huts the mixture of CFP 100+ Alpha 25 killed 58% of An. arabiensis, compared with 50% for alpha and 49% for CFP, though the differences were not significant. Blood-feeding inhibition was highest in the mixture with a 76% reduction compared to the untreated net (P = 0.001). ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin should restore effective control of resistant populations of An. gambiae malaria vectors, provide protection from blood-feeding, and may have benefits for resistance management, particularly in areas with low or moderate

  17. ITN Mixtures of Chlorfenapyr (Pyrrole) and Alphacypermethrin (Pyrethroid) for Control of Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Oxborough, Richard M.; Kitau, Jovin; Matowo, Johnson; Feston, Emmanuel; Mndeme, Rajab; Mosha, Franklin W.; Rowland, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and continued efficacy of pyrethroid ITNs is under threat. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action conferring no cross-resistance to existing public health insecticides. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr (CFP) and alphacypermethrin (alpha) may provide additional benefits over chlorfenapyr or alphacypermethrin used alone. An ITN mixture of CFP 100 mg/m2+alpha 25 mg/m2 was compared with CFP 100 mg/m2 and alpha 25 mg/m2 in a small-scale experimental hut trial in an area of wild An. arabiensis. The same treatments were evaluated in tunnel tests against insectary-reared pyrethroid susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Performance was measured in terms of insecticide-induced mortality, and blood-feeding inhibition. Tunnel tests showed that mixtures of CFP 100+ alpha 25 were 1.2 and 1.5 times more effective at killing susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus than either Alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP 100 (P = 0.001) ITNs. Mixtures of CFP100+ alpha 25 were 2.2 and 1.2 times more effective against resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus than either alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP100 (P = 0.003) ITNs. CFP 100+ alpha 25 produced higher levels of blood-feeding inhibition than CFP alone for susceptible (94 vs 46%, P = 0.001) and resistant (84 vs 53%, P = 0.001) strains. In experimental huts the mixture of CFP 100+ Alpha 25 killed 58% of An. arabiensis, compared with 50% for alpha and 49% for CFP, though the differences were not significant. Blood-feeding inhibition was highest in the mixture with a 76% reduction compared to the untreated net (P = 0.001). ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin should restore effective control of resistant populations of An. gambiae malaria vectors, provide protection from blood-feeding, and may have benefits for resistance management, particularly in areas with low or moderate frequency

  18. Green Synthesis of Ag and Pd Nanospheres, Nanowires, and Nanorods Using Vitamin B 2 : Catalytic Polymerisation of Aniline and Pyrrole

    DOE PAGES

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2008-01-01

    Formore » the first time, we report green chemistry approach using vitamin B 2 in the synthesis of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd), nanospheres, nanowires, and nanorods at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride ( NaBH 4 ) or hydroxylamine hydrochloride and any special capping or dispersing agent. Vitamin B 2 was used as reducing agent as well as capping agent due to its high-water solubility, biodegradability, and low-toxicity compared with other reducing agents. The average particle size of nanoprticle was found to be Ag (average size 6.1 ± 0.1 nm) and Pd (average size 4.1 ± 0.1 nm) nanoparticles in ethylene glycol and Ag (average size 5.9 ± 0.1 nm, and average size 6.1 ± 0.1) nanoparticles in acetic acid and NMP, respectively. The formation of noble multiple shape nanostructures and their self assembly were dependent on the solvent employed for the preparation. When water was used as solvent media, Ag and Pd nanoparticles started to self-assemble into rod-like structures and in isopropanol Ag and Pd nanoparticles yielded wire-like structures with a thickness in the range of 10 to 20 nm and several hundred microns in length. In acetone and acetonitrile medium, the Ag and Pd nanoparticles are self-assembled into a regular pattern making nanorod structures with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 200 nm and lengths of a few microns. The so-synthesized nanostructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and UV spectroscopy. The ensuing Ag and Pd nanoparticles catalyzed the reactions of aniline and pyrrole to generate polyaniline and polypyrrole nanofibers and may find various technological and biological applications. This single-step greener approach is general and can be extended to other noble metals and transition metal oxides.« less

  19. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of organic sensitizers incorporating a thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione moiety.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quanyou; Lu, Xuefeng; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2012-06-14

    Novel organic sensitizers containing a thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) moiety with triphenylamine or julolidine as the electron donor have been designed and synthesized for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, two organic dyes based on a terthiophene spacer have also been synthesized. The absorption, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of all sensitizers have been systematically investigated. We found that the incorporation of TPD is highly beneficial to broaden the absorption spectra of the organic sensitizers and prevent the intermolecular interaction. Therefore, the charge recombination possibility is reduced, which is revealed by the controlled intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy. A quasi-solid-state DSSC based on sensitizer FNE38 with TPD and triphenylamine moieties demonstrates a solar energy conversion efficiency of 4.71% under standard AM 1.5G sunlight without the use of coadsorbant agents.

  20. Discovery of 2-azetidinone and 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives containing sulfonamide group at the side chain as potential cholesterol absorption inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xinrui; Lu, Peng; Xue, Xiaojian; Qin, Hui; Fan, Chen; Wang, Yubin; Zhang, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Cholesterol absorption inhibitor (CAI) targeting Niemann-Pick C1-like1 protein was developed for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia and only ezetimibe was approved so far. For developing novel CAIs, we synthesized sixteen 2-azetidinone derivatives and thirteen 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives containing sulfonamide group at the side chain, and their inhibitory activity of cholesterol absorption was evaluated in Caco-2 cell line in vitro. Furthermore, top six compounds were measured by cytotoxicity and partition coefficient, and 2-azetidinone analogue 9e was selected for in vivo study. Finally, 9e considerably reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, FFA and triglyceride in the serum and increased the rate of HDL-C to total cholesterol, suggesting it could regulate the lipid metabolism and act as a potent CAI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mining of the Pyrrolamide Antibiotics Analogs in Streptomyces netropsis Reveals the Amidohydrolase-Dependent “Iterative Strategy” Underlying the Pyrrole Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zixin; Zhao, Changming; Yu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In biosynthesis of natural products, potential intermediates or analogs of a particular compound in the crude extracts are commonly overlooked in routine assays due to their low concentration, limited structural information, or because of their insignificant bio-activities. This may lead into an incomplete and even an incorrect biosynthetic pathway for the target molecule. Here we applied multiple compound mining approaches, including genome scanning and precursor ion scan-directed mass spectrometry, to identify potential pyrrolamide compounds in the fermentation culture of Streptomyces netropsis. Several novel congocidine and distamycin analogs were thus detected and characterized. A more reasonable route for the biosynthesis of pyrrolamides was proposed based on the structures of these newly discovered compounds, as well as the functional characterization of several key biosynthetic genes of pyrrolamides. Collectively, our results implied an unusual “iterative strategy” underlying the pyrrole polymerization in the biosynthesis of pyrrolamide antibiotics. PMID:24901640

  2. In situ Raman and UV-vis spectroscopic studies of polypyrrole and poly(pyrrole-2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin).

    PubMed

    Arjomandi, Jalal; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali; Bilal, Salma; Van Hoang, Hung; Holze, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(pyrrole-2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin) [P(Py-β-DMCD)] films prepared by potential cycling in aqueous acidic solutions on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass and gold electrodes were studied by in situ UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy. Characteristic UV-vis and Raman bands were identified and their dependencies on the electrode potential have been discussed. Spectroelectrochemical results reveal differences both in the position of the spectral bands and their potential dependence for PPy and P(Py-β-DMCD) films indicating interactions between polymer chains and CDs during electropolymerization process. The films were also characterized by cyclic voltammetry and FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectral, IR and magnetic studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-11-01

    Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L) derived from pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO indicates that the complexes are non-electrolyte except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 complexes which are 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 which are of tetrahedral geometry. A tetragonal geometry may be suggested for Cu(II) complexes.

  4. Analysis of the flavonoid component of bioactive New Zealand mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey and the isolation, characterisation and synthesis of an unusual pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ching W; Deadman, Benjamin J; Manley-Harris, Merilyn; Wilkins, Alistair L; Alber, Dagmar G; Harry, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    The flavonoid components of New Zealand mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey have been quantified in a series of 31 honeys of varying non-peroxide antibacterial activity to clarify discrepancies between previous studies reported in the literature. Total flavonoid content was 1.16 mg/100 g honey. The principal flavonoids present were pinobanksin, pinocembrin, luteolin and chrysin and together these represented 61% of the total flavonoid content. 1, 2-formyl-5-(2-methoxyphenyl)-pyrrole, which was weakly correlated with the non-peroxide antibacterial activity, was isolated from the flavonoid fraction and separately synthesised. 1 did not display inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and thus the origin of the correlation, which is still unknown, is not a direct contribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Room-temperature monoclinic and low-temperature triclinic phase-transition structures of meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole-dimethyl sulfoxide (1/1).

    PubMed

    Lynch, V M; Gale, P A; Sessler, J L; Madeiros, D

    2001-12-01

    Crystals of the title complex, C28H36N4*C2H6OS, undergo a phase transition between room temperature and 198 K, as determined by X-ray diffraction techniques. A monoclinic form is observed at room temperature, while a triclinic modification is found at 198 K, with Z' changing from 1 to 2. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the calixpyrrole-dimethyl sulfoxide complex revealed a series of phase changes between 273 and 243 K. The transition from the room-temperature monoclinic form to the low-temperature triclinic form is reversible, as determined by changes in the cell dimensions from remeasuring selected reflections at room temperature and at temperatures below 223 K. The uncomplexed calix[4]pyrrole molecule shows no phase changes occurring between room temperature and 233 K, the low-temperature limit of the DSC.

  6. Acylguanidine inhibitors of beta-secretase: optimization of the pyrrole ring substituents extending into the S1 and S3 substrate binding pockets.

    PubMed

    Cole, Derek C; Stock, Joseph R; Chopra, Rajiv; Cowling, Rebecca; Ellingboe, John W; Fan, Kristi Y; Harrison, Boyd L; Hu, Yun; Jacobsen, Steve; Jennings, Lee D; Jin, Guixian; Lohse, Peter A; Malamas, Michael S; Manas, Eric S; Moore, William J; O'Donnell, Mary-Margaret; Olland, Andrea M; Robichaud, Albert J; Svenson, Kristine; Wu, JunJun; Wagner, Eric; Bard, Jonathan

    2008-02-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by beta-secretase (BACE-1) and gamma-secretase leads to formation of beta-amyloid (A beta) a key component of amyloid plaques, which are considered the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Small molecule inhibitors of BACE-1 may reduce levels of A beta and thus have therapeutic potential for treating Alzheimer's disease. We recently reported the identification of a novel small molecule BACE-1 inhibitor N-[2-(2,5-diphenyl-pyrrol-1-yl)-acetyl]guanidine (3.a.1). We report here the initial hit-to-lead optimization of this hit and the SAR around the aryl groups occupying the S(1) and S(2') pockets leading to submicromolar BACE-1 inhibitors.

  7. A Readily Accessible Chiral NNN Pincer Ligand with a Pyrrole Backbone and Its Ni(II) Chemistry: Syntheses, Structural Chemistry, and Bond Activations.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Jan; Kochan, Alexander; Wadepohl, Hubert; Gade, Lutz H

    2017-03-20

    A new class of chiral C2-symmetric N-donor pincer ligands, 2,5-bis(2-oxazolinyldimethylmethyl)pyrroles (PdmBox)H, was synthesized starting from the readily available ethyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-oxobutanoate (1). The synthesis of the ligand backbone was achieved by oxidative enole coupling with CuC12 followed by Paal-Knorr-type pyrrole synthesis. The corresponding protioligands ((R)PdmBox)H (R = iPr: 5a; Ph: 5b) were obtained by condensation with amino alcohols and subsequent zinc-catalyzed cyclization. Reaction of the lithiated ligands with [NiCl2(dme)] yielded the corresponding square-planar nickel(II) complexes [((R)PdmBox)NiCl] (6a/b). Salt metathesis of 6a with the corresponding alkali or cesium salts in acetone led to the formation of air- and moisture-stable [((iPr)PdmBox)NiX] (X = F (7), X = Br (8), X = I (9), X = N3 (10), X = OAc (11). Furthermore, the conversion of [((iPr)PdmBox)NiF] (7) with hydride transfer reagents such as PhSiH3 led to the stable hydrido species [((iPr)PdmBox)NiH] (27), the stoichiometric transformations of which were studied. Treatment of 6a with organometallic reagents such as ZnEt2, PhLi, PhC≡CLi, NsLi, or ((4F)Bn)2Mg(THF)2 gave the corresponding alkyl, alkynyl, or aryl complexes. The availability of the new nonisomerizable PdmBox pincer ligands allowed the comparative study of their ligation to square-planar complexes as helically twisted spectator ligands as opposed to the enforced planar rigidity of their iso-PmBox analogues and the way this influences the reactivity of the Ni complexes.

  8. Amperometric cholesterol biosensors based on the electropolymerization of pyrrole and aniline in sulphuric Acid for the determination of cholesterol in serum.

    PubMed

    Muhammet, Sinan M; Cete, Servet; Arslan, Fatma; Yaşar, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    A new amperometric cholesterol biosensor was prepared by immobilizing cholesterol oxidase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on polypyrrole-polyaniline (ppy-pani) composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. In order to prepare a biosensor for the determination of cholesterol, electropolymerization of pyrrole and aniline on Pt surface was performed with an electrochemical cell containing pyrrole and aniline in sulphuric acid by cyclic voltammetry between 0.0 and 0,7 V (vs.Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 50 mV upon Pt electrode. The amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H(2)O(2), which is generated in enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. The cholesterol determined by the oxidation of enzymatically generated H(2)O(2) at 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The optimized cholesterol oxidase biosensor displayed linear working range and a response time of 300 s. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 7.0, 25 degrees C, respectively. In addition to this, the stability and reproducibility of biosensor were tried. Operational stability of the proposed cholesterol biosensor was obtained by periodical measurements of the biosensor response. Biosensor at optimum activity conditions was used in 30 activity assays in one day to determine the operational stability. The results show that 82% of the response current was retained after 30 activity assays. The electrode was stored in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C after the measurements. The storage stability of the biosensor was determined by performing activity assays within 23 days. The results demonstrate that 60% of the response current was retained after 23 days. Preparing biosensor is used for the analysis of cholesterol in serum.

  9. Anchoring the Gas-Phase Acidity Scale from Hydrogen Sulfide to Pyrrole. Experimental Bond Dissociation Energies of Nitromethane, Ethanethiol, and Cyclopentadiene.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Kent M; Nickel, Alex A; Lanorio, Jerry G; Ghale, Surja B

    2015-07-16

    A meta-analysis of experimental information from a variety of sources is combined with statistical thermodynamics calculations to refine the gas-phase acidity scale from hydrogen sulfide to pyrrole. The absolute acidities of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, and pyrrole are evaluated from literature R-H bond energies and radical electron affinities to anchor the scale. Relative acidities from proton-transfer equilibrium experiments are used in a local thermochemical network optimized by least-squares analysis to obtain absolute acidities of 14 additional acids in the region. Thermal enthalpy and entropy corrections are applied using molecular parameters from density functional theory, with explicit calculation of hindered rotor energy levels for torsional modes. The analysis reduces the uncertainties of the absolute acidities of the 14 acids to within ±1.2 to ±3.3 kJ/mol, expressed as estimates of the 95% confidence level. The experimental gas-phase acidities are compared with calculations, with generally good agreement. For nitromethane, ethanethiol, and cyclopentadiene, the refined acidities can be combined with electron affinities of the corresponding radicals from photoelectron spectroscopy to obtain improved values of the C-H or S-H bond dissociation energies, yielding D298(H-CH2NO2) = 423.5 ± 2.2 kJ mol(-1), D298(C2H5S-H) = 364.7 ± 2.2 kJ mol(-1), and D298(C5H5-H) = 347.4 ± 2.2 kJ mol(-1). These values represent the best-available experimental bond dissociation energies for these species.

  10. Synthesis, conformational, spectroscopic and chemical reactivity analysis of 2-cyano-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)acrylohydrazide using experimental and quantum chemical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the synthesis, spectroscopic (1H and 13C NMR, UV-Visible, FT-IR and ESI Mass), conformational analysis, chemical reactivity and non-linear optical (NLO) properties of newly synthesized pyrrole derivative 2-cyano-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)acrylohydrazide (2CPA) C8H8N4O using experimental and quantum chemical techniques. The presence of signal at δ 8.010 ppm due to vinyl proton as well as NH and NH2 protons signals at 11.054 and 2.499 ppm in experimental 1H NMR spectrum indicate that 2CPA contain sbnd CHdbnd CCNsbnd and sbnd NHsbnd NH2 frame. The combined experimental and theoretical symmetric (3194 cm-1) and asymmetric (3221 cm-1) stretching wavenumber analysis confirms free NH2 group in the solid phase FT-IR spectrum of the synthesized compound. The interaction energies of dimer formation using density functional theory (DFT) and Quantum theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) calculations are found to be 20.210, 19.683 kcal/mol, respectively. The maximum values of the electrophilic reactivity descriptors at C6 indicate that this site is more prone to nucleophilic attack and favoring the formation of heterocyclic derivatives. A natural bond orbital (NBOs) analysis has been carried out to investigate intramolecular charge transfer, conjugative and hyperconjugative interactions within molecule. The calculated first hyperpolarizability (β0) of 2CPA, indicates that investigated molecule will show non-linear optical response and might be used as non-linear optical (NLO) material.

  11. Experimental and calculated structural parameters of 4-(2-methoxycarbonyl-ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid benzyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. Ramos; Beja, A. Matos; Paixão, J. A.; Justino, L. L. G.; Sobral, Abilio J. F. N.

    2006-03-01

    Crystal structure of 4-(2-methoxycarbonyl-ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1 H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid benzyl ester has been solved by X-ray diffraction. The crystals are triclinic, space group P1¯, with a=5.4435(18) Å, b=12.248(2) Å, c=13.6769(15) Å, α=70.274(12)°, β=81.630(15)°, γ=77.60(2)°, Z=2 and R=0.0519. The molecules are strongly linked in dimers by hydrogen bonds, forming rings with R22(10) as the graph descriptor. The pyrrolic ring, slightly distorted from the C2 v symmetry, is almost planar. This plane makes an angle of 75.5(1)° with the L.S. plane containing the methoxy-carbonyl group and an angle of 13.6(1)° with the L.S. plane containing the benzyl group. The internal cohesion of the crystal is supported by three C-H…π intermolecular interactions, with H…Cg (ring centroid) distances ranging from 3.060 to 3.377 Å. Several calculations were performed for the dimer such as density functional theory with a hybrid functional B3LYP, semi-empirical self-consistent field (AM1 and PM3) and self-consistent field molecular orbital Hartree-Fock (SCF-MO HF) method. The latter calculation was repeated for the isolated molecule. In all cases the minimum of the energy is achieved with the substituents assuming a more perpendicular position to the central aromatic ring than is experimentally observed.

  12. Subporphyrinoid systems: a theoretical study of the effects of the diheteroatom substitution in pyrrole subunits and of the nature of the bridging meso linkages.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Tomás L; Menéndez, M Isabel

    2010-09-03

    A theoretical study of the geometry, the electronic structure, the electronic absorption spectra, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the [14]subporphine(1.1.1)-hydroxyboron(III) complex, free-base subporphyrin, and its dioxygen and dithio pyrrole substituted derivatives using CH, N, and P as bridging meso linkages was performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) theory level. The geometrical structure of these systems is mainly determined by the internal area delimited by the meso atoms and the alpha-carbon atoms of the pyrrolic rings, and by the number and nature of the atoms located on this area. All the hydroxyboron subporphyrins and dioxo and dithio subporphyrins with CH meso connectors display a conical shaped geometry. The presence of strong repulsions between the atoms on the central zone of the remaining systems provokes a correlative tilting of one of the three rings with loss of the conical shape with important consequences on spectroscopic properties. A particularly interesting case is the dioxosubporphyrin with P connectors in which the large area of the central zone determined by these connectors allows for an almost planar geometry that endows it with special features. The molecules presenting a tilted ring display weak absorption bands. Generally, the intensity of the bands moderately increases when the geometry is cone shaped. The dioxo heterosubporphyrins with CH (conical shape) and P (almost planar) connectors present strong absorption bands. (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts clearly reflect the effect of geometry distortion provoked by the repulsion among the atoms of the central area of the system indicating a deep perturbation of the pi system of the molecules.

  13. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) for magnetic solid-phase extraction of pyrazole/pyrrole pesticides in environmental water samples followed by HPLC-DAD determination.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiping; Yao, Zhidan; Hou, Liwei; Lu, Wenhui; Yang, Qipeng; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, [MIL-101]) were prepared and used as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbents for preconcentration of four kinds of pyrazole/pyrrole pesticides (flusilazole, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, and fenpyroximate) in environmental water samples, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) determination. Several variables affecting MSPE efficiency were systematically investigated, including amount of MIL-101, extraction time, sample pH, salt concentration, type of desorption solvent and desorption number of times. Under optimized conditions, excellent linearity was achieved in the range of 5.0-200.0μg/L for flusilazole and fipronil, and 2.0-200.0μg/L for chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate, with correlation coefficients r>0.9911. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.3-1.5μg/L and 1.0-5.0μg/L, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation, n=6, %) at three spiked levels were 1.1-5.4% and 3.9-7.8% in terms of peak area, respectively. The method recoveries at three fortified concentration levels ranged from 81.8% to 107.5% for reservoir water samples, 81.0-99.5% for river water samples, and 80.2-106.5% for seawater samples. The developed MOFs based MSPE coupled with HPLC method proved to be a convenient, rapid and eco-friendly alternative to the sensitive determination of pyrazole/pyrrole pesticides with high repeatability and excellent practical applicability.

  14. Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Iqbal; Patel, Ramesh

    2006-02-01

    An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%.

  15. A simple and efficient route to N-functionalized dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrroles: fused-ring building blocks for new conjugated polymeric systems.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Katsu; Rasmussen, Seth C

    2003-04-04

    A general synthetic route has been developed for the simple and efficient preparation of N-functionalized dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrroles. These synthetic methods utilize N-functionalized N-(3'-thienyl)-3-aminothiophenes produced from the Pd-catalyzed amination of 3-bromothiophene with primary amines, followed by a one-pot bromination/cyclization process. This combination allows the convenient preparation of a variety of N-functionalized dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrroles (where substituent = hexyl, octyl, decyl, tert-butyl, and p-hexylphenyl) in good yield (65-82%). Characterization of the structure and reactivity of this class of compounds is also described, including electrochemical and photophysical data for all compounds and X-ray structural data for the octyl-, tert-butyl-, and p-hexylphenyl-functionalized compounds.

  16. Ferrocene-Functionalized 4-(2,5-Di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline: A Novel Design in Conducting Polymer-Based Electrochemical Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Ayranci, Rukiye; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Ak, Metin; Timur, Suna

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a novel ferrocenyldithiophosphonate functional conducting polymer and its use as an immobilization matrix in amperometric biosensor applications. Initially, 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)amidoferrocenyldithiophosphonate was synthesized and copolymerized with 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzenamine at graphite electrodes. The amino groups on the polymer were utilized for covalent attachment of the enzyme glucose oxidase. Besides, ferrocene on the backbone was used as a redox mediator during the electrochemical measurements. Prior to the analytical characterization, optimization studies were carried out. The changes in current signals at +0.45 V were proportional to glucose concentration from 0.5 to 5.0 mM. Finally, the resulting biosensor was applied for glucose analysis in real samples and the data were compared with the spectrophotometric Trinder method. PMID:25591169

  17. Facile and promising method for michael addition of indole and pyrrole to electron-deficient trans-β-nitroolefins catalyzed by a hydrogen bond donor catalyst Feist's acid and preliminary study of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Al Majid, Abdullah M A; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H M; Naushad, Mu

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperative hydrogen-bonding effects has been demonstrated using novel 3-methylenecyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (Feist's acid (FA)) as hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the addition of indole and pyrrole to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. Because of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability, Feist's acid (FA) has been introduced as a new class of hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the activation of nitroolefin towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. It has effectively catalyzed the Michael addition of indoles and pyrrole to β-nitroolefins under optimum reaction condition to furnish the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields (up to 98%). The method is general, atom-economical, convenient, and eco-friendly and could provide excellent yields and regioselectivities. Some newly synthesized compounds were for examined in vitro antimicrobial activity and their preliminary results are reported.

  18. Facile and Promising Method for Michael Addition of Indole and Pyrrole to Electron-Deficient trans-β-Nitroolefins Catalyzed by a Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalyst Feist's Acid and Preliminary Study of Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al Majid, Abdullah M. A.; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H. M.; Naushad, Mu.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperative hydrogen-bonding effects has been demonstrated using novel 3-methylenecyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (Feist's acid (FA)) as hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the addition of indole and pyrrole to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. Because of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability, Feist's acid (FA) has been introduced as a new class of hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the activation of nitroolefin towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. It has effectively catalyzed the Michael addition of indoles and pyrrole to β-nitroolefins under optimum reaction condition to furnish the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields (up to 98%). The method is general, atom-economical, convenient, and eco-friendly and could provide excellent yields and regioselectivities. Some newly synthesized compounds were for examined in vitro antimicrobial activity and their preliminary results are reported. PMID:24574906

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural evaluation of ethyl 2-cyano-3-{5-[(4-nitro-benzoyl)-hydrazonomethyl]-1H-pyrrol-2-yl}-acrylate using experimental and theoretical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Kumar, Amit; Rawat, Poonam; Srivastsva, Anchal

    2013-10-01

    A new C-vinylpyrrole containing aroylhydrazone, ethyl 2-cyano-3-{5-[(4-nitro-benzoyl)-hydrazonomethyl]-1H-pyrrol-2-yl}-acrylate (ECNBHPA) derived from ethyl 2-cyano-3-(5-formyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-acrylate and 4-nitro-benzohydrazide has been characterized by various spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass, UV-Visible, Emission, FT-IR). TD-DFT has been used to calculate the various electronic excitations and their nature within molecule. The emission spectra of ECNBHPA show photoluminescent behavior of title molecule. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has been carried out to explore the various conjugative/hyperconjugative interactions within molecule and their second order stabilization energy (E(2)). A combined experimental and theoretical vibrational analysis designates presence of the classical hydrogen bonding N1sbnd H29⋯N9 between pyrrole Nsbnd H as proton donor and N atom of cyanide as proton acceptor. To determine the strength and nature of hydrogen bonding, topological parameters at bond critical points (BCP) have been analyzed by 'Quantum theory of atoms in molecules' (QTAIM) in detail. The result of hydrogen bonding is obvious in 1H NMR, FT-IR and ESP map as down field chemical shift, vibrational red shift and absence of blue colur relative to pyrrole Nsbnd H proton, respectively. Global electrophilicity index (ω = 6.573 eV) shows that title molecule behaves as a strong electrophile. The local reactivity descriptors analyses such as Fukui functions (fk+,fk-), local softnesses (sk+,sk-) and electrophilicity indices (ωk+,ωk-) have been performed to determine the reactive sites within molecule. The first hyperpolarizability (β0) of ECNBHPA has been computed to evaluate the non-linear optical (NLO) response of the investigated molecule.

  20. Electronic Excitations in Pyrrole: A Test Case for Determination of Chromophores in the Chromogenic Effects of Neurotoxic Hydrocarbons by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and Single-Excitation Configuration Interaction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo; Dixon, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and single-excitation configuration interaction (CIS) calculations on the electronic excitations in pyrrole have been performed to examine the reliability of these first-principles electronic structure methods in predicting electronic excitation spectraof pyrrole-containing compounds. Both the TD-DFT and CIS calculations led to satisfactory results when compared to available experimental data, particularly for low-lying excited states. The TD-DFT and CIS calculations provide lower and upper limits of the excitation energies, respectively, for low-lying singlet excited states. These results suggest that these methods can be used for the prediction of the excitation spectra, particularly the excitation energies for low-lying excited states, of chromophores responsible for the chromogenic effects of neurotoxic hydrocarbons, which are believed to be substituted pyrroles and their adducts with proteins. As an example of a practical application, the spectrum of the widely used 2,5-dimethylpyrrole has been calculated. It is shown that the 2,5-dimethylpyrrole molecule does not have an absorption in the region of the visible spectrum (400-700 nm), suggesting that the absorption observed at 530 nm and the color of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole is due to another species, probably a product of possible 2,5-dimethylpyrrole autoxidation. This suggests that the conclusions from previously reported experimental studies of biochemical reactions of neurotoxic γ-diketones need to be reexamined in terms of the relationship of chromogenicity to neurotoxicity.

  1. Electronic Excitations in Pyrrole: A Test Case for Determination of Chromophores in the Chromogenic Effects of Neurotoxic Hydrocarbons by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and Single-Excitation Configuration Interaction Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Chang-Guo N.; Dixon, David A. )

    2002-11-01

    Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and single excitation configuration interaction (CIS) calculations on the electronic excitations in pyrrole have been performed to examine the reliability of these first-principles electronic structure methods in predicting electronic excitation spectra of pyrrole-containing compounds. Both the TD-DFT and CIS calculations led to satisfactory results when compared to available experimental data. The TD-DFT and CIS calculations provide lower and upper limits of the excitations energies, respectively. These results suggest that these methods can be used for the prediction of the excitation spectra of chromophores responsible for the chromogenic effects of neurotoxic hydrocarbons which are believed to be substituted pyrroles and their adducts with proteins. As an example of practical application, the spectrum of the widely used 2,5-dimethylpyrrole has been calculated. It is shown that the 2,5-dimethylpyrrole molecule does not have an absorption in the region of the visible spectrum (400-700 nm), suggesting that the absorption observed at 530 nm and the color of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole is due to another species, probably a product of possible 2,5-dimethylpyrrole autoxidation. This suggests that the conclusions from previously reported experimental studies of biochemical reactions of neurotoxic y-diketones need to be re-examined in terms of the relationship of chromogenicity to neurotoxicity.

  2. Thieno[3,2-b]- and thieno[2,3-b]pyrrole bioisosteric analogues of the hallucinogen and serotonin agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    PubMed

    Blair, J B; Marona-Lewicka, D; Kanthasamy, A; Lucaites, V L; Nelson, D L; Nichols, D E

    1999-03-25

    The synthesis and biological activity of 6-[2-(N, N-dimethylamino)ethyl]-4H-thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole (3a) and 4-[2-(N, N-dimethylamino)ethyl]-6H-thieno[2,3-b]pyrrole (3b), thienopyrroles as potential bioisosteres of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (1a), are reported. Hallucinogen-like activity was evaluated in the two-lever drug discrimination paradigm using LSD- and DOI-trained rats. Neither 3a nor 3b substituted for LSD or DOI up to doses of 50 micromol/kg. By comparison, 1a fully substituted in LSD-trained rats. However, 3a and 3b fully substituted for the 5-HT1A agonist LY293284 ((-)-(4R)-6-acetyl-4-(di-n-propylamino)-1,3,4, 5-tetrahydrobenz[c,d]indole). Both 3a and 3b induced a brief "serotonin syndrome" and salivation, an indication of 5-HT1A receptor activation. At the cloned human 5-HT2A receptor 3b had about twice the affinity of 3a. At the cloned human 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors, however, 3a had about twice the affinity of 3b. Therefore, thiophene lacks equivalence as a replacement for the phenyl ring in the indole nucleus of tryptamines that bind to 5-HT2 receptor subtypes and possess LSD-like behavioral effects. Whereas both of the thienopyrroles had lower affinity than the corresponding 1a at 5-HT2 receptors, 3a and 3b had significantly greater affinity than 1a at the 5-HT1A receptor. Thus, thienopyrrole does appear to serve as a potent bioisostere for the indole nucleus in compounds that bind to the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor. These differences in biological activity suggest that serotonin receptor isoforms are very sensitive to subtle changes in the electronic character of the aromatic systems of indole compounds.

  3. Determination of silver(I) by electrothermal-AAS in a microdroplet formed from a homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction system using tetraspirocyclohexylcalix[4]pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Moradi, Farzaneh; Sharghi, Hashem; Hasaninejad, Ali Reza

    2005-04-01

    A simple and efficient method for the selective separation and preconcentration of Ag+ using homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction was developed. Tetraspirocyclohexylcalix[4]pyrrole (TSCC4P) was synthesized and investigated as a suitable selective complexing ligand for Ag+. Zonyl FSA (FSA) was applied as a phase-separator agent under mild pH conditions. Under the optimal conditions ([TSCC4P] = 3.4 x 10(-4) M, [THF] = 25.0% v/v, [FSA] = 1.25% w/v, and pH = 4.5), 5 microg of Ag+ in 6.0 ml aqueous phase could be extracted quantitatively into 20 microl of the sedimented phase. The maximum concentration factor was 300-fold. The limit of detection of the proposed method was 0.005 ng/ml. The reproducibility of the proposed method was at most 3.5%. The influence of the pH, type and volume of the water-miscible organic solvent, concentration of FSA, concentration of the complexing ligand and the effect of different diverse ions on the extraction and determination of Ag+ were investigated. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of Ag+ in different water samples.

  4. Evaluation of indoor residual spraying with the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr against pyrethroid-susceptible Anopheles arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Oxborough, R M; Kitau, J; Matowo, J; Mndeme, R; Feston, E; Boko, P; Odjo, A; Metonnou, C G; Irish, S; N'guessan, R; Mosha, F W; Rowland, M W

    2010-10-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide with a unique non-neurological mode of action. Laboratory bioassays of chlorfenapyr comparing the mortality of pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes indicated that operational cross-resistance is unlikely to occur (resistance ratio ranged between 0 and 2.1). Three trials of chlorfenapyr indoor residual spraying were undertaken in experimental huts in an area of rice irrigation in northern Tanzania that supports breeding of A. arabiensis. Daily mosquito collections were undertaken to assess product performance primarily in terms of mortality. In the second trial, 250mg/m(2) and 500mg/m(2) chlorfenapyr were tested for residual efficacy over 6 months. Both dosages killed 54% of C. quinquefasciatus, whilst for A. arabiensis 250mg/m(2) killed 48% compared with 41% for 500mg/m(2); mortality was as high at the end of the trial as at the beginning. In the third trial, 250mg/m(2) chlorfenapyr was compared with the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin dosed at 30mg/m(2). Chlorfenapyr performance was equivalent to the pyrethroid against A. arabiensis, with both insecticides killing 50% of mosquitoes. Chlorfenapyr killed a significantly higher proportion of pyrethroid-resistant C. quinquefasciatus (56%) compared with alpha-cypermethrin (17%). Chlorfenapyr has the potential to be an important addition to the limited arsenal of public health insecticides for indoor residual control of A. arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant species of mosquito.

  5. Dendrimer Templated Synthesis of One Nanometer Rh and Pt Particles Supported on Mesoporous Silica: Catalytic Activity for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wenyu; Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Zhang, Yawen; Habas, Susan E.; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-05-09

    Monodisperse rhodium (Rh) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles as small as {approx}1 nm were synthesized within a fourth generation polyaminoamide (PAMAM) dendrimer, a hyperbranched polymer, in aqueous solution and immobilized by depositing onto a high-surface-area SBA-15 mesoporous support. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the as-synthesized Rh and Pt nanoparticles were mostly oxidized. Catalytic activity of the SBA-15 supported Rh and Pt nanoparticles was studied with ethylene hydrogenation at 273 and 293 K in 10 torr of ethylene and 100 torr of H{sub 2} after reduction (76 torr of H{sub 2} mixed with 690 torr of He) at different temperatures. Catalysts were active without removing the dendrimer capping but reached their highest activity after hydrogen reduction at a moderate temperature (423 K). When treated at a higher temperature (473, 573, and 673 K) in hydrogen, catalytic activity decreased. By using the same treatment that led to maximum ethylene hydrogenation activity, catalytic activity was also evaluated for pyrrole hydrogenation.

  6. 1,4-Dihydropyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrroles as a Single Component Photoactive Layer: A New Paradigm for Broadband Detection.

    PubMed

    Canjeevaram Balasubramanyam, Ram Kumar; Kandjani, Ahmad E; Harrison, Christopher J; Abdul Haroon Rashid, Syed Sulthan Alaudeen; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Narayan, Ramanuj; Basak, Pratyay; Ippolito, Samuel J

    2017-08-23

    Single component organic photodetectors capable of broadband light sensing represent a paradigm shift for designing flexible and inexpensive optoelectronic devices. The present study demonstrates the application of a new quadrupolar 1,4-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole derivative with spectral sensitivity across 350-830 nm as a potential broadband organic photodetector (OPD) material. The amphoteric redox characteristics evinced from the electrochemical studies are exploited to conceptualize a single component OPD with ITO and Al as active electrodes. The photodiode showed impressive broadband photoresponse to monochromatic light sources of 365, 470, 525, 589, 623, and 830 nm. Current density-voltage (J-V) and transient photoresponse studies showed stable and reproducible performance under continuous on/off modulations. The devices operating in reverse bias at 6 V displayed broad spectral responsivity (R) and very good detectivity (D*) peaking a maximum 0.9 mA W(-1) and 1.9 × 10(10) Jones (at 623 nm and 500 μW cm(-2)) with a fast rise and decay times of 75 and 140 ms, respectively. Low dark current densities ranging from 1.8 × 10(-10) Acm(-2) at 1 V to 7.2 × 10(-9) A cm(-2) at 6 V renders an operating range to amplify the photocurrent signal, spectral responsivity, and detectivity. Interestingly, the fabricated OPDs display a self-operational mode which is rarely reported for single component organic systems.

  7. Enhancing activity and selectivity in a series of pyrrol-1-yl-1-hydroxypyrazole-based aldose reductase inhibitors: The case of trifluoroacetylation.

    PubMed

    Papastavrou, Nikolaos; Chatzopoulou, Maria; Ballekova, Jana; Cappiello, Mario; Moschini, Roberta; Balestri, Francesco; Patsilinakos, Alexandros; Ragno, Rino; Stefek, Milan; Nicolaou, Ioannis

    2017-04-21

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) has been the target of therapeutic intervention for over 40 years; first, for its role in long-term diabetic complications and more recently as a key mediator in inflammation and cancer. However, efforts to prepare small-molecule aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have mostly yielded carboxylic acids with rather poor pharmacokinetics. To address this limitation, the 1-hydroxypyrazole moiety has been previously established as a bioisostere of acetic acid in a group of aroyl-substituted pyrrolyl derivatives. In the present work, optimization of this new class of ARIs was achieved by the addition of a trifluoroacetyl group on the pyrrole ring. Eight novel compounds were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and selectivity against aldehyde reductase (ALR1). All compounds proved potent and selective inhibitors of ALR2 (IC50/ALR2 = 0.043-0.242 μΜ, Selectivity index = 190-858), whilst retaining a favorable physicochemical profile. The most active (4g) and selective (4d) compounds were further evaluated for their ability to inhibit sorbitol formation in rat lenses ex vivo and to exhibit substrate-specific inhibition.

  8. Mimicking Trimeric Interactions in the Aromatic Side Chains of the Proteins: a Gas Phase Study of INDOLE...(PYRROLE)_2 Heterotrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Aloke; Kumar, Sumit

    2012-06-01

    Aromatic trimeric interactions are extremely important in the stabilization of the specific structures of the proteins as well as protein-protein, and protein-ligand interactions. Here I will present a direct evidence of the observation of a cyclic asymmetric structure of indole...(pyrrole)_2 trimer bound by three N-H...π hydrogen bonding interactions in a supersonic jet. The experiment has been performed by using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), IR-UV, and UV-UV double resonance spectroscopic techniques. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations nicely corroborate the experimental results showing one weakly allowed IR-active band due to symmetric stretch of the N-H bonds and two strongly allowed IR-active bands due to two types of asymmetric stretches of the N-H bonds in the trimer. The most significant finding of the present investigation is that there is a direct IR spectral signature for the determination of the geometry of a trimer if it has a cyclic asymmetric structure.

  9. Electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of insulin-like growth factor-1 using electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes-poly(pyrrole propionic acid) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Serafín, V; Agüí, L; Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-02-15

    An amperometric immunosensor for the determination of the hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is reported for the first time in this work. As electrochemical transducer, a multiwalled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode on which poly(pyrrole propionic acid) was electropolymerized was prepared. This approach provided a high content of surface confined carboxyl groups suitable for direct covalent binding of anti-IGF1 monoclonal antibody. A sandwich-type immunoassay using a polyclonal antibody labeled with peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide as the enzyme substrate and catechol as redox mediator was employed to monitor the affinity reaction. All the variables involved in the preparation of the modified electrode were optimized and the electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Moreover, the different experimental variables affecting the amperometric response of the immunosensor were also optimized. The calibration graph for IGF1 showed a range of linearity extending from 0.5 to 1000 pg/mL, with a detection limit, 0.25 pg/mL, more than 100 times lower than the lowest values reported for the ELISA immunoassays available for IGF1 (30 pg/mL, approximately). Excellent reproducibility for the measurements carried out with different immunosensors and selectivity against other hormones were also evidenced. A commercial human serum spiked with IGF1 at different levels between 0.01 and 10.0 ng/mL was analyzed with good results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization on 4-(2,5-di-2-thienyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl) benzoic acid: A DFT approach.

    PubMed

    Kurt, M; Sas, E Babur; Can, M; Okur, S; Icli, S; Demic, S; Karabacak, M; Jayavarthanan, T; Sundaraganesan, N

    2016-01-05

    A complete structural and vibrational analysis of the 4-(2,5-di-2-thienyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl) benzoic acid (TPBA), was carried out by ab initio calculations, at the density functional theory (DFT) method. Molecular geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) (13)C NMR and (1)H NMR chemical shift values of (TPBA), in the ground state have been calculated by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311G(d,p) as basis set for the first time. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational modes of (TPBA) and calculated results by DFT/B3LYP method indicates that B3LYP level of theory giving yield good results for quantum chemical studies. Vibrational wavenumbers obtained by the DFT/B3LYP method are in good agreement with the experimental data. The study was complemented with a natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, to evaluate the significance of hyperconjugative interactions and electrostatic effects on such molecular structure. By using TD-DFT method, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with the TD-DFT method and the experimental one is determined. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals analysis and thermodynamic properties of TPBA were investigated using theoretical calculations.

  11. FT-IR, Laser-Raman spectra and quantum chemical calculations of methyl 4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate-A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; Sreenivasa, S.; Doğan, H.; Manojkumar, K. E.; Suchetan, P. A.; Ucun, Fatih

    2014-06-01

    In this study the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory agent namely, methyl 4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100 cm-1) of the molecule in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr and DFT/M06-2X: highly parameterized, empirical exchange correlation function) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated using the same theoretical calculations.

  12. FT-IR, Laser-Raman spectra and quantum chemical calculations of methyl 4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate-A DFT approach.

    PubMed

    Sert, Yusuf; Sreenivasa, S; Doğan, H; Manojkumar, K E; Suchetan, P A; Ucun, Fatih

    2014-06-05

    In this study the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory agent namely, methyl 4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400cm(-1)) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100cm(-1)) of the molecule in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr and DFT/M06-2X: highly parameterized, empirical exchange correlation function) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated using the same theoretical calculations.

  13. Dual Functioning Thieno-Pyrrole Fused BODIPY Dyes for NIR Optical Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy: Singlet Oxygen Generation without Heavy Halogen Atom Assistance.

    PubMed

    Watley, Ryan L; Awuah, Samuel G; Bio, Moses; Cantu, Robert; Gobeze, Habtom B; Nesterov, Vladimir N; Das, Sushanta K; D'Souza, Francis; You, Youngjae

    2015-06-01

    We discovered a rare phenomenon wherein a thieno-pyrrole fused BODIPY dye (SBDPiR690) generates singlet oxygen without heavy halogen atom substituents. SBDPiR690 generates both singlet oxygen and fluorescence. To our knowledge, this is the first example of such a finding. To establish a structure-photophysical property relationship, we prepared SBDPiR analogs with electron-withdrawing groups at the para-position of the phenyl groups. The electron-withdrawing groups increased the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and singlet oxygen generation. Among the analogs, SBDPiR688, a CF3 analog, had an excellent dual functionality of brightness (82290 m(-1)  cm(-1) ) and phototoxic power (99170 m(-1)  cm(-1) ) comparable to those of Pc 4, due to a high extinction coefficient (211 000 m(-1)  cm(-1) ) and balanced decay (Φflu =0.39 and ΦΔ =0.47). The dual functionality of the lead compound SBDPiR690 was successfully applied to preclinical optical imaging and for PDT to effectively control a subcutaneous tumor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization on 4-(2,5-di-2-thienyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl) benzoic acid: A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, M.; Sas, E. Babur; Can, M.; Okur, S.; Icli, S.; Demic, S.; Karabacak, M.; Jayavarthanan, T.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2016-01-01

    A complete structural and vibrational analysis of the 4-(2,5-di-2-thienyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl) benzoic acid (TPBA), was carried out by ab initio calculations, at the density functional theory (DFT) method. Molecular geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 13C NMR and 1H NMR chemical shift values of (TPBA), in the ground state have been calculated by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311G(d,p) as basis set for the first time. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational modes of (TPBA) and calculated results by DFT/B3LYP method indicates that B3LYP level of theory giving yield good results for quantum chemical studies. Vibrational wavenumbers obtained by the DFT/B3LYP method are in good agreement with the experimental data. The study was complemented with a natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, to evaluate the significance of hyperconjugative interactions and electrostatic effects on such molecular structure. By using TD-DFT method, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with the TD-DFT method and the experimental one is determined. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals analysis and thermodynamic properties of TPBA were investigated using theoretical calculations.

  15. Sequence-specific DNA alkylation and transcriptional inhibition by long-chain hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamide-chlorambucil conjugates targeting CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeats.

    PubMed

    Asamitsu, Sefan; Kawamoto, Yusuke; Hashiya, Fumitaka; Hashiya, Kaori; Yamamoto, Makoto; Kizaki, Seiichiro; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Introducing novel building blocks to solid-phase peptide synthesis, we readily synthesized long-chain hairpin pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide-chlorambucil conjugates 3 and 4 via the introduction of an amino group into a GABA (γ-turn) contained in 3, to target CAG/CTG repeat sequences, which are associated with various hereditary disorders. A high-resolution denaturing polyacrylamide sequencing gel revealed sequence-specific alkylation both strands at the N3 of adenines or guanines in CAG/CTG repeats by conjugates 3 and 4, with 11bp recognition. In vitro transcription assays using conjugate 4 revealed that specific alkylation inhibited the progression of RNA polymerase at the alkylating sites. Chiral substitution of the γ-turn with an amino group resulted in higher binding affinity observed in SPR assays. These assays suggest that conjugates 4 with 11bp recognition has the potential to cause specific DNA damage and transcriptional inhibition at the alkylating sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis, characterisation and electrical properties of supramolecular DNA-templated polymer nanowires of 2,5-(bis-2-thienyl)-pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Watson, Scott M D; Hedley, Joseph H; Galindo, Miguel A; Al-Said, Said A F; Wright, Nick G; Connolly, Bernard A; Horrocks, Benjamin R; Houlton, Andrew

    2012-09-17

    Supramolecular polymer nanowires have been prepared by using DNA-templating of 2,5-(bis-2-thienyl)-pyrrole (TPT) by oxidation with FeCl(3) in a mixed aqueous/organic solvent system. Despite the reduced capacity for strong hydrogen bonding in polyTPT compared to other systems, such as polypyrrole, the templating proceeds well. FTIR spectroscopic studies confirm that the resulting material is not a simple mixture and that the two types of polymer interact. This is indicated by shifts in bands associated with both the phosphodiester backbone and the nucleobases. XPS studies further confirm the presence of DNA and TPT, as well as dopant Cl(-) ions. Molecular dynamics simulations on a [{dA(24):dT(24)}/{TPT}(4)] model support these findings and indicate a non-coplanar conformation for oligoTPT over much of the trajectory. AFM studies show that the resulting nanowires typically lie in the 7-8 nm diameter range and exhibit a smooth, continuous, morphology. Studies on the electrical properties of the prepared nanowires by using a combination of scanned conductance microscopy, conductive AFM and variable temperature two-terminal I-V measurements show, that in contrast to similar DNA/polymer systems, the conductivity is markedly reduced compared to bulk material. The temperature dependence of the conductivity shows a simple Arrhenius behaviour consistent with the hopping models developed for redox polymers.

  17. Highly stable water dispersible calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide protected gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensors for selective signaling of Co(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Keyur D.; Vyas, Disha J.; Makwana, Bharat A.; Darjee, Savan M.; Jain, Vinod K.

    2014-03-01

    Water dispersible stable gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been synthesized by using calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide (CPOH) as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. CPOH-AuNps have been characterized by surface plasmon resonance, particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. CPOH-AuNps are water dispersible, highly stable for more than 150 days at neutral pH with a size of less than 10 nm and zeta potential of 15 ± 2 MeV. Ion sensing property of CPOH-AuNps has been investigated for various metal ions Pb(II), Cd(II), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) by colorimetry and spectrofluorimetry. Among all the metal ions investigated, only Co(II) ions gives sharp colour change from ruby red to blue and is easily detectable by naked-eye. CPOH-AuNps being fluorescent in nature also shows great sensitivity and selectivity for Co(II) ions. Co(II) ions can be selectively detected at very low concentration level of 1 nM in a facile way of fluorescence quenching.

  18. DNA-encapsulated chain and wire-like β-MnO2 organosol for oxidative polymerization of pyrrole to polypyrrole.

    PubMed

    Ede, Sivasankara Rao; Anantharaj, S; Nithiyanantham, U; Kundu, Subrata

    2015-02-21

    A DNA-encapsulated chain and wire-like β-MnO2 organosols have been synthesized utilizing a two-phase water-toluene extraction procedure at room temperature (RT). The β-MnO2 organosol was prepared by transferring KMnO4 and DNA from aqueous solution separately to an organic solvent (toluene) using a phase transfer catalyst, mixing both organic solutions together, and subsequent reduction with NaBH4. The eventual diameters of the MnO2 particles in chain-like and wire-like morphologies were ∼1-2 nm and ∼1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, whereas the nominal length of the DNA-MnO2 chains was ∼2-3 μm. Different morphologies of the MnO2 organosol were synthesized by simply tuning the DNA to KMnO4 molar ratio. The synthesized particles were successfully re-dispersed in different organic solvents for application in various organic reactions. The potential of the DNA-MnO2 organosol as a catalyst has been tested in the organic catalytic reaction for the oxidative polymerization of pyrrole to polypyrrole, using the DNA-MnO2 organosol as a potential catalyst. The synthesis process was simple, reproducible and robust. In future, the present process might be utilized for the formation of other nanomaterials in organic solvents, with specific morphologies and uses in a variety of catalytic reactions and energy storage applications.

  19. Vibrational spectra and electronic structure of 3-((1H-pyrrol-1-yl) methyl) naphthalen-2-ol - A computational insight on antioxidant active Mannich base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boobalan, Maria susai; Tamilvendan, D.; Amaladasan, M.; Ramalingam, S.; Venkatesa Prabhu, G.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-02-01

    The 3-((1H-pyrrol-1-yl) methyl) naphthalen-2-ol (IFTN) is a class of synthesized organic Mannich base compound having antioxidant property of biological importance. A meticulous normal mode vibrational analysis has been carried out by comparing and contrasting the experimentally recorded FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra with simulated spectra of IFTN. Similarly the calculated 1H and 13C NMR of IFTN were correlated with experimental findings to understand the shielding and deshielding nature hold in it. The following other electronic structure properties were calculated such as equilibrium geometrical parameters, natural bond orbital analysis (NBO), frontier molecular orbital (FMO) characterization, statistical thermochemical properties against a range of temperatures and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) imprint was carried out along with various charges such as APT, ESP, Hirshfeld, natural and Mulliken. All these predicted properties unlock the nature of total behavior of IFTN in various dimensions. These could be Lewis, non-Lewis interaction along with their respective energies, contribution of fragmented moieties for various orders of HOMO and LUMO, temperature consequences on enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity. In addition, the MEP leads to find electrophilic, nucleophilic reactive sites on IFTN molecular surface. The entire computational calculations has been made on HF/6-31+G/6-311++G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31+G/6-311++G(d,p) model chemistries. A complete electronic structure observation has been achieved by this theoretical analysis.

  20. The influence of the relative position of the thiophene and pyrrole rings in donor-acceptor thienylpyrrolyl-benzothiazole derivatives. A photophysical and theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Pina, João; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Batista, Rosa M F; Costa, Susana P G; Raposo, M Manuela M

    2010-09-07

    A detailed spectroscopic and photophysical study has been carried out on a series of heterocyclic compounds-known to display nonlinear optical properties-consisting on a electron donating thienylpyrrolyl pi-conjugated system functionalized with an electron acceptor benzothiazole moiety. The absorption, emission and triplet-triplet absorption together with all relevant quantum yields (fluorescence, intersystem crossing and internal conversion), excited state lifetimes and the overall set of deactivation rate constants (k(F), k(IC) and k(ISC)) were obtained in solution at room (293 K) and low (77 K) temperature. The optimized ground-state molecular geometries for the compounds together with the prediction of the lowest vertical one-electron excitation energy and the relevant molecular orbital contours for the compounds were also determined using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/3-21G* level. The experimental results showed that the photophysical properties are influenced by the relative position of the pyrrole and thiophene relative to the benzothiazole group.

  1. Combined 3D-QSAR modeling and molecular docking studies on pyrrole-indolin-2-ones as Aurora A kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yong; Wang, Shao-Teng; Sun, Ping-Hua; Song, Fa-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Aurora kinases have emerged as attractive targets for the design of anticancer drugs. 3D-QSAR (comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA)) and Surflex-docking studies were performed on a series of pyrrole-indoline-2-ones as Aurora A inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models using 25 inhibitors in the training set gave r(2) (cv) values of 0.726 and 0.566, and r(2) values of 0.972 and 0.984, respectively. The adapted alignment method with the suitable parameters resulted in reliable models. The contour maps produced by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models were employed to rationalize the key structural requirements responsible for the activity. Surflex-docking studies revealed that the sulfo group, secondary amine group on indolin-2-one, and carbonyl of 6,7-dihydro-1H-indol-4(5H)-one groups were significant for binding to the receptor, and some essential features were also identified. Based on the 3D-QSAR and docking results, a set of new molecules with high predicted activities were designed.

  2. Fe nanoparticle tailored poly(N-methyl pyrrole) nanowire matrix: a CHEMFET study from the perspective of discrimination among electron donating analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, K.; Ghosh, P.; Rushi, A.; Mulchandani, A.; Shirsat, M.

    2015-03-01

    Back-gated chemically sensitive field effect transistor (CHEMFET) platforms have been developed with electrochemically synthesized poly(N-methyl pyrrole) nanowires by a templateless route. The nanowire matrix has been tailored with Fe nanoparticles to probe their effect in enhancing the sensing capabilities of the nanowire platform, and further to see if the inculcation of Fe nanoparticles is helpful to enhance the screening capability of the sensor among electron donating analytes. A noticeable difference in the sensing behaviour of the CHEMFET sensor was observed when it was exposed to three different analytes—ammonia, phosphine and carbon monoxide. FET transfer characteristics were instrumental in the corroboration of the experimental validations. The observations have been rationalized considering the simultaneous modulation of the work functions of Fe and polymeric material. The real time behaviour of the sensor shows that the sensor platform is readily capable of sensing the validated analytes at a ppb level of concentration with good response and recovery behaviour. The best response could be observed for ammonia with an Fe nanoparticle tailored polymeric matrix, with a sensitivity of ~31.58% and excellent linearity (R2 = 0.985) in a concentration window of 0.05 ppm to 1 ppm.

  3. Combined 3D-QSAR Modeling and Molecular Docking Studies on Pyrrole-Indolin-2-ones as Aurora A Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Yong; Wang, Shao-Teng; Sun, Ping-Hua; Song, Fa-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Aurora kinases have emerged as attractive targets for the design of anticancer drugs. 3D-QSAR (comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA)) and Surflex-docking studies were performed on a series of pyrrole-indoline-2-ones as Aurora A inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models using 25 inhibitors in the training set gave r2cv values of 0.726 and 0.566, and r2 values of 0.972 and 0.984, respectively. The adapted alignment method with the suitable parameters resulted in reliable models. The contour maps produced by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models were employed to rationalize the key structural requirements responsible for the activity. Surflex-docking studies revealed that the sulfo group, secondary amine group on indolin-2-one, and carbonyl of 6,7-dihydro-1H-indol-4(5H)-one groups were significant for binding to the receptor, and some essential features were also identified. Based on the 3D-QSAR and docking results, a set of new molecules with high predicted activities were designed. PMID:21673910

  4. Design, spectral characterization, DFT and biological studies of transition metal complexes of Schiff base derived from 2-aminobenzamide, pyrrole and furan aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B S; Sharma, Deepansh

    2015-05-15

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L(1), L(2) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 2-aminobenzamide with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde and furan-2-carboxaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 2:1. The characterization of newly formed complexes was done by (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrophotometry, EPR and molar conductivity studies. The thermal studies suggested that the complexes are more stable as compared to ligand. In DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for Cu(II) complexes. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antimicrobial activities, against four bacterial strains and two fungal strains by using serial dilution method. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  5. Design, spectral characterization, DFT and biological studies of transition metal complexes of Schiff base derived from 2-aminobenzamide, pyrrole and furan aldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B. S.; Sharma, Deepansh

    2015-05-01

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L1, L2 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 2-aminobenzamide with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde and furan-2-carboxaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 2:1. The characterization of newly formed complexes was done by 1H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrophotometry, EPR and molar conductivity studies. The thermal studies suggested that the complexes are more stable as compared to ligand. In DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for Cu(II) complexes. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antimicrobial activities, against four bacterial strains and two fungal strains by using serial dilution method. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  6. Binding, Electrochemical Activation and Cleavage of DNA by Cobalt(II)tetrakis-N-Methylpyridyl Porphyrin and its β-Pyrrole Brominated Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Yellappa, Shivaraj; Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Rogers, Lisa M.; Chitta, Raghu; Singhal, Ram P.; D’Souza, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The binding of nucleic acids by water soluble cobalt(II) tetrakis-N-methylpyridyl porphyrin, (TMPyP)Co and its highly electron deficient derivative, cobalt(II) tetrakis-N-methyl pyridyl-β-octabromoporphyrin, (Br8TMPyP)Co was investigated by UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism (CD), electrochemical and gel electrophoresis methods. The changes of the absorption spectra during the titration of these complexes with polynucleotides revealed a shift in the absorption maxima and a hypochromicity of the porphyrin Soret bands. The intrinsic binding constants were found to be in the range of 105 – 106 M−1. These values were higher for more electron deficient (Br8TMPyP)Co. Induced CD bands were noticed in the Soret region of the complexes due to the interaction of these complexes with different polynucleotides and an analysis of the CD spectra supported mainly external mode of binding. Electrochemical studies revealed the cleavage of polynucleotide by (TMPyP)Co and (Br8TMPyP)Co in the presence of oxygen preferentially at the A-T base pair region. Gel electrophoresis experiments further supported the cleavage of nucleic acids. The results indicate that the β-pyrrole brominated porphyrin, (Br8TMPyP)Co binds strongly and cleaves nucleic acids efficiently as compared to (TMPyP)Co. This electrolytic procedure offers a unique tool in biotechnology for cleaving double-stranded DNA with specificity at the A-T regions. PMID:17105219

  7. Post-HTS case report and structural alert: Promiscuous 4-aroyl-1,5-disubstituted-3-hydroxy-2H-pyrrol-2-one actives verified by ALARM NMR.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Jayme L; Nissink, J Willem M; Francis, Subhashree; Strasser, Jessica M; John, Kristen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Walters, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Despite its wide use, not every high-throughput screen (HTS) yields chemical matter suitable for drug development campaigns, and seldom are 'go/no-go' decisions in drug discovery described in detail. This case report describes the follow-up of a 4-aroyl-1,5-disubstituted-3-hydroxy-2H-pyrrol-2-one active from a cell-free HTS to identify small-molecule inhibitors of Rtt109-catalyzed histone acetylation. While this compound and structural analogs inhibited Rtt109-catalyzed histone acetylation in vitro, further work on this series was halted after several risk mitigation strategies were performed. Compounds with this chemotype had a poor structure-activity relationship, exhibited poor selectivity among other histone acetyltransferases, and tested positive in a β-lactamase counter-screen for chemical aggregates. Furthermore, ALARM NMR demonstrated compounds with this chemotype grossly perturbed the conformation of the La protein. In retrospect, this chemotype was flagged as a 'frequent hitter' in an analysis of a large corporate screening deck, yet similar compounds have been published as screening actives or chemical probes versus unrelated biological targets. This report-including the decision-making process behind the 'no-go' decision-should be informative for groups engaged in post-HTS triage and highlight the importance of considering physicochemical properties in early drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of BaFe12O19/Poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) Composites Coatings as Radar Absorbing Material (RAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasria, Nia; Ardhyananta, H.; Fajarin, R.; Widyastuti

    2017-07-01

    This research shows the processing and design of radar absorbing material (RAM) based on barium hexaferrite (BaM) and poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) (PAni,PPy,PET). BaM was prepared by sol gel method with Ni-Zn doping at mole fraction of 0. 4 to obtain soft magnetic material. BaM/(PAni,PPy) composites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization method at ˜0 °C. (BaM/PET) composite was prepared by melt compounding at 220°C. The composites were coated on A-grade AH36 steel using Dallenbach Layer, Salisbury Screen and Jaumann Layer methods with thickness of 2, 4, and 6 mm. The composites were evaluated using XRD, SEM, FTIR, VSM, LCM-meter and VNA. Results showed that doped BaM showed BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 structure. BaM/(PAni,PPy,PET) composites possessed globular morphology with M-O and C-H bonds. BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 exhibited the value of Ms and Hc, 56.6 emu/g and 60 Oe respectively. High electrical conductivity of 1.77744 × 10-5 S/cm was achieved of BaM/PAni composite. The maximum reflection loss (RL) was reached at - 48.720 dB and 8.1 GHz for BaM/PAni composite coating with 6 mm thickness at Jaumann Layer. These results indicated that BaM/PAni composite was a soft magnetic material with a high RL value that is suitable for RAM, which used in stealth technology on naval vessels.

  9. Morphological and physicochemical properties of dip-coated poly {(2,5-diyl pyrrole) [4-nitrobenzylidène]} (PPNB) thin films: towards photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchaal, Younes; Gherrass, Hamou; Bendoukha Reguig, Abdelkarim; Hachemaoui, Aïcha; Yahiaoui, Ahmed; Makha, Mohamed; Khelil, Abdelbacet; Bernede, Jean-Christian

    2015-02-01

    A new material: conjugated poly {(2,5-diyl pyrrole) [4-nitrobenzylidène]}, that we called (PPNB), has been synthesized and characterized. The cyclic voltammetry has been used in order to estimate first oxidation (Ep) and reduction (En) potentials of our polymer. These values have been assigned, respectively, to the position of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and determination of the energy band gap which have been estimated to be 6.16, 3.89 and 2.27 eV respectively. Energy levels values of the HOMO and LUMO of the PPNB polymeric donor material were evaluated and the results are compatible with an electron transfer to C60 within an eventual junction, such values show that PPNB could be probed for applications in organic solar cells as donor material. PPNB Thin films have been deposited by dip-coating technique from Dichloromethane solvent with different polymer concentrations, and a dipping speed of 3.0 cm/min. For morphological characterization of the films scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out. The samples, when observed by SEM, reveals that the films deposited are less dense, uniform. Cross-sectional SEM micrographs PPNB films show that thickness of the layers is homogeneous and has value of 35-40 nm. Optical characteristics of the polymer thin films were studied using UV-vis spectroscopy; absorption of wide range of wavelengths from 350 to 700 nm was observed. The optical band gap energy ranges between 1.9 eV and 1.94 eV. Based on these analyzes we realized heterojunction organic solar cells with the structure: ITO/Au/PPNB/C60/BCP/Al, the cells had a photovoltaique effect after J-V measuring, however the efficiency of photo generation under AM1.5 illumination was weak (about 0.02%) and needs to be improved.

  10. Complete dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solution on palladium/polymeric pyrrole-cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide/foam-nickel composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhirong; Wei, Xuefeng; Han, Yanbo; Tong, Shan; Hu, Xiang

    2013-01-15

    The electrochemically reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solution on palladium/polymeric pyrrole-cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide/foam-nickel electrode (Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode) was investigated in this paper. Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode was prepared and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) adsorption and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The influences of some experimental factors such as the dechlorination current, dechlorination time and the initial pH on the removal efficiency and the current efficiency of 2,4-DCP dechlorination on Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode were studied. Complete removal of 2,4-DCP was achieved and the current efficiency of 47.4% could be obtained under the conditions of the initial pH of 2.2, the dechlorination current of 5 mA and the dechlorination time of 50 min when the initial 2,4-DCP concentration was 100 mg L(-1). The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identified that the intermediate products were 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The final products were mainly phenol. Its further reduction product cyclohexanone was also detected. The electrocatalytic dechlorination pathways of 2,4-DCP on Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode were discussed. The stability of the electrode was favorable that it could keep dechlorination efficiency at 100% after having been reused 10 times. Results revealed that the stable prepared Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode presented a good application prospect in dechlorination process with high effectiveness and low cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B. . E-mail: pravin_sehgal@nymc.edu

    2006-03-15

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a 'megalocytosis' phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the 'Golgi blockade' hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and {alpha}-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1{alpha} and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis.

  12. Polymerizing Pyrrole Coated Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) Conductive Nanofibrous Conduit Combined with Electric Stimulation for Long-Range Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jialin; Sun, Binbin; Liu, Shen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yuanzheng; Wang, Chunyang; Mo, Xiumei; Che, Junyi; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning and electric stimulation (ES) are both promising methods to support neuron adhesion and guide extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, all studies focus on either electrospinning for conduits material or ES in vitro study to accelerate nerve regeneration; few work on the combined use of these two strategies or ES in vivo study. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the abilities of direct current ES through electrospinning conductive polymer composites composed of polypyrrole and Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PPY/PLCL) in peripheral nerve regeneration. PPY/PLCL composite conduits were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole coated electrospun PLCL scaffolds. Morphologies and chemical compositions were characterized by scanning electron microscope and attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) microscope. Rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells cultured on PPY/PLCL scaffolds were stimulated with 100 mV/cm for 4 h per day. The median neurite length and cell viability were measured in PC-12 cells. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were analyzed in DRG cells. In rats, 15 mm gaps of sciatic nerves were bridged using an autograft, non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit and PPY/PLCL conduit stimulated with 100 mV potential, respectively. A 100 mV potential direct current ES was applied for 1 h per day at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-implantation. The PPY/PLCL conduits with ES showed a similar performance compared with the autograft group, and significantly better than the non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit group. These promising results show that the PPY/PLCL conductive conduits’ combined use with ES has great potential for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27877111

  13. Preclinical Study of Novel Gene Silencer Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide Targeting Human TGF-β1 Promoter for Hypertrophic Scars in a Common Marmoset Primate Model.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Jun; Fukuda, Noboru; Inoue, Takashi; Nakai, Shigeki; Saito, Kosuke; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Itoh, Toshio; Soma, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report a preclinical study of a pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide that targets the human transforming growth factor (hTGF)-β1 gene as a novel transcriptional gene silencer in a common marmoset primate model. We designed and then synthesized PI polyamides to target the hTGF-β1 promoter. We examined effects of seven PI polyamides (GB1101-1107) on the expression of hTGF-β1 mRNA stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in human vascular smooth muscle cells. GB1101, GB1105 and GB1106 significantly inhibited hTGF-β1 mRNA expression. We examined GB1101 as a PI polyamide to hTGF-β1 for hypertrophic scars in marmosets in vivo. Injection of GB1101 completely inhibited hypertrophic scar formation at 35 days post-incision and inhibited cellular infiltration, TGF-β1 and vimentin staining, and epidermal thickness. Mismatch polyamide did not affect hypertrophic scarring or histological changes. Epidermis was significantly thinner with GB1101 than with water and mismatch PI polyamides. We developed the PI polyamides for practical ointment medicines for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. FITC-labeled GB1101 with solbase most efficiently distributed in the nuclei of epidermal keratinocytes, completely suppressed hypertropic scarring at 42 days after incision, and considerably inhibited epidermal thickness and vimentin-positive fibroblasts. PI polyamides targeting hTGF-β1 promoter with solbase ointment will be practical medicines for treating hypertrophic scars after surgical operations and skin burns.

  14. Preclinical Study of Novel Gene Silencer Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide Targeting Human TGF-β1 Promoter for Hypertrophic Scars in a Common Marmoset Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Jun; Fukuda, Noboru; Inoue, Takashi; Nakai, Shigeki; Saito, Kosuke; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Itoh, Toshio; Soma, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report a preclinical study of a pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide that targets the human transforming growth factor (hTGF)-β1 gene as a novel transcriptional gene silencer in a common marmoset primate model. We designed and then synthesized PI polyamides to target the hTGF-β1 promoter. We examined effects of seven PI polyamides (GB1101-1107) on the expression of hTGF-β1 mRNA stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in human vascular smooth muscle cells. GB1101, GB1105 and GB1106 significantly inhibited hTGF-β1 mRNA expression. We examined GB1101 as a PI polyamide to hTGF-β1 for hypertrophic scars in marmosets in vivo. Injection of GB1101 completely inhibited hypertrophic scar formation at 35 days post-incision and inhibited cellular infiltration, TGF-β1 and vimentin staining, and epidermal thickness. Mismatch polyamide did not affect hypertrophic scarring or histological changes. Epidermis was significantly thinner with GB1101 than with water and mismatch PI polyamides. We developed the PI polyamides for practical ointment medicines for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. FITC-labeled GB1101 with solbase most efficiently distributed in the nuclei of epidermal keratinocytes, completely suppressed hypertropic scarring at 42 days after incision, and considerably inhibited epidermal thickness and vimentin-positive fibroblasts. PI polyamides targeting hTGF-β1 promoter with solbase ointment will be practical medicines for treating hypertrophic scars after surgical operations and skin burns. PMID:25938472

  15. Marked Consequences of Systematic Oligothiophene Catenation in Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione and Bithiopheneimide Photovoltaic Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nanjia; Guo, Xugang; Ponce Ortiz, Rocio; Harschneck, Tobias; Manley, Eric F.; Lou, Sylvia J.; Hartnett, Patrick E.; Yu, Xinge; Horwitz, Noah E.; Mayorga Burrezo, Paula; Aldrich, Thomas J.; Lopez Navarrete, Juan T.; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Chen, Lin X.; Chang, Robert P. H.; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.

    2015-10-07

    As effective building blocks for high-mobility transistor polymers, oligothiophenes are receiving attention for polymer solar cells (PSCs) because the resulting polymers can effectively suppress charge recombination. Here we investigate two series of in-chain donor-acceptor copolymers, PTPDnT and PBTInT, based on thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) or bithiopheneimide (BTI) as electron acceptor units, respectively, and oligothiophenes (nTs) as donor counits, for high-performance PSCs. Intramolecular S···O interaction leads to more planar TPD polymer backbones, however backbone torsion yields greater open-circuit voltages for BTI polymers. Thiophene addition progressively raises polymer HOMOs but marginally affects their band gaps. FT-Raman spectra indicate that PTPDnT and PBTInT conjugation lengths scale with nT catenation up to n = 3 and then saturate for longer oligomer. Furthermore, the effects of oligothiophene alkylation position are explored, revealing that the alkylation pattern greatly affects film morphology and PSC performance. The 3T with “outward” alkylation in PTPD3T and PBTI3T affords optimal π-conjugation, close stacking, long-range order, and high hole mobilities (0.1 cm2/(V s)). These characteristics contribute to the exceptional ~80% fill factors for PTPD3T-based PSCs with PCE = 7.7%. The results demonstrate that 3T is the optimal donor unit among nTs (n = 1-4) for photovoltaic polymers. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements reveal that the terthiophene-based PTPD3T blend maintains high crystallinity with appreciable local mobility and long charge carrier lifetime. These results provide fundamental materials structure-device performance correlations and suggest guidelines for designing oligothiophene-based polymers with optimal thiophene catenation and appropriate alkylation pattern to maximize PSC performance.

  16. Polymerizing Pyrrole Coated Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) Conductive Nanofibrous Conduit Combined with Electric Stimulation for Long-Range Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Song, Jialin; Sun, Binbin; Liu, Shen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yuanzheng; Wang, Chunyang; Mo, Xiumei; Che, Junyi; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning and electric stimulation (ES) are both promising methods to support neuron adhesion and guide extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, all studies focus on either electrospinning for conduits material or ES in vitro study to accelerate nerve regeneration; few work on the combined use of these two strategies or ES in vivo study. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the abilities of direct current ES through electrospinning conductive polymer composites composed of polypyrrole and Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PPY/PLCL) in peripheral nerve regeneration. PPY/PLCL composite conduits were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole coated electrospun PLCL scaffolds. Morphologies and chemical compositions were characterized by scanning electron microscope and attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) microscope. Rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells cultured on PPY/PLCL scaffolds were stimulated with 100 mV/cm for 4 h per day. The median neurite length and cell viability were measured in PC-12 cells. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were analyzed in DRG cells. In rats, 15 mm gaps of sciatic nerves were bridged using an autograft, non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit and PPY/PLCL conduit stimulated with 100 mV potential, respectively. A 100 mV potential direct current ES was applied for 1 h per day at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-implantation. The PPY/PLCL conduits with ES showed a similar performance compared with the autograft group, and significantly better than the non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit group. These promising results show that the PPY/PLCL conductive conduits' combined use with ES has great potential for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  17. Thermodynamic characterization of halide-π interactions in solution using "two-wall" aryl extended calix[4]pyrroles as model system.

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Louis; Gil-Ramírez, Guzmán; Frontera, Antonio; Quiñonero, David; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Ballester, Pablo

    2014-02-26

    Herein, we report our latest experimental investigations of halide-π interactions in solution. We base this research on the thermodynamic characterization of a series of 1:1 complexes formed between halides (Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-)) and several α,α-isomers of "two-wall" calix[4]pyrrole receptors bearing two six-membered aromatic rings in opposed meso positions. The installed aromatic systems feature a broad range of electron density as indicated by the calculated values for their electrostatic surface potentials at the center of the rings. We show that a correlation exists between the electronic nature of the aromatic walls and the thermodynamic stability of the X(-)⊂receptor complexes. We give evidence for the existence of both repulsive and attractive interactions between π systems and halide anions in solution (between 1 and -1 kcal/mol). We dissect the measured free energies of binding for chloride and bromide with the receptor series into their enthalpic and entropic thermodynamic quantities. In acetonitrile solution, the binding enthalpy values remain almost constant throughout the receptor series, and the differences in free energies are provoked exclusively by changes in the entropic term of the binding processes. Most likely, this unexpected behavior is owed to strong solvation effects that make up important components of the measured magnitudes for the enthalpies and entropies of binding. The use of chloroform, a much less polar solvent, limits the impact of solvation effects revealing the expected existence of a parallel trend between free energies and enthalpies of binding. This result indicates that halide-π interactions in organic solvents are mainly driven by enthalpy. However, the typical paradigm of enthalpy-entropy compensation is still not observed in this less polar solvent.

  18. Binding, electrochemical activation, and cleavage of DNA by cobalt(II) tetrakis-N-methylpyridyl porphyrin and its beta-pyrrole brominated derivative.

    PubMed

    Yellappa, Shivaraj; Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Rogers, Lisa M; Chitta, Raghu; Singhal, Ram P; D'Souza, Francis

    2006-01-01

    The binding of nucleic acids by water-soluble cobalt(II) tetrakis-N-methylpyridyl porphyrin, (TMPyP)Co, and its highly electron-deficient derivative cobalt(II) tetrakis-N-methyl pyridyl-beta-octabromoporphyrin, (Br(8)TMPyP)Co, was investigated by UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and electrochemical and gel electrophoresis methods. The changes of the absorption spectra during the titration of these complexes with polynucleotides revealed a shift in the absorption maxima and a hypochromicity of the porphyrin Soret bands. The intrinsic binding constants were found to be in the range of 10(5)-10(6) M(-1). These values were higher for the more electron-deficient (Br(8)TMPyP)Co. Induced CD bands were noticed in the Soret region of the complexes due to the interaction of these complexes with different polynucleotides, and an analysis of the CD spectra supported a mainly external mode of binding. Electrochemical studies revealed the cleavage of polynucleotides by (TMPyP)Co and (Br(8)TMPyP)Co in the presence of oxygen preferentially at the A-T base pair region. Gel electrophoresis experiments further supported the cleavage of nucleic acids. The results indicate that the beta-pyrrole brominated porphyrin, (Br(8)TMPyP)Co, binds strongly and cleaves nucleic acids efficiently as compared with (TMPyP)Co. This electrolytic procedure offers a unique tool in biotechnology for cleaving double-stranded DNA with specificity at the A-T regions.

  19. Study of conformations and hydrogen bonds in the configurational isomers of pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde oxime by 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy combined with MP2 and DFT calculations and NBO analysis.

    PubMed

    Afonin, Andrei V; Ushakov, Igor A; Pavlov, Dmitry V; Ivanov, Andrei V; Mikhaleva, Al'bina I

    2010-09-01

    The (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR studies have shown that the E and Z isomers of pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde oxime adopt preferable conformation with the syn orientation of the oxime group with respect to the pyrrole ring. The syn conformation of E and Z isomers of pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde oxime is stabilized by the N-H...N and N-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bonds, respectively. The N-H...N hydrogen bond in the E isomer causes the high-frequency shift of the bridge proton signal by about 1 ppm and increase the (1)J(N, H) coupling by approximately 3 Hz. The bridge proton shows further deshielding and higher increase of the (1)J(N, H) coupling constant due to the strengthening of the N-H...O hydrogen bond in the Z isomer. The MP2 calculations indicate that the syn conformation of E and Z isomers is by approximately 3.5 kcal/mol energetically less favorable than the anti conformation. The calculations of (1)H shielding and (1)J(N, H) coupling in the syn and anti conformations allow the contribution to these constants from the N-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bondings to be estimated. The NBO analysis suggests that the N-H...N hydrogen bond in the E isomer is a pure electrostatic interaction while the charge transfer from the oxygen lone pair to the antibonding orbital of the N-H bond through the N-H...O hydrogen bond occurs in the Z isomer. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Michael/Friedel-Crafts Cascade Reaction of 3-Pyrrolyl-oxindoles and α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes for the Construction of Chiral Spiro[5,6-dihydropyrido[1,2-a]pyrrole-3,3'-oxindoles].

    PubMed

    You, Yong; Cui, Bao-Dong; Zhou, Ming-Qiang; Zuo, Jian; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Yuan, Wei-Cheng

    2015-06-05

    An efficient and unprecedented organocatalytic asymmetric reaction of 3-pyrrolyl-oxindoles with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to generate spirocyclic oxindole compounds was developed. The reactions were catalyzed by diphenylprolinol silyl ether and 2-fluorobenzoic acid via an asymmetric Michael/Friedel-Crafts cascade process, followed by dehydration with p-toluenesulfonic acid to afford a wide variety of structurally diverse spiro[5,6-dihydropyrido[1,2-a]pyrrole-3,3'-oxindole] derivatives in high yields (up to 93%) and with high to excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to >99:1 dr and 97% ee).

  1. A Dual-Responsive Bola-Type Supra-amphiphile Constructed from a Water-Soluble Calix[4]pyrrole and a Tetraphenylethene-Containing Pyridine Bis-N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Huacheng; Vargas-Zúñiga, Gabriela I; Peters, Gretchen M; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-05-11

    Complexation between a water-soluble calix[4]pyrrole and a ditopic pyridine N-oxide derivative in aqueous media produces a bola-type supra-amphiphile that self-assembles to produce higher order morphologies, including multilamellar vesicles and micelles depending on the pH. The present bola-type supra-amphiphile exhibits strong fluorescence due to structural changes and aggregation induced by host-guest complexation. The resulting structures may be used to recognize, encapsulate, and release non-fluorescent, water-soluble small molecules.

  2. Asymmetric 8H-Thieno[2',3':4,5]thieno[3,2-b]thieno[2,3-d]pyrrole-Based Sensitizers: Synthesis and Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Mao; Dong, Huanhuan; Gao, Ping; Su, Ya; Cai, Peng; Ding, Shijie; Chen, Jing; Xue, Song

    2017-07-21

    Asymmetric 8H-thieno[2',3':4,5]thieno[3,2-b]thieno[2,3-d]pyrrole (TTP) unit has been synthesized and used as a rigid and coplanar π-bridge to construct four new metal-free sensitizers W05-08. These dyes sensitized solar cells exhibit high photocurrent due to strong light harvesting capability. Among these dyes, the W05-based cell in conjunction with cobalt(II/III) redox shuttle exhibits the best power conversion efficiency up to 9.22%.

  3. Crystal structure of diethyl 3,3'-{2,2'-(1E)-[1,4-phenyl-enebis(azan-1-yl-1-yl-idene)]bis-(methan-1-yl-1-yl-idene)bis-(1H-pyrrole-2,1-di-yl)}di-propano-ate.

    PubMed

    Alshawi, Jasim; Yousif, Muoayed; Timco, Gregore; Vitorica Yrezabal, Inigo J; Winpenny, Richard; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J

    2015-04-01

    The complete mol-ecule of the title compound, C26H30N4O4, is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene and pyrrole rings is 45.20 (11)°; the N atom bonded to the the benzene ring and the pyrrole N atom are in a syn conformation. The side chain adopts an extended conformation [N-C-C-C = 169.07 (17)° and C-O-C-C = -176.54 (17)°]. No directional inter-actions could be identified in the crystal packing.

  4. Crystal structure of diethyl 3,3′-{2,2′-(1E)-[1,4-phenyl­enebis(azan-1-yl-1-yl­idene)]bis­(methan-1-yl-1-yl­idene)bis­(1H-pyrrole-2,1-di­yl)}di­propano­ate

    PubMed Central

    Alshawi, Jasim; Yousif, Muoayed; Timco, Gregore; Vitorica Yrezabal, Inigo J.; Winpenny, Richard; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J.

    2015-01-01

    The complete mol­ecule of the title compound, C26H30N4O4, is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene and pyrrole rings is 45.20 (11)°; the N atom bonded to the the benzene ring and the pyrrole N atom are in a syn conformation. The side chain adopts an extended conformation [N—C—C—C = 169.07 (17)° and C—O—C—C = −176.54 (17)°]. No directional inter­actions could be identified in the crystal packing. PMID:26029445

  5. Determination of pyrazole and pyrrole pesticides in environmental water samples by solid-phase extraction using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiping; Lu, Xi; Xia, Yan; Yan, Fengli

    2015-02-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of four pyrazole and pyrrole pesticides (fenpyroximate, chlorfenapyr, fipronil and flusilazole) in environmental water samples. Several parameters, such as extraction adsorbent, elution solvent and volume and sample loading flow rate were optimized to obtain high SPE recoveries and extraction efficiency. The calibration curves for the pesticides extracted were linear in the range of 0.05-10 μg L(-1) for chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate and 0.05-20 μg L(-1) for fipronil and flusilazole, with the correlation coefficients (r(2)) between 0.9966 and 0.9990. The method gave good precisions (relative standard deviation %) from 2.9 to 10.1% for real spiked samples from reservoir water and seawater; method recoveries ranged 92.2-105.9 and 98.5-103.9% for real spiked samples from reservoir water and seawater, respectively. Limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the method were determined to be 8-19 ng L(-1). The optimized method was successfully applied to the determination of four pesticides of pyrazoles and pyrroles in real environmental water samples.

  6. Structure Sensitivity of Carbon-Nitrogen Ring Opening: Impact of Platinum Particle Size from below 1 to 5 nm upon Pyrrole Hydrogenation Product Selectivity over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles Loaded onto Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, John N.; Huang, Wenyu; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Zhang, Yawen; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-07-01

    The ability to control fundamental properties (e.g., particle size, surface structure, and metal-oxide interface) in order to design highly selective heterogeneous catalysts would greatly reduce energy intensive separations. Particle size dependence (i.e., structure sensitivity) upon selectivity can now be examined with well defined nanoparticles (NPs) because of advances in synthetic chemistry. Colloidal chemistry has provided means for synthesizing monodisperse Pt NPs as small as {approx}2 nm. Using a dendrimer templated approach, Pt NPs smaller than 1 nm--a new size regime for studying size induced effects in heterogeneous catalysis--can be synthesized (Scheme 1). In this contribution, we report that ring opening for pyrrole hydrogenation is distinctly different for Pt NPs smaller than 2 nm. This insight has not been demonstrated for hydrogenation of cyclic heteroatom bonds to the best of our knowledge. This finding adds fundamental insight into hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) chemistry, which is important for fuel processing and involves removal of N-containing organics. Advances in HDN catalysis are needed to meet new fuel quality regulations because N-containing organics inhibit hydrodesulfurization (HDS) through competitive adsorption and poison acid catalysts, which are used for downstream processing and as supports for HDS catalysts. Pyrrole was selected as the reactant because organics with 5-member N-containing rings are the most common components in fuel.

  7. Construction of a monoanionic S,N,S-pincer ligand with a pyrrole core by sequential [1,2] phospho-Fries rearrangement. Characterization of palladium and silver coordination complexes.

    PubMed

    Fraix, Aurore; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M; van Koten, Gerard; Salaün, Jean-Yves; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain

    2010-03-21

    The synthesis of an S,NH,S-pincer ligand possessing a pyrrole core and two O,O-diethylthiophosphonyl groups to design P=S lateral coordination sites is reported. The synthetic procedure to produce this ligand makes use of the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole heterocycle to successively functionalize the ortho-positions with the two O,O-diethylthiophosphonyl moieties. The ortho-functionalization arises from a repetition of a [1,2] base-induced rearrangement allowing the transformation of O,O-diethyl-N-pyrollylthiophosphoramidate to ortho-thiophosphonate. The coordination properties of this tridentate S,NH,S-ligand have been investigated with silver and palladium metals. Reaction of the monoanionic S,N,S-pincer ligand 4 (O,O,O,O-tetraethylpyrrol-2,5-yl-dithiophosphonate) with PdCl(2)(MeCN)(2) at room temperature in the presence of triethylamine gives rise to the formation of the eta(3)-complex [Pd(eta(3)-4')Cl] 5. Ligand 4 also reacts with silver oxide in dichloromethane to produce complex which, in the solid state, exists as a tetramer involving an almost linear arrangement of four silver atoms.

  8. Effects of 5-Amyno-4-(1,3-benzothyazol-2-yn)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrrol-3-one Intake on Digestive System in a Rat Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuznietsova, Halyna M.; Luzhenetska, Valentyna K.; Kotlyar, Iryna P.; Rybalchenko, Volodymyr K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pyrrol derivate 5-amyno-4-(1,3-benzothyazol-2-yn)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrrol-3-one (D1) has shown antiproliferative activities in vitro, so investigation of the impact of D1 intake on gut organs in rats that experienced colon cancer seems to be necessary. Materials and Methods. D1 at the dose of 2.3 mg/kg was administered per os daily for 27 (from the 1st day of experiment) or 7 (from the 21st week of experiment) weeks to rats that experienced 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer for 20 weeks. 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) was chosen as reference drug and was administered intraperitoneally weekly for 7 weeks (from the 21st week of experiment) at the dose of 45 mg/kg. Results. Antitumor activity of D1 comparable with the 5FU one against DMH-induced colon cancer in rats was observed (decrease of tumor number and tumor total area up to 46%). D1 attenuated the inflammation of colon, gastric and jejunal mucosa, and the liver, caused by DMH, unlike 5FU, aggravating the latter. In addition, D1 partially normalized mucosa morphometric parameters suggesting its functional restore. Conclusions. D1 possesses, comparable with 5-fluorouracil antitumor efficacy, less damaging effects on the tissues beyond cancerous areas and contributes to partial morphological and functional gut organs recovery. PMID:26504896

  9. A dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole based, NIR absorbing, solution processable, small molecule donor for efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Busireddy, Manohar Reddy; Raju Mantena, Venkata Niladri; Chereddy, Narendra Reddy; Shanigaram, Balaiah; Kotamarthi, Bhanuprakash; Biswas, Subhayan; Sharma, Ganesh Datt; Vaidya, Jayathirtha Rao

    2016-11-30

    A novel, NIR absorbing organic small molecular donor material denoted as ICT3 with an A-D-D-D-A architecture having dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP) and butylrhodanine as donor and acceptor moieties, respectively, is synthesized and its thermal, photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties are explored. ICT3 has excellent stability over a broad range of temperatures with a decomposition temperature (Td corresponds to 5% weight loss) of 372 °C, soluble in most common organic solvents (solubility up to 30 mg mL(-1)) and suitable for solution processing during device fabrication. ICT3 has broad (520-820 nm) and intense visible region absorption (molar excitation coefficient is 1.69 × 10(5) mol(-1) cm(-1)) and has suitable HOMO and LUMO energy levels with the [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor for efficient exciton dissociation and charge transfer. Bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJSCs) with an indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/ICT3:PC71BM/poly(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)fluorene-2,7-diyl)-alt-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl) (PFN)/aluminium (Al) structure are fabricated and the BHJSCs with the active layer as cast from chloroform solution displayed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.04% (JSC = 8.22 mA cm(-2), VOC = 0.86 V and FF = 0.43). Annealing the active layer significantly improved the PCE of these BHJSCs. While thermal annealing of the active layer improved the PCE of the BHJSCs to 4.94%, thermal followed by solvent vapour annealing enhanced the PCE to 6.53%. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analyses are carried out on the active layer and these results revealed that annealing treatment improves the crystallinity and nanoscale morphology of the active layer, enriches the device exciton generation and dissociation efficiency, charge transport and collection efficiency and reduces carrier recombination. The observed higher PCE (6

  10. The activity of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr in mosquito bioassay: towards a more rational testing and screening of non-neurotoxic insecticides for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Oxborough, Richard M; N'Guessan, Raphael; Jones, Rebecca; Kitau, Jovin; Ngufor, Corine; Malone, David; Mosha, Franklin W; Rowland, Mark W

    2015-03-24

    The rapid selection of pyrethroid resistance throughout sub-Saharan Africa is a serious threat to malaria vector control. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide which shows no cross resistance to insecticide classes normally used for vector control and is effective on mosquito nets under experimental hut conditions. Unlike neurotoxic insecticides, chlorfenapyr owes its toxicity to disruption of metabolic pathways in mitochondria that enable cellular respiration. A series of experiments explored whether standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for evaluation of long-lasting insecticidal nets, developed through testing of pyrethroid insecticides, are suitable for evaluation of non-neurotoxic insecticides. The efficacy of WHO recommended cone, cylinder and tunnel tests was compared for pyrethroids and chlorfenapyr. To establish bioassay exposure times predictive of insecticide-treated net (ITN) efficacy in experimental hut trials, standard three-minute bioassays of pyrethroid and chlorfenapyr ITNs were compared with longer exposures. Mosquito behaviour and response to chlorfenapyr ITN in bioassays conducted at night were compared to day and across a range of temperatures representative of highland and lowland transmission. Standard three-minute bioassay of chlorfenapyr produced extremely low levels of mortality compared to pyrethroids. Thirty-minute day-time bioassay produced mortality closer to hut efficacy of chlorfenapyr ITN but still fell short of the WHO threshold. Overnight tunnel test with chlorfenapyr produced 100% mortality and exceeded the WHO threshold of 80%. The endogenous circadian activity rhythm of anophelines results in inactivity by day and raised metabolism and flight activity by night. A model which explains improved toxicity of chlorfenapyr ITN when tested at night, and during the day at higher ambient temperature, is that activation of chlorfenapyr and disruption of respiratory pathways is enhanced when the insect is more metabolically

  11. Sequence specific and high affinity recognition of 5'-ACGCGT-3' by rationally designed pyrrole-imidazole H-pin polyamides: thermodynamic and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Hilary; Brown, Toni; Uthe, Peter B; Westrate, Laura; Sielaff, Alan; Jones, Justin; Lajiness, James P; Kluza, Jerome; O'Hare, Caroline; Nguyen, Binh; Davis, Zach; Bruce, Chrystal; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2008-10-15

    Imidazole (Im) and Pyrrole (Py)-containing polyamides that can form stacked dimers can be programmed to target specific sequences in the minor groove of DNA and control gene expression. Even though various designs of polyamides have been thoroughly investigated for DNA sequence recognition, the use of H-pin polyamides (covalently cross-linked polyamides) has not received as much attention. Therefore, experiments were designed to systematically investigate the DNA recognition properties of two symmetrical H-pin polyamides composed of PyImPyIm (5) or f-ImPyIm (3e, f=formamido) tethered with an ethylene glycol linker. These compounds were created to recognize the cognate 5'-ACGCGT-3' through an overlapped and staggered binding motif, respectively. Results from DNaseI footprinting, thermal denaturation, circular dichroism, surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration microcalorimetry studies demonstrated that both H-pin polyamides bound with higher affinity than their respective monomers. The binding affinity of formamido-containing H-pin 3e was more than a hundred times greater than that for the tetraamide H-pin 5, demonstrating the importance of having a formamido group and the staggered motif in enhancing affinity. However, compared to H-pin 3e, tetraamide H-pin 5 demonstrated superior binding preference for the cognate sequence over its non-cognates, ACCGGT and AAATTT. Data from SPR experiments yielded binding constants of 1.6x10(8)M(-1) and 2.0x10(10)M(-1) for PyImPyIm H-pin 5 and f-ImPyIm H-pin 3e, respectively. Both H-pins bound with significantly higher affinity (ca. 100-fold) than their corresponding unlinked PyImPyIm 4 and f-ImPyIm 2 counterparts. ITC analyses revealed modest enthalpies of reactions at 298 K (DeltaH of -3.3 and -1.0 kcal mol(-1) for 5 and 3e, respectively), indicating these were entropic-driven interactions. The heat capacities (DeltaC(p)) were determined to be -116 and -499 cal mol(-1)K(-1), respectively. These results are in general

  12. AzaHx, a novel fluorescent, DNA minor groove and G·C recognition element: Synthesis and DNA binding properties of a p-anisyl-4-aza-benzimidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (azaHx-PI) polyamide.

    PubMed

    Satam, Vijay; Babu, Balaji; Patil, Pravin; Brien, Kimberly A; Olson, Kevin; Savagian, Mia; Lee, Megan; Mepham, Andrew; Jobe, Laura Beth; Bingham, John P; Pett, Luke; Wang, Shuo; Ferrara, Maddi; Bruce, Chrystal D; Wilson, W David; Lee, Moses; Hartley, John A; Kiakos, Konstantinos

    2015-09-01

    The design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of azaHx-PI or p-anisyl-4-aza-benzimidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (5) are described. AzaHx, 2-(p-anisyl)-4-aza-benzimidazole-5-carboxamide, is a novel, fluorescent DNA recognition element, derived from Hoechst 33258 to recognize G·C base pairs. Supported by theoretical data, the results from DNase I footprinting, CD, ΔT(M), and SPR studies provided evidence that an azaHx/IP pairing, formed from antiparallel stacking of two azaHx-PI molecules in a side-by-side manner in the minor groove, selectively recognized a C-G doublet. AzaHx-PI was found to target 5'-ACGCGT-3', the Mlu1 Cell Cycle Box (MCB) promoter sequence with specificity and significant affinity (K(eq) 4.0±0.2×10(7) M(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New electroactive asymmetrical chalcones and therefrom derived 2-amino- / 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)pyrimidines, containing an N-[ω-(4-methoxyphenoxy)alkyl]carbazole fragment: synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Selivanova, Daria G; Gorbunov, Alexei A; Mayorova, Olga A; Vasyanin, Alexander N; Lunegov, Igor V; Shklyaeva, Elena V; Abashev, Georgii G

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a synthetic approach to six new D-π-A-D conjugated chromophores containing the N-[ω-(4-methoxyphenoxy)alkyl]carbazole fragment. Such readily functionalizable heterocycle as carbazole was used as a main starting compound for their preparation. The investigation of the optical properties has shown that the positive solvatochromism is inherent to the chromophores containing an electron-withdrawing prop-2-en-1-one fragment, while the compounds containing a 2-aminopyrimidine moiety exhibit both positive and negative solvatochromism. The fluorescence quantum yields were experimentally determined for some of the synthesized chromophores; e.g., 1-(5-arylthiophen-2-yl)ethanones quantum yields were found to lie in an interval of 60-80%. Electrochemical oxidation of the synthesized chromophores has resulted in the formation of colored thin oligomeric films that became possible due to the presence of carbazole or pyrrole fragments with free electron-rich positions.

  14. New electroactive asymmetrical chalcones and therefrom derived 2-amino- / 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)pyrimidines, containing an N-[ω-(4-methoxyphenoxy)alkyl]carbazole fragment: synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Selivanova, Daria G; Gorbunov, Alexei A; Mayorova, Olga A; Vasyanin, Alexander N; Lunegov, Igor V; Shklyaeva, Elena V

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a synthetic approach to six new D–π–A–D conjugated chromophores containing the N-[ω-(4-methoxyphenoxy)alkyl]carbazole fragment. Such readily functionalizable heterocycle as carbazole was used as a main starting compound for their preparation. The investigation of the optical properties has shown that the positive solvatochromism is inherent to the chromophores containing an electron-withdrawing prop-2-en-1-one fragment, while the compounds containing a 2-aminopyrimidine moiety exhibit both positive and negative solvatochromism. The fluorescence quantum yields were experimentally determined for some of the synthesized chromophores; e.g., 1-(5-arylthiophen-2-yl)ethanones quantum yields were found to lie in an interval of 60–80%. Electrochemical oxidation of the synthesized chromophores has resulted in the formation of colored thin oligomeric films that became possible due to the presence of carbazole or pyrrole fragments with free electron-rich positions. PMID:28904607

  15. Spectral analysis, structural elucidation, and evaluation of both nonlinear optical properties and chemical reactivity of a newly synthesized ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(toluenesulfonyl)-hydrazonomethyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate through experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam

    2013-12-01

    As part of study of hydrazide-hydrazones, we have synthesized ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(toluenesulfonyl)-hydrazonomethyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EDTHMPC) and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The structure, spectral and thermodynamic parameters of EDTHMPC were quantum chemically calculated performing density functional level theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional and 6-31G (d,p) basis set. Electrophilic charge transfer (ECT) values of interacting molecules indicate that charge flows from p-toluene sulphonyl-hydrazide to ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-formyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate confirming the formation of product by nucleophilic attack. The calculated and experimental wavenumbers analysis confirms the formation of dimer. The calculated changes in thermodynamic quantities during dimer formation in gaseous phase have the negative values for ΔH, ΔG (kcal/mol) and ΔS (cal/mol-K) indicating that the dimer formation is exothermic and will proceed only at low temperature. The strength and nature of hydrogen bonding and weak interactions in dimer have been analyzed by 'Quantum theory of atoms in molecules' (QTAIM) and found to be five types of interactions in which three types are (C⋯N, CH⋯O and CH⋯HC) intramolecular and two types are (CO⋯HN and CH⋯OC) intermolecular. The calculated binding energy of dimer using DFT and QTAIM theory are 14.32 and 15.41 kcal/mol, respectively. The β0 value for monomer is calculated as 11.54 x 10-30 esu indicating microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values.

  16. Influence of the Terminal Electron Donor in D-D-π-A Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole versus Bis(amine).

    PubMed

    Dai, Panpan; Yang, Lin; Liang, Mao; Dong, Huanhuan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Chunyao; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2015-10-14

    With respect to the electron-withdrawing acceptors of D-A-π-A organic dyes, reports on the second electron-donating donors for D-D-π-A organic dyes are very limited. Both of the dyes have attracted significant attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In this work, four new D-D-π-A organic dyes with dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP) or bis(amine) donor have been designed and synthesized for a investigation of the influence of the terminal electron donor in D-D-π-A organic dye-sensitized solar cells. It is found that DTP is a promising building block as the terminal electron donor when introduced in the dithiophenepyrrole direction, but not just a good bridge, which exhibits several characteristics: (i) efficiently increasing the maximum molar absorption coefficient and extending the absorption bands; (ii) showing stronger charge transfer interaction as compared with the pyrrole direction; (iii) beneficial to photocurrent generation of DSCs employing cobalt electrolytes. DSCs based on M45 with the Co-phen electrolyte exhibit good light-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies as high as 9.02%, with a short circuit current density (JSC) of 15.3 mA cm(-2), open circuit voltage (VOC) of 867 mV and fill factor (FF) of 0.68 under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). The results demonstrate that N,S-heterocycles such as DTP unit could be promising candidates for application in highly efficient DSCs employing cobalt electrolyte.

  17. A Quasi-relativistic Density Functional Theory Study of the Actinyl(VI, V) (An = U, Np, Pu) Complexes with a Six-Membered Macrocycle Containing Pyrrole, Pyridine, and Furan Subunits.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jian-Hui; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Wu, Qun-Yan; Wang, Shu-Ao; Feng, Yi-Xiao; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2015-08-27

    Actinyl(VI, V) (An = U, Np and Pu) complexes of the recently reported hybrid macrocycle, cyclo[1]furan[1]pyridine[4]pyrrole (denoted as H4L), have been studied using density functional theory in combination with the small-core scalar-relativistic effective core potentials and corresponding (14s13p10d8f6g)/[ 10s9p5d4f3g] basis sets in the segmented contraction scheme. On the basis of our calculations, the pyrrole nitrogen atoms that possess the shortest An-L bonds and strongest basicity are the main donor atoms that contribute to the formation of actinyl(VI, V) complexes. The natural population analysis (NPA) suggests higher ligand-to-actinyl charge transfer in the actinyl(VI) complexes than in their actinyl(V) analogues, which account for the higher decomposition energies of the former. A significant actinide-to-ligand spin density delocalization in the uranyl(V) and neptunyl(V) complexes was observed owing to the redistribution of spin density caused by complexation. A thermodynamic analysis indicates that the formation of the actinyl(VI, V) complexes are exothermic reactions in CH2Cl2 solvent, where the uranyl cations show the highest selectivity. In aqueous solution containing chloride ions, for complexing with macrocycle H4L, the plutonyl(VI) and uranyl(V) cations possess the highest selectivity among actinyl(VI) and (V) cations, respectively. This work can shed light on the design of macrocycle complexes for actinide recognition and extraction in the future.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure, characterization and biological activity of 2,5-hexanedione bis(isonicotinylhydrazone) and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)isonicotinamide complexes.

    PubMed

    Jeragh, Bakir; Ali, Mayada S; El-Asmy, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    The reaction between 2,5-hexanedione and isonicotinic acid hydrazide in EtOH gave two products. The ethanol insoluble product was identified as 2,5-hexanedione bis(isonicotinylhydrazone) [HINH] and the soluble ethanol product as N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)isonicotinamide [DINA]. A series of Cr(3+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pd(2+) complexes of HINH and Co(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Hg(2+) complexes of DINA have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Based on the elemental analysis, mass spectra and molar conductance, the complexes have assigned the proposed imperical formulae. The crystal structures of N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)isonicotinamide and its Zn(2+) and Hg(2+) complexes have been solved by X-ray diffraction having [Zn(DINA)2Cl2] and [Hg(DINA)2Cl2] in a tetrahedral structure. In the DINH complexes, the ligand coordinates as a monodentate through the pyridine nitrogen. On the other hand, HINH behaves as a tetradentate (neutral or binegative) manner with the two metal ions. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra of all complexes provide tetrahedral, square-planar, trigonal biyramid and/or octahedral structure. The thermal decomposition of the complexes revealed the outer and inner solvents as well as the end product. The steady part of [Zn(DINA)2Cl2] and [Hg(DINA)2Cl2] thermograms till 303 and 286 °C indicates the absence of any outside solvents. All compounds have activity against bacteria more than fungi. [Cd4(HINH)Cl8]·3H2O has the highest values.

  19. Synthesis and electrochemistry of β-pyrrole nitro-substituted cobalt(II) porphyrins. The effect of the NO₂ group on redox potentials, the electron transfer mechanism and catalytic reduction of molecular oxygen in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Ou, Zhongping; Yang, Shuibo; Meng, Deying; Lu, Guifen; Fang, Yuanyuan; Kadish, Karl M

    2014-07-28

    Four cobalt(II) porphyrins, two of which contain a β-pyrrole nitro substituent, were synthesized and characterized by electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry. The investigated compounds are represented as (TRPP)Co and (NO2TRPP)Co, where TRPP is the dianion of a substituted tetraphenylporphyrin and R is a CH3 or OCH3 substituent on the four phenyl rings of the macrocycle. Two reductions and three oxidations are observed for each compound in CH2Cl2 containing 0.10 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate. The first reduction of the compounds without a nitro substituent is metal-centered and leads to formation of a Co(I) porphyrin which then reacts with the CH2Cl2 solvent to generate a carbon σ-bonded Co(III)-R complex. A further reduction then occurs at more negative potentials to generate an unstable Co(II) σ-bonded compound. In contrast to these reactions, the first reduction of the nitro-substituted porphyrins is macrocycle-centered under the same solution conditions and gives a Co(II) porphyrin π-anion radical product. This reversible electron transfer is then followed at more negative potentials by a second reversible one-electron addition to give a Co(II) dianion. Three reversible one-electron oxidations are also seen for each compound. The first is metal-centered and the next two involve the conjugated π-system of the macrocycle. Each neutral Co(II) porphyrin was also examined as to its catalytic activity for electroreduction of molecular oxygen when coated on an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode in 1.0 M HClO4. The β-pyrrole nitro-substituted derivatives were shown to be better catalysts than the non-nitro substituted compounds under the utilized experimental conditions.

  20. Structures of hydrazones, (E)-2-(1,3-benzothiazolyl)-NHsbnd Ndbnd CHsbnd Ar, [Ar = 4-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl, pyrrol-2-yl, thien-2-yl and furan-2-yl]: Difference in conformations and intermolecular hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Eric B.; Yoneda, Julliane D.; Leal, Katia Z.; Nogueira, Antônio F.; Vasconcelos, Thatyana R. A.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2013-03-01

    Structures of hydrazones, (E)-2-(1,3-benzothiazolyl)-NHsbnd Ndbnd CHsbnd Ar(Ar = pyridine-2-yl (1), pyrrol-2-yl (2), thien-2-yl (3) and furan-2-yl (4), prepared from 2-hydrazinyl-1,3-benzothiazole and ArCHO, followed by recrystallisation from alcohol solutions, are reported. No significant intramolecular hydrogen bonds are present in any of the four molecules. Different conformations were found between 2 and 3, on one hand and for 4, on the other. Thus for 4, the oxygen atom of the furanyl ring is on the same side of the molecule as is the sulfur atom of the benzothiazole unit, while in contrast, each of the heteroatoms of the thienyl and pyrrole rings lies on opposite sides to the benzothiazole sulphur atom. In addition to the conformational variations, differences are noted in the connections between molecules. Despite the presence in each case of N(hydrazono)sbnd H---N(benzothiazolo) intermolecular hydrogen bonds, molecules of 4 are linked into spiral chains, while molecules of 2 and 3 (and indeed all compounds having Ar = substituted phenyl) form symmetric dimers. Further intermolecular interactions, albeit weaker ones, are found in 2 [Csbnd H··N and Nsbnd H··π], 3 [Csbnd H··π] and 4 [π··π], while dimers of 1 remain essentially free. Calculations carried out using the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) method indicated that the conformations determined by crystallography for 2-4 were the more stable.

  1. Synthesis of pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-ones: Rearrangement of pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,3,4]oxadiazines and regioselective intramolecular cyclization of 1,2-biscarbamoyl-substituted 1H-pyrroles

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kkonnip

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-ones 12 have been easily prepared via nucleophile-induced rearrangement of pyrrolooxadiazines 11 and regioselective intramolecular cyclization of 1,2-biscarbamoyl-substituted 1H-pyrroles 10. In this work, we demonstrated that the described synthetic approaches can be considered to be more facile and practical than previously reported procedures. PMID:27829885

  2. Synthesis and Charge Transport Properties of Polymers Derived from Oxidation of 1-H-1’(6-pyrrol-1-yl)-hexyl-4,4’-bipyridinium Bis-hexafluorophosphate and Demonstration of a pH Sensitive Microelectrochemical Transistor Derived from the Redox Properties of a Conventional Redox Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-15

    transport behavior of the viologen redox system. roly (P-V-Me2+) and poly (P-V-H2 + ) have been used to investigate the characteristics of...electrochemical properties of redox polymers, having a poly - pyrrole backbone and viologen subunits, derived from oxidative electropolymerization of l...The interesting properties from Poly (P-V-Me2 + ) and poly (P-V-Hn ) stem from the behavior of the pendant viologen redox centers. The device based on

  3. Efficient synthesis of 1,3,5-trisubstituted (pyrrol-2-yl)acetic acid esters via dual nucleophilic reactions of sulfonamides or carbamate with 4-trimethyl-siloxy-(5E)-hexen-2-ynoates: Lewis acid catalyzed SN1 and intramolecular Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Aikawa, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Shinichiro; Saito, Seiki

    2006-08-17

    [reaction: see text] Carbamates or sulfonamides have proven to regioselectively attack 2-propynyl-allyl hybrid cations, generated by the action of TMSOTf on 4-(trimethylsioxy)hex-5-en-2-ynoates, to afford conjugated 6-aminohex-4-en-2-ynoates in which an intramolecular amino-Michael reaction took place, leading to pyrrole frameworks. In particular, the sulfonamides gave 1-sulfonylpyrroles in one pot.

  4. Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial activity, experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV-Vis, DSC) and DFT (transition state, chemical reactivity, NBO, NLO) studies on pyrrole-isonicotinyl hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.; Ranjan, Alok; Ahmad, Sartaj; Saxena, Rajat

    2017-05-01

    As part of a study of pyrrole hydrazone, we have investigated quantum chemical calculations, molecular geometry, relative energy, vibrational properties and antimycobacterial/antimicrobial activity of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinyl hydrazone (PCINH), by applying the density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree Fock (HF). Good reproduction of experimental values is obtained and with small percentage error in majority of the cases in comparison to theoretical result (DFT). The experimental FT-IR and Raman wavenumbers were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations and found to agree well. In crystal structure studies the hydrated PCINH (syn-syn conformer) shows different conformation than from anhydrous form (syn-anti conformer). The rotational barrier between syn-syn and syn-anti conformers of PCINH is 12.7 kcal/mol in the gas phase. In this work, use of FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies has been made for full characterization of PCINH. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectrum was carried out with the aid of normal coordinate analysis using single scaling factor. Our results support the hydrogen bonding pattern proposed by reported crystalline structure. The calculated nature of electronic transitions within molecule found to be π → π*. The electronic descriptors study indicates that PCINH can be used as robust synthon for synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds. The first static hyperpolarizability (β0) of PCINH is calculated as 33.89 × 10- 30 esu, (gas phase); 68.79 × 10- 30 (CHCl3), esu; 76.76 × 10- 30 esu (CH2Cl2), 85.16 × 10- 30 esu (DMSO). The solvent induced effects on the first static hyperpolarizability were studied and found to increase as dielectric constants of the solvents increases. Investigated molecule shows better NLO value than Para nitroaniline (PNA). The compound PCINH shows good antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger and gram

  5. Switchable Synthesis of Pyrroles and Pyrazines via Rh(II)-Catalyzed Reaction of 1,2,3-Triazoles with Isoxazoles: Experimental and DFT Evidence for the 1,4-Diazahexatriene Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Rostovskii, Nikolai V; Ruvinskaya, Julia O; Novikov, Mikhail S; Khlebnikov, Alexander F; Smetanin, Ilia A; Agafonova, Anastasiya V

    2017-01-06

    4-Aminopyrrole-3-carboxylates and pyrazine-2-carboxylates were synthesized from 5-alkoxyisoxazoles and 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles by tuning the Rh(II) catalyst and the reaction conditions. The reaction in chloroform at 100 °C under Rh2(OAc)4 catalysis provides 4-aminopyrrole-3-carboxylates in good yields. The use of Rh2(Piv)4 in refluxing toluene results in the formation of 1,2-dihydropyrazine-2-carboxylates as the main products, which can be converted by a one-pot procedure to pyrazine-2-carboxylates by heating with catalytic amounts of TsOH. According to the NMR and DFT investigations of the reaction mechanism, pyrroles and dihydropyrazines are formed, respectively, via 1,5- and 1,6-cyclization of common (5Z)-1,4-diazahexa-1,3,5-triene intermediates. The influence of the nature of the catalyst on the product distribution is rationalized in terms of the Rh-catalyzed isomerization of a pyrrolin-2-ylium-3-aminide zwitterion, the primary product of 1,4-diazahexatriene 1,5-cyclization.

  6. New benzothiadiazole-based dyes incorporating dithieno[3,2-b:2‧,3‧-d]pyrrole (DTP) π-linker for dye-sensitized solar cells with different electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fusheng; Chen, Yu; Zong, Xueping; Qiao, Wenhua; Fan, Huayou; Liang, Mao; Xue, Song

    2016-11-01

    Benzothiadiazole (BTZ)-based dyes incorporating dithieno[3,2-b:2‧,3‧-d]pyrrole (DTP) π-linker has been synthesized for fabricating efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A reference dye with ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) π-linker has also been prepared. The introduction of DTP broadens absorption, provides a more planar skeleton, and reduces HOMO and LUMO energy gap. IMVS and EIS measurements are used to investigate interfacial electron transfer processes of device. Dyes incorporating DTP exhibit more effective inhibition of charge recombination and more conducive to electron injection than the reference dye with EDOT. Therefore, much higher efficiency is obtained in device fabricated by DTP-based dyes, and the best performance achieves a power conversion efficiency of 8.14% by using Co-phen based electrolyte. In contrast, device based on the reference dye reaches 5.22% at most. IPCE characterizations and the effect of Co-bpy and I-/I3- redox couple are also discussed. The DTP moiety is a good candidate for the design of BTZ-based sensitizers used in DSSCs.

  7. Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as New Reversible Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Demethylase KDM1A/LSD1. Part 2: Structure-Based Drug Design and Structure-Activity Relationship.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Paola; Sartori, Luca; Amigoni, Federica; Cappa, Anna; Fagá, Giovanni; Fattori, Raimondo; Legnaghi, Elena; Ciossani, Giuseppe; Mattevi, Andrea; Meroni, Giuseppe; Moretti, Loris; Cecatiello, Valentina; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Romussi, Alessia; Thaler, Florian; Trifiró, Paolo; Villa, Manuela; Botrugno, Oronza A; Dessanti, Paola; Minucci, Saverio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Zagarrí, Elisa; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro

    2017-03-09

    The balance of methylation levels at histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) is regulated by KDM1A (LSD1). KDM1A is overexpressed in several tumor types, thus representing an emerging target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. We have previously described ( Part 1, DOI 10.1021.acs.jmedchem.6b01018 ) the identification of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as novel reversible inhibitors of KDM1A, whose preliminary exploration resulted in compound 2 with biochemical IC50 = 160 nM. We now report the structure-guided optimization of this chemical series based on multiple ligand/KDM1A-CoRest cocrystal structures, which led to several extremely potent inhibitors. In particular, compounds 46, 49, and 50 showed single-digit nanomolar IC50 values for in vitro inhibition of KDM1A, with high selectivity in secondary assays. In THP-1 cells, these compounds transcriptionally affected the expression of genes regulated by KDM1A such as CD14, CD11b, and CD86. Moreover, 49 and 50 showed a remarkable anticlonogenic cell growth effect on MLL-AF9 human leukemia cells.

  8. Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as New Reversible Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Demethylase KDM1A/LSD1. Part 1: High-Throughput Screening and Preliminary Exploration.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luca; Mercurio, Ciro; Amigoni, Federica; Cappa, Anna; Fagá, Giovanni; Fattori, Raimondo; Legnaghi, Elena; Ciossani, Giuseppe; Mattevi, Andrea; Meroni, Giuseppe; Moretti, Loris; Cecatiello, Valentina; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Romussi, Alessia; Thaler, Florian; Trifiró, Paolo; Villa, Manuela; Vultaggio, Stefania; Botrugno, Oronza A; Dessanti, Paola; Minucci, Saverio; Zagarrí, Elisa; Carettoni, Daniele; Iuzzolino, Lucia; Varasi, Mario; Vianello, Paola

    2017-03-09

    Lysine specific demethylase 1 KDM1A (LSD1) regulates histone methylation and it is increasingly recognized as a potential therapeutic target in oncology. We report on a high-throughput screening campaign performed on KDM1A/CoREST, using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) technology, to identify reversible inhibitors. The screening led to 115 hits for which we determined biochemical IC50, thus identifying four chemical series. After data analysis, we have prioritized the chemical series of N-phenyl-4H-thieno[3, 2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamide for which we obtained X-ray structures of the most potent hit (compound 19, IC50 = 2.9 μM) in complex with the enzyme. Initial expansion of this chemical class, both modifying core structure and decorating benzamide moiety, was directed toward the definition of the moieties responsible for the interaction with the enzyme. Preliminary optimization led to compound 90, which inhibited the enzyme with a submicromolar IC50 (0.162 μM), capable of inhibiting the target in cells.

  9. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Substituted N-[3-(1H-Pyrrol-1-yl)methyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-yl]benzamide/ benzene Sulfonamides as Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gangapuram, Madhavi; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Eyunni, Suresh; Soliman, Karam F. A.; Redda, Kinfe K.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological activities of tetrahydropyridine (THP) derivatives are dependent on the substituent ring moiety. In this study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of 12 newly synthesized substituted N-[3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)methyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydrobenzamide/benzene sulfonamides (9a–l) in murine BV-2 microglial cells. All compounds were initially screened for attenuation of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 μg/mL)-activated microglial cells. The data show that only SO2-substituted THPs were effective at sub-lethal concentrations (IC50 values of 12.92 μM (9i), 14.64 μM (9j), 19.63 μM (9k)) relative to L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine positive control (IC50 = 3.1 μM). The most potent SO2-substituted compound (9i) also blocked the LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and attenuated the release of several cytokines including IL-1α, IL-10, and IL-6. These findings establish the moderate immunomodulating effects of SO2-substituted THP derivatives. PMID:24585402

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of substituted N-[3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)methyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-yl]benzamide/benzene sulfonamides as anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Gangapuram, Madhavi; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Eyunni, Suresh; Soliman, Karam F A; Redda, Kinfe K

    2014-05-01

    The pharmacological activities of tetrahydropyridine (THP) derivatives are dependent on the substituent ring moiety. In this study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of 12 newly synthesized substituted N-[3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)methyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydrobenzamide/benzene sulfonamides (9a-l) in murine BV-2 microglial cells. All compounds were initially screened for attenuation of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/mL)-activated microglial cells. The data show that only SO2 -substituted THPs were effective at sub-lethal concentrations (IC50 values of 12.92 µM (9i), 14.64 µM (9j), 19.63 µM (9k)) relative to L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine positive control (IC50  = 3.1 µM). The most potent SO2 -substituted compound (9i) also blocked the LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and attenuated the release of several cytokines including IL-1α, IL-10, and IL-6. These findings establish the moderate immuno-modulating effects of SO2 -substituted THP derivatives.

  11. A unique type of pyrrole-based cyanine fluorophores with turn-on and ratiometric fluorescence signals at different pH regions for sensing pH in enzymes and living cells.

    PubMed

    He, Longwei; Lin, Weiying; Xu, Qiuyan; Wei, Haipeng

    2014-12-24

    The development of new functional fluorescent dyes has attracted great attention. Herein we have described a novel strategy to design a unique type of cyanine dyes by attaching two indolium moieties at the α-positions of the pyrrole core. The new type of cyanine dyes is named as PyCy fluorophores. Importantly, PyCy dyes can exhibit an exceptional feature, fluorescence turn-on response at pH varying from acidic to near-neutral conditions, and a ratiometric fluorescence response at pH varying from near-neutral to basic conditions. By taking advantage of the fluorescence turn-on response of PyCy2 at pH varying from acidic to near-neutral conditions and emission properties of PyCy2, we have demonstrated that a small-molecule fluorescent probe can image pH variations in living cells. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that PyCy2 can sense real-time pH changes under alkaline conditions induced by enzymes based on the ratiometric fluorescence response of PyCy2 at pH varying from near-neutral to basic conditions. We expect that the new design strategy for PyCy fluorophores may prompt the development of a wide variety of cyanine derivatives with desirable properties.

  12. Synthesis, vapor growth, polymerization, and characterization of thin films of novel diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole. The use of computer modeling to predict chemical and optical properties of these diacetylenes and poly(diacetylenes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Frazier, D. O.; Abeledeyem, H.; Mcmanus, S. P.; Zutaut, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work two diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole which are predicted by semiempirical AM1 calculations to have very different properties, are synthesized; the polymerizability of these diacetylenes in the solid state is determined, and the results are compared to the computer predictions. Diacetylene 1 is novel in that the monomer is a liquid at room temperature; this may allow for the possibility of polymerization in the liquid state as well as the solid state. Thin poly(diacetylene) films are obtained from compound 1 by growing films of the monomer using vapor deposition and polymerizing with UV light; these films are then characterized. Interestingly, while the poly(diacetylene) from 1 does not possess good nonlinear optical properties, the monomer exhibits very good third-order effects (phase conjugation) in solution. Dilute acetone solutions of the monomer 1 give intensity-dependent refractive indices on the order of 10 exp -6 esu; these are 10 exp 6 times better than for CS2.

  13. Testing the Limits of the BOPHY Platform: Preparation, Characterization, and Theoretical Modeling of BOPHYs and Organometallic BOPHYs with Electron-Withdrawing Groups at β-Pyrrolic and Bridging Positions.

    PubMed

    Zatsikha, Yuriy V; Nemez, Dion B; Davis, Rebecca L; Singh, Simarpreet; Herbert, David E; King, Alex J; Ziegler, Christopher J; Nemykin, Victor N

    2017-07-19

    Several BOPHY derivatives with and without ferrocene fragments, and with electron-withdrawing ester groups appended to the β-pyrrolic positions have been prepared and characterized by NMR, UV/Vis near-infrared (NIR), high-resolution mass spectrometry, and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as X-ray crystallography. The redox properties of new BOPHYs were probed by electrochemical (cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry) and spectroelectrochemical methods. In an attempt to prepare BOPHY derivatives with a cyano group at the bridging position using a similar approach for BODIPY cyanation, adducts from the nucleophilic attack of the cyanide anion on the bridging position in BOPHY have been isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Oxidation of such adducts, however, resulted in formation of either the starting BOPHYs, or partial extrusion of the BF2 fragment from the BOPHY core, which was confirmed by spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. DFT and TDDFT calculations on all target materials correlate well with the experimental data, and suggest the dramatic reduction of the nitrogen atom basicity at the hydrazine bridge of the BOPHY upon introduction of the cyano group at the bridging-carbon atom. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis, vapor growth, polymerization, and characterization of thin films of novel diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole. The use of computer modeling to predict chemical and optical properties of these diacetylenes and poly(diacetylenes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Frazier, D. O.; Abeledeyem, H.; Mcmanus, S. P.; Zutaut, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work two diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole which are predicted by semiempirical AM1 calculations to have very different properties, are synthesized; the polymerizability of these diacetylenes in the solid state is determined, and the results are compared to the computer predictions. Diacetylene 1 is novel in that the monomer is a liquid at room temperature; this may allow for the possibility of polymerization in the liquid state as well as the solid state. Thin poly(diacetylene) films are obtained from compound 1 by growing films of the monomer using vapor deposition and polymerizing with UV light; these films are then characterized. Interestingly, while the poly(diacetylene) from 1 does not possess good nonlinear optical properties, the monomer exhibits very good third-order effects (phase conjugation) in solution. Dilute acetone solutions of the monomer 1 give intensity-dependent refractive indices on the order of 10 exp -6 esu; these are 10 exp 6 times better than for CS2.

  15. Discovery, synthesis and SAR analysis of novel selective small molecule S1P4-R agonists based on a (2Z,5Z)-5-((pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-3-alkyl-2-(alkylimino)thiazolidin-4-one chemotype.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Mariangela; Guerrero, Miguel; Velaparthi, Subash; Crisp, Melissa; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Brown, Steven; Rosen, Hugh; Roberts, Edward

    2011-11-15

    High affinity and selective S1P(4) receptor (S1P(4)-R) small molecule agonists may be important proof-of-principle tools used to clarify the receptor biological function and effects to assess the therapeutic potential of the S1P(4)-R in diverse disease areas including treatment of viral infections and thrombocytopenia. A high-throughput screening campaign of the Molecular Libraries-Small Molecule Repository was carried out by our laboratories and identified (2Z,5Z)-5-((1-(2-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-3-methyl-2-(methylimino) thiazolidin-4-one as a promising S1P(4)-R agonist hit distinct from literature S1P(4)-R modulators. Rational chemical modifications of the hit allowed the identification of a promising lead molecule with low nanomolar S1P(4)-R agonist activity and exquisite selectivity over the other S1P(1-3,5)-Rs family members. The lead molecule herein disclosed constitutes a valuable pharmacological tool to explore the effects of the S1P(4)-R signaling cascade and elucidate the molecular basis of the receptor function.

  16. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE: a transaminase involved in the biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) from Serratia sp. FS14.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiangdi; Ran, Tingting; Han, Ning; Gao, Yanyan; He, Jianhua; Tang, Lin; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Weiwu

    2014-04-25

    Prodigiosin, a tripyrrole red pigment synthesized by Serratia and some other microbes through a bifurcated biosynthesis pathway, MBC (4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde) and MAP (2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole) are synthesized separately and then condensed by PigC to form prodigiosin. MAP is synthesized sequentially by PigD, PigE and PigB. PigE catalyzes the transamination of an amino group to the aldehyde group of 3-acetyloctanal, resulting in an aminoketone, which spontaneously cyclizes to form H2MAP. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE which involved in the biosynthesis of prodigiosin precursor MAP for the first time to a resolution of 2.3Å with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The monomer of PigE catalytic domain is composed of three domains with PLP as cofactor: a small N-terminal domain connecting the catalytic domain with the front part of PigE, a large PLP-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. The residues from both monomers build the PLP binding site at the interface of the dimer which resembles the other PLP-dependent enzymes. Structural comparison of PigE with Thermus thermophilus AcOAT showed a higher hydrophobic and smaller active site of PigE, these differences may be the reason for substrate specificity.

  17. Biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, in Serratia: identification of a novel 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) assembly pathway, definition of the terminal condensing enzyme, and implications for undecylprodigiosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Neil R; Simonsen, Henrik T; Ahmed, Raef A A; Goldet, Gabrielle; Slater, Holly; Woodley, Louise; Leeper, Finian J; Salmond, George P C

    2005-05-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of the red-pigmented antibiotic, prodigiosin, produced by Serratia sp. is known to involve separate pathways for the production of the monopyrrole, 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) and the bipyrrole, 4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde (MBC) which are then coupled in the final condensation step. We have previously reported the cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of the pig cluster responsible for prodigiosin biosynthesis in two Serratia sp. In this article we report the creation of in-frame deletions or insertions in every biosynthetic gene in the cluster from Serratia sp. ATCC 39006. The biosynthetic intermediates accumulating in each mutant have been analysed by LC-MS, cross-feeding and genetic complementation studies. Based on these results we assign specific roles in the biosynthesis of MBC to the following Pig proteins: PigI, PigG, PigA, PigJ, PigH, PigM, PigF and PigN. We report a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of MAP, involving PigD, PigE and PigB. We also report a new chemical synthesis of MAP and one of its precursors, 3-acetyloctanal. Finally, we identify the condensing enzyme as PigC. We reassess the existing literature and discuss the significance of the results for the biosynthesis of undecylprodigiosin by the Red cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

  18. A new method for the rapid analysis of 1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones (maleimides) in environmental samples by two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeher, Sebastian; Lengger, Sabine K; Grice, Kliti

    2016-02-26

    Maleimides (1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones) are monopyrrolic pigment derivatives with specific alkyl side chains that can be directly linked to their tetrapyrrole precursors, most notably chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls. These compounds can be used as palaeoenvironmental indicators such as algal productivity and redox conditions in ancient and modern aquatic systems. Here, we present a new method using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToF-MS), which enables the rapid analysis of maleimides in complex mixtures and different matrices (e.g. sediments and soils), therefore largely simplifying the previous intricate maleimide purification protocol. This method also reduces the potential for bias associated with partial losses due to low recovery and the high volatility of maleimides. The maleimide distributions and concentrations obtained by GC × GC-ToF-MS were reproducible and in agreement with the previously used purification procedure followed by analysis with traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The new method also resolved previously unrecognised, partial coelution of some maleimides with unknown compounds by quantification with the m/z 75 fragment ion. Furthermore, the higher sensitivity enabled the detection of previously unrecognised and preliminarily identified maleimides based on their relative retention times. The new, easier, rapid and more sensitive GC×GC-ToF-MS method greatly facilitates the analysis of maleimides in environmental samples to study tetrapyrrole degradation processes and will further the development of maleimides as biomarkers for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Facile fabrication of Zn/Zn 5(OH) 8Cl 2·H 2O flower-like nanostructure on the surface of Zn coated with poly ( N-methyl pyrrole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, M. R.; Basirun, W. J.; Alias, Y.; Ebadi, M.

    2011-10-01

    Zn/Zn 5(OH) 8Cl 2·H 2O flower-like nanostructures was electrodeposited on the coated Zn with poly ( N-methyl pyrrole) in 0.1 M Zn (NO 3) 2 and 0.1 M KCl solution. The morphology and the structure of the Zn/Zn 5(OH) 8Cl 2·H 2O were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The FT-IR results showed special peaks at 908 and 728 cm -1 related to Zn 5(OH) 8Cl 2·H 2O. The FESEM results indicated that Zn/Zn 5(OH) 8Cl 2·H 2O consists of a flower-like nanostructure and these flower-shaped structures contain many shaped nanopetals with the thickness of 27.8 nm. The XRD result confirmed that the major phase of electrodeposited product in 0.1 M KCl as supporting electrolyte was Zn 5(OH) 8Cl 2·H 2O. The ability of PMPy to create a thin film and the existence of several pores in its matrix act as a mold for the growth of Zn/Zn 5(OH) 8Cl 2·H 2O flower-like nanostructure. The trapping of Cl - and OH - within pores can be considered as the reason for the formation of flowerlike Zn/Zn 5(OH) 8Cl 2·H 2O nanostructures in 0.1 M KCl.

  20. Enhanced performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by branching the linear substituent in sensitizers based on thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quanyou; Zhang, Weiyi; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-based organic sensitizers with triphenylamine (FNE38 and FNE40) or julolidine (FNE39 and FNE41) as electron-donating unit have been designed and synthesized. A linear hexyl group or a branched alkyl chain, the 2-ethylhexyl group, is incorporated into molecular skeleton of the dyes to minimize intermolecular interactions. The absorption, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties for these sensitizers were then systematically investigated. It is found that the sensitizers have similar photophysical and electrochemical properties, such as absorption spectra and energy levels, owing to their close chemical structures. However, the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on the two types of sensitizers exhibit very different performance parameters. Upon the incorporation of the short ethyl group on the hexyl moiety, enhancements in both open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) and short-circuit current (J(sc)) are achieved for the quasi-solid-state DSSCs. The V(oc) gains originating from the suppression of charge recombination were quantitatively investigated and are in good agreement with the experimentally observed V(oc) enhancements. Therefore, an enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.16%, constituting an increase by 23%, is achieved under standard AM 1.5 sunlight without the use of coadsorbant agents for the quasi-solid-state DSSC based on sensitizer FNE40, which bears the branched alkyl group, in comparison with that based on FNE38 carrying the linear alkyl group. This work presents a design concept for considering the crucial importance of the branched alkyl substituent in novel metal-free organic sensitizers.

  1. Bithiopheneimide-dithienosilole/dithienogermole copolymers for efficient solar cells: information from structure-property-device performance correlations and comparison to thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione analogues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xugang; Zhou, Nanjia; Lou, Sylvia J; Hennek, Jonathan W; Ponce Ortiz, Rocío; Butler, Melanie R; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc T; Strzalka, Joseph; Morin, Pierre-Olivier; Leclerc, Mario; López Navarrete, Juan T; Ratner, Mark A; Chen, Lin X; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2012-11-07

    Rational creation of polymeric semiconductors from novel building blocks is critical to polymer solar cell (PSC) development. We report a new series of bithiopheneimide-based donor-acceptor copolymers for bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) PSCs. The bithiopheneimide electron-deficiency compresses polymer bandgaps and lowers the HOMOs--essential to maximize power conversion efficiency (PCE). While the dithiophene bridge progression R(2)Si→R(2)Ge minimally impacts bandgaps, it substantially alters the HOMO energies. Furthermore, imide N-substituent variation has negligible impact on polymer opto-electrical properties, but greatly affects solubility and microstructure. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) indicates that branched N-alkyl substituents increased polymer π-π spacings vs linear N-alkyl substituents, and the dithienosilole-based PBTISi series exhibits more ordered packing than the dithienogermole-based PBTIGe analogues. Further insights into structure-property-device performance correlations are provided by a thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD)-dithienosilole copolymer PTPDSi. DFT computation and optical spectroscopy show that the TPD-based polymers achieve greater subunit-subunit coplanarity via intramolecular (thienyl)S···O(carbonyl) interactions, and GIWAXS indicates that PBTISi-C8 has lower lamellar ordering, but closer π-π spacing than does the TPD-based analogue. Inverted BHJ solar cells using bithiopheneimide-based polymer as donor and PC(71)BM as acceptor exhibit promising device performance with PCEs up to 6.41% and V(oc) > 0.80 V. In analogous cells, the TPD analogue exhibits 0.08 V higher V(oc) with an enhanced PCE of 6.83%, mainly attributable to the lower-lying HOMO induced by the higher imide group density. These results demonstrate the potential of BTI-based polymers for high-performance solar cells, and provide generalizable insights into structure-property relationships in TPD, BTI, and related polymer semiconductors.

  2. Solid-phase synthesis of 2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrroles, 1,3-dioxo-2,3,5,7a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazoles and 1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines using a supported selenium resin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian; Xu, Jian-Feng

    2009-01-01

    A versatile combinatorial approach was developed for the rapid synthesis of 2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrroles, 1,3-dioxo-2,3,5,7a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazoles, and 1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines libraries. The synthetic strategy includes electrophilic addition, dehydrohalogenation, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, N-acylation, amino carbonylation-cyclization, N-alkylation, lactamization, and oxidation-elimination.

  3. Vibrational spectra, electronic absorption, nonlinear optical properties, evaluation of bonding, chemical reactivity and thermodynamic properties of ethyl 4-(1-(2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Singh, R N; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta

    2015-01-25

    In this work, detailed vibrational spectral analysis of ethyl 4-(1-(2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EHCHEDPC) molecule has been carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy and potential energy distribution (PED). Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio RHF and density functional theory (DFT) method, using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. The other carried outwork cover: structural, thermodynamic properties, electronic transitions, bonding, multiple interaction, chemical reactivity and hyperpolarizability analysis. The results of the calculation were applied to the simulated spectra of (EHCHEDPC), which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The vibrational analysis shows red shift in both group, the proton donor (pyrrole N-H) and proton acceptor (C=O of ester) indicating the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been used to find electronic excitations and their nature. The results of natural bond orbital (NBOs) analysis show the charges transfer and delocalization in various intra- and intermolecular interactions. The binding energy of intermolecular multiple interactions is calculated to be 12.54 kcal mol(-1) using QTAIM calculation. The electronic descriptors analyses reveal the investigated molecule used as precursor for heterocyclic derivatives synthesis. First hyperpolarizability (β0) has been computed to evaluate non-linear optical (NLO) response.

  4. Vibrational spectra, electronic absorption, nonlinear optical properties, evaluation of bonding, chemical reactivity and thermodynamic properties of ethyl 4-(1-(2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    In this work, detailed vibrational spectral analysis of ethyl 4-(1-(2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EHCHEDPC) molecule has been carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy and potential energy distribution (PED). Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio RHF and density functional theory (DFT) method, using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. The other carried outwork cover: structural, thermodynamic properties, electronic transitions, bonding, multiple interaction, chemical reactivity and hyperpolarizability analysis. The results of the calculation were applied to the simulated spectra of (EHCHEDPC), which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The vibrational analysis shows red shift in both group, the proton donor (pyrrole Nsbnd H) and proton acceptor (Cdbnd O of ester) indicating the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been used to find electronic excitations and their nature. The results of natural bond orbital (NBOs) analysis show the charges transfer and delocalization in various intra- and intermolecular interactions. The binding energy of intermolecular multiple interactions is calculated to be 12.54 kcal mol-1 using QTAIM calculation. The electronic descriptors analyses reveal the investigated molecule used as precursor for heterocyclic derivatives synthesis. First hyperpolarizability (β0) has been computed to evaluate non-linear optical (NLO) response.

  5. Chlorfenapyr (A Pyrrole Insecticide) Applied Alone or as a Mixture with Alpha-Cypermethrin for Indoor Residual Spraying against Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae sl: An Experimental Hut Study in Cove, Benin

    PubMed Central

    Ngufor, Corine; Critchley, Jessica; Fagbohoun, Josias; N’Guessan, Raphael; Todjinou, Damien; Rowland, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Indoor spraying of walls and ceilings with residual insecticide remains a primary method of malaria control. Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a growing problem. Novel insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can improve the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Insecticide mixtures have the potential to improve efficacy or even to manage resistance in some situations but this possibility remains underexplored experimentally. Chlorfenapyr is a novel pyrrole insecticide which has shown potential to improve the control of mosquitoes which are resistant to current WHO-approved insecticides. Method The efficacy of IRS with chlorfenapyr applied alone or as a mixture with alpha-cypermeththrin (a pyrethroid) was evaluated in experimental huts in Cove, Southern Benin against wild free flying pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl. Comparison was made with IRS with alpha-cypermethrin alone. Fortnightly 30-minute in situ cone bioassays were performed to assess the residual efficacy of the insecticides on the treated hut walls. Results Survival rates of wild An gambiae from the Cove hut site in WHO resistance bioassays performed during the trial were >90% with permethrin and deltamethrin treated papers. Mortality of free-flying mosquitoes entering the experimental huts was 4% in the control hut. Mortality with alpha-cypermethrin IRS did not differ from the control (5%, P>0.656). The highest mortality was achieved with chlorfenapyr alone (63%). The alpha-cypermethrin + chlorfenapyr mixture killed fewer mosquitoes than chlorfenapyr alone (43% vs. 63%, P<0.001). While the cone bioassays showed a more rapid decline in residual mortality with chlorfenapyr IRS to <30% after only 2 weeks, fortnightly mortality rates of wild free-flying An gambiae entering the chlorfenapyr IRS huts were consistently high (50–70%) and prolonged, lasting over 4 months. Conclusion IRS with chlorfenapyr shows potential to

  6. Determination of octopamine and tyramine traces in dietary supplements and phytoextracts by high performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-3,4-dicarbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Rita; Lotti, Cinzia; Morigi, Rita; Andreani, Aldo

    2012-01-13

    The use of 2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-3,4-dicarbaldehyde (DPD) as a pre-column derivatization reagent for HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis of octopamine (oct) and tyramine (tyr) is proposed. The compound reacts under mild conditions (2 min at ambient temperature) with primary amino groups. The derivatization conditions were optimized by considering different parameters (temperature, time and reagent concentration). The synthesized oct and tyr adducts were characterized by (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry), IR (infrared) and UV (ultraviolet). Derivative chromatographic separations were performed on a Sinergy Hydro-RP column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and triethylammonium phosphate buffer (pH 3; 10mM) at varying composition gradient elution and at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Detection was set at λ=320 nm. The obtained results were compared with those achieved by a validated direct HPLC method with detection at λ=275 nm using a Sinergy Polar-RP column (250 mm × 3 mm i.d.) by isocratic elution conditions with a mobile phase consisting of methanol/acetonitrile/sodium pentanesulphonate (SPS; pH 3; 10mM), 7.5:7.5:85 (v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Derivatization method sensitivity proved to be ten times higher than direct method. Limit of detection of oct and tyr was 0.010 and 0.008 μg/mL, respectively. The reliability of the pre-column method was satisfactory also in terms of linearity (from 0.028 to 1.255 and 0.024 to 1.244 μg/mL for oct and tyr, respectively), precision (relative standard deviation ≤2, without significant differences between intra-day and inter-day data) and recovery (from 98.9 to 101.2%). The proposed method showed to be suitable for a reliable determination of oct and tyr traces in commercially available phytoproducts using the instrumentation usually present in any analytical laboratory.

  7. 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid (HOHA) Lactone is a Biologically Active Precursor for the Generation of 2-(ω-Carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) Derivatives of Proteins and Ethanolamine Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Linetsky, Mikhail; Guo, Junhong; Choi, Jaewoo; Hong, Li; Chamberlain, Amanda S.; Howell, Scott J.; Howes, Andrew M.; Salomon, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    2-(ω-Carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of proteins were previously shown to have significant pathological and physiological relevance to age-related macular degeneration, cancer and wound healing. Previously, we showed that CEPs are generated in the reaction of ε-amino groups of protein lysyl residues with 1-palmityl-2-(4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (HOHA-PC), a lipid oxidation product uniquely generated by oxidative truncation of docosahexanenate-containing phosphatidylcholine. More recently, we found that HOHA-PC rapidly releases HOHA-lactone and 2-lyso-PC (t1/2 = 30 min at 37 °C) by non-enzymatic transesterification/deacylation. Now we report that HOHA-lactone reacts with Ac-Gly-Lys-OMe or human serum albumin to form CEP derivatives in vitro. Incubation of human red blood cell ghosts with HOHA-lactone generates CEP derivatives of membrane proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids. Quantitative analysis of the products generated in the reaction HOHA-PC with Ac-Gly-Lys-OMe showed that HOHA-PC mainly forms CEP-dipeptide that is not esterified to 2-lysophosphatidycholine. Thus, the HOHA-lactone pathway predominates over the direct reaction of HOHA-PC to produce the CEP-PC-dipeptide derivative. Myleoperoxidase/H2O2/NO2− promoted in vitro oxidation of either 1-palmityl-2-docosahexaneoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) generates HOHA-lactone in yields of 0.45% and 0.78%, respectively. Lipid oxidation in human red blood cell ghosts also releases HOHA-lactone. Oxidative injury of ARPE-19 human retinal pigmented epithelial cells by exposure to H2O2 generated CEP derivatives. Treatment of ARPE-19 cells with HOHA-lactone generated CEP-modified proteins. Low (submicromolar), but not high, concentrations of HOHA-lactone promote increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by ARPE-19 cells. Therefore, HOHA-lactone not only serves as an intermediate for the generation of CEPs but

  8. Anticancer potential of pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP) extracted from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, P; Veena, V; Vidhyapriya, P; Lakshmi, Pragna; Krishna, R; Sakthivel, N

    2016-05-01

    Marine bacterium, strain MB30 isolated from the deep sea sediment of Bay of Bengal, India, exhibited antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA sequence homology and subsequent phylogenetic tree analysis, the strain MB30 was identified as Staphylococcus sp. The bioactive metabolite produced by the strain MB30 was purified through silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Purified metabolite was further characterized by FT-IR, LC-MS and NMR analyses. On the basis of spectroscopic data, the metabolite was identified as pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP). The PPDHMP exhibited in vitro anticancer potential against lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 concentration of 19.94 ± 1.23 and 16.73 ± 1.78 μg ml(-1) respectively. The acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining of the IC50 concentration of PPDHMP-treated cancer cells exhibited an array of morphological changes such as nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells induced the progressive accumulation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. Based on the flow cytometric analysis, it has become evident that the compound was also effective in arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further, the Western blotting analysis confirmed the down-regulation of cyclin-D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK-2), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), activation of caspase-9 and 3 with the cleavage of PARP. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells also showed the inhibition of migration and invasive capacity of cancer cells. In the present investigation, for the first time, we have reported the extraction, purification and characterization of an anticancer metabolite, PPDHMP from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30.

  9. Chlorfenapyr (A Pyrrole Insecticide) Applied Alone or as a Mixture with Alpha-Cypermethrin for Indoor Residual Spraying against Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae sl: An Experimental Hut Study in Cove, Benin.

    PubMed

    Ngufor, Corine; Critchley, Jessica; Fagbohoun, Josias; N'Guessan, Raphael; Todjinou, Damien; Rowland, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Indoor spraying of walls and ceilings with residual insecticide remains a primary method of malaria control. Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a growing problem. Novel insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can improve the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Insecticide mixtures have the potential to improve efficacy or even to manage resistance in some situations but this possibility remains underexplored experimentally. Chlorfenapyr is a novel pyrrole insecticide which has shown potential to improve the control of mosquitoes which are resistant to current WHO-approved insecticides. The efficacy of IRS with chlorfenapyr applied alone or as a mixture with alpha-cypermeththrin (a pyrethroid) was evaluated in experimental huts in Cove, Southern Benin against wild free flying pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl. Comparison was made with IRS with alpha-cypermethrin alone. Fortnightly 30-minute in situ cone bioassays were performed to assess the residual efficacy of the insecticides on the treated hut walls. Survival rates of wild An gambiae from the Cove hut site in WHO resistance bioassays performed during the trial were >90% with permethrin and deltamethrin treated papers. Mortality of free-flying mosquitoes entering the experimental huts was 4% in the control hut. Mortality with alpha-cypermethrin IRS did not differ from the control (5%, P>0.656). The highest mortality was achieved with chlorfenapyr alone (63%). The alpha-cypermethrin + chlorfenapyr mixture killed fewer mosquitoes than chlorfenapyr alone (43% vs. 63%, P<0.001). While the cone bioassays showed a more rapid decline in residual mortality with chlorfenapyr IRS to <30% after only 2 weeks, fortnightly mortality rates of wild free-flying An gambiae entering the chlorfenapyr IRS huts were consistently high (50-70%) and prolonged, lasting over 4 months. IRS with chlorfenapyr shows potential to significantly improve the control of malaria

  10. Microsolvation of the pyrrole cation (Py(+)) with nonpolar and polar ligands: infrared spectra of Py(+)-Ln with L = Ar, N2, and H2O (n ≤ 3).

    PubMed

    Schütz, Markus; Matsumoto, Yoshiteru; Bouchet, Aude; Öztürk, Murat; Dopfer, Otto

    2017-02-01

    The solvation of aromatic (bio-)molecular building blocks has a strong impact on the intermolecular interactions and function of supramolecular assemblies, proteins, and DNA. Herein we characterize the initial microsolvation process of the heterocyclic aromatic pyrrole cation (Py(+)) in its (2)A2 ground electronic state with nonpolar, quadrupolar, and dipolar ligands (L = Ar, N2, and H2O) by infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy of cold mass-selected Py(+)-Ln (n ≤ 3) clusters in a molecular beam and dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Size- and isomer-specific shifts in the NH stretch frequency (ΔνNH) unravel the competition between various ligand binding sites, the strength of the respective intermolecular bonds, and the cluster growth. In Py(+)-Ar, linear H-bonding of Ar to the acidic NH group (NHAr) is competitive with π-stacking to the aromatic ring, and both Py(+)-Ar(H) and Py(+)-Ar(π) are observed. For L = N2 and H2O, the linear NHL H-bond is much more stable than any other binding site and the only observed binding motif. For the Py(+)-Ar2 and Py(+)-(N2)2 trimers, the H/π isomer with one H-bonded and one π-bonded ligand strongly competes with a 2H isomer with two bifurcated nonlinear NHL bonds. The latter are equivalent for Ar but nonequivalent for N2. Py(+)-H2O exhibits a strong and linear NHO H-bond with charge-dipole configuration and C2v symmetry. IRPD spectra of cold Py(+)-H2O-L clusters with L = Ar and N2 reveal that Ar prefers π-stacking to the Py(+) ring, while N2 forms an OHN2 H-bond to the H2O ligand. The ΔνNH frequency shifts in Py(+)-Ln are correlated with the strength of the NHL H-bond and the proton affinity (PA) of L, and a monotonic correlation between ΔνNH of the Py(+)-L(H) dimers and PA is established. Comparison with neutral Py-L dimers reveals the strong impact of the positive charge on the acidity of the NH group, the strength of the NHL H-bond, and the

  11. Diaryl- and triaryl-pyrrole derivatives: inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 and MDMX-p53 protein-protein interactions†Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details for compound synthesis, analytical data for all compounds and intermediates. Details for the biological evaluation. Further details for the modeling. Table of combustion analysis data. See DOI: 10.1039/c3md00161jClick here for additional data file.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim J; Ahmed, Shafiq; Coxon, Christopher R; Liu, Junfeng; Lu, Xiaohong; Golding, Bernard T; Griffin, Roger J; Hutton, Claire; Newell, David R; Ojo, Stephen; Watson, Anna F; Zaytzev, Andrey; Zhao, Yan; Lunec, John; Hardcastle, Ian R

    2013-09-21

    Screening identified 2-(3-((4,6-dioxo-2-thioxotetrahydropyrimidin-5(2H)-ylidene)methyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonitrile as an MDM2-p53 inhibitor (IC50 = 12.3 μM). MDM2-p53 and MDMX-p53 activity was seen for 5-((1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione (MDM2 IC50 = 0.11 μM; MDMX IC50 = 4.2 μM) and 5-((1-(4-nitrophenyl)-2,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (MDM2 IC50 = 0.15 μM; MDMX IC50 = 4.2 μM), and cellular activity consistent with p53 activation in MDM2 amplified cells. Further SAR studies demonstrated the requirement for the triarylpyrrole moiety for MDMX-p53 activity but not for MDM2-p53 inhibition.

  12. Pyrrole-Based Conductive Polymers For Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Di Stefano, Salvador

    1994-01-01

    Polypyrrole films containing various dopant anions exhibit superior capacitance characteristics. Used with nonaqueous electrolytes. Candidate for use in advanced electrochemical double-layer capacitors capable of storing electrical energy at high densities. Capacitors made of these films used in automobiles and pulsed power supplies.

  13. Pyrrole-Based Conductive Polymers For Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Di Stefano, Salvador

    1994-01-01

    Polypyrrole films containing various dopant anions exhibit superior capacitance characteristics. Used with nonaqueous electrolytes. Candidate for use in advanced electrochemical double-layer capacitors capable of storing electrical energy at high densities. Capacitors made of these films used in automobiles and pulsed power supplies.

  14. Metabolism and disposition of a novel antineoplastic JS-38 (Benzamide, N-[4-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1,2-dithiolo[4,3-b]pyrrol-6-yl]-3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl)-(9Cl)) in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Liu, Quanhai; Fan, Tingting; Fang, Yu; Li, Ying; Wang, Guoping

    2012-03-01

    The metabolism and catabolism of a novel antineoplastic (ID code JS-38),Benzamide, N-[4-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1,2-dithiolo[4,3-b]pyrrol-6-yl]-3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl)-(9Cl), were investigated in Wistar rats (3 female, 3 male). LC/UV, LC/MS, LC/MS/MS, NMR and acid hydrolysis methods showed that the metabolic process of JS-38 consists of a series of acetylation and glucoronation that form a metabolic product with a unique pharmacologic property of accelerating bone-marrow cell formation, and also showed a novel metabolic pathway of being acetylated and glucuronated in series.

  15. Crystal structure of (2-{[3,5-bis­(1,1-di­methyl­eth­yl)-4-hy­droxy­phen­yl](5-methyl-2H-pyrrol-2-yl­idene)meth­yl}-5-methyl-1H-pyrrolido-κ2 N,N′)di­fluoridoboron

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yukio; Ogawa, Keizo; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C25H31BF2N2O, is a potential boron tracedrug in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), in which the B atom adopts a distorted BN2F2 tetra­hedral geometry: it is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide, di­methyl­formamide and methanol. The pyrrolyl­idene­methyl­pyrrole triple fused ring system is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å) and subtends a dihedral angle of 47.09 (5)° with the plane of the pendant phenol ring. The phenol –OH group is blocked from forming hydrogen bonds by the adjacent bulky tert-butyl groups. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of very weak C—H⋯F inter­actions generate R 2 2(22) loops. PMID:26396909

  16. Spectroscopic and structural study of some 2,5-hexanedione bis(salicyloylhydrazone) complexes: crystal structures of its Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-benzamide.

    PubMed

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A

    2014-08-14

    The reaction between 2,5-hexanedione and salicylic acid hydrazide produced two compounds: 2,5-hexanedione bis(salicyloylhydrazone) [HDSH] (ethanol insoluble) and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzamide [DPH] (ethanol soluble). HDSH formed complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and Pd(II) which are characterized by elemental analyses, spectra (IR, (1)H NMR, ESR and MS), thermal and magnetic measurements. The crystals of [Ni(HDSH-2H)(EtOH)(H2O)] and [Cu(HDSH-2H)] were solved having octahedral and square-planar geometries, respectively. The other complexes have the formulae [Co(HDSH-2H)(H2O)2], [Cu(HDSH-H)2], [Zn(HDSH-2H)(H2O)2], [Cd2(HDSH-4H)(H2O)4], [Cd2(HDSH-2H)(H2O)4Cl2]; [Hg(HDSH-2H)] and [Pd2(HDSH-4H)(H2O)4]. The obtained complexes are stable in air and non-hygroscopic. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra of the complexes provide different geometries. The ESR spectra support the mononuclear geometry for [Cu(HDSH-2H)] and [Cu(HDSH-H)2]. The thermal decomposition of the complexes revealed the coordinated waters as well as the end product which is in most cases the metal oxide. The crystal structure of N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzamide is solved by X-ray technique.

  17. Spectroscopic and structural study of some 2,5-hexanedione bis(salicyloylhydrazone) complexes: Crystal structures of its Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-benzamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A.

    2014-08-01

    The reaction between 2,5-hexanedione and salicylic acid hydrazide produced two compounds: 2,5-hexanedione bis(salicyloylhydrazone) [HDSH] (ethanol insoluble) and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzamide [DPH] (ethanol soluble). HDSH formed complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and Pd(II) which are characterized by elemental analyses, spectra (IR, 1H NMR, ESR and MS), thermal and magnetic measurements. The crystals of [Ni(HDSH-2H)(EtOH)(H2O)] and [Cu(HDSH-2H)] were solved having octahedral and square-planar geometries, respectively. The other complexes have the formulae [Co(HDSH-2H)(H2O)2], [Cu(HDSH-H)2], [Zn(HDSH-2H)(H2O)2], [Cd2(HDSH-4H)(H2O)4], [Cd2(HDSH-2H)(H2O)4Cl2]; [Hg(HDSH-2H)] and [Pd2(HDSH-4H)(H2O)4]. The obtained complexes are stable in air and non-hygroscopic. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra of the complexes provide different geometries. The ESR spectra support the mononuclear geometry for [Cu(HDSH-2H)] and [Cu(HDSH-H)2]. The thermal decomposition of the complexes revealed the coordinated waters as well as the end product which is in most cases the metal oxide. The crystal structure of N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzamide is solved by X-ray technique.

  18. Crystal structures of methyl 3-(4-iso­propyl­phen­yl)-1-methyl-1,2,3,3a,4,9b-hexa­hydro­thio­chromeno[4,3-b]pyrrole-3a-carboxyl­ate, methyl 1-methyl-3-(o-tol­yl)-1,2,3,3a,4,9b-hexa­hydro­thio­chromeno[4,3-b]pyrrole-3a-carboxyl­ate and methyl 1-methyl-3-(o-tol­yl)-3,3a,4,9b-tetra­hydro-1H-thio­chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Raja, R.; Suresh, M.; Raghunathan, R.; SubbiahPandi, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compounds, C23H27NO2S, (I), and C21H23NO2S, (II), the pyrrole rings have envelope conformations with the C atom substituted by the benzene ring as the flap. In the third title compound, C20H21NO3S, (III), the isoxazole ring has a twisted conformation on the C—C bond substituted by the benzene ring and the carboxyl­ate group. In all three compounds, the thio­pyran ring has a half-chair conformation. The mean plane of the pyrrole ring is inclined to the mean plane of the thio­pyran ring by 57.07 (9), 58.98 (9) and 60.34 (12)° in (I), (II) and (III), respectively. The benzene rings are inclined to one another by 73.26 (10)° in (I), 65.781)° in (II) and 63.37 (13)° in (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, there are no classical hydrogen bonds present. Only in the crystal of compound (I) are mol­ecules linked by a pair of C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming inversion dimers. The isopropyl group in compound (I) is disordered over two sets of sites and has a refined occupancy ratio of 0.586 (13):0.414 (13). PMID:26090125

  19. Column solid phase extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese(II) and iron(III) ions in water, food and biological samples using 3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid on synthesized graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza; Sehat, Ali Akbari; Arabieh, Masoud; Yousefi, Seyed Reza; Hosseini, Majid Haji; Rezaee, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A modified, selective, highly sensitive and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of manganese and iron ions is established in the presented work. 3-(1-Methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (MPPC) and graphene oxide (GO) were used in a glass column as chelating reagent and as adsorbent respectively prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The adsorption mechanism of titled metals complexes on GO was investigated by using computational chemistry approach based on PM6 semi-empirical potential energy surface (PES). The effect of some parameters including pH, flow rate and volume of sample and type, volume and concentration of eluent, as well as the adsorption capacity of matrix ions on the recovery of Mn(II) and Fe(III) was investigated. The limit of detection was 145 and 162 ng L(-1) for Mn(II) and Fe(III), respectively. Calibration was linear over the range of 0.31-355 μg L(-1) for Mn(II) and 0.34-380 μg L(-1) for Fe(III) ions. The method was successfully applied for the determination of understudied ions in water, food and biological samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The ceiling effect of pharmacological postconditioning with the phytoestrogen genistein is reversed by the GSK3beta inhibitor SB 216763 [3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione] through mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel opening.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Nicolas; Tissier, Renaud; Pons, Sandrine; Chenoune, Mourad; Waintraub, Xavier; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of pharmacological postconditioning induced by 17beta-estradiol and the phytoestrogen, genistein, against myocardial infarction induced by increasing durations of coronary artery occlusion (CAO). Anesthetized rabbits underwent either 20-min (protocol A) or 30-min (protocol B) CAO, followed by 4 h of coronary artery reperfusion (CAR). Before CAR, they randomly received an intravenous injection of either vehicle (control), 100 or 1000 microg/kg genistein (Geni(100) and Geni(1000), respectively), or 100 microg/kg 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(100)). In protocol A, infarct size was significantly reduced in Geni(100) (n = 6), Geni(1000) (n = 6), and 17beta-E(100) (n = 6) versus control (n = 9) (6 +/- 2, 15 +/- 4, and 11 +/- 3 versus 35 +/- 5%, respectively). In protocol B, none of these drugs reduced infarct size versus control. Western blots demonstrated an increase of Akt phosphorylation in the Geni(100) and 17beta-E(100) hearts submitted to 20-min CAO but not to 30-min CAO. The selective GSK3beta inhibitor SB 216763 (0.2 mg/kg) [3-(2,4)-dichlorophenyl)-4(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione] did not exhibit cardioprotection at this dose, but its administration restored the cardioprotective effect of genistein and 17beta-estradiol with 30-min CAO. Administration of 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg) abolished the cardioprotective effects of Geni(100) and 17beta-E(100) alone with 20-min CAO and also those observed when combined to SB 216763 with 30-min CAO. Thus, pharmacological postconditioning with genistein and 17beta-estradiol is limited by a "ceiling effect of protection" along with a loss of Akt phosphorylation. However, this ceiling effect is reversed by concomitant inhibition of GSK3beta by SB 216763 through opening of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channels.

  1. Coordination of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS: Crystal structure of cis-[Pd(HBTS)]Cl2 and 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)-thiourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Metal complexes of Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pd2+ or Pt2+ with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS; have been prepared and spectroscopically investigated. The empirical formulae of the complexes were suggested based on the elemental analysis. Single crystal of Pd(II) has been solved to be cis-form of square-planar geometry by the X-ray crystallography. 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been recorded for HBTS, Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, in DMSO-d6, showing the mode of chelation. The ligand acts as a neutral or a binegative tetradentate (N2S2) or neutral bidentate on the basis of FT-IR. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra provide information about the geometry of the complexes which supported by calculating the ligand field parameters for the Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes. The Ni(II) complex has subnormal magnetic moment (0.71 BM) indicative of a mixed stereochemistry of square-planar and tetrahedral structure. [Cu(HBTS-2H)] measured 0.93 BM indicating high interaction between the copper centers. The ligand may be ordered at the top of the spectrochemical series which giving high ligand field splitting energy (10Dq = 17,900 cm-1 for Co2+ complex). The mass spectra of some complexes proved their stable chemical formulae while the TGA depicts the degradation steps and the final residue. In evaporating the mother liquor during the preparation of HBTS, new compound is obtained naming 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)thiourea and its crystal was solved.

  2. Nature of Interaction between basic fibroblast growth factor and the antiangiogenic drug 7,7-(carbonyl-bis[imino-N-methyl-4,2-pyrrolecarbonylimino[N-methyl-4,2-pyrrole]-carbonylimino])-bis-(1,3-naphtalene disulfonate). II. Removal of polar interactions affects protein folding.

    PubMed Central

    Zamai, Moreno; Hariharan, Chithra; Pines, Dina; Safran, Michal; Yayon, Avner; Caiolfa, Valeria R; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Pines, Ehud; Parola, Abraham H

    2002-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (basic FGF), a potent inducer of angiogenesis, and the naphthalene sulfonic distamycin A derivative, 7,7-(carbonyl-bis[imino-N-methyl-4,2-pyrrolecarbonylimino[N-methyl-4,2-pyrrole]-carbonylimino])-bis-(1,3-naphtalene disulfonate) (PNU145156E), which exhibits in vivo antiangiogenic activity, form a tight reversible (1:1) complex. PNU145156E binds to the heparin and the selenate-binding sites on bFGF. The cis bFGF-heparin (2:1) complex, essential for the activation of the angiogenic process, is thus prevented. The nature of the forces involved in bFGF:PNU145156E complex, using the wild-type and the K128Q, K138Q, K134Q, and K128Q-K138Q point mutated bFGFs was sought. Based on thermodynamic analysis of the complexation constants, protein temperature stability profiles by ultraviolet absorption, circular dichroism measurements, fluorescence Förster energy-transfer, and anisotropy studies, in harmony with the published x-ray crystallographic structure, the following molecular interactions are proposed: reduced coulombic interactions, hence loosening of the complex by the removal of charged polar groups from the bFGF-heparin binding cleft resulted in decreased binding constants and in a change in the binding mode from polar to nonpolar. Concomitantly, upon mutation, the protein was rendered more compact, less flexible, and less aqueously exposed compared with the wild type. These were further pronounced with the double mutant: weaker dominantly nonpolar protein-drug interactions were accompanied by conspicuous folding. With heparin, however, wild-type bFGF forms a tighter complex with a more compact structure. PMID:11964252

  3. Molecular structure, heteronuclear resonance assisted hydrogen bond analysis, chemical reactivity and first hyperpolarizability of a novel ethyl-4-{[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-hydrazono]-ethyl}-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate: a combined DFT and AIM approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, R N; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, R K; Rawat, Poonam; Baboo, Vikas; Verma, Divya

    2012-06-15

    A new ethyl-4-{[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-hydrazono]-ethyl}-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EDPHEDPC) has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-vis, DART-Mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed by DFT level of theory using B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The (1)H NMR chemical shifts are calculated using gauge including atomic orbitals (GIAO) approach in DMSO as solvent. The time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used to find the various electronic transitions and their nature within molecule. A combined theoretical and experimental wavenumber analysis confirms the existence of dimer. Topological parameters such as electron density (ρ(BCP)), Laplacian of electron density (nabla(2)ρ(BCP)), kinetic electron energy density (G(BCP)), potential electron density (V(BCP)) and the total electron energy density (H(BCP)) at bond critical points (BCP) have been analyzed by Bader's 'Atoms in molecules' AIM theory in detail. The intermolecular hydrogen bond energy of dimer is calculated as -12.51 kcal/mol using AIM calculations. AIM ellipticity analysis is carried out to confirm the presence of resonance assisted intra and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in dimer. The calculated thermodynamic parameters show that reaction is exothermic and non-spontaneous at room temperature. The local reactivity descriptors such as Fukui functions (f(k)(+), f(k)(-)), local softnesses (s(k)(-), s(k)(+)) and electrophilicity indices (ω(k)(+), ω(k)(-)) analyses are performed to determine the reactive sites within molecule. Nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior of title compound is investigated by the computed value of first hyperpolarizability (β(0)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coordination of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS: crystal structure of cis-[Pd(HBTS)]Cl2 and 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)-thiourea.

    PubMed

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A

    2014-09-15

    Metal complexes of Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pd2+ or Pt2+ with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS; have been prepared and spectroscopically investigated. The empirical formulae of the complexes were suggested based on the elemental analysis. Single crystal of Pd(II) has been solved to be cis-form of square-planar geometry by the X-ray crystallography. 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been recorded for HBTS, Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, in DMSO-d6, showing the mode of chelation. The ligand acts as a neutral or a binegative tetradentate (N2S2) or neutral bidentate on the basis of FT-IR. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra provide information about the geometry of the complexes which supported by calculating the ligand field parameters for the Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes. The Ni(II) complex has subnormal magnetic moment (0.71 BM) indicative of a mixed stereochemistry of square-planar and tetrahedral structure. [Cu(HBTS-2H)] measured 0.93 BM indicating high interaction between the copper centers. The ligand may be ordered at the top of the spectrochemical series which giving high ligand field splitting energy (10 Dq=17,900 cm(-1) for Co2+ complex). The mass spectra of some complexes proved their stable chemical formulae while the TGA depicts the degradation steps and the final residue. In evaporating the mother liquor during the preparation of HBTS, new compound is obtained naming 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)thiourea and its crystal was solved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatic Reductive Dehalogenation Controls the Biosynthesis of Marine Bacterial Pyrroles.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Rahman, Imran; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-10-12

    Enzymes capable of performing dehalogenating reactions have attracted tremendous contemporary attention due to their potential application in the bioremediation of anthropogenic polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants. Nature, in particular the marine environment, is also a prolific source of polyhalogenated organic natural products. The study of the biosynthesis of these natural products has furnished a diverse array of halogenation biocatalysts, but thus far no examples of dehalogenating enzymes have been reported from a secondary metabolic pathway. Here we show that the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the highly brominated marine bacterial product pentabromopseudilin is catalyzed by an unusual debrominase Bmp8 that utilizes a redox thiol mechanism to remove the C-2 bromine atom of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromopyrrole to facilitate oxidative coupling to 2,4-dibromophenol. To the best of our knowledge, Bmp8 is first example of a dehalogenating enzyme from the established genetic and biochemical context of a natural product biosynthetic pathway.

  6. Diversity-Oriented Approach to Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloid Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Manojkumar R.; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Lovely, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    An exploration of imidazolylpropargyl amides as linchpin synthons for the construction of a diverse array of heterocyclic frameworks, many of which are related to those found in the oroidin derived alkaloids, is described. One such intermediate has been used in a formal total synthesis of cyclooroidin. PMID:21338082

  7. Synthesis of isoindoles and related iso-condensed heteroaromatic pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Heugebaert, Thomas S A; Roman, Bart I; Stevens, Christian V

    2012-09-07

    Over the past few years, isoindoles have found wide application in materials science. Isoindole containing BODIPY dyes are highly fluorescent materials and have been extensively used in various fields of science. Phthalocyanines, metal containing cyclic tetramers of isoindole, form coordination complexes with most elements of the periodic table. These complexes are intensely coloured and are used as pigments and dyes. However, isoindoles are relatively unstable 10π-heteroaromatic systems and few synthetic methods provide these compounds in good yields. This tutorial review will give an overview of the reported synthetic methods towards isoindoles and related heteroaromatic systems over a time span of approximately 10 years (2000 to current), including the applications where they have been reported. The importance of the field will be illustrated and factors influencing product stability will be discussed.

  8. Pyrrole-3-carboxamides as potent and selective JAK2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brasca, Maria Gabriella; Nesi, Marcella; Avanzi, Nilla; Ballinari, Dario; Bandiera, Tiziano; Bertrand, Jay; Bindi, Simona; Canevari, Giulia; Carenzi, Davide; Casero, Daniele; Ceriani, Lucio; Ciomei, Marina; Cirla, Alessandra; Colombo, Maristella; Cribioli, Sabrina; Cristiani, Cinzia; Della Vedova, Franco; Fachin, Gabriele; Fasolini, Marina; Felder, Eduard R; Galvani, Arturo; Isacchi, Antonella; Mirizzi, Danilo; Motto, Ilaria; Panzeri, Achille; Pesenti, Enrico; Vianello, Paola; Gnocchi, Paola; Donati, Daniele

    2014-09-01

    We report herein the discovery, structure guided design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel class of JAK2 inhibitors. Optimization of the series led to the identification of the potent and orally bioavailable JAK2 inhibitor 28 (NMS-P953). Compound 28 displayed significant tumour growth inhibition in SET-2 xenograft tumour model, with a mechanism of action confirmed in vivo by typical modulation of known biomarkers, and with a favourable pharmacokinetic and safety profile.

  9. High-level ab initio predictions for the ionization energies and heats of formation of five-membered-ring molecules: thiophene, furan, pyrrole, 1,3-cyclopentadiene, and borole, C4H4X/C4H4X+ (X = S, O, NH, CH2, and BH).

    PubMed

    Lo, Po-Kam; Lau, Kai-Chung

    2011-02-10

    The ionization energies (IEs) and heats of formation (ΔH°(f0)/ΔH°(f298)) for thiophene (C(4)H(4)S), furan (C(4)H(4)O), pyrrole (C(4)H(4)NH), 1,3-cyclopentadiene (C(4)H(4)CH(2)), and borole (C(4)H(4)BH) have been calculated by the wave function-based ab initio CCSD(T)/CBS approach, which involves the approximation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations plus a quasi-perturbative triple excitation [CCSD(T)]. Where appropriate, the zero-point vibrational energy correction (ZPVE), the core-valence electronic correction (CV), and the scalar relativistic effect (SR) are included in these calculations. The respective CCSD(T)/CBS predictions for C(4)H(4)S, C(4)H(4)O, C(4)H(4)NH, and C(4)H(4)CH(2), being 8.888, 8.897, 8.222, and 8.582 eV, are in excellent agreement with the experimental values obtained from previous photoelectron and photoion measurements. The ΔH°(f0)/ΔH°(f298) values for the aforementioned molecules and their corresponding cations have also been predicted by the CCSD(T)/CBS method, and the results are compared with the available experimental data. The comparisons between the CCSD(T)/CBS predictions and the experimental values for C(4)H(4)S, C(4)H(4)O, C(4)H(4)NH, and C(4)H(4)CH(2) suggest that the CCSD(T)/CBS procedure is capable of predicting reliable IE values for five-membered-ring molecules with an uncertainty of ±13 meV. In view of the excellent agreements between the CCSD(T)/CBS predictions and the experimental values for C(4)H(4)S, C(4)H(4)O, C(4)H(4)NH, and C(4)H(4)CH(2), the similar CCSD(T)/CBS IE and ΔH°(f0)/ΔH°(f298) predictions for C(4)H(4)BH, whose thermochemical data are not readily available due to its reactive nature, should constitute a reliable data set. The CCSD(T)/CBS IE(C(4)H(4)BH) value is 8.868 eV, and ΔH°(f0)/ΔH°(f298) values for C(4)H(4)BH and C(4)H(4)BH(+) are 269.5/258.6 and 1125.1/1114.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The highest occupied molecular orbitals

  10. S33138 (N-[4-[2-[(3aS,9bR)-8-cyano-1,3a,4,9b-tetrahydro[1] benzopyrano[3,4-c]pyrrol-2(3H)-yl)-ethyl]phenyl-acetamide), a preferential dopamine D3 versus D2 receptor antagonist and potential antipsychotic agent: III. Actions in models of therapeutic activity and induction of side effects.

    PubMed

    Millan, Mark J; Loiseau, Florence; Dekeyne, Anne; Gobert, Alain; Flik, Gunnar; Cremers, Thomas I; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Sicard, Dorothée; Billiras, Rodolphe; Brocco, Mauricette

    2008-03-01

    In contrast to clinically available antipsychotics, the novel benzopyranopyrrolidine derivative, S33138 (N-[4-[2-[(3aS,9bR)-8-cyano-1,3a,4,9b-tetrahydro[1]benzopyrano[3,4-c]pyrrol-2(3H)-yl)-ethyl]phenyl-acetamide), behaves as a preferential antagonist of D(3) versus D(2) receptors and does not interact with histamine H(1) and muscarinic receptors. In contrast to haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone, S33138 (0.16-2.5 mg/kg s.c.) did not disrupt performance in passive-avoidance and five-choice serial reaction time procedures. Furthermore, upon either systemic administration (0.04-2.5 mg/kg s.c.) or introduction into the frontal cortex (0.04-0.63 mug/side), S33138 potently attenuated the perturbation of social recognition by scopolamine or a prolonged intersession delay. Over a comparable and low-dose range, S33138 (0.04-0.63 mg/kg s.c.) elevated dialysis levels of acetylcholine in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats. At higher doses (2.5-10.0 mg/kg s.c.), S33138 also increased frontocortical levels of histamine, whereas monoamines, glutamate, glycine, and GABA were unaffected. By analogy to the other antipsychotics, S33138 (0.63-10.0 mg/kg s.c.) inhibited conditioned avoidance responses in rats, apomorphine-induced climbing in mice, and hyperlocomotion elicited by amphetamine, cocaine, dizocilpine, ketamine, and phencyclidine in rats. S33138 (0.16-2.5 mg/kg s.c.) also blocked the reduction of prepulse inhibition elicited by apomorphine. In comparison with the above actions, only "high" doses of S33138 (10.0-40.0 mg/kg s.c.) elicited catalepsy. To summarize, reflecting preferential blockade of D(3) versus D(2) receptors, S33138 preserves and/or enhances cognitive function, increases frontocortical cholinergic transmission, and is active in models of antipsychotic properties at doses well below those inducing catalepsy. In comparison with clinically available agents, S33138 displays, thus, a distinctive and promising profile of potential

  11. 7-cysteine-pyrrole conjugate: A new potential DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Ma, Liang; Fu, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) require metabolic activation to exert cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. We previously reported that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts are responsible for PA-induced liver tumor formation in rats. In this study, we determined that metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human or rat liver microsomes produced 7-cysteine-DHP and DHP. The metabolism of 7-glutathionyl-DHP by human and rat liver microsomes also generated 7-cysteine-DHP. Further, reaction of 7-cysteine-DHP with calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution yielded the described DHP-derived DNA adducts. This study represents the first report that 7-cysteine-DHP is a new PA metabolite that can lead to DNA adduct formation.

  12. Rh2 (S-biTISP)2-Catalyzed Asymmetric Functionalization of Indoles and Pyrroles with Vinylcarbenoids

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yajing; Davies, Huw M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric functionalization of N-heterocycles by vinylcarbenoids in the presence of catalytic amounts of Rh2 (S-biTISP)2 has been successfully developed. This bridged dirhodium catalyst not only selectively enforces the reaction to occur at the vinylogous position of the carbenoid, but also, affords high levels of asymmetric induction. PMID:22452332

  13. Research on interfacial polymerization of pyrrole assist with Span80 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q. H.; Tu, Z. Y.; Zhao, N. Y.

    2016-07-01

    With assistance of surfactants, self-assembled Polypyrrole (PPy) film was prepared via oil / water interfacial polymerization. The chemical structure and morphologies of the obtained samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical performance recorded on an electrochemical workstation, mainly includes cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The prepared PPy film has its own extremely vesicular structures from results and indicates by using different concentration surfactant Span80. The PPy film prepared 25 °C with 3.32 g/L Span80 (surpass its critical micelle concentration) as a surfactant possess a supernal specific capacitance of 368.18 F/g at a scan rate 50 mV/s in 1 M NaNO3 aqueous solution at.

  14. Synthesis of pyrroles by consecutive multicomponent reaction/[4 + 1] cycloaddition of alpha-iminonitriles with isocyanides.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Patrice; Masson, Géraldine; Zhu, Jieping

    2009-04-02

    [4 + 1] Cycloaddition of alpha,beta-unsaturated imidoyl cyanide (2-cyano-1-azadienes) with isocyanides in the presence of a catalytic amount of AlCl(3) afforded polysubstituted 2-amino-5-cyanopyrroles in good to excellent yields. In combination with the IBX/TBAB-mediated oxidative Strecker reaction, this important heterocycle is readily synthesized in two steps from simple starting materials.

  15. A DFT Study of Pyrrole-Isoxazole Derivatives as Chemosensors for Fluoride Anion

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ruifa; Sun, Weidong; Tang, Shanshan

    2012-01-01

    The interactions between chemosensors, 3-amino-5-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-indol-2-yl)isoxazole-4-carboxamide (AIC) derivatives, and different anions (F− Cl−, Br−, AcO−, and H2PO4−) have been theoretically investigated using DFT approaches. It turned out that the unique selectivity of AIC derivatives for F− is ascribed to their ability of deprotonating the host sensors. Frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analyses have shown that the vertical electronic transitions of absorption and emission for the sensing signals are characterized as intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). The study of substituent effects suggests that all the substituted derivatives are expected to be promising candidates for fluoride chemosensors both in UV-vis and fluorescence spectra except for derivative with benzo[d]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene fragment that can serve as ratiometric fluorescent fluoride chemosensor only. PMID:23109833

  16. Novel pyrrole carboxamide inhibitors of JAK2 as potential treatment of myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Brasca, Maria Gabriella; Gnocchi, Paola; Nesi, Marcella; Amboldi, Nadia; Avanzi, Nilla; Bertrand, Jay; Bindi, Simona; Canevari, Giulia; Casero, Daniele; Ciomei, Marina; Colombo, Nicoletta; Cribioli, Sabrina; Fachin, Gabriele; Felder, Eduard R; Galvani, Arturo; Isacchi, Antonella; Motto, Ilaria; Panzeri, Achille; Donati, Daniele

    2015-05-15

    Compound 1, a hit from the screening of our chemical collection displaying activity against JAK2, was deconstructed for SAR analysis into three regions, which were explored. A series of compounds was synthesized leading to the identification of the potent and orally bioavailable JAK2 inhibitor 16 (NMS-P830), which showed an encouraging tumour growth inhibition in SET-2 xenograft tumour model, with evidence for JAK2 pathway suppression demonstrated by in vivo pharmacodynamic effects.

  17. Specific alkylation of human telomere repeats by hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryoko; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2003-06-12

    A novel hairpin polyamide-cyclopropapyrroloindole (CPI) conjugate PyImImIm-gamma-PyPyPyLDu86 (conjugate 11), which targets human telomere repeats d(TTAGGG)(n)/d(CCCTAA)(n), was synthesized. High resolution denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using 44 bp DNA fragments and HPLC product analysis of a synthetic nonanucleotide demonstrated that conjugate 11 alkylates the target adenine in the telomere repeats, 5'-CCCTAA-3'. Examination of the antitumor activity of conjugate 11 using a panel of 39 cancer cell lines demonstrated that the average concentration of conjugate 11 required for 50% growth inhibition was 5.75 microM, which is superior to pepleomycin and bleomycin and comparable to cisplatin.

  18. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel hydrazide, benzochromenone, dihydropyridine, pyrrole, thiazole and thiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Refat, Hala M; Fadda, A A

    2013-01-01

    As a part of ongoing studies in developing new potent antimicrobial agents, a novel synthesis of 2-cyano-N-(1-(3-oxo-3H-benzo[f]chromen-2-yl)ethylidene)acetohydrazide (3) has been reported. The latter compound was reacted with different reagents to give new heterocyclic compounds. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral data. Representative compounds of the synthesized products were tested and evaluated as antimicrobial agents.

  19. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  20. 3-(2,5-Dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethoxy)pyridines: synthesis and analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Baraznenok, Ivan L; Jonsson, Emma; Claesson, Alf

    2005-03-15

    We disclose an efficient procedure for the preparation of ethers of 2-substituted 2-hydroxymethylpyrroline and of 2-aminomethyl-3-pyrrolines, involving, as a key step, formation and nucleophilic ring opening of a cyclic sulfamidate. Several new analogs of epibatidine (1) and tebanicline (ABT-594, 2) were prepared and tested for analgesic activity in the mouse formalin model.

  1. Spongiacidin C, a pyrrole alkaloid from the marine sponge Stylissa massa, functions as a USP7 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Michitaka; Miyazaki, Mitsue; Kodrasov, Matthew P; Rotinsulu, Henki; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Nicholson, Benjamin; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2013-07-01

    USP7, a deubiquitylating enzyme hydrolyzing the isopeptide bond at the C-terminus of ubiquitin, is an emerging cancer target. We isolated spongiacidin C from the marine sponge Stylissa massa as the first USP7 inhibitor from a natural source. This compound inhibited USP7 most strongly with an IC50 of 3.8 μM among several USP family members tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation losses in microwave Ku region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kumar, Sachin; Narang, S. B.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (-14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm-1) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer.

  3. Green Synthesis of Ag and Pd Nanospheres, Nanowires, and Nanorods Using Vitamin B2: Catalytic Polymerisation of Aniline and Pyrrole

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the first time, we report green chemistry approach using vitamin B2 in the synthesis of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd), nanospheres, nanowires and nanorods at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or hydroxylamine hydro...

  4. Green Synthesis of Ag and Pd Nanospheres, Nanowires, and Nanorods Using Vitamin B2: Catalytic Polymerisation of Aniline and Pyrrole

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the first time, we report green chemistry approach using vitamin B2 in the synthesis of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd), nanospheres, nanowires and nanorods at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or hydroxylamine hydro...

  5. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropylidenedioxy-5-phenylsulfonylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, P.; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H17NO5S, was prepared by oxidation of (2R,3S,4R)-2-phenyl­sulfonyl­methyl-1-hy­droxy-3,4-iso­pro­pyl­idene­dioxy­pyrrolidine. Its crystal structure confirms unequivocally its configuration. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions help to establish the packing. PMID:21754431

  6. Comparative analysis of DNA alkylation by conjugates between pyrrole-imidazole hairpin polyamides and chlorambucil or seco-CBI.

    PubMed

    Minoshima, Masafumi; Bando, Toshikazu; Shinohara, Ken-Ichi; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Nishijima, Shigeki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    We investigated sequence-specific DNA alkylation using conjugates between the N-methylpyrrole (Py)-N-methylimidazole (Im) polyamide and the DNA alkylating agent, chlorambucil, or 1-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-benz[e]indole (seco-CBI). Polyamide-chlorambucil conjugates 1-4 differed in the position at which the DNA alkylating chlorambucil moiety was bound to the Py-Im polyamide. High-resolution denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed that chlorambucil conjugates 1-4 alkylated DNA at the sequences recognized by the Py-Im polyamide core moiety. Reactivity and sequence specificity were greatly affected by the conjugation position, which reflects the geometry of the alkylating agent in the DNA minor groove. Polyamide-seco-CBI conjugate 5 was synthesized to compare the efficacy of chlorambucil with that of seco-CBI as an alkylating moiety for Py-Im polyamides. Denaturing PAGE analysis revealed that DNA alkylation activity of polyamide-seco-CBI conjugate 5 was similar to that of polyamide-chlorambucil conjugates 1 and 2. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of conjugate 5 was superior to that of conjugates 1-4. These results suggest that the seco-CBI conjugate was distinctly active in cells compared to the chlorambucil conjugates. These results may contribute to the development of more specific and active DNA alkylating agents. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enrichment of Pyrrolic Nitrogen by Hole Defects in Nitrogen and Sulfur Co-Doped Graphene Hydrogel for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Quang; Kang, Bong Kyun; Woo, Moo Hyun; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-08-23

    The effect of the doping configuration and concentration of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) on the electrochemical performance of 3 D N and S co-doped hole defect graphene hydrogel (NS-HGH) electrodes is investigated. Surprisingly, by introducing a hole defect on the graphene surface, the difference in the doping concentrations of N and S can be used to effectively modulate the electrochemical behavior of the NS-HGH. The hole defects provide a rapid ion diffusion path. Finally, we showed that the intriguing specific capacitance (536 F g(-1) ) of the NS-HGH could enhance the overall performance of the pseudocapacitance and electric double layer capacitance. The rational design of the NS-HGH-based flexible solid state supercapacitor results in not only outstanding electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 14.8 Wh kg(-1) and power density of 5.2 KW kg(-1) but also in extraordinary mechanical flexibility and excellent cycle stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  9. Reaction of hydroxyl radicals with C4H5N (pyrrole): temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Tucceri, Maria E; Dulitz, Katrin; Horowitz, Abraham; Vereecken, Luc; Crowley, John N

    2012-06-21

    Absolute (pulsed laser photolysis, 4-639 Torr N(2) or air, 240-357 K) and relative rate methods (50 and 760 Torr air, 296 K) were used to measure rate coefficients k(1) for the title reaction, OH + C(4)H(5)N → products (R1). Although the pressure and temperature dependent rate coefficient is adequately represented by a falloff parametrization, calculations of the potential energy surface indicate a complex reaction system with multiple reaction paths (addition only) in the falloff regime. At 298 K and 760 Torr (1 Torr = 1.33 mbar) the rate coefficient obtained from the parametrization is k(1) = (1.28 ± 0.1) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with the value of (1.10 ± 0.27) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) obtained in the relative rate study (relative to C(5)H(8), isoprene) at this temperature and pressure. The accuracy of the absolute rate coefficient determination was enhanced by online optical absorption measurements of the C(4)H(5)N concentration at 184.95 nm using a value σ(184.95nm) = (1.26 ± 0.02) × 10(-17) cm(2) molecule(-1), which was determined in this work.

  10. Sequence-specific DNA alkylation targeting for Kras codon 13 mutation by pyrrole-imidazole polyamide seco-CBI conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Asamitsu, Sefan; Takenaka, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Makoto; Hashiya, Kaori; Kawamoto, Yusuke; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-27

    Hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide seco-CBI conjugates 2-6 were designed for synthesis by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis, and their DNA-alkylating activities against the Kras codon 13 mutation were compared by high-resolution denaturing gel electrophoresis with 225 base pair (bp) DNA fragments. Conjugate 5 had high reactivity towards the Kras codon 13 mutation site, with alkylation occurring at the A of the sequence 5'-ACGTCACCA-3' (site 2), including minor 1 bp-mismatch alkylation against wild type 5'-ACGCCACCA-3' (site 3). Conjugate 6, which differs from conjugate 5 by exchanging one Py unit with a β unit, showed high selectivity but only weakly alkylated the A of 5'-ACGTCACCA-3' (site 2). The hairpin polyamide seco-CBI conjugate 5 thus alkylates according to Dervan's pairing rule with the pairing recognition which β/β pair targets T-A and A-T pairs. SPR and a computer-minimized model suggest that 5 binds to the target sequence with high affinity in a hairpin conformation, allowing for efficient DNA alkylation.

  11. Lamellarin O, a Pyrrole Alkaloid from an Australian Marine Sponge, Ianthella sp., Reverses BCRP Mediated Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Cong; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Talele, Tanaji T.; Salim, Angela A.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, BCRP and MRP1, can increase efflux of clinical chemotherapeutic agents and lead to multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. While the discovery and development of clinically useful inhibitors has proved elusive to date, this molecular target nevertheless remains a promising strategy for addressing and potentially overcoming MDR. In a search for new classes of inhibitor, we used fluorescent accumulation and efflux assays supported by cell flow cytometry and MDR reversal assays, against a panel of sensitive and MDR human cancer cell lines, to evaluate the marine sponge co-metabolites 1–12 as inhibitors of P-gp, BCRP or MRP1 initiated MDR. These studies identified and characterized lamellarin O (11) as a selective inhibitor of BCRP mediated drug efflux. A structure–activity relationship analysis inclusive of the natural products 1–12 and the synthetic analogues 13–19, supported by in silico docking studies, revealed key structural requirements for the lamellarin O (11) BCRP inhibitory pharmacophore. PMID:24979269

  12. Experimental hut evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr on bed nets for the control of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Mosha, F W; Lyimo, I N; Oxborough, R M; Malima, R; Tenu, F; Matowo, J; Feston, E; Mndeme, R; Magesa, S M; Rowland, M

    2008-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of chlorfenapyr against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in East Africa and to identify effective dosages for net treatment in comparison with the commonly used pyrethroid deltamethrin. Chlorfenapyr was evaluated on bed nets in experimental huts against A. arabiensis and C. quinquefasciatus in Northern Tanzania, at application rates of 100-500 mg/m(2). In experimental huts, mortality rates in A. arabiensis were high (46.0-63.9%) for all dosages of chlorfenapyr and were similar to that of deltamethrin-treated nets. Mortality rates in C. quinquefasciatus were higher for chlorfenapyr than for deltamethrin. Despite a reputation for being slow acting, >90% of insecticide-induced mortality in laboratory tunnel tests and experimental huts occurred within 24 h, and the speed of killing was no slower than for deltamethrin-treated nets. Chlorfenapyr induced low irritability and knockdown, which explains the relatively small reduction in blood-feeding rate. Combining chlorfenapyr with a more excito-repellent pyrethroid on bed nets for improved personal protection, control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes and pyrethroid resistance management would be advantageous.

  13. Selective Targeting of the KRAS Codon 12 Mutation Sequence by Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide seco-CBI Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys D; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hashiya, Kaori; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-10-12

    Mutation of KRAS is a key step in many cancers. Mutations occur most frequently at codon 12, but the targeting of KRAS is notoriously difficult. We recently demonstrated selective reduction in the volume of tumors harboring the KRAS codon 12 mutation in a mouse model by using an alkylating hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide seco-1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[1,2-c]benz[1,2-e]indol-4-one conjugate (conjugate 4) designed to target the KRAS codon 12 mutation sequence. Herein, we have compared the alkylating activity of 4 against three other conjugates that were also designed to target the KRAS codon 12 mutation sequence. Conjugate 4 displayed greater affinity for the G12D mutation sequence than for the G12V sequence. A computer-minimized model suggested that conjugate 4 could bind more efficiently to the G12D match sequence than to a one-base-pair mismatch sequence. Conjugate 4 was modified for next-generation sequencing. Bind-n-Seq analysis supported the evidence showing that conjugate 4 could target the G12D mutation sequence with exceptionally high affinity and the G12V mutation sequence with much higher affinity than that for the wild-type sequence.

  14. Band strength in photoelectron spectra and photoionization cross sections of pyrrole and of conformation isomers of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Kiro, Z. A.; Dykhanov, S. M.; Zverev, V. V.

    1988-09-01

    The dependence of partial photoionization cross sections of the 1,1-dimethylhydrazine molecule on the spatial characteristics (bond lengths, valence and dihedral angles) has been studied. The presence of a gauche-conformation isomer in the gaseous phase has been established, as confirmed by a comparison of the photoionization cross section ratios for the corresponding molecular orbitals with the relative band strengths in photoelectron spectra.

  15. Structure-Based Approach To Identify 5-[4-Hydroxyphenyl]pyrrole-2-carbonitrile Derivatives as Potent and Tissue Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators.

    PubMed

    Unwalla, Ray; Mousseau, James J; Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi O; Choi, Chulho; Parris, Kevin; Hu, Baihua; Kenney, Thomas; Chippari, Susan; McNally, Christopher; Vishwanathan, Karthick; Kilbourne, Edward; Thompson, Catherine; Nagpal, Sunil; Wrobel, Jay; Yudt, Matthew; Morris, Carl A; Powell, Dennis; Gilbert, Adam M; Chekler, Eugene L Piatnitski

    2017-07-27

    In an effort to find new and safer treatments for osteoporosis and frailty, we describe a novel series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Using a structure-based approach, we identified compound 7, a potent AR (ARE EC50 = 0.34 nM) and selective (N/C interaction EC50 = 1206 nM) modulator. In vivo data, an AR LBD X-ray structure of 7, and further insights from modeling studies of ligand receptor interactions are also presented.

  16. Gold-Catalyzed 1,2-Migration of Silicon, Tin, and Germanium en route to C-2 Substituted Fused Pyrrole-Containing Heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    Seregin, Ilya V.; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    An efficient method for the synthesis of fused pyrroloheterocycles from diverse propargyl-substituted heterocycles in the presence of Au-catalyst has been developed. The cascade transformation proceeds via alkyne-vinylidene isomerization with concomitant 1,2-shift of hydrogen, silyl and stannyl groups. Remarkably, it was also shown that previously unknown 1,2-migration of a germyl group upon alkyne-vinylidene rearrangement occurs under these reaction conditions. This method allows for mild and efficient synthesis of diverse C-2 substituted N-containing heterocycles. PMID:16967938

  17. Synthesis and phase characterization of a double-tailed pyrrole-containing surfactant: a novel tecton for the production of functional nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Franke, Danielle; Egger, Chrystelle C; Smarsly, Bernd; Faul, Charl F J; Tiddy, Gordon J T

    2005-03-29

    A double-tailed polymerizable (pyrrolylalkyl) ammonium amphiphile has been synthesized, and its interfacial properties and aqueous phase behavior have been studied by polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Krafft temperature is about 27 degrees C, and the critical micelle concentration at 40 degrees C is about 1 mM, as obtained from surface tension measurements, potentiometry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The lyotropic behavior of the surfactant is found to be of a complex nature. At concentrations higher than the micellar (L1) region, two mesophases have been identified: a second isotropic (L2) phase, which is probably micellar but not fully miscible with water, and a lamellar (L(alpha)) phase, showing interesting alignment properties. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of the mesophases has been evaluated in terms of a model of spherical micelles, which describes a mutual arrangement by a structure factor derived from a hard-sphere potential (Percus-Yevick, "PY", approach). Interest in the comprehensive phase behavior of the polymerizable surfactant is based on the desire to integrate the system into a composite material to obtain potentially conducting self-assembled hybrid mesostructures.

  18. Synthesis, hydrolytic DNA-cleaving activities and cytotoxicities of EDTA analogue-tethered pyrrole-polyamide dimer-based Ce(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Wei; Lin, Yan-Ling; Dong, Cheng; Zhou, Chun-Qiong; Chen, Jin-Xiang; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Zhong-Zhen; Sun, Bin; Chen, Wen-Hua

    2014-11-24

    Two EDTA analogue-tethered C2-symmetrical dimeric monopyrrole-polyamide 5 and dipyrrole-polyamide 6, and their corresponding Ce(IV) complexes Ce-5 and Ce-6 were synthesized and fully characterized. Agarose gel electrophoresis studies on pBR322 DNA cleavage indicate that complexes Ce-5 and Ce-6 exhibited potent DNA-cleaving activities under physiological conditions. The maximal first-order rate constants (kmax's) were (0.42 ± 0.02) h(-1) for Ce-5 and (0.52 ± 0.02) h(-1) for Ce-6, respectively, suggesting that both complexes catalyzed the cleavage of supercoiled DNA by up to approximately 10(8)-fold. Complex Ce-6 exhibited ca 10-fold higher overall catalytic activity (kmax/KM) than Ce-5, which may be ascribed to its higher DNA-binding affinity. Inhibition experiments and a model study convincingly suggest that both complexes Ce-5 and Ce-6 functioned as hydrolytic DNA-cleavers. In addition, both complexes were found to display moderate inhibitory activity toward A549 and HepG-2 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A DFT study of [3+2] cycloaddition reactions of an azomethine imine with N-vinyl pyrrole and N-vinyl tetrahydroindole.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Gutiérrez, Mar; Chafaa, Fouad; Khorief Nacereddine, Abdelmalek; Djerourou, Abdelhafid; Domingo, Luis R

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism and selectivities of the [3+2] cycloaddition (32CA) reactions of azomethine imine (AI) 8 with two N-vinyl five-membered heterocycles (NVFH), 9a and 9b, have been theoretically studied using DFT methods at the MPWB1K/6-31G(d) computational level. The possible ortho/meta regio- and endo/exo stereoselective channels were explored and characterised. The low polar character of these 32CA reactions, which is the consequence of the high nucleophilic character of both reagents, as well as the non-effective reactivity of these NVFH as nucleophiles, accounts for the high calculated activation energies, 16.1 (9a) and 16.8 (9b) kcalmol(-1) in chlorobenzene. Analysis of the relative electronic and free energies associated with the different reaction pathways indicates that the 32CA reactions of the AI with these NVFH are highly meta regioselective but present a poor stereoselectivity, in agreement with the experimental observations. Finally, electron localisation function (ELF) topological analysis allows characterising the mechanism of these 32CA reactions as a non-concerted two-stage one-step mechanism.

  20. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropyl­idenedioxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, Pilar; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound C7H11NO3 was prepared by intra­molecular nucleophilic displacement of 2,3-O-iso-propyl­idene-d-erythronolactol. There are two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, which are related by a pseudo-inversion centre. The crystal structure determination confirms unequivocally the configuration of the chiral centres as 3S,4R. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules (into infinite zigzag chains along the a axis. PMID:21754432

  1. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, T.

    1997-02-04

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by reacting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. One such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  2. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, T.

    1996-03-26

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by reacting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. One such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro-1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  3. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, Tilak

    1997-01-01

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by recting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. Once such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro-1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  4. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, T.

    1996-07-16

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by reacting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. One such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  5. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, Tilak

    1996-01-01

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by recting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. Once such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a 2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro-1-halocarbyl)pyrrole!, and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  6. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, Tilak

    1996-01-01

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by recting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. Once such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro-1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  7. Electrochemical Deposition Of Conductive Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Distefano, Salvador; Liang, Ranty H.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show electrically conductive films are deposited on glassy carbon or indium tin oxide substrates by electrochemical polymerization of N-{(3-trimethoxy silyl) propyl} pyrrole or copolymerization with pyrrole. Copolymers of monomer I and pyrrole exhibit desired electrical conductivity as well as desired adhesion and other mechanical properties. When fully developed, new copolymerization process useful in making surface films of selectable conductivity.

  8. 1-Methyl-3-(2-methyl­phen­yl)-3a-nitro-1,2,3,3a,4,9b-hexa­hydro­chromeno[4,3-b]pyrrole

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramoorthy, S.; Sivakumar, N.; Bakthadoss, M.; Velmurugan, D.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H20N2O3, contains two independent mol­ecules in both of which the pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation, but with a C atom as the flap in one mol­ecule and the N atom in the other. The pyran ring adopts a half-chair conformation in both mol­ecules. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22719522

  9. Fabrication of Minerals Substituted Porous Hydroxyapaptite/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy pyrrole-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Bilayer Coatings on Surgical Grade Stainless Steel and Its Antibacterial and Biological Activities for Orthopedic Applications.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Ramya; Elangomannan, Shinyjoy; Louis, Kavitha; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Gopi, Dhanaraj

    2016-05-18

    Current strategies of bilayer technology have been aimed mainly at the enhancement of bioactivity, mechanical property and corrosion resistance. In the present investigation, the electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (P(EDOP-co-EDOT)) with various feed ratios of EDOP/EDOT on surgical grade stainless steel (316L SS) and the successive electrodeposition of strontium (Sr(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)) and cerium (Ce(3+)) (with 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 M Ce(3+)) substituted porous hydroxyapatite (M-HA) are successfully combined to produce the bioactive and corrosion resistance P(EDOP-co-EDOT)/M-HA bilayer coatings for orthopedic applications. The existence of as-developed coatings was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, the mechanical and thermal behavior of the bilayer coatings were analyzed. The corrosion resistance of the as-developed coatings and also the influence of copolymer (EDOP:EDOT) feed ratio were studied in Ringer's solution by electrochemical techniques. The as-obtained results are in accord with those obtained from the chemical analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In addition, the antibacterial activity, in vitro bioactivity, cell viability and cell adhesion tests were performed to substantiate the biocompatibility of P(EDOP-co-EDOT)/M-HA bilayer coatings. On account of these investigations, it is proved that the as-developed bilayer coatings exhibit superior bioactivity and improved corrosion resistance over 316L SS, which is potential for orthopedic applications.

  10. Computational study of An-X bonding (An = Th, U; X = p-block-based ligands) in pyrrolic macrocycle-supported complexes from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules and bond energy decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kieran T P; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2017-01-17

    A systematic computational study of organoactinide complexes of the form [LAnX](n+) has been carried out using density functional theory, the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and Ziegler-Rauk energy decomposition analysis (EDA) methods. The systems studied feature L = trans-calix[2]benzene[2]pyrrolide, An = Th(iv), Th(iii), U(iii) and X = BH4, BO2C2H4, Me, N(SiH3)2, OPh, CH3, NH2, OH, F, SiH3, PH2, SH, Cl, CH2Ph, NHPh, OPh, SiH2Ph, PHPh2, SPh, CPh3, NPh2, OPh, SiPh3 PPh2, SPh. The PBE0 hybrid functional proved most suitable for geometry optimisations based on comparisons with available experimental data. An-X bond critical point electron densities, energy densities and An-X delocalisation indices, calculated with the PBE functional at the PBE0 geometries, are correlated with An-X bond energies, enthalpies and with the terms in the EDA. Good correlations are found between energies and QTAIM metrics, particularly for the orbital interaction term, provided the X ligand is part of an isoelectronic series and the number of open shell electrons is low (i.e. for the present Th(iv) and Th(iii) systems).

  11. Crystal structure of bis­[4-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)phen­yl] ferrocene-1,1′-di­carboxyl­ate: a potential chemotherapeutic drug

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Wanda I.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Meléndez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The title iron(II) complex, [Fe(C16H12NO2)2], crystallizes in the ortho­rhom­bic space group Pbca with the Fe2+ cation positioned on an inversion center. The cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) rings adopt an anti conformation in contrast with other substituted ferrocenes in which the Cp rings appear in a nearly eclipsed conformation. The Cp and the aromatic rings are positioned out of the plane, with a twist angle of 70.20 (12)°, and the C(Cp)—C(CO) bond length is shorter than a typical C—C single bond, which suggests a partial double-bond character and delocalization with the Cp π system. The structure of the complex is compared to other functionalized ferrocenes synthesized in our laboratory. PMID:25995874

  12. 1-(2-Hy­droxy­eth­yl)-3-[(2-hy­droxy­eth­yl)amino]-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Zhao, Sheng-Yin

    2011-01-01

    There are four molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H17N3O4, in which the dihedral angles between the indole ring system and maleimide ring are 4.5 (3), 8.3 (3), 8.4 (2) and 10.4 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by numerous N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:21754135

  13. 1-(2-Hy-droxy-eth-yl)-3-[(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)amino]-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Zhao, Sheng-Yin

    2011-04-01

    There are four molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(16)H(17)N(3)O(4), in which the dihedral angles between the indole ring system and maleimide ring are 4.5 (3), 8.3 (3), 8.4 (2) and 10.4 (2)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by numerous N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.

  14. Dibromopyrrole alkaloids from the marine sponge Acanthostylotella sp.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Sherif Saeed; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; de Voogd, Nicole J; Wray, Victor; Proksch, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen dibromopyrrole alkaloids were isolated from the marine sponge Acanthostylotella sp. collected in Indonesia. In addition to the known compounds 4,5-dibromo-N-(methoxy-methyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (7), 4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (8), mukanadin D (9), (+/-)-longamide B methyl ester (10), (+/-)-longamide B (11), (+/-)-longamide (12), 3,4-dibromo-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (13), 2-cyano-4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole (14), six compounds were isolated that proved to be new natural products including acanthamides A-D (1-4), methyl 3,4-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (5) and 3,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (6). The structures of the new compounds were unequivocally identified based on one and two dimensional NMR and on HRFTMS as well as by comparison with the literature.

  15. Nanoparticles of Polypyrrole and Their Effect on Mediating Li Ion Transport from Liquid Electrolyte to Cathode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    obtain water-soluble statistical copolymers. After the in situ polymerization of the pyrrole monomer, resulting PPy particles were typically 100-150 nan...molecules containing polyoxyethylene (PEO) moiety are bound to pyrrole or aniline molecule via a spacer, tolylene diisocyanate (TDI). Besides the synthesis...EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Preparation of the grafted polypyrrole nanoparticles THF 40ml, pyrrole (0.70ml, 10.1 mmol), TDI (1.45ml, 10.1mmol) were added into a 100ml

  16. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Alexandrina Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  17. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  18. Synthesis of "Meso"-Diethyl-2,2'-Dipyrromethane in Water: An Experiment in Green Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobral, Abilio J. F. N.

    2006-01-01

    Dipyrromethanes (or dipyrrilmethanes) are important building blocks for many of the structures of interest in the areas of porphyrins, materials science, optics, and medicine. A variety of conditions have been established for the synthesis of dipyrromethanes of diverse structures, from substituted pyrroles to unsubstituted pyrrole and carbonyl…

  19. Synthesis of Peramine, an Anti-insect Defensive Alkaloid Produced by Endophytic Fungi of Cool Season Grasses.

    PubMed

    Nelli, Matthew R; Scheerer, Jonathan R

    2016-04-22

    A seven-step synthesis of peramine, which required three chromatographic separations, is described. Key to the synthesis is an enolate alkylation of a pyrrole-fused diketopiperazine, reduction of the acyl pyrrole, and dehydration of the intermediate pyrrolyl carbinol to establish the pyrrolopyrazine core of peramine.

  20. Asymmetric total synthesis of ent-cyclooroidin

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sabuj; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Lovely, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    An enantiospecific total synthesis of the pyrrole-imidazole natural product cyclooroidin from histidine is described. The key N1-C9 bond is constructed through an intramolecular SN2-type of reaction of a chloro ester. Subsequent imidazole C2-azidation at the 2-position, pyrrole bromination, azide reduction and deprotection leads to the completion of the synthesis. PMID:20929213

  1. Synthesis of "Meso"-Diethyl-2,2'-Dipyrromethane in Water: An Experiment in Green Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobral, Abilio J. F. N.

    2006-01-01

    Dipyrromethanes (or dipyrrilmethanes) are important building blocks for many of the structures of interest in the areas of porphyrins, materials science, optics, and medicine. A variety of conditions have been established for the synthesis of dipyrromethanes of diverse structures, from substituted pyrroles to unsubstituted pyrrole and carbonyl…

  2. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  3. Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cells with an Efficiency of 10.2% and an Energy Loss of 0.59 eV Based on a Thieno[3,4-c]Pyrrole-4,6-dione-Containing Wide Band Gap Polymer Donor.

    PubMed

    Hadmojo, Wisnu Tantyo; Wibowo, Febrian Tri Adhi; Ryu, Du Yeol; Jung, In Hwan; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2017-09-27

    Although the combination of wide band gap polymer donors and narrow band gap small-molecule acceptors achieved state-of-the-art performance as bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layers for organic solar cells, there have been only several of the wide band gap polymers that actually realized high-efficiency devices over >10%. Herein, we developed high-efficiency, low-energy-loss fullerene-free organic solar cells using a weakly crystalline wide band gap polymer donor, PBDTTPD-HT, and a nonfullerene small-molecule acceptor, ITIC. The excessive intermolecular stacking of ITIC is efficiently suppressed by the miscibility with PBDTTPD-HT, which led to a well-balanced nanomorphology in the PBDTTPD-HT/ITIC BHJ active films. The favorable optical, electronic, and energetic properties of PBDTTPD-HT with respect to ITIC achieved panchromatic photon-to-current conversion with a remarkably low energy loss (0.59 eV).

  4. Smaragdyrins and Sapphyrins Analogues.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tamal; Srinivasan, A; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli; Chandrashekar, Tavarakere K

    2017-02-22

    Porphyrins and expanded porphyrins have attracted the attention of chemists for a long time in view of their diverse applications in catalysis; as anion, cation, and neutral substrate receptors; as ligands to coordinate large metal ions; as nonlinear optical materials, MRI contrasting agents, and sensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT); and more recently as models for aromaticity (both Hückel and Möbius). A diverse range of synthetic expanded porphyrins containing up to 96π electrons have been reported, and their properties have been exploited for various applications. The present Review is only confined to 22π electron expanded porphyrins containing five pyrrole/heterocyclic rings such as sapphyrins and smaragdyrins. Even though these two macrocycles contain 22π electrons and five pyrrole/heterocyclic rings, they are structurally different. In sapphyrins, the five pyrrole/heterocyclic rings are connected through four meso-carbon bridges and one direct pyrrole-pyrrole bond, whereas in smaragdyrins, the five pyrrole/heterocyclic rings are connected through three meso-carbon bridges and two direct pyrrole-pyrrole bonds. The chemistry of sapphyrins has been well-established in recent years due to the availability of easy and efficient synthetic methods. On the other hand, smaragdyrins are not explored significantly because of their unstable nature. However, recently it was shown that smaragdyrins can be stabilized if one of the pyrrole rings is replaced with a furan ring to afford stable oxasmaragdyrin. The availability of oxasmaragdyrin allowed the exploration of smaragdyrin in recent years. Thus, an attempt has been made in this Review to describe the chemistry of both sapphyrins and smaragdyrins in terms of their synthesis, characterization, metal ion coordination, and anion-recognition properties.

  5. Synthesis and unexpected oxidization of the tricyclic core of ugibohlin, isophakellin, and styloguanidine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Yung-Yu; Lin, Chia-Chi; Chien, Tun-Cheng

    2013-10-18

    A series of 4-substituted 5,6,7,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,3-f]indolizin-9-ones, representing the tricyclic core skeleton of ugibohlin, isophakellin, and styloguanidine, were synthesized via an intramolecular Vilsmeier-Haack reaction. This reaction allows the chemoselective C-C bond formation between the pyrrole C3 and proline C5 of N-[(pyrrol-2-yl)carbonyl]prolinamides to construct the B-ring without the protection of the pyrrole nitrogen. Unexpected oxidizative property of the tricyclic core skeleton was observed, which could illuminate understanding of the biological formation of these marine secondary metabolites.

  6. Photochemical transformations of 2,2'-(1,2-phenylenedivinylene)-dipyrroles.

    PubMed

    Basarić, Nikola; Marinić, Zeljko; Visnjevac, Aleksandar; Kojić-Prodić, Biserka; Griesbeck, Axel G; Sindler-Kulyk, Marija

    2002-12-01

    The photochemistry of 2,2'-(1,2-phenylenedivinylene)dipyrroles (4a,b) has been investigated under various conditions. After excitation of the starting material, an electron transfer followed by hydrogen transfer and radical combination occurs giving 2-[[1-(2H-pyrrol-2-ylidene)methinyl]-2-indanyl]pyrrole (14) as the intermediate. The intermediate could not be isolated, but trapped by nucleophiles, like methanol and diethylamine, giving as addition products, new functionalised indanylpyrroles (9). Irradiation of 4a in the presence of triethylamine afforded the indanylidene-pyrroles 8.

  7. Photochemical formation of novel pyrrolo[3,2-b]-6,7-benzobicyclo[3.2.1]octa- 2,6-diene.

    PubMed

    Basarić, Nikola; Marinić, Zeljko; Sindler-Kulyk, Marija

    2003-09-19

    The first synthesis of 1,4,9,10-tetrahydro-4,9-methanobenzo[4,5]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyrrole (11) was achieved by the photochemical intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition of N-phenoxycarbonyl- (5a) and N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-[2-(2-vinylphenyl)]pyrrole (6a), respectively, followed by basic hydrolysis of the isolated N-substituted 1,4,9,10-tetrahydro-4,9-methanobenzo[4,5]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyrroles (10a, 10b). Some competitively formed products were also isolated.

  8. Quaterpyrroles as building blocks for the synthesis of expanded porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Anguera, Gonzalo; Kauffmann, Brice; Borrell, José I; Borrós, Salvador; Sánchez-García, David

    2015-05-01

    A new family of quaterpyrroles and their application as building blocks for the synthesis of macrocycles is reported. The preparation of these quaterpyrroles consisted of two synthetic steps: bromination of 2,2'-bipyrroles bearing two electron-withdrawing groups followed by Suzuki coupling with 1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)pyrrole-2-boronic acid. The resulting quaterpyrroles have been used to prepare an octaphyrin and a substituted cyclo[8]pyrrole. Additionally, the synthesis of a new macrocycle containing the quaterpyrrole and 2,5-di(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)thiophene moieties is presented.

  9. Synthesis and biological activity of a new class of sulfone-linked pyrrolylpyrazoles and pyrrolylisoxazoles from methyl-3-aryl-2-(E-arylethenesulfonyl)acrylate.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Venkatapuram; Radha Lakshmi, Thunga; Mahesh, Konda; Padmaja, Adivireddy

    2009-11-01

    A new class of sulfone-linked bis heterocycles, methyl-3-(4'-aryl-1'H-pyrazol-3'-ylsulfonyl)-4-aryl-3H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate (8), methyl-3-(1'-phenyl-3',5'-diaryl-1'H-pyrazol-4'-ylsulfonyl)-4-aryl-3H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate (9) and methyl-3-(3',5'-diarylisoxazol-4'-ylsulfonyl)-4-aryl-3H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate (10) were prepared by the regioselective reaction of methyl-3-aryl-2-(E-arylethenesulfonyl)acrylate (2) with tosylmethyl isocyanide followed by fuctionalization of olefin moiety with 1,3-dipolar reagents. The lead compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity.

  10. Chemistry of muconaldehydes of possible relevance to the toxicology of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Bleasdale, C; Kennedy, G; MacGregor, J O; Nieschalk, J; Pearce, K; Watson, W P; Golding, B T

    1996-01-01

    (Z,Z)-Muconaldehyde reacted with primary amines to give N-substituted-2(2'-oxoethyl)-pyrroles, which were reduced to N-substituted-2-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-pyrroles by sodium borohydride. The pyrrole-forming reaction is exhibited by valine and its methyl ester, and is being developed with terminal valine in hemoglobin as a means of dose monitoring (Z,Z)-muconaldehyde, a putative metabolite of benzene. Reactions in aqueous solution between (Z,Z)-muconaldehyde and adenosine, deoxyadenosine, guanosine, or deoxyguanosine leading to pyrrole-containing adducts are described. The elucidation of the structures of the adducts was assisted by the study of reactions between (Z,Z)-muconaldehyde and both nucleoside derivatives and a model compound for guanosine. Reactions of (Z,Z)-muconaldehyde are complicated by its isomerization to (E,Z)- and (E-E)-muconaldehyde. The kinetics of this process have been studied in benzene, acetonitrile, and dimethylsulfoxide. PMID:9118894

  11. Royal Society of Chemistry, Heterocyclic Chemistry Group, Lakeland Heterocyclic Symposium (11th), Held in Grasmere 6-10 May 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Organic Synthesis : A Synthetic Strategy with a Future; The Design and Synthesis of Selective Protein Kinase C Inhibitors; and Isocondensed Heteroaromatic Pyrroles: Syntheses, and Applications in the Syntheses of Natural Products and Conducting

  12. Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    More than 300 pesticide products in seven chemical classes are registered with EPA, meaning EPA has evaluated their safety and effectiveness: pyrethins, pyrethroids, desiccants, biochemicals, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and insect growth regulators.

  13. Synthesis of pyrrolnitrin and related halogenated phenylpyrroles.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Matthew D; Hanthorn, Jason J; Pratt, Derek A

    2009-03-05

    A general approach to halogenated arylpyrroles, including the antifungal natural product pyrrolnitrin, is described using newly synthesized halogenated pyrroles and 2,6-disubstituted nitrobenzenes or 2,6-disubstituted anilines.

  14. A novel nitrogen-containing electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction from blood protein pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chao-Zhong; Chen, Chang-Guo; Luo, Zhong-Li

    2014-01-01

    We report a new strategy to design carbon-based electrocatalysts containing nitrogen through the co-pyrolysis of blood protein and carbon black support. The results show that the nitrogen in electrocatalysts is primarily in the form of pyridinic- and pyrrolic-type nitrogen species. High-temperature pyrolysis processes can transfer a significant amount of pyridinic-N to pyrrolic-N. The electrocatalyst containing a higher amount of the pyrrolic-N configuration exhibits better electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction in terms of onset potential, half-wave potential, and limited current density. It is suggested that the pyrrolic-N configuration may be the electrocatalytically active site and may be responsible for the enhanced ORR performance in alkaline media. The carbon black support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, improving the ORR catalytic activity.

  15. Synthetic route to meso-tetra hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrins and derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, Tilak P.; Wagner, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    The hydroxyl group in a pyrrolic compound having in the 2-position thereof a group having the formula R(OH)CH--R is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, is replaced by a group, for example a p-nitrobenzoate group, having better leaving properties than those of hydroxyl for a subsequent self-condensation and cyclization of the pyrrolic compound to form a meso-hydrocarbyl or meso-substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrin.

  16. Synthetic route to meso-tetra hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrins and derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, T.P.; Wagner, R.W.

    1993-08-31

    The hydroxyl group in a pyrrolic compound having in the 2-position thereof a group having the formula R(OH)CH-R is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, is replaced by a group, for example a p-nitrobenzoate group, having better leaving properties than those of hydroxyl for a subsequent self-condensation and cyclization of the pyrrolic compound to form a meso-hydrocarbyl or meso-substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrin.

  17. Modular Total Syntheses of the Alkaloids Discoipyrroles A and B, Potent Inhibitors of the DDR2 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwen; Banwell, Martin G; Carr, Paul D; Willis, Anthony C

    2016-02-19

    The title natural product 1 has been synthesized by treating the 1,2,3,5-tetrasubstituted pyrrole 23 with oxoperoxymolybdenum(pyridine) (hexamethylphosphoric triamide) (MoOPH). Compound 23 was itself prepared in seven steps from parent pyrrole using Ullmann-Goldberg and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, Vilsmeier-Haack formylation, electrophilic bromination, and Wittig olefination reactions as key steps. Related chemistry has been used to prepare discoipyrrole B (2).

  18. Design of Lewis acid-base complex: enhancing the stability and first hyperpolarizability of large excess electron compound.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Miao, Tifang; Zhou, Zhongjun; Sun, Dengming

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper, a new type of Lewis acid-base complex BX3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole (X = H and F) was designed and assembled based on electride molecule Li@calix[4]pyrrole (as a Lewis base) and the electron deficient molecule BX3 (as a Lewis acid) by employing quantum mechanical calculation. The new Lewis acid-base complex offers an interesting push-excess electron-pull (P-e-P) framework to enhance the stability and nonlinear optical (NLO) response. To measure the nonlinear optical response, static first hyperpolarizabilities (β 0) are exhibited. Significantly, point-face assembled Lewis acid-base complex BF3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole (II) has considerable first hyperpolarizabilities (β 0) value (1.4  ×  106 a.u.), which is about 117 times larger than reported 11,721 a.u. of electride Li@Calix[4]pyrrole. Further investigations show that, in BX3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole with P-e-P framework, a strong charge-transfer transition from the ground state to the excited state contributes to the enhancement of first hyperpolarizability. Theory calculation of enthalpies of reaction (ΔrH0) at 298 K demonstrates that it is feasible to synthetize the complexes BX3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole. In addition, compared with Li@Calix[4]pyrrole, the vertical ionization potential (VIP) and HOMO-LUMO gap of BX3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole have obviously increased, due to the introduction of the Lewis acid molecule BX3. The novel Lewis acid-base NLO complex possesses not only a large nonlinear optical response but also higher stability.

  19. Electronic and Ionic Transport in Processable Conducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-12

    Reynolds, J. R. "Charge and Ion Transport in Poly(pyrrole copper phthalocyanine - sulfonate ) During Redox Switching," J. Electroanal. Chem., submitted...the following polymers: (1) copolymers of heterocyclic rings such as pyrrole or furan with disubstituted ( methyl or methoxy groups ) benzene; (2...SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIEL GRUP I SUB- GROUP IPoly[1,4-bis(2-furanyl)-2,5-disubstituted-p

  20. Coating of Ultrathin Polymer Films on Carbon Nanotubes by a Plasma Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    treatment. HRTEM experiments showed that an extremely thin film of the pyrrole layer (2-7 nm) was uniformly deposited on the surfaces of the nanotubes...treatment. The polyacrylic film will react with metallic ions in water. As a result of the high surface-to-volume ratio of these nanostructured clusters...introduced into the reactor chamber. The operating pressure was adjusted by the mass flow controller. Pyrrole was used as the mo- nomer for plasma