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Sample records for pyrroles

  1. A sustainable catalytic pyrrole synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlik, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

    2013-02-01

    The pyrrole heterocycle is a prominent chemical motif and is found widely in natural products, drugs, catalysts and advanced materials. Here we introduce a sustainable iridium-catalysed pyrrole synthesis in which secondary alcohols and amino alcohols are deoxygenated and linked selectively via the formation of C-N and C-C bonds. Two equivalents of hydrogen gas are eliminated in the course of the reaction, and alcohols based entirely on renewable resources can be used as starting materials. The catalytic synthesis protocol tolerates a large variety of functional groups, which includes olefins, chlorides, bromides, organometallic moieties, amines and hydroxyl groups. We have developed a catalyst that operates efficiently under mild conditions.

  2. Cyclo[n]pyrroles and methods thereto

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, Jonathan L.; Seidel, Daniel; Bolze, Frederic R.; Koehler, Thomas

    2006-01-10

    The present invention provides an oxidative coupling procedure that allows efficient synthesis of novel cyclo[n]pyrrole macrocycles. Therefore, the present invention provides cyclo[n]pyrroles where n is 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12, and derivatives, multimers, isomers, and ion and neutral molecule complexes thereof as new compositions of matter. A protonated form of cyclo[n]pyrrole displays a gap of up to 700 nm between strong Soret and Q-like absorption bands in the electronic spectrum, demonstrating no significant ground state absorption in the visible portion of the electronic spectrum. Uses of cyclo[n]pyrroles as separation media, nonlinear optical materials, information storage media and infrared filters are provided.

  3. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Picosecond spectroscopy of pyrrol pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, M. E.; Leitner, A.; Riegler, M.; Aussenegg, F. R.

    1982-05-01

    Picosecond fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy methods were used to study pyrromethenone, pyrromethene, and biliverdin. These methods made it possible to determine some details of the kinetics of various relaxation mechanisms. The results obtained provided a better understanding of the biological action of pyrrol pigments.

  4. Electrochemical polypyrrole formation from pyrrole 'adlayer'.

    PubMed

    Plausinaitis, Deivis; Sinkevicius, Linas; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Plausinaitiene, Valentina; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2017-01-04

    In this research study, we investigated the morphology of polypyrrole nanostructures, which were formed during the electrochemical deposition of conducting polymer. An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) cell equipped with a flow-through system was employed to exchange solutions of different compositions within the EQCM cell. When bare PBS buffer in the EQCM cell was exchanged with PBS buffer with pyrrole we observed a distinct increase in the resonance frequency Δf. This change in the resonance frequency and electrical capacitance, which was calculated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data, illustrate that pyrrole on the surface of the gold electrode formed an adsorbed layer (adlayer). The formation of a pyrrole adlayer before the potential pulse that induced polymerization was investigated by QCM-based measurements. The electrochemical polymerization of this adlayer was induced by a single potential pulse and a nanostructured layer, which consisted of adsorbed polypyrrole (Ppy) nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nm, was formed. QCM and EIS data revealed that by the next cycle of the electrochemical formation of Ppy, which was investigated after flow-through-based exchange of solutions, the initially formed Ppy surface was covered by the adlayer of pyrrole. This adlayer was desorbed when pyrrole was removed from the solution. When electrochemical polymerization was performed using 50 potential pulses, a Ppy layer, which had more complex morphology, was formed on the EQCM crystal. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the conductivity of this layer was unequally distributed. We observed that the polypyrrole layer formed by electrochemical deposition, which was performed using potential pulses, was formed out of aggregated spherical Ppy particles with a diameter of 50 nm.

  5. Vibrational Overtone Spectroscopy of Pyrrole and Pyrrolidine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-23

    general pattern is a strong peak accompanied by two or three weaker peaks to lower energy. For instance, the 13,305 cm-I band in pyrrole has three weaker...Orza, J.M. Anales de Quimica 1984, 80, 59. 29. Navarro, R.; Orza, J.M. Anales de Quimica 1982, 79, 557. 30. Xie, Y; Fan, K.; Boggs,J., Molec. Phys

  6. Self-assembly of dimeric tetraurea calix[4]pyrrole capsules

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Pablo; Gil-Ramírez, Guzmán

    2009-01-01

    Calix[4]pyrroles having extended aromatic cavities have been functionalized with 4 ureas in the para position of their meso phenyl substituents. This elaboration of the upper rim was completed in 2 synthetic steps starting from the α,α,α,α-tetranitro isomer of the calix[4]pyrrole obtained in the acid catalyzed condensation of p-nitrophenyl methyl ketone and pyrrole. In dichloromethane solution and in the presence of 4,4′-bipyridine N-N′-dioxide the tetraurea calix[4]pyrrole dimerizes reversibly forming a cyclic array of 16 hydrogen bonds and encapsulating 1 molecule of bis-N-oxide. The encapsulated guest is bound in the cavity by hydrogen bonding to the 2 endohedral calix[4]pyrrole centers. Further evidence for dimerization of the tetraurea calix[4]pyrroles is provided by 1H-NMR experiments and by the formation of mixed capsules. PMID:19261848

  7. Substituent effects on the structural features and nonlinear optical properties of the organic alkalide Li+ (calix[4]pyrrole)Li-.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Ming; Wu, Di; Li, Ying; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2013-02-04

    The effects of substituents on the structure, character, and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the organic alkalide Li(+) (calix[4]pyrrole)Li(-) were studied by density functional theory. Natural bond orbital analysis and vertical ionization energies reveal that electron-donating substituents strengthen the alkalide character of Li(+) (calix[4]pyrrole)Li(-) and that they are beneficial for a larger first hyperpolarizability (β(0) ) value. However, electron-withdrawing substituents have the opposite effect. The dependence of the NLO properties on the number of substituents and their relative position was detected in multisubstituted Li(+) (calix[4]pyrrole)Li(-) compounds. For both the amino- and methyl-substituted derivatives, the polarizabilities and the first hyperpolarizabilities increase as more pyrrole β-H atoms are substituted. Moreover, distribution of the substituents so that they are as far away from each other as possible resulted in an increase in the β(0) value. The new knowledge obtained in this study may provide an effective approach to enhance the NLO responses of alkalides by employing pyrrole derivatives as complexants.

  8. Pyrrole-pyridine and pyrrole-naphthyridine hosts for anion recognition.

    PubMed

    García, M Angeles; Farrán, M Angeles; María, Dolores Santa; Claramunt, Rosa M; Torralba, M Carmen; Torres, M Rosario; Jaime, Carlos; Elguero, José

    2015-05-27

    The association constants of the complexes formed by two hosts containing pyrrole, amide and azine (pyridine and 1,8-naphthyridine) groups and six guests, all monoanions (Cl-, CH3CO2-, NO3-, H2PO4-, BF4-, PF6-), have been determined using NMR titrations. The X-ray crystal structure of the host N2,N5-bis(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-3,4-diphenyl-1H-pyrrole- 2,5-dicarboxamide (1) has been solved (P21/c monoclinic space group). B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and calculations were carried out in an attempt to rationalize the trends observed in the experimental association constants.

  9. 2-[(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)meth­yl]-1H-pyrrole

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chong-Hyeak; Jeon, Yea-Sel; Lynch, Vincent; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Hwang, Kwang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C9H10N2, the two pyrrole ring planes are twisted by a dihedral angle of 69.07 (16)° and the C—C—C methane angle is 115.1 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected into layers in the bc plane by N—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:24454123

  10. Hydroquinone–pyrrole dyads with varied linkers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Karlsson, Christoffer; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C) has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV–vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO–LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices. PMID:26877811

  11. Chemistry and Biology of the Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Lindel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    More than a decade after our last review on the chemistry of the pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, it was time to analyze once more the developments in that field. The comprehensive article focusses on the total syntheses of pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids that have appeared since 2005. The classic monomeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids have all been synthesized, sometimes primarily to demonstrate the usefulness of a new method, as in the case of the related molecules agelastatin A and cyclooroidin with more than 15 syntheses altogether. The phakellin skeleton has been made more than 10 times, too, with a focus on the target structure itself. Thus, some of the pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids are now available in gram amounts, and the supply problem has been solved. The total synthesis of the dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids is still mostly in its pioneering phase with two routes to palau'amine and massadine discovered and three routes to the axinellamines and ageliferin. In addition, the review summarizes recent discoveries regarding the biological activity of the pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids. Regarding the biosynthesis of sceptrin, a pathway is proposed that starts from nagelamide I and proceeds via two electrocyclizations and reduction.

  12. Photofragment slice imaging studies of pyrrole and the Xe⋯pyrrole cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Lago, L.; Zaouris, D.; Sakellariou, Y.; Sofikitis, D.; Kitsopoulos, T. N.; Wang, F.; Yang, X.; Cronin, B.; Devine, A. L.; King, G. A.; Nix, M. G. D.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Xantheas, S. S.

    2007-08-01

    The photolysis of pyrrole has been studied in a molecular beam at wavelengths of 250, 240, and 193.3nm, using two different carrier gases, He and Xe. A broad bimodal distribution of H-atom fragment velocities has been observed at all wavelengths. Near threshold at both 240 and 250nm, sharp features have been observed in the fast part of the H-atom distribution. Under appropriate molecular beam conditions, the entire H-atom lo iable index in order to predict the changes in the highest occupied molecular orbital eigenvalue due to doping.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of cytotoxic activity of Some Pyrroles and Fused Pyrroles Running Title: Fused pyrroles as Novel Anti-Cancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Fatahala, Samar S; Mohamed, Mosaad S; Youns, Mahmoud; Abd-El Hameed, Rania H

    2017-01-02

    Pyrrole derivatives represent a very interesting class as biologically active compounds. The objective of our study was to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects and antioxidant activity of the newly synthesized pyrrole derivatives. A series of novel pyrroles and fused pyrroles (tetrahydroindoles, pyrrolopyrimidines, pyrrolopyridines and pyrrolotriazines) were synthesized and characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analysis techniques. The antiproliferative activity of our synthesized compounds and their modulatory effect apoptotic pathway were investigated. The effect on cellular proliferation and viability was monitored by resazurin assay. Apoptotic effect was evaluated by caspase glo 3/7 assay. Synthesized compounds are then tested for their anticancer activities against three different cell lines representing three different tumor types, namely; the HepG-2 (Human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line), the human MCF-7 cell line (breast cancer) and the pancreatic resistant Panc-1 cells .Compounds Ia-e, IIe, and IXc,d showed a promising anti-cancer activity on all tested cell lines. Antioxidant and wound healing invasion assays were examined for promising anticancer candidate compounds.

  14. Brønsted acid-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of pyrrole derivatives accelerated by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bachu, Prabhakar; Akiyama, Takahiko

    2009-07-15

    The Brønsted acid-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of pyrrole derivatives was developed. Microwave irradiation accelerated the Nazarov cyclization significantly at 40 degrees C to give cyclopenta[b]pyrrole derivatives in excellent yields with high trans selectivity.

  15. Versatile functionalization of nanoelectrodes by oligonucleotides via pyrrole electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Emeline; Nguyen, Khoa; Bouchain-Gautier, Christelle; Filoramo, Arianna; Goux-Capes, Laurence; Goffman, Marcello; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Mailley, Pascal; Livache, Thierry

    2010-11-15

    Surface modification at the nanometer scale is a challenge for the future of molecular electronics. In particular, the precise anchoring and electrical addressing of biological scaffolds such as complex DNA nanonetworks is of importance for generating bio-directed assemblies of nano-objects for nanocircuit purposes. Herein, we consider the individual modification of nanoelectrodes with different oligonucleotide sequences by an electrochemically driven co-polymerization process of pyrrole and modified oligonucleotide sequences bearing pyrrole monomers. We demonstrate that this one-step technique presents the advantages of simplicity, localization of surface modification, mechanical, biological and chemical stability of the coatings, and high lateral resolution.

  16. Structure-activity relationships of pyrrole based S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitors: pyrrole regioisomers and propionic acid replacement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xicheng; Qiu, Jian; Strong, Sarah A; Green, Louis S; Wasley, Jan W F; Colagiovanni, Dorothy B; Mutka, Sarah C; Blonder, Joan P; Stout, Adam M; Richards, Jane P; Chun, Lawrence; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2011-06-15

    S-Nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family (ADH) that regulates the levels of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) through catabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). GSNO and SNOs are implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including those in respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The pyrrole based N6022 was recently identified as a potent, selective, reversible, and efficacious GSNOR inhibitor which is currently undergoing clinical development. We describe here the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of novel pyrrole based analogues of N6022 focusing on scaffold modification and propionic acid replacement. We identified equally potent and novel GSNOR inhibitors having pyrrole regioisomers as scaffolds using a structure based approach.

  17. Influence of gamma irradiation on polymerization of pyrrole and glucose oxidase immobilization onto poly (pyrrole)/poly (vinyl alcohol) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Sarada; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.; Ratnam, Chantara Thevy; Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the immobilization of glucose oxidase, GOx onto polymer matrix comprising of poly(pyrrole), PPy and poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA using gamma irradiation technique. Py/PVA-GOx film was prepared by spreading PVA:GOx, 1:1 solution onto dried pyrrole film and exposed to gamma irradiation from cobalt 60 source at doses ranging from 0 to 60 kGy. The films were subjected to structural and morphological analyses by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Similar studies were also made on pristine pyrrole film which served as control. The SEM and FTIR spectra of Py/PVA-GOx film revealed that pyrrole has been successfully polymerized through irradiation-induced reactions. The results on the morphological properties of the samples characterize using FESEM, SEM and AFM further confirmed the occurrence of radiation-induced modification of Py/PVA-GOx film. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interaction between polymer matrix and GOx indicating that GOx had been successfully immobilized onto Ppy/PVA matrix by radiation-induced reactions. Results revealed that radiation induced reactions such as polymerization of pyrrole, crosslinking of PVA, grafting between the adjacent PVA and pyrrole molecules as well as immobilization of GOx onto Ppy/PVA matrix occurred simultaneously upon gamma irradiation. The optimum dose for GOx immobilization in the polymer matrix found to be 40 kGy. Therefore it is clear that this irradiation technique offered a simple single process to produce Py/PVA-GOx film without additional crosslinking and polymerization agents.

  18. Dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids: synthetic approaches and biosynthetic hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaolei; De, Saptarshi; Ma, Yuyong; Chen, Chuo

    2014-08-14

    The pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids are a group of structurally unique and biologically interesting marine sponge metabolites. Among them, the cyclic dimers have caught synthetic chemists' attention particularly. Numerous synthetic strategies have been developed and various biosynthetic hypotheses have been proposed for these fascinating natural products. We discuss herein the synthetic approaches and the biosynthetic insights obtained from these studies.

  19. Efficient syntheses of permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A, a pyrrolic marine natural product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ruijuan; Jiang, Long; Wan, Shengbiao; Jiang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The pyrrole-derived alkaloids with marine origin, especially their permethyl derivatives, have unique structures and promising biological activities. Marine natural product neolamellarins are a collection of lamellarin-like phenolic pyrrole compounds, which can inhibit hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation. Many pyrrole-derived lamellarin-like alkaloids show potent MDR reversing activity. In this study, five permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A were synthesized with their MDR reversing activity studied in order to identify new MDR reversal agents. A convergent strategy was adopted to synthesize the permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A. Pyrrole was first converted into a corresponding N-trisisopropylsilyl (TIPS)-substituted derivative, then through iodination afforded 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole compound. The key intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, was obtained through desilylation of 3,4-disubstituent-1-TIPS pyrrole, which was prepared from 3,4-diiodinated pyrrole derivative and aryl boronic acid ester through Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between them. Then, the intermediate, 3,4-disubstituent-1 H-pyrrole, reacted with fresh phenylacetyl chloride under n-BuLi/THF condition afforded the target compounds. Finally, we obtained five novel pyrrolic compounds, permethylated derivatives of neolamellarin A 16a-e, in 30%-37% yield through five step reactions. The bioactivity testing of these compounds are in process.

  20. Electrochemical synthesis and surface characterization of (pyrrole+2-methylfuran) copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaouane, Linda; Nessark, Belkacem; Sibous, Lakhdar

    2017-02-01

    Electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole (Py) and 2-methylfuran (2 MF) was performed on platinum and ITO substrates in acetonitrile/lithium perchlorate solution, using cyclic voltammetry method. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode surface by polypyrrole, poly(2-methylfuran) homopolymers and (pyrrole+2-methylfuran) copolymer was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cyclic voltammetry shows anodic and cathodic peaks which are characteristic of the oxidation and the reduction of the formed films. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed the results obtained by cyclic voltammetry. AFM and SEM analyses proved as well that the morphology and the electrochemical properties of the polypyrrole film are modified in the presence of 2-methylfuran.

  1. Oxoanion Recognition by Benzene-based Tripodal Pyrrolic Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Bill, Nathan; Kim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Sung Kuk; Park, Jung Su; Lynch, Vincent M.; Young, Neil J; Hay, Benjamin; Yang, Youjun; Anslyn, Eric; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Two new tripodal receptors based on pyrrole- and dipyrromethane-functionalised derivatives of a sterically geared precursor, 1,3,5-tris(aminomethyl)-2,4,6-triethylbenzene, are reported; these systems, compounds 1 and 2, display high affinity and selectivity for tetrahedral anionic guests, in particular dihydrogen phosphate, pyrophosphate and hydrogen sulphate, in acetonitrile as inferred from isothermal titration calorimetry measurements. Support for the anion-binding ability of these systems comes from theoretical calculations and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure of the 2:2 (host:guest) dihydrogen phosphate complex is obtained in the case of the pyrrole-based receptor system, 1. Keywords anion receptors, dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen sulphate, X-ray structure, theoretical calculations.

  2. Merging gold and organocatalysis: a facile asymmetric synthesis of annulated pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Hack, Daniel; Loh, Charles C J; Hartmann, Jan M; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    The combination of cinchona-alkaloid-derived primary amine and Au(I) -phosphine catalysts allowed the selective C-H functionalization of two adjacent carbon atoms of pyrroles under mild reaction conditions. This sequential dual activation provides seven-membered-ring-annulated pyrrole derivatives in excellent yields and enantioselectivities.

  3. Four pyrrole derivatives used as building blocks in the synthesis of minor-groove binders

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Alan R.; Khalaf, Abedawn I.; Suckling, Colin J.

    2017-01-01

    The title nitro­pyrrole-based compounds, C7H8N2O4, (I) (ethyl 4-nitro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxyl­ate), its derivative C12H14N2O4, (II) [ethyl 4-nitro-1-(4-pent­yn­yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxyl­ate], C15H26N4O3, (III) {N-[3-(di­methyamino)prop­yl]-1-isopentyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide}, and C20H27N9O5, (IV) {1-(3-azido­prop­yl)-4-(1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamido)-N-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)eth­yl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide}, are inter­mediates used in the synthesis of modified DNA minor-groove binders. In all four compounds, the nitro groups lie in the plane of the pyrrole ring. In compounds (I) and (II), the ester groups also lie in the plane of the pyrrole ring. In compound (III), both of the other substituents lie out of the plane of the pyrrole ring. In the case of compound (IV), the coplanarity extends to the second pyrrole ring and through both amide groups. In the crystals of all four compounds, layer-like structures are formed, via a combination of N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds for (I), (III) and (IV), but by only C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds for (II). PMID:28217354

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Protein Kinase Inhibitor Pyrrol Derivate

    PubMed Central

    Yena, Maryna S.; Kotlyar, Iryna P.; Ogloblya, Olexandr V.; Rybalchenko, Volodymyr K.

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of protein kinases inhibitor pyrrol derivate 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dione (MI-1) on rat colon cancer model. Therefore anti-inflammatory effect of MI-1 on rat acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis (UC) model was aimed to be discovered. The anti-inflammatory effects of MI-1 (2.7 mg/kg daily) compared to reference drug Prednisolone (0.7 mg/kg daily) after 14-day usage were evaluated on macro- and light microscopy levels and expressed in 21-grade scale. Redox status of bowel mucosa was also estimated. It was shown that in UC group the grade of total injury (GTI) was equal to 9.6 (GTIcontrol = 0). Increase of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) by 89% and protein carbonyl groups (PCG) by 60% and decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 40% were also observed. Prednisolone decreased GTI to 3 and leveled SOD activity, but MDA and PCG remained higher than control ones by 52% and 42%, respectively. MI-1 restored colon mucosa integrity and decreased mucosa inflammation down to GTI = 0.5 and leveled PCG and SOD. Thus, MI-1 possessed anti-inflammatory properties, which were more expressed that Prednisolone ones, as well as normalized mucosa redox balance, and so has a prospect for correction of inflammatory processes. PMID:28101521

  5. Site- and Regioselective Monoalkenylation of Pyrroles with Alkynes via Cp*Co(III) Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryo; Ikemoto, Hideya; Kanai, Motomu; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-04

    A site-, regio-, syn-, and monoselective alkenylation of dimethylcarbamoyl-protected pyrroles proceeded using a catalytic amount of [Cp*Co(CH3CN)3](SbF6)2 and KOAc. A variety of internal alkynes with several functional groups and a terminal alkyne afforded hydropyrrolation products in a selective manner in good to excellent yield. The site-selectivity (C2/C5 selectivity) observed for C3-substituted pyrroles is noteworthy because Cp*Rh(III)-catalyzed conditions afforded only a moderate yield and low selectivity. The conditions described here provide general and straightforward access to unsymmetrically mono- and disubstituted pyrrole derivatives.

  6. A Submarine Journey: The Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids †

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Barbara; Malgesini, Beatrice; Piutti, Claudia; Quartieri, Francesca; Scolaro, Alessandra; Papeo, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    In his most celebrated tale “The Picture of Dorian Gray”, Oscar Wilde stated that “those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril”. This sentence could be a prophetical warning for the practitioner who voluntarily challenges himself with trying to synthesize marine sponge-deriving pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids. This now nearly triple-digit membered community has been growing exponentially in the last 20 years, both in terms of new representatives and topological complexity – from simple, achiral oroidin to the breathtaking 12-ring stylissadines A and B, each possessing 16 stereocenters. While the biosynthesis and the role in the sponge economy of most of these alkaloids still lies in the realm of speculations, significant biological activities for some of them have clearly emerged. This review will account for the progress in achieving the total synthesis of the more biologically enticing members of this class of natural products. PMID:20098608

  7. Bipyrrole-Strapped Calix[4]pyrroles: Strong Anion Receptors That Extract the Sulfate Anion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Kuk; Lee, Juhoon; Williams, Neil J; Lynch, Vincent M.; Hay, Benjamin; Moyer, Bruce A; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Cage-type calix[4]pyrroles 2 and 3 bearing two additional pyrrole groups on the strap have been synthesized. Compared with the parent calix[4]pyrrole (1), they were found to exhibit remarkably enhanced affinities for anions, including the sulfate anion (TBA+ salts), in organic media (CD2Cl2). This increase is ascribed to participation of the bipyrrole units in anion binding. Receptors 2 and 3 extract the hydrophilic sulfate anion (as the methyltrialkyl(C8-10)ammonium (A336+) salt)) from aqueous media into a chloroform phase with significantly improved efficiency (>10-fold relative to calix[4]pyrrole 1). These two receptors also solubilize into chloroform the otherwise insoluble sulfate salt, (TMA)2SO4 (tetramethylammonium sulfate).

  8. Auto-oligomerization and hydration of pyrrole revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice H.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J

    2009-05-29

    Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra have been measured at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges of the prototypical aromatic molecule, pyrrole, both in the gas phase and when solvated in water, and compared with spectra simulated using a combination of classical molecular dynamics and first principles density functional theory in the excited state core hole approximation. The excellent agreement enabled detailed assignments. Pyrrole is highly reactive, particularly in water, and reaction products formed by the auto-oligomerization of pyrrole are identified. The solvated spectra have been measured at two different temperatures, indicating that the final states remain largely unaffected by both hydration and temperature. This is somewhat unexpected, since the nitrogen in pyrrole can donate a hydrogen bond to water.

  9. One-Pot Conversion of Carbohydrates into Pyrrole-2-carbaldehydes as Sustainable Platform Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Nirmal Das; Kwon, Sunjeong; Chung, Wook-Jin; Koo, Sangho

    2015-08-07

    A practical conversion method of carbohydrates into N-substituted 5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrole-2-carbaldehydes (pyrralines) was developed by the reaction with primary amines and oxalic acid in DMSO at 90 °C. Further cyclization of the highly functionalized pyrralines afforded the pyrrole-fused poly-heterocyclic compounds as potential intermediates for drugs, food flavors, and functional materials. The mild Maillard variant of carbohydrates and amino esters in heated DMSO with oxalic acid expeditiously produced the pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde skeleton, which can be concisely transformed into the pyrrole alkaloid natural products, 2-benzyl- and 2-methylpyrrolo[1,4]oxazin-3-ones 8 and 9, lobechine 10, and (-)-hanishin 11 in 23-32% overall yields from each carbohydrate.

  10. Pyrrole as a promising electrolyte additive to trap polysulfides for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wu; Yang, Wang; Song, Ailing; Gao, Lijun; Sun, Gang; Shao, Guangjie

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising energy storage devices beyond conventional lithium ion batteries. However, the ;shuttle effect; of soluble polysulfides is a major barrier between electrodes, resulting in rapid capacity fading. To address above issue, pyrrole has been investigated as an electrolyte additive to trap polysulfides. When pyrrole is added into electrolyte, a surface protective layer of polypyrrole can be formed on the sulfur cathode, which not only acts as a conductive agent to provide an effective electron conduction path but also acts as an absorbing agent and barrier layer suppressing the diffusion of polysulfide intermediates. The results demonstrate that an appropriate amount of pyrrole added into the electrolyte leads to excellent cycling stability and rate capability. Apparently, pyrrole is an effective additive for the entrapment of polysulfides of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  11. Ultrafast internal conversion dynamics of highly excited pyrrole studied with VUV/UV pump probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Spencer L.; Liu, Yusong; Chakraborty, Pratip; Matsika, Spiridoula; Weinacht, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of pyrrole after excitation with an 8 eV pump pulse to a state just 0.2 eV below the ionization potential using vacuum ultraviolet/ultraviolet pump probe spectroscopy. Our measurements in conjunction with electronic structure calculations indicate that pyrrole undergoes rapid internal conversion to the ground state in less than 300 fs. We find that internal conversion to the ground state dominates over dissociation.

  12. Facile synthesis, structural elucidation and spectral analysis of pyrrole 4-imidazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam; Baboo, Vikas

    2015-12-01

    In this work pyrrole 4-imidazole derivatives (3A-3D): benzimidazoles and pyrrole 4-imidazoline have been synthesized by condensation, cyclization and oxidation of ethyl 4-formyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole carboxylate and phenylene diamine derivatives/ethylene diamine. The structure of these biheterocyclic compounds have been derived by elemental and spectroscopic - IR, UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR analysis as well as theoretical study. The static first hyperpolarizability, β0 values for pyrrole 4-imidazole derivatives, (3A-3D) have been calculated as 10.901 × 10-31, 19.607 × 10-31, 40.323 × 10-31, 5.686 × 10-31 esu, respectively. The gradual increase in β0 value of synthesized pyrrole-benzimidazole derivatives from 3A to 3C is due to addition of acceptors -Cl atom in 3B to -NO2 group in 3C on benzimidazole side. The experimental absorption spectra found to be in UV region and the high β0 values show that the synthesized pyrrole-imidazoles are suitable as non-linear optical (NLO) materials.

  13. Copper-mediated cross-coupling-cyclization-oxidation: a one-pot reaction to construct polysubstituted pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Liu, Jin-ling; Wang, Heng-shan; Pan, Ying-ming; Liang, Hong; Chen, Zhen-Feng

    2014-05-14

    A novel and efficient procedure for the synthesis of polysubstituted pyrroles has been developed in this work. The polysubsituted pyrroles were synthesized directly from terminal alkenes, amines and β-keto esters through cross-coupling-cyclization-oxidation in the presence of a catalytic amount of cuprous chloride. This method provides a one-pot synthesis route from terminal alkenes to polysubstituted pyrroles for the first time and opens a new area in cuprous catalysis.

  14. Structural Studies of Pyrrole-Benzene Complexes by Chirped-Pulse Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobsiger, Simon; Perez, Cristobal; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Pate, Brooks H.; Pfaffen, Chantal; Trachsel, Maria A.; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2013-06-01

    Non-covalent intermolecular interactions are important in structural biology. The N-H \\cdots π hydrogen bond between amino acid side chains is an important structural determinant and highly affects the secondary structure of proteins. The pyrrole-benzene complex can be viewed as a model system for studying these fundamental interactions. Previous IR and UV spectroscopic studies of the pyrrole-benzene complex by Dauster et al. support a T-shaped structure with an N-H \\cdots π hydrogen bond to the benzene ring. In order to obtain accurate structural information we have investigated the broadband rotational spectrum of the supersonic-jet cooled complexes of pyrrole with benzene and benzene-d_{1} in the 2-18 GHz frequency range. In addition to the hetero dimer we have also observed the two cyclic mixed trimers (pyrrole)_{2}-benzene and pyrrole-(benzene)_{2}. I. Dauster, C. A. Rice, P. Zielke, and M. A. Suhm Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. {10}, 2827 (2008) C. Pfaffen, D. Infanger, P. Ottiger, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. {13}, 14110 (2011)

  15. Electrophilic surface sites as precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, Thomas; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove; Vogt, Patrick

    2015-03-14

    We report how the presence of electrophilic surface sites influences the adsorption mechanism of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces. For this purpose, we have investigated the adsorption behavior of pyrrole on different GaAs(001) reconstructions with different stoichiometries and thus different surface chemistries. The interfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy in a spectral range between 1.5 and 5 eV. On the As-rich c(4 × 4) reconstruction that exhibits only nucleophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to physisorb on the surface without any significant modification of the structural and electronic properties of the surface. On the Ga-rich GaAs(001)-(4 × 2)/(6 × 6) reconstructions which exhibit nucleophilic as well as electrophilic surface sites, pyrrole was found to form stable covalent bonds mainly to the electrophilic (charge deficient) Ga atoms of the surface. These results clearly demonstrate that the existence of electrophilic surface sites is a crucial precondition for the chemisorption of pyrrole on GaAs(001) surfaces.

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic analysis and theoretical study of new pyrrole-isoxazoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.; Baboo, Vikas; Niranjan, Priydarshni; Rani, Himanshu; Saxena, Rajat; Ahmad, Sartaj

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we have efficiently synthesized the pyrrole-isoxazoline derivatives (4a-d) by cyclization of substituted 4-chalconylpyrrole (3a-d) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The reactivity of substituted 4-chalconylpyrrole (3a-d), towards nucleophiles hydroxylamine hydrochloride was evaluated on the basis of electrophilic reactivity descriptors (fk+, sk+, ωk+) and they were found to be high at unsaturated β carbon of chalconylpyrrole indicating its more proneness to nucleophilic attack and thereby favoring the formation of reported new pyrrole-isoxazoline compounds (4a-d). The structures of newly synthesized pyrrole-isoxazoline derivatives were derived from IR, 1H NMR, Mass, UV-Vis and elemental analysis. All experimental spectral data corroborate well with the calculated spectral data. The FT-IR analysis shows red shifts in vN-H and vC = O stretching due to dimer formation through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. On basis set superposition error correction, the intermolecular interaction energy for (4a-d) is found to be 10.10, 9.99, 10.18, 11.01 and 11.19 kcal/mol respectively. The calculated first hyperpolarizability (β0) values of (4a-d) molecules are in the range of 7.40-9.05 × 10-30 esu indicating their suitability for non-linear optical (NLO) applications. Experimental spectral results, theoretical data, analysis of chalcone intermediates and pyrrole-isoxazolines find usefulness in advancement of pyrrole-azole chemistry.

  17. Organic-inorganic interactions in the system of pyrrole-hematite-water at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kangle

    2015-11-01

    The distribution and abundance of pyrrolic compounds in sediments and crude oils are most likely influenced by inorganic sedimentary components. In this paper, thermal simulation experiments on the system pyrrole-hematite-water were carried out at elevated temperatures and pressures in order to investigate the effect of organic-inorganic interactions on the preservation of pyrrolic compounds. Compositions of the reaction products were analyzed with GC-MS and GC-FID methods. In the closed system pyrrole-hematite-water, the nitrogen-oxygen exchange obviously occurred at temperatures above 350ºC in accordance with the thermochemical calculation. Large amounts of furan and ammonia were generated after simulation experiments, indicating that the conversion of pyrrole into furan was the dominant reaction. Thermochemical exchange effect between organic nitrogen and inorganic oxygen was obviously facilitated by elevated temperatures and found to be catalyzed by hematite, but inhibited by the increasing volume of water. Thermodynamically water spontaneously reacts with pyrrole above 300ºC. The reaction of pyrrole-hematite-water is an exothermic process in which the reaction heat positively correlates with temperature. The heat released was estimated as 9.0 KJ/(mol) pyrrole - 15.0 KJ/(mol) pyrrole in typical oil reservoirs (100ºC-150ºC) and 15.0-23.0 KJ/(mol) pyrrole in typical gas reservoirs (150ºC-200ºC). The calculated activation energy of the nitrogen-oxygen atom exchange is about 129.59 kJ/mol. According to the experimental results, a small amount of water may effectively initiate the nitrogen-oxygen exchange. The study would improve our evaluating of the preservation and fate of pyrrolic compounds in deeply buried geologic settings and further understanding of thermochemical processes behind the degradation of petroleum.

  18. Octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1

    PubMed Central

    Manka, Jason T.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Venable, Daryl F.; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of SAR in an octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole series of negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1 using a functional cell-based assay is described in this Letter. The octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole scaffold was chosen as an isosteric replacement for the piperazine ring found in the initial hit compound. Characterization of selected compounds in protein binding assays was used to identify the most promising analogs, which were then profiled in P450 inhibition assays in order to further assess the potential for drug-likeness within this series of compounds. PMID:23932792

  19. One-pot Unsymmetrical Ketone Synthesis Employing a Pyrrole-Bearing Formal Carbonyl Dication Linchpin Reagent.

    PubMed

    Heller, Stephen T; Newton, James N; Fu, Tingting; Sarpong, Richmond

    2015-08-17

    A one-pot procedure for the synthesis of unsymmetrical ketones utilizing a pyrrole-bearing carbonyl linchpin reagent (carbonyl linchpin N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine pyrrole; CLAmP) is reported. In contrast to other carbonyl dielectrophile equivalents, CLAmP enables the synthesis of ketones from a variety of organolithium and Grignard reagents. The electrophilic nature of CLAmP enables the addition of less reactive as well as thermally unstable nucleophiles. CLAmP was designed to form kinetically stable tetrahedral intermediates upon the addition of organometallic nucleophiles. Evidence for the existence of persistent tetrahedral intermediates was obtained through in situ IR studies.

  20. Cognition and order in Langmuir-Blodgett films of a 3-hexadecyl pyrrole and ferrocene-derivatized pyrrole mixed monolayer system

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, L.; Rahman, A.K.M.; Puglia, G.P.; Clough, S.; Tripathy, S.; Inagaki, T.; Yang, X.Q.; Skotheim, T.A.; Okamoto, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Novel, self-assembled materials have been designed and produced from first principle to possess unique structural hierarchy and electronic and optical properties. The Langmuir-Blodgett technique was used to study the molecular organization of a mixed 3-hexadecyl pyrrole (3HDP) and ferrocene-derivatized pyrrole (Fc-Py) surfactant system. The pyrrole moiety was chosen for its' well established electronic and optical properties when polymerized, while ferrocene, it is theorized, if properly oriented into a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer film may show a layered array of transition metals which would be extremely valuable as a model for two-dimensional magnets. The ferrocene group may also provide the possibility of charge coupling between neutral ferrocene and oxidized ferricenium which could be controlled electrochemically or photochemically. It has been determined that stable monolayer films of the mixed system could be formed at the air-water interface. The growth and assembly process led to polypyrrole 2-D lattices with heretofore unsurpassed order. In fact, the process of template polymerization leads to a new crystal phase for the polypyrrole component of the thin film structure. Various monolayer and multilayer films were prepared on platinum coated substrates for surface spectroscopic characterization using synchrotron radiation. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure studies revealed that highly ordered multilayer structures are being formed. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Identification of a new electron-transfer relaxation pathway in photoexcited pyrrole dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Simon P.; Kirkby, Oliver M.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Worth, Graham A.; Fielding, Helen H.

    2016-04-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer is central to many biological processes and technological applications, such as the harvesting of solar energy and molecular electronics. The electron donor and acceptor units involved in electron transfer are often held in place by covalent bonds, π-π interactions or hydrogen bonds. Here, using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, we reveal the existence of a new, low-energy, photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism in molecules held together by an NH⋯π bond. Specifically, we capture the electron-transfer process in a pyrrole dimer, from the excited π-system of the donor pyrrole to a Rydberg orbital localized on the N-atom of the acceptor pyrrole, mediated by an N-H stretch on the acceptor molecule. The resulting charge-transfer state is surprisingly long lived and leads to efficient electronic relaxation. We propose that this relaxation pathway plays an important role in biological and technological systems containing the pyrrole building block.

  2. Enantiopure oxazolidinones as chiral acids in the asymmetric protonation of N-Boc pyrrole derived enolates.

    PubMed

    Carbery, David R; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2004-03-21

    The first use of geminally disubstituted oxazolidinones as chiral protonating agents is described: these new acids are able to directly protonate an enolate generated by the ammonia free partial reduction of an electron deficient pyrrole and give up to 68% ee in the pyrroline product.

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Pyrroles and Pyrrolopyrimidines as Anti-Hyperglycemic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, M. S.; Ali, S. A.; Abdelaziz, D. H. A.; Fathallah, Samar S.

    2014-01-01

    A series of pyrrole and pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives were examined for their in vivo antihyperglycemic activity. Compounds Ia–c,e, and IVg showed promising antihyperglycemic activity equivalent to a well-known standard antihyperglycemic drug, Glimepiride (Amaryl, 4 mg/kg). In this paper, we examine and discuss the structure-activity relationships and antihyperglycemic activity of these compounds. PMID:25054134

  4. Synthetic tripodal receptors for carbohydrates. Pyrrole, a hydrogen bonding partner for saccharidic hydroxyls.

    PubMed

    Francesconi, Oscar; Gentili, Matteo; Roelens, Stefano

    2012-09-07

    The carbohydrate recognition properties of synthetic tripodal receptors relying on H-bonding interactions have highlighted the crucial role played by the functional groups matching saccharidic hydroxyls. Herein, pyrrole and pyridine, which emerged as two of the most effective H-bonding groups, were quantitatively compared through their isostructural substitution within the architecture of a shape-persistent bicyclic cage receptor. NMR and ITC binding studies gave for the pyrrolic receptor a 20-fold larger affinity toward octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside in CDCl(3), demonstrating the superior recognition properties of pyrrole under conditions in which differences would depend on the intrinsic binding ability of the two groups. The three-dimensional structures of the two glucoside complexes in solution were elucidated by combined NMR and molecular mechanics computational techniques, showing that the origin of the stability difference between the two closely similar complex structures resides in the ability of pyrrole to establish shorter/stronger H-bonds with the glucosidic ligand compared to pyridine.

  5. Ab initio quantum chemical and kinetic modeling study of the pyrolysis kinetics of pyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Martoprawiro, M.; Bacskay, G.B.; Mackie, J.C.

    1999-05-20

    The five-membered heterocyclic pyrrole moiety is an important structure in coals and derived tars, and the thermal decomposition reactions of pyrrole are important for production of precursors of the oxides of nitrogen, NO{sub x}, in the combustion of coals. The kinetics of pyrolysis of pyrrole have been investigated theoretically by ab initio quantum chemical techniques and by detailed chemical kinetic modeling of previously reported experimental results. The overall kinetics can be successfully modeled by a 117 step kinetic model that gives good agreement with temperature profiles of major products and also provides an acceptable fit for minor products. The thermochemistry and rate parameters of a number of key reactions have been obtained by ab initio calculations carried out at CASSCF, CASPT2, and G2(MP2) levels of theory. Several reaction pathways were investigated. The major product, HCN, arises principally from a hydrogen migration in pyrrole to form a cyclic carbene with the NH bond intact. Ring scission of this carbene leads to an allenic imine precursor of HCN and propyne. This is the decomposition pathway of lowest energy. Pyrolysis is preceded by the facile tautomerization of pyrrole to 2H-pyrrolenine. The latter can undergo CN fission to form an open chain biradical species, which is the precursor of the butenenitrile isomeric products, cis- and trans-crotononitrile and allyl cyanide. The biradical can also undergo facile H-fission to form cyanoallyl radical, which is an important precursor of acetylene, acetonitrile, and acrylonitrile, H{sub 2} also arises principally from H-fission of the biradical.

  6. Reaction of allenyl esters with sodium azide: an efficient synthesis of e-vinyl azides and polysubstituted pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian; Shen, Ruwei; Zhang, Tiexin

    2007-02-16

    The nucleophilic addition of sodium azide to 1,2-allenyl esters can generate vinyl azides in excellent yields with excellent regio- and stereoselectivities. Moreover, pyrroles are synthesized using 1-allyllic 1,2-allenyl esters as substrates in t-BuOH at 65 degrees C. The sequential reaction for pyrroles is developed on the basis of a novel domino process involving nucleophilic addition, cycloaddition, denitrogenation, and aromatization.

  7. H₈-BINOL chiral imidodiphosphoric acid catalyzed highly enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions of pyrroles and enamides/imines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Zhuo, Ming-Hua; Sha, Di; Fan, Yan-Sen; An, Dong; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Suoqin

    2015-05-11

    The first enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction between pyrroles and enamides has been achieved by using a novel H8-BINOL-type imidodiphosphoric acid catalyst. This methodology was also applied to the highly enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction between pyrroles and imines. The catalyst loadings in these two reactions are low (0.3-2 mol%). Both processes are amenable to gram scales.

  8. Ab initio multiple cloning simulations of pyrrole photodissociation: TKER spectra and velocity map imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Saita, Kenichiro; Martinez, Todd J.; ...

    2014-12-11

    In this study, we report a detailed computational simulation of the photodissociation of pyrrole using the ab initio Multiple Cloning (AIMC) method implemented within MOLPRO. The efficiency of the AIMC implementation, employing train basis sets, linear approximation for matrix elements, and Ehrenfest configuration cloning, allows us to accumulate significant statistics. We calculate and analyze the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectrum and Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) of pyrrole and compare the results directly with experimental measurements. Both the TKER spectrum and the structure of the velocity map image (VMI) are well reproduced. Previously, it has been assumed that the isotropicmore » component of the VMI arises from long time statistical dissociation. Instead, our simulations suggest that ultrafast dynamics contributes significantly to both low and high energy portions of the TKER spectrum.« less

  9. New pentasubstituted pyrrole hybrid atorvastatin-quinoline derivatives with antiplasmodial activity.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rita C C; Martins, Wagner A; Silva, Tayara P; Kaiser, Carlos R; Bastos, Mônica M; Pinheiro, Luiz C S; Krettli, Antoniana U; Boechat, Núbia

    2016-04-15

    Cerebral malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Atorvastatin (AVA) is a pentasubstituted pyrrole, which has been tested as an adjuvant in the treatment of cerebral malaria. Herein, a new class of hybrids of AVA and aminoquinolines (primaquine and chloroquine derivatives) has been synthesized. The quinolinic moiety was connected to the pentasubstituted pyrrole from AVA by a linker group (CH2)n=2-4 units. The activity of the compounds increased with the size of the carbons chain. Compound with n=4 and 7-chloroquinolinyl has displayed better activity (IC50=0.40 μM) than chloroquine. The primaquine derivative showed IC50=1.41 μM, being less toxic and more active than primaquine.

  10. Atomic force microscope characterization of self-assembly behaviors of cyclo[8] pyrrole on solid substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hai; Zhao, Siqi; Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Jinzhi; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Wenjie; Cai, Jianfeng

    2017-04-01

    Cyclo [8] pyrrole (CP) is a porphyrin analogue containing eight α-conjugated pyrrole units which are arranged in a nearly coplanar conformation. The π-π interactions between CP molecules lead to regular aggregations through a solution casting process. Using tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM), we investigated the morphology of self-assembled aggregates formed by deposition of different CP solutions on different substrates. We found that in the n-butanol solution, nanofibrous structures could be formed on the silicon or mica surface. Interestingly, on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, or silicon and mica surface with a toluene solution, only irregular spherical structures were identified. The difference in the nanomorphology may be attributed to distinct interactions between molecule-molecule, molecule-solvent and molecule-substrate.

  11. Pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrroles – from unprecedented solvatofluorochromism to two-photon absorption

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Daniel H.; Mikhaylov, Alexander; Krzeszewski, Maciej; Poronik, Yevgen M.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the two-photon absorption properties of a series of quadrupolar molecules possessing a highly electron-rich heterocyclic core, pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole is presented. In agreement with quantum-chemical calculations, we observe large two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-section values, σ2PA ~ 102–103 GM (1GM = 1050 cm4 s photon−1) at wavelengths 650–700 nm, corresponding to the 2-photon allowed but 1-photon forbidden transitions. The calculations also predict that increased planarity of this molecule via removal of two N-substituents leads to further increase in the σ2PA values. Surprisingly, the most quadrupolar pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole derivative bearing two 4-nitrophenyl substituents at positions 2 and 5 demonstrates very strong solvatofluorochromic effect, with the fluorescence quantum yield as high as 0.96 in cyclohexane, while the fluorescence vanishes in DMSO. PMID:26511232

  12. Structure-activity relationship of pyrrole based S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitors: carboxamide modification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xicheng; Qiu, Jian; Strong, Sarah A; Green, Louis S; Wasley, Jan W F; Blonder, Joan P; Colagiovanni, Dorothy B; Stout, Adam M; Mutka, Sarah C; Richards, Jane P; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2012-03-15

    The enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family (ADH) that regulates the levels of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) through catabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). GSNO and SNOs are implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including those in respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems. The pyrrole based N6022 was recently identified as a potent, selective, reversible, and efficacious GSNOR inhibitor which is currently in clinical development for acute asthma. We describe here the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of novel pyrrole based analogs of N6022 focusing on carboxamide modifications on the pendant N-phenyl moiety. We have identified potent and novel GSNOR inhibitors that demonstrate efficacy in an ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthma model in mice.

  13. Langmuir-Blodgett films of a pyrrole and ferrocene mixed surfactant system

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, L.; Rahman, A.K.M.; Clough, S.; Tripathy, S.; Hale, P.D.; Inagaki, T.; Skotheim, T.A.; Okamoto, Y. . Dept. of Chemistry; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett technique was used to study the molecular organization of a mixed 3-hexadecyl pyrrole (3HDP) and ferrocene-derivatized pyrrole (Fc-Py) surfactant system. It has been determined that stable monolayer films of the mixed system could be formed at the air-water interface. The growth and assembly process led to polypyrrole 2-D lattices with heretofore unsurpassed order. In fact, the process of template polymerization, it appears, leads to a new crystal phase for the polypyrrole component of the thin film structure. Various monolayer and multilayer films were prepared on platinum coated substrates for surface spectroscopic characterization. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) studies revealed that highly ordered multilayer structures are being formed. Electrochemical studies have been initiated to determine the feasibility of these films in molecular electronic device applications. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ternatusine A, a new pyrrole derivative with an epoxyoxepino ring from Ranunculus ternatus.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zhilai; Feng, Ziming; Yang, Yanan; Li, Li; Jiang, Jianshuang; Zhang, Peicheng

    2013-04-19

    Ternatusine A (1), a novel alkaloid with an unprecedented epoxyoxepino[4,5-c] pyrrole ring, was isolated from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus Thunb. Its unusual structure, including its absolute stereochemistry, was determined using UV, IR, HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR data and through comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. A possible biosynthetic pathway for ternatusine A was postulated.

  15. Inhibition of endotoxin-induced airway epithelial cell injury by a novel family of pyrrol derivates.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Benítez, Nuria E; Pérez-Roth, Eduardo; Ramos-Nuez, Ángela; Sologuren, Ithaisa; Padrón, José M; Slutsky, Arthur S; Villar, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation and apoptosis are crucial mechanisms for the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Currently, there is no specific pharmacological therapy for ARDS. We have evaluated the ability of a new family of 1,2,3,5-tetrasubstituted pyrrol compounds for attenuating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and apoptosis in an in vitro LPS-induced airway epithelial cell injury model based on the first steps of the development of sepsis-induced ARDS. Human alveolar A549 and human bronchial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to LPS, either alone or in combination with the pyrrol derivatives. Rhein and emodin, two representative compounds with proven activity against the effects of LPS, were used as reference compounds. The pyrrol compound that was termed DTA0118 had the strongest inhibitory activity and was selected as the lead compound to further explore its properties. Exposure to LPS caused an intense inflammatory response and apoptosis in both A549 and BEAS-2B cells. DTA0118 treatment downregulated Toll-like receptor-4 expression and upregulated nuclear factor-κB inhibitor-α expression in cells exposed to LPS. These anti-inflammatory effects were accompanied by a significantly lower secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β. The observed antiapoptotic effect of DTA0118 was associated with the upregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and downregulation of proapoptotic Bax and active caspase-3 protein levels. Our findings demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties of the pyrrol DTA0118 compound and suggest that it could be considered as a potential drug therapy for the acute phase of sepsis and septic ARDS. Further investigations are needed to examine and validate these mechanisms and effects in a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis and sepsis-induced ARDS.

  16. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Aza-Friedel-Crafts Reaction of Cyclic Ketimines with Pyrroles using Imidazolinephosphoric Acid Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Matsuda, Nazumi; Ohara, Mutsuyo

    2016-07-04

    Organocatalytic enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions of cyclic ketimines with pyrroles or indoles were catalyzed by imidazoline/phosphoric acid catalysts. The reaction was applied to various 3H-indol-3-ones to afford products in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The chiral catalysts can be recovered by a single separation step using column chromatography and are reusable without further purification. Based on the experimental investigations, a possible transition state has been proposed to explain the origin of the asymmetric induction.

  17. Interaction of the cesium cation with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole: Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polášek, Miroslav; Makrlík, Emanuel; Kvíčala, Jaroslav; Křížová, Věra; Petr Vaňura

    2017-02-01

    By using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it was proven experimentally that the univalent cesium cation (Cs+) forms with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (abbrev. 1) the cationic complex species 1.Cs+. Further, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, four different conformations of the resulting complex 1.Cs+ were derived. It means that under the present experimental conditions, this ligand 1 can be considered as a macrocyclic receptor for the cesium cation.

  18. An amperometric urea biosensor based on covalent immobilization of urease onto an electrochemically prepared copolymer poly (N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film.

    PubMed

    Rajesh; Bisht, Vandana; Takashima, Wataru; Kaneto, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    An amperometric biosensor has been developed for the quantitative determination of urea in aqueous solution. The principle is based on the use of pH-sensitive redox active dissolved hematein molecule. The enzyme, urease (Urs), was covalently immobilized on a conducting copolymer poly (N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, electrochemically prepared onto an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate. The covalent linkage of enzyme and porous morphology of the polymer film lead to high enzyme loading and an increased lifetime stability of the enzyme electrode. Amperometric response was measured as a function of concentration of urea, at fixed bias voltage of 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The electrode gives a linear response range of 0.16-5.02 mM for urea in aqueous medium. The response time is 40 s reaching to a 95% steady-state current value, and 80% of the enzyme activity is retained for about 2 months.

  19. Absolute intensities of NH-stretching transitions in dimethylamine and pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin J; Du, Lin; Steel, Thomas J; Paul, Allanah J; Södergren, A Helena; Lane, Joseph R; Henry, Bryan R; Kjaergaard, Henrik G

    2012-01-12

    Vibrational spectra of vapor-phase dimethylamine (DMA) and pyrrole have been recorded in the 1000 to 13000 cm(-1) region using long path conventional spectroscopy techniques. We have focused on the absolute intensities of the NH-stretching fundamental and overtone transitions; Δν(NH) = 1-4 regions for DMA and the Δν(NH) = 1-3 regions for pyrrole. In the Δν(NH) = 1-3 regions for DMA, evidence of tunneling splitting associated with the NH-wagging mode is observed. For DMA, the fundamental NH-stretching transition intensity is weaker than the first NH-stretching overtone. Also, the fundamental NH-stretching transition in DMA is much weaker than the fundamental transition in pyrrole. We have used an anharmonic oscillator local mode model with ab initio calculated local mode parameters and dipole moment functions at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level to calculate the NH-stretching intensities and explain this intensity anomaly in DMA.

  20. Evaluation on the inhibition of pyrrol-2-yl ethanone derivatives to lactate dehydrogenase and anticancer activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na-Na; Weng, Zhao-Yue; Chen, Qiu-Yun; Boison, Daniel; Xiao, Xin-Xin; Gao, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is a potentially important metabolic target for the inhibition of the highly activated glycolysis pathway in cancer cells. In order to develop bifunctional compounds as inhibitor of LDH-A and anticancer agents, two pyrrol-2-yl methanone (or ethanone) derivatives (PM1 and PM2) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of LDH-A based on the enzyme assay and cell assay by spectroscopy analysis. Fluorescence and CD spectra results demonstrated that both the change of second structure of LDH-A and the affinity interaction for compounds to LDH-A gave great effect on the activity of LDH-A. In particular, low concentration of compounds (1 μμ-25 μμ) could change the level of pyruvate in cancer cells. Moreover, the in vitro assay results demonstrated that pyrrol-2-yl ethanone derivatives can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Therefore, pyrrol-2-yl ethanone derivatives (PM2) can be both LDH-A inhibitor and anticancer agents.

  1. A reinterpretation of the electronic spectrum of pyrrole: A quantum dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, S. P.; Worth, G. A.

    2014-01-21

    The first band in the electronic spectrum of pyrrole is calculated from wavepacket propagations performed using the MCTDH method. To do so, two model Hamiltonians are constructed to describe seven low-lying excited electronic states of pyrrole. These Hamiltonians are based on the vibronic coupling model, and are parameterised via fitting to extensive CASPT2 and EOM-CCSD calculations. A detailed analysis of the structure of pyrrole's electronic spectrum in the range 5.5 to 6.5 eV is made. The role of intensity borrowing from transitions to ππ{sup *} states by lower-lying 3s and 3p Rydberg states is assessed, and reassignments of much of the spectrum are subsequently made which indicate that most of the states in the spectrum are predominantly Rydberg in character. The resulting conclusions drawn serve to highlight the limitations of assignments based on the matching of calculated vertical excitation energies and the positions of peak maxima observed in electronic spectra.

  2. Ferroelectric switching and electrochemistry of pyrrole substituted trialkylbenzene‐1,3,5‐tricarboxamides

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiao; Gorbunov, Andrey V.; Christian Roelofs, W. S.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Janssen, René A. J.; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explore a new approach to organic ferroelectric diodes using a benzene‐tricarboxamide (BTA) core connected with C10 alkyl chains to pyrrole groups, which can be polymerized to provide a semiconducting ferroelectric material. The compound possesses a columnar hexagonal liquid crystalline (LC) phase and exhibits ferroelectric switching. At low switching frequencies, an additional process occurs, which leads to a high hysteretic charge density of up to ∼1000 mC/m2. Based on its slow rate, the formation of gas bubbles, and the emergence of characteristic polypyrrole absorption bands in the UV–Vis–NIR, the additional process is identified as the oxidative polymerization of pyrrole groups, enabled by the presence of amide groups. Polymerization of the pyrrole groups, which is essential to obtain semiconductivity, is limited to thin layers at the electrodes, amounting to ∼17 nm after cycling for 21 h. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2017, 55, 673–683 PMID:28344384

  3. ESI-MS Characterization of a Novel Pyrrole-Inosine Nucleoside that Interacts with Guanine Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Sarah E.; Sherman, Courtney L.; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Lawrence, Candace M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    Based on binding studies undertaken by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, a synthetic pyrrole-inosine nucleoside, 1, capable of forming an extended three-point Hoogsteen-type hydrogen-bonding interaction with guanine, is shown to form specific complexes with two different quadruplex DNA structures [dTG4T]4 and d(T2G4)4 as well as guanine rich duplex DNA. The binding interactions of two other analogs were evaluated in order to unravel the structural features that contribute to specific DNA recognition. The importance of the Hoogsteen interactions was confirmed through the absence of specific binding when the pyrrole NH hydrogen-bonding site was blocked or removed. While 2, with a large blocking group, was not found to interact with virtually any form of DNA, 3, with the pyrrole functionality missing, was found to interact non-specifically with several types of DNA. The specific binding of 1 to guanine rich DNA emphasizes the necessity of careful ligand design for specific sequence recognition. PMID:18790136

  4. Effects of a pyrrole-based, microtubule-depolymerizing compound on RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ciemniecki, John A; Lewis, Clarke P; Gupton, John T; Fischer-Stenger, Krista

    2016-02-25

    RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were exposed to the pyrrole-based compound 3,5-Dibromo-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (JG-03-14), which is a known microtubule depolymerizing agent with antitumor activity [1,2,3]. In this study exposure to JG-03-14 reduced the production of pro-inflammatory molecules by macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with the pyrrole-based compound decreased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) released from the macrophages. Exposure to JG-03-14 also decreased TNF-α mRNA expression levels and the protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the enzyme responsible for NO production in the activated macrophages. Furthermore, JG-03-14 treatment significantly changed the degradation profile of IκB-β, an inhibitor of the NF-κB transcription factor, which suggests that JG-03-14 may attenuate the activation of the LPS-induced NF-κB signaling pathway needed to produce the pro-inflammatory mediators. We conclude that JG-03-14 possesses anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. Reactions of a Ruthenium Complex with Substituted N-Propargyl Pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Chia, Pi-Yeh; Huang, Shou-Ling; Liu, Yi-Hong; Lin, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-05

    In an investigation into the chemical reactions of N-propargyl pyrroles 1 a-c, containing aldehyde, keto, and ester groups on the pyrrole ring, with [Ru]-Cl ([Ru]=Cp(PPh3 )2 Ru; Cp=C5 H5 ), an aldehyde group in the pyrrole ring is found to play a crucial role in stimulating the cyclization reaction. The reaction of 1 a, containing an aldehyde group, with [Ru]-Cl in the presence of NH4 PF6 yields the vinylidene complex 2 a, which further reacts with allyl amine to give the carbene complex 6 a with a pyrrolizine group. However, if 1 a is first reacted with allyl amine to yield the iminenyne 8 a, then the reaction of 8 a with [Ru]-Cl in the presence of NH4 PF6 yields the ruthenium complex 9 a, containing a cationic pyrrolopyrazinium group, which has been fully characterized by XRD analysis. These results can be adequately explained by coordination of the triple bond of the propargyl group to the ruthenium metal center first, followed by two processes, that is, formation of a vinylidene intermediate or direct nucleophilic attack. Additionally, the deprotonation of 2 a by R4 NOH yields the neutral acetylide complex 3 a. In the presence of NH4 PF6 , the attempted alkylation of 3 a resulted in the formation the Fischer-type amino-carbene complex 5 a as a result of the presence of NH3, which served as a nucleophile. With KPF6, the alkylation of 3 a with ethyl and benzyl bromoacetates afforded the disubstituted vinylidene complexes 10 a and 11 a, containing ester groups, which underwent deprotonation reactions to give the furyl complexes 12 a and 13 a, respectively. For 13 a, containing an O-benzyl group, subsequent 1,3-migration of the benzyl group was observed to yield product 14 a with a lactone unit. Similar reactivity was not observed for the corresponding N-propargyl pyrroles 1 b and 1 c, which contained keto and ester groups, respectively, on the pyrrole ring.

  6. Role of the ribose-specific marker furfuryl-amine in the formation of aroma active 1-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrrole (or furfuryl-pyrrole) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Plamen Y; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2012-10-10

    Furfuryl-pyrroles possess a diverse range of organoleptic properties described as roasted, chocolaty, green, horseradish-like, and mushroom-like and are detected in various foods such as coffee, chocolate, popcorn, and roasted chicken. Although their origin in food was attributed to furfuryl-amine, the latter has not been detected so far in Maillard model systems or in foods. In this study, furfuryl-amine was shown to be formed specifically from ribose through nitrogen atom transfer from the α-amino group of any amino acid. Such a transfer can be achieved through decarboxylation of the Schiff base adduct and isomerization followed by hydrolysis. Through the use of (15)Nα-lysine it was revealed that only the (15)Nα nitrogen atom was incorporated into its structure, indicating a specific role for the carboxylate moiety in the mechanism of its formation. Furthermore, isotope labeling studies have indicated that furfuryl-pyrrole derivatives can be formed by the interaction of 2 mol of furfuryl-amine with 3-deoxyribosone followed by dehydration and cyclization to form 1-(furan-2-yl)-N-{[1-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]methylidene}methanamine. After hydrolysis, this intermediate can generate furfuryl-formyl-pyrrole, furfuryl-pyrrole carboxylic acid, and furfuryl-pyrrole. In this study, the furfuryl-amine derivatives were also detected in different coffee beans after pyrolysis and analysis by GC-MS. The potential of these compounds to form in aqueous model systems at a temperature of 120 °C was also demonstrated.

  7. Pyrrole Derivatives and Diterpene Alkaloids from the South China Sea Sponge Agelas nakamurai.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mei-Jun; Tang, Xu-Li; Qin, Guo-Fei; Sun, Yan-Ting; Li, Lei; de Voogd, Nicole J; Li, Ping-Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2017-02-21

    Two pairs of new non-brominated racematic pyrrole derivatives, (±)-nakamurine D (1) and (±)-nakamurine E (2), two new diterpene alkaloids, iso-agelasine C (16), and iso-agelasidine B (21), together with fifteen known pyrrole derivatives((±)-3 - 15), five known diterpene alkaloids (17 - 20, 22) were isolated from the South China Sea sponge Agelas nakamurai. The racemic mixtures, compounds 1 - 4, were resolved into four pairs of enantiomers, (+)-1 and (-)-1, (+)-2 and (-)-2, (+)-3 and (-)-3, and (+)-4 and (-)-4, by chiral HPLC. The structures and absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, quantum chemical calculations, quantitative measurements of molar rotations, application of van't Hoff's principle of optical superposition, and comparison with the literature data. The NMR and MS data of compound 3 are reported for the first time, as the structure was listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. These non-brominated pyrrole derivatives were found in this species for the first time. Compound 18 showed valuable cytotoxicities against HL-60, K562, and HCT-116 cell lines with IC50 values of 12.4, 16.0, and 19.8 μM, respectively. Compounds 16 - 19, 21, and 22 showed potent antifungal activities against Candida albicans with MIC values ranging from 0.59 to 4.69 μg/mL. Compounds 16 - 19 exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against Proteusbacillus vulgaris (MIC values ranging from 9.38 to 18.75 μg/mL). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Pyrrole- and dihydropyrrole-fused neonicotinoids: design, synthesis, and insecticidal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhenjun; Shi, Lina; Shao, Xusheng; Xu, Xiaoyong; Xu, Zhiping; Li, Zhong

    2013-01-16

    Versatile pyrrole- and dihydropyrrole-fused neonicotinoids were obtained from cyclic and non-cyclic nitroeneamines. Anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl₃) exhibited high catalytic selectivity for the synthesis of the titled etherified compounds at room temperature and the eliminated products under reflux conditions. The target molecules have been identified on the basis of satisfactory analytical and spectral [¹H and ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and X-ray] data. All synthesized compounds have been screened for insecticidal activity. The preliminary insecticidal activity results showed that some of the aimed compounds displayed excellent insecticidal activity against cowpea aphids (Aphis craccivora).

  9. Lipid-lowering effects of ethyl 2-phenacyl-3-aryl-1H-pyrrole- 4-carboxylates in rodents.

    PubMed

    Holub, Justin M; O'Toole-Colin, Kathy; Getzel, Adam; Argenti, Anthony; Evans, Michael A; Smith, Daniel C; Dalglish, Gerard A; Rifat, Shahzad; Wilson, Donna L; Taylor, Brett M; Miott, Ulander; Glersaye, Josephine; Lam, Kam Suet; McCranor, Bryan J; Berkowitz, Joshua D; Miller, Robert B; Lukens, John R; Krumpe, Keith; Gupton, John T; Burnham, Bruce S

    2004-02-28

    A series of substituted 2-phenacyl-3-phenyl-1H-pyrrole-4-carboxylates were prepared from substituted acetophenones in 6 steps. The final condensations between a chloroenal and an aminoketone were carried out under neutral conditions in parallel to yield the series listed below. Selected pyrrole derivatives proved to be potent hypolipidemic agents lowering serum triglyceride concentrations in CF-1 male mice after 14 days of I.P. administration. One agent orally lowered serum cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats at 2mg/kg/day after 14 days. The agents demonstrated a lowering of mouse serum LDL- cholesterol levels and selected compounds showed an elevation of serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The cholesterol concentrations in the liver were raised while the cholesterol and triglyceride contents of the aorta were significantly lowered by the selected trisubstituted pyrrole.

  10. The Chemical and Physical Properties of Pyrrole-Based Conducting Polymers: The Characterization of As-Grown Films by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-07

    by identifying the existence of both, pyrrole rinp and perchlorate anions. It should be mentioned, however, that no significant density of states can...XPS indicates one tetrafluoroborate anion for 4 pyrrole rinp in PP+BF . More precisely, 0.26 boron atoms were found on an average over 4 samples

  11. Solution-Phase Synthesis of a Tricyclic Pyrrole-2-Carboxamide Discovery Library Applying a Stetter-Paal-Knorr Reaction Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Pravin S.; Fodor, Matthew D.; Coleman, Claire M.; Twining, Leslie A.; Mitasev, Branko

    2012-01-01

    The solution phase synthesis of a discovery library of 178 tricyclic pyrrole-2-carboxamides was accomplished in nine steps and seven purifications starting with three benzoyl protected amino acid methyl esters. Further diversity was introduced by two glyoxaldehydes and forty-one primary amines. The combination of Pauson-Khand, Stetter and microwave assisted Paal Knorr reactions was applied as a key sequence. The discovery library was designed with the help of QikProp 2.1 and physicochemical data are presented for all pyrroles. Library members were synthesized and purified in parallel and analyzed by LC-MS. Selected compounds were fully characterized. PMID:16677007

  12. Biological activity of two new pyrrole derivatives against stored-product species: influence of temperature and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Boukouvala, M C; Kavallieratos, N G; Athanassiou, C G; Hadjiarapoglou, L P

    2016-08-01

    Members of the pyrrole group are likely to have interesting properties that merit additional investigation as insecticides at the post-harvest stages of agricultural commodities. In the present work, the insecticidal effect of two new pyrrole derivatives, ethyl 3-(benzylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-carboxylate (3i) and isopropyl 3-(benzylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-carboxylate (3k) were studied as stored-wheat protectants against two major stored-product insect species, the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jaquelin du Val adults and larvae and the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller larvae at different doses (0.1, 1 and 10 ppm), exposure intervals (7, 14 and 21 days), temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) and relative humidity (55 and 75%) levels. For T. confusum adults, in the case of the pyrrole derivative 3i, mortality was low and it did not exceed 32.2% in wheat treated with 10 ppm 3i at 30°C and 55% relative humidity. Progeny production was very low (<1 individual/vial) in all combinations of 55% relative humidity, including control. In the case of the pyrrole derivative 3k, mortality reached 67.8% at 30°C and 55% relative humidity in wheat treated with 10 ppm after 21 days of exposure. Progeny production was low in all tested combinations (≤0.7 individuals/vial) of 55% relative humidity, including control. For T. confusum larvae, in the case of the pyrrole derivative 3i, at the highest dose, mortality was 82.2% at 25°C and 55% relative humidity whereas in the case of 3k it reached 77.8% at the same combination. In contrast, mortality at 75% relative humidity remained very low and did not exceed 13.3%. For E. kuehniella larvae, the highest mortalities, 44.4 and 63.3%, were observed in 10 ppm at 25°C and 55% relative humidity for both pyrrole derivatives. The compounds tested here have a certain insecticidal effect, but this effect is moderated by the exposure

  13. Highly enantioselective synthesis of beta-heteroaryl-substituted dihydrochalcones through Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles and pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Liu, Xiaohua; Cao, Weidi; Wang, Jun; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming

    2010-02-01

    A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts (F-C) alkylation of indoles and pyrrole with chalcone derivatives catalyzed by a chiral N,N'-dioxide-Sc(OTf)(3) complex has been developed that tolerates a wide range of substrates. The reaction proceeds in moderate to excellent yields and high enantioselectivities (85-92 % enantiomeric excess) using 2 mol % (for indole) or 0.5 mol % (for pyrrole) catalyst loading, which showed the potential value of the catalyst system. Meanwhile, a strong positive nonlinear effect was observed. On the basis of the experimental results and previous reports, a possible working model is proposed to explain the origin of the activation and asymmetric induction.

  14. Sequential aza-Baylis-Hillman/ring closing metathesis/aromatization as a novel route for the synthesis of substituted pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Valérie; Ribière, Patrice; Martinez, Jean; Lamaty, Frédéric

    2004-11-26

    A new route to diverse 2-substituted-3-methoxycarbonyl pyrroles has been developed. Diverse SES protected alpha-methylene beta-aminoesters were obtained by a 3-component aza-Baylis-Hillman reaction. Diversity arose from the aryl aldehydes which can be used in this reaction. N-Alkylation with allyl bromide under mild conditions provided the corresponding dienes. These substituted dienes were cyclized by ring closing metathesis at room temperature or under microwave-activation with Grubbs-type II catalyst to yield SES-protected pyrroline intermediates. The final pyrroles were obtained by base-promoted dehydrodesulfinylation/aromatization. The scope of each of these reactions was explored.

  15. A novel gene silencer, pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 gene improves endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takahiro; Fukuda, Noboru; Tsunemi, Akiko; Yao, En-Hui; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Tahira, Kazunobu; Matsumoto, Taro; Matsumoto, Koichi; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sawamura, Tatsuya

    2009-03-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamide can be combined in antiparallel side-by-side dimeric complexes along the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are effective inhibitors of transcription factors as well as viral repressors and transactivators. Recently, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) was reported to be a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. In this study, we designed a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide specific for the LOX-1 gene and evaluated its effect on LOX-1 gene transcription. A pyrrole-imidazole polyamide was designed to target the AP-1 binding site of the LOX-1 gene and synthesized by solid phase methods. This pyrrole-imidazole polyamide significantly inhibited LOX-1 promoter activity in HEK293 cells, determined by the luciferase assay. LOX-1 mRNA expression was also inhibited by the pyrrole-imidazole polyamide at a concentration of 10-9 mol/l in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), determined by the real-time PCR method. HUVEC were treated by pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting the LOX-1 gene, and apoptosis was assessed using Hoechst stain, terminal deoxy nucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP end labeling method, and dye-uptake bioassay. Treatment of HUVEC for 72 h with LOX-1 targeted pyrrole-imidazole polyamide decreased apoptosis induced by angiotensin II and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) loading in all assays. This novel therapeutic agent, pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, could specifically inhibit LOX-1 gene expression by reducing the promoter activity of the gene. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamide seems to be a powerful promising new agent that can be used to explore therapies based on inhibition of transcription. Molecular recognition of DNA by small molecules could provide insight into the development of new human medicines.

  16. Synthesis, insecticidal, and acaricidal activities of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yongqiang; Ou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Pengxiang; Huang, Zhiqiang; Bi, Fuchun; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Qingmin

    2008-11-12

    A series of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm, mosquito, diamondback moth, green rice leafhopper, and bean aphids and acaricidal activities against spider mite of these new compounds were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that some of these title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal and acaricidal activities. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm of compounds IVa, IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVi, IVk, and IVp were equal to commercialized Chlorfenapyr, and the insecticidal activities of most of compounds IVb, IVc, IVd, IVf, IVg, IVj, IVk, IVl, IVs, IVt, IVu, IVw, IVx, IVz, and Chlorfenapyr against mosquito at 0.10 mg kg (-1) were 100%, and the acaricidal activities of compounds IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVh, IVi, and IVk were equal or superior to Chlorfenapyr. Especially, the results indicated that the acaricidal activity of [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrrol-1-yl]methyl 3-methylbutanoate ( IVg) against spider mite was 2.65-fold as high as that of Chlorfenapyr from the value of LC 50.

  17. Calix[4]pyrrole Schiff base macrocycles. Novel binucleating ligands for mu-oxo iron complexes.

    PubMed

    Veauthier, Jacqueline M; Cho, Won-Seob; Lynch, Vincent M; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2004-02-23

    New bimetallic mu-oxo diferric complexes of several previously reported calix[4]pyrrole Schiff base macrocycles are described. The synthesis of a new member of this class of macrocycles is also reported; it was prepared via an acid-catalyzed condensation between 1,9-bisformyl-5,5-dipropyldipyrromethane and o-phenylenediamine. Reactions of the free base macrocycles or their bis-HCl salts with Fe(II) mesitylene, followed by air oxidation, gave the binuclear mu-oxo bis-Fe(III) compounds 6-10 in moderate yield. X-ray crystallography data reveal two different coordination environments for the Fe-O-Fe subunit in 6-10 that it is suggested can be controlled by altering the reaction conditions. Structural properties of these metalated pyrrolic macrocycles are also compared to those of mu-oxo diferric porphyrins and mu-oxo diferric texaphyrin. Complexes 6-10 exhibit two distinct types of M-N bonds that are similar in length to the bonds observed in metallotexaphyrin complexes. However, the electronics of the present systems are very different from those of texaphyrins and porphyrins in that no delocalized bonding patterns are observed within the ligands as a whole.

  18. Pyrrole-hyaluronic acid conjugates for decreasing cell binding to metals and conducting polymers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Young; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of electrically conductive biomaterials has been studied to improve biocompatibility for a number of applications, such as implantable sensors and microelectrode arrays. In this study, we electrochemically coated electrodes with biocompatible and non-cell adhesive hyaluronic acid (HA) to reduce cellular adhesion for potential use in neural prostheses. To this end, pyrrole-conjugated hyaluronic acid (PyHA) was synthesized and employed for electrochemical coating of platinum, indium-tin-oxide, and polystyrene sulfonate-doped polypyrrole electrodes. This PyHA conjugate consists of (1) a pyrrole moiety that allows the compound to be electrochemically deposited onto a conductive substrate and (2) non-adhesive HA to minimize cell adhesion and to potentially decrease inflammatory tissue responses. Our characterization results showed the presence of a hydrophilic p(PyHA) layer on the modified electrode, and impedance measurements revealed impedance that was statistically the same as the unmodified electrode. We found that the p(PyHA)-coated electrodes minimized adhesion and migration of fibroblasts and astrocytes for a minimum of up to 3 months. Also, the coating was stable in physiological solution for 3 months and also stable against enzymatic degradation by hyaluronidase. These studies suggest that this p(PyHA)-coating has the potential to be used to mask conducting electrodes from adverse glial responses that occur upon implantation. In addition, electrochemical coating with PyHA can be potentially extended for the surface modification of other metallic and conducting substances such as stents and biosensors. PMID:20558330

  19. Active transport of amino acids by a guanidiniocarbonyl-pyrrole receptor.

    PubMed

    Urban, Christian; Schmuck, Carsten

    2010-08-16

    Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a transporter 9 for N-acetylated amino acids. Transporter 9 is a conjugate of a guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole cation, one of the most efficient carboxylate binding motifs reported so far, and a hydrophobic tris(dodecylbenzyl) group, which ensures solubility in organic solvents. In its protonated form, 9 binds N-acetylated amino acid carboxylates in wet organic solvents with association constants in the range of 10(4) M(-1) as estimated by extraction experiments. Aromatic amino acids are preferred due to additional cation-pi-interactions of the amino acid side chain with the guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole moiety. U-tube experiments established efficient transport across a bulk liquid chloroform phase with fluxes approaching 10(-6) mol m(-2) s(-1). In experiments with single substrates, the release rate of the amino acid from the receptor-substrate complex at the interface with the receiving phase is rate determining. In contrast to this, in competition experiments with several substrates, the thermodynamic affinity to 9 becomes decisive. As 9 can only transport anions in its protonated form and has a pK(a) value of approximately 7, pH-driven active transport of amino acids is also possible. Transport occurs as a symport of the amino acid carboxylate and a proton.

  20. Pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrroles-From Unprecedented Solvatofluorochromism to Two-Photon Absorption.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Mikhaylov, Alexander; Krzeszewski, Maciej; Poronik, Yevgen M; Rebane, Aleksander; Ruud, Kenneth; Gryko, Daniel T

    2015-12-07

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the two-photon absorption (2PA) properties of a series of quadrupolar molecules possessing a highly electron-rich heterocyclic core, pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole, is presented. In agreement with quantum-chemical calculations, large 2PA cross-section values, σ2PA ≈10(2) -10(3)  GM (1 GM=10(50)  cm(4)  s photon(-1) ), are observed at wavelengths of 650-700 nm, which correspond to the two-photon allowed but one-photon forbidden transitions. The calculations also predict that increased planarity of this molecule through removal of two N-substituents leads to further increase in the σ2PA values. Surprisingly, the most quadrupolar pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole derivative, containing two 4-nitrophenyl substituents at positions 2 and 5, demonstrates a very strong solvatofluorochromic effect, with a fluorescence quantum yield as high as 0.96 in cyclohexane, whereas the fluorescence vanishes in DMSO.

  1. NH stretching vibrations of pyrrole clusters studied by infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshiteru; Honma, Kenji

    2007-11-14

    The IR spectra for various sizes of pyrrole clusters were measured in the NH stretching vibration region by infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy. The hydrogen-bonded structures and normal modes of the pyrrole clusters were analyzed by a density functional theory calculation of the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Two types of pulsed nozzles, a slit and a large pinhole, were used to generate different cluster size distributions in a supersonic jet. A rotational contour analysis of the NH stretching vibration for the monomer revealed that the slit nozzle provides a warmer jet condition than the pinhole one. The IR spectra, measured under the warmer condition, showed the intense bands at 3444, 3392, and 3382 cm(-1), which were assigned to hydrogen-bonded NH stretching vibrations due to the dimer, the trimer, and the tetramer, respectively. On the other hand, the IR spectra measured under a lower temperature condition by a pinhole nozzle showed a broad absorption feature in addition to sharp bands. This broad absorption was reproduced by the sum of two Gaussians peaks at 3400 and 3372 cm(-1) with widths of 30 and 50 cm(-1) (FWHM), respectively. Compared with the spectra of the condensed phase, two bands at 3400 and 3372 cm(-1) were assigned to hydrogen-bonded NH stretching vibrations of larger clusters having liquid-like and solid-like structures, respectively.

  2. Synthesis of furo[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxhydrazides and their Cu, Co and Ni complexes.

    PubMed

    Gašparová, Renata; Titiš, Ján; Kraic, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Carboxhydrazides 3 were synthesized by reaction of substituted furo[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxhydrazides 1 with 4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxaldehyde 2 in the presence of 3-methyl-benzenesulfonic acid in ethanol. Carboxhydrazides 3 were used as ligands for synthesis of Cu, Co, and Ni complexes 4.

  3. Influence of substituents on the N K X-ray absorption near-edge structure of pyrrole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, C.; Hallmeier, K. H.; Bach, A.; Bender, S.; Franke, R.; Hormes, J.; Szargan, R.

    1996-08-01

    The X-ray absorption and electron yield spectra of monomeric pyrrole including derivatives with different substituents, thiazole and oxazole have been investigated. Inductive and mesomeric effects on the spectral features are discussed. Inductive effects create energy shifts of the π ∗ resonances: mesomeric effects cause a splitting and energy shifts of the π ∗ resonances.

  4. A Guided Inquiry Experiment for the Measurement of Activation Energies in the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory: Decarboxylation of Pyrrole-2-Carboxylate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Kelly M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Mettee, Howard D.; Smiley, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for undergraduate biophysical chemistry is described, in which the acid concentration and temperature dependences of the decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate are measured using a continuous ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric assay. Data collection and analysis are structured using principles of guided inquiry. Data…

  5. Assessment of conformational, spectral, antimicrobial activity, chemical reactivity and NLO application of Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxaldehyde bis(oxaloyldihydrazone).

    PubMed

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R N

    2015-04-05

    An orange colored pyrrole dihydrazone: Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxaldehyde bis(oxaloyldihydrazone) (PDBO) has been synthesized by reaction of oxalic acid dihydrazide with 2,5 diformyl-1H-pyrrole and has been characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR, UV-visible, FT-IR and DART Mass). The properties of the compound has been evaluated using B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p)/6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The symmetric (3319, 3320 cm(-1)) and asymmetric (3389, 3382 cm(-1)) stretching wave number confirm free NH2 groups in PDBO. NBO analysis shows, inter/intra molecular interactions within the molecule. Topological parameters have been analyzed by QTAIM theory and provide the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (N-H⋯O). The local reactivity descriptors analyses determine the reactive sites within molecule. The calculated first hyperpolarizability value (β0=23.83×10(-30) esu) of pyrrole dihydrazone shows its suitability for non-linear optical (NLO) response. The preliminary bioassay suggested that the PDBO exhibits relatively good antibacterial and fungicidal activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger. The local reactivity descriptors--Fukui functions (fk+, fk-), local softnesses (sk+, sk-) and electrophilicity indices (ωk+, ωk-) analyses have been used to determine the reactive sites within molecule.

  6. Lysine pyrrolation is a naturally-occurring covalent modification involved in the production of DNA mimic proteins.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Hiroaki; Chikazawa, Miho; Otaki, Natsuki; Hioki, Yusuke; Shimozu, Yuki; Nakashima, Fumie; Shibata, Takahiro; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Shoichi; Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Uchida, Koji

    2014-06-18

    Covalent modification of proteins exerts significant effects on their chemical properties and has important functional and regulatory consequences. We now report the identification and verification of an electrically-active form of modified proteins recognized by a group of small molecules commonly used to interact with DNA. This previously unreported property of proteins was initially discovered when the γ-ketoaldehydes were identified as a source of the proteins stained by the DNA intercalators. Using 1,4-butanedial, the simplest γ-ketoaldehyde, we characterized the structural and chemical criteria governing the recognition of the modified proteins by the DNA intercalators and identified N(ε)-pyrrolelysine as a key adduct. Unexpectedly, the pyrrolation conferred an electronegativity and electronic properties on the proteins that potentially constitute an electrical mimic to the DNA. In addition, we found that the pyrrolated proteins indeed triggered an autoimmune response and that the production of specific antibodies against the pyrrolated proteins was accelerated in human systemic lupus erythematosus. These findings and the apparent high abundance of N(ε)-pyrrolelysine in vivo suggest that protein pyrrolation could be an endogenous source of DNA mimic proteins, providing a possible link connecting protein turnover and immune disorders.

  7. Assessment of conformational, spectral, antimicrobial activity, chemical reactivity and NLO application of Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxaldehyde bis(oxaloyldihydrazone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.

    2015-04-01

    An orange colored pyrrole dihydrazone: Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxaldehyde bis(oxaloyldihydrazone) (PDBO) has been synthesized by reaction of oxalic acid dihydrazide with 2,5 diformyl-1H-pyrrole and has been characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR, UV-visible, FT-IR and DART Mass). The properties of the compound has been evaluated using B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p)/6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The symmetric (3319, 3320 cm-1) and asymmetric (3389, 3382 cm-1) stretching wave number confirm free NH2 groups in PDBO. NBO analysis shows, inter/intra molecular interactions within the molecule. Topological parameters have been analyzed by QTAIM theory and provide the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (N-H⋯O). The local reactivity descriptors analyses determine the reactive sites within molecule. The calculated first hyperpolarizability value (β0 = 23.83 × 10-30 esu) of pyrrole dihydrazone shows its suitability for non-linear optical (NLO) response. The preliminary bioassay suggested that the PDBO exhibits relatively good antibacterial and fungicidal activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger. The local reactivity descriptors - Fukui functions (fk+, fk-), local softnesses (sk+, sk-) and electrophilicity indices (ωk+, ωk-) analyses have been used to determine the reactive sites within molecule.

  8. Photodissociation dynamics of pyrrole: evidence for mode specific dynamics from conical intersections.

    PubMed

    Wei, J; Riedel, J; Kuczmann, A; Renth, F; Temps, F

    2004-01-01

    The H and D atom elimination mechanisms in the photodissociation of jet cooled pyrrole and pyrrole-d1 have been studied by photofragment velocity map imaging. The molecules were excited to the 1 1A2 (pi sigma*) state at lambda = 243 nm and to the 1 1B2 (pi pi*) state at lambda = 217 nm. H/D atoms were detected by (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) at lambda = 243 nm. The analysis of the images and the resulting translational energy distributions from the 1 1A2 state demonstrates the existence of two decay pathways, fast mode-specific cleavage of the NH bond in the excited state (channel A) and internal conversion (IC) to the electronic ground state (S0) followed by unimolecular decomposition of the vibrationally hot S0 molecules (channel B). The angular distributions of the H/D atoms from the direct dissociation in the excited state are strongly anisotropic, whereas the decay of the S0 molecules leads to spatially isotropic distributions. The results at lambda = 217 nm indicate that the 1 1B2 state undergoes an ultrafast radiationless transition to 1 1A2 followed by the abovementioned direct mode-specific NH bond fission on the 1 1A2 potential energy surface (channel A') or conversion to S0 and subsequent unimolecular decomposition (channel B'). The latter pathway may also be initiated by a direct relaxation from 1 1B2 to S0. The anisotropy parameter of beta approximately -1 for the direct NH bond fission at lambda = 217 nm is in accordance with the expectations for a perpendicular electronic excitation and a dissociation lifetime that is short compared to the rotational period of the molecules. The fast decay dynamics of both excited electronic states can be rationalized with reference to the theoretically predicted conical intersections between the pi pi*, pi sigma*, and S0 potential energy surfaces and the antibonding nature of the pi sigma* potential energy surface with respect to the NH bond [A. L. Sobolewski, W. Domcke. C. Dedonder

  9. Ethynyl-linked (pyreno)pyrrole-naphthyridine and aniline-naphthyridine molecules as fluorescent sensors of guanine via multiple hydrogen bondings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Hung; Selvi, Srinivasan; Fang, Jim-Min

    2007-01-05

    New fluorescent molecular sensors for 9-alkylguanines were constructed by conjugation of 2-acetamido-1,8-naphthyridine with N-Boc-pyrrole, N-Boc-pyreno[2,1-b]pyrrole, or acetanilide moieties via an ethynyl bridge. In combination with the triple hydrogen-bonding motif of 2-acetamidonaphthyridine toward alkylguanine, an additional binding site was provided by the substituent properly located on the pyrrole or aniline ring to enhance the affinity of these receptor molecules. Besides the ESI-MS analyses, the binding events were readily monitored by the absorption and fluorescence changes in the visible region.

  10. Phosphine-mediated cascade reaction of azides with MBH-acetates of acetylenic aldehydes to substituted pyrroles: a facile access to N-fused pyrrolo-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chada Raji; Reddy, Motatipally Damoder; Srikanth, Boinapally

    2012-06-07

    One-pot synthesis of substituted pyrroles by a cascade reaction of azides with Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates of acetylenic aldehydes is described and the reaction is efficiently mediated by triphenyl phosphine at room temperature. Sodium azide is successfully used to provide N-unsubstituted pyrroles, while alkyl azides afforded the corresponding N-alkylated pyrroles through a sequence of allylic substitution/azide reduction/cycloisomerization reactions. The obtained products have provided a new entry to indolizino indoles, pyrrolo isoquinolines and 8-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizine.

  11. An iterative nonribosomal peptide synthetase assembles the pyrrole-amide antibiotic congocidine in Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Juguet, Maud; Lautru, Sylvie; Francou, François-Xavier; Nezbedová, Sárka; Leblond, Pierre; Gondry, Muriel; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2009-04-24

    Congocidine (netropsin) is a pyrrole-amide (oligopyrrole, oligopeptide) antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. We have identified, in the right terminal region of the S. ambofaciens chromosome, the gene cluster that directs congocidine biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of the cluster and in-frame deletions of 8 of the 22 genes confirm the involvement of this cluster in congocidine biosynthesis. Nine genes can be assigned specific functions in regulation, resistance, or congocidine assembly. In contrast, the biosynthetic origin of the precursors cannot be easily inferred from in silico analyses. Congocidine is assembled by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) constituted of a free-standing module and several single-domain proteins encoded by four genes. The iterative use of its unique adenylation domain, the utilization of guanidinoacetyl-CoA as a substrate by a condensation domain, and the control of 4-aminopyrrole-2-carboxylate polymerization constitute the most original features of this NRPS.

  12. Colorimetric chemosensor for multi-signaling detection of metal ions using pyrrole based Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Udhayakumari, Duraisamy; Velmathi, Sivan

    2014-03-25

    Pyrrole based Schiff bases act as a highly sensitive probe for metal ions in aqueous medium. Both receptors R1 and R2 are sensitive towards Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Cr(3+) among the other metal ions. The sensing ability of the receptors are investigated via colorimetric, optical and emission spectroscopic studies. The binding stoichiometries of R1 and R2 with metal ions have been determined as 2:1 by using Job's plot. The colorimetric receptors exhibited high sensitivity with a low detection limit of μM levels. In the presence of metal ions both receptors shows fluorescence quenching. This might be due to the photo induced electron transfer mechanism. The quenching constant was further determined using Stern-Volmer plot.

  13. Substituent effect in the photochromism of two isomeric asymmetric diarylethenes having pyrrole and thiophene units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renjie; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Pu, Shouzhi; Liu, Gang; Dai, Yanfeng

    2017-02-01

    Two new asymmetric isomeric diarylethenes having pyrrole and thiophene units have been synthesized by one-pot reaction and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The two prepared diarylethenes had disparate crystal structures, and they exhibited distinctly different photochromic behavior, both in solution and in the solid state. Their photochromism, fatigue resistance, and fluorescence were investigated systematically. The methyl group at the reactive carbon atom could significantly enhance the quantum yield of cyclization step and decrease the quantum yield of cycloreversion step, whereas a cyano group at the same position could notably suppress the photocyclization reaction and promote the photocycloreversion reaction. The results indicated that the substituent at the reactive carbon atom could readily modulate the optoelectronic and physical properties for these diarylethenes.

  14. Crystal structure of 1-benzyl-4-formyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carb­oxamide

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qi-Di; Hu, Sheng-Quan; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H12N2O2 (I), the mean planes of the pyrrole and benzyl rings are approximately perpendicular, forming a dihedral angle of 87.07 (4) °. There is an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond forming an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming inversion dimers. C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the dimers into chains along direction [10-1]. The chains are further linked by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions forming layers parallel to the ac plane. PMID:26958371

  15. Low-energy electron scattering from the aza-derivatives of pyrrole, furan, and thiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossoski, F.; Bettega, M. H. F.

    2013-06-01

    We report elastic integral and differential cross sections for electron scattering from the aza-derivatives of pyrrole, furan, and thiophene, namely, pyrazole, imidazole, isoxazole, oxazole, isothiazole, and thiazole. The calculations were performed within the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials, with inclusion of static, exchange, and polarization interactions, for energies up to 10 eV. We found two π* shape resonances and a high-lying σ* shape resonance in each system. A sharp low-energy σ* resonance was also identified in isothiazole and thiazole. Pyrazole and imidazole presented yet a broad low-lying σ* resonance. The positions of the resonances agree very well with existing experimental results. We discuss the similarities and differences among the resonances of these compounds.

  16. Targeting a DNA binding motif of the EVI1 protein by a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Sicot, Géraldine; Cui, Xiaohui; Vogel, Marion; Wuertzer, Charles A; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Wheeler, John; Harki, Daniel A; Muzikar, Katy A; Stolper, Daniel A; Dervan, Peter B; Perkins, Archibald S

    2011-12-06

    The zinc finger protein EVI1 is causally associated with acute myeloid leukemogenesis, and inhibition of its function with a small molecule therapeutic may provide effective therapy for EVI1-expressing leukemias. In this paper we describe the development of a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide to specifically block EVI1 binding to DNA. We first identify essential domains for leukemogenesis through structure-function studies on both EVI1 and the t(3;21)(q26;q22)-derived RUNX1-MDS1-EVI1 (RME) protein, which revealed that DNA binding to the cognate motif GACAAGATA via the first of two zinc finger domains (ZF1, encompassing fingers 1-7) is essential transforming activity. To inhibit DNA binding via ZF1, we synthesized a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide 1, designed to bind to a subsite within the GACAAGATA motif and thereby block EVI1 binding. DNase I footprinting and electromobility shift assays revealed a specific and high affinity interaction between polyamide 1 and the GACAAGATA motif. In an in vivo CAT reporter assay using NIH-3T3-derived cell line with a chromosome-embedded tet-inducible EVI1-VP16 as well as an EVI1-responsive reporter, polyamide 1 completely blocked EVI1-responsive reporter activity. Growth of a leukemic cell line bearing overexpressed EVI1 was also inhibited by treatment with polyamide 1, while a control cell line lacking EVI1 was not. Finally, colony formation by RME was attenuated by polyamide 1 in a serial replating assay. These studies provide evidence that a cell permeable small molecule may effectively block the activity of a leukemogenic transcription factor and provide a valuable tool to dissect critical functions of EVI1 in leukemogenesis.

  17. Catalytic formal [2+2+1] synthesis of pyrroles from alkynes and diazenes via Ti(II)/Ti(IV) redox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Zachary W; Hue, Ryan J; Tonks, Ian A

    2016-01-01

    Pyrroles are structurally important heterocycles. However, the synthesis of polysubstituted pyrroles is often challenging. Here, we report a multicomponent, Ti-catalysed formal [2+2+1] reaction of alkynes and diazenes for the oxidative synthesis of penta- and trisubstituted pyrroles: a nitrenoid analogue to classical Pauson-Khand-type syntheses of cyclopentenones. Given the scarcity of early transition-metal redox catalysis, preliminary mechanistic studies are presented. Initial stoichiometric and kinetic studies indicate that the mechanism of this reaction proceeds through a formally Ti(II)/Ti(IV) redox catalytic cycle, in which an azatitanacyclobutene intermediate, resulting from [2+2] alkyne + Ti imido coupling, undergoes a second alkyne insertion followed by reductive elimination to yield pyrrole and a Ti(II) species. The key component for catalytic turnover is the reoxidation of the Ti(II) species to a Ti(IV) imido via the disproportionation of an η(2)-diazene-Ti(II) complex.

  18. Organocatalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones with bifunctional amine-thiourea catalysts bearing multiple hydrogen-bond donors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Liang; Yue, Deng-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Summary For the first time, a catalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones was achieved with a chiral bifunctional amine-thiourea as a catalyst possessing multiple hydrogen-bond donors. With this developed method, a range of 3-hydroxy-3-nitromethyl-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones bearing quaternary stereocenters were obtained in acceptable yield (up to 75%) and enantioselectivity (up to 73% ee). PMID:26977188

  19. 2,2',5,5'-Tetra-methyl-1,1'-(hexane-1,6-di-yl)di-1H-pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana C; Ramos Silva, Manuela; Monsanto, Paula V; Matos Beja, Ana; Sobral, Abilio J F N

    2009-06-17

    The mol-ecule of the title compound, C(18)H(28)N(2), composed of two 2,5-dimethyl-pyrrole groups linked by a hexane chain, lies across a crystallographic inversion centre. The mean plane of the pyrrole ring is almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the central chain, making a dihedral angle of 89.09 (8)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  20. Polymerization of Conducting Polymers Confined to Free Surfaces: A comparison of the Langmuir-Blodgett Polymerization of 3-Alkyl Pyrroles and 2- Alkyl Anilines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-19

    Confined to Free Surfaces: A Comparison of the Langmuir-Blodgett Polymerization of 3- Alkyl Pyrroles and 2- Alkyl Anilines Submitted for Publication in...Surfaces: A Comparison of the Langmuir Blodgett Polymerizations of 3- alkyl pyrroles and 2- alkyl anilines R. S. Duran and H.C. Zhou Dept. of Chemistry...polymerization reactions in more detail and compare them. To do this, the polymerization reactions were run under two conditions. In the first case

  1. Sigma and Pi Interactions of the Pyrrolic Ligand Sandwich-Like Lanthanide Phthalocyanines Determined from Magnetic Susceptibility and Ligand-Field Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-25

    ACCESSION NO. 11, TITLE (include Security Classification) UNCLASSIFIED: Sigma and Pi Interactions of the Pyrro- lic Ligand Sandwich-Like Lanthanide ...4135007---05 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 36 Sigma and Pi Interactions of the Pyrrolic Ligand Sandwich-Like Lanthanide Phthalocyanines Determined From Magnetic...Hill Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3290 Sigma and Pi Interactions of the Pyrrolic Ligand Sandwich-Like Lanthanide Phthalocyanines Determined From

  2. Catalyst-controlled divergence in cycloisomerisation reactions of N-propargyl-N-vinyl sulfonamides: gold-catalysed synthesis of 2-sulfonylmethyl pyrroles and dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Undeela, Sridhar; Thadkapally, Srinivas; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Menon, Rajeev S

    2015-09-18

    Gold-catalysed, divergent synthesis of 2-sulfonylmethyl pyrroles and dihydropyridines from N-propargyl-N-vinyl sulfonamides has been achieved. Echavarren's gold(I) catalyst promoted the formation of pyrrole derivatives whereas the combination of PPh3AuCl and AgSbF6 afforded dihydropyridines. The aza-enyne precursors for the cycloisomerisation reaction were prepared by a base-mediated formal vinylic substitution reaction of 2-bromoallyl sulfones.

  3. Ab initio multiple cloning simulations of pyrrole photodissociation: TKER spectra and velocity map imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Saita, Kenichiro; Martinez, Todd J.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.

    2014-12-11

    In this study, we report a detailed computational simulation of the photodissociation of pyrrole using the ab initio Multiple Cloning (AIMC) method implemented within MOLPRO. The efficiency of the AIMC implementation, employing train basis sets, linear approximation for matrix elements, and Ehrenfest configuration cloning, allows us to accumulate significant statistics. We calculate and analyze the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectrum and Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) of pyrrole and compare the results directly with experimental measurements. Both the TKER spectrum and the structure of the velocity map image (VMI) are well reproduced. Previously, it has been assumed that the isotropic component of the VMI arises from long time statistical dissociation. Instead, our simulations suggest that ultrafast dynamics contributes significantly to both low and high energy portions of the TKER spectrum.

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Antineoplastic Activity of C60 Fullerene with 5-Fluorouracil and Pyrrole Derivative In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynchak, O. V.; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; Rybalchenko, V. K.; Kyzyma, O. A.; Soloviov, D.; Kostjukov, V. V.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Ritter, U.; Scharff, P.

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor activity of pristine C60 fullerene aqueous solution (C60FAS) compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and pyrrole derivative 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2.5-dione (MI-1) cytostatic drugs was investigated and analyzed in detail using the model of colorectal cancer induced by 1.2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats. The number, size, and location of the tumors were measured, and the pathology was examined. It was found that the number of tumors and total lesion area decreased significantly under the action of C60FAS and MI-1. Because these drugs have different mechanisms of action, their simultaneous administration can potentially increase the effectiveness and significantly reduce the side effects of antitumor therapy.

  5. Both visual and fluorescent sensors for Zn2 + based on bis(pyrrol-2-yl-methyleneamine) platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Na; Mao, Pan-Dong; Jia, Lei; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Zhou-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Two bis(pyrrol-2-yl-methyleneamine) chemo-sensors, 1, 3- and 1, 4-bis[3,4-dimethyl-5-ethyloxy -carbonyl-pyrrol-2-yl-methyleneamine]benzene (H2L1 and H2L2, respectively) have been synthesized and characterized, which exhibit high selectivity as off-on fluorescence sensors toward Zn2 + in CH3CN/H2O (9:1, v/v) solution. The detection limits of both sensors are at the parts per million level. Moreover, the probes H2L1 and H2L2 could sense Zn2 + by "naked eye" with a color change from colorless to yellow, and from yellow to dark yellow, respectively. To test the practical use of the probes, the determination of Zn2 + in real water samples was also evaluated.

  6. Direct detection of pyridine formation by the reaction of CH (CD) with pyrrole: a ring expansion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Soorkia, Satchin; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Trevitt, Adam J.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2010-03-16

    The reaction of the ground state methylidyne radical CH (X2Pi) with pyrrole (C4H5N) has been studied in a slow flow tube reactor using Multiplexed Photoionization Mass Spectrometry coupled to quasi-continuous tunable VUV synchrotron radiation at room temperature (295 K) and 90 oC (363 K), at 4 Torr (533 Pa). Laser photolysis of bromoform (CHBr3) at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) is used to produce CH radicals that are free to react with pyrrole molecules in the gaseous mixture. A signal at m/z = 79 (C5H5N) is identified as the product of the reaction and resolved from 79Br atoms, and the result is consistent with CH addition to pyrrole followed by Helimination. The Photoionization Efficiency curve unambiguously identifies m/z = 79 as pyridine. With deuterated methylidyne radicals (CD), the product mass peak is shifted by +1 mass unit, consistent with the formation of C5H4DN and identified as deuterated pyridine (dpyridine). Within detection limits, there is no evidence that the addition intermediate complex undergoes hydrogen scrambling. The results are consistent with a reaction mechanism that proceeds via the direct CH (CD) cycloaddition or insertion into the five-member pyrrole ring, giving rise to ring expansion, followed by H atom elimination from the nitrogen atom in the intermediate to form the resonance stabilized pyridine (d-pyridine) molecule. Implications to interstellar chemistry and planetary atmospheres, in particular Titan, as well as in gas-phase combustion processes, are discussed.

  7. Identification of Binding Targets of a Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide KR12 in the LS180 Colorectal Cancer Genome

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takayoshi; Kuo, Tony; Shinozaki, Yoshinao; Takatori, Atsushi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Otsuki, Joe; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are versatile DNA minor groove binders and attractive therapeutic options against oncological targets, especially upon functionalization with an alkylating agent such as seco-CBI. These molecules also provide an alternative for oncogenes deemed “undruggable” at the protein level, where the absence of solvent-accessible pockets or structural crevices prevent the formation of protein-inhibitor ligands; nevertheless, the genome-wide effect of pyrrole-imidazole polyamide binding remain largely unclear to-date. Here we propose a next-generation sequencing-based workflow combined with whole genome expression arrays to address such issue using a candidate anti-cancer alkylating agent, KR12, against codon 12 mutant KRAS. Biotinylating KR12 enables the means to identify its genome-wide effects in living cells and possible biological implications via a coupled workflow of enrichment-based sequencing and expression microarrays. The subsequent computational pathway and expression analyses allow the identification of its genomic binding sites, as well as a route to explore a polyamide’s possible genome-wide effects. Among the 3,343 KR12 binding sites identified in the human LS180 colorectal cancer genome, the reduction of KR12-bound gene expressions was also observed. Additionally, the coupled microarray-sequencing analysis also revealed some insights about the effect of local chromatin structure on pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, which had not been fully understood to-date. A comparative analysis with KR12 in a different human colorectal cancer genome SW480 also showed agreeable agreements of KR12 binding affecting gene expressions. Combination of these analyses thus suggested the possibility of applying this approach to other pyrrole-imidazole polyamides to reveal further biological details about the effect of polyamide binding in a genome. PMID:27798693

  8. Identification of Binding Targets of a Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide KR12 in the LS180 Colorectal Cancer Genome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jason; Hiraoka, Kiriko; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Kuo, Tony; Shinozaki, Yoshinao; Takatori, Atsushi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Otsuki, Joe; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Horton, Paul; Nagase, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are versatile DNA minor groove binders and attractive therapeutic options against oncological targets, especially upon functionalization with an alkylating agent such as seco-CBI. These molecules also provide an alternative for oncogenes deemed "undruggable" at the protein level, where the absence of solvent-accessible pockets or structural crevices prevent the formation of protein-inhibitor ligands; nevertheless, the genome-wide effect of pyrrole-imidazole polyamide binding remain largely unclear to-date. Here we propose a next-generation sequencing-based workflow combined with whole genome expression arrays to address such issue using a candidate anti-cancer alkylating agent, KR12, against codon 12 mutant KRAS. Biotinylating KR12 enables the means to identify its genome-wide effects in living cells and possible biological implications via a coupled workflow of enrichment-based sequencing and expression microarrays. The subsequent computational pathway and expression analyses allow the identification of its genomic binding sites, as well as a route to explore a polyamide's possible genome-wide effects. Among the 3,343 KR12 binding sites identified in the human LS180 colorectal cancer genome, the reduction of KR12-bound gene expressions was also observed. Additionally, the coupled microarray-sequencing analysis also revealed some insights about the effect of local chromatin structure on pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, which had not been fully understood to-date. A comparative analysis with KR12 in a different human colorectal cancer genome SW480 also showed agreeable agreements of KR12 binding affecting gene expressions. Combination of these analyses thus suggested the possibility of applying this approach to other pyrrole-imidazole polyamides to reveal further biological details about the effect of polyamide binding in a genome.

  9. Cation-π interaction of the univalent silver cation with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole: Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polášek, Miroslav; Kvíčala, Jaroslav; Makrlík, Emanuel; Křížová, Věra; Vaňura, Petr

    2017-02-01

    By using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it was proven experimentally that the univalent silver cation Ag+ forms with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (abbrev. 1) the cationic complex species 1·Ag+. Further, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, four different conformations of the resulting complex 1·Ag+ were derived. It means that under the present experimental conditions, this ligand 1 can be considered as a macrocyclic receptor for the silver cation.

  10. Pyrrole-2-Carboxylic Acid as a Ligand for the Cu-Catalyzed Reactions of Primary Anilines with Aryl Halides

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Ryan A.; Anderson, Kevin W.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    Pyrrole 2-carboxylic acid (L5) was found to be an effective ligand for the Cu-catalyzed mono-arylation of anilines with aryl iodides and bromides. Under the reported conditions (10% CuI/20% L5/DMSO/K3PO4/80–100 °C/20–24 h), a variety of useful functional groups were tolerated, and moderate to good yields of the diaryl amine products were obtained. PMID:18543973

  11. Pyrrole Alkaloids with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity Isolated from a Goji Berry-Contaminated Commercial Sample of African Mango

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2–8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value of 16.7 μM, whereas 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid (2) was active in both the hydroxyl radical-scavenging (ED50 11.9 μM) and quinone reductase-induction [CD (concentration required to double QR activity) 2.4 μM)] assays used. The isolated compounds were shown to be absent in a taxonomically authenticated African mango sample but present in three separate authentic samples of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) using LC-MS and 1H NMR fingerprinting analysis, including one sample that previously showed inhibitory activity in vivo in a rat esophageal cancer model induced with N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Additionally, microscopic features characteristic of goji berry were observed in the commercial African mango sample. PMID:24792835

  12. Synthesis and chemistry of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one--a heteroindoxyl.

    PubMed

    Gaywood, Alexander P; McNab, Hamish

    2009-06-05

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of 2-acetyl-3-azidothiophene gives 3-methylthieno[3,2-c]isoxazole as the major product at a furnace temperature of 350 degrees C whereas at temperatures above 550 degrees C the new heteroindoxyl 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one is exclusively formed. The heteroindoxyl exists predominantly as the keto tautomer. It is O-protonated by TFA, N-acetylated by acetic anhydride, N-nitrosated by nitrous acid, and provides an N-methylene Meldrum's acid derivative on treatment with methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid. Reactions of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one with diazonium salts, with isatin, and with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate take place at the methylene position to provide a hydrazone, an indirubin analogue, and a succinate derivative, respectively. Oxidation of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3,2-b]pyrrol-6-one gives a heteroindigotin, which shows a hypsochromic shift in the UV spectrum, relative to indigotin itself.

  13. Pyrrole alkaloids with potential cancer chemopreventive activity isolated from a goji berry-contaminated commercial sample of African mango.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Naman, C Benjamin; Deng, Ye; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2014-06-04

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2-8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value of 16.7 μM, whereas 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid (2) was active in both the hydroxyl radical-scavenging (ED50 11.9 μM) and quinone reductase-induction [CD (concentration required to double QR activity) 2.4 μM)] assays used. The isolated compounds were shown to be absent in a taxonomically authenticated African mango sample but present in three separate authentic samples of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) using LC-MS and (1)H NMR fingerprinting analysis, including one sample that previously showed inhibitory activity in vivo in a rat esophageal cancer model induced with N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Additionally, microscopic features characteristic of goji berry were observed in the commercial African mango sample.

  14. Vibrational overtone spectroscopy and intramolecular dynamics of C-H stretches in pyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnov, Alexander; Epshtein, Michael; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana

    2013-05-01

    Room-temperature photoacoustic spectra and jet-cooled action spectra of the regions of the first and second C-H stretch overtones of pyrrole were measured with the goal of gaining new insight on the vibrational patterns and the intramolecular energy flow out of the initially excited vibrational states. The rotational cooling of the action spectra helped in observing hitherto unresolved features, assisting determination of the existing multiple bands and their positions in each region. These bands were analyzed by building vibrational Hamiltonian matrices related to a simplified joint local-mode/normal-mode (LM/NM) model, accounting for two types of C-H stretches and their Fermi resonances with the CCH deformation modes. The diagonalization of the LM/NM vibrational Hamiltonians and the fitting of the eigenvalues to the band positions revealed model parameters, enabling assignment of the observed bands. The time dependences of the survival probabilities of the C-H stretches in the region of the first and second overtones, deduced from the vibrational Hamiltonian, show quantum beats due to the couplings to the deformations and decays driven by weaker interactions to the bath states. The C-H stretches, although somewhat lower in energy, show stronger coupling than the N-H stretches.

  15. Efficient Synthesis of Peptide and Protein Functionalized Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides Using Native Chemical Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Brian M. G.; van Ommeren, Sven P. F. I.; Merkx, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of DNA-based bionanotechnology requires efficient strategies to functionalize DNA nanostructures in a specific manner with other biomolecules, most importantly peptides and proteins. Common DNA-functionalization methods rely on laborious and covalent conjugation between DNA and proteins or peptides. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py–Im) polyamides, based on natural minor groove DNA-binding small molecules, can bind to DNA in a sequence specific fashion. In this study, we explore the use of Py–Im polyamides for addressing proteins and peptides to DNA in a sequence specific and non-covalent manner. A generic synthetic approach based on native chemical ligation was established that allows efficient conjugation of both peptides and recombinant proteins to Py–Im polyamides. The effect of Py–Im polyamide conjugation on DNA binding was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Although the synthesis of different protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates was successful, attenuation of DNA affinity was observed, in particular for the protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates. The practical use of protein-Py–Im-polyamide conjugates for addressing DNA structures in an orthogonal but non-covalent manner, therefore, remains to be established. PMID:26053396

  16. Development of a novel gene silencer pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting human connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jian-Xin; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide can bind to specific sequences in the minor groove of double-helical DNA and inhibit transcription of the genes. We designed and synthesized a PI polyamide to target the human connective tissue growth factor (hCTGF) promoter region adjacent to the Smads binding site. Among coupling activators that yield PI polyamides, 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-5-chloro-1H-benzotriazolium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate (HCTU) was most effective in total yields of PI polyamides. A gel shift assay showed that a PI polyamide designed specifically for hCTGF (PI polyamide to hCTGF) bound the appropriate double-stranded oligonucleotide. A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated PI polyamide to CTGF permeated cell membranes and accumulated in the nuclei of cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs) and remained there for 48 h. The PI polyamide to hCTGF significantly decreased phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA)- or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated luciferase activity of the hCTGF promoter in cultured HMCs. The PI polyamide to hCTGF significantly decreased PMA- or TGF-β1-stimulated expression of hCTGF mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. The PI polyamide to hCTGF significantly decreased PMA- or TGF-β1-stimulated levels of hCTGF protein in HMCs. These results indicate that the developed synthetic PI polyamide to hCTGF could be a novel gene silencer for fibrotic diseases.

  17. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-09-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine. Although efficient laboratory synthesis of alkaloids would enable the study and optimization of their biological properties, their preparation is often complicated by the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways--for example, through stereochemical instability and neighbouring group participation. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduces additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies. Here we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route uses several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages of beginning with aromatic reagents.

  18. Flexible electrochemical capacitors based on polypyrrole/carbon fibers via chemical polymerization of pyrrole vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Han, Gaoyi; Xiao, Yaoming; Chang, Yunzhen; Liu, Cuixian; Li, Miaoyu; Li, Yanping; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) has been deposited on the carbon fibers (CFs) via chemical oxidation of monomer vapor strategy, during which FeCl3·6H2O in acetonitrile adsorbed on CFs acts as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole vapor. The morphologies and capacitive properties of the PPy deposited on CFs (PPy/CFs) are strongly influenced by the concentration of oxidant used in the process. The assembled flexible capacitors by using PPy/CFs as electrodes and LiCl/polyvinyl alcohol as gel electrolyte have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the composites of PPy/CFs prepared by using 350 mg mL-1 FeCl3·6H2O as oxidant (PPy/CFs-350) exhibit relatively higher specific capacitance and good rate capability. Compared with PPy/CFs prepared by electrochemical deposition (retaining 5% of the initial capacitance), the PPy/CFs prepared by chemically polymerizing monomer vapor shows excellent stability (retaining 85% of initial capacitance after 5000 cycles). Furthermore, cells fabricated by PPy/CFs show a fairly good performance under various bending states, three cells of PPy/CFs-350 connected in series can light up a light emitting diode with a voltage threshold of about 2.5 V for approximate 10 min after being charged for about 3 min, revealing the potential of the cells' practical applications.

  19. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine1. Although the efficient laboratory syntheses of alkaloids would enable researchers to study and optimize their biological properties,2 the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways – for example, through stereochemical instability and neighboring group participation – complicates their preparation in the laboratory. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen3; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduce additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies4. In this manuscript, we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest-linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route employs several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages conferred by the use of aromatic starting materials. PMID:26375010

  20. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, Brendan T; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B

    2015-09-24

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine. Although efficient laboratory synthesis of alkaloids would enable the study and optimization of their biological properties, their preparation is often complicated by the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways--for example, through stereochemical instability and neighbouring group participation. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduces additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies. Here we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route uses several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages of beginning with aromatic reagents.

  1. Efficient Synthesis of Peptide and Protein Functionalized Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides Using Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Brian M G; van Ommeren, Sven P F I; Merkx, Maarten

    2015-06-04

    The advancement of DNA-based bionanotechnology requires efficient strategies to functionalize DNA nanostructures in a specific manner with other biomolecules, most importantly peptides and proteins. Common DNA-functionalization methods rely on laborious and covalent conjugation between DNA and proteins or peptides. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides, based on natural minor groove DNA-binding small molecules, can bind to DNA in a sequence specific fashion. In this study, we explore the use of Py-Im polyamides for addressing proteins and peptides to DNA in a sequence specific and non-covalent manner. A generic synthetic approach based on native chemical ligation was established that allows efficient conjugation of both peptides and recombinant proteins to Py-Im polyamides. The effect of Py-Im polyamide conjugation on DNA binding was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Although the synthesis of different protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates was successful, attenuation of DNA affinity was observed, in particular for the protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates. The practical use of protein-Py-Im-polyamide conjugates for addressing DNA structures in an orthogonal but non-covalent manner, therefore, remains to be established.

  2. Novel Pt(II) complexes containing pyrrole oxime; synthesis, characterization and DNA binding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Özalp-Yaman, Şeniz

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of anticancer activity and subsequent clinical success of cisplatin (cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2]), platinum-based compounds have since been widely synthesized and studied as potential chemotherapeutic agents. In this sense, three novel nuclease active Pt(II) complexes with general formula; [Pt(NH3)Cl(L)] (1), [Pt(L)2] (2), and K[PtCl2(L)] (3) in which L is 1-H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde oxime were synthesized. Characterization of complexes was performed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopy measurements. Interaction of complexes (1-3) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was investigated by using electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical methods and cleavage studies. The hyperchromic change in the electronic absorption spectrum of the Pt(II) complexes indicates an electrostatic interaction between the complexes and ct-DNA. Binding constant values between 4.42 × 103 and 5.09 × 103 M-1 and binding side size values between 2 and 3 base pairs were determined from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies.

  3. Theoretical study on nonlinear optical properties of the Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)dimer, trimer and its polymer with diffuse excess electrons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang Tao; Chen, Wei; Gu, Feng Long; Aoki, Yuriko

    2010-03-01

    The static (hyper)polarizabilities of the dimer and trimer with diffuse excess electrons, [Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)](n), are firstly investigated by the DFT(B3LYP) method in detail. For the dimer and trimer, a Li atom inside each calix[4]pyrrole unit is ionized to form a diffuse excess electron. The results show that the dimer and trimer containing two and three excess electrons, respectively, have very large first hyperpolarizablities as 2.3 x 10(4) and 4.0 x 10(4) au, which are 30 and 40 times larger than that of the corresponding [calix[4]pyrrole](n) (n = 2, 3) without Li atom. Also, beta values of dimer and trimer are twice and four times as large as that of monomer containing one excess electron. Obviously, not only excess electron but also the number of excess electron plays an important role in increasing the first hyperpolarizability. Moreover, the (hyper)polarizabilities of the [Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)](n) polymer are investigated at ab initio level by using the elongation finite-field (elongation FF) method. All the oligomers of the [Li(+)[calix[4]pyrrole]Li(-)](n) with many excess electrons exhibit very large first hyperpolarizability and large second hyperpolarizability. The present investigation shows that by introducing several and more excess electrons into the nonlinear optical (NLO) materials will be an important strategy for improving their NLO properties, which will be helpful for design of NLO materials.

  4. Evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, K; Barik, T K; Bhatt, R M; Srivastava, H C; Sreehari, U; Dash, A P

    2011-04-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a widely distributed mosquito vector species in India and also in other tropical regions of the world. This species is implicated in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in many countries. This species is reported to be widely resistant to insecticides of different classes in current use. In the present study, bio-efficacy of chlorfenapyr, an insecticide of pyrrole class with a novel mode of action was tested for the control of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Studies were performed to determine the diagnostic dosage; residual efficacy on different artificially fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement+distemper; to assess cross-resistance with different insecticides; and synergism/antagonism using piperonyl butoxide (PBO). A dosage of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as diagnostic dosage with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period for assessing the susceptibility of mosquitoes. The residual efficacy was observed up to 34 weeks on wood and mud+lime substrates while on other substrates, it was about 15 weeks at a dosage of 400mg a.i./m(2). Laboratory-reared strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed cross-resistance, whereas field-collected mosquitoes showed absence of cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr. Potentiation bioassays showed antagonistic effect of PBO to chlorfenapyr toxicity owing to the involvement of oxidases in the initial step of a conversion of pro-insecticide chlorfenapyr to toxic form CL 303268. The present study results have shown that chlorfenapyr can be a potential insecticide for the control of multiple insecticide resistant strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, in countries where indoor residual spray (IRS) is not targeted for the control of this species, like in India, chlorfenapyr used in IRS for the control of malaria vectors in rural and peri-urban areas can additionally provide control of Cx. quinquefasciatus also.

  5. Targeting 24 bp within Telomere Repeat Sequences with Tandem Tetramer Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide Probes.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yusuke; Sasaki, Asuka; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Hashiya, Kaori; Ide, Satoru; Bando, Toshikazu; Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-10-03

    Synthetic molecules that bind sequence-specifically to DNA have been developed for varied biological applications, including anticancer activity, regulation of gene expression, and visualization of specific genomic regions. Increasing the number of base pairs targeted by synthetic molecules strengthens their sequence specificity. Our group has been working on the development of pyrrole-imidazole polyamides that bind to the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-specific manner without causing denaturation. Recently, we reported a simple synthetic method of fluorescent tandem dimer polyamide probes composed of two hairpin moieties with a linking hinge, which bound to 12 bp in human telomeric repeats (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') and could be used to specifically visualize telomeres in chemically fixed cells under mild conditions. We also performed structural optimization and extension of the target base pairs to allow more specific stain-ing of telomeres. In the present study, we synthesized tandem tetramer polyamides composed of four hairpin moieties, targeting 24 bp in telomeric repeats, the longest reported binding site for synthetic, non-nucleic-acid-based, sequence-specific DNA-binding molecules. The novel tandem tetramers bound with a nanomolar dissociation constant to 24 bp sequences made up of four telomeric repeats. Fluorescently labeled tandem tetramer polyamide probes could visualize human telomeres in chemically fixed cells with lower background signals than polyamide probes reported previously, suggesting that they had higher specificity for telomeres. Furthermore, high-throughput sequencing of human genomic DNA pulled down by the biotin-labeled tandem tetramer polyamide probe confirmed its effective binding to telomeric repeats in the complex chromatinized genome.

  6. Nerve cells culture from lumbar spinal cord on surfaces modified by plasma pyrrole polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga-Aguilar, E; Olayo, R; Ramírez-Fernández, O; Morales, J; Godínez, R

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are several techniques for modified cell culture surfaces under research to improve cell growth and adhesion. Recently, different methods have been used for surface coating, using biomolecules that enhance cell attachment and growth of nerve cells from spinal cord, such as the use of Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin. Plasma-polymerized pyrrole (PPy)-treated surfaces have showed improvement on surfaces biocompatibility with the cells in culture since they do not interfere with any of the biological cell functions. In the present work, we present a novel mouse nerve cell culture technique, using PPy-treated cell culture surfaces. A comparative study of cell survival using Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin-treated surfaces was performed. Our results of cell survival when compared with data already reported by other investigators, show that cells cultured on the PPy-modified surface increased survival up to 21 days when compared with Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin-coated culture, where 8 days cell survival was obtained. There were electrical and morphological differences in the nerve cells grown in the different surfaces. By comparing the peak ion currents of Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin-seeded cells for 8 days with cells grown for 21 days on PPy, an increase of 516% in the Na(+) current and 127% in K(+) currents in cells seeded on PPy were observed. Immunofluorescence techniques showed the presence of cell synapses and culture viability after 21 days. Our results then showed that PPy-modified surfaces are an alternative culture method that increases nerve cells survival from lumbar spinal cord cell culture by preserving its electrical and morphological features.

  7. 2-(ω-Carboxyethyl)pyrrole Antibody as a New Inhibitor of Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunying; Wang, Xizhen; Tomko, Nicholas; Zhu, Junqing; Wang, William R; Zhu, Jinle; Wang, Yanming; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-09-22

    Angiogenesis is a fundamental process in the progression, invasion, and metastasis of tumors. Therapeutic drugs such as bevacizumab and ranibuzumab have thus been developed to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEFG)-promoted angiogenesis. While these anti-angiogenic drugs have been commonly used in the treatment of cancer, patients often develop significant resistance that limits the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapies to a short period of time. This is in part due to the fact that an independent pathway of angiogenesis exists, which is mediated by 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) in a TLR2 receptor-dependent manner that can compensate for inhibition of the VEGF-mediated pathway. In this work, we evaluated a CEP antibody as a new tumor growth inhibitor that blocks CEP-induced angiogenesis. We first evaluated the effectiveness of a CEP antibody as a monotherapy to impede tumor growth in two human tumor xenograft models. We then determined the synergistic effects of bevacizumab and CEP antibody in a combination therapy, which demonstrated that blocking of the CEP-mediated pathway significantly enhanced the anti-angiogenic efficacy of bevacizumab in tumor growth inhibition indicating that CEP antibody is a promising chemotherapeutic drug. To facilitate potential translational studies of CEP-antibody, we also conducted longitudinal imaging studies and identified that FMISO-PET is a non-invasive imaging tool that can be used to quantitatively monitor the anti-angiogenic effects of CEP-antibody in the clinical setting. That treatment with CEP antibody induces hypoxia in tumor tissue was indicated by 43% higher uptake of [18F]FMISO in CEP antibody-treated tumor xenografs than in the control PBS-treated littermates.

  8. Eco-friendly synthesis, spectral and computational study of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde salicylhydrazone (PCSH) for its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present eco-friendly synthesis of Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde salicylhydrazone (PCSH) and its molecular structural elucidation, spectral analysis and reactivity evaluation. Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde and salicyl hydrazide in water undergo condensation reaction to produce PCSH in good yield (88%). All results of quantum chemical calculation corroborate well with the experimental findings. The PCSH has been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-Visible, and ESI-Mass spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for PCSH by performing B3LYP functional using the standard basis set 6-31 + g (d, p), and additional basis sets 6D and 10F. Two most stable conformers for PCSH have been observed around the dihedral angle N1C5C6N7. The red shift observed in O-H stretching vibration in the FT-IR spectrum indicates the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The rotational barrier between syn-syn (closed) syn-syn (open) found to be 2966.9 kcal/mol. The presence of hydroxyl proton at 10.45 ppm downfield in experimental 1H NMR spectrum confirms the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in PCSH. Further, topological parameters analysis at the bond critical points using 'Atoms in molecules' theory reveals intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The energy of homonuclear intramolecular hydrogen bond (O17-H28⋯O10) is calculated to be 14.03 kcal/mol. The ellipticity results confirm the resonance assisted nature of this intramolecular hydrogen bond. In addition to this work, the reactive sites in PCSH have been explored using DFT descriptors, predicting nucleophilic reactions at carbonyl carbon and electrophilic reactions are possible at pyrrolic NH, amidic NH and double bond Cdbnd N leading to several heterocyclic products and metal complexes.

  9. Antimicrobial activity, structural evaluation and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) study of pyrrole containing vinyl derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta; Kumar, Yashvinder

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present structural and vibrational study of three vinylpyrrole derivatives: 2-Cyano-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-acrylamide (CPA), 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-Pent-1-en-3-one (PP) and 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-but-1-en-3-one (PB), using ab initio, DFT and experimental approaches. The quantum chemical calculation have been performed on B3LYP method and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set. The experimental FT-IR and Raman wavenumbers were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations and found to agree well. The experimental FT-IR and Raman study clearly indicate that the compound exist as dimer in solid state. The binding energies of (CPA), (PP) and (PB) dimers are found to be 20.95, 18.75 and 19.18 kcal/mol, respectively. The vibrational analysis shows red shifts in vN-H and vCdbnd O stretching as result of dimer formation. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Topological and energetic parameters reveal the nature of interactions in dimer. The local electronic descriptors analyses were used to predict the reactive sites in the molecule. Calculated first static hyperpolarizability of CPA, PP and PB is found to be 10.41 × 10- 30, 18.93 × 10- 30, 18.29 × 10- 30 esu, respectively, shows that investigated molecules will have non-linear optical response and might be used as non-linear optical (NLO) material. These vinylpyrrole compounds (CPA), (PP) and (PB) showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger and gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtili.

  10. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of 2,5-bis(3'-indolyl)pyrroles, analogues of the marine alkaloid nortopsentin.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Anna; Parrino, Barbara; Barraja, Paola; Spanò, Virginia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Diana, Patrizia; Maier, Armin; Kelter, Gerhard; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert

    2013-03-01

    2,5-bis(3'-Indolyl)pyrroles, analogues of the marine alkaloid nortopsentin, were conveniently prepared through a three step procedure in good overall yields. Derivatives 1a and 1b exhibited concentration-dependent antitumor activity towards a panel of 42 human tumor cell lines with mean IC50 values of 1.54 μM and 0.67 μM, respectively. Investigating human tumor xenografts in an ex-vivo clonogenic assay revealed selective antitumor activity, whereas sensitive tumor models were scattered among various tumor histotypes.

  11. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of 2,5-bis(3′-Indolyl)pyrroles, Analogues of the Marine Alkaloid Nortopsentin

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Anna; Parrino, Barbara; Barraja, Paola; Spanò, Virginia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Diana, Patrizia; Maier, Armin; Kelter, Gerhard; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert

    2013-01-01

    2,5-bis(3′-Indolyl)pyrroles, analogues of the marine alkaloid nortopsentin, were conveniently prepared through a three step procedure in good overall yields. Derivatives 1a and 1b exhibited concentration-dependent antitumor activity towards a panel of 42 human tumor cell lines with mean IC50 values of 1.54 μM and 0.67 μM, respectively. Investigating human tumor xenografts in an ex-vivo clonogenic assay revealed selective antitumor activity, whereas sensitive tumor models were scattered among various tumor histotypes. PMID:23455514

  12. Correlation of the bond-length change and vibrational frequency shift in model hydrogen-bonded complexes of pyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Sean A. C.

    2017-04-01

    An MP2 computational study of model hydrogen-bonded pyrrole⋯YZ (YZ = NH3, NCH, BF, CO, N2, OC, FB) complexes was undertaken in order to examine the variation of the Nsbnd H bond length change and its associated vibrational frequency shift. The chemical hardness of Y, as well as the YZ dipole moment, were found to be important parameters in modifying the bond length change/frequency shift. The basis set effect on the computed properties was also assessed. A perturbative model, which accurately reproduced the ab initio Nsbnd H bond length changes and frequency shifts, was useful in rationalizing the observed trends.

  13. Preparation and sensing properties of a nitrogen-rich ferrocene-imidazole-quinoxaline triad decorated with pyrrole rings.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, María; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro

    2016-12-06

    The synthesis and sensing properties of the nitrogen-rich ferrocene-imidazole-quinoxaline triad 1 decorated with two pyrrole rings have been described. Due to its ditopic nature, this molecule behaves as an ion-pair receptor for Ni(2+)cations and AcO(-) anions, although no affinity for either of the discrete ions is observed. It also displays the rare property consistent with the cooperative AND recognition of ion pairs. Thus, this receptor shows an important enhancement for binding AcO(-) anions when it is co-bound to Hg(2+)cations, whereas no affinity for the free receptor by the anion is observed.

  14. Chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles: combining hydrogen bonds and anion-π interactions to achieve optimum performance.

    PubMed

    Sabek, Jad; Adriaenssens, Louis; Guinovart, Tomàs; Parra, Enrique J; Rius, F Xavier; Ballester, Pablo; Blondeau, Pascal

    2015-01-02

    The performance of chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles and multiwall carbon nanotubes is presented. The calix[4]pyrrole receptors bear two phenyl groups at opposite meso-positions. When the meso-phenyl groups are decorated with strong electron-withdrawing substituents, attractive anion-π interactions may exist between the receptor's aromatic walls and the sandwiched anion. These anion-π interactions are shown to significantly affect the selectivity of the electrodes. Calix[4]pyrrole, bearing a p-nitro withdrawing group on each of the meso-phenyl rings, afforded sensors that display anti-Hofmeister behavior against the lipophilic salicylate and nitrate anions. Based on the experimental data, a series of principles that help in predicting the suitability of synthetic receptors for use as anion-specific ionophores is discussed. Finally, the sensors deliver excellent results in the direct detection of chloride in bodily fluids.

  15. A study of pyridyl nitrosyl iron(II) tetraphenyl 15N4-porphyrin. NO geometry and spin coupling to the pyrrole nitrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, D. C.; Dikanov, S. A.; Doetschman, D. C.; Smeija, J. A.

    1999-12-01

    Spin coupling with pyrrole nitrogens and NO geometry in pyridyl-NO-Fe(II) tetraphenyl- 15N4-porphyrin, examined with hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy (HYSCORE), was studied because of renewed interest in diatomic molecule bound ferrous hemes, e.g. the physiologically important NO synthase. Dipolar coupling locates the effective electron spin position (0.109±0.008 nm from the ring center, 0.106±0.006 nm above the ring plane and projecting 37±2° from the nearest pyrrole nitrogen). The NO projection in an X-ray study of the 4-methyl piperidine complex is 38.6°. The negative pyrrole nitrogen spin densities induced by the NO obey a sinusoidal angular relationship.

  16. An investigations on the molecular structure, FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR spectra of 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrole by theoretical and experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Erdogdu, Y; Saglam, S; Gulluoglu, M T

    2015-07-05

    Fourier-Transform-Infrared, Fourier-Transform-Raman and Nuclear Magnetic Rezonans spectra of 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrole molecule have been recorded. In the powder form, vibrational spectra of 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrol molecule were investigated in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1), respectively. The conformational analysis, geometrical structure, molecular electrostatic potential map, HOMO-LUMO and vibrational spectroscopic properties of the isolated 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrole molecule have also been carried out at the Molecular Mechanic and Density Functional Theory approaches. Density Functional Theory results have been associated with Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field for fitting between the theoretical and the experimental frequencies.

  17. One Step Continuous Flow Synthesis of Highly Substituted Pyrrole-3-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives via in situ Hydrolysis of tert-Butyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Ananda; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.

    2010-01-01

    The first one-step, continuous flow synthesis of pyrrole-3-carboxylic acids directly from tert-butyl acetoacetates, amines and 2-bromoketones is reported. The HBr generated as a by-product in the Hantzsch reaction was utilized in the flow method to saponify the t-butyl esters in situ to provide the corresponding acids in a single microreactor. The protocol was used in the multistep synthesis of pyrrole-3-carboxamides, including two CB1 inverse agonists, directly from commercially available starting materials in a single continuous process. PMID:20964284

  18. Pharmacokinetics of pyrrole-imidazole polyamides after intravenous administration in rat.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Akiko; Aoyama, Takahiko; Nagashima, Takashi; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2009-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of pyrrole (Py)-imidazole (Im) polyamides was studied in rats after the intravenous administration of these compounds. Py-Im polyamide (A) was composed of Ac-ImPyPy-ImPyPy-beta-Dp (beta: beta-alanine, Dp: N,N-dimethylaminopropylamide). Py-Im polyamide (B) was composed of Ac-PyIm-beta-ImIm-PyPy-beta-PyPy-beta-Dp. Py-Im polyamide (C) was composed of Ac-PyPy-beta-PyImPy-PyPyPy-beta-ImPy-beta-Dp. The molecular weight of Py-Im polyamide (A) was 1035.12, that of Py-Im polyamide (B) was 1422.51 and that of Py-Im polyamide (C) was 1665.78. After the intravenous injection of Py-Im polyamide (A) at 1.3, 2.0, 7.5 and 15.0 mg/kg, Py-Im polyamides (B) and (C) at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/kg, the average systemic clearance and the volume of distribution at the steady state obtained by a non-compartmental method were in the ranges of 4.6-6.4 ml/min/kg and 244-412 ml/kg, 8.9-10.3 ml/min/kg and 1990-4567 ml/kg, and 7.3-11.9 ml/min/kg and 407-667 ml/kg, respectively. Dose linearity of Py-Im polyamides was observed. The plasma concentration-time profiles after the intravenous administration of Py-Im polyamides (A) and (B) were fitted well by a two-compartment model. Py-Im polyamide (C) was observed at high concentrations in the lungs. The plasma concentration-time profiles after the intravenous administration of Py-Im polyamide (C) were described using a catenary two-compartment model. This model is useful for describing the time course after the administration of high-molecular-weight Py-Im polyamides.

  19. Pyrronazols, metabolites from the myxobacteria Nannocystis pusilla and N. exedens, are unusual chlorinated pyrone-oxazole-pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rolf; Sood, Sakshi; Huch, Volker; Kunze, Brigitte; Stadler, Marc; Müller, Rolf

    2014-02-28

    The chlorinated pyrrole-oxazole-pyrones pyrronazol A (1), pyrronazol A2 (2), and pyrronazol B (3) were isolated from Nannocystis pusilla strain Ari7, and two chlorinated pyrrole-oxazole isomers, pyrronazols C1 (4) and C2 (5), were isolated from N. pusilla strain Na a174. HRESIMS, NMR, and X-ray crystallographic analysis was used in the structure elucidation including the absolute configuration of pyrronazol A (1). In addition to pyrronazols, 1,6-phenazine-diol (6) and its glycosyl derivative, 1-hydroxyphenazin-6-yl-α-d-arabinofuranoside (7), were isolated and identified from the culture broth of N. pusilla strain Ari7. When tested for biological activity against bacteria, fungi, and yeasts, 1 showed weak antifungal activity against Mucor hiemalis (MIC 33.3 μg/mL) but no antibacterial activity, while 6 showed weak antibacterial and antifungal activity (MIC 33.3 μg/mL) against some of the strains tested. In cell culture experiments 1 showed no significant cytotoxicity, while 6 was active against several cell lines, especially the human ovarian carcinoma cells SK-OV-3 (LD50 2.59 μM).

  20. Photodissociation of pyrrole-ammonia clusters by velocity map imaging: mechanism for the H-atom transfer reaction.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Lago, L; Amaral, G A; Oldani, A N; Rodríguez, J D; González, M G; Pino, G A; Bañares, L

    2011-01-21

    The photodissociation dynamics of pyrrole-ammonia clusters (PyH·(NH(3))(n), n = 2-6) has been studied using a combination of velocity map imaging and non-resonant detection of the NH(4)(NH(3))(n-1) products. The excited state hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism (ESHT) is evidenced through delayed ionization and presents a threshold around 236.6 nm, in agreement with previous reports. A high resolution determination of the kinetic energy distributions (KEDs) of the products reveals slow (∼0.15 eV) and structured distributions for all the ammonia cluster masses studied. The low values of the measured kinetic energy rule out the existence of a long-lived intermediate state, as it has been proposed previously. Instead, a direct N-H bond rupture, in the fashion of the photodissociation of bare pyrrole, is proposed. This assumption is supported by a careful analysis of the structure of the measured KEDs in terms of a discrete vibrational activity of the pyrrolyl co-fragment.

  1. Single side strapping: a new approach to fine tuning the anion recognition properties of calix[4]pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hee; Na, Hee-Kyung; Yoon, Dae-Wi; Won, Dong-Hoon; Cho, Won-Seob; Lynch, Vincent M; Shevchuk, Sergey V; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2003-06-18

    Three calix[4]pyrroles bearing m-orcinol-derived diether straps of different lengths on one side of the tetrapyrrolic core have been synthesized and characterized. Structural information for an analogous diester bridged strapped system reported previously (Yoon, D. W.; Hwang, H.; Lee, C. H. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 2002, 41, 1757-1759) is also provided as are bromide and chloride anion affinities for all four systems determined by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) in acetonitrile. Although both sets of the strapped calix[4]pyrroles displayed enhanced affinities for chloride and bromide anion, differences were seen among the various receptors that support the conclusion that the anion binding ability of calixpyrrole-type systems can be effectively tuned by modifying the length and nature of the bridging straps. In the specific case of the diether systems, the largest chloride affinity was seen with the shortest strap, whereas the largest affinity for bromide anion was recorded in the case of the longest strap. On the basis of these findings, as well as supporting (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies, it is postulated that not only cavity size per se, but also the ability of the aryl portion of the strap to serve as a CH hydrogen bond donor site are important in regulating the observed anion affinities.

  2. An experimental study of low-pressure premixed pyrrole/oxygen/argon flames with tunable synchrotron photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Zhenyu; Li, Yuyang; Zhang, Taichang; Qi, Fei; Zhu, Aiguo; Cui, Zhifeng

    2007-10-15

    Two premixed laminar pyrrole/oxygen/argon flames at 3.33 kPa (25 Torr) with equivalence ratios of 0.55 (C/O/N = 1:5.19:0.25) and 1.84 (C/O/N = 1:1.56:0.25) have been investigated using tunable synchrotron photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry techniques. All observed flame species, including some nitrogen-containing intermediates, have been identified by measurements of photoionization efficiency spectra. Mole fraction profiles of species including reactants, intermediates, and products have been determined by scanning burner position at some selected photon energies near ionization thresholds, and flame temperature has been measured by a Pt/Pt-13% Rh thermocouple. The results indicate that N{sub 2}, NO, and NO{sub 2} are the major nitrogenous products, while hydrogen cyanide, isocyanic acid, and 2-propenenitrile are the most important nitrogen-containing intermediates in pyrrole flames. Radicals such as methyl, propargyl, allyl, cyanomethyl, n-propyl, isobutyl, cyclopentadienyl, phenyl, cyclohexyl, phenoxy, and 4-methylbenzyl are observed as well. Moreover, ethenol and methylacrylonitrile are also detected. Reaction pathways involving the major species are proposed. The new results will be useful in developing a kinetic model of nitrogenous compound combustion. (author)

  3. Electropolymerization of a calix[4]arene modified by N-substituted pyrrole moieties. New sensitive layer for ionic electrochemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffenoir, A.; Bidan, G.

    1998-06-01

    A calix[4]arene modified by grafting N-substituted pyrrole moieties at the upper rim was synthetised. Electropolymerisation of this new calix[4]arene in a Bu4NClO4 (10-1 M) - CH3CN solution is described. The obtained film presents a rather stable electroactivity to electrochemical cycling but its growing is limited to a few monolayers. It's the first example of homopolymerisation of a calix[4]arene modified by electropolymerisable monomers. Un calix[4]arène modifié sur sa couronne supérieure par des pyrroles N-substitués a été synthétisé. Son électropolymérisation en milieu Bu4NClO4 (10-1 M) - CH3CN par balayage de potentiels est décrite. Le film obtenu présente une électroactivité assez stable au cyclage électrochimique mais sa croissance est limitée à quelques monocouches. C'est le premier exemple d'homopolymérisation d'un calix[4]arène modifié par des monomères électropolymérisables.

  4. Flow synthesis using gaseous ammonia in a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube reactor: Paal-Knorr pyrrole formation and gas concentration measurement by inline flow titration.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Philippa B; O'Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L; Koos, Peter; Polyzos, Anastasios; Peña-López, Miguel; Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-14

    Using a simple and accessible Teflon AF-2400 based tube-in-tube reactor, a series of pyrroles were synthesised in flow using the Paal-Knorr reaction of 1,4-diketones with gaseous ammonia. An inline flow titration technique allowed measurement of the ammonia concentration and its relationship to residence time and temperature.

  5. Mild and General Synthesis of Pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines and Related Polyheterocyclic Frameworks from Pyrrole Precursors Derived from a Mechanochemical Multicomponent Reaction.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Marco; Villacampa, Mercedes; Menéndez, J Carlos

    2017-03-03

    The combination of a three-component, solvent-free pyrrole synthesis performed under mechanochemical conditions with a TMSOTf-catalyzed oxonium-mediated cyclization gave general access to pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline derivatives under very mild conditions. The structural diversity generated by this method was extended by the preparation of six additional unusual polyheterocyclic frameworks.

  6. Photochemistry of pyrrole: Time-dependent quantum wave-packet description of the dynamics at the 1πσ*-S0 conical intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, Valérie; Lan, Zhenggang; Mahapatra, Susanta; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2005-10-01

    The photoinduced hydrogen-elimination reaction in pyrrole via the conical intersections of the two π1σ* excited states with the electronic ground states [B11(πσ*)-S0 and A21(πσ*)-S0] have been investigated by time-dependent quantum wave-packet calculations. Model potential-energy surfaces of reduced dimensionality have been constructed on the basis of accurate multireference ab initio electronic-structure calculations. For the B11-S0 conical intersection, the model includes the NH stretching coordinate as the tuning mode and the hydrogen out-of-plane bending coordinate as the coupling mode. For the A21-S0 conical intersection, the NH stretching coordinate and the screwing coordinate of the ring hydrogens are taken into account. The latter is the dominant coupling mode of this conical intersection. The electronic population-transfer processes at the conical intersections, the branching ratio between the dissociation channels, and their dependence on the initial preparation of the system have been investigated for pyrrole and deuterated pyrrole. It is shown that the excitation of the NH stretching mode strongly enhances the reaction rate, while the excitation of the coupling mode influences the branching ratio of different dissociation channels. The results suggest that laser control of the photodissociation of pyrrole via mode-specific vibrational excitation should be possible. The calculations provide insight into the microscopic details of ultrafast internal-conversion processes in pyrrole via hydrogen-detachment processes, which are aborted at the π1σ*-S0 conical intersections. These mechanisms are of relevance for the photostability of the building blocks of life (e.g., the DNA bases).

  7. Hemispherand-Strapped Calix[4]pyrrole: An Ion-pair Receptor for the Recognition and Extraction of Lithium Nitrite.

    PubMed

    He, Qing; Zhang, Zhan; Brewster, James T; Lynch, Vincent M; Kim, Sung Kuk; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-08-10

    The hemispherand-strapped calix[4]pyrrole (1) acts as an ion pair receptor that exhibits selectivity for lithium salts. In organic media (CD2Cl2 and CD3OD, v/v, 9:1), receptor 1 binds LiCl with high preference relative to NaCl, KCl, and RbCl. DFT calculations provided support for the observed selectivity. Single crystal structures of five different lithium ion-pair complexes of 1 were obtained. In the case of LiCl, a single bridging water molecule between the lithium cation and chloride anion was observed, while tight contact ion pairs were observed in the case of the LiBr, LiI, LiNO3, and LiNO2 salts. Receptor 1 proved effective as an extractant for LiNO2 under both model solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extraction conditions.

  8. Large area in situ fabrication of poly(pyrrole)-nanowires on flexible thermoplastic films using nanocontact printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Cruz, Alvaro; Lee, Michael; Marote, Pedro; Zine, Nadia; Sigaud, Monique; Bonhomme, Anne; Pruna, Raquel; Lopez, Manuel; Bausells, Joan; Jaffrezic, Nicole; Errachid, Abdelhamid

    2016-08-01

    Highly efficient nano-engineering tools will certainly revolutionize the biomedical and sensing devices research and development in the years to come. Here, we present a novel high performance conducting poly(pyrrole) nanowires (PPy-NW) patterning technology on thermoplastic surfaces (poly(ethylene terephthalate (PETE), poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate (PEN), polyimide (PI), and cyclic olefin copolymer) using nanocontact printing and controlled chemical polymerization (nCP-CCP) technique. The technique uses a commercial compact disk as a template to produce nanopatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps. The PDMS nanopatterned stamp was applied to print the PPy-NWs and the developed technology of nCP-CCP produced 3D conducting nanostructures. This new and very promising nanopatterning technology was achieved in a single step and with a low cost of fabrication over large areas.

  9. Inhibition of KRAS codon 12 mutants using a novel DNA-alkylating pyrrole-imidazole polyamide conjugate.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kiriko; Inoue, Takahiro; Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Ken-ichi; Takatori, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Hirokazu; Maru, Yoshiaki; Denda, Tadamichi; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Balmain, Allan; Ozaki, Toshinori; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki

    2015-04-27

    Despite extensive efforts to target mutated RAS proteins, anticancer agents capable of selectively killing tumour cells harbouring KRAS mutations have remained unavailable. Here we demonstrate the direct targeting of KRAS mutant DNA using a synthetic alkylating agent (pyrrole-imidazole polyamide indole-seco-CBI conjugate; KR12) that selectively recognizes oncogenic codon 12 KRAS mutations. KR12 alkylates adenine N3 at the target sequence, causing strand cleavage and growth suppression in human colon cancer cells with G12D or G12V mutations, thus inducing senescence and apoptosis. In xenograft models, KR12 infusions induce significant tumour growth suppression, with low host toxicity in KRAS-mutated but not wild-type tumours. This newly developed approach may be applicable to the targeting of other mutant driver oncogenes in human tumours.

  10. A guided inquiry experiment for the measurement of activation energies in the biophysical chemistry laboratory: Decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Kelly M; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Mettee, Howard D; Smiley, Jeffrey A

    2005-03-01

    A laboratory experiment for undergraduate biophysical chemistry is described, in which the acid concentration and temperature dependences of the decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate are measured using a continuous ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric assay. Data collection and analysis are structured using principles of guided inquiry. Data leading to the calculation of multiple rate constants at varying temperatures and acid concentrations can be collected within one laboratory period, using inexpensive reagents and standard instrumentation. These experiments permit determination of activation energies that are lower at high acid concentration, indicative of a subtle change in the reaction mechanism with decreasing pH. The reaction is readily observable by students as they collect UV spectrophotometry data, and the decarboxylation reaction is related to biologically relevant enzymatic reactions.

  11. Accurate computations of the structures and binding energies of the imidazole⋯benzene and pyrrole⋯benzene complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, Sandra; Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D.; Trachsel, Maria A.; Leutwyler, Samuel; Klopper, Wim

    2014-09-01

    Using explicitly-correlated coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations, the intermolecular distances and interaction energies of the T-shaped imidazole⋯benzene and pyrrole⋯benzene complexes have been computed in a large augmented correlation-consistent quadruple-zeta basis set, adding also corrections for connected triple excitations and remaining basis-set-superposition errors. The results of these computations are used to assess other methods such as Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), spin-component-scaled MP2 theory, dispersion-weighted MP2 theory, interference-corrected explicitly-correlated MP2 theory, dispersion-corrected double-hybrid density-functional theory (DFT), DFT-based symmetry-adapted perturbation theory, the random-phase approximation, explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles theory, and double-hybrid DFT with a correlation energy computed in the random-phase approximation.

  12. Excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of pyrrole: A time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Guorong; Neville, Simon P.; Worth, Graham A.; Schalk, Oliver; Sekikawa, Taro; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Stolow, Albert

    2015-02-21

    The dynamics of pyrrole excited at wavelengths in the range 242-217 nm are studied using a combination of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and wavepacket propagations performed using the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method. Excitation close to the origin of pyrrole’s electronic spectrum, at 242 and 236 nm, is found to result in an ultrafast decay of the system from the ionization window on a single timescale of less than 20 fs. This behaviour is explained fully by assuming the system to be excited to the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state, in accord with previous experimental and theoretical studies. Excitation at shorter wavelengths has previously been assumed to result predominantly in population of the bright A{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) and B{sub 2}(ππ{sup ∗}) states. We here present time-resolved photoelectron spectra at a pump wavelength of 217 nm alongside detailed quantum dynamics calculations that, together with a recent reinterpretation of pyrrole’s electronic spectrum [S. P. Neville and G. A. Worth, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 034317 (2014)], suggest that population of the B{sub 1}(πσ{sup ∗}) state (hitherto assumed to be optically dark) may occur directly when pyrrole is excited at energies in the near UV part of its electronic spectrum. The B{sub 1}(πσ{sup ∗}) state is found to decay on a timescale of less than 20 fs by both N-H dissociation and internal conversion to the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state.

  13. Biological Characterization of an Improved Pyrrole-Based Colchicine Site Agent Identified through Structure-Based Design

    PubMed Central

    Rohena, Cristina C.; Telang, Nakul S.; Da, Chenxiao; Risinger, April L.; Sikorski, James A.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Gupton, John T.

    2016-01-01

    A refined model of the colchicine site on tubulin was used to design an improved analog of the pyrrole parent compound, JG-03-14. The optimized compound, NT-7-16, was evaluated in biological assays that confirm that it has potent activities as a new colchicine site microtubule depolymerizer. NT-7-16 exhibits antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities against multiple cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 10–16 nM, and it is able to overcome drug resistance mediated by the expression of P-glycoprotein and the βIII isotype of tubulin. NT-7-16 initiated the concentration-dependent loss of cellular microtubules and caused the formation of abnormal mitotic spindles, leading to mitotic accumulation. The direct interaction of NT-7-16 with purified tubulin was confirmed, and it was more potent than combretastatin A-4 in these assays. Binding studies verified that NT-7-16 binds to tubulin within the colchicine site. The antitumor effects of NT-7-16 were evaluated in an MDA-MB-435 xenograft model and it had excellent activity at concentrations that were not toxic. A second compound, NT-9-21, which contains dichloro moieties in place of the 3,5-dibromo substituents of NT-7-16, had a poorer fit within the colchicine site as predicted by modeling and the Hydropathic INTeractions score. Biological evaluations showed that NT-9-21 has 10-fold lower potency than NT-7-16, confirming the modeling predictions. These studies highlight the value of the refined colchicine-site model and identify a new pyrrole-based colchicine-site agent with potent in vitro activities and promising in vivo antitumor actions. PMID:26655304

  14. Porphodilactones as synthetic chlorophylls: relative orientation of β-substituents on a pyrrolic ring tunes NIR absorption.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xian-Sheng; Chang, Yi; Chen, Jia-Zhen; Tian, Jiangwei; Mack, John; Cheng, Xin; Shen, Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Long

    2014-07-09

    Porphodilactones represent the porphyrin analogues, in which the peripheral bonds of two pyrrole rings are replaced by lactone moieties. They provide an opportunity to investigate how β-substituent orientation of porphyrinoids modulates the electronic structures and optical properties, in a manner similar to what is observed with naturally occurring chlorophylls. In this work, a comprehensive description of the synthesis, characterization, and optical properties of meso-tetrakispentafluorophenylporphodilactone isomers is first reported. The β-dilactone moieties are found to lie at opposite pyrrole positions (trans- and cis-configurations are defined by the relative orientations of the carbonyl group when one lactone moiety is fixed), in accordance with earlier computational predictions (Gouterman, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 3702). The relative orientation of the β-dilactone moieties has a significant influence on the electronic structures and photophysical properties. For example, the Qy band of trans-porphodilactone is red-shifted by 19 nm relative to that of the cis-isomer, and there is a 2-fold increase in the absorption intensity, which resembles the similar trends that have been reported for natural chlorophyll f and d. An in depth analysis of magnetic circular dichroism spectral data and TD-DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory demonstrates that the trans- and cis-orientations of the dilactone moieties have a significant effect on the relative energies of the frontier π-molecular orbitals. Importantly, the biological behaviors of the isomers reveal their different photocytotoxicity in NIR region (>650 nm). The influence of the relative orientation of the β-substituents on the optical properties in this context provides new insights into the electronic structures of porphyrinoids which could prove useful during the development of near-infrared absorbing photosensitizers.

  15. Crystal structure of 3-ferrocenyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrrole, [Fe(η5-C5H4 cC4H3 NPh)(η5-C5H5)

    PubMed Central

    Pfaff, Ulrike; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The mol­ecular structure of the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C15H12N)], consists of a ferrocene moiety with an N-phenyl­pyrrole heterocycle bound to one cyclo­penta­dienyl ring. The 1,3-disubstitution of the pyrrole results in an L-shaped arrangement of the mol­ecule with plane inter­sections of 2.78 (17)° between the pyrrole and the N-bonded phenyl ring and of 8.17 (18)° between the pyrrole and the cyclo­penta­dienyl ring. In the crystal, no remarkable inter­molecular inter­actions are observed PMID:26870594

  16. Host-guest chemistry of aromatic-amide-linked bis- and tris-calix[4]pyrroles with bis-carboxylates and citrate anion.

    PubMed

    Cafeo, Grazia; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Kohnke, Franz H; Papanikolaou, Georgia; Profumo, Aldo; Rosano, Camillo

    2014-02-03

    A small library of polytopic receptors has been synthesized from meso-p- and meso-m-aminophenylcalix[4]pyrroles and p- or m-phthaloyl or trimesic chloride. Selected bis-carboxylates and the citrate anion, which either exhibit altered distribution profiles in cancerous tissues in comparison with healthy tissues or are metabolites of carcinogenic substances (for example, trans,trans-muconic acid from benzene exposure in humans) were tested as ligands. Varied affinities and binding modes were observed as a function of the number of calix[4]pyrroles and the topology of amide units present in each of the polytopic receptors. The structures of the 1:1 complexes derived by molecular modeling are in excellent agreement with the results of (1)H NMR complexation studies.

  17. Deproto-metallation of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles using a mixed lithium–zinc base and regioselectivity-computed CH acidity relationship

    PubMed Central

    Messaoud, Mohamed Yacine Ameur; Hedidi, Madani; Derdour, Aïcha; Chevallier, Floris; Ivashkevich, Oleg A; Matulis, Vadim E; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles is documented, as well as their functionalization by deprotonative metallation using the base in situ prepared from LiTMP and ZnCl2·TMEDA (1/3 equiv). With N-phenylpyrrole and -indole, the reactions were carried out in hexane containing TMEDA which regioselectively afforded the 2-iodo derivatives after subsequent iodolysis. With pyrroles and indoles bearing N-substituents such as 2-thienyl, 3-pyridyl, 4-methoxyphenyl and 4-bromophenyl, the reactions all took place on the substituent, at the position either adjacent to the heteroatom (S, N) or ortho to the heteroatom-containing substituent (OMe, Br). The CH acidities of the substrates were determined in THF solution using the DFT B3LYP method in order to rationalize the experimental results. PMID:26425204

  18. Silica sulfuric acid: a reusable solid catalyst for one pot synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins under solvent-free conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Sudipta; Debnath, Kamalesh

    2013-01-01

    Summary A convenient and efficient methodology for the synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins, which employs solid-supported silica sulfuric acid (SSA) as catalyst, has been developed. When the mixture of ninhydrin adducts of acetylacetone/ethyl acetoacetate and primary amines was heated on the solid surface of SSA under solvent-free conditions, the pyrrole-fused isocoumarins were formed in good yields. This synthetic method has several advantages such as the employment of solvent-free reaction conditions without the use of any toxic reagents and metal catalysts, the ease of product isolation, the use of a recyclable catalyst, the low cost, the easy availability of the starting materials, and the excellent yields of products. PMID:24367398

  19. Selective Synthesis of 5- or 6-Aryl Octahydrocyclopenta[b]pyrroles from a Common Precursor Through Control of Competing Pathways in a Pd-Catalyzed Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Joshua E.; Wolfe, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The Pd/phosphine-catalyzed reaction of 1 with aryl bromides leads to the selective synthesis of either 6-aryl octahydrocyclopenta[b]pyrroles (3), the corresponding 5-aryl isomers 5, diarylamine 2, or hexahydrocyclopenta[b]pyrrole 4 depending on the structure of the phosphine ligand. These transformations are effective with a variety of different aryl bromides, and provide 3-5 with excellent levels of diastereoselectivity (dr ≥ 20:1). The changes in product distribution are believed to derive from the influence of Pd-catalyst structure on the relative rates of reductive elimination, β-hydride elimination, alkene insertion, and alkene dissociation processes in a mechanistically complex reaction. The effect of phosphine ligand structure on product distribution is described in detail, along with analysis of a proposed mechanism for these transformations. PMID:15954769

  20. N-[(Z)-(1-Methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl-idene]-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-amine.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Hanif, Muhammad; Tahir, M Nawaz

    2008-12-10

    In the title compound, C(8)H(9)N(5), a Schiff base derived from N-methyl-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, the C=N double bond linking the two aromatic rings has a Z conformation. The two rings are twisted by 24.20 (5)°. A chain motif results from N-H⋯N hydrogen bonding.

  1. 1-{2-Hy­droxy-6-[3-(pyrrol-1-yl)prop­oxy]phen­yl}ethanone

    PubMed Central

    Ourari, Ali; Aggoun, Djouhra; Bouacida, Sofiane

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H17NO3, the mean planes of the pyrrole and benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 81.92 (7)°. The mol­ecule contains an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯π inter­actions link the mol­ecules into chains along [010]. PMID:22589947

  2. Reversal of enantioselective Friedel-Crafts C3-alkylation of pyrrole by slightly tuning the amide units of N,N'-dioxide ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Yang, Na; Liu, Xiaohua; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Xiying; Lin, Lili; Hu, Changwei; Feng, Xiaoming

    2015-05-18

    Chiral Ni(ii)-complexes of N,N'-dioxides show high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity in catalysing the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts C3-alkylation of 2,5-dimethyl pyrrole to β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoesters. A dramatic reversal of enantioselectivity is realized with ligands derived from the same type of chiral source of l-ramipril, by slightly tuning the amide units.

  3. Trimethoxybenzene- and trimethylbenzene-based compounds bearing imidazole, indole and pyrrole groups as recognition units: synthesis and evaluation of the binding properties towards carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Rosien, Jan-Ruven; Seichter, Wilhelm; Mazik, Monika

    2013-10-14

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of trimethoxybenzene- and trimethylbenzene-based compounds bearing imidazole or indole groups as recognition sites in the complexation of carbohydrates. Representatives of these compounds were prepared and their binding properties toward selected carbohydrates evaluated. The results of the binding studies were compared with those obtained for the prepared pyrrole bearing analogues and for the previously described triethylbenzene-based receptors.

  4. Synthesis of protected (1-phenyl-1h-pyrrol-2-yl)-alkane-1-amines from phenylnitroso Diels-Alder adducts with 1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Berti, Francesco; Di Bussolo, Valeria; Pineschi, Mauro

    2013-07-19

    The reductive cleavage of nitrosobenzene-derived cycloadducts with appropriately protected 1,2-dihydropyridines allows a novel and simple obtainment of substituted N-[1-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)alkylamides. This synthesis can also be carried out in a very simple, mild, and practical one-pot procedure without isolation of the corresponding nitrosobenzene cycloadduct by means of catalytic amounts of CuCl.

  5. The effect of polyaromatic hydrocarbons on the spectral and photophysical properties of diaryl-pyrrole derivatives: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Pina, João; Pinheiro, Daniela; Nascimento, Bruno; Piñeiro, Marta; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio

    2014-09-14

    A new class of diaryl-pyrrole derivatives of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene were synthesized in a multicomponent reaction under microwave irradiation and studied in solution at room (293 K) and low (77 K) temperature. The study includes a complete spectroscopic evaluation (singlet-singlet and triplet-triplet absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra) as well as photophysical evaluation (fluorescence, phosphorescence and triplet lifetimes together with fluorescence and triplet occupation and singlet oxygen sensitization quantum yields). From the above evaluation, a complete set of deactivation rate constants (kF, kIC and kISC) could be obtained. The study was further complemented with TDDFT calculations. It is shown that, with the exception of the anthracene derivative, the diaryl-pyrrole moiety strongly influences the spectral and photophysical properties of the PAH and that with the exception of the benzene derivative, the excited state internal conversion deactivation channel of the diaryl-pyrrole derivatives is higher than that of the PAH counterparts.

  6. α, α', α", α'"-meso-tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole: An easy-to-prepare, isomerically pure anion extractant with enhanced solubility in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Neil J.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Custelcean, Radu; Seipp, Charles A.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2016-01-29

    α, α', α", α'"-meso-Tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole is easily obtained as a single diastereomer in a one-pot reaction. It exhibits enhanced solubility in organic solvents, including aliphatic solvents, relative to its parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (1). Somewhat surprisingly, the tetrahexyl derivative 2 complexes with tributylmethylammonium chloride in chloroform more strongly than does 1 as shown by NMR titrations. However, 1 and 2 exhibit comparable complexation strength in extraction experiments, the difference between the NMR and extraction results being attributed to the effect of organic-phase water in the extraction systems. Mass-action analysis indicates the formation of the predominant complex TBMA+(1 or 2)Cl in both NMR and extraction systems, and equilibrium constants are reported. x-Ray crystal structures were obtained for the free ligand 2 and its complex with tetramethylammonium chloride. In addition, the free ligand crystallises in the 1,3-alt conformation with equatorial hexyl arms. In the chloride complex with 2 in its cone conformation, the hexyl arms adopt an axial orientation, enveloping the anion. DFT calculations show this binding conformation to be the most stable, mostly owing to destabilising steric interactions involving the pyrrole C–H and alkyl C–H groups positioned equatorially.

  7. A theoretical study of N-H ··· π H-bond interaction of pyrrole: from clusters to the liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Feng, Huajie; Xuan, Xiaopeng; Chen, Liuping

    2012-09-01

    The N-H ... π H-bond interactions of clusters and liquid formed by pyrrole molecules were investigated by Quantum Mechanics (QM) and classical Molecular Dynamics (MD), respectively. Based on the optimized geometry at the B97-D/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory including dispersion correction, the nature and the origin of N-H ... π H-bond interactions were unveiled by atoms in molecules (AIM), natural bond orbital (NBO), and energy decomposition analysis (EDA). Among them, the AIM analysis gives evidence to the presence of N-H ... π H-bond interactions, the NBO examination reveals that π → σ* donor-acceptor orbital interaction is of great importance. EDA study indicates that N-H ... π interactions are governed by the electrostatic and dispersion term. Meanwhile, MD simulation with OPLS-AA (optimized potentials for liquid simulations all-atom) was applied to study the pure liquid pyrrole at different temperature. The results confirm the existence of the N-H ... π H-bond in the pure liquid pyrrole, and further characterized the structures of this H-bond which is somewhat different to the clusters.

  8. Potency of photoinduced electron transfer and antioxidant efficacy of pyrrole and pyridine based Cu(II)-Schiff complexes while binding with CT-DNA.

    PubMed

    Koley Seth, Banabithi; Ray, Aurkie; Saha, Arpita; Saha, Partha; Basu, Samita

    2014-03-05

    Here we report a systematic and comparative study to define a correlation between the structure and function of a series of simple, biologically active small inorganic Schiff base copper complexes for the occurrence of charge transfer phenomenon in calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using transient absorption spectroscopy corroborated with magnetic field effect. Four copper(II) Schiff base complexes with differently substituted heterocyclic ligands with antioxidant activity have been used. The binding constants of the order of ∼ 10(4) support the moderate binding affinity of the complexes towards CT-DNA. The methyl-substituted pyrrole complex shows maximum binding affinity (Kb: 8.33 × 10(4)) compared to others. The occurrence of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from CT-DNA to pyrrole containing complexes has been confirmed by identifying the corresponding transient radical ions whereas the extent of PET with pyridine substituted complexes is too small to be observed. The increase of the yield of radical ions in presence of magnetic field depicts that the initial spin correlation in geminate radical ion pair is triplet. The difference between experimental and calculated B½ values, the measure of hyperfine interactions (HFI) present in the system, arises due to hole hopping through intrastrand and interstrand DNA bases. The unsubstituted pyrrole complexes cleave DNA much more than the methyl-substituted one. Therefore, the probability of intrastrand superexchange increases with methyl-substituted complexes, that reduces the rate of hole hopping and hence the B½ value.

  9. α, α', α", α'"-meso-tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole: An easy-to-prepare, isomerically pure anion extractant with enhanced solubility in organic solvents

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Neil J.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Custelcean, Radu; ...

    2016-01-29

    α, α', α", α'"-meso-Tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole is easily obtained as a single diastereomer in a one-pot reaction. It exhibits enhanced solubility in organic solvents, including aliphatic solvents, relative to its parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (1). Somewhat surprisingly, the tetrahexyl derivative 2 complexes with tributylmethylammonium chloride in chloroform more strongly than does 1 as shown by NMR titrations. However, 1 and 2 exhibit comparable complexation strength in extraction experiments, the difference between the NMR and extraction results being attributed to the effect of organic-phase water in the extraction systems. Mass-action analysis indicates the formation of the predominant complex TBMA+(1 or 2)Cl– in both NMR andmore » extraction systems, and equilibrium constants are reported. x-Ray crystal structures were obtained for the free ligand 2 and its complex with tetramethylammonium chloride. In addition, the free ligand crystallises in the 1,3-alt conformation with equatorial hexyl arms. In the chloride complex with 2 in its cone conformation, the hexyl arms adopt an axial orientation, enveloping the anion. DFT calculations show this binding conformation to be the most stable, mostly owing to destabilising steric interactions involving the pyrrole C–H and alkyl C–H groups positioned equatorially.« less

  10. Molecular packing of high-mobility diketo pyrrolo-pyrrole polymer semiconductors with branched alkyl side chains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinran; Richter, Lee J; DeLongchamp, Dean M; Kline, R Joseph; Hammond, Matthew R; McCulloch, Iain; Heeney, Martin; Ashraf, Raja S; Smith, Jeremy N; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Schroeder, Bob; Geerts, Yves H; Fischer, Daniel A; Toney, Michael F

    2011-09-28

    We describe a series of highly soluble diketo pyrrolo-pyrrole (DPP)-bithiophene copolymers exhibiting field effect hole mobilities up to 0.74 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), with a common synthetic motif of bulky 2-octyldodecyl side groups on the conjugated backbone. Spectroscopy, diffraction, and microscopy measurements reveal a transition in molecular packing behavior from a preferentially edge-on orientation of the conjugated plane to a preferentially face-on orientation as the attachment density of the side chains increases. Thermal annealing generally reduces both the face-on population and the misoriented edge-on domains. The highest hole mobilities of this series were obtained from edge-on molecular packing and in-plane liquid-crystalline texture, but films with a bimodal orientation distribution and no discernible in-plane texture exhibited surprisingly comparable mobilities. The high hole mobility may therefore arise from the molecular packing feature common to the entire polymer series: backbones that are strictly oriented parallel to the substrate plane and coplanar with other backbones in the same layer.

  11. Electropolymerization of pyrrole and immobilization of glucose oxidase in a flow system: influence of the operating conditions on analytical performance.

    PubMed

    Vidal, J C; Garcia, E; Castillo, J R

    1998-03-01

    The in situ potentiostatic electropolymerization of pyrrole (Py) on a Pt electrode in a thin-layer amperometric cell and the entrapment of the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) for the determination of glucose are reported. Polypyrrole (PPy) is directly formed by continuous passage of a buffered solution of the monomer (0.4 M) and enzyme (250 U mL-1) at pH 7 at a flow rate of 0.05-0.1 mL min-1 under a constant applied potential of +0.85 V vs Ag/AgCl decreases. The electrosynthesis of PPy by injection of 500 microL of a Py + GOx solution in a carrier electrolyte consisting of 0.05 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 M KCl at pH 7.0 was also assayed. The influence of the electropolymerization conditions on the analytical response of the sensor to glucose was investigated. The analytical performance of the PPy/GOx sensor was also studied in terms of durability and storage life, as well as selectivity against electroactive species such as ascorbic acid and uric acid as a function of the thickness of the polymer film formed.

  12. Characterization of the Biosynthesis Gene Cluster for the Pyrrole Polyether Antibiotic Calcimycin (A23187) in Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiulin; Liang, Jingdan; Lin, Shuangjun; Zhou, Xiufen; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Zhijun

    2011-01-01

    The pyrrole polyether antibiotic calcimycin (A23187) is a rare ionophore that is specific for divalent cations. It is widely used as a biochemical and pharmacological tool because of its multiple, unique biological effects. Here we report on the cloning, sequencing, and mutational analysis of the 64-kb biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882. Gene replacements confirmed the identity of the gene cluster, and in silico analysis of the DNA sequence revealed 27 potential genes, including 3 genes for the biosynthesis of the α-ketopyrrole moiety, 5 genes that encode modular type I polyketide synthases for the biosynthesis of the spiroketal ring, 4 genes for the biosynthesis of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, an N-methyltransferase tailoring gene, a resistance gene, a type II thioesterase gene, 3 regulatory genes, 4 genes with other functions, and 5 genes of unknown function. We propose a pathway for the biosynthesis of calcimycin and assign the genes to the biosynthesis steps. Our findings set the stage for producing much desired calcimycin derivatives using genetic modification instead of chemical synthesis. PMID:21173184

  13. Pharmacokinetic modeling and prediction of plasma pyrrole-imidazole polyamide concentration in rats using simultaneous urinary and biliary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Aoyama, Takahiko; Yokoe, Tsubasa; Fukasawa, Akiko; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    The use of urinary and/or biliary excretion data was considered as an alternative approach if the bioanalytical method lacked the appropriate sensitivity to adequately characterize the serum or plasma concentration-time profile. This approach is used for the analysis of plasma concentration-time profile under the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of various analytical instruments. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK) model that describes the plasma concentration-time profiles under LLOQ of HPLC using urinary and biliary excretion data. As model compounds, pyrrole (Py)-imidazole (Im) polyamides 1035 (MW, 1035.12) and 1666 (MW, 1665.78) were used. The cumulative urinary excretions of Py-Im polyamides 1035 and 1666 were 72.4+/-11.6 and 4.8+/-0.5% of the administered dose, respectively. The cumulative biliary excretion of Py-Im polyamide 1035 was 4.3+/-0.4% of the administered dose, and Py-Im polyamide 1666 was not detected. The plasma concentration-time profiles of Py-Im polyamide 1035 were adequately described using linear and non-linear output compartments. The developed PK model could be used to describe the plasma concentration profiles using the linear output compartment interpreted as the urine compartment and the non-linear output compartment interpreted as the bile compartment. This PK model will be able to provide a more accurate prediction of the plasma concentration profiles under LLOQ.

  14. Nuclear Localization and Gene Expression Modulation by a Fluorescent Sequence-Selective p-Anisyl-benzimidazolecarboxamido Imidazole-Pyrrole Polyamide.

    PubMed

    Kiakos, Konstantinos; Pett, Luke; Satam, Vijay; Patil, Pravin; Hochhauser, Daniel; Lee, Moses; Hartley, John A

    2015-07-23

    Synthetic pyrrole (P)-imidazole (I) containing polyamides can target predetermined DNA sequences and modulate gene expression by interfering with transcription factor binding. We have previously shown that rationally designed polyamides targeting the inverted CCAAT box 2 (ICB2) of the topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) promoter can inhibit binding of transcription factor NF-Y, re-inducing expression of the enzyme in confluent cells. Here, the A/T recognizing fluorophore, p-anisylbenzimidazolecarboxamido (Hx) was incorporated into the hybrid polyamide HxIP, which fluoresces upon binding to DNA, providing an intrinsic probe to monitor cellular uptake. HxIP targets the 5'-TACGAT-3' sequence of the 5' flank of ICB2 with high affinity and sequence specificity, eliciting an ICB2-selective inhibition/displacement of NF-Y. HxIP is readily taken up by NIH3T3 and A549 cells, and detected in the nucleus within minutes. Exposure to the polyamide at confluence resulted in a dose-dependent upregulation of topo IIα expression and enhanced formation of etoposide-induced DNA strand breaks.

  15. Sub-10 nm Platinum Nanocrystals with Size and Shape Control: Catalytic Study for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Kuhn, John N.; Huang, Wenyu; Aliaga, Cesar; Hung, Ling-I; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2009-03-02

    Platinum nanocubes and nanopolyhedra with tunable size from 5 to 9 nm were synthesized by controlling the reducing rate of metal precursor ions in a one-pot polyol synthesis. A two-stage process is proposed for the simultaneous control of size and shape. In the first stage, the oxidation state of the metal ion precursors determined the nucleation rate and consequently the number of nuclei. The reaction temperature controlled the shape in the second stage by regulation of the growth kinetics. These well-defined nanocrystals were loaded into MCF-17 mesoporous silica for examination of catalytic properties. Pt loadings and dispersions of the supported catalysts were determined by elemental analysis (ICP-MS) and H2 chemisorption isotherms, respectively. Ethylene hydrogenation rates over the Pt nanocrystals were independent of both size and shape and comparable to Pt single crystals. For pyrrole hydrogenation, the nanocubes enhanced ring-opening ability and thus showed a higher selectivity to n-butylamine as compared to nanopolyhedra.

  16. Maleimides (1 H-pyrrole-2,5-diones) as molecular indicators of anoxygenic photosynthesis in ancient water columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Kliti; Gibbison, Robert; Atkinson, Jane E.; Schwark, Lorenz; Eckardt, Christian B.; Maxwell, James R.

    1996-10-01

    Maleimides (1 H-pyrrole-2,5-diones), degradation products of photosynthetic tetrapyrrole pigments, have been found for the first time in the polar fraction of the solvent extracts of two marine sediments deposited in restricted basins: Kupferschiefer (Permian) and Serpiano shale (Mid-Triassic). GC and GC—MS analyses of the TBDMS ( tertiary-butyldimethylsilyl) derivatives show a simple component distribution, dominated by Me Et maleimide, mainly of planktonic origin; Me n-Pr and Me i-Bu maleimides, present in low abundance, are thought on structural grounds to be derived from the bacteriochlorophylls c, d, or e of Chlorobiaceae (anoxygenic green sulfur bacteria). This is confirmed for Kupferschiefer by isotope ratio monitoring (irm) GCMS which shows them to be enriched in 13C as a result of their photosynthetic carbon assimilation, which takes place by the reversed tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The structurally more specific Me i-Bu maleimide is, however, slightly more enriched in 13C than Me n-Pr maleimide, suggesting that the latter is derived in part from reduction of the C 3-acid substituent at C-17 of phytoplanktonic chlorophyll. These results provide evidence for the existence in both depositional settings of microbial communities containing Chlorobiaceae. In turn, this indicates that there must have been periods when the water column was highly stratified and anoxia extended into the zone of light penetration.

  17. Pyrrole Hydrogenation over Rh(111) and Pt(111) Single-Crystal Surfaces and Hydrogenation Promotion Mediated by 1-Methylpyrrole: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kliewer, Christopher J.; Bieri, Marco; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-03-04

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of pyrrole over both Pt(111) and Rh(111) single-crystal surfaces at Torr pressures (3 Torr pyrrole, 30 Torr H{sub 2}) to form pyrrolidine and the minor product butylamine. Over Pt(111) at 298 K it was found that pyrrole adsorbs in an upright geometry cleaving the N-H bond to bind through the nitrogen evidenced by SFG data. Over Rh(111) at 298 K pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry relative to the surface through the p-aromatic system. A pyrroline surface reaction intermediate, which was not detected in the gas phase, was seen by SFG during the hydrogenation over both surfaces. Significant enhancement of the reaction rate was achieved over both metal surfaces by adsorbing 1-methylpyrrole before reaction. SFG vibrational spectroscopic results indicate that reaction promotion is achieved by weakening the bonding between the N-containing products and the metal surface because of lateral interactions on the surface between 1-methylpyrrole and the reaction species, reducing the desorption energy of the products. It was found that the ring-opening product butylamine was a reaction poison over both surfaces, but this effect can be minimized by treating the catalyst surfaces with 1-methylpyrrole before reaction. The reaction rate was not enhanced with elevated temperatures, and SFG suggests desorption of pyrrole at elevated temperatures.

  18. Chlorfenapyr: a pyrrole insecticide for the control of pyrethroid or DDT resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    N'Guessan, R; Boko, P; Odjo, A; Akogbéto, M; Yates, A; Rowland, M

    2007-04-01

    Owing to the development and spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae in Africa there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides to supplement the pyrethroids. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide first commercialized for the control of agricultural pests and termites. Performance against An. gambiae bearing kdr (pyrethroid and DDT resistance) or Ace-1(R) insensitive acetylcholinesterase (organophosphate and carbamate resistance) mechanisms was studied using a variety of adult bioassay tests including a simulated-experimental hut system (tunnel tests) that allows uninhibited mosquito behaviour/insecticide interactions. Strains resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates showed no cross resistance to chlorfenapyr. In cone bioassays on treated netting the mortality of adult mosquitoes showed an unexpected curvilinear response, with highest mortality occurring at intermediate dosages. Adults expressed irritability to chlorfenapyr at higher dosages, which might explain the dosage-mortality trend. Toxic activity of chlorfenapyr was slow compared to conventional neurotoxic insecticides and additional mortality occurred between 24h and 72 h. In tunnel tests, the dosage-mortality trend showed a more typical sigmoid response and most mortality occurred during the first 24h. Mosquito penetration through the holed, treated netting showed only limited inhibition and blood-feeding was not inhibited. Mortality rates in the kdr strain exposed to chlorfenapyr treated netting in tunnel tests were much higher than with permethrin treated netting over the same 100-500 mg/m(2) dosage range. Chlorfenapyr has potential for malaria control in treated-net or residual spraying applications in areas where mosquitoes are pyrethroid resistant. For treated-net applications chlorfenapyr might be combined with pyrethroid as a mixture to provide personal protection as well as to give control of resistant mosquitoes.

  19. Sequence-selective single-molecule alkylation with a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide visualized in a DNA nanoscaffold.

    PubMed

    Yoshidome, Tomofumi; Endo, Masayuki; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hidaka, Kumi; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-03-14

    We demonstrate a novel strategy for visualizing sequence-selective alkylation of target double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using a synthetic pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide in a designed DNA origami scaffold. Doubly functionalized PI polyamide was designed by introduction of an alkylating agent 1-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-benz[e]indole (seco-CBI) and biotin for sequence-selective alkylation at the target sequence and subsequent streptavidin labeling, respectively. Selective alkylation of the target site in the substrate DNA was observed by analysis using sequencing gel electrophoresis. For the single-molecule observation of the alkylation by functionalized PI polyamide using atomic force microscopy (AFM), the target position in the dsDNA (∼200 base pairs) was alkylated and then visualized by labeling with streptavidin. Newly designed DNA origami scaffold named "five-well DNA frame" carrying five different dsDNA sequences in its cavities was used for the detailed analysis of the sequence-selectivity and alkylation. The 64-mer dsDNAs were introduced to five individual wells, in which target sequence AGTXCCA/TGGYACT (XY = AT, TA, GC, CG) was employed as fully matched (X = G) and one-base mismatched (X = A, T, C) sequences. The fully matched sequence was alkylated with 88% selectivity over other mismatched sequences. In addition, the PI polyamide failed to attach to the target sequence lacking the alkylation site after washing and streptavidin treatment. Therefore, the PI polyamide discriminated the one mismatched nucleotide at the single-molecule level, and alkylation anchored the PI polyamide to the target dsDNA.

  20. Molecular recognition of DNA base pairs by the formamido/pyrrole and formamido/imidazole pairings in stacked polyamides

    PubMed Central

    Buchmueller, Karen L.; Staples, Andrew M.; Uthe, Peter B.; Howard, Cameron M.; Pacheco, Kimberly A. O.; Cox, Kari K.; Henry, James A.; Bailey, Suzanna L.; Horick, Sarah M.; Nguyen, Binh; Wilson, W. David; Lee, Moses

    2005-01-01

    Polyamides containing an N-terminal formamido (f) group bind to the minor groove of DNA as staggered, antiparallel dimers in a sequence-specific manner. The formamido group increases the affinity and binding site size, and it promotes the molecules to stack in a staggered fashion thereby pairing itself with either a pyrrole (Py) or an imidazole (Im). There has not been a systematic study on the DNA recognition properties of the f/Py and f/Im terminal pairings. These pairings were analyzed here in the context of f-ImPyPy, f-ImPyIm, f-PyPyPy and f-PyPyIm, which contain the central pairing modes, –ImPy– and –PyPy–. The specificity of these triamides towards symmetrical recognition sites allowed for the f/Py and f/Im terminal pairings to be directly compared by SPR, CD and ΔTM experiments. The f/Py pairing, when placed next to the –ImPy– or –PyPy– central pairings, prefers A/T and T/A base pairs to G/C base pairs, suggesting that f/Py has similar DNA recognition specificity to Py/Py. With –ImPy– central pairings, f/Im prefers C/G base pairs (>10 times) to the other Watson–Crick base pairs; therefore, f/Im behaves like the Py/Im pair. However, the f/Im pairing is not selective for the C/G base pair when placed next to the –PyPy– central pairings. PMID:15703305

  1. Single-step substitution of all the α, β-positions in pyrrole: choice of binuclear versus multinuclear complex of the novel polydentate ligand.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Debasish; Mani, Ganesan

    2014-04-21

    The α and β-positions of pyrrole were substituted with 3,5-dimethylpyrazolylmethyl groups in a single step that involved the reaction between 2,5-dimethylaminomethylpyrrole and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole-1-carbinol, affording 2,3,4,5-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-ylmethyl)pyrrole LH in 40% yield. The coordination chemistry of this new polydentate ligand LH was explored by synthesizing several Pd(II), Cu(I), and Ag(I) complexes. When LH was used as a neutral ligand with [Pd(COD)Cl2], AgBF4, and CuX (X = Cl and I), compartmental type binuclear Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes such as [Pd2Cl4(μ-C4HN-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N)] and [Ag2(μ-C4HN-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N)(CH3CN)2](2+)[BF4(-)]2 and cage-like copper(I) complexes [Cu2(μ-X)(μ-C4HN-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N)](+)[CuX2](-) (X = Cl and I) containing a halide ion bridging in a bent fashion were obtained, respectively. Conversely, when the same metal precursors were treated with LH in the presence of n-BuLi, the multinuclear complexes [Pd2Cl3(μ-C4N-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N,N)], [(Cu2(μ-I){μ-C4N-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N,N})2Cu](+)I(-), and [Ag4(μ-C4N-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N,N)2](2+)[BF4(-)]2 were obtained. In addition, the treatment of LH with [Pd(OAc)2] gave the mononuclear complex, [Pd(OAc)(C4N-2,3,4,5-(CH2Me2pz)4-N,N,N)]. The chloride analogue of this complex was obtained by the reaction of LH with [Pd(COD)Cl2] in the presence of triethylamine. The structures of all complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, which revealed interesting structural features, including pyrazole arms adopting different conformations with respect to the pyrrole ring plane and linear two- and three-coordinated copper(I) and silver(I) atoms exhibiting weak interactions between the metal and the pyrrolic carbon atoms and Ag(I)···Ag(I) interactions. The observed shorter metal pyrrolide nitrogen (M-N) bond distances and the elongation of the C-C double and single bond distances of the pyrrole

  2. Hx, a novel fluorescent, minor groove and sequence specific recognition element: design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of p-anisylbenzimidazole-imidazole/pyrrole-containing polyamides.

    PubMed

    Chavda, Sameer; Liu, Yang; Babu, Balaji; Davis, Ryan; Sielaff, Alan; Ruprich, Jennifer; Westrate, Laura; Tronrud, Christopher; Ferguson, Amanda; Franks, Andrew; Tzou, Samuel; Adkins, Chandler; Rice, Toni; Mackay, Hilary; Kluza, Jerome; Tahir, Sharjeel A; Lin, Shicai; Kiakos, Konstantinos; Bruce, Chrystal D; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2011-04-19

    With the aim of incorporating a recognition element that acts as a fluorescent probe upon binding to DNA, three novel pyrrole (P) and imidazole (I)-containing polyamides were synthesized. The compounds contain a p-anisylbenzimidazolecarboxamido (Hx) moiety attached to a PP, IP, or PI unit, giving compounds HxPP (2), HxIP (3), and HxPI (4), respectively. These fluorescent hybrids were tested against their complementary nonfluorescent, non-formamido tetraamide counterparts, namely, PPPP (5), PPIP (6), and PPPI (7) (cognate sequences 5'-AAATTT-3', 5'-ATCGAT-3', and 5'-ACATGT-3', respectively). The binding affinities for both series of polyamides for their cognate and noncognate sequences were ascertained by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies, which revealed that the Hx-containing polyamides gave binding constants in the 10(6) M(-1) range while little binding was observed for the noncognates. The binding data were further compared to the corresponding and previously reported formamido-triamides f-PPP (8), f-PIP (9), and f-PPI (10). DNase I footprinting studies provided additional evidence that the Hx moiety behaved similarly to two consecutive pyrroles (PP found in 5-7), which also behaved like a formamido-pyrrole (f-P) unit found in distamycin and many formamido-triamides, including 8-10. The biophysical characterization of polyamides 2-7 on their binding to the abovementioned DNA sequences was determined using thermal melts (ΔT(M)), circular dichroism (CD), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies. Density functional calculations (B3LYP) provided a theoretical framework that explains the similarity between PP and Hx on the basis of molecular electrostatic surfaces and dipole moments. Furthermore, emission studies on polyamides 2 and 3 showed that upon excitation at 322 nm binding to their respective cognate sequences resulted in an increase in fluorescence at 370 nm. These low molecular weight polyamides show promise for use as probes for monitoring

  3. Micro- to nanostructured poly(pyrrole-nitrilotriacetic acid) films via nanosphere templates: applications to 3D enzyme attachment by affinity interactions.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Andreea; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Sandulescu, Robert; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-02-01

    We report the combination of latex nanosphere lithography with electropolymerization of N-substituted pyrrole monomer bearing a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) moiety for the template-assisted nanostructuration of poly(pyrrole-NTA) films and their application for biomolecule immobilization. The electrodes were modified by casting latex beads (100 or 900 nm in diameter) on their surface followed by electropolymerization of the pyrrole-NTA monomer and the subsequent chelation of Cu(2+) ions. The dissolution of the nanobeads leads then to a nanostructured polymer film with increased surface. Thanks to the versatile affinity interactions between the (NTA)Cu(2+) complex and histidine- or biotin-tagged proteins, both tyrosinase and glucose oxidase were immobilized on the modified electrode. Nanostructuration of the polypyrrole via nanosphere lithography (NSL) using 900- and 100-nm latex beads allows an increase in surface concentration of enzymes anchored on the functionalized polypyrrole electrode. The nanostructured enzyme electrodes were characterized by fluorescence microscopy, 3D laser scanning confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical studies demonstrate the increase in the amount of immobilized biomolecules and associated biosensor performances when achieving NSL compared to conventional polymer formation without bead template. In addition, the decrease in nanobead diameter from 900 to 100 nm provides an enhancement in biosensor performance. Between biosensors based on films polymerized without nanobeads and with 100-nm nanobeads, maximum current density values increase from 4 to 56 μA cm(-2) and from 7 to 45 μA cm(-2) for biosensors based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase, respectively.

  4. Cobalt(II) Porphyrin-Catalyzed Intramolecular Cyclopropanation of N-Alkyl Indoles/Pyrroles with Alkylcarbene: Efficient Synthesis of Polycyclic N-Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Annapureddy Rajasekar; Hao, Fei; Wu, Kai; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-01-26

    A protocol on chemoselective cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of N-alkyl indoles/pyrroles with alkylcarbenes has been developed. The reaction enables the rapid construction of a range of nitrogen-containing polycyclic compounds in moderate to high yields from readily accessible materials. These N-containing polycyclic compounds can be converted into a variety of N-heterocycles with potential synthetic and biological interest. Compared to their N-tosylhydrazone counterparts, the use of bulky N-2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl hydrazones as carbene precursors allows cyclopropanation to occur under milder reaction conditions.

  5. Comparison of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole: Building toward an understanding of the electronic structure and photochemistry of porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beames, Joseph M.; Nix, Michael G. D.; Hudson, Andrew J.

    2009-11-01

    The photophysical properties of porphyrins have relevance for their use as light-activated drugs in cancer treatment and sensitizers in solid-state solar cells. However, the appearance of their UV-visible spectra is usually explained inadequately by qualitative molecular-orbital theories. We intend to gain a better insight into the intense absorption bands, and excited-state dynamics, that make porphyrins appropriate for both of these applications by gradually building toward an understanding of the macrocyclic structure, starting with studies of smaller pyrrolic subunits. We have recorded the (1+1) and (2+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole between 25 600 cm-1 (390 nm) and 48 500 cm-1 (206 nm). We did not observe a (1+1) REMPI signal through the optically bright B12 (ππ ∗) and A11 (ππ ∗) states in pyrrole due to ultrafast deactivation via conical intersections with the dissociative A12 (πσ ∗) and B11 (πσ ∗) states. However, we did observe (2+1) REMPI through Rydberg states with a dominant feature at 27 432 cm-1 (two-photon energy, 54 864 cm-1) assigned to a 3d←π transition. In contrast, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole has a broad and structured (1+1) REMPI spectrum between 36 000 and 42 500 cm-1 as a result of vibronic transitions to the B12 (ππ ∗) state, and it does not show the 3d←π Rydberg transition via (2+1) REMPI. We have complemented the experimental studies by a theoretical treatment of the excited states of both molecules using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and accounted for the contrasting features in the spectra. TD-DFT modeled the photochemical activity of both the optically dark π1σ∗ states (dissociative) and optically bright π1π∗ states well, predicting the barrierless deactivation of the B12 (ππ ∗) state of pyrrole and the bound minimum of the B12 (ππ ∗) state in 2,5-dimethylpyrrole. However, the quantitative agreement between vibronic

  6. Comparison of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole: Building toward an understanding of the electronic structure and photochemistry of porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Beames, Joseph M; Nix, Michael G D; Hudson, Andrew J

    2009-11-07

    The photophysical properties of porphyrins have relevance for their use as light-activated drugs in cancer treatment and sensitizers in solid-state solar cells. However, the appearance of their UV-visible spectra is usually explained inadequately by qualitative molecular-orbital theories. We intend to gain a better insight into the intense absorption bands, and excited-state dynamics, that make porphyrins appropriate for both of these applications by gradually building toward an understanding of the macrocyclic structure, starting with studies of smaller pyrrolic subunits. We have recorded the (1+1) and (2+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole between 25 600 cm(-1) (390 nm) and 48 500 cm(-1) (206 nm). We did not observe a (1+1) REMPI signal through the optically bright (1)B(2) (pipi( *)) and (1)A(1) (pipi( *)) states in pyrrole due to ultrafast deactivation via conical intersections with the dissociative (1)A(2) (pisigma( *)) and (1)B(1) (pisigma( *)) states. However, we did observe (2+1) REMPI through Rydberg states with a dominant feature at 27 432 cm(-1) (two-photon energy, 54 864 cm(-1)) assigned to a 3d<--pi transition. In contrast, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole has a broad and structured (1+1) REMPI spectrum between 36 000 and 42 500 cm(-1) as a result of vibronic transitions to the (1)B(2) (pipi( *)) state, and it does not show the 3d<--pi Rydberg transition via (2+1) REMPI. We have complemented the experimental studies by a theoretical treatment of the excited states of both molecules using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and accounted for the contrasting features in the spectra. TD-DFT modeled the photochemical activity of both the optically dark (1)pisigma( *) states (dissociative) and optically bright (1)pipi( *) states well, predicting the barrierless deactivation of the (1)B(2) (pipi( *)) state of pyrrole and the bound minimum of the (1)B(2) (pipi( *)) state in 2,5-dimethylpyrrole

  7. 1,2,4-Triazolyl octahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrroles: A new series of potent and selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio; Bernardelli, Andrea; Bianchi, Federica; Braggio, Simone; Castelletti, Laura; Cavallini, Palmina; Cavanni, Paolo; Cremonesi, Susanna; Dal Cin, Michele; Feriani, Aldo; Oliosi, Beatrice; Semeraro, Teresa; Tarsi, Luca; Tomelleri, Silvia; Wong, Andrea; Visentini, Filippo; Zonzini, Laura; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-04-15

    A novel series of 1,2,4-triazolyl octahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrroles showing high affinity and selectivity at the DA D3 receptor is reported here. Compounds endowed with high selectivity over the hERG channel were identified and their pharmacokinetic properties thoroughly analyzed. A few derivatives with appropriate developability characteristics were selected for further studies and progression along the screening cascade. In particular, derivative 60a, (DA D3 pKi=8.4, DA D2 pKi=6.0 and hERG fpKi=5.2) showed a balanced profile and further refinements are in progress around this molecule.

  8. Macrocyclic bis(phenanthroline-pyrrole): a convenient one-pot synthesis, structure(s), spectroscopic, and redox properties, and the binding of amine guests, protons, and lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    McSkimming, Alex; Shrestha, Sumi; Bhadbhade, Mohan M; Thordarson, Pall; Colbran, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a convenient, one-pot, easily scalable and readily modifiable synthesis of a novel large-ring bis(1,10-phenanthrolinyl-2,5-pyrrole) macrocycle, H2LMC, and describes its spectroscopic and electrochemical properties, protonation, cooperative amine binding, electrocatalysis of the oxidation of primary amines, photosensitization of the decomposition of dichloromethane, and the first lanthanide complexes of the hexaaza-dianion LMC(2-) including the novel dimer, [(NO3)(LMC)Eu(μ-OH)Eu(LMC )(H2 O)2]·2py.

  9. A Biomimetic Route for the Construction of the [4+2] and [3+2] Core Skeletons of the Dimeric Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids and the Asymmetric Synthesis of Ageliferins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Xiaolei; Tan, Xianghui; Lu, Jianming; Cormier, Kevin W.; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    The pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids have fascinated chemists for decades because of their unique structures. The high nitrogen and halogen contents and the densely functionalized skeletons make their laboratory synthesis challenging. We describe herein an oxidative method for accessing the core skeletons of two classes of pyrrole-imidazole dimers. This synthetic strategy was inspired by the putative biosynthesis pathways and its development was facilitated by computational studies. Using this method, we have successfully prepared ageliferin, bromoageliferin, and dibromoageliferin in their natural enantiomeric form. PMID:23072663

  10. ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr (Pyrrole) and alphacypermethrin (Pyrethroid) for control of pyrethroid resistant Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Oxborough, Richard M; Kitau, Jovin; Matowo, Johnson; Feston, Emmanuel; Mndeme, Rajab; Mosha, Franklin W; Rowland, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and continued efficacy of pyrethroid ITNs is under threat. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action conferring no cross-resistance to existing public health insecticides. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr (CFP) and alphacypermethrin (alpha) may provide additional benefits over chlorfenapyr or alphacypermethrin used alone. An ITN mixture of CFP 100 mg/m(2)+alpha 25 mg/m(2) was compared with CFP 100 mg/m(2) and alpha 25 mg/m(2) in a small-scale experimental hut trial in an area of wild An. arabiensis. The same treatments were evaluated in tunnel tests against insectary-reared pyrethroid susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Performance was measured in terms of insecticide-induced mortality, and blood-feeding inhibition. Tunnel tests showed that mixtures of CFP 100+ alpha 25 were 1.2 and 1.5 times more effective at killing susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus than either Alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP 100 (P = 0.001) ITNs. Mixtures of CFP100+ alpha 25 were 2.2 and 1.2 times more effective against resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus than either alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP100 (P = 0.003) ITNs. CFP 100+ alpha 25 produced higher levels of blood-feeding inhibition than CFP alone for susceptible (94 vs 46%, P = 0.001) and resistant (84 vs 53%, P = 0.001) strains. In experimental huts the mixture of CFP 100+ Alpha 25 killed 58% of An. arabiensis, compared with 50% for alpha and 49% for CFP, though the differences were not significant. Blood-feeding inhibition was highest in the mixture with a 76% reduction compared to the untreated net (P = 0.001). ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin should restore effective control of resistant populations of An. gambiae malaria vectors, provide protection from blood-feeding, and may have benefits for resistance management, particularly in areas with low or moderate

  11. ITN Mixtures of Chlorfenapyr (Pyrrole) and Alphacypermethrin (Pyrethroid) for Control of Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Oxborough, Richard M.; Kitau, Jovin; Matowo, Johnson; Feston, Emmanuel; Mndeme, Rajab; Mosha, Franklin W.; Rowland, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and continued efficacy of pyrethroid ITNs is under threat. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action conferring no cross-resistance to existing public health insecticides. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr (CFP) and alphacypermethrin (alpha) may provide additional benefits over chlorfenapyr or alphacypermethrin used alone. An ITN mixture of CFP 100 mg/m2+alpha 25 mg/m2 was compared with CFP 100 mg/m2 and alpha 25 mg/m2 in a small-scale experimental hut trial in an area of wild An. arabiensis. The same treatments were evaluated in tunnel tests against insectary-reared pyrethroid susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Performance was measured in terms of insecticide-induced mortality, and blood-feeding inhibition. Tunnel tests showed that mixtures of CFP 100+ alpha 25 were 1.2 and 1.5 times more effective at killing susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus than either Alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP 100 (P = 0.001) ITNs. Mixtures of CFP100+ alpha 25 were 2.2 and 1.2 times more effective against resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus than either alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP100 (P = 0.003) ITNs. CFP 100+ alpha 25 produced higher levels of blood-feeding inhibition than CFP alone for susceptible (94 vs 46%, P = 0.001) and resistant (84 vs 53%, P = 0.001) strains. In experimental huts the mixture of CFP 100+ Alpha 25 killed 58% of An. arabiensis, compared with 50% for alpha and 49% for CFP, though the differences were not significant. Blood-feeding inhibition was highest in the mixture with a 76% reduction compared to the untreated net (P = 0.001). ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin should restore effective control of resistant populations of An. gambiae malaria vectors, provide protection from blood-feeding, and may have benefits for resistance management, particularly in areas with low or moderate frequency

  12. Green Synthesis of Ag and Pd Nanospheres, Nanowires, and Nanorods Using Vitamin B 2 : Catalytic Polymerisation of Aniline and Pyrrole

    DOE PAGES

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2008-01-01

    Formore » the first time, we report green chemistry approach using vitamin B 2 in the synthesis of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd), nanospheres, nanowires, and nanorods at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride ( NaBH 4 ) or hydroxylamine hydrochloride and any special capping or dispersing agent. Vitamin B 2 was used as reducing agent as well as capping agent due to its high-water solubility, biodegradability, and low-toxicity compared with other reducing agents. The average particle size of nanoprticle was found to be Ag (average size 6.1 ± 0.1 nm) and Pd (average size 4.1 ± 0.1 nm) nanoparticles in ethylene glycol and Ag (average size 5.9 ± 0.1 nm, and average size 6.1 ± 0.1) nanoparticles in acetic acid and NMP, respectively. The formation of noble multiple shape nanostructures and their self assembly were dependent on the solvent employed for the preparation. When water was used as solvent media, Ag and Pd nanoparticles started to self-assemble into rod-like structures and in isopropanol Ag and Pd nanoparticles yielded wire-like structures with a thickness in the range of 10 to 20 nm and several hundred microns in length. In acetone and acetonitrile medium, the Ag and Pd nanoparticles are self-assembled into a regular pattern making nanorod structures with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 200 nm and lengths of a few microns. The so-synthesized nanostructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and UV spectroscopy. The ensuing Ag and Pd nanoparticles catalyzed the reactions of aniline and pyrrole to generate polyaniline and polypyrrole nanofibers and may find various technological and biological applications. This single-step greener approach is general and can be extended to other noble metals and transition metal oxides.« less

  13. Structural Optimizations of Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole Derivatives for the Development of Metabolically Stable Inhibitors of Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Ching, Kuan-Chieh; Tran, Thi Ngoc Quy; Amrun, Siti Naqiah; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Ng, Lisa F P; Chai, Christina L L

    2017-04-04

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging vector-borne alphavirus, and there is no approved effective antiviral treatment currently available for CHIKV. We previously reported the discovery of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole 1b that displayed good antiviral activity against CHIKV infection in vitro. However, it has a short half-life in the presence of human liver microsomes (HLMs) (T1/2 = 2.91 min). Herein, we report further optimization studies in which potential metabolically labile sites on compound 1b were removed or modified, resulting in the identification of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole 20 and pyrrolo[2,3-d]thiazole 23c possessing up to 17-fold increase in metabolic half-lives in HLMs and good in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. Compound 20 not only attenuated viral RNA production and displayed broad-spectrum antiviral activity against other alphaviruses and CHIKV isolates but also exhibited limited cytotoxic liability (CC50 > 100 μM). These studies have identified two compounds that have the potential for further development as antiviral drugs against CHIKV infection.

  14. Sulfur-containing constituents and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative from pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] fruit.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Ma, Jinyu; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chao, Jianfei; Zhu, Qin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-12-01

    Two sulfur-containing compounds, (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-carboxy-2-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)allylthio)ethyl-amino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (1) and (S)-2-amino-5-((R)-1-(carboxymethylamino)-3-((E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)allylthio)-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (2), and one 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivative, 6-(3-(1H-pyrrole-2-carbonyloxy)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid (3), together with eighteen known phenolic compounds, were isolated from the fruits of pineapple. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. Some of these compounds showed inhibitory activities against tyrosinase. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values of compounds 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 are lower than 1 mM. These compounds may contribute to the well-known anti-browning effect of pineapple juice and be potential skin whitening agents in cosmetic applications.

  15. Electrochemiluminescent disposable cholesterol biosensor based on avidin-biotin assembling with the electroformed luminescent conducting polymer poly(luminol-biotinylated pyrrole).

    PubMed

    Ballesta-Claver, J; Ametis-Cabello, J; Morales-Sanfrutos, J; Megía-Fernández, A; Valencia-Mirón, M C; Santoyo-González, F; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2012-11-19

    An electrochemiluminescent cholesterol disposable biosensor has been prepared by the formation of assembled layers on gold screen-printed cells. The detection layer is based on the electro-formation of new luminol copolymers with different synthesized biotinylated pyrroles prepared by click-chemistry, offering a new transduction layer with new electroluminescent properties on biosensors. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) luminol copolymers are electroformed by cyclic voltammetry (five cycles) at pH 7.0 uses a10(-3)M biotinylated pyrrole-luminol ratio of 1:10 in PBS buffer. With respect to the recognition layer, cholesterol oxidase was biotinylated by incubation with biotin vinyl sulfone, and immobilized on the copolymer by avidin-biotin interaction. The analytical signal of the biosensor is the ECL enzymatic initial rate working in chronoamperometric mode at 0.5V excitation potential with 10s between pulses at pH 9.5. The disposable device offers a cholesterol linear range from 1.5×10(-5)M to 8.0×10(-4)M with a limit of detection of 1.47×10(-5)M and accuracy of 7.9% for 9.0×10(-5)M and 14.1% for 2.0×10(-4)M, (n=5). Satisfactory results were obtained for cholesterol determination in serum samples compared to a reference procedure.

  16. Crystal structure of 4-(2-azido-phen-yl)-5-benzoyl-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbo-nitrile.

    PubMed

    Vimala, G; Raja, J Kamal; Naaz, Y Amina; Preumal, P T; SubbiahPandi, A

    2015-05-01

    In the title compound, C26H16N6O, the dihedral angles between the central pyrrole ring and the pendant indole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.027 Å) and the azide-bearing benzene ring are 37.56 (8) and 51.62 (11)°, respectively. The azide group is almost coplanar with its attached benzene ring [C-C-N-N = 3.8 (3)°]. The benzoyl benzene ring is disordered over two orientations twisted with respect to each other by 9.29 (8)° in a 0.514 (2):0.486 (2) ratio. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of Np-H⋯O (p = pyrrole) hydrogen bonds generate R 2 (2)(10) loops. A second inversion dimer arises from a pair of Ni-H⋯Nc (i = indole and c = cyanide) hydrogen bonds, which generates an R 2 (2)(16) loop. Together, the hydrogen bonds lead to [011] chains in the crystal.

  17. Detection of Human IgG on Poly(pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid) Thin Film by Electrochemical-Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmanee, Rapiphun; Baba, Akira; Phanichphant, Sukon; Sriwichai, Saengrawee; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2011-01-01

    An electrochemically controlled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been developed using poly(pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid) (PP3C) film. In this work, a pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid monomer was used for electropolymerization of a PP3C film on a gold-coated high-refractive-index glass slide. In situ electrochemical (EC)-SPR spectroscopy was performed to study the kinetic property and electroactivity property of the PP3C film. Moreover, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was performed to characterize the PP3C film. Finally, the immunosensor-based PP3C film was constructed. The carboxylic acid surface of the PP3C film was activated for the immobilization of anti-human IgG. The immunosensor electrode was used for probing the binding reaction of anti-human IgG/human IgG with several concentrations of human IgG at different constant applied potentials. The probe immobilization and immunosensing process were in situ monitored by EC-SPR technique. The sensitivity of the sensor was improved by controlling the morphology of the PP3C film by applying the potential.

  18. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of a pyrrole containing arylthioindole in human Jurkat leukemia cell line and multidrug-resistant Jurkat/A4 cells

    PubMed Central

    Philchenkov, Alex A; Zavelevich, Michael P; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P; Kuiava, Ludmila M; Blokhin, Dmitry Yu; Miura, Koh; Silvestri, Romano; Pogribny, Igor P

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a series of novel arylthioindole compounds, potent inhibitors of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth, were synthesized. In the present study the effects of 2-(1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-3-((3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)thio)-1H-indole (ATI5 compound) on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and induction of apoptosis in human T-cell acute leukemia Jurkat cells and their multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 subline were investigated. Treatment of the Jurkat cells with the ATI5 compound for 48 hrs resulted in a strong G2/M cell cycle arrest and p53-independent apoptotic cell death accompanied by the induction of the active form of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage. ATI5 treatment also caused non-cell death related mitotic arrest in multidrug resistant Jurkat/A4 cells after 48 hrs of treatment suggesting promising opportunities for the further design of pyrrole-containing ATI compounds as anticancer agents. Cell death resistance of Jurkat/A4 cells to ATI5 compound was associated with alterations in the expression of pro-survival and anti-apoptotic protein-coding and microRNA genes. More importantly, findings showing that ATI5 treatment induced p53-independent apoptosis are of great importance from a therapeutic point of view since p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human neoplasms. PMID:26785947

  19. The partial reduction of electron-deficient pyrroles: procedures describing both Birch (Li/NH3) and ammonia-free (Li/DBB) conditions.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Timothy J; Thomas, Rhian E

    2007-01-01

    The partial reduction of electron-deficient pyrroles using either Birch (Li/NH(3)) or ammonia-free (Li/di-tert-butyl biphenyl) conditions allows formation of pyrroline compounds in good yield and, when combined with a reductive alkylation or similar approach, leads to highly functionalized, synthetically useful compounds. This methodology has been proven in the syntheses of several complex natural products, all of which show interesting biological activity. This protocol describes in detail the following stages of the partial reduction procedure: formation of the reducing solution, partial reduction of the pyrrole compound and finally quench of the resulting anion/dianion using either protonating agents or an aldehyde. The ammonia-free conditions described herein are particularly useful for reactions requiring the use of reactive electrophiles, such as acid chlorides or enolizable aldehydes, which are incompatible with the standard Birch reduction conditions. The reaction procedure for the ammonia Birch reduction (procedure A) takes about 9.5 h to complete. Those described for the ammonia-free reductions, procedure B and procedure C, can be expected to take approximately 33 and 8 h, respectively.

  20. Room-temperature monoclinic and low-temperature triclinic phase-transition structures of meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole-dimethyl sulfoxide (1/1).

    PubMed

    Lynch, V M; Gale, P A; Sessler, J L; Madeiros, D

    2001-12-01

    Crystals of the title complex, C28H36N4*C2H6OS, undergo a phase transition between room temperature and 198 K, as determined by X-ray diffraction techniques. A monoclinic form is observed at room temperature, while a triclinic modification is found at 198 K, with Z' changing from 1 to 2. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the calixpyrrole-dimethyl sulfoxide complex revealed a series of phase changes between 273 and 243 K. The transition from the room-temperature monoclinic form to the low-temperature triclinic form is reversible, as determined by changes in the cell dimensions from remeasuring selected reflections at room temperature and at temperatures below 223 K. The uncomplexed calix[4]pyrrole molecule shows no phase changes occurring between room temperature and 233 K, the low-temperature limit of the DSC.

  1. Discovery of 2-azetidinone and 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives containing sulfonamide group at the side chain as potential cholesterol absorption inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xinrui; Lu, Peng; Xue, Xiaojian; Qin, Hui; Fan, Chen; Wang, Yubin; Zhang, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Cholesterol absorption inhibitor (CAI) targeting Niemann-Pick C1-like1 protein was developed for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia and only ezetimibe was approved so far. For developing novel CAIs, we synthesized sixteen 2-azetidinone derivatives and thirteen 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives containing sulfonamide group at the side chain, and their inhibitory activity of cholesterol absorption was evaluated in Caco-2 cell line in vitro. Furthermore, top six compounds were measured by cytotoxicity and partition coefficient, and 2-azetidinone analogue 9e was selected for in vivo study. Finally, 9e considerably reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, FFA and triglyceride in the serum and increased the rate of HDL-C to total cholesterol, suggesting it could regulate the lipid metabolism and act as a potent CAI.

  2. Spectral, IR and magnetic studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-11-01

    Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L) derived from pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO indicates that the complexes are non-electrolyte except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 complexes which are 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except Co(L)2(NO3)2 and Ni(L)2(NO3)2 which are of tetrahedral geometry. A tetragonal geometry may be suggested for Cu(II) complexes.

  3. Sequence-specific DNA alkylation and transcriptional inhibition by long-chain hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamide-chlorambucil conjugates targeting CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeats.

    PubMed

    Asamitsu, Sefan; Kawamoto, Yusuke; Hashiya, Fumitaka; Hashiya, Kaori; Yamamoto, Makoto; Kizaki, Seiichiro; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Introducing novel building blocks to solid-phase peptide synthesis, we readily synthesized long-chain hairpin pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide-chlorambucil conjugates 3 and 4 via the introduction of an amino group into a GABA (γ-turn) contained in 3, to target CAG/CTG repeat sequences, which are associated with various hereditary disorders. A high-resolution denaturing polyacrylamide sequencing gel revealed sequence-specific alkylation both strands at the N3 of adenines or guanines in CAG/CTG repeats by conjugates 3 and 4, with 11bp recognition. In vitro transcription assays using conjugate 4 revealed that specific alkylation inhibited the progression of RNA polymerase at the alkylating sites. Chiral substitution of the γ-turn with an amino group resulted in higher binding affinity observed in SPR assays. These assays suggest that conjugates 4 with 11bp recognition has the potential to cause specific DNA damage and transcriptional inhibition at the alkylating sites.

  4. Mining of the Pyrrolamide Antibiotics Analogs in Streptomyces netropsis Reveals the Amidohydrolase-Dependent “Iterative Strategy” Underlying the Pyrrole Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zixin; Zhao, Changming; Yu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In biosynthesis of natural products, potential intermediates or analogs of a particular compound in the crude extracts are commonly overlooked in routine assays due to their low concentration, limited structural information, or because of their insignificant bio-activities. This may lead into an incomplete and even an incorrect biosynthetic pathway for the target molecule. Here we applied multiple compound mining approaches, including genome scanning and precursor ion scan-directed mass spectrometry, to identify potential pyrrolamide compounds in the fermentation culture of Streptomyces netropsis. Several novel congocidine and distamycin analogs were thus detected and characterized. A more reasonable route for the biosynthesis of pyrrolamides was proposed based on the structures of these newly discovered compounds, as well as the functional characterization of several key biosynthetic genes of pyrrolamides. Collectively, our results implied an unusual “iterative strategy” underlying the pyrrole polymerization in the biosynthesis of pyrrolamide antibiotics. PMID:24901640

  5. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of organic sensitizers incorporating a thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione moiety.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quanyou; Lu, Xuefeng; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2012-06-14

    Novel organic sensitizers containing a thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) moiety with triphenylamine or julolidine as the electron donor have been designed and synthesized for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, two organic dyes based on a terthiophene spacer have also been synthesized. The absorption, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of all sensitizers have been systematically investigated. We found that the incorporation of TPD is highly beneficial to broaden the absorption spectra of the organic sensitizers and prevent the intermolecular interaction. Therefore, the charge recombination possibility is reduced, which is revealed by the controlled intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy. A quasi-solid-state DSSC based on sensitizer FNE38 with TPD and triphenylamine moieties demonstrates a solar energy conversion efficiency of 4.71% under standard AM 1.5G sunlight without the use of coadsorbant agents.

  6. Evaluation of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole[3,2-d]pyridazinones as activators of the tumor cell specific M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-kang; Boxer, Matthew B; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Shen, Min; Skoumbourdis, Amanda P; Southall, Noel; Veith, Henrike; Leister, William; Austin, Christopher P; Park, Hee Won; Inglese, James; Cantley, Lewis C; Auld, Douglas S; Thomas, Craig J

    2010-06-01

    Cancer cells have distinct metabolic needs that are different from normal cells and can be exploited for development of anti-cancer therapeutics. Activation of the tumor specific M2 form of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) is a potential strategy for returning cancer cells to a metabolic state characteristic of normal cells. Here, we describe activators of PKM2 based upon a substituted thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole[3,2-d]pyridazinone scaffold. The synthesis of these agents, structure-activity relationships, analysis of activity at related targets (PKM1, PKR and PKL) and examination of aqueous solubility are investigated. These agents represent the second reported chemotype for activation of PKM2.

  7. Subporphyrinoid systems: a theoretical study of the effects of the diheteroatom substitution in pyrrole subunits and of the nature of the bridging meso linkages.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Tomás L; Menéndez, M Isabel

    2010-09-03

    A theoretical study of the geometry, the electronic structure, the electronic absorption spectra, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the [14]subporphine(1.1.1)-hydroxyboron(III) complex, free-base subporphyrin, and its dioxygen and dithio pyrrole substituted derivatives using CH, N, and P as bridging meso linkages was performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) theory level. The geometrical structure of these systems is mainly determined by the internal area delimited by the meso atoms and the alpha-carbon atoms of the pyrrolic rings, and by the number and nature of the atoms located on this area. All the hydroxyboron subporphyrins and dioxo and dithio subporphyrins with CH meso connectors display a conical shaped geometry. The presence of strong repulsions between the atoms on the central zone of the remaining systems provokes a correlative tilting of one of the three rings with loss of the conical shape with important consequences on spectroscopic properties. A particularly interesting case is the dioxosubporphyrin with P connectors in which the large area of the central zone determined by these connectors allows for an almost planar geometry that endows it with special features. The molecules presenting a tilted ring display weak absorption bands. Generally, the intensity of the bands moderately increases when the geometry is cone shaped. The dioxo heterosubporphyrins with CH (conical shape) and P (almost planar) connectors present strong absorption bands. (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts clearly reflect the effect of geometry distortion provoked by the repulsion among the atoms of the central area of the system indicating a deep perturbation of the pi system of the molecules.

  8. Amperometric cholesterol biosensors based on the electropolymerization of pyrrole and aniline in sulphuric Acid for the determination of cholesterol in serum.

    PubMed

    Muhammet, Sinan M; Cete, Servet; Arslan, Fatma; Yaşar, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    A new amperometric cholesterol biosensor was prepared by immobilizing cholesterol oxidase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on polypyrrole-polyaniline (ppy-pani) composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. In order to prepare a biosensor for the determination of cholesterol, electropolymerization of pyrrole and aniline on Pt surface was performed with an electrochemical cell containing pyrrole and aniline in sulphuric acid by cyclic voltammetry between 0.0 and 0,7 V (vs.Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 50 mV upon Pt electrode. The amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H(2)O(2), which is generated in enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. The cholesterol determined by the oxidation of enzymatically generated H(2)O(2) at 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The optimized cholesterol oxidase biosensor displayed linear working range and a response time of 300 s. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 7.0, 25 degrees C, respectively. In addition to this, the stability and reproducibility of biosensor were tried. Operational stability of the proposed cholesterol biosensor was obtained by periodical measurements of the biosensor response. Biosensor at optimum activity conditions was used in 30 activity assays in one day to determine the operational stability. The results show that 82% of the response current was retained after 30 activity assays. The electrode was stored in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C after the measurements. The storage stability of the biosensor was determined by performing activity assays within 23 days. The results demonstrate that 60% of the response current was retained after 23 days. Preparing biosensor is used for the analysis of cholesterol in serum.

  9. A Readily Accessible Chiral NNN Pincer Ligand with a Pyrrole Backbone and Its Ni(II) Chemistry: Syntheses, Structural Chemistry, and Bond Activations.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Jan; Kochan, Alexander; Wadepohl, Hubert; Gade, Lutz H

    2017-03-20

    A new class of chiral C2-symmetric N-donor pincer ligands, 2,5-bis(2-oxazolinyldimethylmethyl)pyrroles (PdmBox)H, was synthesized starting from the readily available ethyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-oxobutanoate (1). The synthesis of the ligand backbone was achieved by oxidative enole coupling with CuC12 followed by Paal-Knorr-type pyrrole synthesis. The corresponding protioligands ((R)PdmBox)H (R = iPr: 5a; Ph: 5b) were obtained by condensation with amino alcohols and subsequent zinc-catalyzed cyclization. Reaction of the lithiated ligands with [NiCl2(dme)] yielded the corresponding square-planar nickel(II) complexes [((R)PdmBox)NiCl] (6a/b). Salt metathesis of 6a with the corresponding alkali or cesium salts in acetone led to the formation of air- and moisture-stable [((iPr)PdmBox)NiX] (X = F (7), X = Br (8), X = I (9), X = N3 (10), X = OAc (11). Furthermore, the conversion of [((iPr)PdmBox)NiF] (7) with hydride transfer reagents such as PhSiH3 led to the stable hydrido species [((iPr)PdmBox)NiH] (27), the stoichiometric transformations of which were studied. Treatment of 6a with organometallic reagents such as ZnEt2, PhLi, PhC≡CLi, NsLi, or ((4F)Bn)2Mg(THF)2 gave the corresponding alkyl, alkynyl, or aryl complexes. The availability of the new nonisomerizable PdmBox pincer ligands allowed the comparative study of their ligation to square-planar complexes as helically twisted spectator ligands as opposed to the enforced planar rigidity of their iso-PmBox analogues and the way this influences the reactivity of the Ni complexes.

  10. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) for magnetic solid-phase extraction of pyrazole/pyrrole pesticides in environmental water samples followed by HPLC-DAD determination.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiping; Yao, Zhidan; Hou, Liwei; Lu, Wenhui; Yang, Qipeng; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, [MIL-101]) were prepared and used as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbents for preconcentration of four kinds of pyrazole/pyrrole pesticides (flusilazole, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, and fenpyroximate) in environmental water samples, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) determination. Several variables affecting MSPE efficiency were systematically investigated, including amount of MIL-101, extraction time, sample pH, salt concentration, type of desorption solvent and desorption number of times. Under optimized conditions, excellent linearity was achieved in the range of 5.0-200.0μg/L for flusilazole and fipronil, and 2.0-200.0μg/L for chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate, with correlation coefficients r>0.9911. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.3-1.5μg/L and 1.0-5.0μg/L, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation, n=6, %) at three spiked levels were 1.1-5.4% and 3.9-7.8% in terms of peak area, respectively. The method recoveries at three fortified concentration levels ranged from 81.8% to 107.5% for reservoir water samples, 81.0-99.5% for river water samples, and 80.2-106.5% for seawater samples. The developed MOFs based MSPE coupled with HPLC method proved to be a convenient, rapid and eco-friendly alternative to the sensitive determination of pyrazole/pyrrole pesticides with high repeatability and excellent practical applicability.

  11. Facile and Promising Method for Michael Addition of Indole and Pyrrole to Electron-Deficient trans-β-Nitroolefins Catalyzed by a Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalyst Feist's Acid and Preliminary Study of Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al Majid, Abdullah M. A.; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H. M.; Naushad, Mu.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperative hydrogen-bonding effects has been demonstrated using novel 3-methylenecyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (Feist's acid (FA)) as hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the addition of indole and pyrrole to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. Because of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability, Feist's acid (FA) has been introduced as a new class of hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the activation of nitroolefin towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. It has effectively catalyzed the Michael addition of indoles and pyrrole to β-nitroolefins under optimum reaction condition to furnish the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields (up to 98%). The method is general, atom-economical, convenient, and eco-friendly and could provide excellent yields and regioselectivities. Some newly synthesized compounds were for examined in vitro antimicrobial activity and their preliminary results are reported. PMID:24574906

  12. Facile and promising method for michael addition of indole and pyrrole to electron-deficient trans-β-nitroolefins catalyzed by a hydrogen bond donor catalyst Feist's acid and preliminary study of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Al Majid, Abdullah M A; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H M; Naushad, Mu

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperative hydrogen-bonding effects has been demonstrated using novel 3-methylenecyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (Feist's acid (FA)) as hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the addition of indole and pyrrole to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. Because of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability, Feist's acid (FA) has been introduced as a new class of hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the activation of nitroolefin towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. It has effectively catalyzed the Michael addition of indoles and pyrrole to β-nitroolefins under optimum reaction condition to furnish the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields (up to 98%). The method is general, atom-economical, convenient, and eco-friendly and could provide excellent yields and regioselectivities. Some newly synthesized compounds were for examined in vitro antimicrobial activity and their preliminary results are reported.

  13. Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Iqbal; Patel, Ramesh

    2006-02-01

    An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%.

  14. Thieno[3,2-b]- and thieno[2,3-b]pyrrole bioisosteric analogues of the hallucinogen and serotonin agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    PubMed

    Blair, J B; Marona-Lewicka, D; Kanthasamy, A; Lucaites, V L; Nelson, D L; Nichols, D E

    1999-03-25

    The synthesis and biological activity of 6-[2-(N, N-dimethylamino)ethyl]-4H-thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole (3a) and 4-[2-(N, N-dimethylamino)ethyl]-6H-thieno[2,3-b]pyrrole (3b), thienopyrroles as potential bioisosteres of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (1a), are reported. Hallucinogen-like activity was evaluated in the two-lever drug discrimination paradigm using LSD- and DOI-trained rats. Neither 3a nor 3b substituted for LSD or DOI up to doses of 50 micromol/kg. By comparison, 1a fully substituted in LSD-trained rats. However, 3a and 3b fully substituted for the 5-HT1A agonist LY293284 ((-)-(4R)-6-acetyl-4-(di-n-propylamino)-1,3,4, 5-tetrahydrobenz[c,d]indole). Both 3a and 3b induced a brief "serotonin syndrome" and salivation, an indication of 5-HT1A receptor activation. At the cloned human 5-HT2A receptor 3b had about twice the affinity of 3a. At the cloned human 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors, however, 3a had about twice the affinity of 3b. Therefore, thiophene lacks equivalence as a replacement for the phenyl ring in the indole nucleus of tryptamines that bind to 5-HT2 receptor subtypes and possess LSD-like behavioral effects. Whereas both of the thienopyrroles had lower affinity than the corresponding 1a at 5-HT2 receptors, 3a and 3b had significantly greater affinity than 1a at the 5-HT1A receptor. Thus, thienopyrrole does appear to serve as a potent bioisostere for the indole nucleus in compounds that bind to the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor. These differences in biological activity suggest that serotonin receptor isoforms are very sensitive to subtle changes in the electronic character of the aromatic systems of indole compounds.

  15. Evaluation of indoor residual spraying with the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr against pyrethroid-susceptible Anopheles arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Oxborough, R M; Kitau, J; Matowo, J; Mndeme, R; Feston, E; Boko, P; Odjo, A; Metonnou, C G; Irish, S; N'guessan, R; Mosha, F W; Rowland, M W

    2010-10-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide with a unique non-neurological mode of action. Laboratory bioassays of chlorfenapyr comparing the mortality of pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes indicated that operational cross-resistance is unlikely to occur (resistance ratio ranged between 0 and 2.1). Three trials of chlorfenapyr indoor residual spraying were undertaken in experimental huts in an area of rice irrigation in northern Tanzania that supports breeding of A. arabiensis. Daily mosquito collections were undertaken to assess product performance primarily in terms of mortality. In the second trial, 250mg/m(2) and 500mg/m(2) chlorfenapyr were tested for residual efficacy over 6 months. Both dosages killed 54% of C. quinquefasciatus, whilst for A. arabiensis 250mg/m(2) killed 48% compared with 41% for 500mg/m(2); mortality was as high at the end of the trial as at the beginning. In the third trial, 250mg/m(2) chlorfenapyr was compared with the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin dosed at 30mg/m(2). Chlorfenapyr performance was equivalent to the pyrethroid against A. arabiensis, with both insecticides killing 50% of mosquitoes. Chlorfenapyr killed a significantly higher proportion of pyrethroid-resistant C. quinquefasciatus (56%) compared with alpha-cypermethrin (17%). Chlorfenapyr has the potential to be an important addition to the limited arsenal of public health insecticides for indoor residual control of A. arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant species of mosquito.

  16. Synthesis, characterisation and electrical properties of supramolecular DNA-templated polymer nanowires of 2,5-(bis-2-thienyl)-pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Watson, Scott M D; Hedley, Joseph H; Galindo, Miguel A; Al-Said, Said A F; Wright, Nick G; Connolly, Bernard A; Horrocks, Benjamin R; Houlton, Andrew

    2012-09-17

    Supramolecular polymer nanowires have been prepared by using DNA-templating of 2,5-(bis-2-thienyl)-pyrrole (TPT) by oxidation with FeCl(3) in a mixed aqueous/organic solvent system. Despite the reduced capacity for strong hydrogen bonding in polyTPT compared to other systems, such as polypyrrole, the templating proceeds well. FTIR spectroscopic studies confirm that the resulting material is not a simple mixture and that the two types of polymer interact. This is indicated by shifts in bands associated with both the phosphodiester backbone and the nucleobases. XPS studies further confirm the presence of DNA and TPT, as well as dopant Cl(-) ions. Molecular dynamics simulations on a [{dA(24):dT(24)}/{TPT}(4)] model support these findings and indicate a non-coplanar conformation for oligoTPT over much of the trajectory. AFM studies show that the resulting nanowires typically lie in the 7-8 nm diameter range and exhibit a smooth, continuous, morphology. Studies on the electrical properties of the prepared nanowires by using a combination of scanned conductance microscopy, conductive AFM and variable temperature two-terminal I-V measurements show, that in contrast to similar DNA/polymer systems, the conductivity is markedly reduced compared to bulk material. The temperature dependence of the conductivity shows a simple Arrhenius behaviour consistent with the hopping models developed for redox polymers.

  17. Fe nanoparticle tailored poly(N-methyl pyrrole) nanowire matrix: a CHEMFET study from the perspective of discrimination among electron donating analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, K.; Ghosh, P.; Rushi, A.; Mulchandani, A.; Shirsat, M.

    2015-03-01

    Back-gated chemically sensitive field effect transistor (CHEMFET) platforms have been developed with electrochemically synthesized poly(N-methyl pyrrole) nanowires by a templateless route. The nanowire matrix has been tailored with Fe nanoparticles to probe their effect in enhancing the sensing capabilities of the nanowire platform, and further to see if the inculcation of Fe nanoparticles is helpful to enhance the screening capability of the sensor among electron donating analytes. A noticeable difference in the sensing behaviour of the CHEMFET sensor was observed when it was exposed to three different analytes—ammonia, phosphine and carbon monoxide. FET transfer characteristics were instrumental in the corroboration of the experimental validations. The observations have been rationalized considering the simultaneous modulation of the work functions of Fe and polymeric material. The real time behaviour of the sensor shows that the sensor platform is readily capable of sensing the validated analytes at a ppb level of concentration with good response and recovery behaviour. The best response could be observed for ammonia with an Fe nanoparticle tailored polymeric matrix, with a sensitivity of ~31.58% and excellent linearity (R2 = 0.985) in a concentration window of 0.05 ppm to 1 ppm.

  18. Combined 3D-QSAR modeling and molecular docking studies on pyrrole-indolin-2-ones as Aurora A kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yong; Wang, Shao-Teng; Sun, Ping-Hua; Song, Fa-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Aurora kinases have emerged as attractive targets for the design of anticancer drugs. 3D-QSAR (comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA)) and Surflex-docking studies were performed on a series of pyrrole-indoline-2-ones as Aurora A inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models using 25 inhibitors in the training set gave r(2) (cv) values of 0.726 and 0.566, and r(2) values of 0.972 and 0.984, respectively. The adapted alignment method with the suitable parameters resulted in reliable models. The contour maps produced by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models were employed to rationalize the key structural requirements responsible for the activity. Surflex-docking studies revealed that the sulfo group, secondary amine group on indolin-2-one, and carbonyl of 6,7-dihydro-1H-indol-4(5H)-one groups were significant for binding to the receptor, and some essential features were also identified. Based on the 3D-QSAR and docking results, a set of new molecules with high predicted activities were designed.

  19. Binding, Electrochemical Activation and Cleavage of DNA by Cobalt(II)tetrakis-N-Methylpyridyl Porphyrin and its β-Pyrrole Brominated Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Yellappa, Shivaraj; Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Rogers, Lisa M.; Chitta, Raghu; Singhal, Ram P.; D’Souza, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The binding of nucleic acids by water soluble cobalt(II) tetrakis-N-methylpyridyl porphyrin, (TMPyP)Co and its highly electron deficient derivative, cobalt(II) tetrakis-N-methyl pyridyl-β-octabromoporphyrin, (Br8TMPyP)Co was investigated by UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism (CD), electrochemical and gel electrophoresis methods. The changes of the absorption spectra during the titration of these complexes with polynucleotides revealed a shift in the absorption maxima and a hypochromicity of the porphyrin Soret bands. The intrinsic binding constants were found to be in the range of 105 – 106 M−1. These values were higher for more electron deficient (Br8TMPyP)Co. Induced CD bands were noticed in the Soret region of the complexes due to the interaction of these complexes with different polynucleotides and an analysis of the CD spectra supported mainly external mode of binding. Electrochemical studies revealed the cleavage of polynucleotide by (TMPyP)Co and (Br8TMPyP)Co in the presence of oxygen preferentially at the A-T base pair region. Gel electrophoresis experiments further supported the cleavage of nucleic acids. The results indicate that the β-pyrrole brominated porphyrin, (Br8TMPyP)Co binds strongly and cleaves nucleic acids efficiently as compared to (TMPyP)Co. This electrolytic procedure offers a unique tool in biotechnology for cleaving double-stranded DNA with specificity at the A-T regions. PMID:17105219

  20. Design, spectral characterization, DFT and biological studies of transition metal complexes of Schiff base derived from 2-aminobenzamide, pyrrole and furan aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B S; Sharma, Deepansh

    2015-05-15

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L(1), L(2) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 2-aminobenzamide with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde and furan-2-carboxaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 2:1. The characterization of newly formed complexes was done by (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrophotometry, EPR and molar conductivity studies. The thermal studies suggested that the complexes are more stable as compared to ligand. In DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for Cu(II) complexes. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antimicrobial activities, against four bacterial strains and two fungal strains by using serial dilution method. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  1. Design, spectral characterization, DFT and biological studies of transition metal complexes of Schiff base derived from 2-aminobenzamide, pyrrole and furan aldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B. S.; Sharma, Deepansh

    2015-05-01

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L1, L2 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 2-aminobenzamide with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde and furan-2-carboxaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 2:1. The characterization of newly formed complexes was done by 1H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrophotometry, EPR and molar conductivity studies. The thermal studies suggested that the complexes are more stable as compared to ligand. In DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for Cu(II) complexes. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antimicrobial activities, against four bacterial strains and two fungal strains by using serial dilution method. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  2. Mimicking Trimeric Interactions in the Aromatic Side Chains of the Proteins: a Gas Phase Study of INDOLE...(PYRROLE)_2 Heterotrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Aloke; Kumar, Sumit

    2012-06-01

    Aromatic trimeric interactions are extremely important in the stabilization of the specific structures of the proteins as well as protein-protein, and protein-ligand interactions. Here I will present a direct evidence of the observation of a cyclic asymmetric structure of indole...(pyrrole)_2 trimer bound by three N-H...π hydrogen bonding interactions in a supersonic jet. The experiment has been performed by using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), IR-UV, and UV-UV double resonance spectroscopic techniques. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations nicely corroborate the experimental results showing one weakly allowed IR-active band due to symmetric stretch of the N-H bonds and two strongly allowed IR-active bands due to two types of asymmetric stretches of the N-H bonds in the trimer. The most significant finding of the present investigation is that there is a direct IR spectral signature for the determination of the geometry of a trimer if it has a cyclic asymmetric structure.

  3. FT-IR, Laser-Raman spectra and quantum chemical calculations of methyl 4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate-A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; Sreenivasa, S.; Doğan, H.; Manojkumar, K. E.; Suchetan, P. A.; Ucun, Fatih

    2014-06-01

    In this study the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory agent namely, methyl 4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100 cm-1) of the molecule in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr and DFT/M06-2X: highly parameterized, empirical exchange correlation function) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated using the same theoretical calculations.

  4. FT-IR, Laser-Raman spectra and quantum chemical calculations of methyl 4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate-A DFT approach.

    PubMed

    Sert, Yusuf; Sreenivasa, S; Doğan, H; Manojkumar, K E; Suchetan, P A; Ucun, Fatih

    2014-06-05

    In this study the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory agent namely, methyl 4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400cm(-1)) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100cm(-1)) of the molecule in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr and DFT/M06-2X: highly parameterized, empirical exchange correlation function) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated using the same theoretical calculations.

  5. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization on 4-(2,5-di-2-thienyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl) benzoic acid: A DFT approach.

    PubMed

    Kurt, M; Sas, E Babur; Can, M; Okur, S; Icli, S; Demic, S; Karabacak, M; Jayavarthanan, T; Sundaraganesan, N

    2016-01-05

    A complete structural and vibrational analysis of the 4-(2,5-di-2-thienyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl) benzoic acid (TPBA), was carried out by ab initio calculations, at the density functional theory (DFT) method. Molecular geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) (13)C NMR and (1)H NMR chemical shift values of (TPBA), in the ground state have been calculated by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311G(d,p) as basis set for the first time. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational modes of (TPBA) and calculated results by DFT/B3LYP method indicates that B3LYP level of theory giving yield good results for quantum chemical studies. Vibrational wavenumbers obtained by the DFT/B3LYP method are in good agreement with the experimental data. The study was complemented with a natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, to evaluate the significance of hyperconjugative interactions and electrostatic effects on such molecular structure. By using TD-DFT method, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with the TD-DFT method and the experimental one is determined. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals analysis and thermodynamic properties of TPBA were investigated using theoretical calculations.

  6. Dendrimer Templated Synthesis of One Nanometer Rh and Pt Particles Supported on Mesoporous Silica: Catalytic Activity for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wenyu; Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Zhang, Yawen; Habas, Susan E.; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-05-09

    Monodisperse rhodium (Rh) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles as small as {approx}1 nm were synthesized within a fourth generation polyaminoamide (PAMAM) dendrimer, a hyperbranched polymer, in aqueous solution and immobilized by depositing onto a high-surface-area SBA-15 mesoporous support. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the as-synthesized Rh and Pt nanoparticles were mostly oxidized. Catalytic activity of the SBA-15 supported Rh and Pt nanoparticles was studied with ethylene hydrogenation at 273 and 293 K in 10 torr of ethylene and 100 torr of H{sub 2} after reduction (76 torr of H{sub 2} mixed with 690 torr of He) at different temperatures. Catalysts were active without removing the dendrimer capping but reached their highest activity after hydrogen reduction at a moderate temperature (423 K). When treated at a higher temperature (473, 573, and 673 K) in hydrogen, catalytic activity decreased. By using the same treatment that led to maximum ethylene hydrogenation activity, catalytic activity was also evaluated for pyrrole hydrogenation.

  7. Highly stable water dispersible calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide protected gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensors for selective signaling of Co(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Keyur D.; Vyas, Disha J.; Makwana, Bharat A.; Darjee, Savan M.; Jain, Vinod K.

    2014-03-01

    Water dispersible stable gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been synthesized by using calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide (CPOH) as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. CPOH-AuNps have been characterized by surface plasmon resonance, particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. CPOH-AuNps are water dispersible, highly stable for more than 150 days at neutral pH with a size of less than 10 nm and zeta potential of 15 ± 2 MeV. Ion sensing property of CPOH-AuNps has been investigated for various metal ions Pb(II), Cd(II), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) by colorimetry and spectrofluorimetry. Among all the metal ions investigated, only Co(II) ions gives sharp colour change from ruby red to blue and is easily detectable by naked-eye. CPOH-AuNps being fluorescent in nature also shows great sensitivity and selectivity for Co(II) ions. Co(II) ions can be selectively detected at very low concentration level of 1 nM in a facile way of fluorescence quenching.

  8. Enhancing activity and selectivity in a series of pyrrol-1-yl-1-hydroxypyrazole-based aldose reductase inhibitors: The case of trifluoroacetylation.

    PubMed

    Papastavrou, Nikolaos; Chatzopoulou, Maria; Ballekova, Jana; Cappiello, Mario; Moschini, Roberta; Balestri, Francesco; Patsilinakos, Alexandros; Ragno, Rino; Stefek, Milan; Nicolaou, Ioannis

    2017-04-21

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) has been the target of therapeutic intervention for over 40 years; first, for its role in long-term diabetic complications and more recently as a key mediator in inflammation and cancer. However, efforts to prepare small-molecule aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have mostly yielded carboxylic acids with rather poor pharmacokinetics. To address this limitation, the 1-hydroxypyrazole moiety has been previously established as a bioisostere of acetic acid in a group of aroyl-substituted pyrrolyl derivatives. In the present work, optimization of this new class of ARIs was achieved by the addition of a trifluoroacetyl group on the pyrrole ring. Eight novel compounds were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and selectivity against aldehyde reductase (ALR1). All compounds proved potent and selective inhibitors of ALR2 (IC50/ALR2 = 0.043-0.242 μΜ, Selectivity index = 190-858), whilst retaining a favorable physicochemical profile. The most active (4g) and selective (4d) compounds were further evaluated for their ability to inhibit sorbitol formation in rat lenses ex vivo and to exhibit substrate-specific inhibition.

  9. Polymerizing Pyrrole Coated Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) Conductive Nanofibrous Conduit Combined with Electric Stimulation for Long-Range Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jialin; Sun, Binbin; Liu, Shen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yuanzheng; Wang, Chunyang; Mo, Xiumei; Che, Junyi; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning and electric stimulation (ES) are both promising methods to support neuron adhesion and guide extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, all studies focus on either electrospinning for conduits material or ES in vitro study to accelerate nerve regeneration; few work on the combined use of these two strategies or ES in vivo study. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the abilities of direct current ES through electrospinning conductive polymer composites composed of polypyrrole and Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PPY/PLCL) in peripheral nerve regeneration. PPY/PLCL composite conduits were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole coated electrospun PLCL scaffolds. Morphologies and chemical compositions were characterized by scanning electron microscope and attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) microscope. Rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells cultured on PPY/PLCL scaffolds were stimulated with 100 mV/cm for 4 h per day. The median neurite length and cell viability were measured in PC-12 cells. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were analyzed in DRG cells. In rats, 15 mm gaps of sciatic nerves were bridged using an autograft, non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit and PPY/PLCL conduit stimulated with 100 mV potential, respectively. A 100 mV potential direct current ES was applied for 1 h per day at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-implantation. The PPY/PLCL conduits with ES showed a similar performance compared with the autograft group, and significantly better than the non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit group. These promising results show that the PPY/PLCL conductive conduits’ combined use with ES has great potential for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27877111

  10. Morphological and physicochemical properties of dip-coated poly {(2,5-diyl pyrrole) [4-nitrobenzylidène]} (PPNB) thin films: towards photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchaal, Younes; Gherrass, Hamou; Bendoukha Reguig, Abdelkarim; Hachemaoui, Aïcha; Yahiaoui, Ahmed; Makha, Mohamed; Khelil, Abdelbacet; Bernede, Jean-Christian

    2015-02-01

    A new material: conjugated poly {(2,5-diyl pyrrole) [4-nitrobenzylidène]}, that we called (PPNB), has been synthesized and characterized. The cyclic voltammetry has been used in order to estimate first oxidation (Ep) and reduction (En) potentials of our polymer. These values have been assigned, respectively, to the position of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and determination of the energy band gap which have been estimated to be 6.16, 3.89 and 2.27 eV respectively. Energy levels values of the HOMO and LUMO of the PPNB polymeric donor material were evaluated and the results are compatible with an electron transfer to C60 within an eventual junction, such values show that PPNB could be probed for applications in organic solar cells as donor material. PPNB Thin films have been deposited by dip-coating technique from Dichloromethane solvent with different polymer concentrations, and a dipping speed of 3.0 cm/min. For morphological characterization of the films scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out. The samples, when observed by SEM, reveals that the films deposited are less dense, uniform. Cross-sectional SEM micrographs PPNB films show that thickness of the layers is homogeneous and has value of 35-40 nm. Optical characteristics of the polymer thin films were studied using UV-vis spectroscopy; absorption of wide range of wavelengths from 350 to 700 nm was observed. The optical band gap energy ranges between 1.9 eV and 1.94 eV. Based on these analyzes we realized heterojunction organic solar cells with the structure: ITO/Au/PPNB/C60/BCP/Al, the cells had a photovoltaique effect after J-V measuring, however the efficiency of photo generation under AM1.5 illumination was weak (about 0.02%) and needs to be improved.

  11. Polymerizing Pyrrole Coated Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) Conductive Nanofibrous Conduit Combined with Electric Stimulation for Long-Range Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Song, Jialin; Sun, Binbin; Liu, Shen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yuanzheng; Wang, Chunyang; Mo, Xiumei; Che, Junyi; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning and electric stimulation (ES) are both promising methods to support neuron adhesion and guide extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, all studies focus on either electrospinning for conduits material or ES in vitro study to accelerate nerve regeneration; few work on the combined use of these two strategies or ES in vivo study. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the abilities of direct current ES through electrospinning conductive polymer composites composed of polypyrrole and Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PPY/PLCL) in peripheral nerve regeneration. PPY/PLCL composite conduits were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole coated electrospun PLCL scaffolds. Morphologies and chemical compositions were characterized by scanning electron microscope and attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) microscope. Rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells cultured on PPY/PLCL scaffolds were stimulated with 100 mV/cm for 4 h per day. The median neurite length and cell viability were measured in PC-12 cells. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were analyzed in DRG cells. In rats, 15 mm gaps of sciatic nerves were bridged using an autograft, non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit and PPY/PLCL conduit stimulated with 100 mV potential, respectively. A 100 mV potential direct current ES was applied for 1 h per day at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-implantation. The PPY/PLCL conduits with ES showed a similar performance compared with the autograft group, and significantly better than the non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit group. These promising results show that the PPY/PLCL conductive conduits' combined use with ES has great potential for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  12. Preclinical Study of Novel Gene Silencer Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide Targeting Human TGF-β1 Promoter for Hypertrophic Scars in a Common Marmoset Primate Model.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Jun; Fukuda, Noboru; Inoue, Takashi; Nakai, Shigeki; Saito, Kosuke; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Itoh, Toshio; Soma, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report a preclinical study of a pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide that targets the human transforming growth factor (hTGF)-β1 gene as a novel transcriptional gene silencer in a common marmoset primate model. We designed and then synthesized PI polyamides to target the hTGF-β1 promoter. We examined effects of seven PI polyamides (GB1101-1107) on the expression of hTGF-β1 mRNA stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in human vascular smooth muscle cells. GB1101, GB1105 and GB1106 significantly inhibited hTGF-β1 mRNA expression. We examined GB1101 as a PI polyamide to hTGF-β1 for hypertrophic scars in marmosets in vivo. Injection of GB1101 completely inhibited hypertrophic scar formation at 35 days post-incision and inhibited cellular infiltration, TGF-β1 and vimentin staining, and epidermal thickness. Mismatch polyamide did not affect hypertrophic scarring or histological changes. Epidermis was significantly thinner with GB1101 than with water and mismatch PI polyamides. We developed the PI polyamides for practical ointment medicines for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. FITC-labeled GB1101 with solbase most efficiently distributed in the nuclei of epidermal keratinocytes, completely suppressed hypertropic scarring at 42 days after incision, and considerably inhibited epidermal thickness and vimentin-positive fibroblasts. PI polyamides targeting hTGF-β1 promoter with solbase ointment will be practical medicines for treating hypertrophic scars after surgical operations and skin burns.

  13. Preclinical Study of Novel Gene Silencer Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide Targeting Human TGF-β1 Promoter for Hypertrophic Scars in a Common Marmoset Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Jun; Fukuda, Noboru; Inoue, Takashi; Nakai, Shigeki; Saito, Kosuke; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Itoh, Toshio; Soma, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report a preclinical study of a pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide that targets the human transforming growth factor (hTGF)-β1 gene as a novel transcriptional gene silencer in a common marmoset primate model. We designed and then synthesized PI polyamides to target the hTGF-β1 promoter. We examined effects of seven PI polyamides (GB1101-1107) on the expression of hTGF-β1 mRNA stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in human vascular smooth muscle cells. GB1101, GB1105 and GB1106 significantly inhibited hTGF-β1 mRNA expression. We examined GB1101 as a PI polyamide to hTGF-β1 for hypertrophic scars in marmosets in vivo. Injection of GB1101 completely inhibited hypertrophic scar formation at 35 days post-incision and inhibited cellular infiltration, TGF-β1 and vimentin staining, and epidermal thickness. Mismatch polyamide did not affect hypertrophic scarring or histological changes. Epidermis was significantly thinner with GB1101 than with water and mismatch PI polyamides. We developed the PI polyamides for practical ointment medicines for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. FITC-labeled GB1101 with solbase most efficiently distributed in the nuclei of epidermal keratinocytes, completely suppressed hypertropic scarring at 42 days after incision, and considerably inhibited epidermal thickness and vimentin-positive fibroblasts. PI polyamides targeting hTGF-β1 promoter with solbase ointment will be practical medicines for treating hypertrophic scars after surgical operations and skin burns. PMID:25938472

  14. Marked Consequences of Systematic Oligothiophene Catenation in Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione and Bithiopheneimide Photovoltaic Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nanjia; Guo, Xugang; Ponce Ortiz, Rocio; Harschneck, Tobias; Manley, Eric F.; Lou, Sylvia J.; Hartnett, Patrick E.; Yu, Xinge; Horwitz, Noah E.; Mayorga Burrezo, Paula; Aldrich, Thomas J.; Lopez Navarrete, Juan T.; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Chen, Lin X.; Chang, Robert P. H.; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.

    2015-10-07

    As effective building blocks for high-mobility transistor polymers, oligothiophenes are receiving attention for polymer solar cells (PSCs) because the resulting polymers can effectively suppress charge recombination. Here we investigate two series of in-chain donor-acceptor copolymers, PTPDnT and PBTInT, based on thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) or bithiopheneimide (BTI) as electron acceptor units, respectively, and oligothiophenes (nTs) as donor counits, for high-performance PSCs. Intramolecular S···O interaction leads to more planar TPD polymer backbones, however backbone torsion yields greater open-circuit voltages for BTI polymers. Thiophene addition progressively raises polymer HOMOs but marginally affects their band gaps. FT-Raman spectra indicate that PTPDnT and PBTInT conjugation lengths scale with nT catenation up to n = 3 and then saturate for longer oligomer. Furthermore, the effects of oligothiophene alkylation position are explored, revealing that the alkylation pattern greatly affects film morphology and PSC performance. The 3T with “outward” alkylation in PTPD3T and PBTI3T affords optimal π-conjugation, close stacking, long-range order, and high hole mobilities (0.1 cm2/(V s)). These characteristics contribute to the exceptional ~80% fill factors for PTPD3T-based PSCs with PCE = 7.7%. The results demonstrate that 3T is the optimal donor unit among nTs (n = 1-4) for photovoltaic polymers. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements reveal that the terthiophene-based PTPD3T blend maintains high crystallinity with appreciable local mobility and long charge carrier lifetime. These results provide fundamental materials structure-device performance correlations and suggest guidelines for designing oligothiophene-based polymers with optimal thiophene catenation and appropriate alkylation pattern to maximize PSC performance.

  15. Thermodynamic characterization of halide-π interactions in solution using "two-wall" aryl extended calix[4]pyrroles as model system.

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Louis; Gil-Ramírez, Guzmán; Frontera, Antonio; Quiñonero, David; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Ballester, Pablo

    2014-02-26

    Herein, we report our latest experimental investigations of halide-π interactions in solution. We base this research on the thermodynamic characterization of a series of 1:1 complexes formed between halides (Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-)) and several α,α-isomers of "two-wall" calix[4]pyrrole receptors bearing two six-membered aromatic rings in opposed meso positions. The installed aromatic systems feature a broad range of electron density as indicated by the calculated values for their electrostatic surface potentials at the center of the rings. We show that a correlation exists between the electronic nature of the aromatic walls and the thermodynamic stability of the X(-)⊂receptor complexes. We give evidence for the existence of both repulsive and attractive interactions between π systems and halide anions in solution (between 1 and -1 kcal/mol). We dissect the measured free energies of binding for chloride and bromide with the receptor series into their enthalpic and entropic thermodynamic quantities. In acetonitrile solution, the binding enthalpy values remain almost constant throughout the receptor series, and the differences in free energies are provoked exclusively by changes in the entropic term of the binding processes. Most likely, this unexpected behavior is owed to strong solvation effects that make up important components of the measured magnitudes for the enthalpies and entropies of binding. The use of chloroform, a much less polar solvent, limits the impact of solvation effects revealing the expected existence of a parallel trend between free energies and enthalpies of binding. This result indicates that halide-π interactions in organic solvents are mainly driven by enthalpy. However, the typical paradigm of enthalpy-entropy compensation is still not observed in this less polar solvent.

  16. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Michael/Friedel-Crafts Cascade Reaction of 3-Pyrrolyl-oxindoles and α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes for the Construction of Chiral Spiro[5,6-dihydropyrido[1,2-a]pyrrole-3,3'-oxindoles].

    PubMed

    You, Yong; Cui, Bao-Dong; Zhou, Ming-Qiang; Zuo, Jian; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Yuan, Wei-Cheng

    2015-06-05

    An efficient and unprecedented organocatalytic asymmetric reaction of 3-pyrrolyl-oxindoles with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to generate spirocyclic oxindole compounds was developed. The reactions were catalyzed by diphenylprolinol silyl ether and 2-fluorobenzoic acid via an asymmetric Michael/Friedel-Crafts cascade process, followed by dehydration with p-toluenesulfonic acid to afford a wide variety of structurally diverse spiro[5,6-dihydropyrido[1,2-a]pyrrole-3,3'-oxindole] derivatives in high yields (up to 93%) and with high to excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to >99:1 dr and 97% ee).

  17. A dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole based, NIR absorbing, solution processable, small molecule donor for efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Busireddy, Manohar Reddy; Raju Mantena, Venkata Niladri; Chereddy, Narendra Reddy; Shanigaram, Balaiah; Kotamarthi, Bhanuprakash; Biswas, Subhayan; Sharma, Ganesh Datt; Vaidya, Jayathirtha Rao

    2016-11-30

    A novel, NIR absorbing organic small molecular donor material denoted as ICT3 with an A-D-D-D-A architecture having dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP) and butylrhodanine as donor and acceptor moieties, respectively, is synthesized and its thermal, photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties are explored. ICT3 has excellent stability over a broad range of temperatures with a decomposition temperature (Td corresponds to 5% weight loss) of 372 °C, soluble in most common organic solvents (solubility up to 30 mg mL(-1)) and suitable for solution processing during device fabrication. ICT3 has broad (520-820 nm) and intense visible region absorption (molar excitation coefficient is 1.69 × 10(5) mol(-1) cm(-1)) and has suitable HOMO and LUMO energy levels with the [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor for efficient exciton dissociation and charge transfer. Bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJSCs) with an indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/ICT3:PC71BM/poly(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)fluorene-2,7-diyl)-alt-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl) (PFN)/aluminium (Al) structure are fabricated and the BHJSCs with the active layer as cast from chloroform solution displayed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.04% (JSC = 8.22 mA cm(-2), VOC = 0.86 V and FF = 0.43). Annealing the active layer significantly improved the PCE of these BHJSCs. While thermal annealing of the active layer improved the PCE of the BHJSCs to 4.94%, thermal followed by solvent vapour annealing enhanced the PCE to 6.53%. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analyses are carried out on the active layer and these results revealed that annealing treatment improves the crystallinity and nanoscale morphology of the active layer, enriches the device exciton generation and dissociation efficiency, charge transport and collection efficiency and reduces carrier recombination. The observed higher PCE (6

  18. Determination of pyrazole and pyrrole pesticides in environmental water samples by solid-phase extraction using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiping; Lu, Xi; Xia, Yan; Yan, Fengli

    2015-02-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of four pyrazole and pyrrole pesticides (fenpyroximate, chlorfenapyr, fipronil and flusilazole) in environmental water samples. Several parameters, such as extraction adsorbent, elution solvent and volume and sample loading flow rate were optimized to obtain high SPE recoveries and extraction efficiency. The calibration curves for the pesticides extracted were linear in the range of 0.05-10 μg L(-1) for chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate and 0.05-20 μg L(-1) for fipronil and flusilazole, with the correlation coefficients (r(2)) between 0.9966 and 0.9990. The method gave good precisions (relative standard deviation %) from 2.9 to 10.1% for real spiked samples from reservoir water and seawater; method recoveries ranged 92.2-105.9 and 98.5-103.9% for real spiked samples from reservoir water and seawater, respectively. Limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the method were determined to be 8-19 ng L(-1). The optimized method was successfully applied to the determination of four pesticides of pyrazoles and pyrroles in real environmental water samples.

  19. Structure Sensitivity of Carbon-Nitrogen Ring Opening: Impact of Platinum Particle Size from below 1 to 5 nm upon Pyrrole Hydrogenation Product Selectivity over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles Loaded onto Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, John N.; Huang, Wenyu; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Zhang, Yawen; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-07-01

    The ability to control fundamental properties (e.g., particle size, surface structure, and metal-oxide interface) in order to design highly selective heterogeneous catalysts would greatly reduce energy intensive separations. Particle size dependence (i.e., structure sensitivity) upon selectivity can now be examined with well defined nanoparticles (NPs) because of advances in synthetic chemistry. Colloidal chemistry has provided means for synthesizing monodisperse Pt NPs as small as {approx}2 nm. Using a dendrimer templated approach, Pt NPs smaller than 1 nm--a new size regime for studying size induced effects in heterogeneous catalysis--can be synthesized (Scheme 1). In this contribution, we report that ring opening for pyrrole hydrogenation is distinctly different for Pt NPs smaller than 2 nm. This insight has not been demonstrated for hydrogenation of cyclic heteroatom bonds to the best of our knowledge. This finding adds fundamental insight into hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) chemistry, which is important for fuel processing and involves removal of N-containing organics. Advances in HDN catalysis are needed to meet new fuel quality regulations because N-containing organics inhibit hydrodesulfurization (HDS) through competitive adsorption and poison acid catalysts, which are used for downstream processing and as supports for HDS catalysts. Pyrrole was selected as the reactant because organics with 5-member N-containing rings are the most common components in fuel.

  20. Effects of 5-Amyno-4-(1,3-benzothyazol-2-yn)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrrol-3-one Intake on Digestive System in a Rat Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuznietsova, Halyna M.; Luzhenetska, Valentyna K.; Kotlyar, Iryna P.; Rybalchenko, Volodymyr K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pyrrol derivate 5-amyno-4-(1,3-benzothyazol-2-yn)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrrol-3-one (D1) has shown antiproliferative activities in vitro, so investigation of the impact of D1 intake on gut organs in rats that experienced colon cancer seems to be necessary. Materials and Methods. D1 at the dose of 2.3 mg/kg was administered per os daily for 27 (from the 1st day of experiment) or 7 (from the 21st week of experiment) weeks to rats that experienced 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer for 20 weeks. 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) was chosen as reference drug and was administered intraperitoneally weekly for 7 weeks (from the 21st week of experiment) at the dose of 45 mg/kg. Results. Antitumor activity of D1 comparable with the 5FU one against DMH-induced colon cancer in rats was observed (decrease of tumor number and tumor total area up to 46%). D1 attenuated the inflammation of colon, gastric and jejunal mucosa, and the liver, caused by DMH, unlike 5FU, aggravating the latter. In addition, D1 partially normalized mucosa morphometric parameters suggesting its functional restore. Conclusions. D1 possesses, comparable with 5-fluorouracil antitumor efficacy, less damaging effects on the tissues beyond cancerous areas and contributes to partial morphological and functional gut organs recovery. PMID:26504896

  1. Sequence specific and high affinity recognition of 5'-ACGCGT-3' by rationally designed pyrrole-imidazole H-pin polyamides: thermodynamic and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Hilary; Brown, Toni; Uthe, Peter B; Westrate, Laura; Sielaff, Alan; Jones, Justin; Lajiness, James P; Kluza, Jerome; O'Hare, Caroline; Nguyen, Binh; Davis, Zach; Bruce, Chrystal; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2008-10-15

    Imidazole (Im) and Pyrrole (Py)-containing polyamides that can form stacked dimers can be programmed to target specific sequences in the minor groove of DNA and control gene expression. Even though various designs of polyamides have been thoroughly investigated for DNA sequence recognition, the use of H-pin polyamides (covalently cross-linked polyamides) has not received as much attention. Therefore, experiments were designed to systematically investigate the DNA recognition properties of two symmetrical H-pin polyamides composed of PyImPyIm (5) or f-ImPyIm (3e, f=formamido) tethered with an ethylene glycol linker. These compounds were created to recognize the cognate 5'-ACGCGT-3' through an overlapped and staggered binding motif, respectively. Results from DNaseI footprinting, thermal denaturation, circular dichroism, surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration microcalorimetry studies demonstrated that both H-pin polyamides bound with higher affinity than their respective monomers. The binding affinity of formamido-containing H-pin 3e was more than a hundred times greater than that for the tetraamide H-pin 5, demonstrating the importance of having a formamido group and the staggered motif in enhancing affinity. However, compared to H-pin 3e, tetraamide H-pin 5 demonstrated superior binding preference for the cognate sequence over its non-cognates, ACCGGT and AAATTT. Data from SPR experiments yielded binding constants of 1.6x10(8)M(-1) and 2.0x10(10)M(-1) for PyImPyIm H-pin 5 and f-ImPyIm H-pin 3e, respectively. Both H-pins bound with significantly higher affinity (ca. 100-fold) than their corresponding unlinked PyImPyIm 4 and f-ImPyIm 2 counterparts. ITC analyses revealed modest enthalpies of reactions at 298 K (DeltaH of -3.3 and -1.0 kcal mol(-1) for 5 and 3e, respectively), indicating these were entropic-driven interactions. The heat capacities (DeltaC(p)) were determined to be -116 and -499 cal mol(-1)K(-1), respectively. These results are in general

  2. AzaHx, a novel fluorescent, DNA minor groove and G·C recognition element: Synthesis and DNA binding properties of a p-anisyl-4-aza-benzimidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (azaHx-PI) polyamide.

    PubMed

    Satam, Vijay; Babu, Balaji; Patil, Pravin; Brien, Kimberly A; Olson, Kevin; Savagian, Mia; Lee, Megan; Mepham, Andrew; Jobe, Laura Beth; Bingham, John P; Pett, Luke; Wang, Shuo; Ferrara, Maddi; Bruce, Chrystal D; Wilson, W David; Lee, Moses; Hartley, John A; Kiakos, Konstantinos

    2015-09-01

    The design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of azaHx-PI or p-anisyl-4-aza-benzimidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (5) are described. AzaHx, 2-(p-anisyl)-4-aza-benzimidazole-5-carboxamide, is a novel, fluorescent DNA recognition element, derived from Hoechst 33258 to recognize G·C base pairs. Supported by theoretical data, the results from DNase I footprinting, CD, ΔT(M), and SPR studies provided evidence that an azaHx/IP pairing, formed from antiparallel stacking of two azaHx-PI molecules in a side-by-side manner in the minor groove, selectively recognized a C-G doublet. AzaHx-PI was found to target 5'-ACGCGT-3', the Mlu1 Cell Cycle Box (MCB) promoter sequence with specificity and significant affinity (K(eq) 4.0±0.2×10(7) M(-1)).

  3. Structures of hydrazones, (E)-2-(1,3-benzothiazolyl)-NHsbnd Ndbnd CHsbnd Ar, [Ar = 4-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl, pyrrol-2-yl, thien-2-yl and furan-2-yl]: Difference in conformations and intermolecular hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Eric B.; Yoneda, Julliane D.; Leal, Katia Z.; Nogueira, Antônio F.; Vasconcelos, Thatyana R. A.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2013-03-01

    Structures of hydrazones, (E)-2-(1,3-benzothiazolyl)-NHsbnd Ndbnd CHsbnd Ar(Ar = pyridine-2-yl (1), pyrrol-2-yl (2), thien-2-yl (3) and furan-2-yl (4), prepared from 2-hydrazinyl-1,3-benzothiazole and ArCHO, followed by recrystallisation from alcohol solutions, are reported. No significant intramolecular hydrogen bonds are present in any of the four molecules. Different conformations were found between 2 and 3, on one hand and for 4, on the other. Thus for 4, the oxygen atom of the furanyl ring is on the same side of the molecule as is the sulfur atom of the benzothiazole unit, while in contrast, each of the heteroatoms of the thienyl and pyrrole rings lies on opposite sides to the benzothiazole sulphur atom. In addition to the conformational variations, differences are noted in the connections between molecules. Despite the presence in each case of N(hydrazono)sbnd H---N(benzothiazolo) intermolecular hydrogen bonds, molecules of 4 are linked into spiral chains, while molecules of 2 and 3 (and indeed all compounds having Ar = substituted phenyl) form symmetric dimers. Further intermolecular interactions, albeit weaker ones, are found in 2 [Csbnd H··N and Nsbnd H··π], 3 [Csbnd H··π] and 4 [π··π], while dimers of 1 remain essentially free. Calculations carried out using the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) method indicated that the conformations determined by crystallography for 2-4 were the more stable.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, characterization and biological activity of 2,5-hexanedione bis(isonicotinylhydrazone) and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)isonicotinamide complexes.

    PubMed

    Jeragh, Bakir; Ali, Mayada S; El-Asmy, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    The reaction between 2,5-hexanedione and isonicotinic acid hydrazide in EtOH gave two products. The ethanol insoluble product was identified as 2,5-hexanedione bis(isonicotinylhydrazone) [HINH] and the soluble ethanol product as N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)isonicotinamide [DINA]. A series of Cr(3+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pd(2+) complexes of HINH and Co(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Hg(2+) complexes of DINA have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Based on the elemental analysis, mass spectra and molar conductance, the complexes have assigned the proposed imperical formulae. The crystal structures of N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)isonicotinamide and its Zn(2+) and Hg(2+) complexes have been solved by X-ray diffraction having [Zn(DINA)2Cl2] and [Hg(DINA)2Cl2] in a tetrahedral structure. In the DINH complexes, the ligand coordinates as a monodentate through the pyridine nitrogen. On the other hand, HINH behaves as a tetradentate (neutral or binegative) manner with the two metal ions. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra of all complexes provide tetrahedral, square-planar, trigonal biyramid and/or octahedral structure. The thermal decomposition of the complexes revealed the outer and inner solvents as well as the end product. The steady part of [Zn(DINA)2Cl2] and [Hg(DINA)2Cl2] thermograms till 303 and 286 °C indicates the absence of any outside solvents. All compounds have activity against bacteria more than fungi. [Cd4(HINH)Cl8]·3H2O has the highest values.

  5. Influence of the Terminal Electron Donor in D-D-π-A Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole versus Bis(amine).

    PubMed

    Dai, Panpan; Yang, Lin; Liang, Mao; Dong, Huanhuan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Chunyao; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2015-10-14

    With respect to the electron-withdrawing acceptors of D-A-π-A organic dyes, reports on the second electron-donating donors for D-D-π-A organic dyes are very limited. Both of the dyes have attracted significant attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In this work, four new D-D-π-A organic dyes with dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP) or bis(amine) donor have been designed and synthesized for a investigation of the influence of the terminal electron donor in D-D-π-A organic dye-sensitized solar cells. It is found that DTP is a promising building block as the terminal electron donor when introduced in the dithiophenepyrrole direction, but not just a good bridge, which exhibits several characteristics: (i) efficiently increasing the maximum molar absorption coefficient and extending the absorption bands; (ii) showing stronger charge transfer interaction as compared with the pyrrole direction; (iii) beneficial to photocurrent generation of DSCs employing cobalt electrolytes. DSCs based on M45 with the Co-phen electrolyte exhibit good light-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies as high as 9.02%, with a short circuit current density (JSC) of 15.3 mA cm(-2), open circuit voltage (VOC) of 867 mV and fill factor (FF) of 0.68 under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). The results demonstrate that N,S-heterocycles such as DTP unit could be promising candidates for application in highly efficient DSCs employing cobalt electrolyte.

  6. A Quasi-relativistic Density Functional Theory Study of the Actinyl(VI, V) (An = U, Np, Pu) Complexes with a Six-Membered Macrocycle Containing Pyrrole, Pyridine, and Furan Subunits.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jian-Hui; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Wu, Qun-Yan; Wang, Shu-Ao; Feng, Yi-Xiao; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2015-08-27

    Actinyl(VI, V) (An = U, Np and Pu) complexes of the recently reported hybrid macrocycle, cyclo[1]furan[1]pyridine[4]pyrrole (denoted as H4L), have been studied using density functional theory in combination with the small-core scalar-relativistic effective core potentials and corresponding (14s13p10d8f6g)/[ 10s9p5d4f3g] basis sets in the segmented contraction scheme. On the basis of our calculations, the pyrrole nitrogen atoms that possess the shortest An-L bonds and strongest basicity are the main donor atoms that contribute to the formation of actinyl(VI, V) complexes. The natural population analysis (NPA) suggests higher ligand-to-actinyl charge transfer in the actinyl(VI) complexes than in their actinyl(V) analogues, which account for the higher decomposition energies of the former. A significant actinide-to-ligand spin density delocalization in the uranyl(V) and neptunyl(V) complexes was observed owing to the redistribution of spin density caused by complexation. A thermodynamic analysis indicates that the formation of the actinyl(VI, V) complexes are exothermic reactions in CH2Cl2 solvent, where the uranyl cations show the highest selectivity. In aqueous solution containing chloride ions, for complexing with macrocycle H4L, the plutonyl(VI) and uranyl(V) cations possess the highest selectivity among actinyl(VI) and (V) cations, respectively. This work can shed light on the design of macrocycle complexes for actinide recognition and extraction in the future.

  7. Synthesis and electrochemistry of β-pyrrole nitro-substituted cobalt(II) porphyrins. The effect of the NO₂ group on redox potentials, the electron transfer mechanism and catalytic reduction of molecular oxygen in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Ou, Zhongping; Yang, Shuibo; Meng, Deying; Lu, Guifen; Fang, Yuanyuan; Kadish, Karl M

    2014-07-28

    Four cobalt(II) porphyrins, two of which contain a β-pyrrole nitro substituent, were synthesized and characterized by electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry. The investigated compounds are represented as (TRPP)Co and (NO2TRPP)Co, where TRPP is the dianion of a substituted tetraphenylporphyrin and R is a CH3 or OCH3 substituent on the four phenyl rings of the macrocycle. Two reductions and three oxidations are observed for each compound in CH2Cl2 containing 0.10 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate. The first reduction of the compounds without a nitro substituent is metal-centered and leads to formation of a Co(I) porphyrin which then reacts with the CH2Cl2 solvent to generate a carbon σ-bonded Co(III)-R complex. A further reduction then occurs at more negative potentials to generate an unstable Co(II) σ-bonded compound. In contrast to these reactions, the first reduction of the nitro-substituted porphyrins is macrocycle-centered under the same solution conditions and gives a Co(II) porphyrin π-anion radical product. This reversible electron transfer is then followed at more negative potentials by a second reversible one-electron addition to give a Co(II) dianion. Three reversible one-electron oxidations are also seen for each compound. The first is metal-centered and the next two involve the conjugated π-system of the macrocycle. Each neutral Co(II) porphyrin was also examined as to its catalytic activity for electroreduction of molecular oxygen when coated on an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode in 1.0 M HClO4. The β-pyrrole nitro-substituted derivatives were shown to be better catalysts than the non-nitro substituted compounds under the utilized experimental conditions.

  8. Efficient synthesis of 1,3,5-trisubstituted (pyrrol-2-yl)acetic acid esters via dual nucleophilic reactions of sulfonamides or carbamate with 4-trimethyl-siloxy-(5E)-hexen-2-ynoates: Lewis acid catalyzed SN1 and intramolecular Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Aikawa, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Shinichiro; Saito, Seiki

    2006-08-17

    [reaction: see text] Carbamates or sulfonamides have proven to regioselectively attack 2-propynyl-allyl hybrid cations, generated by the action of TMSOTf on 4-(trimethylsioxy)hex-5-en-2-ynoates, to afford conjugated 6-aminohex-4-en-2-ynoates in which an intramolecular amino-Michael reaction took place, leading to pyrrole frameworks. In particular, the sulfonamides gave 1-sulfonylpyrroles in one pot.

  9. Synthesis of pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-ones: Rearrangement of pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,3,4]oxadiazines and regioselective intramolecular cyclization of 1,2-biscarbamoyl-substituted 1H-pyrroles

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kkonnip

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-ones 12 have been easily prepared via nucleophile-induced rearrangement of pyrrolooxadiazines 11 and regioselective intramolecular cyclization of 1,2-biscarbamoyl-substituted 1H-pyrroles 10. In this work, we demonstrated that the described synthetic approaches can be considered to be more facile and practical than previously reported procedures. PMID:27829885

  10. Switchable Synthesis of Pyrroles and Pyrazines via Rh(II)-Catalyzed Reaction of 1,2,3-Triazoles with Isoxazoles: Experimental and DFT Evidence for the 1,4-Diazahexatriene Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Rostovskii, Nikolai V; Ruvinskaya, Julia O; Novikov, Mikhail S; Khlebnikov, Alexander F; Smetanin, Ilia A; Agafonova, Anastasiya V

    2017-01-06

    4-Aminopyrrole-3-carboxylates and pyrazine-2-carboxylates were synthesized from 5-alkoxyisoxazoles and 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles by tuning the Rh(II) catalyst and the reaction conditions. The reaction in chloroform at 100 °C under Rh2(OAc)4 catalysis provides 4-aminopyrrole-3-carboxylates in good yields. The use of Rh2(Piv)4 in refluxing toluene results in the formation of 1,2-dihydropyrazine-2-carboxylates as the main products, which can be converted by a one-pot procedure to pyrazine-2-carboxylates by heating with catalytic amounts of TsOH. According to the NMR and DFT investigations of the reaction mechanism, pyrroles and dihydropyrazines are formed, respectively, via 1,5- and 1,6-cyclization of common (5Z)-1,4-diazahexa-1,3,5-triene intermediates. The influence of the nature of the catalyst on the product distribution is rationalized in terms of the Rh-catalyzed isomerization of a pyrrolin-2-ylium-3-aminide zwitterion, the primary product of 1,4-diazahexatriene 1,5-cyclization.

  11. Synthesis, vapor growth, polymerization, and characterization of thin films of novel diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole. The use of computer modeling to predict chemical and optical properties of these diacetylenes and poly(diacetylenes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Frazier, D. O.; Abeledeyem, H.; Mcmanus, S. P.; Zutaut, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work two diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole which are predicted by semiempirical AM1 calculations to have very different properties, are synthesized; the polymerizability of these diacetylenes in the solid state is determined, and the results are compared to the computer predictions. Diacetylene 1 is novel in that the monomer is a liquid at room temperature; this may allow for the possibility of polymerization in the liquid state as well as the solid state. Thin poly(diacetylene) films are obtained from compound 1 by growing films of the monomer using vapor deposition and polymerizing with UV light; these films are then characterized. Interestingly, while the poly(diacetylene) from 1 does not possess good nonlinear optical properties, the monomer exhibits very good third-order effects (phase conjugation) in solution. Dilute acetone solutions of the monomer 1 give intensity-dependent refractive indices on the order of 10 exp -6 esu; these are 10 exp 6 times better than for CS2.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Substituted N-[3-(1H-Pyrrol-1-yl)methyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-yl]benzamide/ benzene Sulfonamides as Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gangapuram, Madhavi; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Eyunni, Suresh; Soliman, Karam F. A.; Redda, Kinfe K.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological activities of tetrahydropyridine (THP) derivatives are dependent on the substituent ring moiety. In this study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of 12 newly synthesized substituted N-[3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)methyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydrobenzamide/benzene sulfonamides (9a–l) in murine BV-2 microglial cells. All compounds were initially screened for attenuation of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 μg/mL)-activated microglial cells. The data show that only SO2-substituted THPs were effective at sub-lethal concentrations (IC50 values of 12.92 μM (9i), 14.64 μM (9j), 19.63 μM (9k)) relative to L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine positive control (IC50 = 3.1 μM). The most potent SO2-substituted compound (9i) also blocked the LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and attenuated the release of several cytokines including IL-1α, IL-10, and IL-6. These findings establish the moderate immunomodulating effects of SO2-substituted THP derivatives. PMID:24585402

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of substituted N-[3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)methyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-yl]benzamide/benzene sulfonamides as anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Gangapuram, Madhavi; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Eyunni, Suresh; Soliman, Karam F A; Redda, Kinfe K

    2014-05-01

    The pharmacological activities of tetrahydropyridine (THP) derivatives are dependent on the substituent ring moiety. In this study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of 12 newly synthesized substituted N-[3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)methyl]-1,2,5,6-tetrahydrobenzamide/benzene sulfonamides (9a-l) in murine BV-2 microglial cells. All compounds were initially screened for attenuation of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/mL)-activated microglial cells. The data show that only SO2 -substituted THPs were effective at sub-lethal concentrations (IC50 values of 12.92 µM (9i), 14.64 µM (9j), 19.63 µM (9k)) relative to L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine positive control (IC50  = 3.1 µM). The most potent SO2 -substituted compound (9i) also blocked the LPS-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and attenuated the release of several cytokines including IL-1α, IL-10, and IL-6. These findings establish the moderate immuno-modulating effects of SO2 -substituted THP derivatives.

  14. Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as New Reversible Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Demethylase KDM1A/LSD1. Part 1: High-Throughput Screening and Preliminary Exploration.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luca; Mercurio, Ciro; Amigoni, Federica; Cappa, Anna; Fagá, Giovanni; Fattori, Raimondo; Legnaghi, Elena; Ciossani, Giuseppe; Mattevi, Andrea; Meroni, Giuseppe; Moretti, Loris; Cecatiello, Valentina; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Romussi, Alessia; Thaler, Florian; Trifiró, Paolo; Villa, Manuela; Vultaggio, Stefania; Botrugno, Oronza A; Dessanti, Paola; Minucci, Saverio; Zagarrí, Elisa; Carettoni, Daniele; Iuzzolino, Lucia; Varasi, Mario; Vianello, Paola

    2017-03-09

    Lysine specific demethylase 1 KDM1A (LSD1) regulates histone methylation and it is increasingly recognized as a potential therapeutic target in oncology. We report on a high-throughput screening campaign performed on KDM1A/CoREST, using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) technology, to identify reversible inhibitors. The screening led to 115 hits for which we determined biochemical IC50, thus identifying four chemical series. After data analysis, we have prioritized the chemical series of N-phenyl-4H-thieno[3, 2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamide for which we obtained X-ray structures of the most potent hit (compound 19, IC50 = 2.9 μM) in complex with the enzyme. Initial expansion of this chemical class, both modifying core structure and decorating benzamide moiety, was directed toward the definition of the moieties responsible for the interaction with the enzyme. Preliminary optimization led to compound 90, which inhibited the enzyme with a submicromolar IC50 (0.162 μM), capable of inhibiting the target in cells.

  15. A new method for the rapid analysis of 1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones (maleimides) in environmental samples by two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeher, Sebastian; Lengger, Sabine K; Grice, Kliti

    2016-02-26

    Maleimides (1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones) are monopyrrolic pigment derivatives with specific alkyl side chains that can be directly linked to their tetrapyrrole precursors, most notably chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls. These compounds can be used as palaeoenvironmental indicators such as algal productivity and redox conditions in ancient and modern aquatic systems. Here, we present a new method using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToF-MS), which enables the rapid analysis of maleimides in complex mixtures and different matrices (e.g. sediments and soils), therefore largely simplifying the previous intricate maleimide purification protocol. This method also reduces the potential for bias associated with partial losses due to low recovery and the high volatility of maleimides. The maleimide distributions and concentrations obtained by GC × GC-ToF-MS were reproducible and in agreement with the previously used purification procedure followed by analysis with traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The new method also resolved previously unrecognised, partial coelution of some maleimides with unknown compounds by quantification with the m/z 75 fragment ion. Furthermore, the higher sensitivity enabled the detection of previously unrecognised and preliminarily identified maleimides based on their relative retention times. The new, easier, rapid and more sensitive GC×GC-ToF-MS method greatly facilitates the analysis of maleimides in environmental samples to study tetrapyrrole degradation processes and will further the development of maleimides as biomarkers for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.

  16. New benzothiadiazole-based dyes incorporating dithieno[3,2-b:2‧,3‧-d]pyrrole (DTP) π-linker for dye-sensitized solar cells with different electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fusheng; Chen, Yu; Zong, Xueping; Qiao, Wenhua; Fan, Huayou; Liang, Mao; Xue, Song

    2016-11-01

    Benzothiadiazole (BTZ)-based dyes incorporating dithieno[3,2-b:2‧,3‧-d]pyrrole (DTP) π-linker has been synthesized for fabricating efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A reference dye with ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) π-linker has also been prepared. The introduction of DTP broadens absorption, provides a more planar skeleton, and reduces HOMO and LUMO energy gap. IMVS and EIS measurements are used to investigate interfacial electron transfer processes of device. Dyes incorporating DTP exhibit more effective inhibition of charge recombination and more conducive to electron injection than the reference dye with EDOT. Therefore, much higher efficiency is obtained in device fabricated by DTP-based dyes, and the best performance achieves a power conversion efficiency of 8.14% by using Co-phen based electrolyte. In contrast, device based on the reference dye reaches 5.22% at most. IPCE characterizations and the effect of Co-bpy and I-/I3- redox couple are also discussed. The DTP moiety is a good candidate for the design of BTZ-based sensitizers used in DSSCs.

  17. Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as New Reversible Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Demethylase KDM1A/LSD1. Part 2: Structure-Based Drug Design and Structure-Activity Relationship.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Paola; Sartori, Luca; Amigoni, Federica; Cappa, Anna; Fagá, Giovanni; Fattori, Raimondo; Legnaghi, Elena; Ciossani, Giuseppe; Mattevi, Andrea; Meroni, Giuseppe; Moretti, Loris; Cecatiello, Valentina; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Romussi, Alessia; Thaler, Florian; Trifiró, Paolo; Villa, Manuela; Botrugno, Oronza A; Dessanti, Paola; Minucci, Saverio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Zagarrí, Elisa; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro

    2017-03-09

    The balance of methylation levels at histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) is regulated by KDM1A (LSD1). KDM1A is overexpressed in several tumor types, thus representing an emerging target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. We have previously described ( Part 1, DOI 10.1021.acs.jmedchem.6b01018 ) the identification of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as novel reversible inhibitors of KDM1A, whose preliminary exploration resulted in compound 2 with biochemical IC50 = 160 nM. We now report the structure-guided optimization of this chemical series based on multiple ligand/KDM1A-CoRest cocrystal structures, which led to several extremely potent inhibitors. In particular, compounds 46, 49, and 50 showed single-digit nanomolar IC50 values for in vitro inhibition of KDM1A, with high selectivity in secondary assays. In THP-1 cells, these compounds transcriptionally affected the expression of genes regulated by KDM1A such as CD14, CD11b, and CD86. Moreover, 49 and 50 showed a remarkable anticlonogenic cell growth effect on MLL-AF9 human leukemia cells.

  18. Discovery, synthesis and SAR analysis of novel selective small molecule S1P4-R agonists based on a (2Z,5Z)-5-((pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-3-alkyl-2-(alkylimino)thiazolidin-4-one chemotype.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Mariangela; Guerrero, Miguel; Velaparthi, Subash; Crisp, Melissa; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Brown, Steven; Rosen, Hugh; Roberts, Edward

    2011-11-15

    High affinity and selective S1P(4) receptor (S1P(4)-R) small molecule agonists may be important proof-of-principle tools used to clarify the receptor biological function and effects to assess the therapeutic potential of the S1P(4)-R in diverse disease areas including treatment of viral infections and thrombocytopenia. A high-throughput screening campaign of the Molecular Libraries-Small Molecule Repository was carried out by our laboratories and identified (2Z,5Z)-5-((1-(2-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-3-methyl-2-(methylimino) thiazolidin-4-one as a promising S1P(4)-R agonist hit distinct from literature S1P(4)-R modulators. Rational chemical modifications of the hit allowed the identification of a promising lead molecule with low nanomolar S1P(4)-R agonist activity and exquisite selectivity over the other S1P(1-3,5)-Rs family members. The lead molecule herein disclosed constitutes a valuable pharmacological tool to explore the effects of the S1P(4)-R signaling cascade and elucidate the molecular basis of the receptor function.

  19. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE: a transaminase involved in the biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) from Serratia sp. FS14.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiangdi; Ran, Tingting; Han, Ning; Gao, Yanyan; He, Jianhua; Tang, Lin; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Weiwu

    2014-04-25

    Prodigiosin, a tripyrrole red pigment synthesized by Serratia and some other microbes through a bifurcated biosynthesis pathway, MBC (4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde) and MAP (2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole) are synthesized separately and then condensed by PigC to form prodigiosin. MAP is synthesized sequentially by PigD, PigE and PigB. PigE catalyzes the transamination of an amino group to the aldehyde group of 3-acetyloctanal, resulting in an aminoketone, which spontaneously cyclizes to form H2MAP. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE which involved in the biosynthesis of prodigiosin precursor MAP for the first time to a resolution of 2.3Å with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The monomer of PigE catalytic domain is composed of three domains with PLP as cofactor: a small N-terminal domain connecting the catalytic domain with the front part of PigE, a large PLP-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. The residues from both monomers build the PLP binding site at the interface of the dimer which resembles the other PLP-dependent enzymes. Structural comparison of PigE with Thermus thermophilus AcOAT showed a higher hydrophobic and smaller active site of PigE, these differences may be the reason for substrate specificity.

  20. Biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, in Serratia: identification of a novel 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) assembly pathway, definition of the terminal condensing enzyme, and implications for undecylprodigiosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Neil R; Simonsen, Henrik T; Ahmed, Raef A A; Goldet, Gabrielle; Slater, Holly; Woodley, Louise; Leeper, Finian J; Salmond, George P C

    2005-05-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of the red-pigmented antibiotic, prodigiosin, produced by Serratia sp. is known to involve separate pathways for the production of the monopyrrole, 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) and the bipyrrole, 4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde (MBC) which are then coupled in the final condensation step. We have previously reported the cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of the pig cluster responsible for prodigiosin biosynthesis in two Serratia sp. In this article we report the creation of in-frame deletions or insertions in every biosynthetic gene in the cluster from Serratia sp. ATCC 39006. The biosynthetic intermediates accumulating in each mutant have been analysed by LC-MS, cross-feeding and genetic complementation studies. Based on these results we assign specific roles in the biosynthesis of MBC to the following Pig proteins: PigI, PigG, PigA, PigJ, PigH, PigM, PigF and PigN. We report a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of MAP, involving PigD, PigE and PigB. We also report a new chemical synthesis of MAP and one of its precursors, 3-acetyloctanal. Finally, we identify the condensing enzyme as PigC. We reassess the existing literature and discuss the significance of the results for the biosynthesis of undecylprodigiosin by the Red cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

  1. Bithiopheneimide-dithienosilole/dithienogermole copolymers for efficient solar cells: information from structure-property-device performance correlations and comparison to thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione analogues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xugang; Zhou, Nanjia; Lou, Sylvia J; Hennek, Jonathan W; Ponce Ortiz, Rocío; Butler, Melanie R; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc T; Strzalka, Joseph; Morin, Pierre-Olivier; Leclerc, Mario; López Navarrete, Juan T; Ratner, Mark A; Chen, Lin X; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2012-11-07

    Rational creation of polymeric semiconductors from novel building blocks is critical to polymer solar cell (PSC) development. We report a new series of bithiopheneimide-based donor-acceptor copolymers for bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) PSCs. The bithiopheneimide electron-deficiency compresses polymer bandgaps and lowers the HOMOs--essential to maximize power conversion efficiency (PCE). While the dithiophene bridge progression R(2)Si→R(2)Ge minimally impacts bandgaps, it substantially alters the HOMO energies. Furthermore, imide N-substituent variation has negligible impact on polymer opto-electrical properties, but greatly affects solubility and microstructure. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) indicates that branched N-alkyl substituents increased polymer π-π spacings vs linear N-alkyl substituents, and the dithienosilole-based PBTISi series exhibits more ordered packing than the dithienogermole-based PBTIGe analogues. Further insights into structure-property-device performance correlations are provided by a thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD)-dithienosilole copolymer PTPDSi. DFT computation and optical spectroscopy show that the TPD-based polymers achieve greater subunit-subunit coplanarity via intramolecular (thienyl)S···O(carbonyl) interactions, and GIWAXS indicates that PBTISi-C8 has lower lamellar ordering, but closer π-π spacing than does the TPD-based analogue. Inverted BHJ solar cells using bithiopheneimide-based polymer as donor and PC(71)BM as acceptor exhibit promising device performance with PCEs up to 6.41% and V(oc) > 0.80 V. In analogous cells, the TPD analogue exhibits 0.08 V higher V(oc) with an enhanced PCE of 6.83%, mainly attributable to the lower-lying HOMO induced by the higher imide group density. These results demonstrate the potential of BTI-based polymers for high-performance solar cells, and provide generalizable insights into structure-property relationships in TPD, BTI, and related polymer semiconductors.

  2. Enhanced performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by branching the linear substituent in sensitizers based on thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quanyou; Zhang, Weiyi; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-based organic sensitizers with triphenylamine (FNE38 and FNE40) or julolidine (FNE39 and FNE41) as electron-donating unit have been designed and synthesized. A linear hexyl group or a branched alkyl chain, the 2-ethylhexyl group, is incorporated into molecular skeleton of the dyes to minimize intermolecular interactions. The absorption, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties for these sensitizers were then systematically investigated. It is found that the sensitizers have similar photophysical and electrochemical properties, such as absorption spectra and energy levels, owing to their close chemical structures. However, the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on the two types of sensitizers exhibit very different performance parameters. Upon the incorporation of the short ethyl group on the hexyl moiety, enhancements in both open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) and short-circuit current (J(sc)) are achieved for the quasi-solid-state DSSCs. The V(oc) gains originating from the suppression of charge recombination were quantitatively investigated and are in good agreement with the experimentally observed V(oc) enhancements. Therefore, an enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.16%, constituting an increase by 23%, is achieved under standard AM 1.5 sunlight without the use of coadsorbant agents for the quasi-solid-state DSSC based on sensitizer FNE40, which bears the branched alkyl group, in comparison with that based on FNE38 carrying the linear alkyl group. This work presents a design concept for considering the crucial importance of the branched alkyl substituent in novel metal-free organic sensitizers.

  3. Determination of octopamine and tyramine traces in dietary supplements and phytoextracts by high performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-3,4-dicarbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Rita; Lotti, Cinzia; Morigi, Rita; Andreani, Aldo

    2012-01-13

    The use of 2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-3,4-dicarbaldehyde (DPD) as a pre-column derivatization reagent for HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis of octopamine (oct) and tyramine (tyr) is proposed. The compound reacts under mild conditions (2 min at ambient temperature) with primary amino groups. The derivatization conditions were optimized by considering different parameters (temperature, time and reagent concentration). The synthesized oct and tyr adducts were characterized by (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry), IR (infrared) and UV (ultraviolet). Derivative chromatographic separations were performed on a Sinergy Hydro-RP column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and triethylammonium phosphate buffer (pH 3; 10mM) at varying composition gradient elution and at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Detection was set at λ=320 nm. The obtained results were compared with those achieved by a validated direct HPLC method with detection at λ=275 nm using a Sinergy Polar-RP column (250 mm × 3 mm i.d.) by isocratic elution conditions with a mobile phase consisting of methanol/acetonitrile/sodium pentanesulphonate (SPS; pH 3; 10mM), 7.5:7.5:85 (v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Derivatization method sensitivity proved to be ten times higher than direct method. Limit of detection of oct and tyr was 0.010 and 0.008 μg/mL, respectively. The reliability of the pre-column method was satisfactory also in terms of linearity (from 0.028 to 1.255 and 0.024 to 1.244 μg/mL for oct and tyr, respectively), precision (relative standard deviation ≤2, without significant differences between intra-day and inter-day data) and recovery (from 98.9 to 101.2%). The proposed method showed to be suitable for a reliable determination of oct and tyr traces in commercially available phytoproducts using the instrumentation usually present in any analytical laboratory.

  4. 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid (HOHA) Lactone is a Biologically Active Precursor for the Generation of 2-(ω-Carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) Derivatives of Proteins and Ethanolamine Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Linetsky, Mikhail; Guo, Junhong; Choi, Jaewoo; Hong, Li; Chamberlain, Amanda S.; Howell, Scott J.; Howes, Andrew M.; Salomon, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    2-(ω-Carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of proteins were previously shown to have significant pathological and physiological relevance to age-related macular degeneration, cancer and wound healing. Previously, we showed that CEPs are generated in the reaction of ε-amino groups of protein lysyl residues with 1-palmityl-2-(4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (HOHA-PC), a lipid oxidation product uniquely generated by oxidative truncation of docosahexanenate-containing phosphatidylcholine. More recently, we found that HOHA-PC rapidly releases HOHA-lactone and 2-lyso-PC (t1/2 = 30 min at 37 °C) by non-enzymatic transesterification/deacylation. Now we report that HOHA-lactone reacts with Ac-Gly-Lys-OMe or human serum albumin to form CEP derivatives in vitro. Incubation of human red blood cell ghosts with HOHA-lactone generates CEP derivatives of membrane proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids. Quantitative analysis of the products generated in the reaction HOHA-PC with Ac-Gly-Lys-OMe showed that HOHA-PC mainly forms CEP-dipeptide that is not esterified to 2-lysophosphatidycholine. Thus, the HOHA-lactone pathway predominates over the direct reaction of HOHA-PC to produce the CEP-PC-dipeptide derivative. Myleoperoxidase/H2O2/NO2− promoted in vitro oxidation of either 1-palmityl-2-docosahexaneoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) generates HOHA-lactone in yields of 0.45% and 0.78%, respectively. Lipid oxidation in human red blood cell ghosts also releases HOHA-lactone. Oxidative injury of ARPE-19 human retinal pigmented epithelial cells by exposure to H2O2 generated CEP derivatives. Treatment of ARPE-19 cells with HOHA-lactone generated CEP-modified proteins. Low (submicromolar), but not high, concentrations of HOHA-lactone promote increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by ARPE-19 cells. Therefore, HOHA-lactone not only serves as an intermediate for the generation of CEPs but

  5. Anticancer potential of pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP) extracted from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, P; Veena, V; Vidhyapriya, P; Lakshmi, Pragna; Krishna, R; Sakthivel, N

    2016-05-01

    Marine bacterium, strain MB30 isolated from the deep sea sediment of Bay of Bengal, India, exhibited antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA sequence homology and subsequent phylogenetic tree analysis, the strain MB30 was identified as Staphylococcus sp. The bioactive metabolite produced by the strain MB30 was purified through silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Purified metabolite was further characterized by FT-IR, LC-MS and NMR analyses. On the basis of spectroscopic data, the metabolite was identified as pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP). The PPDHMP exhibited in vitro anticancer potential against lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 concentration of 19.94 ± 1.23 and 16.73 ± 1.78 μg ml(-1) respectively. The acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining of the IC50 concentration of PPDHMP-treated cancer cells exhibited an array of morphological changes such as nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells induced the progressive accumulation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. Based on the flow cytometric analysis, it has become evident that the compound was also effective in arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further, the Western blotting analysis confirmed the down-regulation of cyclin-D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK-2), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), activation of caspase-9 and 3 with the cleavage of PARP. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells also showed the inhibition of migration and invasive capacity of cancer cells. In the present investigation, for the first time, we have reported the extraction, purification and characterization of an anticancer metabolite, PPDHMP from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30.

  6. Chlorfenapyr (A Pyrrole Insecticide) Applied Alone or as a Mixture with Alpha-Cypermethrin for Indoor Residual Spraying against Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae sl: An Experimental Hut Study in Cove, Benin

    PubMed Central

    Ngufor, Corine; Critchley, Jessica; Fagbohoun, Josias; N’Guessan, Raphael; Todjinou, Damien; Rowland, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Indoor spraying of walls and ceilings with residual insecticide remains a primary method of malaria control. Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a growing problem. Novel insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can improve the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Insecticide mixtures have the potential to improve efficacy or even to manage resistance in some situations but this possibility remains underexplored experimentally. Chlorfenapyr is a novel pyrrole insecticide which has shown potential to improve the control of mosquitoes which are resistant to current WHO-approved insecticides. Method The efficacy of IRS with chlorfenapyr applied alone or as a mixture with alpha-cypermeththrin (a pyrethroid) was evaluated in experimental huts in Cove, Southern Benin against wild free flying pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl. Comparison was made with IRS with alpha-cypermethrin alone. Fortnightly 30-minute in situ cone bioassays were performed to assess the residual efficacy of the insecticides on the treated hut walls. Results Survival rates of wild An gambiae from the Cove hut site in WHO resistance bioassays performed during the trial were >90% with permethrin and deltamethrin treated papers. Mortality of free-flying mosquitoes entering the experimental huts was 4% in the control hut. Mortality with alpha-cypermethrin IRS did not differ from the control (5%, P>0.656). The highest mortality was achieved with chlorfenapyr alone (63%). The alpha-cypermethrin + chlorfenapyr mixture killed fewer mosquitoes than chlorfenapyr alone (43% vs. 63%, P<0.001). While the cone bioassays showed a more rapid decline in residual mortality with chlorfenapyr IRS to <30% after only 2 weeks, fortnightly mortality rates of wild free-flying An gambiae entering the chlorfenapyr IRS huts were consistently high (50–70%) and prolonged, lasting over 4 months. Conclusion IRS with chlorfenapyr shows potential to

  7. Microsolvation of the pyrrole cation (Py(+)) with nonpolar and polar ligands: infrared spectra of Py(+)-Ln with L = Ar, N2, and H2O (n ≤ 3).

    PubMed

    Schütz, Markus; Matsumoto, Yoshiteru; Bouchet, Aude; Öztürk, Murat; Dopfer, Otto

    2017-02-01

    The solvation of aromatic (bio-)molecular building blocks has a strong impact on the intermolecular interactions and function of supramolecular assemblies, proteins, and DNA. Herein we characterize the initial microsolvation process of the heterocyclic aromatic pyrrole cation (Py(+)) in its (2)A2 ground electronic state with nonpolar, quadrupolar, and dipolar ligands (L = Ar, N2, and H2O) by infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy of cold mass-selected Py(+)-Ln (n ≤ 3) clusters in a molecular beam and dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Size- and isomer-specific shifts in the NH stretch frequency (ΔνNH) unravel the competition between various ligand binding sites, the strength of the respective intermolecular bonds, and the cluster growth. In Py(+)-Ar, linear H-bonding of Ar to the acidic NH group (NHAr) is competitive with π-stacking to the aromatic ring, and both Py(+)-Ar(H) and Py(+)-Ar(π) are observed. For L = N2 and H2O, the linear NHL H-bond is much more stable than any other binding site and the only observed binding motif. For the Py(+)-Ar2 and Py(+)-(N2)2 trimers, the H/π isomer with one H-bonded and one π-bonded ligand strongly competes with a 2H isomer with two bifurcated nonlinear NHL bonds. The latter are equivalent for Ar but nonequivalent for N2. Py(+)-H2O exhibits a strong and linear NHO H-bond with charge-dipole configuration and C2v symmetry. IRPD spectra of cold Py(+)-H2O-L clusters with L = Ar and N2 reveal that Ar prefers π-stacking to the Py(+) ring, while N2 forms an OHN2 H-bond to the H2O ligand. The ΔνNH frequency shifts in Py(+)-Ln are correlated with the strength of the NHL H-bond and the proton affinity (PA) of L, and a monotonic correlation between ΔνNH of the Py(+)-L(H) dimers and PA is established. Comparison with neutral Py-L dimers reveals the strong impact of the positive charge on the acidity of the NH group, the strength of the NHL H-bond, and the

  8. Vibrational spectra, electronic absorption, nonlinear optical properties, evaluation of bonding, chemical reactivity and thermodynamic properties of ethyl 4-(1-(2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Singh, R N; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta

    2015-01-25

    In this work, detailed vibrational spectral analysis of ethyl 4-(1-(2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EHCHEDPC) molecule has been carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy and potential energy distribution (PED). Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio RHF and density functional theory (DFT) method, using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. The other carried outwork cover: structural, thermodynamic properties, electronic transitions, bonding, multiple interaction, chemical reactivity and hyperpolarizability analysis. The results of the calculation were applied to the simulated spectra of (EHCHEDPC), which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The vibrational analysis shows red shift in both group, the proton donor (pyrrole N-H) and proton acceptor (C=O of ester) indicating the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been used to find electronic excitations and their nature. The results of natural bond orbital (NBOs) analysis show the charges transfer and delocalization in various intra- and intermolecular interactions. The binding energy of intermolecular multiple interactions is calculated to be 12.54 kcal mol(-1) using QTAIM calculation. The electronic descriptors analyses reveal the investigated molecule used as precursor for heterocyclic derivatives synthesis. First hyperpolarizability (β0) has been computed to evaluate non-linear optical (NLO) response.

  9. Diaryl- and triaryl-pyrrole derivatives: inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 and MDMX-p53 protein-protein interactions†Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details for compound synthesis, analytical data for all compounds and intermediates. Details for the biological evaluation. Further details for the modeling. Table of combustion analysis data. See DOI: 10.1039/c3md00161jClick here for additional data file.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim J; Ahmed, Shafiq; Coxon, Christopher R; Liu, Junfeng; Lu, Xiaohong; Golding, Bernard T; Griffin, Roger J; Hutton, Claire; Newell, David R; Ojo, Stephen; Watson, Anna F; Zaytzev, Andrey; Zhao, Yan; Lunec, John; Hardcastle, Ian R

    2013-09-21

    Screening identified 2-(3-((4,6-dioxo-2-thioxotetrahydropyrimidin-5(2H)-ylidene)methyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonitrile as an MDM2-p53 inhibitor (IC50 = 12.3 μM). MDM2-p53 and MDMX-p53 activity was seen for 5-((1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione (MDM2 IC50 = 0.11 μM; MDMX IC50 = 4.2 μM) and 5-((1-(4-nitrophenyl)-2,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (MDM2 IC50 = 0.15 μM; MDMX IC50 = 4.2 μM), and cellular activity consistent with p53 activation in MDM2 amplified cells. Further SAR studies demonstrated the requirement for the triarylpyrrole moiety for MDMX-p53 activity but not for MDM2-p53 inhibition.

  10. Pyrrole-Based Conductive Polymers For Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Di Stefano, Salvador

    1994-01-01

    Polypyrrole films containing various dopant anions exhibit superior capacitance characteristics. Used with nonaqueous electrolytes. Candidate for use in advanced electrochemical double-layer capacitors capable of storing electrical energy at high densities. Capacitors made of these films used in automobiles and pulsed power supplies.

  11. Metabolism and disposition of a novel antineoplastic JS-38 (Benzamide, N-[4-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1,2-dithiolo[4,3-b]pyrrol-6-yl]-3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl)-(9Cl)) in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Liu, Quanhai; Fan, Tingting; Fang, Yu; Li, Ying; Wang, Guoping

    2012-03-01

    The metabolism and catabolism of a novel antineoplastic (ID code JS-38),Benzamide, N-[4-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1,2-dithiolo[4,3-b]pyrrol-6-yl]-3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl)-(9Cl), were investigated in Wistar rats (3 female, 3 male). LC/UV, LC/MS, LC/MS/MS, NMR and acid hydrolysis methods showed that the metabolic process of JS-38 consists of a series of acetylation and glucoronation that form a metabolic product with a unique pharmacologic property of accelerating bone-marrow cell formation, and also showed a novel metabolic pathway of being acetylated and glucuronated in series.

  12. Spectroscopic and structural study of some 2,5-hexanedione bis(salicyloylhydrazone) complexes: Crystal structures of its Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-benzamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A.

    2014-08-01

    The reaction between 2,5-hexanedione and salicylic acid hydrazide produced two compounds: 2,5-hexanedione bis(salicyloylhydrazone) [HDSH] (ethanol insoluble) and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzamide [DPH] (ethanol soluble). HDSH formed complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and Pd(II) which are characterized by elemental analyses, spectra (IR, 1H NMR, ESR and MS), thermal and magnetic measurements. The crystals of [Ni(HDSH-2H)(EtOH)(H2O)] and [Cu(HDSH-2H)] were solved having octahedral and square-planar geometries, respectively. The other complexes have the formulae [Co(HDSH-2H)(H2O)2], [Cu(HDSH-H)2], [Zn(HDSH-2H)(H2O)2], [Cd2(HDSH-4H)(H2O)4], [Cd2(HDSH-2H)(H2O)4Cl2]; [Hg(HDSH-2H)] and [Pd2(HDSH-4H)(H2O)4]. The obtained complexes are stable in air and non-hygroscopic. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra of the complexes provide different geometries. The ESR spectra support the mononuclear geometry for [Cu(HDSH-2H)] and [Cu(HDSH-H)2]. The thermal decomposition of the complexes revealed the coordinated waters as well as the end product which is in most cases the metal oxide. The crystal structure of N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzamide is solved by X-ray technique.

  13. Spectroscopic and structural study of some 2,5-hexanedione bis(salicyloylhydrazone) complexes: crystal structures of its Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-benzamide.

    PubMed

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A

    2014-08-14

    The reaction between 2,5-hexanedione and salicylic acid hydrazide produced two compounds: 2,5-hexanedione bis(salicyloylhydrazone) [HDSH] (ethanol insoluble) and N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzamide [DPH] (ethanol soluble). HDSH formed complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and Pd(II) which are characterized by elemental analyses, spectra (IR, (1)H NMR, ESR and MS), thermal and magnetic measurements. The crystals of [Ni(HDSH-2H)(EtOH)(H2O)] and [Cu(HDSH-2H)] were solved having octahedral and square-planar geometries, respectively. The other complexes have the formulae [Co(HDSH-2H)(H2O)2], [Cu(HDSH-H)2], [Zn(HDSH-2H)(H2O)2], [Cd2(HDSH-4H)(H2O)4], [Cd2(HDSH-2H)(H2O)4Cl2]; [Hg(HDSH-2H)] and [Pd2(HDSH-4H)(H2O)4]. The obtained complexes are stable in air and non-hygroscopic. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra of the complexes provide different geometries. The ESR spectra support the mononuclear geometry for [Cu(HDSH-2H)] and [Cu(HDSH-H)2]. The thermal decomposition of the complexes revealed the coordinated waters as well as the end product which is in most cases the metal oxide. The crystal structure of N-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzamide is solved by X-ray technique.

  14. Crystal structures of methyl 3-(4-iso­propyl­phen­yl)-1-methyl-1,2,3,3a,4,9b-hexa­hydro­thio­chromeno[4,3-b]pyrrole-3a-carboxyl­ate, methyl 1-methyl-3-(o-tol­yl)-1,2,3,3a,4,9b-hexa­hydro­thio­chromeno[4,3-b]pyrrole-3a-carboxyl­ate and methyl 1-methyl-3-(o-tol­yl)-3,3a,4,9b-tetra­hydro-1H-thio­chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Raja, R.; Suresh, M.; Raghunathan, R.; SubbiahPandi, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compounds, C23H27NO2S, (I), and C21H23NO2S, (II), the pyrrole rings have envelope conformations with the C atom substituted by the benzene ring as the flap. In the third title compound, C20H21NO3S, (III), the isoxazole ring has a twisted conformation on the C—C bond substituted by the benzene ring and the carboxyl­ate group. In all three compounds, the thio­pyran ring has a half-chair conformation. The mean plane of the pyrrole ring is inclined to the mean plane of the thio­pyran ring by 57.07 (9), 58.98 (9) and 60.34 (12)° in (I), (II) and (III), respectively. The benzene rings are inclined to one another by 73.26 (10)° in (I), 65.781)° in (II) and 63.37 (13)° in (III). In the crystals of all three compounds, there are no classical hydrogen bonds present. Only in the crystal of compound (I) are mol­ecules linked by a pair of C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming inversion dimers. The isopropyl group in compound (I) is disordered over two sets of sites and has a refined occupancy ratio of 0.586 (13):0.414 (13). PMID:26090125

  15. Nature of Interaction between basic fibroblast growth factor and the antiangiogenic drug 7,7-(carbonyl-bis[imino-N-methyl-4,2-pyrrolecarbonylimino[N-methyl-4,2-pyrrole]-carbonylimino])-bis-(1,3-naphtalene disulfonate). II. Removal of polar interactions affects protein folding.

    PubMed Central

    Zamai, Moreno; Hariharan, Chithra; Pines, Dina; Safran, Michal; Yayon, Avner; Caiolfa, Valeria R; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Pines, Ehud; Parola, Abraham H

    2002-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (basic FGF), a potent inducer of angiogenesis, and the naphthalene sulfonic distamycin A derivative, 7,7-(carbonyl-bis[imino-N-methyl-4,2-pyrrolecarbonylimino[N-methyl-4,2-pyrrole]-carbonylimino])-bis-(1,3-naphtalene disulfonate) (PNU145156E), which exhibits in vivo antiangiogenic activity, form a tight reversible (1:1) complex. PNU145156E binds to the heparin and the selenate-binding sites on bFGF. The cis bFGF-heparin (2:1) complex, essential for the activation of the angiogenic process, is thus prevented. The nature of the forces involved in bFGF:PNU145156E complex, using the wild-type and the K128Q, K138Q, K134Q, and K128Q-K138Q point mutated bFGFs was sought. Based on thermodynamic analysis of the complexation constants, protein temperature stability profiles by ultraviolet absorption, circular dichroism measurements, fluorescence Förster energy-transfer, and anisotropy studies, in harmony with the published x-ray crystallographic structure, the following molecular interactions are proposed: reduced coulombic interactions, hence loosening of the complex by the removal of charged polar groups from the bFGF-heparin binding cleft resulted in decreased binding constants and in a change in the binding mode from polar to nonpolar. Concomitantly, upon mutation, the protein was rendered more compact, less flexible, and less aqueously exposed compared with the wild type. These were further pronounced with the double mutant: weaker dominantly nonpolar protein-drug interactions were accompanied by conspicuous folding. With heparin, however, wild-type bFGF forms a tighter complex with a more compact structure. PMID:11964252

  16. Coordination of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS: Crystal structure of cis-[Pd(HBTS)]Cl2 and 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)-thiourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeragh, Bakir; El-Asmy, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Metal complexes of Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pd2+ or Pt2+ with 2,5-hexanedione bis(thiosemicarbazone), HBTS; have been prepared and spectroscopically investigated. The empirical formulae of the complexes were suggested based on the elemental analysis. Single crystal of Pd(II) has been solved to be cis-form of square-planar geometry by the X-ray crystallography. 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been recorded for HBTS, Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, in DMSO-d6, showing the mode of chelation. The ligand acts as a neutral or a binegative tetradentate (N2S2) or neutral bidentate on the basis of FT-IR. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra provide information about the geometry of the complexes which supported by calculating the ligand field parameters for the Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes. The Ni(II) complex has subnormal magnetic moment (0.71 BM) indicative of a mixed stereochemistry of square-planar and tetrahedral structure. [Cu(HBTS-2H)] measured 0.93 BM indicating high interaction between the copper centers. The ligand may be ordered at the top of the spectrochemical series which giving high ligand field splitting energy (10Dq = 17,900 cm-1 for Co2+ complex). The mass spectra of some complexes proved their stable chemical formulae while the TGA depicts the degradation steps and the final residue. In evaporating the mother liquor during the preparation of HBTS, new compound is obtained naming 1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-yl)thiourea and its crystal was solved.

  17. Pyrrole-3-carboxamides as potent and selective JAK2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brasca, Maria Gabriella; Nesi, Marcella; Avanzi, Nilla; Ballinari, Dario; Bandiera, Tiziano; Bertrand, Jay; Bindi, Simona; Canevari, Giulia; Carenzi, Davide; Casero, Daniele; Ceriani, Lucio; Ciomei, Marina; Cirla, Alessandra; Colombo, Maristella; Cribioli, Sabrina; Cristiani, Cinzia; Della Vedova, Franco; Fachin, Gabriele; Fasolini, Marina; Felder, Eduard R; Galvani, Arturo; Isacchi, Antonella; Mirizzi, Danilo; Motto, Ilaria; Panzeri, Achille; Pesenti, Enrico; Vianello, Paola; Gnocchi, Paola; Donati, Daniele

    2014-09-01

    We report herein the discovery, structure guided design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel class of JAK2 inhibitors. Optimization of the series led to the identification of the potent and orally bioavailable JAK2 inhibitor 28 (NMS-P953). Compound 28 displayed significant tumour growth inhibition in SET-2 xenograft tumour model, with a mechanism of action confirmed in vivo by typical modulation of known biomarkers, and with a favourable pharmacokinetic and safety profile.

  18. Enzymatic Reductive Dehalogenation Controls the Biosynthesis of Marine Bacterial Pyrroles.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Rahman, Imran; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-10-12

    Enzymes capable of performing dehalogenating reactions have attracted tremendous contemporary attention due to their potential application in the bioremediation of anthropogenic polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants. Nature, in particular the marine environment, is also a prolific source of polyhalogenated organic natural products. The study of the biosynthesis of these natural products has furnished a diverse array of halogenation biocatalysts, but thus far no examples of dehalogenating enzymes have been reported from a secondary metabolic pathway. Here we show that the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the highly brominated marine bacterial product pentabromopseudilin is catalyzed by an unusual debrominase Bmp8 that utilizes a redox thiol mechanism to remove the C-2 bromine atom of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromopyrrole to facilitate oxidative coupling to 2,4-dibromophenol. To the best of our knowledge, Bmp8 is first example of a dehalogenating enzyme from the established genetic and biochemical context of a natural product biosynthetic pathway.

  19. Synthesis of isoindoles and related iso-condensed heteroaromatic pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Heugebaert, Thomas S A; Roman, Bart I; Stevens, Christian V

    2012-09-07

    Over the past few years, isoindoles have found wide application in materials science. Isoindole containing BODIPY dyes are highly fluorescent materials and have been extensively used in various fields of science. Phthalocyanines, metal containing cyclic tetramers of isoindole, form coordination complexes with most elements of the periodic table. These complexes are intensely coloured and are used as pigments and dyes. However, isoindoles are relatively unstable 10π-heteroaromatic systems and few synthetic methods provide these compounds in good yields. This tutorial review will give an overview of the reported synthetic methods towards isoindoles and related heteroaromatic systems over a time span of approximately 10 years (2000 to current), including the applications where they have been reported. The importance of the field will be illustrated and factors influencing product stability will be discussed.

  20. High-level ab initio predictions for the ionization energies and heats of formation of five-membered-ring molecules: thiophene, furan, pyrrole, 1,3-cyclopentadiene, and borole, C4H4X/C4H4X+ (X = S, O, NH, CH2, and BH).

    PubMed

    Lo, Po-Kam; Lau, Kai-Chung

    2011-02-10

    The ionization energies (IEs) and heats of formation (ΔH°(f0)/ΔH°(f298)) for thiophene (C(4)H(4)S), furan (C(4)H(4)O), pyrrole (C(4)H(4)NH), 1,3-cyclopentadiene (C(4)H(4)CH(2)), and borole (C(4)H(4)BH) have been calculated by the wave function-based ab initio CCSD(T)/CBS approach, which involves the approximation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations plus a quasi-perturbative triple excitation [CCSD(T)]. Where appropriate, the zero-point vibrational energy correction (ZPVE), the core-valence electronic correction (CV), and the scalar relativistic effect (SR) are included in these calculations. The respective CCSD(T)/CBS predictions for C(4)H(4)S, C(4)H(4)O, C(4)H(4)NH, and C(4)H(4)CH(2), being 8.888, 8.897, 8.222, and 8.582 eV, are in excellent agreement with the experimental values obtained from previous photoelectron and photoion measurements. The ΔH°(f0)/ΔH°(f298) values for the aforementioned molecules and their corresponding cations have also been predicted by the CCSD(T)/CBS method, and the results are compared with the available experimental data. The comparisons between the CCSD(T)/CBS predictions and the experimental values for C(4)H(4)S, C(4)H(4)O, C(4)H(4)NH, and C(4)H(4)CH(2) suggest that the CCSD(T)/CBS procedure is capable of predicting reliable IE values for five-membered-ring molecules with an uncertainty of ±13 meV. In view of the excellent agreements between the CCSD(T)/CBS predictions and the experimental values for C(4)H(4)S, C(4)H(4)O, C(4)H(4)NH, and C(4)H(4)CH(2), the similar CCSD(T)/CBS IE and ΔH°(f0)/ΔH°(f298) predictions for C(4)H(4)BH, whose thermochemical data are not readily available due to its reactive nature, should constitute a reliable data set. The CCSD(T)/CBS IE(C(4)H(4)BH) value is 8.868 eV, and ΔH°(f0)/ΔH°(f298) values for C(4)H(4)BH and C(4)H(4)BH(+) are 269.5/258.6 and 1125.1/1114.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The highest occupied molecular orbitals

  1. S33138 (N-[4-[2-[(3aS,9bR)-8-cyano-1,3a,4,9b-tetrahydro[1] benzopyrano[3,4-c]pyrrol-2(3H)-yl)-ethyl]phenyl-acetamide), a preferential dopamine D3 versus D2 receptor antagonist and potential antipsychotic agent: III. Actions in models of therapeutic activity and induction of side effects.

    PubMed

    Millan, Mark J; Loiseau, Florence; Dekeyne, Anne; Gobert, Alain; Flik, Gunnar; Cremers, Thomas I; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Sicard, Dorothée; Billiras, Rodolphe; Brocco, Mauricette

    2008-03-01

    In contrast to clinically available antipsychotics, the novel benzopyranopyrrolidine derivative, S33138 (N-[4-[2-[(3aS,9bR)-8-cyano-1,3a,4,9b-tetrahydro[1]benzopyrano[3,4-c]pyrrol-2(3H)-yl)-ethyl]phenyl-acetamide), behaves as a preferential antagonist of D(3) versus D(2) receptors and does not interact with histamine H(1) and muscarinic receptors. In contrast to haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone, S33138 (0.16-2.5 mg/kg s.c.) did not disrupt performance in passive-avoidance and five-choice serial reaction time procedures. Furthermore, upon either systemic administration (0.04-2.5 mg/kg s.c.) or introduction into the frontal cortex (0.04-0.63 mug/side), S33138 potently attenuated the perturbation of social recognition by scopolamine or a prolonged intersession delay. Over a comparable and low-dose range, S33138 (0.04-0.63 mg/kg s.c.) elevated dialysis levels of acetylcholine in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats. At higher doses (2.5-10.0 mg/kg s.c.), S33138 also increased frontocortical levels of histamine, whereas monoamines, glutamate, glycine, and GABA were unaffected. By analogy to the other antipsychotics, S33138 (0.63-10.0 mg/kg s.c.) inhibited conditioned avoidance responses in rats, apomorphine-induced climbing in mice, and hyperlocomotion elicited by amphetamine, cocaine, dizocilpine, ketamine, and phencyclidine in rats. S33138 (0.16-2.5 mg/kg s.c.) also blocked the reduction of prepulse inhibition elicited by apomorphine. In comparison with the above actions, only "high" doses of S33138 (10.0-40.0 mg/kg s.c.) elicited catalepsy. To summarize, reflecting preferential blockade of D(3) versus D(2) receptors, S33138 preserves and/or enhances cognitive function, increases frontocortical cholinergic transmission, and is active in models of antipsychotic properties at doses well below those inducing catalepsy. In comparison with clinically available agents, S33138 displays, thus, a distinctive and promising profile of potential

  2. 7-cysteine-pyrrole conjugate: A new potential DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Ma, Liang; Fu, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) require metabolic activation to exert cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. We previously reported that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts are responsible for PA-induced liver tumor formation in rats. In this study, we determined that metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human or rat liver microsomes produced 7-cysteine-DHP and DHP. The metabolism of 7-glutathionyl-DHP by human and rat liver microsomes also generated 7-cysteine-DHP. Further, reaction of 7-cysteine-DHP with calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution yielded the described DHP-derived DNA adducts. This study represents the first report that 7-cysteine-DHP is a new PA metabolite that can lead to DNA adduct formation.

  3. Novel pyrrole carboxamide inhibitors of JAK2 as potential treatment of myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Brasca, Maria Gabriella; Gnocchi, Paola; Nesi, Marcella; Amboldi, Nadia; Avanzi, Nilla; Bertrand, Jay; Bindi, Simona; Canevari, Giulia; Casero, Daniele; Ciomei, Marina; Colombo, Nicoletta; Cribioli, Sabrina; Fachin, Gabriele; Felder, Eduard R; Galvani, Arturo; Isacchi, Antonella; Motto, Ilaria; Panzeri, Achille; Donati, Daniele

    2015-05-15

    Compound 1, a hit from the screening of our chemical collection displaying activity against JAK2, was deconstructed for SAR analysis into three regions, which were explored. A series of compounds was synthesized leading to the identification of the potent and orally bioavailable JAK2 inhibitor 16 (NMS-P830), which showed an encouraging tumour growth inhibition in SET-2 xenograft tumour model, with evidence for JAK2 pathway suppression demonstrated by in vivo pharmacodynamic effects.

  4. Rh2 (S-biTISP)2-Catalyzed Asymmetric Functionalization of Indoles and Pyrroles with Vinylcarbenoids

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yajing; Davies, Huw M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric functionalization of N-heterocycles by vinylcarbenoids in the presence of catalytic amounts of Rh2 (S-biTISP)2 has been successfully developed. This bridged dirhodium catalyst not only selectively enforces the reaction to occur at the vinylogous position of the carbenoid, but also, affords high levels of asymmetric induction. PMID:22452332

  5. Research on interfacial polymerization of pyrrole assist with Span80 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q. H.; Tu, Z. Y.; Zhao, N. Y.

    2016-07-01

    With assistance of surfactants, self-assembled Polypyrrole (PPy) film was prepared via oil / water interfacial polymerization. The chemical structure and morphologies of the obtained samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical performance recorded on an electrochemical workstation, mainly includes cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The prepared PPy film has its own extremely vesicular structures from results and indicates by using different concentration surfactant Span80. The PPy film prepared 25 °C with 3.32 g/L Span80 (surpass its critical micelle concentration) as a surfactant possess a supernal specific capacitance of 368.18 F/g at a scan rate 50 mV/s in 1 M NaNO3 aqueous solution at.

  6. Specific alkylation of human telomere repeats by hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamide.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryoko; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2003-06-12

    A novel hairpin polyamide-cyclopropapyrroloindole (CPI) conjugate PyImImIm-gamma-PyPyPyLDu86 (conjugate 11), which targets human telomere repeats d(TTAGGG)(n)/d(CCCTAA)(n), was synthesized. High resolution denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using 44 bp DNA fragments and HPLC product analysis of a synthetic nonanucleotide demonstrated that conjugate 11 alkylates the target adenine in the telomere repeats, 5'-CCCTAA-3'. Examination of the antitumor activity of conjugate 11 using a panel of 39 cancer cell lines demonstrated that the average concentration of conjugate 11 required for 50% growth inhibition was 5.75 microM, which is superior to pepleomycin and bleomycin and comparable to cisplatin.

  7. Synthesis of pyrroles by consecutive multicomponent reaction/[4 + 1] cycloaddition of alpha-iminonitriles with isocyanides.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Patrice; Masson, Géraldine; Zhu, Jieping

    2009-04-02

    [4 + 1] Cycloaddition of alpha,beta-unsaturated imidoyl cyanide (2-cyano-1-azadienes) with isocyanides in the presence of a catalytic amount of AlCl(3) afforded polysubstituted 2-amino-5-cyanopyrroles in good to excellent yields. In combination with the IBX/TBAB-mediated oxidative Strecker reaction, this important heterocycle is readily synthesized in two steps from simple starting materials.

  8. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel hydrazide, benzochromenone, dihydropyridine, pyrrole, thiazole and thiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Refat, Hala M; Fadda, A A

    2013-01-01

    As a part of ongoing studies in developing new potent antimicrobial agents, a novel synthesis of 2-cyano-N-(1-(3-oxo-3H-benzo[f]chromen-2-yl)ethylidene)acetohydrazide (3) has been reported. The latter compound was reacted with different reagents to give new heterocyclic compounds. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral data. Representative compounds of the synthesized products were tested and evaluated as antimicrobial agents.

  9. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  10. 3-(2,5-Dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethoxy)pyridines: synthesis and analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Baraznenok, Ivan L; Jonsson, Emma; Claesson, Alf

    2005-03-15

    We disclose an efficient procedure for the preparation of ethers of 2-substituted 2-hydroxymethylpyrroline and of 2-aminomethyl-3-pyrrolines, involving, as a key step, formation and nucleophilic ring opening of a cyclic sulfamidate. Several new analogs of epibatidine (1) and tebanicline (ABT-594, 2) were prepared and tested for analgesic activity in the mouse formalin model.

  11. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  12. Selective Targeting of the KRAS Codon 12 Mutation Sequence by Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide seco-CBI Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys D; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hashiya, Kaori; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-10-12

    Mutation of KRAS is a key step in many cancers. Mutations occur most frequently at codon 12, but the targeting of KRAS is notoriously difficult. We recently demonstrated selective reduction in the volume of tumors harboring the KRAS codon 12 mutation in a mouse model by using an alkylating hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide seco-1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[1,2-c]benz[1,2-e]indol-4-one conjugate (conjugate 4) designed to target the KRAS codon 12 mutation sequence. Herein, we have compared the alkylating activity of 4 against three other conjugates that were also designed to target the KRAS codon 12 mutation sequence. Conjugate 4 displayed greater affinity for the G12D mutation sequence than for the G12V sequence. A computer-minimized model suggested that conjugate 4 could bind more efficiently to the G12D match sequence than to a one-base-pair mismatch sequence. Conjugate 4 was modified for next-generation sequencing. Bind-n-Seq analysis supported the evidence showing that conjugate 4 could target the G12D mutation sequence with exceptionally high affinity and the G12V mutation sequence with much higher affinity than that for the wild-type sequence.

  13. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropylidenedioxy-5-phenylsulfonylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, P.; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H17NO5S, was prepared by oxidation of (2R,3S,4R)-2-phenyl­sulfonyl­methyl-1-hy­droxy-3,4-iso­pro­pyl­idene­dioxy­pyrrolidine. Its crystal structure confirms unequivocally its configuration. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions help to establish the packing. PMID:21754431

  14. Sequence-specific DNA alkylation targeting for Kras codon 13 mutation by pyrrole-imidazole polyamide seco-CBI conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Asamitsu, Sefan; Takenaka, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Makoto; Hashiya, Kaori; Kawamoto, Yusuke; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-27

    Hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide seco-CBI conjugates 2-6 were designed for synthesis by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis, and their DNA-alkylating activities against the Kras codon 13 mutation were compared by high-resolution denaturing gel electrophoresis with 225 base pair (bp) DNA fragments. Conjugate 5 had high reactivity towards the Kras codon 13 mutation site, with alkylation occurring at the A of the sequence 5'-ACGTCACCA-3' (site 2), including minor 1 bp-mismatch alkylation against wild type 5'-ACGCCACCA-3' (site 3). Conjugate 6, which differs from conjugate 5 by exchanging one Py unit with a β unit, showed high selectivity but only weakly alkylated the A of 5'-ACGTCACCA-3' (site 2). The hairpin polyamide seco-CBI conjugate 5 thus alkylates according to Dervan's pairing rule with the pairing recognition which β/β pair targets T-A and A-T pairs. SPR and a computer-minimized model suggest that 5 binds to the target sequence with high affinity in a hairpin conformation, allowing for efficient DNA alkylation.

  15. Lamellarin O, a Pyrrole Alkaloid from an Australian Marine Sponge, Ianthella sp., Reverses BCRP Mediated Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Cong; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Talele, Tanaji T.; Salim, Angela A.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, BCRP and MRP1, can increase efflux of clinical chemotherapeutic agents and lead to multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. While the discovery and development of clinically useful inhibitors has proved elusive to date, this molecular target nevertheless remains a promising strategy for addressing and potentially overcoming MDR. In a search for new classes of inhibitor, we used fluorescent accumulation and efflux assays supported by cell flow cytometry and MDR reversal assays, against a panel of sensitive and MDR human cancer cell lines, to evaluate the marine sponge co-metabolites 1–12 as inhibitors of P-gp, BCRP or MRP1 initiated MDR. These studies identified and characterized lamellarin O (11) as a selective inhibitor of BCRP mediated drug efflux. A structure–activity relationship analysis inclusive of the natural products 1–12 and the synthetic analogues 13–19, supported by in silico docking studies, revealed key structural requirements for the lamellarin O (11) BCRP inhibitory pharmacophore. PMID:24979269

  16. Radiation losses in microwave Ku region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kumar, Sachin; Narang, S. B.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (-14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm-1) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer.

  17. Green Synthesis of Ag and Pd Nanospheres, Nanowires, and Nanorods Using Vitamin B2: Catalytic Polymerisation of Aniline and Pyrrole

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the first time, we report green chemistry approach using vitamin B2 in the synthesis of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd), nanospheres, nanowires and nanorods at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or hydroxylamine hydro...

  18. Band strength in photoelectron spectra and photoionization cross sections of pyrrole and of conformation isomers of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Kiro, Z. A.; Dykhanov, S. M.; Zverev, V. V.

    1988-09-01

    The dependence of partial photoionization cross sections of the 1,1-dimethylhydrazine molecule on the spatial characteristics (bond lengths, valence and dihedral angles) has been studied. The presence of a gauche-conformation isomer in the gaseous phase has been established, as confirmed by a comparison of the photoionization cross section ratios for the corresponding molecular orbitals with the relative band strengths in photoelectron spectra.

  19. A DFT study of [3+2] cycloaddition reactions of an azomethine imine with N-vinyl pyrrole and N-vinyl tetrahydroindole.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Gutiérrez, Mar; Chafaa, Fouad; Khorief Nacereddine, Abdelmalek; Djerourou, Abdelhafid; Domingo, Luis R

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism and selectivities of the [3+2] cycloaddition (32CA) reactions of azomethine imine (AI) 8 with two N-vinyl five-membered heterocycles (NVFH), 9a and 9b, have been theoretically studied using DFT methods at the MPWB1K/6-31G(d) computational level. The possible ortho/meta regio- and endo/exo stereoselective channels were explored and characterised. The low polar character of these 32CA reactions, which is the consequence of the high nucleophilic character of both reagents, as well as the non-effective reactivity of these NVFH as nucleophiles, accounts for the high calculated activation energies, 16.1 (9a) and 16.8 (9b) kcalmol(-1) in chlorobenzene. Analysis of the relative electronic and free energies associated with the different reaction pathways indicates that the 32CA reactions of the AI with these NVFH are highly meta regioselective but present a poor stereoselectivity, in agreement with the experimental observations. Finally, electron localisation function (ELF) topological analysis allows characterising the mechanism of these 32CA reactions as a non-concerted two-stage one-step mechanism.

  20. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropyl­idenedioxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, Pilar; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound C7H11NO3 was prepared by intra­molecular nucleophilic displacement of 2,3-O-iso-propyl­idene-d-erythronolactol. There are two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, which are related by a pseudo-inversion centre. The crystal structure determination confirms unequivocally the configuration of the chiral centres as 3S,4R. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules (into infinite zigzag chains along the a axis. PMID:21754432

  1. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, T.

    1997-02-04

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by reacting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. One such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  2. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, T.

    1996-03-26

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by reacting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. One such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro-1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  3. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, Tilak

    1997-01-01

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by recting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. Once such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro-1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  4. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, T.

    1996-07-16

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by reacting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. One such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  5. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, Tilak

    1996-01-01

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by recting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. Once such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a 2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro-1-halocarbyl)pyrrole!, and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  6. Substituted dipyrromethanes and their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, Tilak

    1996-01-01

    New chemical compounds, bis(pyrrol-2-yl)halocarbylmethanes, also known as meso-halocarbyl dipyrromethanes, are made by recting pyrrole in either of two reaction schemes. Once such scheme converts pyrrole through an intermediate, a halocarbyl carbonyl pyrrole, to a [2-(1-hydroxyl-1-hydro-1-halocarbyl)pyrrole], and then converts the latter to the desired halocarbyldipyrromethane; the last step in this scheme is a novel and useful method in itself. The other such sequence converts pyrrole, by reaction with a halocarbyl aldehyde, directly to the desired halocarbyl dipyrromethane.

  7. Electrochemical Deposition Of Conductive Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Distefano, Salvador; Liang, Ranty H.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show electrically conductive films are deposited on glassy carbon or indium tin oxide substrates by electrochemical polymerization of N-{(3-trimethoxy silyl) propyl} pyrrole or copolymerization with pyrrole. Copolymers of monomer I and pyrrole exhibit desired electrical conductivity as well as desired adhesion and other mechanical properties. When fully developed, new copolymerization process useful in making surface films of selectable conductivity.

  8. Fabrication of Minerals Substituted Porous Hydroxyapaptite/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy pyrrole-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Bilayer Coatings on Surgical Grade Stainless Steel and Its Antibacterial and Biological Activities for Orthopedic Applications.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Ramya; Elangomannan, Shinyjoy; Louis, Kavitha; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Gopi, Dhanaraj

    2016-05-18

    Current strategies of bilayer technology have been aimed mainly at the enhancement of bioactivity, mechanical property and corrosion resistance. In the present investigation, the electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (P(EDOP-co-EDOT)) with various feed ratios of EDOP/EDOT on surgical grade stainless steel (316L SS) and the successive electrodeposition of strontium (Sr(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)) and cerium (Ce(3+)) (with 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 M Ce(3+)) substituted porous hydroxyapatite (M-HA) are successfully combined to produce the bioactive and corrosion resistance P(EDOP-co-EDOT)/M-HA bilayer coatings for orthopedic applications. The existence of as-developed coatings was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, the mechanical and thermal behavior of the bilayer coatings were analyzed. The corrosion resistance of the as-developed coatings and also the influence of copolymer (EDOP:EDOT) feed ratio were studied in Ringer's solution by electrochemical techniques. The as-obtained results are in accord with those obtained from the chemical analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In addition, the antibacterial activity, in vitro bioactivity, cell viability and cell adhesion tests were performed to substantiate the biocompatibility of P(EDOP-co-EDOT)/M-HA bilayer coatings. On account of these investigations, it is proved that the as-developed bilayer coatings exhibit superior bioactivity and improved corrosion resistance over 316L SS, which is potential for orthopedic applications.

  9. Computational study of An-X bonding (An = Th, U; X = p-block-based ligands) in pyrrolic macrocycle-supported complexes from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules and bond energy decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kieran T P; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2017-01-17

    A systematic computational study of organoactinide complexes of the form [LAnX](n+) has been carried out using density functional theory, the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and Ziegler-Rauk energy decomposition analysis (EDA) methods. The systems studied feature L = trans-calix[2]benzene[2]pyrrolide, An = Th(iv), Th(iii), U(iii) and X = BH4, BO2C2H4, Me, N(SiH3)2, OPh, CH3, NH2, OH, F, SiH3, PH2, SH, Cl, CH2Ph, NHPh, OPh, SiH2Ph, PHPh2, SPh, CPh3, NPh2, OPh, SiPh3 PPh2, SPh. The PBE0 hybrid functional proved most suitable for geometry optimisations based on comparisons with available experimental data. An-X bond critical point electron densities, energy densities and An-X delocalisation indices, calculated with the PBE functional at the PBE0 geometries, are correlated with An-X bond energies, enthalpies and with the terms in the EDA. Good correlations are found between energies and QTAIM metrics, particularly for the orbital interaction term, provided the X ligand is part of an isoelectronic series and the number of open shell electrons is low (i.e. for the present Th(iv) and Th(iii) systems).

  10. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  11. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Alexandrina Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  12. Synthesis of Peramine, an Anti-insect Defensive Alkaloid Produced by Endophytic Fungi of Cool Season Grasses.

    PubMed

    Nelli, Matthew R; Scheerer, Jonathan R

    2016-04-22

    A seven-step synthesis of peramine, which required three chromatographic separations, is described. Key to the synthesis is an enolate alkylation of a pyrrole-fused diketopiperazine, reduction of the acyl pyrrole, and dehydration of the intermediate pyrrolyl carbinol to establish the pyrrolopyrazine core of peramine.

  13. Synthesis of "Meso"-Diethyl-2,2'-Dipyrromethane in Water: An Experiment in Green Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobral, Abilio J. F. N.

    2006-01-01

    Dipyrromethanes (or dipyrrilmethanes) are important building blocks for many of the structures of interest in the areas of porphyrins, materials science, optics, and medicine. A variety of conditions have been established for the synthesis of dipyrromethanes of diverse structures, from substituted pyrroles to unsubstituted pyrrole and carbonyl…

  14. Quaterpyrroles as building blocks for the synthesis of expanded porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Anguera, Gonzalo; Kauffmann, Brice; Borrell, José I; Borrós, Salvador; Sánchez-García, David

    2015-05-01

    A new family of quaterpyrroles and their application as building blocks for the synthesis of macrocycles is reported. The preparation of these quaterpyrroles consisted of two synthetic steps: bromination of 2,2'-bipyrroles bearing two electron-withdrawing groups followed by Suzuki coupling with 1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)pyrrole-2-boronic acid. The resulting quaterpyrroles have been used to prepare an octaphyrin and a substituted cyclo[8]pyrrole. Additionally, the synthesis of a new macrocycle containing the quaterpyrrole and 2,5-di(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)thiophene moieties is presented.

  15. Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    More than 300 pesticide products in seven chemical classes are registered with EPA, meaning EPA has evaluated their safety and effectiveness: pyrethins, pyrethroids, desiccants, biochemicals, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and insect growth regulators.

  16. Royal Society of Chemistry, Heterocyclic Chemistry Group, Lakeland Heterocyclic Symposium (11th), Held in Grasmere 6-10 May 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Organic Synthesis : A Synthetic Strategy with a Future; The Design and Synthesis of Selective Protein Kinase C Inhibitors; and Isocondensed Heteroaromatic Pyrroles: Syntheses, and Applications in the Syntheses of Natural Products and Conducting

  17. Synthetic route to meso-tetra hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrins and derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Wijesekera, Tilak P.; Wagner, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    The hydroxyl group in a pyrrolic compound having in the 2-position thereof a group having the formula R(OH)CH--R is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, is replaced by a group, for example a p-nitrobenzoate group, having better leaving properties than those of hydroxyl for a subsequent self-condensation and cyclization of the pyrrolic compound to form a meso-hydrocarbyl or meso-substituted hydrocarbyl porphyrin.

  18. Electronic and Ionic Transport in Processable Conducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-12

    Reynolds, J. R. "Charge and Ion Transport in Poly(pyrrole copper phthalocyanine - sulfonate ) During Redox Switching," J. Electroanal. Chem., submitted...the following polymers: (1) copolymers of heterocyclic rings such as pyrrole or furan with disubstituted ( methyl or methoxy groups ) benzene; (2...SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIEL GRUP I SUB- GROUP IPoly[1,4-bis(2-furanyl)-2,5-disubstituted-p

  19. Modular Total Syntheses of the Alkaloids Discoipyrroles A and B, Potent Inhibitors of the DDR2 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwen; Banwell, Martin G; Carr, Paul D; Willis, Anthony C

    2016-02-19

    The title natural product 1 has been synthesized by treating the 1,2,3,5-tetrasubstituted pyrrole 23 with oxoperoxymolybdenum(pyridine) (hexamethylphosphoric triamide) (MoOPH). Compound 23 was itself prepared in seven steps from parent pyrrole using Ullmann-Goldberg and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, Vilsmeier-Haack formylation, electrophilic bromination, and Wittig olefination reactions as key steps. Related chemistry has been used to prepare discoipyrrole B (2).

  20. Design of Lewis acid-base complex: enhancing the stability and first hyperpolarizability of large excess electron compound.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Miao, Tifang; Zhou, Zhongjun; Sun, Dengming

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper, a new type of Lewis acid-base complex BX3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole (X = H and F) was designed and assembled based on electride molecule Li@calix[4]pyrrole (as a Lewis base) and the electron deficient molecule BX3 (as a Lewis acid) by employing quantum mechanical calculation. The new Lewis acid-base complex offers an interesting push-excess electron-pull (P-e-P) framework to enhance the stability and nonlinear optical (NLO) response. To measure the nonlinear optical response, static first hyperpolarizabilities (β 0) are exhibited. Significantly, point-face assembled Lewis acid-base complex BF3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole (II) has considerable first hyperpolarizabilities (β 0) value (1.4  ×  106 a.u.), which is about 117 times larger than reported 11,721 a.u. of electride Li@Calix[4]pyrrole. Further investigations show that, in BX3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole with P-e-P framework, a strong charge-transfer transition from the ground state to the excited state contributes to the enhancement of first hyperpolarizability. Theory calculation of enthalpies of reaction (ΔrH0) at 298 K demonstrates that it is feasible to synthetize the complexes BX3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole. In addition, compared with Li@Calix[4]pyrrole, the vertical ionization potential (VIP) and HOMO-LUMO gap of BX3...Li@Calix[4]pyrrole have obviously increased, due to the introduction of the Lewis acid molecule BX3. The novel Lewis acid-base NLO complex possesses not only a large nonlinear optical response but also higher stability.

  1. A Spectroelectrochemical Investigation Oxidation of the Bilirubin IX-Alpa in Dimethylformamide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-28

    purification of the IX-a natural isomer. The commercial material, generally isolated from oxen bile or gallstones , was dissolved in chloroform by boilinq... cause the wave to appear.’ 1/2 The decrease in slope of the i - plots and an anodic shift for the p +0.10 V wave with increased acid strength of the...center pyrrole nitrogen (Figure 18). In the neutral species, the two carboxylic acid groups are hydrogen bonded to these pyrrole nitrogens causing

  2. Reaction of phosphinylated nitrosoalkenes with electron-rich heterocycles. Electrophilic aromatic substitution vs. cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    de Los Santos, Jesús M; Rubiales, Gloria; Sbai, Zouhair Es; Ochoa de Retana, Ana M; Palacios, Francisco

    2017-01-18

    The behavior of phosphinyl nitrosoalkenes with indole, pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrrole is described. The reaction of nitrosoalkenes with indole leads to the formation of 3-substituted indoles. While a concerted asynchronous [4 + 2] cycloaddition process may explain the formation of 3-substituted indole when a methyl group is present at the 3-position of nitrosoalkene, the presence of a 3-methoxycarbonyl group at the same position of nitrosoalkene increases its electrophilic character, and both mechanisms, an electrophilic aromatic substitution and a [4 + 2] cycloaddition process, are predicted to be competitive, although thermodynamically the cycloaddition is favoured. Phosphinyl nitrosoalkenes react with pyrrole leading to the corresponding 2-substituted pyrroles, while the treatment of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole with these nitrosoalkenes gives rise to the formation of bicyclic 1,2-oxazines. The mechanism of the reaction of phosphinyl nitrosoalkenes with pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylppyrrole may be explained by an initial hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition in both cases, but only subsequent rearomatization in the case of pyrrole. Theoretical studies show very good agreement with the experimental findings and the proposed mechanisms.

  3. Toward a Molecular Understanding of the Typicality of Chardonnay Wines: Identification of Powerful Aromatic Compounds Reminiscent of Hazelnut.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jacques; Lavigne, Valérie; Thibaud, Fannie; Gammacurta, Marine; Moine, Virginie; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe; Marchal, Axel

    2017-02-08

    Chardonnay wines impart a unique complex aroma characterized by its buttery, yellow stone fruit, melon, bready, and woody notes. Among the terms used in the sensory analysis of these wines, this study investigated hazelnut-like attributes. Multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry identified five pyrroles reminiscent of hazelnut: 1-ethylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 1H-pyrrole, 2-acetyl-1H-pyrrole (first identification in wine), 1-methylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde. Quantitative analyses demonstrated their significantly higher abundance in Chardonnay wines. However, they proved irrelevant in sensory terms, given the low amounts measured in wine compared to their olfactory detection threshold. Nevertheless, the presence of methanethiol derivatives from these pyrroles was investigated in wine. 1-Methylpyrrole-2-methanethiol and 1-ethylpyrrole-2-methanethiol were identified and exhibited hazelnut-like aroma. These compounds, which have not been observed in natural products to date, are potent volatile compounds with detection thresholds of 0.7 and 1.4 ng/L, respectively, in model wine. These findings open up promising perspectives concerning the interpretation of the typical aromatic nuances of some Chardonnay wines.

  4. Mechanism and pathways of chlorfenapyr photocatalytic degradation in aqueous suspension of TiO2.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongsong; Yi, Lei; Huang, Lu; Hou, Ying; Lu, Yitong

    2006-05-15

    The light-induced degradation of chlorfenapyr under UV was investigated in aqueous solutions containing TiO2 as photocatalyst. The photocatalytic degradation of chlorfenapyr followed pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics (Ct = C0e(-kt)). The study focused on the identification of possible intermediate products during the degradation, using gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1HNMR. Six aromatic intermediates were identified by several techniques during the treatment and some of them were further confirmed by matching authentic standards. Structure analysis of the degradation products suggested two degradation pathways: (1) The aliphatic ether group was cleaved from chlorfenapyr to form pyrrole-alph-carboxylic acid, then the pyrrole group was broken to form 4-chloroglycine; (2) Chlorfenapyr was debrominated and the aliphatic ether group was cleaved from the pyrrole group, which was further broken to form 4-chlorophenylglycine. The glycine was degraded into 4-chlorobenzoic acids, which was further broken into inorganic ions and CO2.

  5. Fluorophobic effect for building up the surface morphology of electrodeposited substituted conductive polymers.

    PubMed

    Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2009-05-19

    During the past decade, several works display the electrochemical polymerization of fluorinated monomers as a highly efficient method (one-pot method, mild conditions, various morphologies) to obtain superhydrophobic or superoleophobic surfaces. Here, we point out the fluorinated tails not only are useful to increase both hydrophobicity and oleophobicity but also are involved in the formation of surface structurations: two necessary conditions for liquid dewetting. To support this assertion, a series of fluorinated pyrrole derivatives and their hydrocarbon homologues were synthesized and electrochemically deposited in the same conditions. Whereas hydrocarbon pyrroles give rise to smooth films, structured films are achieved from fluorinated pyrroles. The abundance of the surface structurations depends on the length of the fluorinated tail.

  6. Production of anticancer polyenes through precursor-directed biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Benjamin R; O'Connor, Stephen; Fox, Deirdre; Leroy, Jacques; Murphy, Cormac D

    2011-09-21

    The biosynthesis of the pyrrolyl moiety of the fungal metabolite rumbrin originates from pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. In an effort to produce novel derivatives with enhanced biological activity a series of substituted pyrrole-2-carboxylates were synthesised and incubated with the producing organism, Auxarthron umbrinum. Several 4-halo-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acids were incorporated into the metabolite yielding three new derivatives: 3-fluoro-, 3-chloro- and 3-bromo-isorumbrin, which were generated in milligram quantities enabling cytotoxicity assays to be conducted. The 3-chloro- and 3-bromo-isorumbrins had improved activity against HeLa cells compared with rumbrin; 3-bromoisorumbrin also showed dramatically improved activity towards a lung cancer cell line (A549).

  7. Comparison of natural and roasted Turkish tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) volatiles and flavor by DHA/GC/MS and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2003-08-13

    Natural (raw) and roasted hazelnuts were compared for their differences in volatile components and sensory responses. A total of 79 compounds were detected in both hazelnuts, of which 39 (27 positive, 5 tentative, and 7 unknown) were detected in natural hazelnut and 71 (40 positive, 14 tentative, and 17 unknown) were detected in roasted hazelnut. These included ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids. Pyrazines, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids were detected in roasted hazelnut only. Concentrations of several compounds increased as a result of roasting and these may play significant roles in the flavor of roasted hazelnut. Pyrazines together with ketones, aldehydes, furans, and pyrroles may contribute to the characteristic roasted aroma of hazelnut. Descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that some flavor attributes such as "aftertaste", "burnt", "coffee/chocolate-like", "roasty", and "sweet" were rated significantly higher in roasted hazelnut compared to its natural counterpart. Natural and roasted hazelnuts can be distinguished using these attributes.

  8. From Heteroaromatic Acids and Imines to Azaspirocycles: Stereoselective Synthesis and 3D Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Sarah J.; Coulthard, Graeme; Unsworth, William P.; O'Brien, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Heteroaromatic carboxylic acids have been directly coupled with imines using propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P) and NEt(iPr)2 to form azaspirocycles via intermediate N‐acyliminium ions. Spirocyclic indolenines (3H‐indoles), azaindolenines, 2H‐pyrroles and 3H‐pyrroles were all accessed using this metal‐free approach. The reactions typically proceed with high diastereoselectivity and 3D shape analysis confirms that the products formed occupy areas of chemical space that are under‐represented in existing drugs and high throughput screening libraries. PMID:26918778

  9. Synthesis of Hydrodipyrrins Tailored for Reactivity at the 1- and 9-Positions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Je; Dogutan, Dilek Kiper; Ptaszek, Marcin; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    A collection of 33 hydrodipyrrins (9 targets, 21 intermediates, and 3 byproducts) has been prepared. The hydrodipyrrins (dihydrodipyrrins, tetrahydrodipyrrins, and hexahydrodipyrrins) contain a pyrrole ring and a geminal-dimethyl substituted 1-pyrroline (or pyrrolidine) ring. The α-substituents on the pyrrole ring (H, Br, CHO) and pyrroline ring (H, CH3, CH(OR)2, OMe, SMe) provide different reactivity combinations (Nu−, E+) and 0, 1, or 2 carbon atoms (which can give rise to the bridging meso-carbons in hydroporphyrins). Straightforward access to various hydrodipyrrins should facilitate development of syntheses of diverse hydroporphyrins. PMID:17464365

  10. Electrochemical properties of carbons obtained from precursors of electrochemically polymerized polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, Kenichi; Tsutsui, Miho; Kaneko, Tomohiko; Otani, Sugio; Yoshimura, Susumu

    1995-12-31

    Electrochemically polymerized polymers from pyrrole, fluoranthene and pyrene were heat-treated at temperatures between 600 to 3,000. The electrochemical properties of these heat-treated samples were examined by chronoamperometry using an electrolyte solution of 1M LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate. Lithium doping capacities of carbons from fluoranthene and pyrrole polymer heat-treated at 3,000 C were 1.5 and 1.2 times that of the theoretical capacity of graphite as LiC{sub 6}, respectively.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of acetic acid and ethanoic acid (based)-maleimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poad, Siti Nashwa Mohd; Hassan, Nurul Izzaty; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2016-11-01

    A new route to the synthesis of maleimide is described. 2-(2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)acetic acid maleimide (1) and 2-(4-(2,5-Dioxo-2,5-dihydro- 1H-pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl)ethanoic acid maleimide (2) have been synthesized by the reaction of maleic anhydride with glycine and 4-aminophenyl acetic aicd. Maleimide (1) was synthesized by conventional technique while maleimide (2) was synthesized by microwave method. The compounds were characterized using FT-Infrared (FT-IR), 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies and Mass Spectrometry.

  12. The Determination of Rate-Limiting Steps during Soot Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-08

    in Int. J. Chem. Kin.. 3. Duran, R.P., Amorebieta, V.T. and Colussi, A.J., "Radical Sensitization of Acetylene Pyroly - sis", to be published in Int. J...and other nitrogenous species. This situation differs dramatically from the pyrolyses of toluene3 2 and benzene 1 8 which exhibited carbon losses cf 70...Tube Pyrolys is of Pyrrole and Kinetic Modeling I I I U 3 3 I D-1 I SHOCK TUBE PYROLYSIS OF PYRROLE AND KINETIC MODELING John C. Mackie, Department of

  13. 2-Trimethylsilylethanesulfonyl (SES) versus tosyl (Ts) protecting group in the preparation of nitrogen-containing five-membered rings. A novel route for the synthesis of substituted pyrrolines and pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Valérie; Allouchi, Hassan; Martinez, Jean; Lamaty, Frédéric

    2007-02-16

    The 2-trimethylsilylethanesulfonyl (or SES) protecting group was compared to the tosyl (Ts) group in the preparation of a nitrogen-containing five-membered ring obtained by the aza-Baylis-Hillman/alkylation/RCM route. While deprotection of Ts-protected pyrrolines gave only pyrroles, deprotection of the same SES-protected compounds gave either pyrroles or free amine pyrrolines depending on the deprotection conditions. The SES-protected pyrrolines were hydrogenated to yield pyrrolidines with an excellent diastereoselectivity. Free amine pyrrolidines were obtained by HF-mediated deprotection of the SES group.

  14. The structure of alkali metal derivatives of azoles: N-sigma versus pi structures.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Fernando; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, Jose

    2008-08-21

    High level ab initio calculations have been used to study the relative stability of N-sigma and pi configurations of the neutral alkaline derivatives of azoles. The N-sigma structure is the one normally expected for nonionized azolate salts. However, the results show that in the case of the pyrrole and imidazole the pi configuration is more stable than the N-sigma one. The preference of the N-sigma vs pi configurations is related to the presence or the absence of two contiguous nitrogen atoms in the azole ring. A search in the CSD shows that some pyrrolate and imidazolate salts exist in solid phase in the pi configuration.

  15. Calix[4]tetrahydrothiophenopyrrole: a ditopic receptor displaying a split personality for ion recognition.

    PubMed

    Saha, Indrajit; Park, Kyung Hwa; Han, Mina; Kim, Sung Kuk; Lynch, Vincent M; Sessler, Jonathan L; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2014-10-17

    A calix[4]pyrrole fused with 2,5-dihydrothiophene, possessing both a deep, π-electron-rich pocket upon anion binding and chelating ligands on the periphery, was developed. The receptor selectively forms an ion-pair complex with CsF through H-bonding and a cation-π interaction. In the process, it adopt a conformationally fixed cone conformation. The receptor displays exceptionally high affinity toward the Hg(II) ion and forms stable complexes while maintaining a rigid 1,3-alternate conformation. This metal ion-induced conformational locking is unprecedented in calix[4]pyrrole chemistry.

  16. Moving systems of polar dimeric capsules out of thermal equilibrium by light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Moscoso, Alejandro; Arroyave, Frank A; Ballester, Pablo

    2016-02-18

    Heterodimeric capsules self-assembled from tetraurea calix[4]pyrrole and tetraurea calix[4]arene provide unique molecular containers for the organised inclusion of small polar molecules. By inserting stimuli-responsive groups (azobenzene) in the heterocapsule structure, we are able to modify the equilibrium state of the system or the exchange between different host-guest assemblies in a reversible manner.

  17. Ultra-Trace Detection of Fluoride Ion and Hydrofluoric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Swager

    2005-03-17

    Describes general synthetic strategies developed under this grant to control interchain electronic communications within conjugated polymers (CPs). Novel chemical architectures built on iptycenes, metallorotaxanes, and canopied pyrroles restrict the dimensionality of electronic structures responsible for excition and charge transport. Structure-property relationships emerging from studies of selected systems are discussed, focusing on their implications for the sensitivity of these materials as sensors.

  18. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces vitaminophilus ATCC 31673, a producer of pyrrolomycin antibiotics, some of which contain a nitro group

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, Kristina M.; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Robert L. Hettich; Parry, Ronald J.; Graham, David E.

    2016-01-21

    Streptomyces vitaminophilus produces pyrrolomycins, which are halogenated polyketide antibiotics. Some of the pyrrolomycins contain a rare nitro group located on the pyrrole ring. In addition, the 6.5-Mbp genome encodes 5,941 predicted protein-coding sequences in 39 contigs with a 71.9% G+C content.

  19. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults exposed on concrete, vinyl tile, and plywood surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insecticidal pyrrol chlorfenapyr was applied to concrete, tile, and wood surfaces, at an application rate of 0.11mg AI/cm2. Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and adult T. confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, were exposed for 2 and 4 hours, removed, and held witho...

  20. One-Pot Synthesis of Rotationally Restricted, Conjugatable, BODIPY Derivatives from Phthalides.

    PubMed

    Del Río, Mayca; Lobo, Fernando; López, J Cristobal; Oliden, Ainhoa; Bañuelos, Jorge; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo; Garcia-Moreno, Inmaculada; Gómez, Ana M

    2017-01-20

    O-Ethylation of phthalides with Meerwein's reagent followed by reaction of the ensuing salts with pyrrole, results in the formation of 5-alkoxy-5-phenyl dipyrromethane derivatives, which function as ready precursors of ortho-substituted 8-aryl BODIPY derivatives by reaction with borontrifluoride etherate, an overall process that can be carried out in a one-pot operation.

  1. Detection of zinc ions under aqueous conditions using chirality assisted solid-state fluorescence of a bipyridyl based fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Divya, Kizhumuri P; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2008-07-07

    A pyrrole end-capped bipyridyl ligand incorporating a chiral handle exhibited high solid-state emission when compared to the achiral analogue 1b and to the racemic molecule 1c which allowed the design of a reusable fluorescent probe for the selective detection of Zn2+ under aqueous conditions.

  2. The cytochrome P-450 active site. Regiospecificity of prosthetic heme alkylation by olefins and acetylenes.

    PubMed

    Kunze, K L; Mangold, B L; Wheeler, C; Beilan, H S; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1983-04-10

    Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 from phenobarbital-pretreated rats is inactivated during the metabolism of linear olefins (ethylene, propene, and octene) and acetylenes (acetylene, propyne, and octyne). As expected from previous work, the inactivation is due to N-alkylation of the prosthetic heme group by the substrate. The N-alkyl group in each adduct is formally obtained by addition of a porphyrin nitrogen to the terminal carbon and of an oxygen atom (as a hydroxyl function) to the internal carbon of the pi-bond. The oxygen is shown here by 18O studies to be catalytically introduced by the enzyme. The olefins exclusively alkylate the nitrogen of pyrrole ring D, but the acetylenes alkylate that of pyrrole ring A. Acetylene is an exception in that it reacts with more than one nitrogen. Circular dichroism studies of the ethylene adduct and of the ring D regioisomer of N-ethylprotoporphyrin IX obtained by alkylation of the prosthetic heme of hemoglobin have been used to determine which face of cytochrome P-450 heme is alkylated by the unsaturated substrates. These results implicate an active site that is sterically encumbered in the region over pyrrole ring B and has a lipophilic binding site that accommodates chains of at least six carbon atoms over pyrrole ring C.

  3. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  4. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  5. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  6. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  7. Nonaqueous polypyrrole colloids

    DOEpatents

    Armes, Steven P.; Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1991-01-01

    Processable conductive polymers including an oxidized, polymerized aromatic heterocyclic monomer, e.g., pyrrole, an stabilizing effective amount of a poly(vinyl acetate) and dopant anions, and a process of preparing said processable conductive polymers directly in a nonaqueous medium such as methyl acetate, methyl formate, ethyl formate, and propyl formate are disclosed.

  8. Likely Aggregation-Sex Pheromones of the Invasive Beetle Callidiellum villosulum, and the Related Asian Species Allotraeus asiaticus, Semanotus bifasciatus, and Xylotrechus buqueti (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Wickham, Jacob D; Lu, Wen; Zhang, Long-Wa; Chen, Yi; Zou, Yunfan; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2016-10-01

    During field trials of the two known cerambycid beetle pheromone components 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1,2-propanedione (henceforth "pyrrole") in Guangxi and Anhui provinces in China, four species in the subfamily Cerambycinae were attracted to lures containing one of the two components, or the blend of the two. Thus, the invasive species Callidiellum villosulum (Fairmaire) (tribe Callidiini) and a second species, Xylotrechus buqueti (Castelnau & Gory) (tribe Clytini), were specifically attracted to the blend of 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and the pyrrole. In contrast, Allotreus asiaticus (Schwarzer) (tribe Phoracanthini) and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky (tribe Callidiini) were specifically attracted to the pyrrole as a single component. In most cases, both males and females were attracted, indicating that the compounds are likely to be aggregation-sex pheromones. The results indicate that the two compounds are conserved as pheromone components among species within at least three tribes within the subfamily Cerambycinae. For practical purposes, the attractants could find immediate use in surveillance programs aimed at detecting incursions of these species into new areas of the world, including the United States.

  9. Indolinone based phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) inhibitors. Part 2: optimization of BX-517.

    PubMed

    Islam, Imadul; Brown, Greg; Bryant, Judi; Hrvatin, Paul; Kochanny, Monica J; Phillips, Gary B; Yuan, Shendong; Adler, Marc; Whitlow, Marc; Lentz, Dao; Polokoff, Mark A; Wu, James; Shen, Jun; Walters, Janette; Ho, Elena; Subramanyam, Babu; Zhu, Daguang; Feldman, Richard I; Arnaiz, Damian O

    2007-07-15

    Based on the lead compound BX-517, a series of C-4' substituted indolinones have been synthesized and evaluated for PDK1 inhibition. Modification at C-4' of the pyrrole afforded potent compounds (7b and 7d) with improved solubility and ADME properties. In this letter, we describe the synthesis, selectivity profile, and pharmacokinetic data of selected compounds.

  10. Investigating the Mechanism of Heteroaromatic Decarboxylation Using Solvent Kinetic Isotope Effects and Eyring Transition-State Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundle, Scott O. C.; Opinska, Liliana Guevara; Kluger, Ronald; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    An upper-level mechanistic organic experiment is outlined where undergraduates measure kinetic rate constants for decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid by the initial-rates method. UV spectroscopy is used to monitor reactant disappearance in both hydrochloric acid and deuterium chloride at different temperatures. Individual data are pooled…

  11. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  12. Cyano- and polycyanometallo-porphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1995-01-01

    New compositions of matter comprising cyano-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has cyano groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  13. Preparation of porphyrins and their metal complexes

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Langdale, Wayne A.

    1997-01-01

    A hydroxyl-containing pyrrolic compound having a hydroxyl group or a hydroxyl-containing group in the 2-position, optionally substituted in the beta positions, is condensed in an acidified two immiscible phase solvent system to produce excellent yields of the corresponding porphyrin or metal porphyrin.

  14. Preparation of porphyrins and their metal complexes

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Langdale, W.A.

    1997-08-19

    A hydroxyl-containing pyrrolic compound having a hydroxyl group or a hydroxyl-containing group in the 2-position, optionally substituted in the beta positions, is condensed in an acidified two immiscible phase solvent system to produce excellent yields of the corresponding porphyrin or metal porphyrin.

  15. Cyano- and polycyanometallo-porphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1993-01-01

    New compositions of matter comprising cyano-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has cyano groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  16. ROOM TEMPERATURE BULK SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOCABLES WRAPPED WITH POLYPYRROLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wet chemical synthesis of silver cables wrapped with polypyrrole is reported in aqueous media without use of any surfactant/capping agent and/or template. The method employs direct polymerization of pyrrole of an aqueous solution with AgNO3 as an oxidizing agent. The four probe c...

  17. Syntheses of Cyclic Guanidine-Containing Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuyong; De, Saptarshi; Chen, Chuo

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring guanidine derivatives frequently display medicinally useful properties. Among them, the higher order pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, the dragmacidins, the crambescidins/batzelladines, and the saxitoxins/tetradotoxins have stimulated the development of many new synthetic methods over the past decades. We provide here an overview of the syntheses of these cyclic guanidine-containing natural products. PMID:25684829

  18. Designing Polyamide Inhibitors of TWIST 1 for Prosenescence Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Page 1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0182 TITLE: Designing Polyamide Inhibitors of TWIST 1 for...S) 12 . DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT...Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides ; TWIST1; KRAS; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); senescence 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  19. Synthesis, photophysical properties, and laser behavior of 3-amino and 3-acetamido BODIPY dyes.

    PubMed

    Liras, Marta; Prieto, Jorge Bañuelos; Pintado-Sierra, Mercedes; Arbeloa, Fernando López; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; Costela, Angel; Infantes, Lourdes; Sastre, Roberto; Amat-Guerri, Francisco

    2007-10-11

    The asymmetrically substituted BODIPY dyes 9a and 9b have been synthesized through a key redox step involving the alpha-nitroso derivative of the starting pyrrol. Both dyes emit fluorescence with quantum yields of ca. 0.7, but only 8b behaves as a good laser dye, with an efficiency of 48% in ethanol solution.

  20. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against adult Tribolium castaneum exposed on concrete: effects of exposure interval, concentration, and the presence of a food source after exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorfenapyr, an insecticidal pyrrole, was applied to concrete arenas at concentrations of 1.1, 0.825, 0.55, and 0.275 g of active ingredient m2. Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle were exposed for 2, 4, or 8 hours at each concentration, then removed and held either with or w...

  1. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults exposed on concrete, vinyl tile, and plywood surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insecticidal pyrrol chlorfenapyr was applied to concrete, tile, and wood surfaces, at an application rate of 0.11 mgAI/cm2. Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and adult T. confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, were exposed for 2 and 4 hours, removed, and held witho...

  2. 76 FR 7707 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... for residues of fludioxonil in or on pineapple. This action is in response to EPA's granting of an...) authorizing use of the pesticide on pineapple. This regulation establishes a maximum permissible level for...-difluoro- 1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile), in or on pineapple at 13 parts per million...

  3. Synthetic Approaches to the Lamellarins—A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Imbri, Dennis; Tauber, Johannes; Opatz, Till

    2014-01-01

    The present review discusses the known synthetic routes to the lamellarin alkaloids published until 2014. It begins with syntheses of the structurally simpler type-II lamellarins and then focuses on the larger class of the 5,6-saturated and -unsaturated type-I lamellarins. The syntheses are grouped by the strategy employed for the assembly of the central pyrrole ring. PMID:25528958

  4. Synthesis and Minisci Reactions of Organotrifluoroborato Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Presset, Marc; Fleury-Brégeot, Nicolas; Oehlrich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Copper-catalyzed borylation of a variety of organic halides with bis(pinacolato)diboron allows the preparation of diverse potassium organotrifluoroborates. The reactions are mild and general, providing access to a variety of interesting, boron-containing building blocks, including those containing piperidine, pyrrole, azetidine, tetrahydropyran and oxetane substructures. Representative Minisci reactions are reported for select examples. PMID:23594305

  5. Thermal Extraction–Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry with Heart-Cutting for Nitrogen Heterocyclics in Biomass Burning Aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermal extraction-two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TE-GC-MS) method (with heart-cutting) is developed for quantitatively assessing nitrogen (N-bearing organic species (e.g., pyrrole, pyridine, nitriles, and amines) in aerosols emitted from agricultural fir...

  6. Nitrogen-tuned bonding mechanism of Li and Ti adatom embedded graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangho; Chung, Yong-Chae

    2013-09-15

    The effects of nitrogen defects on the bonding mechanism and resultant binding energy between the metal and graphene layer were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the graphitic N-doped graphene, Li adatom exhibited ionic bonding character, while Ti adatom showed features of covalent bonding similar to that of pristine graphene. However, in the cases of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures, partially covalent bonding characteristic occurred around N atoms in the process of binding with metals, and this particular bond formation enhanced the bond strength of metal on the graphene layer as much as it exceeded the cohesive energy of the metal bulk. Thus, Li and Ti metals are expected to be dispersed with atomic accuracy on the pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene layers. These results demonstrate that the bonding mechanism of metal–graphene complex can change according to the type of N defect, and this also affects the binding results. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nitrogen defects changed the bonding mechanism between metal and graphene. • Bonding character and binding results were investigated using DFT calculations. • Covalent bonding character occurred around pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene. • Pyridinic and pyrrolic N atoms are effective for metal dispersion on the graphene.

  7. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent alcohol... show a distinct red coloration. (d) Reaction with mercuric chloride. Add 5 ml of the 1.0 percent...

  8. Palladium-catalyzed stereocontrolled vinylation of azoles and phenothiazine.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Artyom Y; Izmer, Vyatcheslav V; Kazyul'kin, Denis N; Beletskaya, Irina P; Voskoboynikov, Alexander Z

    2002-02-21

    [reaction: see text] Vinylation of various azoles (pyrrole, indole, carbazole, and their derivatives) and phenothiazine with vinyl bromides catalyzed by palladium-phosphine complexes results in the respective N-vinylazoles in 30-99% yields. This reaction with cis- and trans-beta-bromostyrenes is stereospecific giving the respective products with full retention of configuration.

  9. Picosecond spectroscopy of dihydro biliverdin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Manfred; Brunner, Harald; Lippitsch, Max E.

    1991-10-01

    Picosecond time-resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy was performed on dihydro biliverdin, a model for the chromophore in the plant pigment phytochrome, a chromoprotein governing plant growth. Close agreement between the model compound and the native chromophore proves the importance of the saturated pyrrol ring for the decay kinetics and renders chromophore protonation in phytochrome unlikely.

  10. Dielectric Properties of Aligned Conducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that aligned polyacetylene and polyaniline possess remarkably enhanced conductivities. The increase in crystallinity and...and thermal stability compared to other CPs such as polyacetylenes, polythiophenes, and polyaniline . These favorable properties and the commercial...stretch-orientation of BF4- doped PPy films electrochemically deposited at -30,C, 7 pyrrole electropolymerization at a xylene/water interface, 8 and

  11. Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level. These demonstrations promote student interest in the electrochemical preparation of conducting polymers, where…

  12. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-01-18

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

  13. Cyano- and polycyanometallo-porphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1995-01-17

    New compositions of matter comprising cyano-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has cyano groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

  14. Cyano- and polycyanometallo-porphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1993-05-18

    New compositions of matter comprising cyano-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has cyano groups attached thereto in meso- and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

  15. An indole-linked C8-deoxyguanosine nucleoside acts as a fluorescent reporter of Watson-Crick versus Hoogsteen base pairing.

    PubMed

    Schlitt, Katherine M; Millen, Andrea L; Wetmore, Stacey D; Manderville, Richard A

    2011-03-07

    Pyrrole- and indole-linked C(8)-deoxyguanosine nucleosides act as fluorescent reporters of H-bonding specificity. Their fluorescence is quenched upon Watson-Crick H-bonding to dC, while Hoogsteen H-bonding to G enhances emission intensity. The indole-linked probe is ∼ 10-fold brighter and shows promise as a fluorescent reporter of Hoogsteen base pairing.

  16. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces vitaminophilus ATCC 31673, a producer of pyrrolomycin antibiotics, some of which contain a nitro group

    DOE PAGES

    Mahan, Kristina M.; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Robert L. Hettich; ...

    2016-01-21

    Streptomyces vitaminophilus produces pyrrolomycins, which are halogenated polyketide antibiotics. Some of the pyrrolomycins contain a rare nitro group located on the pyrrole ring. In addition, the 6.5-Mbp genome encodes 5,941 predicted protein-coding sequences in 39 contigs with a 71.9% G+C content.

  17. An improved ruthenium catalyst for the environmentally benign amination of primary and secondary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Dirk; Tillack, Annegret; Michalik, Dirk; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2007-03-05

    The N-alkylation of amines in the presence of different ruthenium catalysts generated in situ was investigated. Among the various catalysts tested, the combination of [Ru3(CO)12] and N-phenyl-2-(dicyclohexylphosphanyl)pyrrole showed the best performance. By applying this novel catalyst, a variety of functionalized alcohols and amines were converted into the corresponding secondary amines in high yield.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces vitaminophilus ATCC 31673, a Producer of Pyrrolomycin Antibiotics, Some of Which Contain a Nitro Group

    PubMed Central

    Klingeman, Dawn M.; Hettich, Robert L.; Parry, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces vitaminophilus produces pyrrolomycins, which are halogenated polyketide antibiotics. Some of the pyrrolomycins contain a rare nitro group located on the pyrrole ring. The 6.5-Mbp genome encodes 5,941 predicted protein-coding sequences in 39 contigs with a 71.9% G+C content. PMID:26798098

  19. Efficient Quantitative Analysis of Carboxyalkylpyrrole Ethanolamine Phospholipids: Elevated Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Blood.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhong; Wang, Hua; Hrinczenko, Borys; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-07-18

    γ-Hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, generated by oxidative damage of polyunsaturated phospholipids, form pyrrole derivatives that incorporate the ethanolamine phospholipid (EP) amino group such as 2-pentylpyrrole (PP)-EP and 2-(ω-carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP)-EP derivatives: 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP)-EP, 2-(ω-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP)-EP, and 2-(ω-carboxyheptyl)pyrrole (CHP)-EP. Because EPs occur in vivo in various forms, a complex mixture of pyrrole-modified EPs with different molecular weights is expected to be generated. To provide a sensitive index of oxidative stress, all of the differences in mass related to the glycerophospholipid moieties were removed by releasing a single CAP-ethanolamine (ETN) or PP-ETN from each mixture by treatment with phospholipase D. Accurate quantization was achieved using the corresponding ethanolamine-d4 pyrroles as internal standards. The product mixture obtained by phospholipolysis of total blood phospholipids from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to measure CAP-EP and PP-EP levels in blood plasma from clinical monitoring of SCD patients. We found uniformly elevated blood levels of CEP-EP (63.9 ± 9.7 nM) similar to mean levels in blood from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients (56.3 ± 37.1 nM), and 2-fold lower levels (27.6 ± 3.6 nM, n = 5) were detected in plasma from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis, although mean levels remain higher than those (12.1 ± 10.5 nM) detected in blood from healthy controls. Plasma levels of CPP-EPs from SCD clinic patients were 4-fold higher than those of SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (45.1 ± 10.9 nM, n = 5 versus 10.9 ± 3.4 nM, n = 6; p < 0.002). PP-EP concentration in plasma from SCD clinic patients is nearly 4.8-fold higher than its level in plasma samples from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (7.06 ± 4.05 vs 1.48 ± 0.92 nM; p < 0.05). Because

  20. Inner hydrogen atom transfer in benzo-fused low symmetrical metal-free tetraazaporphyrin and phthalocyanine analogues: density functional theory studies.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dongdong; Zhang, Yuexing; Cai, Xue; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Bai, Ming

    2009-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to study the inner hydrogen atom transfer in low symmetrical metal-free tetrapyrrole analogues ranging from tetraazaporphyrin H(2)TAP (A(0)B(0)C(0)D(0)) to naphthalocyanine H(2)Nc (A(2)B(2)C(2)D(2)) via phthalocyanine H(2)Pc (A(1)B(1)C(1)D(1)). All the transition paths of sixteen different compounds (A(0)B(0)C(0)D(0)-A(2)B(2)C(2)D(2) and A(0)B(0)C(m)D(n), m pyrrole rings can increase the transitivity of inner hydrogen atom and thus lower the transfer barrier of this inner hydrogen atom while fusing benzene rings onto the hydrogen-accepting pyrrole rings will increase the hydrogen transfer barrier to this pyrrole ring. The transient cis-isomer intermediate with hydrogen atoms joined to the two adjacent pyrrole rings with less fused benzene rings is much stable than the others. It is also found that the benzene rings fused directly onto pyrrole rings have more effect on the inner hydrogen atom transfer than the outer benzene rings fused onto the periphery of isoindole rings. The present work, representing the first effort towards systematically understanding the effect of ring enlargement through asymmetrical peripheral fusion of benzene ring(s) onto the TAP skeleton on the inner hydrogen transfer of tetrapyrrole derivatives, will be helpful in clarifying the N-H tautomerization phenomenon and detecting the cis-porphyrin isomer in bio-systems.

  1. Inverted meso-aryl porphyrins with heteroatoms; characterization of thia, selena, and oxa N-confused porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Pushpan, S K; Srinivasan, A; Anand, V R; Chandrashekar, T K; Subramanian, A; Roy, R; Sugiura, K; Sakata, Y

    2001-01-12

    Synthesis and characterization of inverted porphyrins containing S, Se, and O are reported. A simple 3 + 1 MacDonald-type condensation using modified tripyrrane containing the N-confused ring and diols afforded various N-confused porphyrins 6a-f in 19-30% yield. The single-crystal X-ray structure of 6b shows a ruffled conformation with tilt angles of 21.11 degrees and 31.23 degrees for the N-confused ring and the adjacent pyrrole ring III, respectively, revealing its severe nonplanarity. Significant changes in C alpha-C beta, C beta-C beta, and C alpha-X bond lengths are observed in 6b relative to free thiophene and pyrrole, suggesting the altered delocalization pathway in the modified N-confused porphyrins. The two molecules in the unit cell show a cyclophane-type noncovalent dimer with a face to face orientation of two N-confused pyrrole rings as a result of the presence of weak N-H...N and C-H...N intermolecular hydrogen bonds involving pyrrole-NH, the N atom of the N-confused ring, and the C atom of the pyrrole ring. A detailed 1H and 13C NMR study by 1D and 2D methods allowed assignments of all the peaks in the free base and protonated forms. NMR studies reveal the presence of three different tautomeric forms in solution for 6c in CDCl3 at low temperature. UV-visible studies reveal absorption band shifts upon heteroatom substitution, and the magnitudes of these shifts are dependent on the nature of the heteroatom. In all cases both monoprotonated and diprotonated species have been identified, and on addition of acid, the first proton goes to the outer N2 atom of the N-confused ring.

  2. Molecular structure of cotinine studied by gas electron diffraction combined with theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Egawa, Toru; Konaka, Shigehiro

    2007-09-01

    The molecular structure of cotinine (( S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone), the major metabolite of nicotine, has been determined at about 182 °C by gas electron diffraction combined with MP2 and DFT calculations. The diffraction data are consistent with the existence of the (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers, where ax and eq indicate the configuration of the pyrrolidinone ring by means of the position (axial and equatorial) of the pyridine ring, and sc, sp and ap distinguish the isomers arising from the internal rotation around the bond connecting the two rings. The (CH 3)NCCC(N) dihedral angles, ϕ, of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers were determined independently to be 158(12)° and 129(13)°, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are three times the standard errors, 3 σ. According to the MP2 calculations, the corresponding dihedral angles for the (ax, ap) and (eq, ap) conformers were assumed to differ by 180° from their syn counterparts. The ratios x(ax, sc)/ x(ax, ap) and x(eq, sp)/ x(eq, ap) were taken from the theoretically estimated free energy differences, Δ G, where x is the abundance of the conformer. The resultant abundances of (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers are 34(6)%, 21% (d.p.), 28% (d.p.), and 17% (d.p.), respectively, where d.p. represents dependent parameters. The determined structural parameters ( rg (Å) and ∠ α (°)) of the most abundant conformer, (ax, sc), are as follows: r(N sbnd C) pyrrol = 1.463(5); r(N sbnd C methyl) = 1.457(←); r(N sbnd C( dbnd O)) = 1.384(12); r(C dbnd O) = 1.219(5); < r(C sbnd C) pyrrol> = 1.541(3); r(C pyrrolsbnd C pyrid) = 1.521(←); < r(C sbnd C) pyrid> = 1.396(2); < r(C sbnd N) pyrid> = 1.343(←); ∠(CNC) pyrrol = 113.9(11); ∠CCC pyrrol(-C pyrid) = 103.6(←); ∠NCO = 124.1(13); ∠NC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.1(12); ∠C pyrrolC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.3(←); ∠(CNC) pyrid = 117.1(2); <∠(NCC) pyrid> = 124.4(←); ∠C methylNC( dbnd O) =

  3. Low-temperature UV-visible and NMR spectroscopic investigations of O(2) binding to ((6)L)Fe(II), a ferrous heme bearing covalently tethered axial pyridine ligands.

    PubMed

    Ghiladi, Reza A; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2002-05-06

    In this report, we describe the reversible dioxygen reactivity of ((6)L)Fe(II) (1) [(6)L = partially fluorinated tetraphenylporphyrin with covalently appended TMPA moiety; TMPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine] using a combination of low-temperature UV-vis and multinuclear ((1)H and (2)H) NMR spectroscopies. Complex 1, or its pyrrole-deuterated analogue ((6)L-d(8))Fe(II) (1-d(8)), exhibits downfield shifted pyrrole resonances (delta 28-60 ppm) in all solvents utilized [CH(2)Cl(2), (CH(3))(2)C(O), CH(3)CN, THF], indicative of a five-coordinate high-spin ferrous heme, even when there is no exogenous axial solvent ligand present (i.e., in methylene chloride). Furthermore, ((6)L)Fe(II) (1) exhibits non-pyrrolic upfield and downfield shifted peaks in CH(2)Cl(2), (CH(3))(2)C(O), and CH(3)CN solvents, which we ascribed to resonances arising from the intra- or intermolecular binding of a TMPA-pyridyl arm to the ferrous heme. Upon exposure to dioxygen at 193 K in methylene chloride, ((6)L)Fe(II) (1) [UV-vis: lambda(max) = 433 (Soret), 529 (sh), 559 nm] reversibly forms a dioxygen adduct [UV-vis: lambda(max) = 422 (Soret), 542 nm], formulated as the six-coordinate low-spin [delta(pyrrole) 9.3 ppm, 193 K] heme-superoxo complex ((6)L)Fe(III)-(O(2)(-)) (2). The coordination of the tethered pyridyl arm to the heme-superoxo complex as axial base ligand is suggested. In coordinating solvents such as THF, reversible oxygenation (193 K) of ((6)L)Fe(II) (1) [UV-vis: lambda(max) = 424 (Soret), 542 nm] also occurs to give a similar adduct ((6)L)Fe(III)-(O(2)(-)) (2) [UV-vis: lambda(max) = 418 (Soret), 537 nm. (2)H NMR: delta(pyrrole) 8.9 ppm, 193 K]. Here, we are unable to distinguish between a bound solvent ligand or tethered pyridyl arm as axial base ligand. In all solvents, the dioxygen adducts decompose (thermally) to the ferric-hydroxy complex ((6)L)Fe(III)-OH (3) [UV-vis: lambda(max) = 412-414 (Soret), 566-575 nm; approximately delta(pyrrole) 120 ppm at 193 K]. This study on the O(2

  4. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 2-benzylpyrroles and 2-benzoylpyrroles based on structures of insecticidal chlorfenapyr and natural pyrrolomycins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xiu; Zhang, Peng-Xiang; Li, Yong-Qiang; Song, Hai-Bin; Wang, Qing-Min

    2014-08-01

    Based on structures of insecticidal chlorfenapyr and antibiotic natural pyrrolomycins, a series of new 2-benzylpyrroles and 2-benzoylpyrroles (with or without ethoxymethyl group on the nitrogen of pyrrole) were designed and synthesized. These compounds or their parent compounds possess weak acidity and high lipophilicity, the two characteristic properties for uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation; therefore, they are expected to have insecticidal and acaricidal activity. The bioassay result verified that both 2-benzylpyrroles 17 and 2-benzoylpyrroles 19 had varied degrees of insecticidal activity against oriental armyworm depending on the substituents on the benzene ring, but they did not give any acaricidal activity. Conversely, most N-alkylated compounds 18 and 20 exhibited both insecticidal activity and acaricidal activity, of which compound 18i [4-bromo-2-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1-(ethoxymethyl) -5-(trifluoromethyl) -1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile] has IC50 as low as 10-20 mg L(-1) on both activities.

  5. Degradation dynamics of chlorfenapyr residue in chili, cabbage and soil.

    PubMed

    Ditya, Papia; Das, S P; Sarkar, P K; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole group of insecticide, [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-ethoxymethyl-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile]used as broad spectrum insecticide/acaricide to control whitefly, thrips, caterpillars, mites, leafminers, aphids, etc., chlorfenapyr 10% SC formulation was applied on chili and cabbage twice @ 75 and 100 g a.i./ha along with untreated control. Chlorfenapyr was dissipated in chili, cabbage and soil following the first-order kinetics (logC/C(0) = -kt). The half lives of chlorfenapyr in chili, cabbage and soil were varying from 2.93 to 2.96 days, 2.98 to 3.62 days and 4.06 to 4.36 days respectively, according to the application rate.

  6. Unprecedented Double aza-Michael Addition within a Sapphyrin Core.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Flávio; Marques, Igor; Farinha, Andreia S F; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Silva, Artur M S; Sessler, Jonathan; Félix, Vítor; Tomé, João P C

    2016-09-26

    A novel sapphyrin derivative was obtained from the reaction between a free-base sapphyrin and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD). The formation of the new compound involved a double aza-Michael addition of two pyrrolic NH groups to a DMAD molecule, with the formation of a disubstituted ethano bridge. The NMR spectral data reveal a product with an unsymmetrical structure; DFT calculations provided support for a structure in which the ethano bridge links two adjacent pyrrole units. The present study provides a seemingly unprecedented example of an N,N'-dinucleophile reacting with DMAD to form a heterocyclic compound in which the two N-atoms are linked to the two sp(3) carbon atoms derived from a substituted acetylene.

  7. Intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in pyrrolylindandione derivatives and their interaction with fluoride and acetate: possible anion sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Sigalov, Mark V; Shainyan, Bagrat A; Chipanina, Nina N; Oznobikhina, Larisa P

    2013-11-07

    The series of push-pull compounds containing the pyrrole ring as a donor and the 1,3-indandione derived moieties as the acceptor unit were synthesized, and strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding in their molecules was studied. In the presence of fluoride and acetate anions their solutions undergo color changes. It was shown by NMR, UV-vis, and quantum chemical calculations including AIM analysis that all these compounds undergo solvent-assisted rupture of the intramolecular hydrogen bond followed by the formation of a strong intermolecular hydrogen bond with fluoride and acetate anions which finally abstract a proton from the pyrrole ring. The insensitivity of the studied compounds to other anions (Cl, Br, HSO4, PF6) is consequence of the instability of the corresponding hydrogen-bonded complexes.

  8. N-aryl pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene based ligands: synthesis and metal coordination.

    PubMed

    Balandier, Jean-Yves; Chas, Marcos; Dron, Paul I; Goeb, Sébastien; Canevet, David; Belyasmine, Ahmed; Allain, Magali; Sallé, Marc

    2010-03-05

    A straightforward general synthetic access to N-aryl-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-c]pyrrole-2-thione derivatives 6 from acetylenedicarbaldehyde monoacetal is depicted. In addition to their potentiality as precursors to dithioalkyl-pyrrole derivatives, thiones 6 are key building blocks to N-aryl monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF) derivatives 10. X-ray structures of four of these thiones intermediates, reminiscent of the corresponding MPTTF derivatives, are provided. When the aryl group is a binding pyridyl unit, the MPTTF derivative 10a can coordinate M(II) salts (M = Pt, Pd). The first examples of metal-directed orthogonal MPTTF-based dimers 11-14, obtained through coordination of 10a to cis-blocked square planar Pt or Pd complexes are described. Studies on the parameters influencing the dimer construction are presented, as well as first recognition properties of the resulting electron-rich clip for C(60).

  9. Control of work function of graphene by plasma assisted nitrogen doping

    SciTech Connect

    Akada, Keishi; Terasawa, Tomo-o; Imamura, Gaku; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro

    2014-03-31

    Nitrogen doping is expected to provide several intriguing properties to graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment to defect-free and defective highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples causes doping of nitrogen atom into the graphene layer. Nitrogen atoms are initially doped at a graphitic site (inside the graphene) for the defect-free HOPG, while doping to a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site (edge of the graphene) is dominant for the defective HOPG. The work function of graphene correlates strongly with the site and amount of doped nitrogen. Nitrogen atoms doped at a graphitic site lower the work function, while nitrogen atoms at a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site increase the work function. Control of plasma treatment time and the amount of initial defect could change the work function of graphite from 4.3 eV to 5.4 eV, which would open a way to tailor the nature of graphene for various industrial applications.

  10. First principles electronic properties investigation of polythienoacene and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesant, Simon; Boulanger, Paul; Dumont, Guillaume; Côté, Michel

    2009-03-01

    The electronic properties of ladder-type polythiophene (polythienoacene) and its derivatives are studied using density functional theory. Upon an analysis of the variation of the band gap when comparing the non-ladder and the ladder-type polymers, a discrepancy is found between the thiophene and the pyrrole(nitrogen-substituted thiophene) polymer families. The polythienoacene has a larger band gap than the polythiophene whereas the opposite is found for the pyrrole polymers. Also, it is found that a simple alternation of the sulfur atom in polythienoacene structure by nitrogen or boron atoms can lead to small band gap polymers. The excitations of these polythienoacene's derivatives are investigated using time-dependent density functional theory.

  11. In vitro and in vivo photocytotoxicity of boron dipyrromethene derivatives for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siang Hui; Thivierge, Cliferson; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Han, Junyan; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnières, Georges; Burgess, Kevin; Lee, Hong Boon

    2010-04-08

    To understand the effects of substitution patterns on photosensitizing the ability of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY), two structural variations that either investigate the effectiveness of various iodinated derivatives to maximize the "heavy atom effect" or focus on the effect of extended conjugation at the 4-pyrrolic position to red-shift their activation wavelengths were investigated. Compounds with conjugation at the 4-pyrrolic position were less photocytotoxic than the parent unconjugated compound, while those with an iodinated BODIPY core presented better photocytotoxicity than compounds with iodoaryl groups at the meso-positions. The potency of the derivatives generally correlated well with their singlet oxygen generation level. Further studies of compound 5 on HSC-2 cells showed almost exclusive localization to mitochondria, induction of G(2)/M-phase cell cycle block, and onset of apoptosis. Compound 5 also extensively occluded the vasculature of the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Iodinated BODIPY structures such as compound 5 may have potential as new photodynamic therapy agents for cancer.

  12. Bulk synthesis of polypyrrole nanofibers by a seeding approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Manohar, Sanjeev K

    2004-10-13

    The morphology of doped polypyrrole.Cl powder changes dramatically from granular to nanofibrillar when a very small amount (1-4 mg) of V2O5 nanofibers are added to a chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in aq 1.0 M HCl using (NH4)2S2O8 as the oxidant. Unlike the polyaniline system, a key synthetic requirement in the polypyrrole system is for the seed template to be "active", i.e., to be capable of independently oxidizing the pyrrole monomer. Thin, strongly adherent films can be obtained on inert surfaces such as glass, plastics, etc., directly from the polymerization mixture without any bulk product isolation steps, significantly simplifying the processing of these nanofibers.

  13. The photophysical properties of expanded porphyrins: relationships between aromaticity, molecular geometry and non-linear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jong Min; Yoon, Zin Seok; Shin, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Kil Suk; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Dongho

    2009-01-21

    Porphyrins, which consist of four pyrrolic subunits, are a ubiquitous class of naturally occurring compound with versatile photophysical properties. As an extension of the basic structure of the porphyrin macrocycle, there have been a multitude of approaches to synthesize expanded porphyrins with more than four pyrrole rings, leading to the modification of the macrocyclic ring size, planarity, number of pi-electrons and aromaticity. However, the relationship between the photophysical properties and the structures of expanded porphyrins has not been systematically investigated. The main purpose of this article is to describe the structure-property relationships of a variety of expanded porphyrins based on experimental and theoretical results, which include steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic characterizations, non-linear absorption ability and nucleus-independent chemical shift calculations.

  14. Stable powders made from photosensitive polycrystalline complexes of heterocyclic monomers and their polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a low electronic conductivity polymer composition having well dispersed metal granules, a stable powder made from photosensitive polycrystalline complexes of pyrrole, or its substituted derivatives and silver cations for making the polymer composition, and methods of forming the stable powder and polymer composition, respectively. A polycrystalline complex of silver and a monomer, such as pyrrole, its substituted derivatives or combinations thereof, is precipitated in the form of a stable photosensitive powder upon addition of the monomer to a solvent solution, such as toluene containing an electron acceptor. The photosensitive powder can be stored in the dark until needed. The powder may be dissolved in a solvent, cast onto a substrate and photopolymerized.

  15. Synthetic and Biological Studies of Sesquiterpene Polygodial: Activity of 9-Epipolygodial Against Drug Resistant Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Ramesh; De Carvalho, Annelise; Medellin, Derek C.; Middleton, Kelsey N.; Hague, Frédéric; Volmar, Marie N. M.; Frolova, Liliya V.; Rossato, Mateus F.; De La Chapa, Jorge J.; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F.; Pillai, Akshita; Mathieu, Véronique; Rogelj, Snezna; Gonzales, Cara B.; Calixto, João B.; Evidente, Antonio; Gautier, Mathieu; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Glass, Rainer; Burth, Patricia; Pelly, Stephen C.; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Polygodial, a terpenenoid dialdehyde isolated from Polygonum hydropiper L., is a known TRPV1 agonist. In this investigation a series of polygodial analogues were prepared and investigated for TRPV1 agonistic and anticancer activities. These experiments led to the identification of 9-epipolygodial, possessing antiproliferative potency significantly exceeding that of polygodial. Epipolygodial maintained potency against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells as well as those displaying the MDR phenotype. In addition, a chemical feasibility for the previously proposed mechanism of action of polygodial, involving the Paal-Knorr pyrrole formation with a lysine residue on the target protein, was demonstrated through the synthesis of a stable polygodial pyrrole derivative. These studies reveal rich chemical and biological properties associated with polygodial and its direct derivatives. They should inspire further work in this area aimed at the development of new pharmacological agents or exploration of novel mechanisms of covalent modification of biological molecules with natural products. PMID:26434977

  16. Novel Carbazole (Cbz)-Based Carboxylated Functional Monomers: Design, Synthesis, and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Ejabul; Lellouche, Jean-Paul; Naddaka, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel functional carbazole (Cbz)-based carboxylated monomers were synthesized and characterized. A Clauson-Kaas procedure, a deprotection step, amide coupling, and hydrolysis were utilized as key chemical reactions towards the multistep synthesis of monomers in good to excellent isolated yields. The design strategy was further extended to complex carbazole-COOH monomers incorporated arylazo groups as photoreactive moieties. In addition, photoreactive hybrid carbazole (Cbz)-pyrrole (Pyr)-based carboxylated monomers, comprising a pyrrole core linking a carbazole and a photoreactive phenylazide or benzophenone moiety through an amide spacer in the molecular structure, were also synthesized. The latter can be utilized for surface modification of polymeric films in their monomeric form or as polymeric microparticles (MPs). PMID:26478845

  17. Detection of heavy metal ions in contaminated water by surface plasmon resonance based optical fibre sensor using conducting polymer and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Verma, Roli; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-01-01

    Optical fibre surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensor for the detection of heavy metal ions in the drinking water is designed. Silver (Ag) metal and indium tin oxide (ITO) are used for the fabrication of the SPR probe which is further modified with the coating of pyrrole and chitosan composite. The sensor works on the wavelength interrogation technique and is capable of detecting trace amounts of Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Hg(2+) heavy metal ions in contaminated water. Four types of sensing probes are fabricated and characterised for heavy metal ions out of these pyrrole/chitosan/ITO/Ag coated probe is found to be highly sensitive among all other probes. Further, the cadmium ions bind strongly to the sensing surface than other ions and due to this the sensor is highly sensitive for Cd(2+) ions. The sensor's performance is best for the low concentrations of heavy metal ions and its sensitivity decreases with the increasing concentration of heavy metal ions.

  18. Spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR) and molecular docking study of ethyl 2-(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Azab, Adel S.; Jalaja, K.; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A.-M.; Al-Obaid, Abdulrahman M.; Sheena Mary, Y.; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2016-09-01

    The vibrational wavenumbers, molecular structure, MEP, NLO, NBO and HOMO, LUMO analysis of Ethyl 2-(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-acetate (EPDA) were reported. The change in electron density in the antibonding orbitals and stabilization energies have been calculated by NBO analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization in the hyperconjugation of hydrogen bonded interaction. The difference in HOMO and LUMO energy support the charge transfer interaction within the molecule. NMR studies and Fukui functions are also reported. From molecular electrostatic potential plot it is evident that the negative charge covers the carbonyl groups, phenyl rings and the positive region is over the CH2 groups with the acetate group. Molecular docking studies shows that the title compound forms a stable complex with pyrrole inhibitor and gives a binding affinity value of -8.3 kcal/mol and the results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against pyrrole inhibitor.

  19. Rigidized 1-aryl sulfonyl tryptamines: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation as 5-HT6 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Dwarampudi, Adireddy; Kambhampati, Ramasastry; Bhatta, Venugopalarao; Kota, Laxman; Shinde, Anil; Badange, Rajesh; Jayarajan, Pradeep; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Dubey, P K

    2011-08-01

    A series of N(1)-arylsulfonyl-3-(pyrrolidin-3-yl)-1H-indole and N(1)-arylsulfonyl-3-(4-chloro-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-1H-indole derivatives (tryptamine derivatives with rigidized side chain) have been prepared and tested for their binding affinity to 5-HT(6) receptor. Several compounds displayed potent binding affinity for the 5-HT(6) receptor when tested in in vitro binding assay. The primary SAR indicates that rigidification of dimethylamino alkyl chain at C(3) of indole carbon maintains the binding affinity to 5-HT(6)R. The lead compound N(1)-benzenesulfonyl-3-(4-chloro-1-methyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-1H-indole, 10a (K(b)=0.1 nM) has shown excellent in vitro affinity and was active in animal models of cognition like NORT and water maze.

  20. A facile method to synthesize polypyrrole nanoparticles in the presence of natural organic phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Mo, Haodao; Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Wu, Xueli

    2014-09-01

    The conductive polymers with unique nanostructures have attracted intense interest due to their potential application. Here the well-defined polypyrrole nanoparticles were facile fabricated via the facile chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with high feeding ratio of phytic acid. Phytic acid is a renewable resource and a natural carbohydrate compound with a vast number of phosphate groups from plant which was used as the template and dopant for the nanostructured conductive polymer for the first time. The samples exhibit the well-defined nanoparticles observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The PPy nanoparticles were achieved and outstanding electrical conductivity as high as 5263 S m-1 was obtained with the feeding mass ratio of phytic acid: pyrrole=3:7. Furthermore, the polypyrrole nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrical conductivity techniques.

  1. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage.

    PubMed

    Lu, F S H; Bruheim, I; Haugsgjerd, B O; Jacobsen, C

    2014-08-15

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40 °C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil was assessed by peroxide value and anisidine value, measurement of lipid derived volatiles, lipid classes and antioxidants. The non-enzymatic browning reactions were assessed through the measurement of pyrroles, free amino acids content and Strecker-derived volatiles. The increase of incubation temperature firstly increased the lipid oxidation in krill oil and subsequently the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The occurrence of these reactions was most likely due to the reaction between α-dicarbonyl or carbonyl compounds with amino acids or ammonia. In addition to tocopherol and astaxanthin esters, the formation of pyrroles might help to protect the krill oil against lipid oxidation.

  2. Discovery of potent and novel S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitors devoid of cytochrome P450 activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xicheng; Qiu, Jian; Strong, Sarah A; Green, Louis S; Wasley, Jan W F; Blonder, Joan P; Colagiovanni, Dorothy B; Mutka, Sarah C; Stout, Adam M; Richards, Jane P; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2011-10-01

    The pyrrole based N6022 was recently identified as a potent, selective, reversible, and efficacious S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) inhibitor and is currently undergoing clinical development for the treatment of acute asthma. GSNOR is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family (ADH) and regulates the levels of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) through catabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Reduced levels of GSNO, as well as other nitrosothiols (SNOs), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including those of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. Preservation of endogenous SNOs through GSNOR inhibition presents a novel therapeutic approach with broad applicability. We describe here the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of novel pyrrole based analogues of N6022 focusing on removal of cytochrome P450 inhibition activities. We identified potent and novel GSNOR inhibitors having reduced CYP inhibition activities and demonstrated efficacy in a mouse ovalbumin (OVA) model of asthma.

  3. Polyfunctional Lithium, Magnesium, and Zinc Alkenyl Reagents as Building Blocks for the Synthesis of Complex Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-Liang; Dhayalan, Vasudevan; Benischke, Andreas D; Greiner, Robert; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Mayer, Peter; Knochel, Paul

    2016-04-18

    New conjunctive β-silylated organometallic reagents of Li, Mg, and Zn have been prepared and used for an expeditive construction of various polyfunctionalized 5-, 6-, and 7-membered heterocycles, such as furans, pyrroles, quinolines, benzo[b]thieno-[2,3-b]pyridine, naphthyridines, fused pyrazoles, and 2,3-dihydro-benzo[c]azepines. The latent silyl group has been converted into various carbon-carbon bonds in most heterocycle types.

  4. Virtual libraries of tetrapyrrole macrocycles. Combinatorics, isomers, product distributions, and data mining.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Du, Hai; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2011-09-26

    A software program (PorphyrinViLiGe) has been developed to enumerate the type and relative amounts of substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycles in a virtual library formed by one of four different classes of reactions. The classes include (1) 4-fold reaction of n disubstituted heterocycles (e.g., pyrroles or diiminoisoindolines) to form β-substituted porphyrins, β-substituted tetraazaporphyrins, or α- or β-substituted phthalocyanines; (2) combination of m aminoketones and n diones to form m × n pyrroles, which upon 4-fold reaction give β-substituted porphyrins; (3) derivatization of an 8-point tetrapyrrole scaffold with n reagents, and (4) 4-fold reaction of n aldehydes and pyrrole to form meso-substituted porphyrins. The program accommodates variable ratios of reactants, reversible or irreversible reaction (reaction classes 1 and 2), and degenerate modes of formation. Pólya's theorem (for enumeration of cyclic entities) has also been implemented and provides validation for reaction classes 3 and 4. The output includes the number and identity of distinct reaction-accessible substituent combinations, the number and identity of isomers thereof, and the theoretical mass spectrum. Provisions for data mining enable assessment of the number of products having a chosen pattern of substituents. Examples include derivatization of an octa-substituted phthalocyanine with eight reagents to afford a library of 2,099,728 members (yet only 6435 distinct substituent combinations) and reversible reaction of six distinct disubstituted pyrroles to afford 2649 members (yet only 126 distinct substituent combinations). In general, libraries of substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycles occupy a synthetically accessible region of chemical space that is rich in isomers (>99% or 95% for the two examples, respectively).

  5. Methyl 9-hy-droxy-15-methyl-2-oxo-11-(pyren-1-yl)-10-oxa-15-aza-tetra-cyclo-[7.6.0.0(1,12).0(3,8)]penta-deca-3(8),4,6-triene-12-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, P; Jagadeesan, G; Raju, Rajesh; Raghavachary, Raghunathan; Aravindhan, S

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C32H25NO5, the furan and pyrrole rings each adopt an envelope conformation, the respective flap atoms being the C atom bearing the pyrene substituent and the CH2 atom adjacent to the N atom. The mol-ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, C-H⋯O contacts link the mol-ecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001).

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxide participant iron-mediated cascade oxidation/α-formylation reaction of substituted 2,3-dihydropyrroles under air and protonic acid free condition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Tian, Qing; Qian, Jingjing; Liu, Qingfeng; Liu, Tongxin; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Guisheng

    2014-09-05

    An efficient and Brønsted acid free one-pot protocol to directly generate structurally sophisticated α-formylpyrrole derivatives in moderate to good yields has been demonstrated, involving an iron-mediated domino oxidation/formylation reaction of readily available 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles in dimethyl sulfoxide and air atmosphere, in which dimethyl sulfoxide acts as the formyl donor. A possible mechanism is presented.

  7. Synthesis of bimetallic uranium and neptunium complexes of a binucleating macrocycle and determination of the solid-state structure by magnetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Polly L; Potter, Natalie A; Magnani, Nicola; Apostolidis, Christos; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Morgenstern, Alfred; Caciuffo, Roberto; Love, Jason B

    2010-06-21

    Syntheses of the bimetallic uranium(III) and neptunium(III) complexes [(UI)(2)(L)], [(NpI)(2)(L)], and [{U(BH(4))}(2)(L)] of the Schiff-base pyrrole macrocycles L are described. In the absence of single-crystal structural data, fitting of the variable-temperature solid-state magnetic data allows the prediction of polymeric structures for these compounds in the solid state.

  8. Direct Functionalization of (Un)protected Tetrahydroisoquinoline and Isochroman under Iron and Copper Catalysis: Two Metals, Two Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A highly facile, straightforward synthesis of 1-(3-indolyl)-tetrahydroisoquinolines was developed using either simple copper or iron catalysts. N-protected and unprotected tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQ) could be used as starting materials. Extension of the substrate scope of the pronucleophile from indoles to pyrroles and electron-rich arenes was realized. Additionally, methoxyphenylation is not limited to THIQ but can be carried out on isochroman as well, again employing iron and copper catalysis. PMID:21902275

  9. Rh(III)-catalyzed addition of alkenyl C-H bond to isocyanates and intramolecular cyclization: direct synthesis 5-ylidenepyrrol-2(5H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wei; Zhou, Bing; Yang, Yaxi; Feng, Huijin; Li, Yuanchao

    2013-04-19

    The rhodium-catalyzed addition of an alkenyl C-H bond to isocyanates via sp(2) C-H bond activation followed by an intramolecular cyclization is described. This atom-economic and catalytic reaction affords a simple and straightforward access to biologically relevant 5-ylidene pyrrol-2(5H)-ones and can be carried out under mild and neutral conditions in the absence of any additives and environmentally hazardous waste production.

  10. Discovery of 4-acetyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(p-tolyl)-5-methylpyrrole as a dual inhibitor of human P-glycoprotein and Staphylococcus aureus Nor A efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Jaideep B; Singh, Samsher; Wani, Abubakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Joshi, Prashant; Khan, Inshad A; Kumar, Ajay; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Bharate, Sandip B

    2015-05-21

    Polysubstituted pyrrole natural products, lamellarins, are known to overcome multi-drug resistance in cancer via the inhibition of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux pumps. Herein, a series of simplified polysubstituted pyrroles, prepared via a one-pot domino protocol, were screened for P-gp inhibition in P-gp overexpressing human adenocarcinoma LS-180 cells using a rhodamine 123 efflux assay. Several compounds showed the significant inhibition of P-gp at 50 μM, as indicated by increase in the intracellular accumulation of Rh123 in LS-180 cells. Furthermore, pyrrole 5i decreased the efflux of digoxin, a FDA approved P-gp substrate in MDCK-MDR1 cells with an IC50 of 11.2 μM. In in vivo studies, following the oral administration of a P-gp substrate drug, rifampicin, along with compound , the Cmax and AUC0-∞ of rifampicin was enhanced by 31% and 46%, respectively. All the compounds were then screened for their ability to potentiate ciprofloxacin activity via the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Nor A efflux pump. Pyrrole showed the significant inhibition of S. aureus Nor A efflux pump with 8- and 4-fold reductions in the MIC of ciprofloxacin at 50 and 6.25 μM, respectively. The molecular docking studies of compound with the human P-gp and S. aureus Nor A efflux pump identified its plausible binding site and key interactions. Thus, the results presented herein strongly indicate the potential of this scaffold for its use as multi-drug resistance reversal agent or bioavailability enhancer.

  11. A Quartz Microbalance Study of the Electrosynthesis of Polypyrrole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-12

    polythiophene. polypyrrole and poly(N-methylpyrrole) have been studied electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry... data the theoretical amount of material which should be deposited on the face of the mass sensing crystal can be calculated from a modified version of... data points and has a slope proportional to 2.3 electrons/pyrrole with a V value of 0.9998 for the square of the correlation coefficient (r2). This

  12. Constructing sandwich-type rare earth double-decker complexes with N-confused porphyrinato and phthalocyaninato ligands.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Xin; Lee, Hung Kay; Ng, Dennis K P; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2012-09-03

    Reaction of the half-sandwich complexes M(III)(Pc)(acac) (M = La, Eu, Y, Lu; Pc = phthalocyaninate; acac = acetylacetonate) with the metal-free N-confused 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[(4-tert-butyl)phenyl]porphyrin (H(2)NTBPP) or its N2-position methylated analogue H(CH(3))NTBPP in refluxing 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) led to the isolation of M(III)(Pc)(HNTBPP) (M = La, Eu, Y, Lu) or Y(III)(Pc)[(CH(3))NTBPP] in 8-15% yield. These represent the first examples of sandwich-type rare earth complexes with N-confused porphyrinato ligands. The complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. The molecular structures of four of these double-decker complexes were also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In each of these complexes, the metal center is octa-coordinated by four isoindole nitrogen atoms of the Pc ligand, three pyrrole nitrogen atoms, and the inverted pyrrole carbon atom of the HNTBPP or (CH(3))NTBPP ligand, forming a distorted coordination square antiprism. For Eu(III)(Pc)(HNTBPP), the two macrocyclic rings are further bound to a CH(3)OH molecule through two hydrogen bonds formed between the hydroxyl group of CH(3)OH and an aza nitrogen atom of the Pc ring or the inverted pyrrole nitrogen atom of the HNTBPP ring, respectively. The location of the acidic proton at the inverted pyrrole nitrogen atom (N2) of the protonated double-deckers was revealed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

  13. Diazoacetoacetate Enones for the Synthesis of Diverse Natural Product-Like Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Charles S.; Truong, Phong; Mason, Savannah M.; Leszczynski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Diazoacetoacetate enones are a new class of Michael acceptors that enable the efficient construction of natural product-like scaffolds. Through their Michael addition reactions, including those with silyl enol ethers, indoles, pyrroles, and amines, δ-functionalized diazoacetoacetates are formed in high yield and with overall operational efficiency. Subsequent catalytic dinitrogen extrusion reactions provide access to a diverse series of natural product-like carbo- and heterocyclic ring systems in only three steps from commercial materials. PMID:23829448

  14. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone): a new reductant for preparation of tellurium nanorods, nanowires, and tubes from TeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying-Jie; Hu, Xian-Luo; Wang, Wei-Wei

    2006-02-01

    A new approach has been developed for the preparation of tellurium with various morphologies by a simple hydrothermal method using TeO2 and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). In this method, PVP acts not only as a surfactant but also as a reducing reagent, thus no additional reductants are needed. By control of the reaction conditions, tellurium nanorods, nanowires, and tubes have been prepared. Our experiments showed that pyrrole and polyethylene glycol (PEG) can also be used as reducing reagents.

  15. Electrochemical synthesis and characterisation of alternating tripyridyl-dipyrrole molecular strands with multiple nitrogen-based donor-acceptor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Tabatchnik-Rebillon, Alexandra; Aubé, Christophe; Bakkali, Hicham; Delaunay, Thierry; Manh, Gabriel Thia; Blot, Virginie; Thobie-Gautier, Christine; Renault, Eric; Soulard, Marine; Planchat, Aurélien; Le Questel, Jean-Yves; Le Guével, Rémy; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Kauffmann, Brice; Ferrand, Yann; Huc, Ivan; Urgin, Karène; Condon, Sylvie; Léonel, Eric; Evain, Michel; Lebreton, Jacques; Jacquemin, Denis; Pipelier, Muriel; Dubreuil, Didier

    2010-10-18

    Synthesis of alternating pyridine-pyrrole molecular strands composed of two electron-rich pyrrole units (donors) sandwiched between three pyridinic cores (acceptors) is described. The envisioned strategy was a smooth electrosynthesis process involving ring contraction of corresponding tripyridyl-dipyridazine precursors. 2,6-Bis[6-(pyridazin-3-yl)]pyridine ligands 2a-c bearing pyridine residues at the terminal positions were prepared in suitable quantities by a Negishi metal cross-coupling procedure. The yields of heterocyclic coupling between 2-pyridyl zinc bromide reagents 12a-c and 2,6-bis(6-trifluoromethanesulfonylpyridazin-3-yl)pyridine increased from 68 to 95% following introduction of electron-donating methyl groups on the metallated halogenopyridine units. Favorable conditions for preparative electrochemical reduction of tripyridyl-dipyridazines 2b,c were established in THF/acetate buffer (pH 4.6)/acetonitrile to give the targeted 2,6-bis[5-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrrol-2-yl]pyridines 1b and 1c in good yields. The absorption behavior of the donor-acceptor tripyridyl-dipyrrole ligands was evaluated and compared to theoretical calculations. Highly fluorescent properties of these chromophores were found (ν(em)≈2 × 10(4) cm(-1) in MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2)), and both pyrrolic ligands exhibit a remarkable quantum yield in CH(2)Cl(2) (φ(f)=0.10). Structural studies in the solid state established the preferred cis conformation of the dipyrrolic ligands, which adopting a planar arrangement with an embedded molecule of water having a complexation energy exceeding 10 kcal mol(-1). The ability of the tripyridyl-dipyrrole to complex two copper(II) ions in a pentacoordinate square was investigated.

  16. Crystal structure of (2R*,3aR*)-2-phenyl­sulfonyl-2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexa­hydro­pyrrolo­[1,2-b]isoxazole

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Yaiza; Marcos, Isidro; Garrido, Narciso M.; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, C12H15NO3S, was prepared by 1,3-dipolar cyclo­addition of 3,4-di­hydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide and phenyl vinyl sulfone. In the mol­ecule, both fused five-membered rings display a twisted conformation. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link neighbouring mol­ecules, forming chains running parallel to the b axis. PMID:28083143

  17. Crystal structure of (2R*,3aR*)-2-phenyl-sulfonyl-2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexa-hydro-pyrrolo-[1,2-b]isoxazole.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Yaiza; Marcos, Isidro; Garrido, Narciso M; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, C12H15NO3S, was prepared by 1,3-dipolar cyclo-addition of 3,4-di-hydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide and phenyl vinyl sulfone. In the mol-ecule, both fused five-membered rings display a twisted conformation. In the crystal, C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link neighbouring mol-ecules, forming chains running parallel to the b axis.

  18. Antitumor Compounds from the Stout Camphor Mushroom Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Spent Culture Broth.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Bai, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Zhong; Feng, Na; Feng, Jie; Yan, Meng-Qiu; Zhu, Li-Na; Jia, Xin-Cheng; Wang, Ming-Dao; Zhang, Jing-song; Fan, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A known compound, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furan-2-carbaldehyde, and a novel compound, 3-isobutyl-1-methoxy-4-(4'-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)phenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione were isolated from spent broth from submerged cultures of Taiwanofungus camphoratus. Their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C, and 2D) and mass spectra. These compounds inhibited the proliferation of K562 and HepG2 tumor cells in vitro.

  19. Facile one-pot synthesis of porphyrin based porous polymer networks (PPNs) as biomimetic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, LF; Feng, DW; Liu, TF; Chen, YP; Fordham, S; Yuan, S; Tian, J; Zhou, HC

    2015-01-01

    Stable porphyrin based porous polymer networks, PPN-23 and PPN-24, have been synthesized through a facile one-pot approach by the aromatic substitution reactions of pyrrole and aldehydes. PPN-24(Fe) shows high catalytic efficiency as a biomimetic catalyst in the oxidation reaction of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) in the presence of H2O2.

  20. Sparsely substituted chlorins as core constructs in chlorophyll analogue chemistry. I. Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszek, Marcin; McDowell, Brian E.; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Kim, Han-Je; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Five routes to stable chlorins bearing 0 or 1 meso substituents have been investigated, among which reaction of a 9-bromo-1-formyldipyrromethane and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3,3-trimethyldipyrrin proved most effective. Application of this route afforded metallochlorins [Cu(II), Zn(II), Pd(II)] including the chlorin lacking any β-pyrrole and meso substituents. PMID:17479168

  1. Pyrrolamide DNA gyrase inhibitors: optimization of antibacterial activity and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Brian A; Hull, Kenneth; Green, Oluyinka; Basarab, Gregory; Hauck, Sheila; Hill, Pamela; Loch, James T; Mullen, George; Bist, Shanta; Bryant, Joanna; Boriack-Sjodin, Ann; Read, Jon; DeGrace, Nancy; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Illingworth, Ruth N; Eakin, Ann E

    2011-12-15

    The pyrrolamides are a new class of antibacterial agents targeting DNA gyrase, an essential enzyme across bacterial species and inhibition results in the disruption of DNA synthesis and subsequently, cell death. The optimization of biochemical activity and other drug-like properties through substitutions to the pyrrole, piperidine, and heterocycle portions of the molecule resulted in pyrrolamides with improved cellular activity and in vivo efficacy.

  2. The total synthesis of calcium atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luiz C; Vieira, Adriano S; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2016-02-21

    A practical and convergent asymmetric route to calcium atorvastatin (1) is reported. The synthesis of calcium atorvastatin (1) was performed using the remote 1,5-anti asymmetric induction in the boron-mediated aldol reaction of β-alkoxy methylketone (4) with pyrrolic aldehyde (3) as a key step. Calcium atorvastatin was obtained from aldehyde (3) after 6 steps, with a 41% overall yield.

  3. Ruthenium-catalyzed direct C3 alkylation of indoles with α,β-unsaturated ketones.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin

    2015-01-28

    In this paper, a simple and highly efficient ruthenium-catalyzed direct C3 alkylation of indoles with various α,β-unsaturated ketones without chelation assistance has been developed. This novel C-H activation methodology exhibits a broad substrate scope such as different substituted indoles, pyrroles, and other azoles. Further synthetic applications of the alkylation products can lead to more attractive 3,4-fused tricyclic indoles.

  4. Perenosins: a new class of anion transporter with anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Van Rossom, Wim; Asby, Daniel J; Tavassoli, Ali; Gale, Philip A

    2016-03-07

    A new class of anion transporter named 'perenosins' consisting of a pyrrole linked through an imine to either an indole, benzimidazole or indazole is reported. The indole containing members of the perenosin family function as effective transmembrane Cl(-)/NO3(-) antiporters and HCl cotransporters in a manner similar to the prodigiosenes. The compounds reduce the viability of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7.

  5. Polymeric materials for neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVolder, Ross John

    Revascularization therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to treat various acute and chronic wounds, cardiovascular diseases, and tissue defects. It is common to either administer proangiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or transplant cells that endogenously express multiple proangiogenic factors. Additionally, these strategies utilize a wide variety of polymeric systems, including hydrogels and biodegradable plastics, to deliver proangiogenic factors in a sophisticated manner to maintain a sustained proangiogenic environment. Despite some impressive results in rebuilding vascular networks, it is still a challenging task to engineer mature and functional neovessels in target tissues, because of the increasing complexities involved with neovascularization applications. To resolve these challenges, this work aims to design a wide variety of proangiogenic biomaterial systems with tunable properties used for neovascularization therapies. This thesis describes the design of several biomaterial systems used for the delivery of proangiogenic factors in neovascularization therapies, including: an electrospun/electrosprayed biodegradable plastic patch used for directional blood vessel growth (Chapter 2), an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system that biochemically stimulates cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 3), an enzyme-catalyzed alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system for VEGF delivery (Chapter 4), an enzyme-activated alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system with systematically controllable electrical and mechanical properties (Chapter 5), and an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel that enables the decoupled control of electrical conductivity and mechanical rigidity and is use to electrically stimulate cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 6). Overall, the biomaterial systems developed in this thesis will be broadly useful for improving the quality of a wide array of molecular and cellular based

  6. Asymmetric one-pot sequential Friedel-Crafts-type alkylation and α-oxyamination catalyzed by a peptide and an enzyme.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Kengo; Umezawa, Ryota; Kudo, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    In the presence of a peptide catalyst and the oxidative enzyme laccase, a one-pot sequential reaction including a Friedel-Crafts-type alkylation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes followed by an α-oxyamination was realized. The reaction in aqueous solvent to promote the enzymatic oxidation, and the use of a peptide catalyst compatible with such conditions, were essential. The present sequential reaction afforded oxygen-functionalized indole or pyrrole derivatives in a highly enantioselective manner.

  7. Dielectric and electric modulus study of PPy/TiO2/CNT/SLS composite with temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, D. C.; Atri, Priyanka; Sharma, Rishi

    2013-02-01

    Here we report the preparation and electrical characterization of nanocomposite of PPy/TiO2/CNT/SLS synthesized by in situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of TiO2 nanofibers, CNT and surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate. The surface morphology and elemental analysis is studied by SEM and EDAX. Dielectric and modulas studies were carried out in frequency range of 1 KHz to 2 MHz which provides quantitative description of grain and grain boundary effect in nanocomposite material.

  8. Stabilities and structures in cluster ions of five-membered heterocyclic compounds containing O, N, and S atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraoka, K.; Takimoto, H.; Yamabe, S.

    1987-11-25

    Clustering and hydration reactions of protonated and radical cations of heterocyclic compounds, e.g., furan, tetrahydrofuran, pyrrole, pyrrolidine, thiophene, and tetrahydrothiophene, have been studied using a pulsed electron beam mass spectrometer. The bond energies of proton-held dimer cations for furan, pyrrole, and thiophene are much smaller than those for tetrahydrofuran, pyrrolidine, and tetrahydrothiophene, respectively. This result suggests that not the heteroatoms but the ..cap alpha.. carbon atoms are protonated for furan, pyrrole, and thiophene. The hydrogen-bond site for the protonated furan and thiophene is calculated to be the unprotonated ..cap alpha.. hydrogen (C-H/sub ..cap alpha../ adjacent to the heteroatom) which is the most acidic one. On the other hand, the N-H hydrogen is the best hydrogen-bond site for the protonated pyrrole. It was found that the radical-cations dimers have greater bond energies than the proton-held dimer cations for furan and thiophene. This suggests that the bonds of the former have more covalent nature. Some unique reactions of C/sub 4/H/sub 4/O/sup .+/ and C/sub 4/H/sub 5/O/sup +/ with a furan molecule were observed. With an increase of temperature, the ions with m/z which are the same as those for (C/sub 4/H/sub 4/O)/sub 2//sup .+/ and H/sup +/(C/sub 4/H/sub 4/O)/sub 2/ are found to be formed at the expense of C/sup 4/H/sub 4/O/sup .+/ and C/sub 4/H/sub 5/O/sup +/ ions, respectively. It is suggested that the reactions observed are Diels-Alder type condensation reactions.

  9. Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies on Zinc Tetrabenzporphyrins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    generation to prepare TBP’s. Initially isoindole was prepared by retro- Diels - Alder reaction of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-l,4-imine.5 Now we are using...these conditions is presented and discussed. The mechanism involved initial condensation of isoirndole and the aldehyde to form an isoindolidene which...porphyrin formation in the Rothemund synthesis. It is clear that both condensation and oxidation steps are involved in the conversion of pyrroles to

  10. Further Investigation of the Mediterranean Sponge Axinella polypoides: Isolation of a New Cyclonucleoside and a New Betaine

    PubMed Central

    Menna, Marialuisa; Aiello, Anna; D’Aniello, Filomena; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Imperatore, Concetta; Luciano, Paolo; Vitalone, Rocco

    2012-01-01

    An exhaustive exploration into the metabolic content of the Mediterranean sponge Axinella-polypoides resulted in the isolation of the new betaine 5 and the new cyclonucleoside 8. The structures of the new metabolites were elucidated by spectroscopic methods assisted by computational methods. The analysis also provided evidence that the sponge does not elaborate pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids (PIAs) but, interestingly, it was shown to contain two already known cyclodipeptides, compounds 9 (verpacamide A) and 10. PMID:23203274

  11. Quantum-Mechanical Studies on Chemical Reactivity and Ballistic Chemistry. VII. Semiempirical Molecular Orbital Calculations and Experimental Studies on Relative Chemical Reactivities of Isomeric Tetrazole Derivatives, and their Relationship to the Explosive Properties of some Tetrazole Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    Pyrazoles ," J. Heterooyol. Chem. 7, 345 (1970); (b) M. D. Coburn and P. N. Neuman, "The Condensation of Amino- and...Pyrrole and Pyrazole of Orbital Energies and Population Analyses from Ab-Initio SCF, CNDO/2, INDO, Extended Euokel and ARCANA Calculations", Int. J...geometry49b. When a correct value of 0.529 au for the protonation energy of pyrazole is used, a reasonable correlation is obtained. It has also been

  12. Thermochemistry and Dynamics of Reactive Species: Nitrogen-rich Compounds, Metals and SiC Clusters in Free and Solvated Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-31

    measurement with methanethiol (CH 3SH). Acidities for pyrazole and imidazole were determined with 2-methyl-2- propanethiol (tBuSH) while formic acid (HCOOH...induced dissociation (CID) experiments were conducted for deprotonated anions of pyrrole, pyrazole , imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and...descriptions fail to provide an accurate characterization of the spectrum. Moving one imidazole nitrogen adjacent to the other yields pyrazole , and

  13. a Novel Method to Synthesize N-DOPED CNTs Arrays via Chemical Modifying Porous Alumina Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengyong; He, Lei

    2014-01-01

    N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) arrays were fabricated via simply chemical modifying porous alumina membrane (PAM) with dopamine. The diameter of N-doped CNTs is about 60-70 nm. The N/C atomic ratio is calculated to be 0.05 and the main functionality is pyridone/pyrrole N. This chemical modifying method can be used to fabricate mass of N-doped CNTs arrays in one step with single raw material.

  14. Electroactive Polymers as Environmentally Benign Coating Replacements for Cadmium Plating on High Strength Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    materials is a random copolymer of thiophene acetic acid with hexylthiophene to produce a soluble polymer with good adhesion properties . While...R. and Walton, E., “Some Properties and Reactions of -chloroethyl, - cyanoethyl, and -carbethoxyethyl toluene-p- sulphonates Including an...87 ii List of Figures Figure 1. Synthesis of 3-(pyrrol-1-yl) propanoic acid (3PPA) p. 8 Figure 2

  15. The Suzuki reaction applied to the synthesis of novel pyrrolyl and thiophenyl indazoles.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, Antonella; Oliviero, Chiara; Gasperi, Tecla; Loreto, Maria Antonietta

    2012-04-16

    The paper describes the Suzuki cross-coupling of a variety of N and C-3 substituted 5-bromoindazoles with N-Boc-2-pyrrole and 2-thiopheneboronic acids. The reactions, performed in the presence of K(2)CO(3), dimethoxyethane and Pd(dppf)Cl(2) as catalyst, gave the corresponding adducts in good yields. The methodology allows the facile production of indazole-based heteroaryl compounds, a unique architectural motif that is ubiquitous in biologically active molecules.

  16. New tricks for old molecules: development and application of porous N-doped, carbonaceous membranes for CO2 separation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiang; Tian, Chengcheng; Chai, Songhai; Nelson, Kimberly; Han, Kee Sung; Hagaman, Edward W; Veith, Gabriel M; Mahurin, Shannon M; Liu, Honglai; Dai, Sheng

    2013-08-14

    A new strategy is successfully applied to "old" acetyl compounds. A free-standing, porous, N-doped carbonaceous membrane is facilely prepared from the thermal treatment of a pyrrole-ring-containing polymeric membrane based on the superacid-catalyzed copolymerization of acetyl monomers. An exceptional ideal CO2 /N2 permselectivity of 43.2 is achieved with a good CO2 permeability of 1149.3 Barrer, exceeding the recent upper bound for CO2 /N2 .

  17. Electrogenerated indium tin oxide-coated glass surface with photosensitive interfaces: surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Konry, Tania; Bouhifd, Mounir; Cosnier, Serge; Whelan, Maurice; Valsesia, Andrea; Rossi, Francois; Marks, Robert S

    2007-04-15

    We present herein a photo-immobilization technique for the localized and specific conjugation of biochip platforms with different proteinaceous bioreceptors, such as antigen or antibodies. This methodology based on a photoactivable electrogenerated polymer film, pyrrole-benzophenone, allows the covalent immobilization of biomolecules through light mediation. The surface-conductive glass platform electropolymerized with poly(pyrrole-benzophenone) thin film may then be used to affinity-coat the chip with molecular recognition probes. This glass chip electroconductive surface modification is done by the deposition of a thin layer of indium tin oxide (ITO). Thereafter, pyrrole-benzophenone monomers are electropolymerized onto the conductive metal oxide surface and then exposed to an antigen Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB)) solution and illuminated with UV light (wavelength approximately 345 nm) through a mask. As a result of the photochemical reaction, a pattern thin layer of the antigen was covalently bound to the benzophenone-modified surface. Then the sample to be analyzed, along with its specific target antibody (anti-SEB antibodies), is introduced onto the glass surface and left to react with the previously photo-immobilized antigen. When the immuno-reaction is completed, the specifically attached immunoglobulin analytes are detected by using secondary antibodies conjugated with Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The fluorescence signal emanating from the biochip surface is then quantified by two methods, using a filtered intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a grating spectrometer.

  18. Expanding sapphyrin: towards selective phosphate binding.

    PubMed

    Katayev, Evgeny A; Boev, Nikolay V; Myshkovskaya, Ekaterina; Khrustalev, Victor N; Ustynyuk, Yu A

    2008-01-01

    The anion-templated syntheses and binding properties of novel macrocyclic oligopyrrole receptors in which pyrrole rings are linked through amide or imine bonds are described. The efficient synthesis was accomplished by anion-templated [1+1] Schiff-base condensation and acylation macrocyclization reactions. Free receptors and their host-guest complexes with hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, tetrabutylammonium chloride, and hydrogen sulfate were analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Stability constants with different tetrabutylammonium salts of inorganic acids were determined by standard 1H NMR and UV/Vis titration techniques in [D6]DMSO/0.5% water solution. According to the titration data, receptors containing three pyrrole rings (10 and 12) exhibit high affinity (log Ka=5-7) for bifluoride, acetate, and dihydrogen phosphate, and interact weakly with chloride and hydrogen sulfate. The amido-bipyrrole receptors 11 and 13 with four pyrrole rings exhibit 10(4)- and 10(2)-fold selectivity for dihydrogen phosphate, respectively, as inferred from competitive titrations in the presence of tetrabutylammonium acetate.

  19. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of delta-aminolevulinic acid in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-05-20

    Delta-aminolevulinic (δ-ALA) acid is an important intermediate for tetrapyrroles biosynthesis and it has recently received great attention in plant physiology and human toxicology. However, the colorimetric method which is the most common method for determination of δ-ALA is time consuming and is not specific. In this study, a method for determination of δ-ALA in plant tissues was developed based on the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative of the pyrrole formed from the reaction of δ-ALA with ethyl acetoacetate via Knorr condensation. The δ-ALA in the HCl extract was reacted with ethyl acetoacetate to form a pyrrole. Then, the pyrrole compound was extracted using ethyl acetate and the solvent was evaporated to dryness. The dried sample was derivatized to its TMS ester and analyzed using GC-MS. The concentration of δ-ALA in citrus leaves incubated with levulinic acid was also determined by the conventional colorimetric method. The linear range was 10-200ppm in the full scan mode and 0.1-20ppm in the selected ion monitoring (SIM). The limit of detection was 6ppm in the full scan and 0.05ppm in SIM mode, representing a four-fold increase in sensitivity compared to the colorimetric method. The GC-MS method developed in this study is simple, accurate, sensitive, and could also be used to measure δ-ALA in other biological samples.

  20. Doping optimization of polypyrrole with toluenesulfonic acid using Box-Behnken design

    SciTech Connect

    Syed Draman, Sarifah Fauziah; Daik, Rusli; El-Sheikh, Said M.; Latif, Famiza Abdul

    2013-11-27

    A three-level Box-Behnken design was employed in doping optimization of polypyrrole with toluenesulfonic acid (TSA-doped PPy). The material was synthesized via chemical oxidative polymerization using pyrrole, toluenesulfonic acid (TSA) and ammonium persulfate (APS) as monomer, dopant and oxidant, respectively. The critical factors selected for this study were concentration of dopant, molar ratio between dopant to monomer (pyrrole) and concentration of oxidant. Obtaining adequate doping level of TSA-doped PPy is crucial because it affects the charge carriers for doped PPy and usually be responsible for electronic mobility along polymeric chain. Furthermore, the doping level also affects other properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity. Doping level was calculated using elemental analysis. SEM images shows that the prepared TSA-doped PPy particles are spherical in shape with the diameters of about. The range of nanoparticles size is around 80-100 nm. The statistical analysis based on a Box–Behnken design showed that 0.01 mol of TSA, 1:1 mole ratio TSA to pyrrole and 0.25 M APS were the optimum conditions for sufficient doping level.

  1. Refined Synthesis of 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-1,3,3-trimethyldipyrrin, a Deceptively Simple Precursor to Hydroporphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszek, Marcin; Bhaumik, Jayeeta; Kim, Han-Je; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2008-01-01

    2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-1,3,3-trimethyldipyrrin (1) is a crucial building block in the rational synthesis of chlorins and oxochlorins. The prior 5-step synthesis of 1 from pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde (2) employed relatively simple and well-known reactions yet suffered from several drawbacks, including limited scale (≥ 0.5 g of 1 per run). A streamlined preparation of 1 has been developed that entails four steps: (i) nitro-aldol condensation of 2 and nitromethane under neat conditions to give 2-(2-nitrovinyl)pyrrole (3), (ii) reduction of 3 with NaBH4 to give 2-(2-nitroethyl)pyrrole (4), (iii) Michael addition of 4 with mesityl oxide under neat conditions or at high concentration to give γ-nitrohexanonepyrrole 5, and (iv) reductive cyclization of 5 with zinc/ammonium formate to give 1. Several multistep transformations have been established, including the direct conversion of 2 → 1. The advantages of the new procedures include (1) fewer steps, (2) avoidance of several problematic reagents, (3) diminished consumption of solvents and reagents, (4) lessened reliance on chromatography, and (5) scalability. The new procedures facilitate the preparation of 1 at the multigram scale. PMID:19132135

  2. Molecular magnetic properties of heteroporphyrins: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Campomanes, Pablo; Menéndez, María Isabel; Cárdenas-Jirón, Gloria Inés; Sordo, Tomás Luis

    2007-11-14

    B3LYP/6-31G(d) optimization of porphyrin, tetraphenylporphyrin and their 21,23-diheteroatom substituted derivatives with O, S, and Se heteroatoms was performed. A planar macrocycle was found in all cases except 21,23-dioxatetraphenylporphyrin which presents only slight deviations from planarity. A Bader analysis uncovers the presence of S-S and Se-Se interactions in the four corresponding heteroporphyrins, which appreciably distort the original unsubstituted macrocycles. In the minimum energy structures of heterotetraphenylporphyrins the four meso phenyl groups slant alternatively to right or left so that the two pairs of opposite phenyls present a staggered conformation. The pi current induced by a perpendicular magnetic field in porphyrin bifurcates across both types of pyrrole subunits but the presence of O, S and Se heteroatoms in 21,23-diheteroporphyrins causes a diminution of the current density through the inner section of the two heterorings and, consequently, the current path goes then through the outer section of these rings. The NICS values at the ring critical points of the heterorings are much larger (in absolute value) than those at the pyrrole ring critical points but appreciably smaller than that at the ring critical point of a pyrrole molecule. In agreement with experimental data the (1)H NMR present appreciable downfield shifts for the beta H atoms of the heterorings in the 21,23-heterosubstituted molecules.

  3. Identification of two novel pigment precursors and a reddish-purple pigment involved in the blue-green discoloration of onion and garlic.

    PubMed

    Imai, Shinsuke; Akita, Kaori; Tomotake, Muneaki; Sawada, Hiroshi

    2006-02-08

    By using a model reaction system representing blue-green discoloration that occurs when purees of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) are mixed, we isolated two pigment precursors (PPs) and a reddish-purple pigment (PUR-1) and determined their chemical structures. PPs were isolated from a heat-treated solution containing color developer (CD) and either l-valine or l-alanine, and their structures were determined as 2-(3,4-dimethylpyrrolyl)-3-methylbutanoic acid (PP-Val), and 2-(3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrolyl) propanoic acid (PP-Ala), respectively. Next, PUR-1 was isolated from a heat-treated solution containing PP-Val and allicin, and its structure was determined as (1E)-1-(1-((1S)-1-carboxy-2-methylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-prop-1-enylene-3-(1-((1S)-1-carboxy-2-methylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-2-ylidenium). The structure of PUR-1 suggested that PP molecules containing a 3,4-dimethyl pyrrole ring had been cross-linked by an allyl group of allicin to form conjugated pigments. While PUR-1 is a dipyrrole compound exhibiting a reddish-purple color, a color shift toward blue to green can be expected as the cross-linking reaction continues to form, for example, tri- or tetrapyrrole compounds.

  4. Shuttle inhibition by chemical adsorption of lithium polysulfides in B and N co-doped graphene for Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Fen; Su, Yan; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-09-14

    The advance of lithium sulfur batteries is now greatly restricted by the fast capacity fading induced by shuttle effect. Using first-principles calculations, various vacancies, N doping, and B,N co-doping in graphene sheets have been systematically explored for lithium polysufides entrapped in Li-S batteries. The LiS, LiC, LiN and SB bonds and Hirshfeld charges in the Li2S6 adsorbed defective graphene systems have been analyzed to understand the intrinsic mechanism of retaining lithium polysulfides in these systems. Total and local densities of states analyses elucidate the strongest adsorption sites among the N and B-N co-doped graphene systems. The overall electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries varies with the types of defects in graphene. Among the defective graphene systems, only the reconstructed pyrrole-like vacancy is effective for retaining lithium polysulfides. N doping induces a strong LiN interaction in the defective graphene systems, in which the pyrrolic N rather than the pyridinic N plays a dominant role in trapping of lithium polysulfides. The shuttle effect can be further depressed via pyrrolic B,N co-doped defective graphene materials, especially the G-B-N-hex system with extremely strong adsorption of lithium polysulfides (4-5 eV), and simultaneous contribution from the strong LiN and SB interactions.

  5. Synthesis, FT–IR characterization and crystal structure of aqua­(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato-κ4 N)manganese(III) tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Harhouri, Wafa; Mchiri, Chadlia; Najmudin, Shabir; Bonifácio, Cecilia; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title salt, [Mn(C44H28N4)(H2O)](CF3SO3) or [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)](CF3SO3) (where TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin), the MnIII cation is chelated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and additionally coordinated by an aqua ligand in an apical site, completing the distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The average Mn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 1.998 (9) Å and the Mn—O(aqua) bond length is 2.1057 (15) Å. The central MnIII ion is displaced by 0.1575 (5) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion towards the apical aqua ligand. The porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits a moderate ruffling and strong saddle deformations. In the crystal lattice, the [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)]+ cation and the tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate counter-ions are arranged in alternating planes packed along [001]. The components are linked together through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and much weaker C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F inter­actions. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving the pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrin moieties. PMID:27308027

  6. One pot synthesis of polypyrrole silver nanocomposite on cotton fabrics for multifunctional property.

    PubMed

    Firoz Babu, K; Dhandapani, P; Maruthamuthu, S; Anbu Kulandainathan, M

    2012-11-06

    Polymer-silver nanocomposites modified cotton fabrics were prepared by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization using pyrrole and silver nitrate. In a redox reaction between pyrrole and silver nitrate, silver ions oxidize the pyrrole monomer and get reduced. This reduced silver as nanoparticles deposited on/into the polypyrrole/cotton matrix layer and the interaction between silver and polypyrrole was by adsorption or electrostatic interaction. The structure and composite formation on cotton fiber was investigated using SEM, FT-IR, XPS and XRD. The results showed that a strong interaction existing between silver nanoparticles with polypyrrole/cotton matrix. FT-IR studies clearly indicated that the interaction between polypyrrole (-N-H) and cellulose (>C-OH) was by hydrogen bonding. It is observed that the conductivity of the composite coated fabrics has been increased by the incorporation of silver nanoparticles. In the synthesized composites, silver content plays an important role in the conductivity and antimicrobial activity rate of the fabrics against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli bacteria.

  7. Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Epshtein, Michael; Portnov, Alexander; Kupfer, Rotem; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana

    2013-11-14

    Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ∼243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ∼243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ∼243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H{sup +} images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation.

  8. New insights into aromatic pathways of carbachlorins and carbaporphyrins based on calculations of magnetically induced current densities.

    PubMed

    Benkyi, Isaac; Fliegl, Heike; Valiev, Rashid R; Sundholm, Dage

    2016-04-28

    Magnetically induced current densities have been calculated and analyzed for a number of synthesized carbachlorins and carbaporphyrins using density functional theory and the gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method. Aromatic properties have been determined by using accurate numerical integration of the current flow yielding reliable current strengths and pathways that are related to the degree of aromaticity and the aromatic character of the studied molecules. All investigated compounds are found to be aromatic. However, the obtained aromatic pathways differ from those previously deduced from spectroscopic data and magnetic shielding calculations. For all studied compounds, the ring current divides into an outer and an inner branch at each pyrrolic subring, showing that all π-electrons of the pyrrolic rings take part in the delocalization pathway. The calculations do not support the common notion that the main share of the current takes the inner route at the pyrrolic rings without an inner hydrogen and follows an 18π aromatic pathway. The aromatic pathways of the investigated carbaporphyrins and carbachlorins are very similar, since the current strength via the Cβ[double bond, length as m-dash]Cβ' bond of the cyclopentadienyl ring of the carbaporphyrins is almost as weak as the current density passing the corresponding saturated Cβ-Cβ' bond of the carbachlorins.

  9. DNA ligand designed to antagonize EBNA1 represses Epstein-Barr virus-induced immortalization.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ai; Noguchi, Kohji; Minoshima, Masafumi; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Kanda, Teru; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Mitsuhashi, Junko; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2011-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms human B lymphocytes into immortalized cells in vitro and is associated with various malignancies in vivo. EBNA1, which is expressed in the majority of EBV-infected cells, recognizes specific DNA sequences at the cis-acting latent origin of plasmid replication (oriP) element of the EBV genome. EBNA1 plays a critical role in the viral episome maintenance and transactivates viral transforming genes in latently infected cells. Therefore, DNA-targeting agents that can disrupt the EBNA1-oriP interaction will offer novel functional inhibitors of EBNA1. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides, sequence-specific DNA ligands, can be designed to interfere with the binding of various transcriptional factors. Here, we synthesized pyrrole-imidazole polyamides targeting EBNA1-bound DNA sequences and developed an inhibitor for the EBNA1-oriP interaction. A pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, designated as DSE-3, bound adjacent to the EBNA1 recognition sequences located in the dyad symmetry element of oriP, and selectively inhibited EBNA1-oriP binding both in vitro and in vivo. DSE-3 also inhibited the proliferation of established lymphoblastoid cell lines by eradicating EBV episomes from the cells. In addition, DSE-3 repressed the expression of viral transforming genes after infecting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with EBV and, as a consequence, inhibited EBV-mediated B-cell immortalization. These results suggest that EBNA1 functions will be an attractive pharmacological target for EBV-associated diseases.

  10. Adsorption of Compounds that Mimic Urban Stormwater Dissolved Organic Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mehrdad; James, Bruce R; Davis, Allen P

    2017-02-01

      Stormwater runoff carrying nitrogen can accelerate eutrophication. Bioretention facilities are among low impact development systems which are commonly used to manage urban stormwater quality and quantity. They are, however, not designed to remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and may become a net DON exporter. Adsorption of seven organic nitrogenous compounds onto several adsorbents was examined. Batch adsorption study revealed that coal activated carbon (AC) exhibited the best performance in adsorption of the selected organic nitrogenous compounds. The highest adsorption capacity of coal AC was 0.4 mg N/g for pyrrole at an equilibrium concentration of 0.02 mg N/L, while adsorption was not detectable for urea at the same equilibrium concentration. The fastest compound to reach equilibrium adsorption capacity onto the coal AC was pyrrole (1 hour). The adsorption capacity of the coal AC for pyrrole and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and 1-hour contact time is recommended for designing bioretention systems targeting organic nitrogenous compounds.

  11. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei; Zhou, Zhihua; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Peng, Changsi

    2014-01-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields.

  12. Comparison of metabolism-mediated effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a HepG2/C3A cell-S9 co-incubation system and quantification of their glutathione conjugates.

    PubMed

    Tamta, Hemlata; Pawar, Rahul S; Wamer, Wayne G; Grundel, Erich; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-10-01

    1. Toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) largely depends on their metabolic activation by hepatic enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, to become chemically reactive pyrrolic derivatives. These then spontaneously release the esterifying acids to generate carbonium ions that form covalent adducts with cellular nucleophiles to exhibit toxicity. 2. In our investigation, metabolism-mediated toxicity of monocrotaline, retrorsine, lycopsamine, echimidine (retronecine-type PAs), heliotrine (a heliotridine-type PA) and senkirkine (an otonecine-type PA) was studied using an in vitro co-incubation assay. 3. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2/C3A) cells were incubated with PAs in the presence and absence of rat liver S9 fraction and the toxicity was assessed as lowered mitochondrial activity. 4. Bioactivation potential was measured by incubating PAs with rat liver S9 fraction, NADPH and GSH in a cell free system. Pyrrolic metabolites generated were entrapped as glutathione conjugates (7-GSH-DHP and 7,9-di-GSHDHP) which were quantified using LC-MS-MS analysis. 5. Our results indicated that PAs were metabolized by rat liver S9 fraction into reactive pyrrolic derivatives which were toxic to HepG2/C3A cells. This approach can be used to determine and compare bioactivation potential and metabolism-mediated toxicity of various PAs.

  13. Advancement in conductive cotton fabrics through in situ polymerization of polypyrrole-nanocellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Hebeish, A; Farag, S; Sharaf, S; Shaheen, Th I

    2016-10-20

    Current research was undertaking with a view to innovate a new approach for development of conductive - coated textile materials through coating cotton fabrics with nanocellulose/polypyrrole composites. The study was designed in order to have a clear understanding of the role of nanocellulose as well as modified composite thereof under investigation. It is anticipated that incorporation of nanocellulose in the pyrrole/cotton fabrics/FeCl3/H2O system would form an integral part of the composites with mechanical, electrical or both properties. Three different nanocellulosic substrates are involved in the oxidation polymerization reaction of polypyrrole (Ppy) in presence of cotton fabrics. Polymerization was subsequently carried out by admixing at various ratios of FeCl3 and pyrrole viz. Ppy1, Ppy2 and pp3. The conductive, mechanical and thermal properties of cotton fabrics coated independently with different nanocellulose/polypyrrole were investigated. FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDX were also used for further characterization. Results signify that, the conductivity of cotton fabrics increases exponentially with increasing the dose of pyrrole and oxidant irrespective of nanocellulose substrate used. While, the mechanical properties of cotton fabrics are not significantly affected by the oxidant treatment.

  14. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields. PMID:24917701

  15. Wittig Derivatization of Sesquiterpenoid Polygodial Leads to Cytostatic Agents with Activity Against Drug Resistant Cancer Cells and Capable of Pyrrolylation of Primary Amines

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Ramesh; De Carvalho, Annelise; Medellin, Derek C.; Middleton, Kelsey N.; Hague, Frédéric; Volmar, Marie N. M.; Frolova, Liliya V.; Rossato, Mateus F.; De La Chapa, Jorge J.; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F.; Pillai, Akshita; Kälin, Roland E.; Mathieu, Véronique; Rogelj, Snezna; Gonzales, Cara B.; Calixto, João B.; Evidente, Antonio; Gautier, Mathieu; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Glass, Rainer; Burth, Patricia; Pelly, Stephen C.; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Many types of cancer, including glioma, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), among others, are resistant to proapoptotic stimuli and thus poorly responsive to current therapies based on the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The current investigation describes the synthesis and anticancer evaluation of unique C12-Wittig derivatives of polygodial, a terpenenoid dialdehyde isolated from Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delabre. These compounds were found to undergo an unprecedented pyrrole formation with primary amines in a chemical model system, a reaction that could be relevant in the biological environment and lead to the pyrrolation of lysine residues in the target proteins. The anticancer evaluation of these compounds revealed their promising activity against cancer cells displaying various forms of drug resistance, including resistance to proapoptotic agents. Mechanistic studies indicated that compared to the parent polygodial, which displays fixative general cytotoxic action against human cells, the C12-Wittig derivatives exerted their antiproliferative action mainly through cytostatic effects explaining their activity against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. The possibility for an intriguing covalent modification of proteins through a novel pyrrole formation reaction, as well as useful activities against drug resistant cancer cells, make the described polygodial-derived chemical scaffold an interesting new chemotype warranting thorough investigation. PMID:26360047

  16. Wittig derivatization of sesquiterpenoid polygodial leads to cytostatic agents with activity against drug resistant cancer cells and capable of pyrrolylation of primary amines.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Ramesh; De Carvalho, Annelise; Medellin, Derek C; Middleton, Kelsey N; Hague, Frédéric; Volmar, Marie N M; Frolova, Liliya V; Rossato, Mateus F; De La Chapa, Jorge J; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F; Pillai, Akshita; Kälin, Roland E; Mathieu, Véronique; Rogelj, Snezna; Gonzales, Cara B; Calixto, João B; Evidente, Antonio; Gautier, Mathieu; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Glass, Rainer; Burth, Patricia; Pelly, Stephen C; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander

    2015-10-20

    Many types of cancer, including glioma, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), among others, are resistant to proapoptotic stimuli and thus poorly responsive to current therapies based on the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The current investigation describes the synthesis and anticancer evaluation of unique C12-Wittig derivatives of polygodial, a sesquiterpenoid dialdehyde isolated from Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delabre. These compounds were found to undergo an unprecedented pyrrole formation with primary amines in a chemical model system, a reaction that could be relevant in the biological environment and lead to the pyrrolation of lysine residues in the target proteins. The anticancer evaluation of these compounds revealed their promising activity against cancer cells displaying various forms of drug resistance, including resistance to proapoptotic agents. Mechanistic studies indicated that compared to the parent polygodial, which displays fixative general cytotoxic action against human cells, the C12-Wittig derivatives exerted their antiproliferative action mainly through cytostatic effects explaining their activity against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. The possibility for an intriguing covalent modification of proteins through a novel pyrrole formation reaction, as well as useful activities against drug resistant cancer cells, make the described polygodial-derived chemical scaffold an interesting new chemotype warranting thorough investigation.

  17. [Synthesis of 1-furfuryl-indolin-2-one derivatives and preliminary evaluation of their antitumor activities].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Fu-Sheng; Zheng, Jian-Bin; Wen, Ren

    2008-01-01

    In order to find new indolin-2-one derivatives as antitumor agents, a series of 3-pyrrole substituted 1-(5-formyl-2-furanylmethyl) indolin-2-one derivatives were designed and synthesized. 5-Formyl-2 ,4-dimethyl-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester was condensed with 5-substituted indolin-2-one 2a-2d to afford 3-[(pyrrol-2-yl) -methylidenyl] indolin-2-ones 3a-3d. Through N-alkylation, 1-(5-formyl-furfuryl) -indolin-2-one 4a-4d were prepared. Compounds 4a-4d were then condensed with indolin-2-one to afford bis-indolin-2-one derivatives 5a-5d. The structures of the synthesized compounds were determined by 1H NMR, MS and element analysis. Antitumor activities of all the synthesized compounds in vitro were tested. All the 12 synthesized compounds possess antitumor activities against SPC-A1 strain. Especially the compounds 5a-5d possess potent antitumor activities better than sunitinib. Their IC50 are all below 5 micromol x L(-1).

  18. Novel nanomaterials based on 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin entrapped in silica matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fagadar-Cosma, Eugenia; Enache, Corina; Vlascici, Dana; Fagadar-Cosma, Gheorghe; Vasile, Mihaela; Bazylak, Grzegorz

    2009-12-15

    The present study is dealing with the obtaining of transparent hybrid silica materials encapsulating 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin designated for advanced optoelectronic devices. The porphyrin was synthesized by three methods: an Adler-type reaction between pyrrole and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in propionic acid medium; by Lindsey condensation of pyrrole with 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in the presence of BF{sub 3}.OEt{sub 2} and by a multicomponent reaction by simultaneously using of pyrrole and two different aldehydes: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl substituted porphyrin was characterized by HPLC, TLC, UV-vis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR analysis. Excitation and emission spectra were also discussed in terms of pH conditions. The hybrid materials, consisting in the porphyrin encapsulated in silica matrices, have been prepared successfully via the two steps acid-base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate using different approaches of the sol-gel process: in situ, by impregnation and by sonication. The synthetic conditions and the compositions were monitored and characterized by using spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, fluorescence and UV-vis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied to observe the columnar or pyramidal nanostructures which are formed by the immobilization of porphyrin on the silica matrices.

  19. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  20. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei; Zhou, Zhihua; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Peng, Changsi

    2014-05-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields.

  1. Label-free photoelectrochemical detection of double-stranded HIV DNA by means of a metallointercalator-functionalized electrogenerated polymer.

    PubMed

    Haddache, Fatima; Le Goff, Alan; Reuillard, Bertrand; Gorgy, Karine; Gondran, Chantal; Spinelli, Nicolas; Defrancq, Eric; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-11-17

    The design of photoactive functionalized electrodes for the sensitive transduction of double-stranded DNA hybridization is reported. Multifunctional complex [Ru(bpy-pyrrole)2 (dppn)](2+) (bpy-pyrrole=4-methyl-4'-butylpyrrole-2,2'-bipyridine, dppn=benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) exhibiting photosensitive, DNA-intercalating, and electropolymerizable properties was synthesized and characterized. The pyrrole groups undergo oxidative electropolymerization on planar electrodes forming a metallopolymer layer on the electrode. Thanks to the photoelectrochemical and intercalating properties of the immobilized Ru(II) complex, the binding of a double-stranded HIV DNA target was photoelectrochemically detected on planar electrodes. Photocurrent generation through visible irradiation was correlated to the interaction between double-stranded DNA and the metallointercalator polymer. These interactions were well fitted by using a Langmuir isotherm, which allowed a dissociation constant of 2×10(6)  L mol(-1) to be estimated. The low detection limit of 1 fmol L(-1) and sensitivity of 0.01 units per decade demonstrate excellent suitability of these modified electrodes for detection of duplex DNA.

  2. Shielding in and around Oxazole, Imidazole, and Thiazole: How Does the Second Heteroatom Affect Aromaticity and Bonding?

    PubMed

    Horner, Kate E; Karadakov, Peter B

    2015-07-17

    Isotropic magnetic shielding distributions in the regions of space surrounding oxazole, imidazole, and thiazole are used to investigate aromaticity and bonding in these five-membered heterocycles with two heteroatoms. This is achieved by constructing HF-GIAO and MP2-GIAO (Hartree-Fock and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with gauge-including atomic orbitals) isotropic shielding plots, within the 6-311++G(d,p) basis, using regular two-dimensional 0.05 Å grids in the molecular plane and in planes 0.5 and 1 Å above it. The extent of isotropic shielding delocalization in the contour plots in planes 1 Å above the molecular plane, which is a new sensitive two-dimensional aromaticity criterion, indicates that aromaticity decreases in the order thiazole > imidazole > oxazole; in combination with previous results on furan, pyrrole, and thiophene ( J. Org. Chem. 2013 , 78 , 8037 - 9043 ), the aromaticity ordering in the six five-membered heterocycles becomes thiophene > thiazole > pyrrole > imidazole > furan > oxazole. The results suggest that the inclusion of a second heteroatom in a five-membered heterocycle has a detrimental effect on its aromaticity, which is very minor in oxazole, when compared to furan, and small but noticeable in imidazole and pyrrole and in thiazole and thiophene.

  3. Synthesis of a series of aromatic benziporphyrins and heteroanalogues via tripyrrane-like intermediates derived from resorcinol and 2-methylresorcinol.

    PubMed

    Lash, Timothy D; Miyake, Kae; Xu, Linlin; Ferrence, Gregory M

    2011-08-05

    Tripyrrane analogues were prepared by reacting resorcinol or 2-methylresorcinol with 2 equiv of an acetoxymethylpyrrole in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid and calcium chloride. Following removal of the benzyl ester protective groups, the resorcinol-derived benzitripyrrane was reacted with a pyrrole dialdehyde to give an aromatic hydroxyoxybenziporphyrin. However, furan and thiophene dialdehydes gave highly insoluble products that could not be fully characterized. The methylresorcinol-derived tripyrrane analogue reacted with pyrrole, furan, thiophene, and selenophene dialdehydes to give unstable porphyrinoids that were further oxidized with [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene to give stable benziporphyrin derivatives. These oxidized benziporphyrins showed strongly diatropic properties by proton NMR spectroscopy where the differences in chemical shifts (Δδ) were >18 ppm in some cases. The selenophene-derived system was further characterized by X-ray crystallography, and these results showed that one of the pyrrole subunits in this crowded structure was tilted by 21° relative to the mean macrocyclic plane. The tripyrrolic system reacted with silver(I) acetate to give the corresponding silver(III) organometallic complex. Regioselective alkylation with methyl or ethyl iodide and potassium carbonate gave diastereomeric mixtures of N-alkyl derivatives, and the N-ethyl substitution products showed highly diastereotopic characteristics.

  4. Copolymères (carbazolylène-pyrrolylène) : synthèse par oxydation chimique et propriétés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucard, V.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    1998-06-01

    Conditions in which (carbazolylene-pyrrolylene) random copolymers could be synthetized directly by chemical oxidation by FeCl3 were studied. A substantial amount of soluble copolymers is obtained after work-up in the conditions corresponding to carbazole/pyrrole/2 FeCl3 molar proportions. An important fraction of polypyrrole was obtained beside a fraction of species soluble in ethanol (carbazole and dimer) and an other fraction of products soluble in water (pyrrole accompanied by the first terms of the oligomeric series). Soluble copolymers were characterized by means of SEC, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Cyclic voltammetry analysis disclosed that these copolymers exhibit both the carbazolic and the pyrrolic features. Les conditions dans lesquelles des copolymères statistiques (carbazo lylène-pyrrolylène) pouvaient être synthétisés directement par oxydation chimique par FeCl3 ont été étudiées. Des quantités substantielles de copolymères solubles en milieu organique sont obtenues par extraction lorsque les proportions molaires en réactifs carbazole/pyrrole/2 FeCl3 sont utilisées. Une fraction importante de polypyrrole est obtenue à côté d'une fraction d'espèces solubles dans l'éthanol (carbazole et son dimère) et d'une fraction de produits solubles dans l'eau (pyrrole et les premiers termes oligomères). Les copolymères solubles ont été caractérisés par CES, spectroscopies RMN et UV-Visible. L'analyse voltampérométrique de ces matériaux révèle qu'ils possèdent à la fois les caractéristiques des entités carbazolylènes et celles des entités pyrrolylènes.

  5. The Porphobilinogen Conundrum in Prebiotic Routes to Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Ptaszek, Marcin; Chandrashaker, Vanampally; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2017-03-01

    Attempts to develop a credible prebiotic route to tetrapyrroles have relied on enzyme-free recapitulation of the extant biosynthesis, but this process has foundered from the inability to form the pyrrole porphobilinogen ( PBG) in good yield by self-condensation of the precursor δ-aminolevulinic acid ( ALA). PBG undergoes robust oligomerization in aqueous solution to give uroporphyrinogen (4 isomers) in good yield. ALA, PBG, and uroporphyrinogen III are universal precursors to all known tetrapyrrole macrocycles. The enzymic formation of PBG entails carbon-carbon bond formation between the less stable enolate/enamine of one ALA molecule (3-position) and the carbonyl/imine (4-position) of the second ALA molecule; without enzymes, the first ALA reacts at the more stable enolate/enamine (5-position) and gives the pyrrole pseudo-PBG. pseudo-PBG cannot self-condense, yet has one open α-pyrrole position and is proposed to be a terminator of oligopyrromethane chain-growth from PBG. Here, 23 analogues of ALA have been subjected to density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations, but no motif has been identified that directs reaction at the 3-position. Deuteriation experiments suggested 5-(phosphonooxy)levulinic acid would react preferentially at the 3- versus 5-position, but a hybrid condensation with ALA gave no observable uroporphyrin. The results suggest efforts toward a biomimetic, enzyme-free route to tetrapyrroles from ALA should turn away from structure-directed reactions and focus on catalysts that orient the two aminoketones to form PBG in a kinetically controlled process, thereby avoiding formation of pseudo-PBG.

  6. Crystal structure of di­aqua­[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)porphyrinato-κ4 N]iron(III) di­aqua­(18-crown-6)potassium bis­(tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate)–18-crown-6 (1/2)

    PubMed Central

    Ben Haj Hassen, Leila; Denden, Zouhour; Rousselin, Yoann; Nasri, Habib

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [FeIII(C48H36N4O2)(H2O)2][K(C12H24O6)(H2O)2](SO3CF3)2·2C12H24O6, the FeIII atom is situated on an inversion centre and is octa­hedrally coordin­ated by four pyrrole N atoms of the deprotenated 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)porphyrinate ligand and two water mol­ecules. The average equatorial Fe—N(pyrrole) bond length [2.043 (6) Å] is consistent with a high-spin (S = 5/2) iron(III) metalloporphyrin derivative. The K+ cation, which also lies on an inversion centre, is chelated by the six O atoms of one 18-crown-6 mol­ecule and is additionally coordinated by two water mol­ecules in a distorted hexa­gonal–bipyramidal geometry. In the crystal, the cations, anions and one non-coordinating 18-crown-6 mol­ecule are linked by classical O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and non-conventional C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to a one-dimensional supra­molecular architecture along [10-1]. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrins, as well as weak C—H⋯F contacts involving the (SO3CF3)− counter-ion and the 18-crown-6 mol­ecules. PMID:26870431

  7. A DFT study of volatile organic compounds adsorption on transition metal deposited graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunaseth, Manaschai; Poldorn, Preeyaporn; Junkeaw, Anchalee; Meeprasert, Jittima; Rungnim, Chompoonut; Namuangruk, Supawadee; Kungwan, Nawee; Inntam, Chan; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn

    2017-02-01

    Recently, elevated global emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was associated to the acceleration and increasing severity of climate change worldwide. In this work, we investigated the performance of VOCs removal via modified carbon-based adsorbent using density functional theory. Here, four transition metals (TMs) including Pd, Pt, Ag, and Au were deposited onto single-vacancy defective graphene (SDG) surface to increase the adsorption efficiency. Five prototypical VOCs including benzene, furan, pyrrole, pyridine, and thiophene were used to study the adsorption capability of metal-deposited graphene adsorbent. Calculation results revealed that Pd, Pt, Au, and Ag atoms and nanoclusters bind strongly onto the SDG surface. In this study, benzene, furan and pyrrole bind in the π-interaction mode using delocalized π-electron in aromatic ring, while pyridine and thiophene favor X- interaction mode, donating lone pair electron from heteroatom. In terms of adsorption, pyridine VOC adsorption strengths to the TM-cluster doped SDG surfaces are Pt4 (-2.11 eV) > Pd4 (-2.05 eV) > Ag4 (-1.53 eV) > Au4 (-1.87 eV). Our findings indicate that TM-doped SDG is a suitable adsorbent material for VOC removal. In addition, partial density of states analysis suggests that benzene, furan, and pyrrole interactions with TM cluster are based on p-orbitals of carbon atoms, while pyridine and thiophene interactions are facilitated by hybridized sp2-orbitals of heteroatoms. This work provides a key insight into the fundamentals of VOCs adsorption on carbon-based adsorbent.

  8. Molecular structure of gaseous isatin as studied by electron diffraction and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Alexander V.; Nikolaenko, Kirill O.; Davidovich, Pavel B.; Ivanov, Anatolii D.; Garabadzhiu, Alexander V.; Rykov, Anatolii N.; Shishkov, Igor F.

    2017-03-01

    The molecular structure of isatin, indole-2,3-dione, was studied by gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) and quantum chemical calculations (M062X and MP2 methods with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set). The best fit of the experimental scattering intensities (R-factor = 4.4%) was obtained for a molecular model of Cs symmetry. The structure of the benzene ring deviates from a regular hexagon due to the adjacent pyrrole heterocycle. The small differences between similar geometric parameters were constrained at the values calculated at the M062X level. The experimental structural parameters agree well with the results of theoretical calculations. The bonds in the benzene moiety are in agreement with their standard values. The (Odbnd)Csbnd C(dbnd O) carbon-carbon bond of the pyrrole moiety (1.573(7) Å) is remarkably lengthened in comparison with standard C(sp2)sbnd C(sp2) value, 1.425(11) Å for N-methylpyrrole. According to NBO analysis of isatin, glyoxal and pyrrole-2,3-dione molecules this lengthening cannot be attributed to the steric interactions of Cdbnd O bonds alone and is, mainly, due to the electrostatic repulsion and hyperconjugation that is delocalization of oxygen lone pairs of π-type into the corresponding carbon-carbon antibonding orbital, nπ(O) → σ∗(Csbnd C). Deletion of σ∗(Csbnd C) orbital followed by subsequent geometry optimization led to shortening of the corresponding Csbnd C bond by 0.06 Å. According to different aromaticity descriptors, aromaticity of benzene moiety of isatin is smaller in comparison with benzene molecule. External magnetic field induces diatropic ring current in benzene moiety of isatin.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of fluorinated azadipyrromethene complexes as acceptors for organic photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, Forrest S; Fernando, Roshan J; Pejić, Sandra; Zeller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Summary Homoleptic zinc(II) complexes of di(phenylacetylene)azadipyrromethene (e.g., Zn(WS3)2) are potential non-fullerene electron acceptors for organic photovoltaics. To tune their properties, fluorination of Zn(WS3)2 at various positions was investigated. Three fluorinated azadipyrromethene-based ligands were synthesized with fluorine at the para-position of the proximal and distal phenyl groups, and at the pyrrolic phenylacetylene moieties. Additionally, a CF3 moiety was added to the pyrrolic phenyl positions to study the effects of a stronger electron withdrawing unit at that position. The four ligands were chelated with zinc(II) and BF2 + and the optical and electrochemical properties were studied. Fluorination had little effect on the optical properties of both the zinc(II) and BF2 + complexes, with λmax in solution around 755 nm and 785 nm, and high molar absorptivities of 100 × 103 M−1cm−1 and 50 × 103 M−1cm−1, respectively. Fluorination of Zn(WS3)2 raised the oxidation potentials by 0.04 V to 0.10 V, and the reduction potentials by 0.01 V to 0.10 V, depending on the position and type of substitution. The largest change was observed for fluorine substitution at the proximal phenyl groups and CF3 substitution at the pyrrolic phenylacetylene moieties. The later complexes are expected to be stronger electron acceptors than Zn(WS3)2, and may enable charge transfer from other conjugated polymer donors that have lower energy levels than poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). PMID:27829899

  10. Biosynthesis of coral settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole in marine bacteria by a uniquely adapted brominase-thioesterase enzyme pair.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Diethelm, Stefan; Rahman, Imran; Schorn, Michelle A; Sneed, Jennifer M; Louie, Gordon V; Whalen, Kristen E; Mincer, Tracy J; Noel, Joseph P; Paul, Valerie J; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-04-05

    Halogenated pyrroles (halopyrroles) are common chemical moieties found in bioactive bacterial natural products. The halopyrrole moieties of mono- and dihalopyrrole-containing compounds arise from a conserved mechanism in which a proline-derived pyrrolyl group bound to a carrier protein is first halogenated and then elaborated by peptidic or polyketide extensions. This paradigm is broken during the marine pseudoalteromonad bacterial biosynthesis of the coral larval settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole (1), which arises from the substitution of the proline-derived carboxylate by a bromine atom. To understand the molecular basis for decarboxylative bromination in the biosynthesis of 1, we sequenced two Pseudoalteromonas genomes and identified a conserved four-gene locus encoding the enzymes involved in its complete biosynthesis. Through total in vitro reconstitution of the biosynthesis of 1 using purified enzymes and biochemical interrogation of individual biochemical steps, we show that all four bromine atoms in 1 are installed by the action of a single flavin-dependent halogenase: Bmp2. Tetrabromination of the pyrrole induces a thioesterase-mediated offloading reaction from the carrier protein and activates the biosynthetic intermediate for decarboxylation. Insights into the tetrabrominating activity of Bmp2 were obtained from the high-resolution crystal structure of the halogenase contrasted against structurally homologous halogenase Mpy16 that forms only a dihalogenated pyrrole in marinopyrrole biosynthesis. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the proposed substrate-binding pocket of Bmp2 led to a reduction in the degree of halogenation catalyzed. Our study provides a biogenetic basis for the biosynthesis of 1 and sets a firm foundation for querying the biosynthetic potential for the production of 1 in marine (meta)genomes.

  11. Electron-transfer and acid-base properties of a two-electron oxidized form of quaterpyrrole that acts as both an electron donor and an acceptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; E, Wenbo; Ohkubo, Kei; Sanchez-Garcia, David; Yoon, Dae-Wi; Sessler, Jonathan L; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Kadish, Karl M

    2008-02-21

    Electron-transfer interconversion between the four-electron oxidized form of a quaterpyrrole (abbreviated as P4 for four pyrroles) and the two-electron oxidized form (P4H2) as well as between P4H2 and its fully reduced form (P4H4) bearing analogous substituents in the alpha- and beta-pyrrolic positions was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectroelectrochemistry combined with ESR and laser flash photolysis measurements. The two-electron oxidized form, P4H2, acts as both an electron donor and an electron acceptor. The radical cation (P4H2*+) and radical anion (P4H2*-) are both produced by photoinduced electron transfer from dimeric 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide to P4H2, whereas the cation radical form of the compound is also produced by electron-transfer oxidation of P4H2 with [Ru(bpy)3]3+. The ESR spectra of P4H2*+ and P4H2*- were recorded at low temperature and exhibit spin delocalization over all four pyrrole units. Thus, the two-electron oxidized form of the quaterpyrrole (P4H2) displays redox and electronic features analogous to those seen in the case of porphyrins and may be considered as a simple, open-chain model of this well-studied tetrapyrrolic macrocycle. The dynamics of deprotonation from P4H2*+ and disproportionation of P4H2 were examined by laser flash photolysis measurements of photoinduced electron-transfer oxidation and reduction of P4H2, respectively.

  12. Structural evidence for the partially oxidized dipyrromethene and dipyrromethanone forms of the cofactor of porphobilinogen deaminase: structures of the Bacillus megaterium enzyme at near-atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Azim, N.; Deery, E.; Warren, M. J.; Wolfenden, B. A. A.; Erskine, P.; Cooper, J. B. Coker, A.; Wood, S. P.; Akhtar, M.

    2014-03-01

    The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses a key early step in the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. Two near-atomic resolution structures of PBGD from B. megaterium are reported that demonstrate the time-dependent accumulation of partially oxidized forms of the cofactor, including one that possesses a tetrahedral C atom in the terminal pyrrole ring. The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses an early step of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis pathway in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. The enzyme possesses a dipyrromethane cofactor, which is covalently linked by a thioether bridge to an invariant cysteine residue (Cys241 in the Bacillus megaterium enzyme). The cofactor is extended during the reaction by the sequential addition of the four substrate molecules, which are released as a linear tetrapyrrole product. Expression in Escherichia coli of a His-tagged form of B. megaterium PBGD has permitted the X-ray analysis of the enzyme from this species at high resolution, showing that the cofactor becomes progressively oxidized to the dipyrromethene and dipyrromethanone forms. In previously solved PBGD structures, the oxidized cofactor is in the dipyromethenone form, in which both pyrrole rings are approximately coplanar. In contrast, the oxidized cofactor in the B. megaterium enzyme appears to be in the dipyrromethanone form, in which the C atom at the bridging α-position of the outer pyrrole ring is very clearly in a tetrahedral configuration. It is suggested that the pink colour of the freshly purified protein is owing to the presence of the dipyrromethene form of the cofactor which, in the structure reported here, adopts the same conformation as the fully reduced dipyrromethane form.

  13. Tracking the conversion of nitrogen during pyrolysis of antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues using XPS and TG-FTIR-MS technology.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Yang, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Liu, Yuchen; Qian, Feng; Yao, Wenqing; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues (AMFRs), which are emerging solid pollutants, have been recognized as hazardous waste in China since 2008. Nitrogen (N), which is an environmental sensitivity element, is largely retained in AMFR samples derived from fermentation substrates. Pyrolysis is a promising technology for the treatment of solid waste. However, the outcomes of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs are still unknown. In this study, the conversion of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs was tracked using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and online TG-FTIR-MS (Thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared-Mass spectrometry) technology. In the AMFR sample, organic amine-N, pyrrolic-N, protein-N, pyridinic-N, was the main N-containing species. XPS results indicated that pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N were retained in the AMFR-derived pyrolysis char. More stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were also produced in the char. TG-FTIR-MS results indicated that NH3 and HCN were the main gaseous species, and their contents were closely related to the contents of amine-N and protein-N, and pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N of AMFRs, respectively. Increases in heating rate enhanced the amounts of NH3 and HCN, but had less of an effect on the degradation degree of AMFRs. N-containing organic compounds, including amine-N, nitrile-N and heterocyclic-N, were discerned from the AMFR pyrolysis process. Their release range was extended with increasing of heating rate and carbon content of AMFR sample. This work will help to take appropriate measure to reduce secondary pollution from the treatment of AMFRs.

  14. Biosynthesis of coral settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole in marine bacteria by a uniquely adapted brominase–thioesterase enzyme pair

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Diethelm, Stefan; Rahman, Imran; Schorn, Michelle A.; Sneed, Jennifer M.; Louie, Gordon V.; Whalen, Kristen E.; Mincer, Tracy J.; Noel, Joseph P.; Paul, Valerie J.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Halogenated pyrroles (halopyrroles) are common chemical moieties found in bioactive bacterial natural products. The halopyrrole moieties of mono- and dihalopyrrole-containing compounds arise from a conserved mechanism in which a proline-derived pyrrolyl group bound to a carrier protein is first halogenated and then elaborated by peptidic or polyketide extensions. This paradigm is broken during the marine pseudoalteromonad bacterial biosynthesis of the coral larval settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole (1), which arises from the substitution of the proline-derived carboxylate by a bromine atom. To understand the molecular basis for decarboxylative bromination in the biosynthesis of 1, we sequenced two Pseudoalteromonas genomes and identified a conserved four-gene locus encoding the enzymes involved in its complete biosynthesis. Through total in vitro reconstitution of the biosynthesis of 1 using purified enzymes and biochemical interrogation of individual biochemical steps, we show that all four bromine atoms in 1 are installed by the action of a single flavin-dependent halogenase: Bmp2. Tetrabromination of the pyrrole induces a thioesterase-mediated offloading reaction from the carrier protein and activates the biosynthetic intermediate for decarboxylation. Insights into the tetrabrominating activity of Bmp2 were obtained from the high-resolution crystal structure of the halogenase contrasted against structurally homologous halogenase Mpy16 that forms only a dihalogenated pyrrole in marinopyrrole biosynthesis. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the proposed substrate-binding pocket of Bmp2 led to a reduction in the degree of halogenation catalyzed. Our study provides a biogenetic basis for the biosynthesis of 1 and sets a firm foundation for querying the biosynthetic potential for the production of 1 in marine (meta)genomes. PMID:27001835

  15. Electrochemical co-deposition of conductive polymer-silica hybrid thin films.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Moran; Liu, Liang; Mandler, Daniel

    2013-07-14

    Conductive polymers, such as polypyrrole (ppy), have been the subject of numerous studies due to their promising applications in organic solar cells, flexible electronics, electrochromic devices, super capacitors, etc. Yet, their application is still limited as a result of poor processability. Silica has been reported to improve the mechanical strength and adhesion of conductive polymer films. In this work, we propose a controllable electrochemical approach for preparing ppy-silica hybrid thin films from a solution containing both pyrrole and silane monomers. It is known that pyrrole can be electropolymerised using anodic potentials, while silica can be electrodeposited under cathodic potentials. Thus, we studied the formation of ppy-silica hybrid thin films on a stainless steel surface by applying alternating potentials, i.e. cathodic followed by anodic pulses (denoted C + A) or anodic followed by cathodic pulses (denoted A + C). We show that by controlling the deposition potential and time for the cathodic and anodic pulses, the film thickness and composition can be manipulated well as analysed using profilometry and EDX. The element depth profile of the films was characterized using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In essence, for the C + A process, pyrrole diffuses through the cathodically electrodeposited wet silica gel layer and undergoes anodic polymerisation on the substrate, while for the A + C process, silane can be electrodeposited both on top of the anodically electrodeposited conductive ppy films as well as on the stainless steel through the pinholes in the ppy film. This offers a simple approach for tuning the structure of conductive polymer-sol-gel composite films.

  16. Preparation of conductive polypyrrole/polyurethane foams and their application as chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbing

    Electrically conductive polypyrrole/polyurethane (PPy/PU) composite foams were prepared by first impregnating the PU foams with iodine, and then exposing the iodine-loaded PU foams to pyrrole vapor, which resulted in the in situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer by iodine oxidant. Iodine sorption by polyurethane (PU) and melamine-formaldehyde (MF) foams was studied using both iodine sublimation and iodine solutions with hexanes and toluene. In the sublimation process, the diffusion kinetics was investigated and the interaction between iodine and PU foams was characterized by DSC, TGA, Raman spectroscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. In the solution process, the equilibrium absorption followed the distribution law and the distribution coefficients varied depending on the solvent used. MF foam achieved no iodine absorption in both processes which can be attributed to the lack of charge-transfer interactions. The kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of the in situ polymerization of pyrrole by iodine in a PU foam was investigated and discussed. The dopant for the PPy was primarily I3-, which formed a charge-transfer complex (PPy-I2) with the amine groups of the PPy. The conductivity of the composite foams was measured and several factors affecting the conductivity were analyzed. The chemical structure, morphology, mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composite foams, and the relationships between these factors were characterized. The PPy/PU composite foams were investigated as sensors for various volatile chemicals, including some chemical warfare simulants. High sensitivity has been demonstrated for organic amine compounds, as well as two mustard agent simulants. The quasireversibility and time scale of the resistance response was qualitatively explained based on the mass uptake characteristic of amine by the composite foam. Humidity also demonstrated its influence on the resistance of the foam sensor in a completely reversible

  17. Polypyrroles formed from porphobilinogen and amines by uroporphyrinogen synthetase of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Richard C.; Neuberger, Albert

    1973-01-01

    1. Uroporphyrinogen I synthetase of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides was purified more than 200-fold from the soluble protein of broken bacterial cells. The enzyme had molecular weight 36000, an isoelectric point of 4.46 and migrated as a single active protein band on disc-gel electrophoresis at pH7.5 and 8.9. 2. The enzyme consumed porphobilinogen and formed uroporphyrinogen at pH8.2 without the accumulation of intermediates. In the presence of hydroxylamine, ammonia or methoxyamine the production of porphyrinogen was inhibited and the enzyme formed open-chain polypyrroles instead. 3. These polypyrroles behaved like uroporphyrinogen on Sephadex G-25; they were colourless and had unsubstituted α-pyrrolic positions. The inhibitory amines were incorporated into the molecules. 4. The polypyrroles formed porphyrins non-enzymically and the cyclization reaction was accompanied by the release of the inhibitory amine. Exchange of the amino function of the original porphobilinogen in the polypyrrole was complete with hydroxylamine and almost complete with methoxyamine, both ammonia and methoxyamine being present in the polypyrrolic material. 5. The behaviour, properties and composition of the radioactive hydroxylamine derivative were consistent with a tetrapyrrolic structure, probably a pyrrylmethane, that was not cyclized, rather than with di-, tri- or penta-pyrrolic structures. No monopyrrolic or dipyrrolic Ehrlich-positive material was released on cyclization. The ammonia and methoxyamine derivatives had properties similar to the hydroxylamine derivative. 6. Another modified pyrrole was detected only in experiments with hydroxylamine. It differed from both porphobilinogen and known dipyrroles and appeared to be a monopyrrole. 7. The participation of positively charged reaction centres in the enzymic mechanism, particularly in the cyclization step, is discussed. PMID:4542566

  18. Neuroactive conducting scaffolds: nerve growth factor conjugation on active ester-functionalized polypyrrole

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Joo-Woon; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    Electrically conductive and biologically active scaffolds are desirable for enhancing adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of a number of cell types such as neurons. Hence, the incorporation of neuroactive molecules into electroconductive polymers via a specific and stable method is essential for neuronal tissue engineering applications. Traditional conjugation approaches dramatically impair conductivities and/or stabilities of the scaffolds and ligands. In this study, we developed copolymers (PPy-NSE) of N-hydroxyl succinimidyl ester pyrrole and regular pyrrole, which can be immobilized with nerve growth factor (NGF) without significantly hindering electroconductivity. The presence of active ester groups was confirmed using reflectance infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) from the copolymers prepared from different monomer compositions. We selected PPy-NSE50 (polymerized from a 50 : 50 monomer ratio of pyrrole : pyrrole-NSE) for further modification with NGF because this copolymer retains good conductivity (approx. 8 S cm−1) and presents active ester groups for NGF immobilization. We tethered NGF on the PPy-NSE50 surface, and found that PC12 cells extended neurites similarly to cells cultured in NGF-containing medium. XPS and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed that NGF immobilized via the active ester on the PPy-NSE50 film was stable for up to 5 days in phosphate-buffered saline solution. Also, application of an external electrical potential to NGF-immobilized PPy films did not cause a significant release of NGF nor reduce their neurotrophic activity. This novel scaffold, providing electroconductive and neurotrophic activities, has potential for neural applications, such as tissue engineering scaffolds and biosensors. PMID:19068472

  19. Synthesis and characterization of fluorinated azadipyrromethene complexes as acceptors for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, Forrest S; Fernando, Roshan J; Pejić, Sandra; Zeller, Matthias; Sauvé, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    Homoleptic zinc(II) complexes of di(phenylacetylene)azadipyrromethene (e.g., Zn(WS3)2) are potential non-fullerene electron acceptors for organic photovoltaics. To tune their properties, fluorination of Zn(WS3)2 at various positions was investigated. Three fluorinated azadipyrromethene-based ligands were synthesized with fluorine at the para-position of the proximal and distal phenyl groups, and at the pyrrolic phenylacetylene moieties. Additionally, a CF3 moiety was added to the pyrrolic phenyl positions to study the effects of a stronger electron withdrawing unit at that position. The four ligands were chelated with zinc(II) and BF2(+) and the optical and electrochemical properties were studied. Fluorination had little effect on the optical properties of both the zinc(II) and BF2(+) complexes, with λmax in solution around 755 nm and 785 nm, and high molar absorptivities of 100 × 10(3) M(-1)cm(-1) and 50 × 10(3) M(-1)cm(-1), respectively. Fluorination of Zn(WS3)2 raised the oxidation potentials by 0.04 V to 0.10 V, and the reduction potentials by 0.01 V to 0.10 V, depending on the position and type of substitution. The largest change was observed for fluorine substitution at the proximal phenyl groups and CF3 substitution at the pyrrolic phenylacetylene moieties. The later complexes are expected to be stronger electron acceptors than Zn(WS3)2, and may enable charge transfer from other conjugated polymer donors that have lower energy levels than poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT).

  20. Ring-strain release in neutral and dicationic 7,8,17,18-tetra­bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin: crystal structures of C44H26Br4N4 and C44H28Br4N4 2+·2ClO4 −·3CH2Cl2

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, W. Robert; Duval, Hugues F.; Oliver, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    Two porphyrin complexes were studied to determine the effects of protonation on ring deformation within the porphyrin. The porphyrin 7,8,17,18-tetra­bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin, C44H26Br4N4, was selected because the neutral species is readily doubly protonated to yield a dication, which was crystallized here with perchlorate counter-ions as a di­chloro­methane tris­olvate, C44H28Br4N4 2+·2ClO4 −·3CH2Cl2. The centrosymmetric neutral species is observed to have a mild ‘ruffling’ of the pyrrole rings and is essentially planar throughout; intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds occur. In contrast, the dication exhibits considerable deformation, with the pyrrole rings oriented well out of the plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a ‘saddle’ conformation of the ring. The charged species forms N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the perchlorate anions, which lie above and below the plane of the porphyrin ring. Distortions to the planarity of the pyrrole rings in both cases are very minor. The characterization of the neutral species represents a low-temperature redetermination of the previous room-temperature analyses [Zou et al. (1995 ▸). Acta Cryst. C51, 760–761; Rayati et al. (2008 ▸). Polyhedron, pp. 2285–2290], which showed disorder and physically unrealistic displacement parameters. PMID:27308051

  1. Ytterbium(III) porpholactones: β-lactonization of porphyrin ligands enhances sensitization efficiency of lanthanide near-infrared luminescence.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xian-Sheng; Yang, Bo-Yan; Cheng, Xin; Chan, Sharon Lai-Fung; Zhang, Jun-Long

    2014-04-07

    The near-infrared (NIR) luminescence efficiency of lanthanide complexes is largely dependent on the electronic and photophysical properties of antenna ligands. Although porphyrin ligands are efficient sensitizers of lanthanide NIR luminescence, non-pyrrolic porphyrin analogues, which have unusual symmetry and electronic states, have been much less studied. In this work, we used porpholactones, a class of β-pyrrolic-modified porphyrins, as ligands and investigated the photophysical properties of lanthanide porpholactones Yb-1 a-5 a. Compared with Yb porphyrin complexes, the porpholactone complexes displayed remarkable enhancement of NIR emission (50-120 %). Estimating the triplet-state levels of porphyrin and porpholactone in Gd complexes revealed that β-lactonization of porphyrinic ligands lowers the ligand T1 state and results in a narrow energy gap between this state and the lowest excited state of Yb(3+) . Transient absorption spectra showed that Yb(III) porpholactone has a longer transient decay lifetime at the Soret band than the porphyrin analogue (30.8 versus 17.0 μs). Thus, the narrower energy gap and longer lifetime arising from β-lactonization are assumed to enhance NIR emission of Yb porpholactones. To demonstrate the potential applications of Yb porpholactone, a water-soluble Yb bioprobe was constructed by conjugating glucose to Yb-1 a. Interestingly, the NIR emission of this Yb porpholactone could be specifically switched on in the presence of glucose oxidase and then switched off by addition of glucose. This is the first demonstration that non-pyrrolic porphyrin ligands enhance the sensitization efficiency of lanthanide luminescence and also display switchable NIR emission in the region of biological analytes (800-1400 nm).

  2. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  3. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Movassaghi, Mohammad; Ondrus, Alison E.

    2010-01-01

    An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations in this convergent approach include a stereospecific palladium–catalyzed N-vinylation of a pyrrole with a vinyl triflate, a copper–catalyzed enantioselective conjugate reduction of a β-pyrrolyl enoate, and a regioselective Friedel-Crafts reaction. The synthesis of optically active and isomerically pure samples of (4aR)-myrmicarins 215A, 215B, and 217 in addition to their respective C4a-epimers is presented. PMID:16178549

  4. Sequential aza-Piancatelli rearrangement/Friedel-Crafts alkylation for the synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-d]benzodiazepine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B V Subba; Reddy, Y Vikram; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-21

    2-Furylcarbinols undergo a smooth aza-Piancatelli rearrangement followed by Friedel-Crafts alkylation with a bifunctional substrate, (1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline, in the presence of 10 mol% In(OTf)3 in acetonitrile at room temperature to afford the corresponding hexahydrobenzo[b]cyclopenta[f]pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,4]diazepin-11(4aH)-one scaffolds in good yields. This method offers significant advantages such as high conversions, mild reaction conditions, short reaction times, and high selectivity. The relative stereochemistry of the product was established by nOe studies.

  5. The Cycloaddition of the Benzimidazolium Ylides with Alkynes: New Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Moldoveanu, Costel; Zbancioc, Gheorghita; Mantu, Dorina; Maftei, Dan; Mangalagiu, Ionel

    2016-01-01

    New insights concerning the reaction mechanism in the cycloaddition reaction of benzimidazolium ylides to activated alkynes are presented. The proposed pathway leading both to 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)anilines and to pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-4(5H)-ones involves an opening of the imidazole ring from the cycloaddition product, followed by a nucleophilic attack of the aminic nitrogen to a proximal carbonyl group and the elimination of a leaving group. The mechanistic considerations are fully supported by experimental data, including the XRD resolved structure of the key reaction intermediate. PMID:27224656

  6. Fullerene-Based Macro-Heterocycle Prepared through Selective Incorporation of Three N and Two O Atoms into C60.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbang; Zhang, Gaihong; Wang, Dian; Xu, Beidi; Xu, Dan; Lou, Ning; Gan, Liangbing

    2016-11-14

    A 14-membered heterocycle is created on the C60 cage skeleton through a multistep procedure. Key steps involve repeated PCl5 -induced hydroxylamino N-O bond cleavage leading to insertion of nitrogen atoms, and also piperidine-induced peroxo O-O bond cleavage leading to insertion of oxygen atoms. The hetero atoms form one pyrrole, two pyran, and one diazepine rings in conjunction with the C60 skeleton carbon atoms. The fullerene-based macrocycle showed unique reactivities towards fluoride ion and copper salts.

  7. First approach to nitrogen-containing fused aromatic hydrocarbons as targets for organoelectronics utilizing a new transformation of O-protected diaryl methanols.

    PubMed

    Bałczewski, Piotr; Bodzioch, Agnieszka; Rózycka-Sokołowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard; Uznański, Paweł

    2010-02-22

    A new concise approach for the construction of heteroatom analogues of polycyclic aromatic benzo[g]quinoline, benzo[b]carbazole, and pyrido[b]carbazole systems via diaryl methanols is described. This transformation involves formation of a central benzene ring fused to two aromatic 5- or 6-membered rings of pyrrole and/or pyridine by using a combination of two aromatic aldehydes, of which at least one contains a ring nitrogen. Analysis of the UV and fluorescent properties, Stokes shifts, quantum yields in solution, and pi-stacking interactions in the crystal structures of the new materials was performed. These polycyclic aromatic compounds show potential as small-molecule organoelectronic materials.

  8. Total syntheses of (±)-spiroindimicins B and C enabled by a late-stage Schöllkopf-Magnus-Barton-Zard (SMBZ) reaction.

    PubMed

    Blair, Lachlan M; Sperry, Jonathan

    2016-01-14

    The spiroindimicins are a family of structurally unprecedented alkaloids isolated from the deep-sea-derived marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032. The total syntheses of (±)-spiroindimicins B and C are disclosed, the first of any member of this family. Central to the successful strategy was installing the spirocentre using a mild intramolecular Heck reaction, the assembly of a pentacyclic spirobisindole by Fischer indolization and a late-stage Schöllkopf-Magnus-Barton-Zard (SMBZ) reaction to construct the trisubstituted pyrrole.

  9. Hybrid [5]Radialenes with Bispyrroloheteroles: New Electron-Donating Units.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2015-09-14

    Bispyrroloheteroles have been synthesized to address their intrinsic structural, optical, and electrochemical properties. The X-ray crystal structures and calculated natural bond orbital (NBO) bond orders unambiguously demonstrated the existence of a two pyrrole-fused five-membered ring with short exocyclic C-C double bonds and long endocyclic C-C single bonds, supporting that the bispyrroloheteroles are rare examples of structurally characterized hybrid [5]radialenes. The bispyrroloheteroles were found to act as an electron-donating unit, which would be fascinating for the rational design of new charge-transporting and donor-acceptor photovoltaic materials as well as versatile charge-transfer complexes.

  10. Lewis acid catalyzed [3 + 2] annulation of ketenimines with donor-acceptor cyclopropanes: an approach to 2-alkylidenepyrrolidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Alajarin, Mateo; Egea, Adrian; Orenes, Raul-Angel; Vidal, Angel

    2016-11-02

    The [3 + 2] annulation reaction of C,C,N-trisubstituted ketenimines with donor-acceptor cyclopropanes bearing aryl, styryl and vinyl substituents at the C2 position, triggered by the Lewis acid Sc(OTf)3, supplies highly substituted pyrrolidines. Activated cyclopropanes fused to naphthalene and [1]benzopyrane nuclei are also suitable substrates in similar transformations, yielding partially saturated benz[g]indoles and [1]benzopyran[4,3-b]pyrroles. An intramolecular version of this ketenimine/cyclopropane [3 + 2] annulation has also been developed leading to the pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindole framework.

  11. Multifaceted strategy for the synthesis of diverse 2,2'-bithiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Krompiec, Stanisław; Filapek, Michał; Grudzka-Flak, Iwona; Slodek, Aneta; Kula, Sławomir; Malecki, Jan Grzegorz; Malarz, Joanna; Szafraniec-Gorol, Grażyna; Penkala, Mateusz; Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa; Paluch, Marian; Mierzwa, Michał; Matussek, Marek; Szlapa, Agata; Pajak, Michał; Blach, Dariusz; Marcol, Beata; Danikiewicz, Witold; Boharewicz, Bartosz; Iwan, Agnieszka

    2015-03-12

    New catalytically or high pressure activated reactions and routes, including coupling, double bond migration in allylic systems, and various types of cycloaddition and dihydroamination have been used for the synthesis of novel bithiophene derivatives. Thanks to the abovementioned reactions and routes combined with non-catalytic ones, new acetylene, butadiyne, isoxazole, 1,2,3-triazole, pyrrole, benzene, and fluoranthene derivatives with one, two or six bithiophenyl moieties have been obtained. Basic sources of crucial substrates which include bithiophene motif for catalytic reactions were 2,2'-bithiophene, gaseous acetylene and 1,3-butadiyne.

  12. ToF-SIMS characterization of silk fibroin and polypyrrole composite actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Nathan P.; Severt, Sean Y.; Wang, Zhaoying; Fengel, Carly V.; Larson, Jesse D.; Zhu, Zihua; Murphy, Amanda R.; Leger., Janelle M.

    2015-11-01

    Biocompatible materials capable of controlled actuation under biologically relevant conditions are in high demand for use in a number of biomedical applications. Recently, we demonstrated that a composite material composed of silk biopolymer and the conducting polymer poly(pyrrole) can bend under an applied voltage using a simple bilayer device. Here we present further characterization of these bilayer actuators using time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and provide clarification on the mechanism of actuation and factors affecting device performance and stability. We will discuss the results of this study in the context of strategies for optimization of device performance.

  13. Porphyrin–Polyyne [3]- and [5]Rotaxanes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Porphyrin–polyyne [3]- and [5]rotaxanes have been synthesized by condensing aldehyde–rotaxanes with pyrrole or dipyrromethane. The crystal structure of a [3]rotaxane shows that the macrocycles adopt compact conformations, holding the hexaynes near the porphyrin core, and that the phenanthroline units form intermolecular π-stacked dimers in the solid. Fluorescence spectra reveal singlet excited-state energy transfer from the threaded hexayne to the porphyrin, from the phenanthroline to the porphyrin, and from the phenanthroline to the hexayne. PMID:28054784

  14. Transmembrane anion transport and cytotoxicity of synthetic tambjamine analogs.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Elsa; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Cortés-Arroyo, Susana; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Quesada, Roberto

    2014-03-21

    Ten synthetic analogs of the marine alkaloids tambjamines, bearing aromatic enamine moieties, have been synthesized. These compounds proved to be highly efficient transmembrane anion transporters in model liposomes. Changes in the electronic nature of the substituents of the aromatic enamine or the alkoxy group of the central pyrrole group did not affect this anionophore activity. The in vitro activity of these compounds has also been studied. They trigger apoptosis in several cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the low micromolar range as well as modify the intracellular pH, inducing the basification of acidic organelles.

  15. Pyrolysis and Combustion of Acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN)

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.

    2002-05-22

    Acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN) is formed from the thermal decomposition of a variety of cyclic, noncyclic, and polymeric nitrogen-containing compounds such as pyrrole and polyacrylonitrile. The pyrolysis and combustion of acetonitrile have been studied over the past 30 years to gain a more detailed understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in the release of nitrogen-containing compounds such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in fires and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in coal combustion. This report reviews the literature on the formation of HCN and NOx from the pyrolysis and combustion of acetonitrile and discusses the possible products found in an acetonitrile fire.

  16. An electronic state of the chromophore, phycocyanobilin, and its interaction with the protein moiety in C-phycocyanin: protonation of the chromophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Hiroto; Sugimoto, Tohru; Mimuro, Mamoru

    1997-08-01

    An electronic state of phycocyanobilin (PCB, a derivative of an open tetrapyrrole) in C-phycocyanin, an antenna pigment-protein complex for photosynthesis, was estimated by including the effect of an electrostatic field of protein moieties and water molecules. We adapted our unique method for calculation of the resonance integral. The observed absorption wavelength and an oscillator strength were reproduced only when the PCB was assigned to the protonated form with a net charge of 1. This was rationalized by the negative charge of a specific aspartate residue which was equidistant from the two nitrogen atoms of two central pyrrole rings.

  17. Radical cascades using enantioenriched 7-azabenzonorbornenes and their applications in synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Winning, Leonard H

    2008-01-01

    Summary Tandem deoxygenation–neophyl-type radical rearrangement–electrophile trapping using xanthates from 7-azabenzonorbornadienes gives 3-exo-substituted 2-aza-5,6-benzonorbornenes, which in some cases undergo isomerisation to (aminomethyl)indenes. The starting xanthates are accessible in good yields and high enantiomeric ratios via asymmetric hydroboration of (aryne/pyrrole-derived) 7-azabenzonorbornadienes. Oxidation (using RuO4) and Birch reduction of the 2-aza-5,6-benzonorbornenes provide access to substituted pyrrolidines and tetrahydroindenes, respectively. PMID:19043626

  18. Determination of volatile components in fresh, frozen, and freeze-dried Padrón-type peppers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using dynamic headspace sampling and microwave desorption.

    PubMed

    Oruña-Concha, M J; López-Hernández, J; Simal-Lozano, J A; Simal-Gándara, J; González-Castro, M J; de la Cruz García, C

    1998-12-01

    "Padrón-type" peppers are a small variety of Capsicum annuum cultivated mainly in Galicia, Spain. To compare the effects of freezing and freeze-drying on the volatile components of Padrón-type peppers, preserved samples are analyzed by means of dynamic headspace sampling on an adsorbent followed by microwave desorption into a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometric detector. Sixty-five compounds are identified, including hydrocarbons, terpenes, alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, esters, pyrroles, pyrazines, and sulfurous compounds. Fresh whole, homogenized, and freeze-dried peppers have characteristic volatile-component profiles, whereas frozen peppers have a highly variable volatile-component profile.

  19. Electronically conducting polymers with silver grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Hodko, Dolibor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides electronically conducting polymer films formed from photosensitive formulations of pyrrole and an electron acceptor that have been selectively exposed to UV light, laser light, or electron beams. The formulations may include photoinitiators, flexibilizers, solvents and the like. These solutions can be used in applications including printed circuit boards and through-hole plating and enable direct metallization processes on non-conducting substrates. After forming the conductive polymer patterns, a printed wiring board can be formed by sensitizing the polymer with palladium and electrolytically depositing copper.

  20. Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ramadan; Shaaban, Mona I.; Abdel Bar, Fatma M.; El-Mahdy, Areej M.; Shokralla, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems communicate bacterial population and stimulate microbial pathogenesis through signaling molecules. Inhibition of QS signals potentially suppresses microbial infections. Antimicrobial properties of Streptomyces have been extensively studied, however, less is known about quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activities of Streptomyces. This study explored the QSI potential of Streptomyces isolated from soil. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples with morphological characteristics of Streptomyces. The three isolates: S6, S12, and S17, exhibited QSI effect by screening with the reporter, Chromobacterium violaceum. Isolate S17 was identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus by sequencing of the hypervariable regions (V1–V6) of 16S rRNA and was assigned gene bank number KJ855087. The QSI effect of the cell-free supernatant of isolate S17 was not abolished by proteinase K indicating the non-enzymatic activity of QSI components of S17. Three major compounds were isolated and identified, using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR, and Mass spectrometry), as behenic acid (docosanoic acid), borrelidin, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including; elastase, protease, and pyocyanin without affecting Pseudomonas viability. At the molecular level, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid suppressed the expression of QS genes (lasI, lasR, lasA, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, pqsA, and pqsR). Moreover, QSI activity of S17 was assessed under different growth conditions and ISP2 medium supplemented with glucose 0.4% w/v and adjusted at pH 7, showed the highest QSI action. In conclusion, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, one of the major metabolites of Streptomyces isolate S17, inhibited QS and virulence determinants of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The findings of the study open the scope to exploit the in vivo efficacy of this active molecule as anti-pathogenic and anti