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Sample records for pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex

  1. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity☆

    PubMed Central

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen, Di; Giovagnini, Lorena; Diez, Alejandro; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC50 value of 13.8 μM, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC50 5.3 μM). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells. PMID:18501397

  2. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen Di; Giovagnini, Lorena; Diez, Alejandro; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q. Ping

    2008-08-15

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC{sub 50} value of 13.8 {mu}M, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC{sub 50} 5.3 {mu}M). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells.

  3. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity.

    PubMed

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen, Di; Giovagnini, Lorena; Diez, Alejandro; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q Ping

    2008-08-15

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC(50) value of 13.8 microM, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC(50) 5.3 microM). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells. PMID:18501397

  4. Clioquinol and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex with copper to form proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Kenyon G; Chen, Di; Orlu, Shirley; Cui, Qiuzhi Cindy; Miller, Fred R; Dou, Q Ping

    2005-01-01

    Introduction A physiological feature of many tumor tissues and cells is the tendency to accumulate high concentrations of copper. While the precise role of copper in tumors is cryptic, copper, but not other trace metals, is required for angiogenesis. We have recently reported that organic copper-containing compounds, including 8-hydroxyquinoline-copper(II) and 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline-copper(II), comprise a novel class of proteasome inhibitors and tumor cell apoptosis inducers. In the current study, we investigate whether clioquinol (CQ), an analog of 8-hydroxyquinoline and an Alzheimer's disease drug, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a known copper-binding compound and antioxidant, can interact with copper to form cancer-specific proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human breast cancer cells. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a strong copper chelator currently being tested in clinical trials, is used as a comparison. Methods Breast cell lines, normal, immortalized MCF-10A, premalignant MCF10AT1K.cl2, and malignant MCF10DCIS.com and MDA-MB-231, were treated with CQ or PDTC with or without prior interaction with copper, followed by measurement of proteasome inhibition and cell death. Inhibition of the proteasome was determined by levels of the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity and ubiquitinated proteins in protein extracts of the treated cells. Apoptotic cell death was measured by morphological changes, Hoechst staining, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Results When in complex with copper, both CQ and PDTC, but not TM, can inhibit the proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity, block proliferation, and induce apoptotic cell death preferentially in breast cancer cells, less in premalignant breast cells, but are non-toxic to normal/non-transformed breast cells at the concentrations tested. In contrast, CQ, PDTC, TM or copper alone had no effects on any of the cells. Breast premalignant or cancer cells that contain copper at concentrations

  5. Cadmium (II) pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex as single source precursor for the preparation of CdS nanocrystals by microwave irradiation and conventional heating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx Nirmal, R.; Pandian, K.; Sivakumar, K.

    2011-01-01

    The complex of cadmium with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate Cd(pdtc)2 has been used as single source precursor for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The formation of CdS nanostructures was achieved by thermal decomposition of the complex under microwave irradiation and conventional heating in presence of hexadecylamine. The CdS nanoparticles with disordered close-packed structure were obtained under microwave irradiation, whereas wurtzite hexagonal phase CdS nanorods were obtained by conventional heating method (up to 150 °C). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies also were carried out to study the structure and morphology of nanoparticles. The optical property of the CdS nanoparticles was studied by UV-visible and fluorescence emission spectral studies. Fluorescence measurements on the CdS nanoparticles show a strong emission spectrum with two sub bands that are attributed to band-edge and surface-defect emissions. The reduction of a suitable cadmium metal complex is considered to be one of the single pot methods to generate CdS semiconductor nanoparticles with different shapes and high yield.

  6. Electron spin resonance analysis of heme-nitrosyl and reduced iron-sulfur centered complexes in allogeneic, heterotopic cardiac transplants: effects of treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, A L; Roza, A M; Adams, M B; Seibel, R; Moore-Hilton, G; Kalyanaraman, B; Pieper, G M

    1998-07-15

    Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) prolongs allograft survival suggesting a role for nitric oxide (.NO) in allograft rejection. Induction of iNOS is regulated by the oxidant-sensitive, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in many cell types. In the present study using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we evaluated whether pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a metal chelator and antioxidant, might limit .NO production during the development of rejection in cardiac allografts. We performed either isogeneic (Lewis to Lewis) or allogeneic (Wistar-Furth to Lewis) heterotopic abdominal cardiac transplantation. Allograft recipients received daily injections of PDTC or aminoguanidine (a known inhibitor of iNOS). At postoperative days 4 or 6, grafted and native hearts of transplant recipients were flushed with cardioplegic solution to remove blood contamination. ESR data of allografts revealed a triplet nitrogen signal (aN=17.5 G) and centered at g=2.012 and an additional broad signal at g=2.08. This signal was not seen in either isografts or native hearts of either isograft or allograft recipients. Based upon these parameters, these signals are attributed to nitrosomyoglobin. This signal was inhibited by treatment with aminoguanidine or PDTC. Under these conditions, PDTC also prolonged graft survival from 6.6+/-0.2 to 11.7+/-0.3 days. Thus, it is conceivable that nitrosylmyoglobin formation precedes rejection in cardiac allografts and inhibition of nitrosomyoglobin with agents such as PDTC contribute to improved graft survival. PMID:9667497

  7. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and zinc inhibit proteasome-dependent proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Insook; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Joo Hee; Lee, Jinu; Choi, Jun Jeong; Chen, Zheng Ai; Lee, Min Goo; Chung, Kwang Chul; Hsu, Chung Y; Ahn, Young Soo

    2004-08-01

    Proteasomes play important roles in a variety of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, signal transduction and immune responses. Proteasome activity is important in maintaining rapid turnover of short-lived proteins, as well as preventing accumulation of misfolded or damaged proteins. Alteration in ubiquitin-proteasome function may be detrimental to its crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Here, we have found that treatment of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a zinc ionophore, resulted in the accumulation of several proteasome substrates including p53 and p21 in HeLa cells. The PDTC effect was due to an extended half-life of these proteins through the mobilization of zinc. PDTC and/or zinc also increased fluorescence intensity of Ub(G76V)-GFP fusion protein that is degraded rapidly by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Treatment of cells with zinc induced formation of ubiquitinated inclusions in the centrosome, a histological marker of proteasome inhibition. Western blotting showed zinc-induced increase in laddering bands of polyubiquitin-conjugated proteins. In vitro study, zinc inhibited the ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradations of p21 and alpha-synuclein. These results suggest that zinc may modulate cell functions through its action on the turnover of proteins that are susceptible to proteasome-dependent proteolysis. PMID:15242777

  8. Evaluation of copper-dependent proteasome-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of novel pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate analogues.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiyong; Wang, Fei; Milacic, Vesna; Li, Xiaofeng; Cui, Qiuzhi Cindy; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing; Dou, Q Ping

    2007-12-01

    Apoptosis has a central role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, one of which is cancer. One of the most important strategies to regulate apoptosis is via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. It has been shown that inhibition of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity is a strong apoptosis-inducing stimulus and that actively proliferating cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than normal or untransformed cells. Dithioscarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. We reported previously that certain members of dithiocarbamates, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), diethyldithiocarbamate and disulfiram, are able to bind with tumor cellular copper, forming an active complex with proteasome-inhibitory, apoptosis-inducing and anti-cancer activities. In the current study, we synthesized eight PDTC analogues with substitutions made to the pyrrolidine ring and studied their structure-activity relationships. We found that substitution of the pyrrolidine ring with piperidine had almost no effect on their proteasome-inhibitory and anti-proliferative potencies in human breast cancer cells. However, after the pyrrolidine ring was substituted with morpholine, the activity of the mixtures slightly decreased but was completely lost when piperazine with the attached ethyl group was used for the substitution. This structure-activity relationship was confirmed by the results generated with the corresponding copper complexes. Our data further support the novel concept of using accumulated copper in human cancer cells as a selective approach for chemotherapy. PMID:17982703

  9. An experimental study on effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on ischemia-reperfusion injury in testis

    PubMed Central

    Kemahli, Eray; Yildiz, Mevlüt; Firat, Tülin; Özyalvaçli, Mehmet Emin; Üyetürk, Uğur; Yilmaz, Burak; Gücük, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the histopathological and biochemical effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an antioxidant and inhibitor of NF-kβ, on ischemiareperfusion injury in rats. Methods: A total of 21 male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly distributed into three groups as sham group (Group 1), ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group (Group 2) and I/R with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group (Group 3). Left testicles of rats in Groups 2 and 3 underwent testicular torsion of 720° for four hours and 100 mg/kg of PDTC was administered intraperitoneally prior to detorsion in Group 3. An hour after detorsion process, left orchiectomies were performed and 5 ml of intracardiac blood samples were drawn from rats in all three groups. Histopathological examination of testis tissues performed and measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in blood samples were taken. Results: Elevated levels of MDA and decreased SOD activity, together with decreased Johnson tubular biopsy scores consistent with I/R injury were observed in Group 2 (p<0.05). Group 1 and Group 3 were similar in terms of MDA levels, SOD activity, and Johnson scores (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our results indicated that PDTC may have beneficial effects for alleviation of I/R injury in testicular tissue in rats. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and exploration of its diagnostic and therapeutic potential requires further randomized, controlled trials on a larger scale. PMID:27330576

  10. Inhibition of NF-kappa B by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate blocks endothelial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Ferran, C; Millan, M T; Csizmadia, V; Cooper, J T; Brostjan, C; Bach, F H; Winkler, H

    1995-09-01

    Endothelial cell activation is achieved by the rapid, protein synthesis-independent induction of a characteristic set of genes. Because of the abundance of binding sites for the transcription factor NF-kappa B in the regulatory region of the aforementioned genes, we hypothesized that this factor might play a key role. Reactive oxygen intermediates act as second messengers in the activation of NF-kappa B. We have used the antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate to analyze the effect of NF-kappa B inhibition on TNF alpha-induced EC activation in vitro. We show that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate strongly reduces the TNF alpha-mediated induction of E-selectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, PAI-1, tissue factor, IL-8 and I kappa B-alpha. We present evidence identifying NF-kappa B as a central of EC activation. Therefore, this factor may represent a prime target for therapeutic intervention in pathologic conditions associated with EC activation such as allo- and xenograft rejection, atherosclerosis, ischemic reperfusion injury and vasculitis.

  11. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Prevents Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction after Endotoxemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kan, Min Hui; Yang, Ting; Fu, Hui Qun; Fan, Long; Wu, Yan; Terrando, Niccolò; Wang, Tian-Long

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation, for example as a result of infection, often contributes to long-term complications. Neuroinflammation and cognitive decline are key hallmarks of several neurological conditions, including advance age. The contribution of systemic inflammation to the central nervous system (CNS) remains not fully understood. Using a model of peripheral endotoxemia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) we investigated the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in mediating long-term neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. Herein we describe the anti-inflammatory effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a selective NF-κB inhibitor, in modulating systemic cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and CNS markers after LPS exposure in aged rats. In the hippocampus, PDTC not only reduced neuroinflammation by modulating canonical NF-κB activity but also affected IL-1β expression in astrocytes. Parallel effects were observed on behavior and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95), a marker of synaptic function. Taken together these changes improved acute and long-term cognitive function in aged rats after LPS exposure. PMID:27493629

  12. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Prevents Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction after Endotoxemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Min Hui; Yang, Ting; Fu, Hui Qun; Fan, Long; Wu, Yan; Terrando, Niccolò; Wang, Tian-Long

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation, for example as a result of infection, often contributes to long-term complications. Neuroinflammation and cognitive decline are key hallmarks of several neurological conditions, including advance age. The contribution of systemic inflammation to the central nervous system (CNS) remains not fully understood. Using a model of peripheral endotoxemia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) we investigated the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in mediating long-term neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. Herein we describe the anti-inflammatory effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a selective NF-κB inhibitor, in modulating systemic cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and CNS markers after LPS exposure in aged rats. In the hippocampus, PDTC not only reduced neuroinflammation by modulating canonical NF-κB activity but also affected IL-1β expression in astrocytes. Parallel effects were observed on behavior and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95), a marker of synaptic function. Taken together these changes improved acute and long-term cognitive function in aged rats after LPS exposure. PMID:27493629

  13. Copper uptake is required for pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-mediated oxidation and protein level increase of p53 in cells.

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Saori; Ortiz, Fausto; Zhu Sun, Xiu; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Mason, Andrew; Momand, Jamil

    2002-01-01

    The p53 tumour-suppressor protein is a transcription factor that activates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. The p53 protein is vulnerable to oxidation at cysteine thiol groups. The metal-chelating dithiocarbamates, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), diethyldithiocarbamate, ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate and H(2)O(2) were tested for their oxidative effects on p53 in cultured human breast cancer cells. Only PDTC oxidized p53, although all oxidants tested increased the p53 level. Inductively coupled plasma MS analysis indicated that the addition of 60 microM PDTC increased the cellular copper concentration by 4-fold, which was the highest level of copper accumulated amongst all the oxidants tested. Bathocuproinedisulphonic acid, a membrane-impermeable Cu(I) chelator inhibited the PDTC-mediated copper accumulation. Bathocuproinedisulphonic acid as well as the hydroxyl radical scavenger d-mannitol inhibited the PDTC-dependent increase in p53 protein and oxidation. Our results show that a low level of copper accumulation in the range of 25-40 microg/g of cellular protein increases the steady-state levels of p53. At copper accumulation levels higher than 60 microg/g of cellular protein, p53 is oxidized. These results suggest that p53 is vulnerable to free radical-mediated oxidation at cysteine residues. PMID:11964141

  14. Speciation analysis of tellurium by solid-phase extraction in the presence of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhai; Cai, Qiantao; Guo, Zhong-Xian; Yang, Zhaoguang; Khoo, Soo Beng

    2003-05-01

    Under acidic conditions tellurium(IV) formed a complex with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC). The tellurium(IV) complex was completely retained on a non-polar Isolute silica-based octadecyl (C(18)) sorbent-containing solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, while the uncomplexed Te(VI) passed through the cartridge and remained as a free species in the solution. Only partial Te(IV) was retained on the SPE cartridge for samples without addition of APDC. On the basis of different retention behaviours of the complexed Te(IV) and uncomplexed Te(VI), a simple and highly sensitive method is proposed for the determination of total tellurium and Te(VI) by SPE separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The Te(IV) concentration was calculated as the difference between total tellurium and Te(VI) concentrations. The detection limit (3 sigma) is 3 ng L(-1) tellurium. Factors affecting the separation and detection of tellurium species were investigated. Coexisting ions did not show significant interferences with the Te(IV)-APDC complex retention and the subsequent ICP-MS detection of Te. The method has been successfully applied to the tellurium speciation analysis in waters with spiked recoveries for Te(IV) and Te(VI) of 86.0-108% and 87.1-97.4%, respectively.

  15. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces the progression of total kidney volume and cyst enlargement in experimental polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ta, Michelle H T; Rao, Padmashree; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Foster, Sheryl F; Peduto, Anthony; Harris, David C H; Rangan, Gopala K

    2014-12-01

    Heterocyclic dithiocarbamates have anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in rodent models of chronic kidney disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduces the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Male Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rats (an ortholog of Nek8/NPHP9) received intraperitoneal injections of either saline vehicle or PDTC (40 mg/kg once or twice daily) from postnatal weeks 4 until 11. By serial magnetic resonance imaging at weeks 5 and 10, the relative within-rat increase in total kidney volume and cyst volume were 1.3-fold (P = 0.01) and 1.4-fold (P < 0.01) greater, respectively, in LPK + Vehicle compared to the LPK + PDTC(40 mg/kg twice daily) group. At week 11 in LPK rats, PDTC attenuated the increase in kidney weight to body weight ratio by 25% (P < 0.01) and proteinuria by 66% (P < 0.05 vs. LPK + Vehicle) but did not improve renal dysfunction. By quantitative whole-slide image analysis, PDTC did not alter interstitial CD68+ cell accumulation, interstitial fibrosis, or renal cell proliferation in LPK rats at week 11. The phosphorylated form of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunit, p105, was increased in cystic epithelial cells of LPK rats, but was not altered by PDTC. Moreover, PDTC did not significantly alter nuclear expression of the p50 subunit or NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding. Kidney enlargement in LPK rats was resistant to chronic treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib. In conclusion, PDTC reduced renal cystic enlargement and proteinuria but lacked anti-inflammatory effects in LPK rats. PMID:25501440

  16. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces the progression of total kidney volume and cyst enlargement in experimental polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Michelle H. T.; Rao, Padmashree; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Foster, Sheryl F.; Peduto, Anthony; Harris, David C. H.; Rangan, Gopala K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Heterocyclic dithiocarbamates have anti‐inflammatory and anti‐proliferative effects in rodent models of chronic kidney disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduces the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Male Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rats (an ortholog of Nek8/NPHP9) received intraperitoneal injections of either saline vehicle or PDTC (40 mg/kg once or twice daily) from postnatal weeks 4 until 11. By serial magnetic resonance imaging at weeks 5 and 10, the relative within‐rat increase in total kidney volume and cyst volume were 1.3‐fold (P =0.01) and 1.4‐fold (P < 0.01) greater, respectively, in LPK + Vehicle compared to the LPK + PDTC(40 mg/kg twice daily) group. At week 11 in LPK rats, PDTC attenuated the increase in kidney weight to body weight ratio by 25% (P < 0.01) and proteinuria by 66% (P < 0.05 vs. LPK + Vehicle) but did not improve renal dysfunction. By quantitative whole‐slide image analysis, PDTC did not alter interstitial CD68+ cell accumulation, interstitial fibrosis, or renal cell proliferation in LPK rats at week 11. The phosphorylated form of the nuclear factor (NF)‐κB subunit, p105, was increased in cystic epithelial cells of LPK rats, but was not altered by PDTC. Moreover, PDTC did not significantly alter nuclear expression of the p50 subunit or NF‐κB (p65)‐DNA binding. Kidney enlargement in LPK rats was resistant to chronic treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib. In conclusion, PDTC reduced renal cystic enlargement and proteinuria but lacked anti‐inflammatory effects in LPK rats. PMID:25501440

  17. Protective Effects of the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Inhibitor Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate on Experimental Testicular Torsion and Detorsion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Topal, Fatma; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Ustuner, Derya; Ozbayer, Cansu

    2014-01-01

    Testicular torsion results with the damage of the testis and it is a surgical emergency. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a low-molecular-weight antioxidant and potent inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PDTC to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D) injury. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups. A sham operation was performed in group I. In group II, torsion is performed 2 hours by 720 degree extravaginally testis. In group III, 4 h reperfusion of the testis was performed after 2 h of testicular torsion. In group IV, after performing the same surgical procedures as in group III, PDTC (100 mg/kg, intravenous's) was administered before 30 min of detorsion. The testes tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) level was evaluated. Histological evaluations were performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Testicular tissue MDA levels were the highest in the T/D groups compared with treatment group. Administration of PDTC prevented a further increase in MDA levels. Significant decrease occurred in CAT and SOD levels in treatment group compared with the control group. The rats in the treatment group had normal testicular architecture. The results suggest that PDTC can be a potential protective agent for preventing the biochemical and histological changes related to oxidative stress in testicular injury caused by testis torsion. PMID:25177164

  18. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits UVB-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in hairless mice and exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Ana L M; Campanini, Marcela Z; Martinez, Renata M; Ferreira, Vitor S; Steffen, Vinicius S; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Vilela, Fernanda M P; Martins, Frederico S; Zarpelon, Ana C; Cunha, Thiago M; Fonseca, Maria J V; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rúbia

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is an antioxidant and inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. In the present study, the mechanisms of PDTC were investigated in cell free oxidant/antioxidant assays, in vivo UVB irradiation in hairless mice and UVB-induced NFκB activation in keratinocytes. PDTC presented the ability to scavenge 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical (OH); and also efficiently inhibited iron-dependent and -independent lipid peroxidation as well as chelated iron. In vivo, PDTC treatment significantly decreased UVB-induced skin edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and antioxidant capacity of the skin tested by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ABTS assays. PDTC also reduced UVB-induced IκB degradation in keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that PDTC presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, which line up well with the PDTC inhibition of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. These data suggest that treatment with PDTC may be a promising approach to reduce UVB irradiation-induced skin damages and merits further pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  19. Suppression of prolactin signaling by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate is alleviated by N-acetylcysteine in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jen-Hsing; Du, Jyun-Yi; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Meng-Chi; Huang, Chun-Hao; Shen, Hsin-Ju; Lee, Chin-Feng; Lin, Ting-Hui; Lee, Yi-Ju

    2014-09-01

    Prolactin is the key hormone to stimulate milk synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. It signals through the Jak2-Stat5 pathway to induce the expression of β-casein, a milk protein which is often used as a marker for mammary differentiation. Here we examined the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on prolactin signaling. Our results show that PDTC downregulates prolactin receptor levels, and inhibits prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and β-casein expression. This is not due to its inhibitory action on NF-κB since application of another NF-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7082, and overexpression of I-κBα super-repressor do not lead to the same results. Instead, the pro-oxidant activity of PDTC is involved as inclusion of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine restores prolactin signaling. PDTC triggers great extents of activation of ERK and JNK in mammary epithelial cells. These do not cause suppression of prolactin signaling but confer serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, thereby perturbing insulin signal propagation. As insulin facilitates optimal β-casein expression, blocking insulin signaling by PDTC might pose additional impediment to β-casein expression. Our results thus imply that lactation will be compromised when the cellular redox balance is dysregulated, such as during mastitis.

  20. In Situ XAS of the Solvothermal Decomposition of Dithiocarbamate Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Husn-Ubayda; Roffey, Anna; Hollingsworth, Nathan; Catlow, Richard; Wolthers, Mariette; De Leeuw, Nora; Bras, Wim; Sankar, Gopinathan; Hogarth, Graeme

    2013-04-01

    An in situ XAS study of the solvothermal decomposition of iron and nickel dithiocarbamate complexes was performed in order to gain understanding of the decomposition mechanisms. This work has given insight into the steps involved in the decomposition, showing variation in reaction pathways between the iron and nickel dithiocarbamates, and the non-innocent role of oleylamine as the solvent and capping agent in the reaction.

  1. Metal-dithiocarbamate complexes: chemistry and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Graeme

    2012-10-01

    Dithiocarbamates are highly versatile mono-anionic chelating ligands which form stable complexes with all the transition elements and also the majority of main group, lanthanide and actinide elements. They are easily prepared from primary or secondary amines and depending upon the nature of the cation can show good solubility in water or organic solvents. They are related to the thiuram disulfides by a one-electron redox process (followed by dimerisation via sulfur-sulfur bond formation) which is easily carried out upon addition of iodide or ferric salts. Dithiocarbamates are lipophilic and generally bind to metals in a symmetrical chelate fashion but examples of other coordination modes are known, the monodentate and anisobidentate modes being most prevalent. They are planar sterically non-demanding ligands which can be electronically tuned by judicious choice of substituents. They stabilize metals in a wide range of oxidation states, this being attributed to the existence of soft dithiocarbamate and hard thioureide resonance forms, the latter formally resulting from delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair onto the sulfurs, and consequently their complexes tend to have a rich electrochemistry. Tetraethyl thiuramdisulfide (disulfiram or antabuse) has been used as a drug since the 1950s but it is only recently that dithiocarbamate complexes have been explored within the medicinal domain. Over the past two decades anti-cancer activity has been noted for gold and copper complexes, technetium and copper complexes have been used in PET-imaging, dithiocarbamates have been used to treat acute cadmium poisoning and copper complexes also have been investigated as SOD inhibitors.

  2. Metal-dithiocarbamate complexes: chemistry and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Graeme

    2012-10-01

    Dithiocarbamates are highly versatile mono-anionic chelating ligands which form stable complexes with all the transition elements and also the majority of main group, lanthanide and actinide elements. They are easily prepared from primary or secondary amines and depending upon the nature of the cation can show good solubility in water or organic solvents. They are related to the thiuram disulfides by a one-electron redox process (followed by dimerisation via sulfur-sulfur bond formation) which is easily carried out upon addition of iodide or ferric salts. Dithiocarbamates are lipophilic and generally bind to metals in a symmetrical chelate fashion but examples of other coordination modes are known, the monodentate and anisobidentate modes being most prevalent. They are planar sterically non-demanding ligands which can be electronically tuned by judicious choice of substituents. They stabilize metals in a wide range of oxidation states, this being attributed to the existence of soft dithiocarbamate and hard thioureide resonance forms, the latter formally resulting from delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair onto the sulfurs, and consequently their complexes tend to have a rich electrochemistry. Tetraethyl thiuramdisulfide (disulfiram or antabuse) has been used as a drug since the 1950s but it is only recently that dithiocarbamate complexes have been explored within the medicinal domain. Over the past two decades anti-cancer activity has been noted for gold and copper complexes, technetium and copper complexes have been used in PET-imaging, dithiocarbamates have been used to treat acute cadmium poisoning and copper complexes also have been investigated as SOD inhibitors. PMID:22931592

  3. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  4. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Inhibits NF-KappaB Activation and Upregulates the Expression of Gpx1, Gpx4, Occludin, and ZO-1 in DSS-Induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Wu, Miaomiao; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Cui, Zhijie; Zheng, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Ren, Wenkai; Deng, Jinping; Tan, Xiangwen; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Liao, Peng; Li, Tiejun; Yulong, Yin

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) correlates with oxidative stress, inflammation, and alteration in several signal pathways, including nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-κB, has been widely demonstrated to exhibit an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that NF-κB inhibitor PDTC confers a beneficial role in a colitis model induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mouse. The results showed that DSS decreased daily weight gain, induced colonic inflammation, suppressed the expression of antioxidant enzymes and tight junctions, and activated NF-κB and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Nrf2/Keap1) signaling pathways. PDTC significantly upregulated (P < 0.05) Gpx1, Gpx4, occludin, and ZO-1 expressions in the DSS-induced colitis model. Meanwhile, PDTC reversed (P < 0.05) the activation of NF-κB signal pathway caused by DSS treatment. In conclusion, PDTC could serve as an adjuvant therapy for the patient with IBD.

  5. Determination of lead in blood by chelation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate followed by tungsten-coil atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salido, Arthur; Sanford, Caryn L.; Jones, Bradley T.

    1999-08-01

    An inexpensive, bench-top blood Pb analyzer has been developed. The system is based on tungsten-coil atomic absorption spectrometry. Pb atomization occurs on W-coils extracted from commercially available slide projector bulbs. The system has minimal power requirements: 120 ACV and 15 A. A small, computer-controlled CCD spectrometer is used as the detector. A Pb hollow cathode lamp is used as the source. Blood Pb is chelated with ammonium pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate and extracted into methyl iso-butyl ketone (4-methyl 2-pentanone). Twenty-microliter volumes of the organic phase are deposited on the W-coil, dried at 1.4 A, charred at 2.3 A and atomized at 6.0 A. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is used as a comparison for W-coil results. Levels 1-4 of a NIST standard reference material 955b ‘lead in bovine blood’ are used to test accuracy and precision. The analytical figures of merit for the system are: 12-pg instrument detection limit, 24-pg blood detection limit and a characteristic mass of 28 pg.

  6. RECOVERY OF URANIUM BY AROMATIC DITHIOCARBAMATE COMPLEXING

    DOEpatents

    Neville, O.K.

    1959-08-11

    A selective complexing organic solvent extraction process is presented for the separation of uranium values from an aqueous nitric acid solution of neutron irradiated thorium. The process comprises contacting the solution with an organic aromatic dithiccarbamaie and recovering the resulting urancdithiccarbamate complex with an organic solvent such as ethyl acetate.

  7. Activation of heat shock factor 1 plays a role in pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-mediated expression of the co-chaperone BAG3.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaoming; Kole, Sutapa; Precht, Patricia; Pazin, Michael J; Bernier, Michel

    2010-11-01

    Adaptive responses to physical and inflammatory stressors are mediated by transcription factors and molecular chaperones. The transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) has been implicated in extending lifespan in part by increasing expression of heat shock response genes. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a small thiol compound that exerts in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties through mechanisms that remain unclear. Here we report that PDTC induced the release of monomeric HSF1 from the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), with concomitant increase in HSF1 trimer formation, translocation to the nucleus, and binding to promoter of target genes in human HepG2 cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of HSF1 blocked BAG3 gene expression by PDTC. The protein levels of the co-chaperone BAG3 and its interaction partner Hsp72 were stimulated by PDTC in a dose-dependent fashion, peaking at 6h. Inhibition of Hsp90 function by geldanamycin derivatives and novobiocin elicited a pattern of HSF1 activation and BAG3 expression that was similar to PDTC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies showed that PDTC and the inhibitor 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin enhanced the binding of HSF1 to the promoter of several target genes, including BAG3, HSPA1A, HSPA1B, FKBP4, STIP1 and UBB. Cell treatment with PDTC increased significantly the level of Hsp90α thiol oxidation, a posttranslational modification known to inhibit its chaperone function. These results unravel a previously unrecognized mechanism by which PDTC and related compounds could confer cellular protection against inflammation through HSF1-induced expression of heat shock response genes.

  8. Activation of heat shock factor 1 plays a role in pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-mediated expression of the co-chaperone BAG3

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shaoming; Kole, Sutapa; Precht, Patricia; Pazin, Michael J.; Bernier, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive responses to physical and inflammatory stressors are mediated by transcription factors and molecular chaperones. The transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) has been implicated in extending lifespan in part by increasing expression of heat shock response genes. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a small thiol compound that exerts in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties through mechanisms that remain unclear. Here we report that PDTC induced the release of monomeric HSF1 from the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), with concomitant increase in HSF1 trimer formation, translocation to the nucleus, and binding to promoter of target genes in human HepG2 cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of HSF1 blocked BAG3 gene expression by PDTC. The protein levels of the co-chaperone BAG3 and its interaction partner Hsp72 were stimulated by PDTC in a dose-dependent fashion, peaking at 6 hours. Inhibition of Hsp90 function by geldanamycin derivatives and novobiocin elicited a pattern of HSF1 activation and BAG3 expression that was similar to PDTC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies showed that PDTC and the inhibitor 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin enhanced the binding of HSF1 to the promoter of several target genes, including BAG3, HSPA1A, HSPA1B, FKBP4, STIP1 and UBB. Cell treatment with PDTC increased significantly the level of Hsp90α thiol oxidation, a posttranslational modification known to inhibit its chaperone function. These results unravel a previously unrecognized mechanism by which PDTC and related compounds could confer cellular protection against inflammation through HSF1-induced expression of heat shock response genes. PMID:20692357

  9. Polynuclear transition metal complexes with thiocarbohydrazide and dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, K. S.; Khan, Sadaf; Nami, Shahab A. A.; El-ajaily, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    Sn(tch) 2{MCl 2} 2 was prepared from the precursor Sn(tch) 2 and MCl 2. It was subsequently allowed to react with diethyldithiocarbamate which yielded the trinuclear complexes of the type Sn(tch) 2{M 2(dtc) 4}, where tch = thiocarbohydrazide, M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and dtc = diethyldithiocarbamate. They were characterized on the basis of microanalytical, thermal (TGA/DSC), spectral (IR, UV-vis, EPR, 1H NMR) studies, conductivity measurement and magnetic moment data. On the basis of spectral data a tetrahedral geometry has been proposed for the halide complexes, Sn(tch) 2{MCl 2} 2 except for Cu(II) which exhibits a square planar coordination although the transition metal ion in Sn(tch) 2{M 2(dtc) 4} achieves an octahedral geometry where the dithiocarbamato moiety acts as a symmetrical bidentate ligand. The bidentate nature has been established by the appearance of a sharp single ν(C-S) around 1000 cm -1. A downfield shift observed in NH a and NH b protons on moving from Sn(tch) 2 to Sn(tch) 2{MCl 2} 2 is due to the drift of electrons toward metal atoms. A two-step pyrolysis has been observed in the Sn(tch) 2{MCl 2} 2 complexes while their dithiocarbamato derivatives exhibit a three-stage degradation pattern. Finally, the in vitro antibacterial activity of Sn(tch) 2{M 2(dtc) 4} and the mononuclear Sn(tch) 2 has been carried out on bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. The compounds were found to be active against the test organisms. The activity of the complexes is enhanced with increasing concentration. The maximum activity in both the strains was achieved by cobalt(II) dithiocarbamate complex. Minimum activity was found for Sn(tch) 2 which generally increases with the introduction of transition metal ion in the complex.

  10. Preliminary chemico-biological studies on Ru(III) compounds with S-methyl pyrrolidine/dimethyl dithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Giovagnini, L; Mancinetti, E; Ronconi, L; Sitran, S; Marchiò, L; Castagliuolo, I; Brun, P; Trevisan, A; Fregona, D

    2009-05-01

    [RuCl(3).nH(2)O] and Na(trans-[RuCl(4)(DMSO)(2)]) were reacted with 1-pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDT), its S-methyl ester (PDTM), and N,N-dimethylcarbamodithioic acid methyl ester (DMDTM) in water or methanol in order to obtain the corresponding Ru(III) derivatives. Once isolated and purified, the complexes were characterized by means of elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and thermal analyses. The crystal structure of mer-[Ru(DMDTM)(DMSO)Cl(3)] has been also determined by X-ray crystallography. In vitro cytotoxic activity of all the synthesized complexes was eventually evaluated on some selected human tumor cell lines. PMID:19250682

  11. Triphenyl phosphine adducts of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) dithiocarbamates complexes: a spectral and in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manav, N.; Mishra, A. K.; Kaushik, N. K.

    2004-11-01

    Triphenyl phosphine adducts of dithiocarbamate complexes of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) of the type [Pt(L) 2PPh 3Cl 2] and [Pd(L) 2PPh 3] [L: morpholine dithiocarbamate (L 1), aniline dithiocarbamate (L 2) and N-(methyl, cyclohexyl) dithiocarbamate (L 3)] were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. Thermal studies of the complexes were carried out. In vitro antitumor activity has been screened towards human adenocarcinoma cell lines and showed significant inhibition even at very low concentration.

  12. Oxidation Reactions of Dithiocarbamate Complexes of Ruthenium(II).

    PubMed

    Leung, Wa-Hung; Chim, Joyce L. C.; Hou, Hongwei; Hun, Tom S. M.; Williams, Ian D.; Wong, Wing-Tak

    1997-09-24

    The reaction of Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(DMSO)(2) (Et(2)dtc = N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate; DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) with t-BuNC gave trans-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(CN-t-Bu)(2), 1. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 9.753(2) Å, b = 11.583(2) Å, c = 12.974(2) Å, and beta = 91.8(2) degrees for Z = 2. The crystal structure of 1 shows the trans disposition of the two isocyanides; the mean Ru-S and Ru-C distances are 2.409 and 1.977(2) Å, respectively. Treatment of [Ru(diene)Cl(2)](n)() with Na(Et(2)dtc) afforded Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(diene) (diene = bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene (NBD), 2, 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD), 3). Complex 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 7.316(1) Å, b = 10.346(1) Å, c = 15.123(2) Å, alpha = 103.69(2) degrees, beta = 93.54(2) degrees, and gamma = 100.61(2) degrees for Z = 2. The mean Ru-S and Ru-C distances in 2 are 2.416 and 2.137 Å, respectively. The reaction of cis-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(CO)(2) with iodine gave the 2:1 molecular iodine complex cis-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(CO)(2).(1)/(2)I(2) 4, which crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 7.347(2), b = 22.227(2) Å, c = 12.891(2) Å, and beta =95.98 (2) degrees for Z = 4. The mean Ru-S and Ru-C and the I-I distances in complex 4 are 2.427, 1.903, and 2.745(1) Å, respectively. Treatment of Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(DMSO)(2) with I(2) gave the linear Ru(II)-Ru(III)-Ru(III) trimer [Ru(3)(Et(2)dtc)(6)(DMSO)(2)](I(3))(2), 5, which crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 14.125(3) Å, b = 20.829(6) Å, c = 13.658(3) Å, alpha = 97.57(2) degrees, beta = 110.01(2) degrees, and gamma = 71.25(2) degrees for Z = 2. The structure of complex 6 can be viewed as consisting of a {Ru(2)(III)(Et(2)dtc)(4)}(2+) core and a {Ru(II)(Et(2)dtc)(2)(DMSO)(2)} moiety, which are linked together via the two dithiocarbamate sulfurs of the latter. While the two Ru(III) centers are connected by a Ru-Ru single bond (Ru-Ru = 2.826(2) Å), there is no direct

  13. Synthesis, NMR spectral and structural studies on mixed ligand complexes of Pd(II) dithiocarbamates: First structural report on palladium(II) dithiocarbamate with SCN-ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakasam, Balasubramaniam Arul; Lahtinen, Manu; Peuronen, Anssi; Muruganandham, Manickavachagam; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Haapaniemi, Esa; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-03-01

    Three new mixed ligand complexes of palladium(II) dithiocarbamates; [Pd(4-dpmpzdtc)(PPh3)(SCN)] (1), [Pd(4-dpmpzdtc)(PPh3)Cl] (2) and [Pd(bzbudtc)(PPh3)Cl] (3), (where, 4-dpmpzdtc = 4-(diphenylmethyl)piperazinecarbodithioato anion, bzbudtc = N-benzyl-N-butyldithiocarbamato anion and PPh3 = triphenylphosphine) have been synthesized from their respective parent dithiocarbamates by ligand exchange reactions and characterized by IR and NMR (1H, 13C and 31P) spectroscopy. IR and NMR spectral data support the isobidentate coordination of the dithiocarbamate ligands in all complexes (1-3) in solid and in solution, respectively. Single crystal diffraction analysis of complexes 1-3 evidences that all three complexes are exhibiting distorted square planar geometry. The Pd-S distances in 1-3 vary in accordance with the differences in trans influences of PPh3, SCN- and Cl- and it is in the order of PPh3 > SCN- > and Cl-. Interchange of the anionic auxiliary ligand (SCN- to Cl-) induces asymmetry to the dithiocarbamate-metal bonds. Thioureide C-N bond distances are short in 1-3, supporting a contribution of thioureide form to the structures. The observed distortions in the square planar geometry for 1-3, are in the order of 1 > 2 > 3.

  14. Antioxidant capacity of mononitrosyl-iron-dithiocarbamate complexes: implications for NO trapping.

    PubMed

    Vanin, A F; Huisman, A; Stroes, E S; de Ruijter-Heijstek, F C; Rabelink, T J; van Faassen, E E

    2001-04-15

    Using EPR spectroscopy, we show that the water-soluble mononitrosyl iron complexes with N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (MNIC-MGD) ligands can easily react with superoxide and with peroxynitrite. The reaction with superoxide transforms the paramagnetic MNIC-MGD complex into an EPR silent complex with a reaction rate of 3 x 10(7) (M.s)(-1). Suppletion of ascorbate partially restores the complexes to their original paramagnetic state. We propose that the reaction of MNIC-MGD with either superoxide or peroxynitrite leads to identical EPR silent complexes. Our results have important implications for the technique of NO trapping in biosystems with Fe-dithiocarbamate complexes, where mononitrosyl-iron complexes (hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic) are formed as adducts in the trapping reaction. This principle is illustrated by NO trapping experiments on viable cultured endothelial cells. We find that MNIC-MGD acts as a very potent and water-soluble antioxidant with an efficiency exceeding most SOD mimics. Moreover, by accounting for the EPR silent fraction of iron complexes, the sensitivity of NO trapping can be enhanced considerably. The method was demonstrated for hydrophobic iron-dithiocarbamate complexes in endothelial cell cultures, where sensitivity for NO detection was enhanced by a factor of 5. PMID:11295524

  15. Spectral, thermal and in vitro antimicrobial studies of cyclohexylamine- N-dithiocarbamate transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamba, Saul M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Njobeh, Patrik B.; Dutton, Mike F.; Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis

    2010-10-01

    Transition metal complexes of the type [M(L) 2] and those containing monodentate phosphines of the type [M(L) 2(PPh 3)] {M = Ni, Co, Cu and Zn; L = cyclohexylamine- N-dithiocarbamate; PPh 3 = triphenylphosphine} have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized using IR, UV-vis, NMR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis (TGA). The 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 31P NMR showed the expected signals for the dithiocarbamate and triphenylphosphine moieties. The spectral studies in all compounds revealed that the coordination of metals occurs via the sulphur atom of the dithiocarbamate ligand in a bidentate fashion. Thermal behavior of the complexes showed that the complexes were more stable than their parent ligands. The ligand moiety is lost in the first step and the rest of the organic moiety decomposes in the subsequent steps. Furthermore, the ligand and their metal complexes were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus and antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. The metal complexes exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than the parent ligands. Generally, the zinc complexes were effective against the growth of bacteria with Zn(L) 2 displaying broad spectrum bacteriocidal activity at concentrations of 50 μg/mL; and Ni(L) 2 was more effective against the growth of fungi at concentrations of 100-400 μg/mL under laboratory conditions.

  16. Reverse-phase HPLC of benzylpropionitrile dithiocarbamate complexes for the determination of priority pollutant metals

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.

    1990-01-01

    A new dithiocarbamate, benzylpropionitrile dithiocarbamate (BPDTC), has been synthesized for use in metal analysis. The HPLC behavior of metal chelates of BPDTC has been investigated for the simultaneous determination of antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, and zinc, all of which are on the Environmental Protection Agency's list of priority pollutant metals. Metals are extracted into dichloromethane as BPDTC chelates, and then separated on a C-18 column. Cobalt is added as an internal standard. The effects of pH and of three organic modifiers (methanol, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran) of the mobile phase on retention time have been investigated. Addition of dichloromethane to the mobile phase increases solubility and chelate stability, and improves the separation of metal BPDTC complexes. BPDTC is added to the aqueous mobile phase to reduce on-column dissociation of the complexes. Detection limits at 260 nm are in the range of 0.1 to 3 ppb using a 1 liter sample.

  17. p53 protein oxidation in cultured cells in response to pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate: a novel method for relating the amount of p53 oxidation in vivo to the regulation of p53-responsive genes.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H H; Thomas, J A; Momand, J

    2000-01-01

    A novel method was developed to determine the oxidation status of proteins in cultured cells. Methoxy-polyethylene glycol-maleimide MW 2000 (MAL-PEG) was used to covalently tag p53 protein that was oxidized at cysteine residues in cultured cells. Treatment of MCF7 breast cancer cells with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a metal chelator, resulted in a minimum of 25% oxidation of p53. The oxidized p53 had an average of one cysteine residue oxidized per p53 protein molecule. The effect of PDTC treatment on downstream components of the p53 signal-transduction pathway was tested. PDTC treatment prevented actinomycin D-mediated up-regulation of two p53 effector gene products, murine double minute clone 2 oncoprotein and p21(WAF1/CIP1) (where WAF1 corresponds to wild-type p53-activated fragment 1 and CIP1 corresponds to cyclin-dependent kinase-interacting protein 1). Actinomycin D treatment led to accumulation of p53 protein in the nucleus. However, when cells were simultaneously treated with PDTC and actinomycin D, p53 accumulated in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The data indicate that an average of one cysteine residue per p53 protein molecule is highly sensitive to oxidation and that p53 can be efficiently oxidized by PDTC in cultured cells. PDTC-mediated oxidation of p53 correlates with altered p53 subcellular localization and reduced activation of p53 downstream effector genes. The novel method for detecting protein oxidation detailed in the present study may be used to determine the oxidation status of specific proteins in cells. PMID:10998350

  18. A Central Role for JNK/AP-1 Pathway in the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate through Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Repression and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hematopoietic Human Cancer Cell Line U937

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Pascal; Lomri, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) known as antioxidant and specific inhibitor of NF-κB was also described as pro-oxidant by inducing cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in cancer. However, the mechanism by which PDTC indices its pro-oxidant effect is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PDTC on the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene transcription in hematopoietic human cancer cell line U937. We herein show for the first time that PDTC decreases SOD1 transcripts, protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, SOD1 repression by PDTC was associated with an increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by ROS production. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA) show that PDTC increased binding of activating protein-1 (AP-1) in dose dependent-manner suggesting that the MAPkinase up-stream of AP-1 is involved. Ectopic NF-κB p65 subunit overexpression had no effect on SOD1 transcription. In contrast, in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125), p65 induced a marked increase of SOD1 promoter, suggesting that JNK pathway is up-stream of NF-κB signaling and controls negatively its activity. Indeed, using JNK deficient cells, PDTC effect was not observed nether on SOD1 transcription or enzymatic activity, nor on ROS production. Finally, PDTC represses SOD1 in U937 cells through JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PDTC acts as pro-oxidant compound in JNK/AP-1 dependent-manner by repressing the superoxide dismutase 1 gene leading to intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:25996379

  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of new dithiocarbamate complexes from Sb(III) and Bi(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaluddin, Nur Amirah; Baba, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Twenty new antimony and bismuth dithiocarbamate complexes which employed ten different type of amines have been successfully synthesized. The synthesized complexes with metal to dithiocarbamate ratio at 1:3. Elemental analysis of the complexes gave the general formula of MCl[S2CNR'R"]2 where M = Sb(III), Bi(III); R' = methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, sec-butyl, benzyl; R" = ethanol, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl. The complexes were analysed by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of five-coordinated antimony (III) complex have been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies on SbCl[S2CN(C4H9)(C2H5)]2 adopted a triclinic system with a space group P1 with a = 10.0141(8) Å, b = 10.1394(7) Å, c = 11.8665(9) Å, α = 67.960°, β =87.616°, γ = 80.172°.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of new dithiocarbamate complexes from Sb(III) and Bi(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, Nur Amirah; Baba, Ibrahim

    2013-11-27

    Twenty new antimony and bismuth dithiocarbamate complexes which employed ten different type of amines have been successfully synthesized. The synthesized complexes with metal to dithiocarbamate ratio at 1:3. Elemental analysis of the complexes gave the general formula of MCl[S{sub 2}CNR’R”]{sub 2} where M = Sb(III), Bi(III); R’ = methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, sec-butyl, benzyl; R” = ethanol, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl. The complexes were analysed by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of five-coordinated antimony (III) complex have been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies on SbCl[S{sub 2}CN(C{sub 4}H{sub 9})(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})]{sub 2} adopted a triclinic system with a space group P1 with a = 10.0141(8) Å, b = 10.1394(7) Å, c = 11.8665(9) Å, α = 67.960°, β =87.616°, γ = 80.172°.

  1. Heteroleptic dipyrrinato complexes containing 5-ferrocenyldipyrromethene and dithiocarbamates as coligands: selective chromogenic and redox probes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Pandey, Rampal; Singh, Roopshikha; Srivastava, Nitin; Maiti, Biswajit; Saha, Satyen; Li, Peizhou; Xu, Qiang; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2012-08-20

    Six heteroleptic dipyrrinato complexes [Ni(fcdpm)(dedtc)] (1), [Ni(fcdpm)(dipdtc)] (2), [Ni(fcdpm)(dbdtc)] (3), [Pd(fcdpm)(dedtc)] (4), [Pd(fcdpm)(dipdtc)] (5), and [Pd(fcdpm)(dbdtc)] (6) (fcdpm = 5-ferrocenyldipyrromethene; dedtc = diethyldithiocarbamate; dipdtc = diisopropyldithiocarbamate; dbdtc = dibutyldithiocarbamate) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses and spectral (ESI-MS, IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, UV-vis) and electrochemical studies. Crystal structures of 1, 2, 4, and 5 have been authenticated by X-ray single-crystal analyses. Nickel-based complexes 1-3 display selective chromogenic and redox sensing for Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) ions, while palladium complexes 4-6 display selective chromogenic and redox sensing only for Hg(2+). Electronic absorption, ESI-MS, and electrochemical studies indicated that sensing arises from interaction between 1-3 and Hg(2+)/Pb(2+) through sulfur of the coordinated dithiocarbamates, while it arises from the pyrrolic nitrogen of fcdpm and dithiocarbamate sulfur from 4-6 and Hg(2+). Different modes of binding between Ni and Pd complexes have further been supported by theoretical studies. The receptor-cation binding constants (K(a)) and stoichiometry between probes and Hg(2+)/Pb(2+) have been estimated by the Benesi-Hildebrand method and Job's plot analysis. Detection limits for 1-3 toward Hg(2+)/Pb(2+) and 4-6 for Hg(2+) have been found to be reasonably high. PMID:22871172

  2. An analytical method for hydrogeochemical surveys: Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after using enrichment coprecipitation with cobalt and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Trace metals that are commonly associated with mineralization were concentrated and separated from natural water by coprecipitation with ammonium pyrollidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and cobalt and determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The method is useful in hydrogeochemical surveys because it permits preconcentration near the sample sites, and selected metals are preserved shortly after the samples are collected. The procedure is relatively simple: (1) a liter of water is filtered; (2) the pH is adjusted; (3) Co chloride and APDC are added to coprecipitate the trace metals; and (4) later, the precipitate is filtered, dissolved, and diluted to 10 ml for a 100-fold concentration enrichment of the separated metals. Sb(III), As(III), Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Ag, V, and Zn can then be determined simultaneously by ICP-AES. In an experiment designed to measure the coprecipitation efficiency, Sb(III), Cd and Ag were recovered at 70 to 75% of their original concentration. The remaining metals were recovered at 85 to 100% of their original concentrations, however. The range for the lower limits of determination for the metals after preconcentration is 0.1 to 3.0 ??g/l. The precision of the method was evaluated by replicate analyses of a Colorado creek water and two simulated water samples. The accuracy of the method was estimated using a water reference standard (SRM 1643a) certified by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards. In addition, the method was evaluated by analyzing groundwater samples collected near a porphyry copper deposit in Arizona and by analyzing meltwater from glacier-covered areas favorable for mineralization in south-central Alaska. The results for the ICP-AES analyses compared favorably with those obtained using the sequential technique of GFAAS on the acidified but unconcentrated water samples. ICP-AES analysis of trace-metal preconcentrates for hydrogeochemical surveys is more efficient than GFAAS because a

  3. Regulatory effect of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on pulmonary neutrophil aggregation mediated by nuclear factor-κB in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongman; Zhao, Jiping; Xue, Guansheng; Wang, Junfei; Wu, Jinxiang; Wang, Donghui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the regulatory effect of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78) on pulmonary neutrophil (PMN) accumulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mice, and the therapeutic effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), was investigated. BALB/c mice were divided into control, LPS and PDTC + LPS groups using a random number table. The phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was detected using a western blot, and the mRNA expression levels of CINC were evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of NF-κB, CINC and ENA-78 was detected using immunohistochemistry. The production of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total number of leukocytes and proportion of PMNs in BALF was also determined. Following injection with LPS (20 mg/kg), the expression levels of p-NF-κB, CINC and ENA-78 were increased in lung tissue, and the expression levels of IL-8, IL-10 and the number of PMNs increased in serum and BALF. However, in comparison with the LPS group, the degree of lung injury was reduced in ARDS mice that were treated with PDTC. In addition, the expression level of p-NF-κB and the production of chemokines in lung tissue decreased in ARDS mice that were treated with PDTC, and the number of PMNs in BALF also decreased. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB may result in the synthesis and release of CINC and ENA-78, which induce the accumulation of PMNs in the lung. Therefore, PDTC may be used to reduce the production of chemokines and cytokines, thereby decreasing the activation of PMNs in lung tissue and reducing the damage of lung tissue in ARDS. PMID:27602092

  4. Regulatory effect of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on pulmonary neutrophil aggregation mediated by nuclear factor-κB in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongman; Zhao, Jiping; Xue, Guansheng; Wang, Junfei; Wu, Jinxiang; Wang, Donghui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the regulatory effect of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78) on pulmonary neutrophil (PMN) accumulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mice, and the therapeutic effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), was investigated. BALB/c mice were divided into control, LPS and PDTC + LPS groups using a random number table. The phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was detected using a western blot, and the mRNA expression levels of CINC were evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of NF-κB, CINC and ENA-78 was detected using immunohistochemistry. The production of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total number of leukocytes and proportion of PMNs in BALF was also determined. Following injection with LPS (20 mg/kg), the expression levels of p-NF-κB, CINC and ENA-78 were increased in lung tissue, and the expression levels of IL-8, IL-10 and the number of PMNs increased in serum and BALF. However, in comparison with the LPS group, the degree of lung injury was reduced in ARDS mice that were treated with PDTC. In addition, the expression level of p-NF-κB and the production of chemokines in lung tissue decreased in ARDS mice that were treated with PDTC, and the number of PMNs in BALF also decreased. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB may result in the synthesis and release of CINC and ENA-78, which induce the accumulation of PMNs in the lung. Therefore, PDTC may be used to reduce the production of chemokines and cytokines, thereby decreasing the activation of PMNs in lung tissue and reducing the damage of lung tissue in ARDS.

  5. Phosphinogold(I) dithiocarbamate complexes: effect of the nature of phosphine ligand on anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Keter, Frankline K; Guzei, Ilia A; Nell, Margo; Zyl, Werner E van; Darkwa, James

    2014-02-17

    The reactions of potassium salts of the dithiocarbamates L {where L = pyrazolyldithiocarbamate (L1), 3,5-dimethylpyrazolyldithiocarbamate (L2), or indazolyldithiocarbamate (L3)} with the gold precursors [AuCl(PPh3)], [Au2Cl2(dppe)], [Au2Cl2(dppp)], or [Au2Cl2(dpph)] lead to the new gold(I) complexes [AuL(PPh3)] (1-3), [Au2L2(dppe)] (4-6), [(Au2L2)(dppp)] (7-9), and [Au2(L)2(dpph)] (10-12) {where dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, dppp = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane, and dpph = 1,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)hexane}. These gold compounds were characterized by a combination of NMR and infrared spectroscopy, microanalysis, and mass spectrometry; and in selected cases by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compounds 4-6, which have dppe ligands, are unstable in solution for prolonged periods, with 4 readily transforming to the Au18 cluster [Au18S8(dppe)6]Cl2 (4a) in dichloromethane. Compounds 1-3 and 7-12 are all active against human cervical epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cells, but the most active compounds are 10 and 11, with IC50 values of 0.51 μM and 0.14 μM, respectively. Compounds 10 and 11 are more selective toward HeLa cells than they are toward normal cells, with selectivities of 25.0 and 70.5, respectively. Further tests, utilizing the 60-cell-line Developmental Therapeutics Program at the National Cancer Institute (U.S.A.), showed 10 and 11 to be active against nine other types of cancers. PMID:24476103

  6. Mixed Ligand Complexes of N-Methyl-N-phenyl Dithiocarbamate: Synthesis, Characterisation, Antifungal Activity, and Solvent Extraction Studies of the Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ume, Cyril; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    A series of mixed ligand dithiocarbamate complexes with a general formula [ML2(py)2], where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II), py = pyridine, and L = N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate have been prepared and characterised by elemental analysis, FTIR and Uv spectroscopy, magnetic moment, and thermogravimetric and conductance analysis. The infrared spectra showed that symmetrical bidentate coordination occurred with the dithiocarbamate moiety through the sulfur atoms, while neutral monodentate coordination occurred through the nitrogen atom for the pyridine molecule in the complexes. The electronic spectra, elemental analysis, and magnetic moment results proved that the complexes adopted octahedral geometry. The conductance measurement showed that the complexes are nonelectrolytes proving their nonionic nature. The compounds were screened for three human pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The cobalt complex showed the best antifungal activity among the test compounds. Liquid-liquid extractive abilities of the ligand towards copper and nickel ions in different solvent media were investigated. The ligand showed a strong binding affinity towards the metals ions with an extractive efficiency of about 99%. PMID:26543441

  7. Inclusion complexes of nitroxides of pyrrolidine and imidazoline series with cucurbit[7]uril.

    PubMed

    Kirilyuk, I; Polovyanenko, D; Semenov, S; Grigor'ev, I; Gerasko, O; Fedin, V; Bagryanskaya, E

    2010-02-01

    Inclusion of nitroxides into the cavity of molecular nanocontainers may prevent or significantly retard nitroxide reactions with cellular reductans and increase nitroxide lifetime. This paper is aimed at studying possible applications of cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) as a molecular nanocontainer for pH-sensitive nitroxides probes. Inclusion complexes of CB7 with different nitroxides--3-aminomethyl-proxyl (AMP), 3-hydroxymethyl-proxyl (HMP), 4-amino-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydroimidazole-1-oxyl (ATI), and 2,2,4,5,5-pentamethyl-2,5-dihydroimidazole-1-oxyl (MTI)--were studied. It was found that reversible formation of inclusion complexes AMP@CB7, AMPH(+)@CB7, HMP@CB7, ATIH(+)@CB7, and MTIH(+)@CB7 is accompanied by a decrease of hyperfine interaction (HFI) constant on nitrogen of the nitroxide group and by a 5-7-fold increase of rotational correlation time monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The binding constants of nitroxide@CB7 complexes were determined, and the influence of alkali metal ions and pH on the equilibrium between free and encapsulated nitroxides was studied. The EPR spectra of CB7 mixtures with protonable nitroxides were found to be more sensitive to pH changes than the spectra of pure nitroxides, and the apparent pK of these mixtures was found to increase with CB7 concentration. The nitroxide@CB7 complexes showed higher resistance to chemical reduction with ascorbic acid compared to free nitroxides. Thus, CB7 can be used for the improvement of functional properties of nitroxides. PMID:20055468

  8. Technetium-99m nitrido dithiocarbamate complex with lateral ester groups: A potential agent for cerebral perfusion. Direct labeling and kinetic results in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Bottlaender, M.; Bourguignon, M.; Maziere, M.

    1994-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that technetium-99m-nitrido (TcN) complexes of ester derivatives of dithiocarbamate cross the brain-blood barrier and one term of this class, namely the complex formed with sarcosine methyl ester dithiocarbamate (TcN-PR13) is retained in the brain of Cynomolgus monkeys. However these compounds were obtained through an in situ esterification of preformed TcN dicarboxylic derivative. We have been able to synthesize one term of this class of ligands, the sarcosine methylester dithiocarbamate, by reacting sarcosine with thionyl chloride in methanol to give the sarcosine methyl ester, which was reacted with carbon disulfide and NaOH in methanol to give the sodium salt of the dithiocarbamate derivative which was isolated as an oil. The corresponding TcN complex was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 96% by a kit method. The complex was injected in baboons and its radioactive distribution compared to that obtained with Tc-HMPAO. Blood and plasma kinetics were calculated from arterial sampling whereas tissue kinetics (brain, lungs) were obtained by ROI`s analysis. The values of the half-life in the blood were comparable for the two tracers, although the absolute activity was about 20% lower for TcN-PR13. The brain uptake of TcN-PR13 was 10% lower than that observed for Tc-HMPAO, and remained stable during 2 hours. TcN-PR13 displayed lower lung uptake and faster clearance from this organ than Tc-HMPAO. Brain/Lung ratios were 1.11 and 1.65 at 30 and 60 min for TcN-PR13 compared to 0.93 and 0.99 at the same time for Tc-HMPAO.

  9. [Complexes of cobalt (II, III) with derivatives of dithiocarbamic acid--effectors of peptidases of Bacillus thuringiensis and alpha-L-rhamnozidase of Eupenicillium erubescens and Cryptococcus albidus].

    PubMed

    Varbanets, L D; Matseliukh, E V; Seĭfullina, I I; Khitrich, N V; Nidialkova, N A; Hudzenko, E V

    2014-01-01

    The influence of cobalt (II, III) coordinative compounds with derivatives of dithiocarbamic acid on Bacillus thuringiensis IMV B-7324 peptidases with elastase and fibrinolytic activity and Eupenicillium erubescens and Cryptococcus albidus alpha-L-rhamnosidases have been studied. Tested coordinative compounds of cobalt (II, III) on the basis of their composition and structure are presented by 6 groups: 1) tetrachlorocobaltates (II) of 3,6-di(R,R')-iminio-1,2,4,5-tetratiane--(RR')2Ditt[CoCl4]; 2) tetrabromocobaltates (II) of 3,6-di(R,R')-iminio-1,2,4,5-tetratiane--(RR')2Ditt[CoBr4]; 3) isothiocyanates of tetra((R,R')-dithiocarbamatoisothiocyanate)cobalt (II)--[Co(RR'Ditc)4](NCS)2]; 4) dithiocarbamates of cobalt (II)--[Co(S2CNRR')2]; 5) dithiocarbamates of cobalt (III)--[Co(S2CNRR')3]; 6) molecular complexes of dithiocarbamates of cobalt (III) with iodine--[Co(S2CNRR')3] x 2I(2). These groups (1-6) are combined by the presence of the same complexing agent (cobalt) and a fragment S2CNRR' in their molecules. Investigated complexes differ by a charge of intrinsic coordination sphere: anionic (1-2), cationic (3) and neutral (4-6). The nature of substituents at nitrogen atoms varies in each group of complexes. It is stated that the studied coordination compounds render both activating and inhibiting effect on enzyme activity, depending on composition, structure, charge of complex, coordination number of complex former and also on the enzyme and strain producer. Maximum effect is achieved by activating of peptidases B. thuringiensis IMV B-7324 with elastase and fibrinolytic activity. So, in order to improve the catalytic properties of peptidase 1, depending on the type of exhibited activity, it is possible to recommend the following compounds: for elastase--coordinately nonsaturated complexes of cobalt (II) (1-4) containing short aliphatic or alicyclic substituents at atoms of nitrogen and increasing activity by 17-100% at an average; for fibrinolytic

  10. [Complexes of cobalt (II, III) with derivatives of dithiocarbamic acid--effectors of peptidases of Bacillus thuringiensis and alpha-L-rhamnozidase of Eupenicillium erubescens and Cryptococcus albidus].

    PubMed

    Varbanets, L D; Matseliukh, E V; Seĭfullina, I I; Khitrich, N V; Nidialkova, N A; Hudzenko, E V

    2014-01-01

    The influence of cobalt (II, III) coordinative compounds with derivatives of dithiocarbamic acid on Bacillus thuringiensis IMV B-7324 peptidases with elastase and fibrinolytic activity and Eupenicillium erubescens and Cryptococcus albidus alpha-L-rhamnosidases have been studied. Tested coordinative compounds of cobalt (II, III) on the basis of their composition and structure are presented by 6 groups: 1) tetrachlorocobaltates (II) of 3,6-di(R,R')-iminio-1,2,4,5-tetratiane--(RR')2Ditt[CoCl4]; 2) tetrabromocobaltates (II) of 3,6-di(R,R')-iminio-1,2,4,5-tetratiane--(RR')2Ditt[CoBr4]; 3) isothiocyanates of tetra((R,R')-dithiocarbamatoisothiocyanate)cobalt (II)--[Co(RR'Ditc)4](NCS)2]; 4) dithiocarbamates of cobalt (II)--[Co(S2CNRR')2]; 5) dithiocarbamates of cobalt (III)--[Co(S2CNRR')3]; 6) molecular complexes of dithiocarbamates of cobalt (III) with iodine--[Co(S2CNRR')3] x 2I(2). These groups (1-6) are combined by the presence of the same complexing agent (cobalt) and a fragment S2CNRR' in their molecules. Investigated complexes differ by a charge of intrinsic coordination sphere: anionic (1-2), cationic (3) and neutral (4-6). The nature of substituents at nitrogen atoms varies in each group of complexes. It is stated that the studied coordination compounds render both activating and inhibiting effect on enzyme activity, depending on composition, structure, charge of complex, coordination number of complex former and also on the enzyme and strain producer. Maximum effect is achieved by activating of peptidases B. thuringiensis IMV B-7324 with elastase and fibrinolytic activity. So, in order to improve the catalytic properties of peptidase 1, depending on the type of exhibited activity, it is possible to recommend the following compounds: for elastase--coordinately nonsaturated complexes of cobalt (II) (1-4) containing short aliphatic or alicyclic substituents at atoms of nitrogen and increasing activity by 17-100% at an average; for fibrinolytic

  11. Thermal Studies of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) Complexes of Some N-Alkyl-N-Phenyl-Dithiocarbamates

    PubMed Central

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of N-ethyl-N-phenyl and N-butyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamates have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The products of the decomposition, at two different temperatures, were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that while the zinc and cadmium complexes undergo decomposition to form metal sulphides, and further undergo oxidation forming metal oxides as final products, the mercury complexes gave unstable volatiles as the final product. PMID:22949811

  12. DNA Binding and Antitumor Activity of α-Diimineplatinum(II) and Palladium(II) Dithiocarbamate Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan; Saeidifar, Maryam; Khosravi, Fatemeh; Divsalar, Adeleh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Hassani, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    The two water-soluble designed platinum(II) complex, [Pt(Oct-dtc)(bpy)]NO3 (Oct-dtc = Octyldithiocarbamate and bpy = 2,2′ -bipyridine) and palladium(II) complex, [Pd(Oct-dtc)(bpy)]NO3, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements, IR, 1H NMR, and electronic spectra studies. Studies of antitumor activity of these complexes against human cell tumor lines (K562) have been carried out. They show Ic50 values lower than that of cisplatin. The complexes have been investigated for their interaction with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) by utilizing the electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectra, and ethidium bromide displacement and gel filtration techniques. Both of these water-soluble complexes bound cooperatively and intercalatively to the CT-DNA at very low concentrations. Several binding and thermodynamic parameters are also described. PMID:22110410

  13. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial study of cyclometalated rhodium(III) complex containing dithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Ghobad; Heidarizadi, Fateme; Naghipour, Ali; Notash, Behrouz

    2016-10-01

    The novel cyclometalated Rh(III) complex, [Rh(phpy)2(SˆS)], Where phpy is 2-phenylpyridine and (SˆS) is diethyldithiocarbamate, has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 13C and 1H NMR, electronic absorption and Fluorescence spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of [Rh(phpy)2(SˆS)] shows that the coordination geometry around the Rh(III) is a distorted octahedron, with bite angles of 71.19-81.04° for all three bidentate ligands. Electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry reveals irreversible redox behavior of the rhodium centre. Antibacterial activity of the complex has also been studied by agar disc diffusion method against three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) and two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium renale).

  14. Complexes of Fe2+ with diethyldithiocarbamate or N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate as traps of nitric oxide in animal tissues: comparative investigations.

    PubMed

    Mikoyan, V D; Kubrina, L N; Serezhenkov, V A; Stukan, R A; Vanin, A F

    1997-08-29

    In EPR experiments on mice it was demonstrated that a hydrophobic complex Fe2+ with diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) is a more efficient selective NO trap than a hydrophilic complex Fe2+ with N-methyl-D-glutamine dithiocarbamate (MGD). This difference can be due to the higher stability of paramagnetic nitrosyl iron complex with DETC (MNIC-DETC) formed by NO binding to Fe2+-DETC in animal tissues in vivo. The complex analogue MNIC-MGD is reversibly oxidized in animal blood to transform into the diamagnetic EPR-silent form. The latter is detectable also in urine of animals, especially of those treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide which initiates the enhanced NO production in the organism. We suggest that NO2 or peroxynitrite formed from endogenous NO can serve as an agent reversibly oxidizing MNIC-MGD in these animals. PMID:9305794

  15. Decomposition of water-soluble mononitrosyl iron complexes with dithiocarbamates and of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol ligands in animal organisms.

    PubMed

    Serezhenkov, Vladimir A; Timoshin, Alexander A; Orlova, Tsvetina R; Mikoyan, Vasak D; Kubrina, Lioudmila N; Poltorakov, Alexander P; Ruuge, Enno K; Sanina, Natalia A; Vanin, Anatoly F

    2008-05-01

    EPR studies have shown that water-soluble mononitrosyl iron complexes with N-methyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (MNIC-MGD) (3 micromol) injected to intact mice were decomposed virtually completely within 1h. The total content of MNIC-MGD in animal urine did not exceed 30 nmol/ml. In the liver, a small amount of MNIC-MGD were converted into dinitrosyl iron complexes (30 nmol/g of liver tissue). The same was observed in intact rabbits in which MNIC-MGD formation was induced by endogenous or exogenous NO binding to NO traps, viz., iron complexes with MGD. In mice, the content of MNIC-MGD in urine samples did not change after bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of iNOS. It was supposed that MNIC-MGD decomposition in intact animals was largely due to the release of NO from the complexes and its further transfer to other specific acceptors. In mice with iNOS expression, the main contribution to MNIC-MGD decomposition was made by superoxide ions whose destructive effect is mediated by an oxidative mechanism. This effect could fully compensate the augmented synthesis of MNIC-MGD involving endogenous NO whose production was supported by iNOS. Water-soluble dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with various thiol-containing ligands and thiosulfate injected to intact mice were also decomposed; however, in this case the effect was less pronounced than in the case of MNIC-MGD. It was concluded that DNIC decomposition was largely due to the oxidative effect of superoxide ions on these complexes. PMID:18222183

  16. Characterization studies and cytotoxicity assays of Pt(II) and Pd(II) dithiocarbamate complexes by means of FT-IR, NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alverdi, V; Giovagnini, L; Marzano, C; Seraglia, R; Bettio, F; Sitran, S; Graziani, R; Fregona, D

    2004-06-01

    The precursors [M(ESDTM)Cl(2)] (M=Pt(II), Pd(II); ESDTM=EtO(2)CCH(2)(CH(3))NCS(2)Me, S-methyl(ethylsarcosinedithiocarbamate)) were synthesized as previously reported [J. Inorg. Biochem. 83 (2001) 31] and used to obtain [M(ESDT)Cl](n) (ESDT=ethylsarcosinedithiocarbamate anion) species. The complexes formed through reaction between [M(ESDT)Cl](n) and the two chiral amino-alcohols synephryne (Syn) and norphenylephrine (Nor) have been synthesized, with the ultimate goal of preparing mixed dithiocarbamate/amino metal complexes of the type [M(ESDT)(Am)Cl] (Am=Syn, Nor). These compounds have been isolated, purified and characterized by means of FT-IR, mono- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry ESI/MS (electronspray mass spectra). The experimental data suggest that in all cases coordination of the dithiocarbamate ligand (ESDT) takes a place through the two sulfur atoms, the -NCSS moiety acting as a symmetrical bidentate chelating group, in a square-planar geometry around the M(II) ion, while the other two coordination positions are occupied by the chlorine atom and the amino-alcohol ligand, respectively. In particular, synephrine and norphenylephrine appear to be bound to the metal atom through the amino nitrogen atom by means of a dative bond. Finally, the biological activity of the new complexes has been studied by MTT (tetrazolio salt reduction) test and by detecting the inhibition of DNA synthesis and of clonal growth in various cancer cell lines. All Pd(II) derivatives showed a noticeable activity very close to that of cisplatin, used as reference drug. Moreover, they showed significantly reduced cross-resistance to cisplatin in a pair of cell lines (2008/C13*) with known acquired cisplatin resistance mechanisms. PMID:15149823

  17. Novel [99mTcIII(PS)2(Ln)] mixed-ligand compounds (PS = phosphino-thiolate; L = dithiocarbamate) useful in design and development of TcIII-based agents: synthesis, in vitro, and ex vivo biodistribution studies.

    PubMed

    Salvarese, Nicola; Morellato, Nicolò; Rosato, Antonio; Meléndez-Alafort, Laura; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Bolzati, Cristina

    2014-11-13

    A general procedure for the preparation of a new class of neutral six-coordinated mixed ligand [(99m)Tc(III)(PS)2(Ln)] compounds (PS = trisalkyl-phosphino-thiolate; Ln = dithiocarbamate) is reported as well as their in vitro stability and the ex vivo tissue distribution studies. [(99m)Tc(PS)2(Ln)] complexes were prepared in high yield in nearly physiologic conditions following a one-pot procedure. For instance, the chemical identity of [(99m)Tc(PSiso)2(L1)] (PSiso = 2-(diisopropylphosphino)ethanethiol; L1 = pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) was determined by HPLC comparison with the corresponding (99g)Tc-complex. All complexes comprise the stable [(99m)Tc(III)(PS)2](+) moiety, where the remaining two coordination positions are saturated by a dithiocarbamate chelate, also carrying bioactive molecules (e.g., 2-methoxyphenylpiperazine). [(99m)Tc(PS)2(Ln)] complexes were inert toward ligand exchange reactions. No significant in vitro and in vivo biotransformation were observed, underlining their remarkable thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness. These results could be conveniently utilized to devise a novel class of (99m)Tc(III)-based compounds useful in radiopharmaceutical applications. PMID:25333249

  18. Dithiocarbamate toxicity - An appraisal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dithiocarbamates are used as agricultural pesticides and general biocides in a variety of applications. However, acute or chronic exposure to these chemicals can produce neurotoxicity, developmental deformities, endocrine disruption, hypersensitivity, and metabolic dysfunctions in animals and human...

  19. The role of thiol and nitrosothiol compounds in the nitric oxide-forming reactions of the iron-N-methyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Kirima, Kazuyoshi; Yoshizumi, Masanori; Houchi, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Toshiaki; Mason, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    The object of the present study is to investigate whether the physiologically dominant thiol compounds such as GSH and cysteine or their nitrosothiol compounds affect the formation of the iron- N -methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate [(MGD)(2)Fe(2+)]-nitric oxide complex. The present study provided experimental evidence that physiological concentrations of GSH (approx. 5 mM) and L-cysteine (approx. 0.5 mM) accelerated the formation of the (MGD)(2)Fe(2+)-NO complex from nitrite by two and three times respectively. The rate constants for the reduction of (MGD)(3)Fe(3+) to (MGD)(2)Fe(2+) by GSH and cysteine were calculated as 1.3 and 2.0x10(2) M(-1).s(-1) respectively. Furthermore, depletion of GSH was demonstrated in PC12 cells, and thiol compounds enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species by the (MGD)(2)Fe(2+) complex by accelerating its redox turnover. The main effect of the physiological concentration of thiols was the reduction of (MGD)(3)Fe(3+). S -nitrosoglutathione spontaneously reacted with (MGD)(2)Fe(2+) to produce the (MGD)(2)Fe(2+)-NO complex with a 1:2 stoichiometry. In fact, (MGD)(2)Fe(2+) was as good an indicator of nitrosothiols as it was of NO itself. The present study elucidates the difficulties of utilizing the (MGD)(2)Fe(2+) complex for the quantification of NO in biological samples, especially in vivo. PMID:12141947

  20. Theoretical investigations of the structures and electronic spectra of Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes with cyclohexylamine-N-dithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaohan; Wang, Na; He, Hongqing; Wang, Li

    2014-03-01

    The ground-state structures of two ligands cyclohexylamine-N-dithiocarbamate (L) and PPh3 and four complexes [Zn(L)2] (A), [Ni(L)2] (B), [Zn(L)2PPh3] (C), and [Ni(L)2PPh3] (D) are optimized by M06, B3LYP, and B3PW91 methods with the same mixed basis set. As compared with the experimental data of other complexes containing the Ni-P bond, the result obtained by M06/6-31+G(d)-LANL2DZ method is finally regarded as accurate and reliable for this project. Based on the optimized geometries, the compositions of molecular orbitals are analyzed and the absorption spectra are simulated. When one more ligand PPh3 is coordinated, the lowest-lying transition energy presents red-shift; while it shows blue-shift when the metal coordination center change from Ni to Zn with the same ligands. The detailed transition characters related with the absorption spectrum are assigned. In all the key transitions, it is hard to find the contribution from Zn atom. On the contrary, the d orbital of Ni atom contributes a lot for the HOMO and LUMO of complexes B and D. Consequently, the transition characters of Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes are different.

  1. Theoretical investigations of the structures and electronic spectra of Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes with cyclohexylamine-N-dithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohan; Wang, Na; He, Hongqing; Wang, Li

    2014-03-25

    The ground-state structures of two ligands cyclohexylamine-N-dithiocarbamate (L) and PPh3 and four complexes [Zn(L)2] (A), [Ni(L)2] (B), [Zn(L)2PPh3] (C), and [Ni(L)2PPh3] (D) are optimized by M06, B3LYP, and B3PW91 methods with the same mixed basis set. As compared with the experimental data of other complexes containing the Ni-P bond, the result obtained by M06/6-31+G(d)-LANL2DZ method is finally regarded as accurate and reliable for this project. Based on the optimized geometries, the compositions of molecular orbitals are analyzed and the absorption spectra are simulated. When one more ligand PPh3 is coordinated, the lowest-lying transition energy presents red-shift; while it shows blue-shift when the metal coordination center change from Ni to Zn with the same ligands. The detailed transition characters related with the absorption spectrum are assigned. In all the key transitions, it is hard to find the contribution from Zn atom. On the contrary, the d orbital of Ni atom contributes a lot for the HOMO and LUMO of complexes B and D. Consequently, the transition characters of Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes are different. PMID:24316543

  2. Separation of heavy metal from water samples--The study of the synthesis of complex compounds of heavy metal with dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sonila; Lazo, Pranvera; Ylli, Fatos; Stafilov, Trajce; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and persistence of heavy metal (HM) ions may cause several problems to marine organisms and human beings. For this reason, it is growing the interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands such as dithiocarbamates (DDTC), due to their applications particularly in analytical chemistry sciences. The aim of this work has been the study of heavy metal complexes with DDTC and their application in separation techniques for the preconcentration and/or removing of heavy metals from the water solutions or the water ecosystems prior to their analysis. The HM-DDTC complexes were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods. The elemental analysis and the yield of the synthesis (97.5-99.9%) revealed a good purity of the complexes. High values of complex formation yields of HM-DDTC complexes is an important parameter for quantitatively removing/and or preconcentration of heavy metal ions from water solution even at low concentration of heavy metals. Significant differences founded between the characteristic parameters of UV/Vis (λmax and ϵmax) and FTIR absorption spectra of the parent DDTC and HM-DDTC complexes revealed the complex formation. The presence of the peaks at the visible spectral zone is important to M(nd(10-m))-L electron charge transfer of the new complexes. The (C=N) (1450-1500 cm(-1)) and the un-splitting (C-S) band (950-1002 cm(-1)) in HM-DDTC FTIR spectra are important to the identification of their bidentate mode (HM[S2CNC4H10]2). The total CHCl3 extraction of trace level heavy metals from water samples after their complex formation with DDTC is reported in this article. PMID:26761072

  3. Separation of heavy metal from water samples--The study of the synthesis of complex compounds of heavy metal with dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sonila; Lazo, Pranvera; Ylli, Fatos; Stafilov, Trajce; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and persistence of heavy metal (HM) ions may cause several problems to marine organisms and human beings. For this reason, it is growing the interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands such as dithiocarbamates (DDTC), due to their applications particularly in analytical chemistry sciences. The aim of this work has been the study of heavy metal complexes with DDTC and their application in separation techniques for the preconcentration and/or removing of heavy metals from the water solutions or the water ecosystems prior to their analysis. The HM-DDTC complexes were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods. The elemental analysis and the yield of the synthesis (97.5-99.9%) revealed a good purity of the complexes. High values of complex formation yields of HM-DDTC complexes is an important parameter for quantitatively removing/and or preconcentration of heavy metal ions from water solution even at low concentration of heavy metals. Significant differences founded between the characteristic parameters of UV/Vis (λmax and ϵmax) and FTIR absorption spectra of the parent DDTC and HM-DDTC complexes revealed the complex formation. The presence of the peaks at the visible spectral zone is important to M(nd(10-m))-L electron charge transfer of the new complexes. The (C=N) (1450-1500 cm(-1)) and the un-splitting (C-S) band (950-1002 cm(-1)) in HM-DDTC FTIR spectra are important to the identification of their bidentate mode (HM[S2CNC4H10]2). The total CHCl3 extraction of trace level heavy metals from water samples after their complex formation with DDTC is reported in this article.

  4. The activity of platinum, iridium and rhodium drug complexes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Croft, S L; Neal, R A; Craciunescu, D G; Certad-Fombona, G

    1992-03-01

    The activities of twenty seven Platinum, Rhodium and Iridium drug complexes were determined against Leishmania donovani amastigotes in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Eight compounds showed antileishmanial activity of which only three, Rh(III)-mepacrine, Ir(III) pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and Ir(III) diethyl dithiocarbamate had ED50 values of less than 1 microM. The two Iridium complexes produced, respectively, a 50% and 39% suppression of L. donovani amastigotes in the liver of BALB/c mice following the subcutaneous administration of 200 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. Ultrastructural studies suggest that the amastigote kinetoplast-mitochondrion complex is the primary site of action of the Ir and Rh complexes. PMID:1598504

  5. New antimony(III) halide complexes with dithiocarbamate ligands derived from thiuram degradation: The effect of the molecule's close contacts on in vitro cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Urgut, O S; Ozturk, I I; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Manoli, M; Tasiopoulos, A J; Hadjikakou, S K

    2016-01-01

    Antimony(III) halide complexes of the formulae {[SbBr(Me2DTC)2]n} (1), {[SbI(Me2DTC)2]n} (2) and {[(Me2DTC)2Sb(μ2-I)Sb(Me2DTC)2](+).I3(-)} (3) (Me2DTC = dimethyldithiocarbomate) were synthesized from SbX3, (X = Br or I) and tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (Me4tms) or tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Me4tds). The complexes were characterized by melting point (m.p.), elemental analysis (e.a.), Fourier-transform Infra-Red (FT-IR), Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H,(13)C-NMR) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). Crystal structures of complexes 1-3 were determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Complexes 1 and 2 are polymers with distorted square pyramidal (SP) geometry in each monomeric unit, whereas complex 3 is ionic, containing an iodonium linkage Sb-I(+)-Sb and an I3(-) counter anion; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first ionic antimony(III) iodide complex. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of 1-3 against human adenocarcinoma cells: breast (MCF-7) and cervix (HeLa) cells and non-cancerous cells: MRC-5 (normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells) was evaluated with trypan blue (TB) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. Among antimony(III) compounds with sulfur containing ligand, those of dithiocarbamates exhibit significant cytotoxic activity. Hirshfeld surface volumes were analyzed to clarify the nature of the intermolecular interactions by the 2D fingerprint plot. Molecules with lower H-all atoms inter-molecular interactions exhibit the higher activity against MCF-7 cells. The in vivo genotoxicity of 1-3 was evaluated by the mean of Allium cepa test. Alterations in the mitotic index values due to the chromosomal aberrations were observed in the case of complexes 2 and 3. Since, no such alteration is caused by 1, it makes this compound candidate for further study as potential drug.

  6. New antimony(III) halide complexes with dithiocarbamate ligands derived from thiuram degradation: The effect of the molecule's close contacts on in vitro cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Urgut, O S; Ozturk, I I; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Manoli, M; Tasiopoulos, A J; Hadjikakou, S K

    2016-01-01

    Antimony(III) halide complexes of the formulae {[SbBr(Me2DTC)2]n} (1), {[SbI(Me2DTC)2]n} (2) and {[(Me2DTC)2Sb(μ2-I)Sb(Me2DTC)2](+).I3(-)} (3) (Me2DTC = dimethyldithiocarbomate) were synthesized from SbX3, (X = Br or I) and tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (Me4tms) or tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Me4tds). The complexes were characterized by melting point (m.p.), elemental analysis (e.a.), Fourier-transform Infra-Red (FT-IR), Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H,(13)C-NMR) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). Crystal structures of complexes 1-3 were determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Complexes 1 and 2 are polymers with distorted square pyramidal (SP) geometry in each monomeric unit, whereas complex 3 is ionic, containing an iodonium linkage Sb-I(+)-Sb and an I3(-) counter anion; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first ionic antimony(III) iodide complex. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of 1-3 against human adenocarcinoma cells: breast (MCF-7) and cervix (HeLa) cells and non-cancerous cells: MRC-5 (normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells) was evaluated with trypan blue (TB) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. Among antimony(III) compounds with sulfur containing ligand, those of dithiocarbamates exhibit significant cytotoxic activity. Hirshfeld surface volumes were analyzed to clarify the nature of the intermolecular interactions by the 2D fingerprint plot. Molecules with lower H-all atoms inter-molecular interactions exhibit the higher activity against MCF-7 cells. The in vivo genotoxicity of 1-3 was evaluated by the mean of Allium cepa test. Alterations in the mitotic index values due to the chromosomal aberrations were observed in the case of complexes 2 and 3. Since, no such alteration is caused by 1, it makes this compound candidate for further study as potential drug. PMID:26478326

  7. SERS of dithiocarbamates and xanthates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Tse Yuen

    1995-11-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of several simple dithiocarbamates and xanthates on silver colloids have been obtained. The dithiocarbamates studied are thought to adsorb with the -NCS 2 moiety edge-on though the -OCS 2 groups of adsorbed xanthates are parallel to the surface.

  8. Novel Schiff base copper complexes of quinoline-2 carboxaldehyde as proteasome inhibitors in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Adsule, Shreelekha; Barve, Vivek; Chen, Di; Ahmed, Fakhara; Dou, Q Ping; Padhye, Subhash; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2006-11-30

    We report the synthesis of novel 1:1 Schiff base copper complexes of quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde showing dose-dependent, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic activity in PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We found that quinoline thiosemicarbazone 2 (FPA-137) was the most potent and inhibited proteosome activity in intact human prostate cancer PC-3 and LNCaP cells (IC50 of 4 and 3.2 microM, respectively) compared to clioquinol and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (IC50 of 10 and 20 microM), supporting the novelty of 2. PMID:17125278

  9. Intermolecular Tl···H-C anagostic interactions in luminescent pyridyl functionalized thallium(I) dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Vikram; Gupta, Ajit N; Drew, Michael G B; Singh, Nanhai

    2015-01-28

    Crystal structures of novel pyridyl functionalised [Tl(L)]∞ (L = (N-benzyl-N-methylpyridyl) dithiocarbamate(L1) 1, bis(N-methylpyridyl) dithiocarbamate(L2) 2, (N-methyl(1,4-benzodioxane-6-yl)-N-methylpyridyl)dithiocarbamate(L3) 3, (N-ferrocenyl-N-methylpyridyl) dithiocarbamate(L4) 4) complexes revealed rare intermolecular C-H···Tl anagostic and C-S···Tl interactions forming a six-membered chelate ring about the metal center, which have been assessed by DFT calculations. The strong thallophilic bonding is responsible for the strong luminescent characteristics of the complexes in the solid phase. PMID:25461980

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of anti-tubercular activity of new dithiocarbamate sugar derivatives.

    PubMed

    Horita, Yasuhiro; Takii, Takemasa; Kuroishi, Ryuji; Chiba, Taku; Ogawa, Kenji; Kremer, Laurent; Sato, Yasuo; Lee, YooSa; Hasegawa, Tomohiro; Onozaki, Kikuo

    2011-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to optimize the anti-tubercular activity of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate (OCT313, Glc-NAc-DMDC), a lead compound previously reported by us. Structural modifications of OCT313 included the replacements of the DMDC group at C-1 by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and the acetyl group at C-2 by either propyl, butyl, benzyl or oleic acid groups. The antimycobacterial activities of these derivatives were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Glc-NAc-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (OCT313HK, Glc-NAc-PDTC) exhibited the most potent anti-tubercular activity with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 6.25-12.5 μg/ml. The antibacterial activity of OCT313HK was highly specific to MTB and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, but not against Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli. Importantly, OCT313HK was also effective against MTB clinical isolates, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. Interestingly, OCT313HK was exerted the primary bactericidal activity, and it was also exhibited the bacteriolytic activity at high concentrations. We next investigated whether the mycobacterial monooxygenase EthA, a common activator of thiocarbamide-containing anti-tubercular drugs, also activated OCT313HK. Contrary to our expectations, the anti-tubercular activity of dithiocarbamate sugar derivatives and dithiocarbamates were not dependent on ethA expression, in contrast to thiocarbamide-containing drugs. Overall, this study presents OCT313HK as a novel and potent compound against MTB, particularly promising to overcome drug resistance. PMID:21232949

  11. Pyrrolidine nucleotide analogs with a tunable conformation

    PubMed Central

    Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Rejman, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Conformational preferences of the pyrrolidine ring in nucleotide analogs 7–14 were investigated by means of NMR and molecular modeling. The effect of the relative configuration of hydroxy and nucleobase substituents as well as the effect of the alkylation or acylation of the pyrrolidine nitrogen atom on the conformation of the pyrrolidine ring were studied. The results of a conformational analysis show that the alkylation/acylation can be effectively used for tuning the pyrrolidine conformation over the whole pseudorotation cycle. PMID:25246956

  12. Nitrogen Substituent Polarity Influences Dithiocarbamate-Mediated Lipid Oxidation, Nerve Copper Accumulation, and Myelin Injury

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Holly L.; Viquez, Olga M.; Amarnath, Kalyani; Amarnath, Venkataraman; Zyskowski, Justin; Kassa, Endalkachew N.; Valentine, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates have a wide spectrum of applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine, with new applications being investigated. Past studies have suggested that the neurotoxicity of some dithiocarbamates may result from copper accumulation, protein oxidative damage, and lipid oxidation. The polarity of a dithiocarbamate’s nitrogen substituents influences the lipophilicity of the copper complexes it generates and thus potentially determines its ability to promote copper accumulation within nerve and induce myelin injury. In the current study, a series of dithiocarbamate-copper complexes differing in their lipophilicity were evaluated for their relative abilities to promote lipid peroxidation determined by malondialdehyde levels generated in an ethyl arachidonate oil-in-water emulsion. In a second component of this study, rats were exposed to either N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate or sarcosine dithiocarbamate; both generate dithiocarbamate-copper complexes that are lipid and water soluble, respectively. Following the exposures, brain, tibial nerve, spinal cord and liver tissue copper levels were measured by inductively coupled mass spectroscopy to assess the relative abilities of these two dithiocarbamates to promote copper accumulation. Peripheral nerve injury was evaluated using grip strengths, nerve conduction velocities and morphologic changes at the light microscope level. Additionally, the protein expression levels of glutathione transferase alpha and heme-oxygenase-1 in nerve were determined and the quantity of protein carbonyls measured to assess levels of oxidative stress and injury. The data provide evidence that dithiocarbamate-copper complexes are redox active; and that the ability of dithiocarbamate complexes to promote lipid peroxidation is correlated to the lipophilicity of the complex. Consistent with neurotoxicity requiring the formation of a lipid soluble copper complex, significant increases in copper accumulation, oxidative stress and myelin

  13. Biological in vitro and in vivo studies of a series of new asymmetrical cationic [99mTc(N)(DTC-Ln)(PNP)]+ complex (DTC-Ln = alicyclic dithiocarbamate and PNP = diphosphinoamine).

    PubMed

    Bolzati, Cristina; Cavazza-Ceccato, Mario; Agostini, Stefania; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Yamamichi, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Shinji; Carta, Davide; Salvarese, Nicola; Bernardini, Daniele; Bandoli, Giuliano

    2010-05-19

    (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 is a cationic mixed compound under clinical investigation as potential myocardial imaging agent. In spite of this, analogously to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents, presents a relatively low first-pass extraction. Thus, modification of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) direct to increase its first-pass extraction keeping unaltered the favorable imaging properties would be desirable. This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel cationic (99m)Tc-nitrido complexes, of general formula [(99m)TcN(DTC-Ln)(PNP)](+) (DTC-Ln= alicyclic dithiocarbamates; PNP = diphosphinoamine), as potential radiotracers for myocardial perfusion imaging. The synthesis of cationic (99m)Tc-(N)-complexes were accomplished in two steps. Biodistribution studies were performed in rats and compared with the distribution profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 and (99m)Tc-Sestamibi. The metabolisms of the most promising compounds were evaluated by HPLC methods. Biological studies revealed that most of the complexes have a high initial and persistent heart uptake with rapid clearance from nontarget tissues. Among tested compounds, 2 and 12 showed improved heart uptake with respect to the gold standard (99m)Tc-complexes with favorable heart-to-liver and slightly lower heart-to-lung ratios. Chromatographic profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-radioactivity extracted from tissues and fluids were coincident with the native compound evidencing remarkable in vivo stability of these agents. This study shows that the incorporation of alicyclic dithiocarbamate in the [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP)](+) building block yields to a significant increase of the heart uptake at early injection point suggesting that the first-pass extraction fraction of these novel complexes may be increased with respect to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents keeping almost unaltered the favorable target/nontarget ratios. PMID:20402465

  14. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity of a Cd(II) complex with in situ formation of (E)-1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxy-benzylideneamino)-pyrrolidin-2-one ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiu-Ying; Zheng, Ze-Bao; Diao, Yun-Peng

    2015-05-01

    A new complex of Cd(II) with (E)-1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-pyrrolidin-2-one [Cd(L)2ṡ2DMF] was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Where the HL ligand is formed in situ by the intramolecular nucleophilic substitution of (E)-N‧-(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzyli-dene)-4-(quinolin-8-yloxy)butanehydrazide (H2L‧). The cadmium(II) ion is hexacoordinated by two tridentate L- ligands and giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. A cytotoxicity of [Cd(L)2ṡ2DMF] against liver (SMMC-7721) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells have been studied. The results revealed that this cadmium(II) complex exhibited an effective and selective anticancer activity against HeLa over SMMC-7721 cell line with IC50 of 1.54 ± 0.25 and 31.02 ± 3.76 μmol/dm-3.

  15. Synthesis, characterisation and biological aspects of copper(II) dithiocarbamate complexes, [Cu{S2CNR(CH2CH2OH)}2], (R = Me, Et, Pr and CH2CH2OH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Geraldo M.; Menezes, Daniele C.; Cavalcanti, Camila A.; dos Santos, Jaqueline A. F.; Ferreira, Isabella P.; Paniago, Eucler B.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Krambrock, Klaus; Mendes, Isolda C.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2011-03-01

    Cu(II) dithiocarbamates, [Cu{S2CNR(CH2CH2OH)}2], R = Me (1), Et (2), Pr (3) and CH2CH2OH (4), have been prepared from HNR(CH2CH2OH) (R = Me, Et, Pr and CH2CH2OH), CS2 and Cu(OAc)2. Characterisation of the complexes were generally achieved by infrared and EPR spectroscopies and, in addition, for (2) and (3), by X-ray crystallography at 120 K. Complex (2) crystallises as a Cu-S linked dimer, in which the CH2CH2OH groups have a cis arrangement in each monomer but are trans to those in the other monomer partner. On the other hand complex (3) exists in the solid state in the form of two similar and independent centrosymmetric monomers. The weak antiferromagnetic coupling, present in similar complexes, was absent in complexes (1)-(3). The in vitro activity of (1)-(4) was investigated against colonies of Candida albicans, Sthaphyloccocus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They all displayed MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) values against C. albicans close to those found for Fluconazole. All complexes were inert towards Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus and P. auruginosa, respectively.

  16. One-step synthesis of dithiocarbamates from metal powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Hehemann, David G.; Duraj, Stan A.; Clark, Eric B.; Eckles, William E.; Fanwick, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    Neutral metal dithiocarbamate complexes (M(NR2CS2)X) are well-known precursors to metal sulfides, a class of materials with numerous technological applications. We are involved in a research effort to prepare new precursors to metal sulfides using simple, reproducible synthetic procedures. We describe the results of our synthetic and characterization studies for M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu. and In. For example, treatment of metallic indium with tetramethylthiuram disulfide (tmtd) in 4-methylpyridine (4-Mepy) at 25 deg C produces a new homoleptic indium (III) dithiocarbamate, In(N(CH3)2CS2)3(I), in yields of over 60 percent. The indium (III) dithiocarbamate was characterized by X-ray crystallography; (I) exists in the solid state as discrete distorted-octahedral molecules. Compound (I) crystallizes in the P1bar (No. 2) space group with lattice parameters: a = 9.282(1) A, b = 10.081(1) A, c = 12.502 A, alpha = 73.91(1) deg, beta = 70.21(1) deg, gamma = 85.8(1)deg, and Z = 2. X-ray diffraction and mass spectral data were used to characterize the products of the analogous reactions with Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. We discuss both use of dithiocarbamates as precursors and our approach to their preparation.

  17. Why iron-dithiocarbamates ensure detection of nitric oxide in cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Anatoly F; Poltorakov, Alexander P; Mikoyan, Vasak D; Kubrina, Lioudmila N; van Faassen, Ernst

    2006-12-01

    The in vivo mechanism of NO trapping by iron-dithiocarbamate complexes is considered. Contrary to common belief, we find that in biological systems the NO radicals are predominantly trapped by ferric iron-dithiocarbamates. Therefore, the trapping leads to ferric mononitrosyl complexes which are diamagnetic and cannot be directly detected with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The ferric mononitrosyl complexes are far easily reduced to ferrous state with L-cysteine, glutathione, ascorbate or dithiocarbamate ligands than their non-nitrosyl counterpart. When trapping NO in oxygenated biological systems, the majority of trapped nitric oxide is found in diamagnetic ferric mononitrosyl iron complexes. Only a minority fraction of NO is trapped in the form of paramagnetic ferrous mononitrosyl iron complexes with dithiocarbamate ligands. Subsequent ex vivo reduction of biological samples sharply increases the total yield of the paramagnetic mononitrosyl iron complexes. Reduction also eliminates the overlapping EPR spectrum from Cu(2+)-dithiocarbamate complexes. This facilitates the quantification of yields from NO trapping. PMID:16403659

  18. Diastereo- and enantioselective three-component coupling approach to highly substituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Chaulagain, Mani Raj; Felten, Albert E; Gilbert, Kevin; Aron, Zachary D

    2013-09-20

    The enantioselective synthesis of substituted pyrrolidines through a mild Lewis-acid catalyzed three-component coupling reaction between picolinaldehyde, amino acids, and activated olefins is reported. The reaction uses low catalyst loadings of commercially available chiral diamines and copper triflate proposed to self-assemble in conjunction with the chelating aldehydes, 4-substituted-2-picolinaldehydes or 4-methylthiazole-2-carboxaldehyde, to generate a catalyst complex. A model is provided to explain how this complex directs enantioselectivity. This work represents a significant advance in the ease, scope, and cost of producing highly substituted, enantioenriched pyrrolidines.

  19. Diastereo- and enantioselective three-component coupling approach to highly substituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Chaulagain, Mani Raj; Felten, Albert E; Gilbert, Kevin; Aron, Zachary D

    2013-09-20

    The enantioselective synthesis of substituted pyrrolidines through a mild Lewis-acid catalyzed three-component coupling reaction between picolinaldehyde, amino acids, and activated olefins is reported. The reaction uses low catalyst loadings of commercially available chiral diamines and copper triflate proposed to self-assemble in conjunction with the chelating aldehydes, 4-substituted-2-picolinaldehydes or 4-methylthiazole-2-carboxaldehyde, to generate a catalyst complex. A model is provided to explain how this complex directs enantioselectivity. This work represents a significant advance in the ease, scope, and cost of producing highly substituted, enantioenriched pyrrolidines. PMID:23952564

  20. [3 + 2] cycloaddition on carbohydrate templates: stereoselective synthesis of pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuting; Gorityala, Bala Kishan; Ma, Jimei; Leow, Min Li; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolidine derivatives were prepared in high diastereoselectivities and good yields via a [3 + 2] cycloaddition of a tert-butyldimethylsilyl protected carbohydrate-based allene with a diverse range of imines. The subsequent removal of the carbohydrate auxiliary afforded a variety of pyrrolidines with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). Selective reduction of the pyrrolidines further demonstrated the potential of this strategy.

  1. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from α-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K.; Pandey, Om P.

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H 2O] n have been obtained (where Ln = La(III) or Pr(III); L = barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 °C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr 3+.

  2. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K; Pandey, Om P

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H2O]n have been obtained (where Ln=La(III) or Pr(III); L=barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 degrees C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr3+.

  3. Synthesis, DFT Calculation, and Antimicrobial Studies of Novel Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) Heteroleptic Complexes Containing Benzoylacetone and Dithiocarbamate

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Osowole, Aderoju A.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    Heteroleptic complexes of zinc(II), copper(II), manganese(II), and cobalt(II) of the types [MLL′(H2O)2]·nH2O and [MLL′]·nH2O have been synthesized using sodium N-methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate (L) and benzoylacetone (L′). The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility, infrared (IR), and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. The electrical conductance measurements revealed the nonelectrolytic nature of the synthesized complexes. The results of the elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electronic spectra inferred that the Zn(II) complex adopted a four-coordinate geometry while the Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) complexes assumed octahedral geometries. The IR spectra showed that the metal ions coordinated with the ligands via the S- and O-donor atoms. The geometry, electronic, and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spin density distributions, relative strength of H–bonds, and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the order of stability of the metal complexes is Mn < Co < Cu > Zn. The agar diffusion methods were used to study the antimicrobial activity of the complexes against two Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. pneumoniae), one Gram negative bacterium (E. coli), and two fungi organisms (A. niger and A. candida) and the complexes showed a broad spectrum of activities against the microbes. PMID:26681931

  4. Synthesis, DFT Calculation, and Antimicrobial Studies of Novel Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) Heteroleptic Complexes Containing Benzoylacetone and Dithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Ekennia, Anthony C; Onwudiwe, Damian C; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Osowole, Aderoju A; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-01-01

    Heteroleptic complexes of zinc(II), copper(II), manganese(II), and cobalt(II) of the types [MLL'(H2O)2]·nH2O and [MLL']·nH2O have been synthesized using sodium N-methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate (L) and benzoylacetone (L'). The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility, infrared (IR), and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. The electrical conductance measurements revealed the nonelectrolytic nature of the synthesized complexes. The results of the elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electronic spectra inferred that the Zn(II) complex adopted a four-coordinate geometry while the Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) complexes assumed octahedral geometries. The IR spectra showed that the metal ions coordinated with the ligands via the S- and O-donor atoms. The geometry, electronic, and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spin density distributions, relative strength of H-bonds, and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the order of stability of the metal complexes is Mn < Co < Cu > Zn. The agar diffusion methods were used to study the antimicrobial activity of the complexes against two Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. pneumoniae), one Gram negative bacterium (E. coli), and two fungi organisms (A. niger and A. candida) and the complexes showed a broad spectrum of activities against the microbes. PMID:26681931

  5. PRACTICAL SYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC DITHIOCARBAMATES

    PubMed Central

    Padungros, Panuwat; Wei, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT Oxidation-sensitive N,N-diaryl dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are synthesized in good yields by the generation of metal amide salts from N-benzoyl precursors, followed by addition of CS2. para-Substituted diphenylamines are prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution of diphenylbenzamide and saponification. Deacylation of electron-rich species such as bis(p-dimethylaminophenyl)benzamide is challenging because of the oxidative sensitivity of the anionic intermediate but could be achieved in good yield by using n-BuLi to generate a hemiaminal adduct, prior to acidification. The N,N-diaryl DTCs are stable as alkali salts and can be used to produce densely packed monolayers on gold surfaces. PMID:25999616

  6. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of Ni(II) complexes involving functionalised dithiocarbamates and triphenylphosphine: Anagostic interaction in (N-cyclopropyl-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)dithiocarbamato-S,S‧) (thiocyanato-N)(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyaraj, E.; Srinivasan, T.; Thirumaran, S.; Velmurugan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Twelve new nickel(II) complexes namely [Ni(S2CNRR‧)2](1-6) and [Ni(S2CNRR‧)(NCS)(PPh3)](7-12) [where R = cyclopropyl (cPr); R‧ = 2HO-C6H4-CH2- (1,7), 3HO-C6H4-CH2- (2,8), 4HO-C6H4-CH2- (3,9), 4CH3O-C6H4-CH2- (4,10), 4F-C6H4-CH2- (5,11), 4Cl-C6H4-CH2- (6,12)] have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy. A single crystal X-ray structural analysis was carried out for (N-cyclopropyl-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)dithiocarbamato-S,S‧)(thiocyanato-N)- (triphenylphosphine)nickel(II). The increase in wavenumber of νC-N thioureide and decrease in chemical shift values of heteroleptic complexes 7-12 compared to that of homoleptic complexes 1-6 are due to the mesomeric drift of electron density from the dithiocarbamate moiety towards the metal centre, increasing the carbon-nitrogen double bond character. The increased strength of C-N bond is due to the presence of the π-accepting triphenylphosphine. Electronic spectral studies indicated square planar geometry around the nickel(II) central atom for all the complexes. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of 11 confirms that the coordination geometry about the Ni is distorted square planar. The C-H…F interactions lead to a polymeric structure and a rare intramolecular anagostic interaction [M…H = 2.929 Å] is observed. The molecular geometry, HOMO-LUMO in the ground state and MEP have been calculated for 11 using the Hartree-Fock (HF) method with the LANL2DZ basic set. The optimized bond lengths and bond angles agree well with the experimental results. The asymmetry in the Ni-S bonds reveal the greater trans influence of triphenylphosphine compared to that of the isothiocyanate ion.

  7. Discovery of further pyrrolidine trans-lactams as inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) with potential as development candidates and the crystal structure of HNE complexed with an inhibitor (GW475151).

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Simon J F; Dowle, Michael D; Harrison, Lee A; Clarke, Geoffrey D E; Inglis, Graham G A; Johnson, Martin R; Shah, Pritom; Smith, Robin A; Amour, Augustin; Fleetwood, Gill; Humphreys, Davina C; Molloy, Christopher R; Dixon, Mary; Godward, Rosalind E; Wonacott, Alan J; Singh, Onkar M P; Hodgson, Simon T; Hardy, George W

    2002-08-29

    Described herein is a modern approach to the rapid preparation and evaluation of compounds as potential back-up drug candidates. GW311616A, 1, a derivative of pyrrolidine trans-lactams, has previously been described as a potent, orally active inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) for the treatment of respiratory disease. These properties made it a suitable candidate for development. Described here is the discovery of three further derivatives of pyrrolidine trans-lactams, which fulfill the criteria required for back-up candidates 28, 29, and 32. These include increased activity in inhibiting HNE in human whole blood (HWB) and comparable pharmacokinetic properties, in particular clearance, in two species. To provide a rapid assessment of clearance, cassette dosing in dog was used. Modern array techniques, including the synthesis of mixtures, were used to synthesize compounds rapidly. Having selected three potential compounds as back-up candidates, they were prepared as single enantiomers and profiled in in vitro and in vivo assays and evaluated pharmacokinetically in rat and dog. These compounds are highly potent and selective HNE inhibitors, with a prolonged pharmacodynamic action. Pharmacokinetically, these compounds are comparable with 1 while they are more potent in HWB. Compound 28, however, has a higher clearance. One of these compounds, 32, was cocrystallized with HNE, and features of this structure are described and compared with the cocrystal structure of 1 in porcine pancreatic elastase. PMID:12190311

  8. Chemical and medicinal versatility of dithiocarbamates: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bala, Veenu; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2014-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates are considered as the simplest occurring organosulfur compounds exhibiting diverse chemical and medicinal versatility. Dithiocarbamates have been used as pesticide in the 20(th) century but thereafter they have attracted the interest of medicinal chemists due to their metal binding capacity. Recently a variety of chemical and medicinal properties of dithiocarbamates have been explored other than metal binding capacity. This review collectively describes the most significant chemical and medicinal properties of dithiocarbamate derivatives reported over the last decade. PMID:25373849

  9. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K.

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  10. Enzyme inhibition as a possible mechanism of the mutagenicity of dithiocarbamic acid derivatives in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Rannug, A; Rannug, U

    1984-05-01

    In recent years data have accumulated regarding genotoxic properties of dithiocarbamic acid derivatives. The results from the present work indicate that the mutagenicity of these compounds depends on an indirect effect via oxygen radicals. Mutagenicity of tetramethylthiuram disulfide ( TMTD ), that was used as a model substance, was established with both frameshift and base substitution sensitive strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Addition of copper ions resulted in a decreased survival at low dithiocarbamate doses. The dose response curves seem to correlate with the formation of two types of metal dithiocarbamate complexes. At low doses charged complexes are formed, while the formation of uncharged complexes is favoured at higher dosages. The data suggest that this formation of uncharged metal complexes implies a decreased toxicity but at the same time an increased mutagenicity. The mutagenicity of both TMTD and its ethyl analogue TETD was enhanced by oxygen. Furthermore, TMTD potentiates the mutagenic action of menadione, a substance that produces O(2) and H2O2 by redox cycling with molecular oxygen. Interaction of uncharged metal dithiocarbamate complexes with both production and detoxification of reactive forms of oxygen is suggested to be responsible for the direct mutagenic effects via oxidative damage to DNA. A further enhancement of the oxygen radical content of the cells by adding microsomes that produce oxygen radicals via autoxidation of cytochrome P-450 is proposed as the mechanism for the 'metabolic activation of TMTD '.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10314 - Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10314 Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (PMNs P-02-778, P-02-779, and P-02-780) are subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10314 - Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10314 Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (PMNs P-02-778, P-02-779, and P-02-780) are subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10314 - Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10314 Dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dialkyl dithiocarbamate esters (PMNs P-02-778, P-02-779, and P-02-780) are subject to reporting under...

  14. Glycal assembly by the in situ generation of glycosyl dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Padungros, Panuwat; Alberch, Laura; Wei, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Glycal assembly offers an expedient entry into β-linked oligosaccharides, but epoxyglycal donors can be capricious in their reactivities. Treatment with Et(2)NH and CS(2) enables their in situ conversion into glycosyl dithiocarbamates, which can be activated by copper triflate for coupling with complex or sterically congested acceptors. The coupling efficiency can be further enhanced by in situ benzoylation, as illustrated in an 11-step synthesis of a branched hexasaccharide from glucals in 28% isolated yield and just four chromatographic purifications. PMID:22686424

  15. ZnS, CdS and HgS nanoparticles via alkyl-phenyl dithiocarbamate complexes as single source precursors.

    PubMed

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Ajibade, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the prepared ZnS nanoparticles have a cubic sphalerite structure; the CdS indicates a hexagonal phase and the HgS show the presence of metacinnabar phase. The TEM image demonstrates that the ZnS nanoparticles are dot-shaped, the CdS and the HgS clearly showed a rice and spherical morphology respectively. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited a blue-shift with respect to that of the bulk samples which is attributed to the quantum size effect. The band gap of the samples have been calculated from absorption spectra and werefound to be about 4.33 eV (286 nm), 2.91 eV (426 nm) and 4.27 eV (290 nm) for the ZnS, CdS and HgS samples respectively. PMID:22016607

  16. ZnS, CdS and HgS Nanoparticles via Alkyl-Phenyl Dithiocarbamate Complexes as Single Source Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the prepared ZnS nanoparticles have a cubic sphalerite structure; the CdS indicates a hexagonal phase and the HgS show the presence of metacinnabar phase. The TEM image demonstrates that the ZnS nanoparticles are dot-shaped, the CdS and the HgS clearly showed a rice and spherical morphology respectively. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited a blue-shift with respect to that of the bulk samples which is attributed to the quantum size effect. The band gap of the samples have been calculated from absorption spectra and werefound to be about 4.33 eV (286 nm), 2.91 eV (426 nm) and 4.27 eV (290 nm) for the ZnS, CdS and HgS samples respectively. PMID:22016607

  17. Antiarrhythmic and antioxidant activity of novel pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives with adrenolytic properties

    PubMed Central

    Nowaczyk, Alicja; Kulig, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A series of novel pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives (17 compounds) with adrenolytic properties was evaluated for antiarrhythmic, electrocardiographic and antioxidant activity. Some of them displayed antiarrhythmic activity in barium chloride-induced arrhythmia and in the rat coronary artery ligation-reperfusion model, and slightly decreased the heart rate, prolonged P–Q, Q–T intervals and QRS complex. Among them, compound EP-40 (1-[2-hydroxy-3-[4-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl]pyrrolidin-2-one showed excellent antiarrhythmic activity. This compound had significantly antioxidant effect, too. The present results suggest that the antiarrhythmic effect of compound EP-40 is related to their adrenolytic and antioxidant properties. A biological activity prediction using the PASS software shows that compound EP-35 and EP-40 can be characterized by antiischemic activity; whereas, compound EP-68, EP-70, EP-71 could be good tachycardia agents. PMID:20949258

  18. A novel dithiocarbamate analogue with potentially decreased ALDH inhibition has copper-dependent proteasome-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activity in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Zhai, Shumei; Liu, Xiaojun; Li, Liwen; Wu, Shirley; Dou, Q. Ping; Yan, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of sulfur-based metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. We reported previously that certain members of dithiocarbamates, such as diethyldithiocarbamate, disulfiram (DSF) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), were able to bind with tumor cellular copper to inhibit tumor growth through the inhibition of proteasome activity and induction of cancer cell apoptosis. Since the DSF is an irreversible inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), its ALDH-inhibitory activity might potentially affect its usefulness as an anti-cancer drug. For the purpose of selecting potent anti-cancer compounds that are not ALDH inhibitors and mapping out preliminary structure–activity relationship trends for these novel compounds, we synthesized a series of PDTC analogues and chose three novel compounds to study their ALDH-inhibitory activity, proteasome-inhibitory activity as well as the cancer cell apoptosis-inducing activity. The results showed that compared to DSF, compound 9 has less ALDH inhibition activity, and the in vitro results also proved the positive effects of 9-Cu in proteasome inhibition and apoptosis induction in breast cancer cells, suggesting that 9 as a lead compound could be developed into a novel proteasome inhibitor anti-cancer drug. PMID:21035945

  19. Cytotoxicity Profiles for a Series of Triorganophosphinegold(I) Dithiocarbamates and Triorganophosphinegold(I) Xanthates

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Dick; Ho, Soo Yei

    2004-01-01

    A series of triorganophosphinegold(1) dithiocarbamate (R3PAuS2CNR'2) and xanthate (R3PAuS2COR') complexes have been prepared and characterised spectroscopically. Based on crystallographic evidence, the molecules feature linear gold(1) geometries defined by sulphur and phosphorus donors. The complexes, along with a series of known anti-cancer agents, have been screened against a panel of seven human cancer cell lines. Uniformly, the dithiocarbamate derivatives are more active than their xanthate counterparts, with the most active complex being Et3PAu(S2CNEt2), and are more active than cisplatin in all cell lines screened but, not as potent as taxol. PMID:18365074

  20. Iron potentiates nitric oxide scavenging by dithiocarbamates in tissue of septic shock mice.

    PubMed

    Komarov, A M; Mak, I T; Weglicki, W B

    1997-10-24

    Vanin and co-workers (Kubrina et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1176 (1993) 240-244; Mikoyan et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1269 (1995) 19-24) reported that short term (30 min) iron (Fe) exposure potentiates nitric oxide (NO) production in tissues of septic shock mice, based on increased formation of NO complex by diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC). We have reexamined the effect of Fe administration in mice treated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and have not found any changes in nitrosylhemoglobin (HbNO) or (NOs- + NO3-) levels in blood 30 min after Fe-citrate complex injection. However, Fe-citrate promotes NO complex formation by iron-dependent NO traps: DETC, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) and N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (MGD), when given simultaneously at 6 h after LPS. Rather than potentiation of NO production, our data support that short-term iron treatment (30 min) enhances in vivo spin trapping ability of dithiocarbamate. PMID:9375797

  1. A kinetic study of jack-bean urease denaturation by a new dithiocarbamate bismuth compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, D. C.; Borges, E.; Torres, M. F.; Braga, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    A kinetic study concerning enzymatic inhibitory effect of a new bismuth dithiocarbamate complex on jack-bean urease is reported. A neural network approach is used to solve the ill-posed inverse problem arising from numerical treatment of the subject. A reaction mechanism for the urease denaturation process is proposed and the rate constants, relaxation time constants, equilibrium constants, activation Gibbs free energies for each reaction step and Gibbs free energies for the transition species are determined.

  2. Gemcitabine response in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells is synergistically enhanced by dithiocarbamate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dalla Pozza, Elisa; Donadelli, Massimo; Costanzo, Chiara; Zaniboni, Tatyana; Dando, Ilaria; Franchini, Marta; Arpicco, Silvia; Scarpa, Aldo; Palmieri, Marta

    2011-04-15

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a common malignancy that remains refractory to all available therapies, including the gold standard drug gemcitabine (GEM). We investigated the effect of the combination of GEM and each of the ionophore compounds pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and disulfiram [DSF; 1-(diethylthiocarbamoyldisulfanyl)-N,N-diethylmethanethioamide] on p53(-/-) pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell growth. PDTC or DSF synergistically inhibited cell proliferation when used in combination with GEM by inducing apoptotic cell death. This effect was associated with an increased mitochondrial O(2)(•-) production and was further enhanced by zinc ions. Basal levels of mitochondrial O(2)(•-) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) strictly correlated with the IC(50) for GEM or the percentage of synergism. Thus, the most relevant values of the antiproliferative synergism were obtained in GEM-resistant pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. Interestingly, the GEM-sensitive T3M4 cells transfected with MnSOD expression vector showed mitochondrial O(2)(•-) and IC(50) for GEM similar to those of resistant cell lines. In vivo experiments performed on nude mice xenotransplanted with the GEM-resistant PaCa44 cell line showed that only the combined treatment with GEM and DSF/Zn completely inhibited the growth of the tumoral masses. These results and the consideration that DSF is already used in clinics strongly support the GEM and DSF/Zn combination as a new approach to overcoming pancreatic cancer resistance to standard chemotherapy.

  3. Is the A-ring of sparteine essential for high enantioselectivity in the asymmetric lithiation-substitution of N-Boc-pyrrolidine?

    PubMed

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Ianni, James C; Kozlowski, Marisa C

    2004-12-01

    The simplest chiral portion of sparteine, N,N'-dimethyl-2-endo-methylbispidine, was prepared and evaluated in the asymmetric lithiation-substitution of N-Boc-pyrrolidine. The results indicate that the complete A-ring of sparteine is essential for high levels of asymmetric induction. DFT-QSSR analyses of the diamine/Li(+) complexes and DFT calculations of the pertinent i-PrLi/diamine/N-Boc-pyrrolidine complexes are predictive and provide complementary pictures of the stereochemical features critical to this transformation. PMID:15563175

  4. Piperazine pivoted transition metal dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sadaf; Nami, Shahab A. A.; Siddiqi, K. S.

    2008-03-01

    A quadridentate ligand disodium bis(2,2'-dithiopiperazinato-2,2'-diamino diethylamine) Na 2L 2 and its self assembled transition metal complexes of the type, M 2(L 2) 2 {M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II)} have been reported. The piperazine pivoted homodinuclear complexes have been characterized by a range of spectral, thermal, microanalytical and conductometric techniques. On the basis of IR and 1HNMR data a symmetrical bidentate coordination of the dithiocarbamato moiety has been observed in all the cases. The TGA profile of the ligand exhibits two stage thermolytic pattern although the complexes decompose in three steps, respectively. Metal sulfide is found to be the end product. The formation of homodinuclear complexes has been ascertained on the basis of FAB mass spectral data and a probable fragmentation pattern has been proposed. On the basis of UV-visible spectroscopic results and room temperature magnetic moment data a tetrahedral geometry has been proposed for all the complexes except for the Ni(II) and Cu(II) which are found to be square-planar.

  5. Structure of Biologically Active Organotin(IV) Dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Y.; Sanuddin, M.; Yamin, B. M.

    2008-03-01

    The diorganotin(IV) complexes of dithiocarbamates derived from from N-ethyl-n-propylamine (EtPrdtc), 2-dimethylaminoethylamine (Me2Etdtc), 3-dimethlyamino-1-propylamine (Me2Prdtc), p-tolylmethanamine (TylMetdtc) and N-methyl-1-phenylmethanamine (MePhMetdtc) have been synthesized and characterized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies on Ph3Sn(EtPrdtc), Me2Sn(MePhMetdtc)2 and Bu2Sn(MePhMetdtc)2 showed that the complexes adopted a monoclinic system with space group P(2)/n, P21/n and C2/c, respectively. The Ph3Sn(EtPrdtc) complex adopted a trigonal pyramidal structure while the Me2Sn(MePhMetdtc)2 and Bu2Sn(MePhMetdtc)2 complexes displayed structures which may be described as distorted octahedrons. Cytotoxicity test using HL60 cells (human promyelocytic leukemic) showed that only Me2Sn(Me2Etdtc), Me2Sn(MePhMetdtc)2 and Bu2Sn(MePhMetdtc)2 complexes were active. The rest of the complexes did not show cytotoxicity behaviour towards HL60 cells.

  6. Dithiocarbamate-based coordination compounds as potent proteasome inhibitors in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buac, Daniela; Schmitt, Sara; Ventro, George; Kona, Fathima Rani; Dou, Q Ping

    2012-10-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. They have been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, possible treatment of AIDS, and most recently cancer. Their anti-tumor effects can in part be attributed to their ability to complex tumor cellular copper, leading to binding to and inhibition of the proteasome and in turn initiating tumor cell-specific apoptosis. Current chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic and therefore their efficacy in the eradication of tumors is greatly limited. As a result many scientists have joined the quest for novel targeted therapies in hopes of reducing toxicity while maximizing potency and proteasome inhibition has become an attractive therapy in this regard. Here we discuss the origins, mechanism, and evolution of dithiocarbamates as potent proteasome inhibitors and therefore anti-cancer agents. PMID:22931591

  7. Dithiocarbamate-Based Coordination Compounds as Potent Proteasome Inhibitors in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Daniela; Schmitt, Sara; Ventro, George; Kona, Fathima Rani; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. They have been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, possible treatment of AIDS, and most recently cancer. Their anti-tumor effects can in part be attributed to their ability to complex tumor cellular copper, leading to binding to and inhibition of the proteasome and in turn initiating tumor cell-specific apoptosis. Current chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic and therefore their efficacy in the eradication of tumors is greatly limited. As a result many scientists have joined the quest for novel targeted therapies in hopes of reducing toxicity while maximizing potency and proteasome inhibition has become an attractive therapy in this regard. Here we discuss the origins, mechanism, and evolution of dithiocarbamates as potent proteasome inhibitors and therefore anti-cancer agents. PMID:22931591

  8. Self assembled homodinuclear dithiocarbamates: one pot synthesis and spectral characterization.

    PubMed

    Nami, Shahab A A; Husain, Ahmad; Ullah, Irfan

    2014-01-24

    Several self assembled homodinuclear complexes of the type [M2(Ldtc)2·4H2O] derived from quadridentate ligand (Ldtc), where Ldtc = 2-aminobenzoylhydrazidebis(dithiocarbamate) and M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been reported. The in situ procedure gives high yield with the formation of single product as evident by TLC and various other physicochemical techniques. Elemental analysis, TGA, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, ESI mass spectrometry, EPR, UV-vis. and IR spectroscopy were used to characterize the homodinuclear complexes. The spectroscopic evidences and room temperature magnetic moment values suggest that all the complexes have octahedral geometry around the transition metal atom. A symmetrical bidentate coordination of the dithiocarbamato moiety has been observed in all the complexes. The energy-minimized structure of the molecule also showed that each metal atom acquires a distorted octahedral geometry. The complexes exhibit a three-step thermolytic pattern and are non-electrolyte in nature. PMID:24064153

  9. Self assembled homodinuclear dithiocarbamates: One pot synthesis and spectral characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nami, Shahab A. A.; Husain, Ahmad; Ullah, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Several self assembled homodinuclear complexes of the type [M2(Ldtc)2·4H2O] derived from quadridentate ligand (Ldtc), where Ldtc = 2-aminobenzoylhydrazidebis(dithiocarbamate) and M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been reported. The in situ procedure gives high yield with the formation of single product as evident by TLC and various other physicochemical techniques. Elemental analysis, TGA, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI mass spectrometry, EPR, UV-vis. and IR spectroscopy were used to characterize the homodinuclear complexes. The spectroscopic evidences and room temperature magnetic moment values suggest that all the complexes have octahedral geometry around the transition metal atom. A symmetrical bidentate coordination of the dithiocarbamato moiety has been observed in all the complexes. The energy-minimized structure of the molecule also showed that each metal atom acquires a distorted octahedral geometry. The complexes exhibit a three-step thermolytic pattern and are non-electrolyte in nature.

  10. Potent pyrrolidine- and piperidine-based BACE-1 inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Iserloh, U.; Wu, Y.; Cumming, J.N.; Pan, J.; Wang, L.Y.; Stamford, A.W.; Kennedy, M.E.; Kuvelkar, R.; Chen, X.; Parker, E.M.; Strickland, C.; Voigt, J.

    2008-08-18

    Based on lead compound 1 identified from the patent literature, we developed novel patentable BACE-1 inhibitors by introducing a cyclic amine scaffold. Extensive SAR studies on both pyrrolidines and piperidines ultimately led to inhibitor 2f, one of the most potent inhibitors synthesized to date. The discovery and development of novel BACE-1 inhibitors incorporating a cyclic amine scaffold is described.

  11. Genotoxicity of dithiocarbamates and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Franekić, J; Bratulić, N; Pavlica, M; Papes, D

    1994-11-01

    Dithiocarbamate fungicides are widely used in agriculture for protection of vegetable crops and seeds. The mutagenicity spectra of ziram, thiram, zineb S-65 and ETU were determined by employing a battery of test systems included the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium (strains TA98, TA100, TA102, TA104, TA1535, TA1538), the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain D61.M) and the shallot Allium ascalonicum somatic cells. Plate incorporation assay with S. typhimurium demonstrated direct mutagenicity of ziram in TA100 and thiram in TA100 and TA98 whereas zineb S-65 and ETU were ineffective. Tests for mitotic chromosome malsegregation in S. cerevisiae D61.M gave positive results with thiram, zineb S-69 and ETU. In shallot somatic root-tip cells ziram, thiram and ETU induced different genetic damages e.g. mitotic disturbance, polyploidy and micronuclei.

  12. Structure-antiproliferative activity studies on l-proline- and homoproline-4-N-pyrrolidine-3-thiosemicarbazone hybrids and their nickel(ii), palladium(ii) and copper(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dobrova, Aliona; Platzer, Sonja; Bacher, Felix; Milunovic, Miljan N M; Dobrov, Anatolie; Spengler, Gabriella; Enyedy, Éva A; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Arion, Vladimir B

    2016-09-14

    Two water-soluble thiosemicarbazone-proline (H2L(1)) and thiosemicarbazone-homoproline hybrids (H2L(2)) were synthesised. By reaction of H2L(1) with NiCl2·6H2O, PdCl2 and CuCl2·2H2O in ethanol, the series of square-planar complexes [Ni(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·1.3H2O (1·1.3H2O), [Pd(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·H2O (2·H2O) and [Cu(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·0.7H2O (3·0.7H2O) was prepared, and starting from H2L(2) and CuCl2·2H2O in methanol, the complex [Cu(H2L(2))Cl2]·H2O (4·H2O) was obtained. The compounds have been characterised by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy), ESI mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray crystallography (H2L(1), 1, 2 and 4). As a solid, 1 is diamagnetic, while it is paramagnetic in methanolic solution. The effective magnetic moment of 3.26 B.M. at room temperature indicates the change in coordination geometry from square-planar to octahedral upon dissolution. The in vitro anticancer potency of ligand precursors H2L(1) and H2L(2) and metal complexes 1-4 was studied in three human cancer cell lines (A549, CH1 and SW480) and in noncancerous murine embryonal fibroblasts (NIH/3T3), and the mechanism of cell death was also assayed by flow cytometry. Clear-cut structure-activity relationships have been established. The metal ions exert marked effects in a divergent manner: copper(ii) increases, whereas nickel(ii) and palladium(ii) decrease the cytotoxicity of the hybrids. The antiproliferative activity of H2L(1) and metal complexes 1-3 decreases in all three tumour cell lines in the following rank order: 3 > H2L(1) > 1 > 2. The role of square-planar geometry in the underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity of the metal complexes studied seems to be negligible, while structural modifications at the terminal amino group of thiosemicarbazide and proline moieties are significant for enhancing the antiproliferative activity of both hybrids and copper(ii) complexes. PMID:27485263

  13. Synthesis, structure and light-harvesting properties of some new transition-metal dithiocarbamates involving ferrocene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhinav; Chauhan, Ratna; Molloy, Kieran C; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Bahadur, Lal; Singh, Nanhai

    2010-04-12

    Nine new transition-metal dithiocarbamates involving ferrocene (Fc), namely, [M(FcCH(2)Bzdtc)(2)] (M=Ni(II) (1), Cu(II) (2), Cd(II) (3), Hg(II) (4), Pd(II) (5), Pt(II) (6) and Pb(II) (7); Bzdtc=N-benzyl dithiocarbamate) and [M(FcCH(2)Bzdtc)(3)] (M=Co(II) (8) and UO(2) (VI) (9)), have been synthesised and characterised by micro analyses, IR spectroscopy, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and in three cases by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The peak broadening in the (1)H spectrum of the copper complex indicates the paramagnetic behaviour of this compound. A square-planar geometry around the nickel and copper complexes and distorted linear geometry around the mercury complex have been found. The latter geometry is attributed to the bulkiness of the methylferrocenyl and benzyl groups. The observed single quasi-reversible cyclic voltammograms for complexes 2, 8 and 9 indicate the stabilisation of a metal centre other than Fe in their characteristic oxidation state. These complexes have been used as a photosensitiser in dye-sensitised solar cells. PMID:20169600

  14. Metabolism and metabolites of dithiocarbamates in the plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Sarma-Mamillapalle, Vijay K

    2012-08-15

    Synthetic compounds containing a dithiocarbamate group are known to have a variety of biological effects and applications including antifungal, herbicidal, and insecticidal application. Leptosphaeria maculans is a fungal pathogen of crucifers able to detoxify efficiently the only plant natural product containing a dithiocarbamate group, the phytoalexin brassinin. To evaluate the effects of dithiocarbamates on L. maculans, a number of structurally diverse S-methyl dithiocarbamates containing indolyl, biphenyl, and benzimidazolyl moieties were synthesized, and their antifungal activities and metabolism by L. maculans were investigated. All dithiocarbamates were transformed by L. maculans through hydrolysis to the corresponding amines, which were less antifungal than the parent compounds. Two dithiocarbonates were shown to be much less antifungal than the corresponding dithiocarbamates. Results of this investigation indicate that S-methyl dithiocarbamates are not useful inhibitors of L. maculans and that their rates of transformation by L. maculans did not correlate with the antifungal activity of the particular compound. PMID:22823278

  15. Antioxidant-induced changes of the AP-1 transcription complex are paralleled by a selective suppression of human papillomavirus transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Rösl, F; Das, B C; Lengert, M; Geletneky, K; zur Hausen, H

    1997-01-01

    Considering the involvement of a redox-regulatory pathway in the expression of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), HPV type 16 (HPV-16)-immortalized human keratinocytes were treated with the antioxidant pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (PDTC). PDTC induces elevated binding of the transcription factor AP-1 to its cognate recognition site within the viral regulatory region. Despite of increased AP-1 binding, normally indispensable for efficient HPV-16 transcription, viral gene expression was selectively suppressed at the level of initiation of transcription. Electrophoretic mobility supershift assays showed that the composition of the AP-1 complex, predominantly consisting of Jun homodimers in untreated cells, was altered. Irrespective of enhanced c-fos expression, c-jun was phosphorylated and became primarily heterodimerized with fra-1, which was also induced after PDTC incubation. Additionally, there was also an increased complex formation between c-jun and junB. Because both fra-1 and junB overexpression negatively interferes with c-jun/c-fos trans-activation of AP-1-responsive genes, our results suggest that the observed block in viral transcription is mainly the consequence of an antioxidant-induced reconstitution of the AP-1 transcription complex. Since expression of the c-jun/c-fos gene family is tightly regulated during cellular differentiation, defined reorganization of a central viral transcription factor may represent a novel mechanism controlling the transcription of pathogenic HPVs during keratinocyte differentiation and in the progression to cervical cancer. PMID:8985358

  16. The ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide Mancozeb activates voltage-gated KCNQ2 potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhu, Jin; Kong, Qingya; Jiang, Baifeng; Wan, Xia; Yue, Jinfeng; Li, Min; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jian; Gao, Zhaobing

    2013-06-01

    Mancozeb (manganese/zinc ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate) is an organometallic fungicide that has been associated with human neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. In a high-throughput screen for modulators of KCNQ2 channel, a fundamental player modulating neuronal excitability, Mancozeb, was found to significantly potentiate KCNQ2 activity. Mancozeb was validated electrophysiologically as a KCNQ2 activator with an EC50 value of 0.92±0.23μM. Further examination showed that manganese but not zinc ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate is the active component for the positive modulation effects. In addition, the compounds are effective when the metal ions are substituted by iron but lack potentiation activity when the metal ions are substituted by sodium, signifying the importance of the metal ion. However, the iron (Fe(3+)) alone, organic ligands alone or the mixture of iron with the organic ligand did not show any potentiation effect, suggesting as the active ingredient is a specific complex rather than two separate additive or synergistic components. Our study suggests that potentiation on KCNQ2 potassium channels might be the possible mechanism of Mancozeb toxicity in the nervous system. PMID:23542819

  17. Domino [4 + 1]-annulation of α,β-unsaturated δ-amino esters with Rh(II)-carbenoids – a new approach towards multi-functionalized N-aryl pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, J J; Galkina, O S; Klinkova, A A; Giera, D S; Hennig, L; Schneider, C; Nikolaev, V A

    2015-03-01

    Catalytic decomposition of diazomalonates and other diazoesters using Rh(II)- and Cu(II)-complexes in the presence of α,β-unsaturated δ-(N-aryl)amino esters gives rise to the formation of multi-functionalized pyrrolidines with yields of up to 82%. The reaction apparently occurs as a domino process involving the initial N-ylide formation followed by intramolecular Michael addition to the conjugated system of amino esters to afford the pyrrolidine heterocycle. The whole process can also be classified as a [4 + 1]-annulation of the δ-amino α,β-unsaturated ester with the carbenoid intermediate. PMID:25582707

  18. Pyrrolidine synthesis via palladium-catalyzed trimethylenemethane cycloaddition and related studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The palladium catalyzed trimethylenemethane cycloaddition has been extended to the synthesis of pyrrolidines and azepines. In contrast to previous attempts with N-alkyl and N-aryl imine, successful cycloadditions were recorded with several aromatic and aliphatic electron-deficient imines. Sulfonimines were found to be excellent acceptors, yielding pyrrolidine cycloadducts in excellent yields. Aromatic sulfonimines were observed to undergo cycloaddition very rapidly at or below room temperature. Some aliphatic nitrimine and N-phenyl, C-carbalkoxy imines were also found to be useful acceptors. Azepines were obtained from the cycloaddition of cisoid lockeed [alpha],[beta] unsaturated sulfonimines. In order to support the cycloaddition studies, a novel synthetic method was developed for the synthesis of sulfonimines. bis(Toluene-sulfonylimido)tellurium, Te(=N-Ts)[sub 2], generated from tellurium metal and anhydrous chloramine-t, was found to convert both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into the corresponding sulfonimines. Chiral ligands were examined in this cyclization and an enantiomeric excess of 35% was achieved with Hayashi's bidentate ferrocenyl ligand (BPFA). In support of this effort, the total synthesis of [+-] nicotine was accomplished in seven steps starting from pyridine 3-carboxaldehyde using these methodologies in order to verify the enantiomeric excess. Finally, the trimethylenemethane cycloaddition was examined with tropone irontricarbonyl complex. A novel [5+3] cycloaddition was observed to proceed in good yield, which upon decomplexation from the iron tricarbonyl moiety yielded the tricyclo[3.2.0] system. The scope and generality were briefly examined. Extended Huekel calculations were performed in order to help rationalize the unexpected regiochemistry.

  19. Regiodivergent Intermolecular [3+2] Cycloadditions of Vinyl Aziridines and Allenes: Stereospecific Synthesis of Chiral Pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao-Yan; Zhu, Chao-Ze; Zhang, Peichao; Wang, Yidong; Wu, Hai-Hong; Feng, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Junliang

    2016-08-26

    The first rhodium-catalyzed intermolecular [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of vinyl aziridines and allenes for the synthesis of enantioenriched functionalized pyrrolidines was realized. [3+2] cycloaddition with the proximal C=C bond of N-allenamides gave 3-methylene-pyrrolidines in high regio- and diastereoselectivity, whereas, 2-methylene-pyrrolidines were obtained as the major products by the cycloadditions of vinyl aziridines with the distal C=C bond of allenes. Use of readily available starting materials, a broad substrate scope, high selectivity, mild reaction conditions, as well as versatile functionalization of the cycloadducts make this approach very practical and attractive. PMID:27485044

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide dithiocarbamate and dithioate analogs.

    PubMed

    Talaat, Roba; El-Sayed, Waheba; Agwa, Hussein S; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moawia, Shaden; Zahran, Magdy A H

    2015-08-01

    Thalidomide has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. It has been used to treat a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory activities of novel thalidomide analogs by exploring their effects on splenocytes proliferation and macrophage functions and their antioxidant activity. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effect of thalidomide analogs against splenocytes. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB-P65) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nitric oxide (NO) was estimated by colorimetric assay. Antioxidant activity was examined by ORAC assay. Our results demonstrated that thalidomide dithioate analog 2 and thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 4 produced a slight increase in splenocyte proliferation compared with thalidomide. Thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 1 is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α production, whereas thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 5 is a potent inhibitor of both TNF-α and NO. Analog 2 has a pronounced inhibitory effect on NF-κB-P65 production level. All thalidomide analogs showed prooxidant activity against hydroxyl (OH) radical. Analog 1 and thalidomide dithioate analog 3 have prooxidant activity against peroxyl (ROO) radical in relation to thalidomide. On the other hand, analog 4 has a potent scavenging capacity against peroxyl (ROO) radical compared with thalidomide. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that thalidomide analogs might have valuable anti-inflammatory activities with more pronounced effect than thalidomide itself.

  1. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires.

    PubMed

    Reeler, Nini E A; Lerstrup, Knud A; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V; Laursen, Bo W; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  2. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  3. Effects of mancozeb and other dithiocarbamate fungicides on Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of mitochondrial petite mutants in dithiocarbamate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Casalone, E; Bonelli, E; Polsinelli, M

    2010-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model system was used to evaluate the occurrence of resistant mutants and adaptation mechanism to mancozeb (MZ), a widespread fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class with a broad spectrum of action and multiple cell targets. We were unable to isolate mutants resistant to inhibitory concentration of MZ but found an unusually large number of mitochondrial defective petite mutants among cells incubated in the presence of subinhibitory MZ concentration. Similar results were obtained with two other dithiocarbamate fungicides. Comparison of wild type and petite mutants showed that the latter were more resistant to toxic effects of MZ, highlighting the role of mitochondria in MZ-tolerance. The data suggest that petite cells, arising by exposure to sub-inhibitory MZ concentration, are not induced by fungicides but are spontaneous mutants already present in the population before the contact with the fungicide. PMID:21253904

  4. Detection of Nitric Oxide by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spin-Trapping with Iron-Dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Maia, Luisa B; Moura, José J G

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is the ideal methodology to identify radicals (detection and characterization of molecular structure) and to study their kinetics, in both simple and complex biological systems. The very low concentration and short life-time of NO and of many other radicals do not favor its direct detection and spin-traps are needed to produce a new and persistent radical that can be subsequently detected by EPR spectroscopy.In this chapter, we present the basic concepts of EPR spectroscopy and of some spin-trapping methodologies to study NO. The "strengths and weaknesses" of iron-dithiocarbamates utilization, the NO traps of choice for the authors, are thoroughly discussed and a detailed description of the method to quantify the NO formation by molybdoenzymes is provided. PMID:27094413

  5. Dithiocarbamate Self-Assembled Monolayers as Efficient Surface Modifiers for Low Work Function Noble Metals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dominik; Schäfer, Tobias; Schulz, Philip; Jung, Sebastian; Rittich, Julia; Mokros, Daniel; Segger, Ingolf; Maercks, Franziska; Effertz, Christian; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Wuttig, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Tuning the work function of the electrode is one of the crucial steps to improve charge extraction in organic electronic devices. Here, we show that N,N-dialkyl dithiocarbamates (DTC) can be effectively employed to produce low work function noble metal electrodes. Work functions between 3.1 and 3.5 eV are observed for all metals investigated (Cu, Ag, and Au). Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) reveals a maximum decrease in work function by 2.1 eV as compared to the bare metal surface. Electronic structure calculations elucidate how the complex interplay between intrinsic dipoles and dipoles induced by bond formation generates such large work function shifts. Subsequently, we quantify the improvement in contact resistance of organic thin film transistor devices with DTC coated source and drain electrodes. These findings demonstrate that DTC molecules can be employed as universal surface modifiers to produce stable electrodes for electron injection in high performance hybrid organic optoelectronics. PMID:27504721

  6. Comparative effects of ten dithiocarbamate and thiuram compounds on tissue distribution and excretion of lead in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oskarsson, A.

    1987-10-01

    The dithiocarbamate and thiuram compounds, including disulfiram, were compared for their efficacies in influencing tissue distribution of a trace dose of intravenously injected lead plus /sup 203/Pb in rats. The tested compounds were sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC), tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), a complex of zinc and manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (mancozeb), manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (maneb), sodium monomethyldithiocarbamate (metham), zinc propylene bisdithiocarbamate (propineb), tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram), zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (zineb), and zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram). The results of this study show that interactions can occur between lead and DEDTC, DMDTC, disulfiram, metham, thiram, and ziram, resulting in increased levels of lead in brain and probably potentiation of the neurotoxic effects of lead.

  7. A modular synthesis of dithiocarbamate pendant unnatural α-amino acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unnatural α-amino acids containing dithiocarbamate side chains were synthesized by a one-pot reaction of in-situ generated dithiocarbamate anions with sulfamidates. A wide range of these anions participated in the highly regio- and stereo-selective ring opening of sulfamidates to...

  8. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effects of monoalkyl dithiocarbamates on mobilization of cadmium in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.M.; Gale, G.R.; Atkins, L.M.; Smith, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Monoalkyl dithiocarbamates are capable of mobilizing cadmium from aged intracellular deposits in which the cadmium is largely present in metallothionein. The sodium salts of monomethyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and n-butyl dithiocarbamates have been prepared, characterized, and examined for their relative ability to mobilize cadmium from such aged deposits in the kidneys, liver, spleen, testes, brain, and pancreas as well as from the whole body, using sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate as the positive control. Alterations in the structure of the dithiocarbamates can be correlated with alterations in organ cadmium levels. The acute toxicity of these compounds is sufficiently greater than disubstituted dithiocarbamates that their use would appear to possess few advantages, although they do seem to be more effective in reducing testicular cadmium levels.

  10. The pyrrolidine alkaloid, 2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine, inhibits glycoprotein processing.

    PubMed

    Elbein, A D; Mitchell, M; Sanford, B A; Fellows, L E; Evans, S V

    1984-10-25

    2,5-Dihydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine (DMDP) is a pyrrolidine alkaloid that was isolated from the plant, Lonchocarpus sericeus. In the present study, DMDP was tested as an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing. MDCK cells were infected with influenza virus and the virus was raised in the presence of various amounts of DMDP. The glycoproteins were labeled by the addition of [2-3H]mannose or [1-3H]galactose to the medium. The virus was isolated by differential centrifugation and treated with Pronase to obtain glycopeptides. These glycopeptides were isolated by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-4, then digested with endoglucosaminidase H (Endo H) and rechromatographed on the Bio-Gel P-4 column. In the control virus, more than 70% of the glycopeptides were resistant to Endo H and were previously characterized as complex types of oligosaccharides. The remaining 20-25% are sensitive to Endo H and are of the high-mannose type. However, in the presence of DMDP (250 micrograms/ml), more than 80% of the glycopeptides are susceptible to digestion by Endo H. The oligosaccharide released by this treatment sized like a hexose11-12GlcNAc on a calibrated column of Bio-Gel P-4, and was only slightly susceptible to alpha-mannosidase treatment. This oligosaccharide was also labeled in the glucose moieties by growing the virus in [1-3H]galactose in the presence of DMDP. Following isolation, the oligosaccharide was subjected to complete methylation. Acid hydrolysis of the methylated oligosaccharide gave three methylated glucose derivatives, corresponding to 2,3,4,6-tetramethylglucose, 3,4,6-trimethylglucose, and 2,4,6-trimethylglucose in almost equal amounts. These data indicate that the oligosaccharide is a Glc3Man8-9-GlcNAc and that DMDP inhibits glucosidase I. Similar results were obtained with the cellular glycoproteins. DMDP did not inhibit the incorporation of [3H]leucine into protein in MDCK cells, nor did it inhibit virus production as measured by plaque counts or

  11. Photolithography of Dithiocarbamate-Anchored Monolayers and Polymers on Gold.

    PubMed

    Leonov, Alexei P; Wei, Alexander

    2011-03-28

    Dithiocarbamate (DTC)-anchored monolayers and polymers were investigated as positive resists for UV photolithography on planar and roughened Au surfaces. DTCs were formed in situ by the condensation of CS(2) with monovalent or polyvalent amines such as linear polyethyleneimine (PEI) under mildly basic aqueous conditions, just prior to surface passivation. The robust adsorption of the polyvalent PEI-DTC to Au surfaces supported high levels of resistance to photoablation, providing opportunities to generate thin films with gradient functionality. Treatment of photopatterned substrates with alkanethiols produced binary coatings, enabling a direct visual comparison of DTC- and thiol-passivated surfaces against chemically induced corrosion using confocal microscopy.

  12. Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Liu, Youxun; Wu, Meihao; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-08-20

    The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA) and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402). However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20-30 fold) owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA-Cu) was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA-Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity.

  13. Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Liu, Youxun; Wu, Meihao; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA) and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402). However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20-30 fold) owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA-Cu) was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA-Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity. PMID:27556432

  14. Technetium(I) carbonyl dithiocarbamates and xanthates.

    PubMed

    Miroslavov, A E; Sidorenko, G V; Suglobov, D N; Lumpov, A A; Gurzhiy, V V; Grigor'ev, M S; Mikhalev, V A

    2011-02-01

    Technetium(I) tetracarbonyl complexes with diethyldithiocarbamate and methylxanthate ligands [TcL(CO)(4)] (L = S(2)CNEt(2) and S(2)COMe) were prepared. Conditions required for the formation of these complexes were found. The crystal and molecular structure of the xanthate complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. [Tc(S(2)CNEt(2))(CO)(4)] undergoes decarbonylation both in solution and in the course of vacuum sublimation with the formation of a dimer [Tc(S(2)CNEt(2))(CO)(3)](2) whose structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In donor solvents, [Tc(S(2)CNEt(2))(CO)(4)] and [Tc(S(2)COMe)(CO)(4)] undergo decarbonylation with the formation of tricarbonyl solvates [TcL(CO)(3)(Sol)]. The crystal structure of the pyridine solvate [Tc(S(2)CNEt(2))(CO)(3)(py)], chosen as an example, was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The possibility of using bidentate S-donor acidic ligands for tethering the tetracarbonyltechnetium fragment to biomolecules was examined. PMID:21192706

  15. Antitumor effect of sonodynamically activated pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Nishi, Koji; Fujimori, Junya; Fukai, Toshio; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Chen, Fu-shin; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the sonodynamically induced antitumor effect of pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene (PTF) was investigated. Sonodynamically induced antitumor effects of PTF by focused ultrasound were investigated using isolated sarcoma-180 cells and mice bearing ectopically-implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Cell damage induced by ultrasonic exposure was enhanced by 5-fold in the presence of 80 µM PTF. The combined treatment of ultrasound and PTF suppressed the growth of the implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Ultrasonically induced 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-1-oxyl (4oxoTEMPO) production in the presence and absence of PTF was assessed, and it was shown that 80 µM PTF enhanced 4oxoTEMPO production as measured by ESR spectroscopy. Histidine, a reactive oxygen scavenger, significantly reduced cell damage and 4oxoTEMPO generation caused by ultrasonic exposure in the presence of PTF. These results suggest that singlet oxygen is likely to be involved in the ultrasonically induced cell damage enhanced by PTF.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, molecular docking and biological studies of self assembled transition metal dithiocarbamates of substituted pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Nami, Shahab A A; Ullah, Irfan; Alam, Mahboob; Lee, Dong-Ung; Sarikavakli, Nursabah

    2016-07-01

    A series of self assembled 3d transition metal dithiocarbamate, M(pdtc) [where M=Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] have been synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. The bidentate dithiocarbamate ligand Na2pdtc (Disodium-1,4-phenyldiaminobis (pyrrole-1-sulfino)dithioate) was prepared by insertion reaction of carbondisulfide with Schiff base, N,N'-bis-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylene)-benzene-1,4-diamine (L1) in basic medium. The simple substitution reaction between the metal halide and Na2pdtc yielded the title complexes in moderate yields. However, the in situ procedure gives high yield with the formation of single product as evident by TLC. Elemental analysis, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, UV-vis., magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements were done to characterize the complexes, M(pdtc). All the evidences suggest that the complexes have tetrahedral geometry excepting Cu(II) which is found to be square planar. A symmetrical bidentate coordination of the dithiocarbamato moiety has been observed in all the complexes. The conductivity data show that the complexes are non-electrolyte in nature. The anti-oxidant activity of the ligand, Na2pdtc and its transition metal complexes, M(pdtc) have been carried out using DPPH and Cu(pdtc) was found to be most effective. The anti-microbial activity of the Na2pdtc and M(pdtc) complexes have been carried out and on this basis the molecular docking study of the most effective complex, Cu(pdtc) has also been reported. PMID:27197060

  17. Comparative effects of N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates and dimercaptosuccinate on mobilization of methylmercury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, G.R.; Atkins, L.M.; Smith, A.B.; Walker, E.M. Jr.; Jones, M.M.

    1984-07-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and five of its N,N-disubstituted analogs were compared with dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA) for effectiveness in mobilizing and promoting excretion of methylmercury (MeHg) following administration of a sublethal dose of MeHg labeled with Me203Hg. The previously reported effectiveness of DMSA was confirmed. Of the dithiocarbamates assessed, only di(carboxymethyl)-dithiocarbamate (DCDC) was active in mobilizing MeHg, and its activity on a molar dose basis was less than that of DMSA. The disparate structural requirements of dithiocarbamates as antagonists of MeHg and of cadmium were discussed.

  18. Four-Component Reaction for the Synthesis of Dithiocarbamates Starting from Cyclic Imines.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Torben; Ziyaei Halimehjani, Azim; Wachtendorf, Daniel; Schmidtmann, Marc; Martens, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    An efficient one-pot, four-component reaction for the synthesis of dithiocarbamates using carbon disulfide, cyclic imines, acid chlorides, and commercially available primary or secondary amines has been developed by performing an acid chloride addition to a heterocyclic imine followed by subsequent nucleophilic substitution of in situ generated dithiocarbamic acid. With the aid of the newly developed and powerful multicomponent reaction, a direct route for the synthesis of 24 unknown dithiocarbamates in moderate to good yield under mild conditions is enabled. PMID:27362425

  19. Radical-mediated reduction of the dithiocarbamate group under tin-free conditions.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Claire; Bream, Robert N; Grainger, Richard S

    2012-06-28

    Reductive desulfurisation of dithiocarbamates is conveniently achieved using H(3)PO(2)-Et(3)N-ACCN in refluxing dioxane. Fused and spirocyclic β-lactams, prepared through 4-exo trig carbamoyl radical cyclisation-dithiocarbamate group transfer reactions, are reduced without fragmentation of the strained 4-membered ring. Diethyl tetraacetyl-d-glucopyranosyl dithiocarbamate is selectively reduced with or without acyloxy group migration depending on reaction conditions and choice of reductant. Deuterium incorporation from D(3)PO(2)-Et(3)N is observed for a system involving a nucleophilic radical intermediate, but not in the case of the electrophilic radical obtained through acyloxy group migration on a glucose derivative. PMID:22588594

  20. Temperature dependence of the solubility of fullerenes C60 derivatives with piperidine, pyrrolidine, and morpholine and fullerenes C70 with pyrrolidine in benzene, toluene, and o-xylene at 20-80°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, K. N.; Charykov, N. A.; Vorotyntsev, I. V.

    2015-07-01

    Fullerene C60 derivatives with piperidine, pyrrolidine, and morpholine and fullerene C70 derivative with pyrrolidine were synthesized and identified by electronic and infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and thermogravimetry. The solubility of these derivatives in benzene, toluene, and o-xylene in the temperature range 20-80°C was studied.

  1. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by metal-ligand complexes decreases levels of extracellular amyloid beta peptide.

    PubMed

    Price, Katherine A; Filiz, Gulay; Caragounis, Aphrodite; Du, Tai; Laughton, Katrina M; Masters, Colin L; Sharples, Robyn A; Hill, Andrew F; Li, Qiao-Xin; Donnelly, Paul S; Barnham, Kevin J; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2008-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in a range of tissues and cell-types. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by a number of ligands induces downstream signalling that modulates critical cell functions including growth, survival and differentiation. Abnormal epidermal growth factor receptor expression and activation is also involved in a number of cancers. In addition to its cognate ligands, the epidermal growth factor receptor can be activated by metals such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Due to the important role of these metals in a number of diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, therapeutic approaches are being developed based on the use of lipid permeable metal-complexing molecules. While these agents are showing promising results in animal models and clinical trials, little is known about the effects of metal-ligand complexes on cell signalling pathways. In this study, we investigated the effects of clioquinol (CQ)-metal complexes on activation of epidermal growth factor receptor. We show here that CQ-Cu complexes induced potent epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation resulting in downstream activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Similar levels of epidermal growth factor receptor activation were observed with alternative lipid permeable metal-ligands including neocuproine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. We found that CQ-Cu complexes induced a significant reduction in the level of extracellular Abeta1-40 in cell culture. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor activation by PD153035 blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and restored Abeta1-40 levels. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by CQ-Cu was mediated through up-regulation of src kinase activity by a cognate ligand-independent process involving membrane integrins. These findings provide the first evidence that metal-ligand complexes can activate the epidermal growth

  2. Detection and quantification of dithiocarbamate pesticides by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saute, Benjamin Calvin

    Dithiocarbamates are a subclass of carbamate pesticides that are widely used as insecticidal agents on food crops in the US and abroad. Quantitative determination of trace quantities of dithiocarbamates is necessary in order to mitigate potential human exposure via pesticide residues left on inadequately washed food items as well as groundwater contamination from agricultural runoff. The focus of this research is on the development and optimization of a Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) based analytical technique for the quantitative determination of trace amounts of dithiocarbamate pesticides in different matrices. Gold nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes will be investigated to determine the suitability of these materials as SERS active substrates for the trace analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides. Analytical sensitivity will be evaluated by determining the limits of detection using established statistical methods.

  3. Dithiocarbamates strongly inhibit carbonic anhydrases and show antiglaucoma action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Aggarwal, Mayank; Maresca, Alfonso; Scozzafava, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Masini, Emanuela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-02-23

    A series of dithiocarbamates were prepared by reaction of primary/secondary amines with carbon disulfide in the presence of bases. These compounds were tested for the inhibition of four human (h) isoforms of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase, CA (EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IX, and XII, involved in pathologies such as glaucoma (CA II and XII) or cancer (CA IX). Several low nanomolar inhibitors targeting these CAs were detected. The X-ray crystal structure of the hCA II adduct with morpholine dithiocarbamate evidenced the inhibition mechanism of these compounds, which coordinate to the metal ion through a sulfur atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding function. Some dithiocarbamates showed an effective intraocular pressure lowering activity in an animal model of glucoma. PMID:22276570

  4. Dithiocarbamates strongly inhibit carbonic anhydrases and show antiglaucoma action in vivo#

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Fabrizio; Aggarwal, Mayank; Maresca, Alfonso; Scozzafava, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Masini, Emanuela; Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2012-01-01

    A series of dithiocarbamates was prepared by reaction of primary/secondary amines with carbon disulfide in the presence of bases. These compounds were tested for the inhibition of 4 human (h) isoforms of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase, CA (EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IX and XII, involved in pathologies such as glaucoma (CA II and XII) or cancer (CA IX). Several low nanomolar inhibitors targeting these CAs were detected. X-ray crystal structure of hCA II adduct with morpholine dithiocarbamate evidenced the inhibition mechanism of these compounds, which coordinate to the metal ion through a sulfur atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding function. Some dithiocarbamates showed effective intraocular pressure lowering activity in an animal model of glucoma. PMID:22276570

  5. Syntheses of arabinose-derived pyrrolidine catalysts and their applications in intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions.

    PubMed

    Shing, Tony K M; Wu, Kwun W; Wu, Ho T; Xiao, Qicai

    2015-02-14

    Six chiral hydroxylated pyrrolidine catalysts were synthesized from commercially available D-arabinose in seven steps. Various aromatic substituents α to the amine can be introduced readily by a Grignard reaction, which enables facile optimization of the catalyst performance. The stereoselectivities of these catalysts have been assessed by comparing with those of MacMillan's imidazolidinone in a known intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of a triene. Two additional IMDA reactions of symmetrical dienals with concomitant desymmetrisation further established the potential use of these novel amine catalysts. These pyrrolidines are valuable catalysts for other synthetic transformations. PMID:25503272

  6. Synthesis, characterization, structural and biological aspects of copper(II) dithiocarbamate complexes - Part II, [Cu{S2CN(Me)(R1)}2], [Cu{S2CN(Me)(R2)}2] and [Cu{S2CN(R3)(R4)}2] {R1 = CH2CH(OMe)2, R2 = 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, R3 = CH2(CH2)2NCHPhOCH2Ph and R4 = CH2CH2OH}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Isabella P.; de Lima, Geraldo M.; Paniago, Eucler B.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Krambrock, Klaus; Pinheiro, Carlos B.; Wardell, James L.; Visentin, Lorenzo C.

    2013-09-01

    Three new copper(II) dithiocarbamates (DTC), [Cu{S2CN(Me)(R1)}2] (1), [Cu{S2CN(Me)(R2)}2] (2) and [Cu{S2CN(R3)(R4)}2] (3) with R1 = CH2CH(OMe)2, R2 = 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, R3 = CH2(CH2)2NCHPhOCH2Ph and R4 = CH2CH2OH, have been synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. Complexes (1) and (2) display typical EPR spectra for separated Cu(II) centers, and the spectrum of (3) is characteristic of two magnetically coupled Cu(II) ions with S = 1. The X-ray crystallographic determination has shown that complexes (1) and (2) crystallise in the triclinic and monoclinic systems. In addition both complexes are monomers in which the geometry at each Cu(II) is square planar. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the sodium salts of ligands, and of the Cu(II)-DTC complexes have been screened against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium citrinum and Curvularia senegalensis, as well as Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Finally, the toxic effects of complexes (1)-(3) were performed using Chlorella vulgaris.

  7. Reaction of /alpha/,/beta/-unsaturated acyl isothiocyanates with salts of dithiocarbamic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Krus, K.; Masias, A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1989-01-10

    The reaction of unsaturated isothiocyanates with the sodium and calcium salts of N-alkyl- and N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamic acids was studied. Depending on the structure of the dithiocarbamate, the reaction products are thiazines or acyl dithiocarbamates. For the salts of methyldithiocarbamic acid the effect of the concentration and the nature of the metal on the relative yields of 6-phenyl-3-methylpropiorhodanine and 6-phenylpropiorhodanine was studied. A method is proposed for the synthesis of 3-substituted propiorhodanines.

  8. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of new butenolide-containing dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Hai-Wei; Guo, Lin-Lin; Zheng, Jia-Xin; Xu, Bo; Guo, Xiao; Zheng, Chen-Xin; Liu, Hong-Min

    2011-05-15

    Three series of butenolide-containing dithiocarbamates were designed and synthesized. Their anti-tumor activity in vitro was evaluated. Among them compound I-14 exhibited broad spectrum anti-cancer activity against five human cancer cell lines with IC(50) <30 μM. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that the introduction of dithiocarbamate side chains on the C-3 position of butenolide was crucial for anti-tumor activity. PMID:21486694

  9. Glycosyl Dithiocarbamates: β-Selective Couplings without Auxiliary Groups

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate glycosyl dithiocarbamates (DTCs) with unprotected C2 hydroxyls as donors in β-linked oligosaccharide synthesis. We report a mild, one-pot conversion of glycals into β-glycosyl DTCs via DMDO oxidation with subsequent ring opening by DTC salts, which can be generated in situ from secondary amines and CS2. Glycosyl DTCs are readily activated with Cu(I) or Cu(II) triflate at low temperatures and are amenable to reiterative synthesis strategies, as demonstrated by the efficient construction of a tri-β-1,6-linked tetrasaccharide. Glycosyl DTC couplings are highly β-selective despite the absence of a preexisting C2 auxiliary group. We provide evidence that the directing effect is mediated by the C2 hydroxyl itself via the putative formation of a cis-fused bicyclic intermediate. PMID:24548247

  10. Glycosyl dithiocarbamates: β-selective couplings without auxiliary groups.

    PubMed

    Padungros, Panuwat; Alberch, Laura; Wei, Alexander

    2014-03-21

    In this article, we evaluate glycosyl dithiocarbamates (DTCs) with unprotected C2 hydroxyls as donors in β-linked oligosaccharide synthesis. We report a mild, one-pot conversion of glycals into β-glycosyl DTCs via DMDO oxidation with subsequent ring opening by DTC salts, which can be generated in situ from secondary amines and CS2. Glycosyl DTCs are readily activated with Cu(I) or Cu(II) triflate at low temperatures and are amenable to reiterative synthesis strategies, as demonstrated by the efficient construction of a tri-β-1,6-linked tetrasaccharide. Glycosyl DTC couplings are highly β-selective despite the absence of a preexisting C2 auxiliary group. We provide evidence that the directing effect is mediated by the C2 hydroxyl itself via the putative formation of a cis-fused bicyclic intermediate. PMID:24548247

  11. A simple and efficient synthesis of fused morpholine pyrrolidines/piperdines with potential insecticidal activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayi; Xu, Beiling; Si, Shanyu; Li, Hui; Song, Gonghua

    2014-11-01

    A simple and efficient synthesis of fused morpholine pyrrolidine/piperdine core structures was accomplished via a Petasis-borono Mannich reaction of cyclic amino alcohols, glyoxal and arylboronic acids with moderate to good yields. The bioassay data showed that the synthesized compounds displayed selective insecticidal activities against armyworm and root-knot nematode.

  12. Amide and amine nucleophiles in polar radical crossover cycloadditions: synthesis of γ-lactams and pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Gesmundo, Nathan J; Grandjean, Jean-Marc M; Nicewicz, David A

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present a direct catalytic synthesis of γ-lactams and pyrrolidines from alkenes and activated unsaturated amides or protected unsaturated amines, respectively. Using a mesityl acridinium single electron photooxidant and a thiophenol cocatalyst under irradiation, we are able to directly forge these important classes of heterocycles with complete regiocontrol. PMID:25695366

  13. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel galloyl pyrrolidine derivatives as potential anti-tumor agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Xun; Li, Yalin; Xu, Wenfang

    2006-03-01

    A series of novel galloyl pyrrolidine derivatives were synthesized as potential anti-tumor agents. Their inhibiting activities on gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9) were tested with succinylated gelatin as the substrate. Structure-activity analyses demonstrate that introduction of longer and more flexible side chains at the C(4) position of the pyrrolidine ring brings higher activity against gelatinase. Free phenol hydroxyl group is more favorable than the methylated one, which confirms the important role of the phenol hydroxyl group when inhibitors interact with gelatinase. In particular, (2S,4S)-4-(3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylamido)-N-hydroxy-1-(3,4,5- trimethoxybenzoyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide (18) stood out as the most attractive compound (IC(50) = 0.9 nM). The anti-metastasis model of mice bearing H(22) tumor cells was used to evaluate their anti-tumor activities in vivo. The assay in vivo revealed that most of these inhibitors displayed favorable inhibitory activities (inhibitory rate >35%) and no significant toxic effects were observed. The inhibition for 62.37% of 19 indicates the strategy used to design MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) of galloyl pyrrolidine derivatives as potential anti-tumor agents is promising.

  14. Design, structural and spectroscopic elucidation, and the in vitro biological activities of new diorganotin dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabella P; de Lima, Geraldo M; Paniago, Eucler B; Rocha, Willian R; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pinheiro, Carlos B; Ardisson, José D

    2012-12-01

    The reaction of 2,2-dimethoxy-N-methylethyllamine or 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane with CS(2) in alkaline media produced two novel dithiocarbamate salts. Subsequent reactions with organotin halides yielded six new complexes: [SnMe(2){S(2)CNR(R(1))(2)}(2)] (1), [Sn(n-Bu)(2){S(2)CNR(R(1))(2)}(2)] (2), [SnPh(2){S(2)CNR(R(1))(2)}(2)] (3), [SnMe(2){S(2)CNR(R(2))(2)}(2)] (4), [Sn(n-Bu)(2){S(2)CNR(R(2))(2)}(2)] (5), [SnPh(2){S(2)CNR(R(2))(2)}(2)] (6), where R = methyl, R(1) = CH(2)CH(OMe)(2), and R(2) = 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane. All compounds were identified in terms of infrared, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and the complexes were also characterized using (119)Sn NMR, (119)Sn Mössbauer and X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of all derivatives has been screened in terms of IC(90) and IC(50) against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium citrinum, Curvularia senegalensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the results correlated well with a performed study of structure-activity relationship (SAR). Complexes (3), (5) and (6) displayed the best IC(90) and IC(50) in the presence of the fungi, greater than that of miconazole, used as control drug. PMID:23159807

  15. Photosensitizing activity of ferrocenyl bearing Ni(II) and Cu(II) dithiocarbamates in dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Chauhan, Ratna; Gupta, Ajit N; Kumar, Vinod; Drew, Michael G B; Bahadur, Lal; Singh, Nanhai

    2014-03-28

    Biferrocene bearing planar metal dithiocarbamates, namely, [M(FcCH2dtc)2] (dtc = furan-2-ylmethyldithiocarbamate, M = Cu(II) 1, Ni(II) 4; dtc = benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethyl dithiocarbamate, M = Cu(II) 2, Ni(II) 5; dtc = pyridin-2-ylmethyldithiocarbamate, M = Cu(II) 3, Ni(II) 6; Fc = ferrocenyl; Fe(η(5)-C5H5)(η(5)-C5H4-)), have been synthesized and characterized by microanalysis, magnetic susceptibility and cyclic voltammetry. Structures of 1, 2 and 4 have been obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction. These complexes with pyridyl, piperonyl and furfuryl as heteroaromatic groups in the dithiocarbamate ligands have been exploited as sensitizers in dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells for converting sunlight into electrical energy. Light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies achieved using these sensitizers are considerably greater than those obtained with analogous compounds previously reported by us. The overall conversion efficiency (η) is found to be dependent upon the nature of the heteroaromatic conjugated linkers and increases in the order η (ferrocenylfurfuryl) > η (ferrocenylpiperonyl) > η (ferrocenylpyridyl) all values being lower than that obtained in the reference Ru dye N719 under similar experimental conditions. The conversion efficiencies also vary with the metal being higher for Ni (4, 5 and 6) than for Cu complexes (1, 2 and 3). The X-ray structural analyses reveal the existence of rare M···H-C intermolecular anagostic interactions involving the metal atom in chain motifs in 1 and 4, which are retained in solution as evidenced by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24473675

  16. Photodegradation and flow-injection determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides in natural water with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2009-03-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection method is reported for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides (maneb, nabam and thiram) based on chemiluminescence detection. The method involves the photodegradation of dithiocarbamate fungicides via UV light in an alkaline medium. Photoproducts are then reacted with luminol in the absence of an oxidant. Linear calibration graphs were obtained in the range 0.01 - 4.0 mg L(-1) for maneb and nabam and 0.05 - 1.0 mg L(-1) for thiram with relative standard deviations (n = 4) in the range 1.0 - 2.6%. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of maneb, nabam and thiram were 10, 8.0 and 5.0 ng mL(-1), respectively, with a sample throughput of 100 h(-1). The method was successfully applied to determine these dithiocarbamate fungicides in spiked natural water samples.

  17. Efficient electronic coupling and improved stability with dithiocarbamate-based molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Wrochem, Florian; Gao, Deqing; Scholz, Frank; Nothofer, Heinz-Georg; Nelles, Gabriele; Wessels, Jurina M.

    2010-08-01

    Molecular electronic devices require stable and highly conductive contacts between the metal electrodes and molecules. Thiols and amines are widely used to attach molecules to metals, but they form poor electrical contacts and lack the robustness required for device applications. Here, we demonstrate that dithiocarbamates provide superior electrical contact and thermal stability when compared to thiols on metals. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory show the presence of electronic states at 0.6 eV below the Fermi level of Au, which effectively reduce the charge injection barrier across the metal-molecule interface. Charge transport measurements across oligophenylene monolayers reveal that the conductance of terphenyl-dithiocarbamate junctions is two orders of magnitude higher than that of terphenyl-thiolate junctions. The stability and low contact resistance of dithiocarbamate-based molecular junctions represent a significant step towards the development of robust, organic-based electronic circuits.

  18. Dithiocarbamates strongly inhibit the β-class carbonic anhydrases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Alfonso; Carta, Fabrizio; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-04-01

    A series of N-mono- and N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates have been investigated as inhibitors of two β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mtCA 1 (Rv1284) and mtCA 3 (Rv3273). Both enzymes were inhibited with efficacies between the subnanomolar to the micromolar one, depending on the substitution pattern at the nitrogen atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding group. Aryl, arylalkyl-, heterocyclic as well as aliphatic and amino acyl such moieties led to potent mtCA 1 and 3 inhibitors in both the N-mono- and N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamate series. This new class of β-CA inhibitors may have the potential for developing antimycobacterial agents with a diverse mechanism of action compared to the clinically used drugs for which many strains exhibit multi-drug/extensive multi-drug resistance. PMID:22145736

  19. Efficient electronic coupling and improved stability with dithiocarbamate-based molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    von Wrochem, Florian; Gao, Deqing; Scholz, Frank; Nothofer, Heinz-Georg; Nelles, Gabriele; Wessels, Jurina M

    2010-08-01

    Molecular electronic devices require stable and highly conductive contacts between the metal electrodes and molecules. Thiols and amines are widely used to attach molecules to metals, but they form poor electrical contacts and lack the robustness required for device applications. Here, we demonstrate that dithiocarbamates provide superior electrical contact and thermal stability when compared to thiols on metals. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory show the presence of electronic states at 0.6 eV below the Fermi level of Au, which effectively reduce the charge injection barrier across the metal-molecule interface. Charge transport measurements across oligophenylene monolayers reveal that the conductance of terphenyl-dithiocarbamate junctions is two orders of magnitude higher than that of terphenyl-thiolate junctions. The stability and low contact resistance of dithiocarbamate-based molecular junctions represent a significant step towards the development of robust, organic-based electronic circuits. PMID:20562871

  20. Dithiocarbamates residues in Brazilian food and the potential risk for consumers.

    PubMed

    Caldas, E D; Miranda, M C C; Conceição, M H; de Souza, L C K R

    2004-11-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a non-systemic group of pesticides widely used to protect crops from fungal diseases. The current methodology used by monitoring laboratories to determine dithiocarbamates in food involves the analysis of CS(2) generated after hydrolysis of the compound present in the sample. This method does not identify the origin of the CS(2) detected, which may or may not be related to the presence of pesticides leading to a potential overestimation of the dietary dithiocarbamate intake. In this paper, 520 food samples (papaya, banana, apple, strawberry, orange, potato, tomato, rice and dry beans) collected in the local market of the Federal District, Brazil, were analyzed for dithiocarbamate content. Detectable levels (> or =10.10 mg/kg CS(2)) were found in 60.8% of the samples, with the highest levels (up to 3.8 mg/kg) found in strawberry, papaya and banana. No residues were found in rice (polished) and only one dry bean sample had detectable levels of the fungicides. Detectable residues were found in the pulp of banana, papaya (including the seeds) and orange (50-62% of the analyzed samples). An exposure assessment, based on dithiocarbamate levels detected in the food crops analyzed in this study, confirms that the intake of dithiocarbamates through food consumption in the country does not represent a health risk to consumers, i.e., the estimated daily intake is less than the acceptable daily intake. Furthermore, the implementation of more selective methodologies to individually analyze these compounds in food monitoring programs in Brazil is not necessary.

  1. Rational design of orally-active, pyrrolidine-based progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott K.; Washburn, David G.; Frazee, James S.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Hoang, Tram H.; Lapinski, Leahann; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Glace, Lindsay E.; Trizna, Walter; Williams, Shawn P.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Laping, Nicholas J.

    2010-09-03

    Using the X-ray crystal structure of an amide-based progesterone receptor (PR) partial agonist bound to the PR ligand binding domain, a novel PR partial agonist class containing a pyrrolidine ring was designed. Members of this class of N-alkylpyrrolidines demonstrate potent and highly selective partial agonism of the progesterone receptor, and one of these analogs was shown to be efficacious upon oral dosing in the OVX rat model of estrogen opposition.

  2. Bismuth(III) triflate promoted intramolecular hydroamination of unactivated alkenyl sulfonamides in the preparation of pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Mathia, František; Szolcsányi, Peter

    2012-04-14

    Bi(OTf)(3)·nH(2)O was found to be an efficient promoter of the cyclisative hydroamination of unactivated alkenyl sulfonamides, giving rise to the N-protected 2-methyl pyrrolidines in good to excellent yields (up to 95%). Based on control experiments, a joint Lewis acid-Brønsted acid catalysis might be in operation, or triflic acid itself, generated in situ by hydrolysis of metal triflate, could be the true hydroamination catalyst. PMID:22373546

  3. Facile access to unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on cis-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ye; Wang, Ping-An; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Well-defined unnatural dipeptide-alcohols based on a cis-2,5-disubstitued pyrrolidine backbone were synthesized from commercially available starting materials meso-diethyl-2,5-dibromoadipate, (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine, and phenylalaninol. The structures of these unnatural dipeptide-alcohols are supported by HRMS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. These unnatural dipeptide-alcohols can act as building blocks for peptidomimetics. PMID:25679051

  4. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis After Exposure to Dithiocarbamate Fungicide Mancozeb.

    PubMed

    Zakharov, Sergey; Csomor, Jan; Urbanek, Petr; Pelclova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a life-threatening mucocutaneous disease with high mortality. Dithiocarbamates (DTC) are organosulphur compounds widely used in agriculture, industry and households. We report a case of TEN after exposure to mancozeb in fungicide. A 48-year-old 75 kg b.w. man was admitted with fever and generalized skin/mucous lesions after application of fungicide in a home garden. The patient had necrotic desquamation of gastrointestinal/respiratory tract mucosa, ocular lesion and skin epidermolysis of 90% of body surface. The laboratory findings included elevation of inflammatory parameters, hyperglycaemia, increased urea, creatinine, liver enzymes, hypoalbuminemia and electrolyte disturbances. The treatment included supportive care, management of fluid/electrolyte requirements, analgesics and enteral nutrition. Skin lesions were treated with occlusive non-adhesive biological wound dressings. Due to the proof of Acinetobacter, Escherichia coli and Escherichia faecalis from skin swabs, a combination of meropenem with amikacin was administered. During the next 2 weeks, complete re-epithelialization of skin lesions occurred, mucosal lesions healed and the laboratory parameters returned to normal. The patient was discharged on day 42. TEN is a rare condition that is generally caused by medications. Nevertheless, high attention should be paid to the cases of occupational or household exposure to DTC fungicides widely used in agriculture and home gardens because of their ability to cause TEN after skin and inhalation exposure. Greater emphasis on the hazardous properties of these products is necessary to ensure non-professional users are aware of the necessity of protective clothing during mixing, loading, application and early re-entry into treated fields. PMID:26073440

  5. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence trace mercury determination by trapping complexation: Application in advanced oxidation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custo, Graciela; Litter, Marta I.; Rodríguez, Diana; Vázquez, Cristina

    2006-11-01

    It is well known that Hg species cause high noxious effects on the health of living organisms even at very low levels (5 μg/L). Quantification of this element is an analytical challenge due to the peculiar physicochemical properties of all Hg species. The regulation of the maximal allowable Hg concentration led to search for sensitive methods for its determination. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence is a proved instrumental analytical tool for the determination of trace elements. In this work, the use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence for Hg quantification is investigated. However, experimental determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence requires depositing a small volume of sample on the reflector and evaporation of the solvent until dryness to form a thin film. Because of volatilization of several Hg forms, a procedure to capture these volatile species in liquid samples by using complexing agents is proposed. Acetate, oxalic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid and ammonium pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate were assayed for trapping the analytes into the solution during the preparation of the sample and onto the reflector during total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements. The proposed method was applied to evaluate Hg concentration during TiO 2-heterogeneous photocatalysis, one of the most known advanced oxidation technologies. Advanced oxidation technologies are processes for the treatment of effluents in waters and air that involve the generation of very active oxidative and reductive species. In heterogeneous photocatalysis, Hg is transformed to several species under ultraviolet illumination in the presence of titanium dioxide. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was demonstrated to be applicable in following the extent of the heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction by determining non-transformed Hg in the remaining solution.

  6. Development of new portable miniaturize solid phase microextraction of silver-APDC complex using micropipette tip in-syringe system couple with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shah, Faheem; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Samoon, Muhammad Kashif

    2016-02-01

    An innovative and simple miniaturized solid phase microextraction (M-SPME) method, was developed for preconcentration and determination of silver(I) in the fresh and waste water samples. For M-SPME, a micropipette tip packed with activated carbon cloth (ACC) as sorbent, in a syringe system. The size, morphology and elemental composition of ACC before and after adsorption of analyte have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sample solution treated with a complexing reagent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), was drawn into the syringe filled with ACC and dispensed manually for 2 to 10 aspirating/dispensing cycle. Then the Ag- complex sorbed on the ACC in micropipette was quantitatively eluted by drawing and dispensing of different concentrations of acids for 2 to 5 aspirating/dispensing cycles. The extracted Ag ions with modifier were injected directly into the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for analysis. The influence of different variables on the extraction efficiency, including the concentration of ligand, pH, sample volume, eluent type, concentration and volume was investigated. Validity and accuracy of the developed method was checked by the standard addition method. Reliability of the proposed methodology was checked by the relative standard deviation (%RSD), which was found to be < 5%. Under the optimized experimental variables, the limits of detection (LOD) and enhancement factors (EF), were obtained to be 0.86 ng L- 1 and 120, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of silver ions in fresh and waste water samples.

  7. Development of new portable miniaturize solid phase microextraction of silver-APDC complex using micropipette tip in-syringe system couple with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shah, Faheem; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Samoon, Muhammad Kashif

    2016-02-01

    An innovative and simple miniaturized solid phase microextraction (M-SPME) method, was developed for preconcentration and determination of silver(I) in the fresh and waste water samples. For M-SPME, a micropipette tip packed with activated carbon cloth (ACC) as sorbent, in a syringe system. The size, morphology and elemental composition of ACC before and after adsorption of analyte have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sample solution treated with a complexing reagent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), was drawn into the syringe filled with ACC and dispensed manually for 2 to 10 aspirating/dispensing cycle. Then the Ag- complex sorbed on the ACC in micropipette was quantitatively eluted by drawing and dispensing of different concentrations of acids for 2 to 5 aspirating/dispensing cycles. The extracted Ag ions with modifier were injected directly into the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for analysis. The influence of different variables on the extraction efficiency, including the concentration of ligand, pH, sample volume, eluent type, concentration and volume was investigated. Validity and accuracy of the developed method was checked by the standard addition method. Reliability of the proposed methodology was checked by the relative standard deviation (%RSD), which was found to be <5%. Under the optimized experimental variables, the limits of detection (LOD) and enhancement factors (EF), were obtained to be 0.86 ng L(-1) and 120, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of silver ions in fresh and waste water samples.

  8. Development of new portable miniaturize solid phase microextraction of silver-APDC complex using micropipette tip in-syringe system couple with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shah, Faheem; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Samoon, Muhammad Kashif

    2016-02-01

    An innovative and simple miniaturized solid phase microextraction (M-SPME) method, was developed for preconcentration and determination of silver(I) in the fresh and waste water samples. For M-SPME, a micropipette tip packed with activated carbon cloth (ACC) as sorbent, in a syringe system. The size, morphology and elemental composition of ACC before and after adsorption of analyte have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sample solution treated with a complexing reagent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), was drawn into the syringe filled with ACC and dispensed manually for 2 to 10 aspirating/dispensing cycle. Then the Ag- complex sorbed on the ACC in micropipette was quantitatively eluted by drawing and dispensing of different concentrations of acids for 2 to 5 aspirating/dispensing cycles. The extracted Ag ions with modifier were injected directly into the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for analysis. The influence of different variables on the extraction efficiency, including the concentration of ligand, pH, sample volume, eluent type, concentration and volume was investigated. Validity and accuracy of the developed method was checked by the standard addition method. Reliability of the proposed methodology was checked by the relative standard deviation (%RSD), which was found to be <5%. Under the optimized experimental variables, the limits of detection (LOD) and enhancement factors (EF), were obtained to be 0.86 ng L(-1) and 120, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of silver ions in fresh and waste water samples. PMID:26520476

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing of Copper, Indium, and Gallium Dithiocarbamates for Energy Conversion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duraj, S. A.; Duffy, N. V.; Hepp, A. F.; Cowen, J. E.; Hoops, M. D.; Brothrs, S. M.; Baird, M. J.; Fanwick, P. E.; Harris, J. D.; Jin, M. H.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Ten dithiocarbamate complexes of indium(III) and gallium(III) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and melting point. Each complex was decomposed thermally and its decomposition products separated and identified with the combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Their potential utility as photovoltaic materials precursors was assessed. Bis(dibenzyldithiocarbamato)- and bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)copper(II), Cu(S2CN(CH2C6H5)2)2 and Cu(S2CN(C2H5)2)2 respectively, have also been examined for their suitability as precursors for copper sulfides for the fabrication of photovoltaic materials. Each complex was decomposed thermally and the products analyzed by GC/MS, TGA and FTIR. The dibenzyl derivative complex decomposed at a lower temperature (225-320 C) to yield CuS as the product. The diethyl derivative complex decomposed at a higher temperature (260-325 C) to yield Cu2S. No Cu containing fragments were noted in the mass spectra. Unusual recombination fragments were observed in the mass spectra of the diethyl derivative. Tris(bis(phenylmethyl)carbamodithioato-S,S'), commonly referred to as tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato)indium(III), In(S2CNBz2)3, was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1(bar) with two molecules per unit cell. The material was further characterized using a novel analytical system employing the combined powers of thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to investigate its potential use as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin film materials for photovoltaic applications. Upon heating, the material thermally decomposes to release CS2 and benzyl moieties in to the gas phase, resulting in bulk In2S3. Preliminary spray CVD experiments indicate that In(S2CNBz2)3 decomposed on a Cu substrate reacts to produce

  10. Carbon disulfide formation in papaya under conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Abakerli, R B; Sparrapan, R; Sawaya, A C H F; Eberlin, M N; Jara, J L P; Rodrigues, N R; Fay, E F; Luiz, A J B; Galvão, T D L; Martins, D dos S; Yamanishi, O K; Toledo, H H B

    2015-12-01

    Golden, Sunrise Solo and Tainung cultivars of papaya were found to release CS2 when submitted to experimental conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis. Three common analytical methods were used to quantitate CS2; one spectrophotometric method and two chromatographic methods. All three methods gave positive CS2 results for all three papaya varieties. Other endogenous compounds present in isooctane extracts of papaya fractions detected via gas chromatography (GC/ITD) using electron ionization (EI) were: carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, 2-methylthiophene, 3-methylthiophene, 2-ethylthiophene, 3-ethylthiophene, benzylisothiocyanate, benzylthiocyanate and benzonitrile. Control samples were obtained from papaya plantations cultivated in experimental areas, in which no treatment with fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group was applied. Endogenous CS2 levels were compared with true dithiocarbamate residues measured in papaya samples from the field trials following applications of the mancozeb fungicide. Three days after application, true dithiocarbamate residues, measured by the procedure with isooctane partitioning and GC-ITD, were at the average level of 2 mg kg(-1).

  11. Carbon disulfide formation in papaya under conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Abakerli, R B; Sparrapan, R; Sawaya, A C H F; Eberlin, M N; Jara, J L P; Rodrigues, N R; Fay, E F; Luiz, A J B; Galvão, T D L; Martins, D dos S; Yamanishi, O K; Toledo, H H B

    2015-12-01

    Golden, Sunrise Solo and Tainung cultivars of papaya were found to release CS2 when submitted to experimental conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis. Three common analytical methods were used to quantitate CS2; one spectrophotometric method and two chromatographic methods. All three methods gave positive CS2 results for all three papaya varieties. Other endogenous compounds present in isooctane extracts of papaya fractions detected via gas chromatography (GC/ITD) using electron ionization (EI) were: carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, 2-methylthiophene, 3-methylthiophene, 2-ethylthiophene, 3-ethylthiophene, benzylisothiocyanate, benzylthiocyanate and benzonitrile. Control samples were obtained from papaya plantations cultivated in experimental areas, in which no treatment with fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group was applied. Endogenous CS2 levels were compared with true dithiocarbamate residues measured in papaya samples from the field trials following applications of the mancozeb fungicide. Three days after application, true dithiocarbamate residues, measured by the procedure with isooctane partitioning and GC-ITD, were at the average level of 2 mg kg(-1). PMID:26041166

  12. Chemical shifts in transition metal dithiocarbamates from infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, R.; Magee, R. J.; Liesegang, J.

    1982-11-01

    Measurements of the IR stretching frequencies of the NC and MS bonds in transition-metal (M) dithiocarbamates show significant correlation with measurement of core level XPS chemical shifts. This is believed to be the first demonstration of such a correlation for a series of solid-phase compounds.

  13. Identification of Metal Dithiocarbamates as a Novel Class of Antileishmanial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dhiman Sankar; Mondal, Dipon Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates have emerged as potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors in recent years. Given that CAs are important players in cellular metabolism, the objective of this work was to exploit the CA-inhibitory property of dithiocarbamates as a chemotherapeutic weapon against the Leishmania parasite. We report here strong antileishmanial activity of three hitherto unexplored metal dithiocarbamates, maneb, zineb, and propineb. They inhibited CA activity in Leishmania major promastigotes at submicromolar concentrations and resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of parasite growth. Treatment with maneb, zineb, and propineb caused morphological deformities of the parasite and Leishmania cell death with 50% lethal dose (LD50) values of 0.56 μM, 0.61 μM, and 0.27 μM, respectively. These compounds were even more effective against parasites growing in acidic medium, in which their LD50 values were severalfold lower. Intracellular acidosis leading to apoptotic and necrotic death of L. major promastigotes was found to be the basis of their leishmanicidal activity. Maneb, zineb, and propineb also efficiently reduced the intracellular parasite burden, suggesting that amastigote forms of the parasite are also susceptible to these metal dithiocarbamates. Interestingly, mammalian cells were unaffected by these compounds even at concentrations which are severalfold higher than their antileishmanial LD50s). Our data thus establish maneb, zineb, and propineb as a new class of antileishmanial compounds having broad therapeutic indices. PMID:25624329

  14. Identification of metal dithiocarbamates as a novel class of antileishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dhiman Sankar; Mondal, Dipon Kumar; Datta, Rupak

    2015-04-01

    Dithiocarbamates have emerged as potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors in recent years. Given that CAs are important players in cellular metabolism, the objective of this work was to exploit the CA-inhibitory property of dithiocarbamates as a chemotherapeutic weapon against the Leishmania parasite. We report here strong antileishmanial activity of three hitherto unexplored metal dithiocarbamates, maneb, zineb, and propineb. They inhibited CA activity in Leishmania major promastigotes at submicromolar concentrations and resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of parasite growth. Treatment with maneb, zineb, and propineb caused morphological deformities of the parasite and Leishmania cell death with 50% lethal dose (LD50) values of 0.56 μM, 0.61 μM, and 0.27 μM, respectively. These compounds were even more effective against parasites growing in acidic medium, in which their LD50 values were severalfold lower. Intracellular acidosis leading to apoptotic and necrotic death of L. major promastigotes was found to be the basis of their leishmanicidal activity. Maneb, zineb, and propineb also efficiently reduced the intracellular parasite burden, suggesting that amastigote forms of the parasite are also susceptible to these metal dithiocarbamates. Interestingly, mammalian cells were unaffected by these compounds even at concentrations which are severalfold higher than their antileishmanial LD50s). Our data thus establish maneb, zineb, and propineb as a new class of antileishmanial compounds having broad therapeutic indices. PMID:25624329

  15. One-pot synthesis of S-alkyl dithiocarbamates via the reaction of N-tosylhydrazones, carbon disulfide and amines.

    PubMed

    Sha, Qiang; Wei, Yun-Yang

    2013-09-14

    A new, convenient and efficient transition metal-free synthesis of S-alkyl dithiocarbamates through one-pot reaction of N-tosylhydrazones, carbon disulfide and amines is reported. Tosylhydrazones derived from various aromatic and aliphatic ketones or aldehydes were tested and gave dithiocarbamates in good to excellent yields. The tosylhydrazones can be generated in situ without isolation, which provides a simpler one-pot method to synthesize dithiocarbamates via the reaction of carbonyl compounds, carbon disulfide and amines in the presence of 4-methylbenzenesulfonohydrazide. PMID:23863979

  16. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone: A potent, selective, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ammirati, Mark J.; Andrews, Kim M.; Boyer, David D.; Brodeur, Anne M.; Danley, Dennis E.; Doran, Shawn D.; Hulin, Bernard; Liu, Shenping; McPherson, R. Kirk; Orena, Stephen J.; Parker, Janice C.; Polivkova, Jana; Qiu, Xiayang; Soglia, Carolyn B.; Treadway, Judith L.; VanVolkenburg, Maria A.; Wilder, Donald C.; Piotrowski, David W.; Pfizer

    2010-10-01

    A series of 4-substituted proline amides was synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl pepdidase IV for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone (5) emerged as a potent (IC{sub 50} = 13 nM) and selective compound, with high oral bioavailability in preclinical species and low plasma protein binding. Compound 5, PF-00734200, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  17. Pyrrolidinone and pyrrolidine derivatives: Evaluation as inhibitors of InhA and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Matviiuk, Tetiana; Madacki, Jan; Mori, Giorgia; Orena, Beatrice Silvia; Menendez, Christophe; Kysil, Andrii; André-Barrès, Christiane; Rodriguez, Frédéric; Korduláková, Jana; Mallet-Ladeira, Sonia; Voitenko, Zoia; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Lherbet, Christian; Baltas, Michel

    2016-11-10

    A series of GEQ analogues bearing pyrrolidinone or pyrrolidine cores were synthesized and evaluated against InhA, essential target for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) survival. The compounds were also evaluated against M.tb H37Rv growth. Interestingly, some of the compounds, not efficient as InhA inhibitors, are active against M.tb with MICs up to 1.4 μM. In particular, compound 4b was screened with different M.tb mutated strains in order to identify the cellular target, but without success, suggesting a new possible mode of action.

  18. Substituted pyrrolidin-2-ones: Centrally acting orexin receptor antagonists promoting sleep. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Sifferlen, Thierry; Boller, Amandine; Chardonneau, Audrey; Cottreel, Emmanuelle; Gatfield, John; Treiber, Alexander; Roch, Catherine; Jenck, Francois; Aissaoui, Hamed; Williams, Jodi T; Brotschi, Christine; Heidmann, Bibia; Siegrist, Romain; Boss, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    Starting from advanced pyrrolidin-2-one lead compounds, this novel series of small-molecule orexin receptor antagonists was further optimized by fine-tuning of the C-3 substitution at the γ-lactam ring. We discuss our design to align in vitro potency with metabolic stability and improved physicochemical/pharmacokinetic properties while avoiding P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. These investigations led to the identification of the orally active 3-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one 46, a potent and selective orexin-2 receptor antagonist, that achieved good brain exposure and promoted physiological sleep in rats.

  19. Addition of organometallic reagents to chiral N-methoxylactams: enantioselective syntheses of pyrrolidines and piperidines.

    PubMed

    Jäkel, Mascha; Qu, Jianping; Schnitzer, Tobias; Helmchen, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylic substitutions were used to prepare N-allyl hydroxamic acid derivatives that were suitable for ring-closing metathesis, giving N-methoxylactams. Reactions of these derivatives with Grignard or organolithium compounds gave hemiaminals, which could be reduced diastereoselectively via acyliminium intermediates to give cis-piperidines or cis-pyrrolidines with substituents in the 2,6- or 2,5-positions, respectively. In addition, compounds with a quaternary carbon center could be synthesized by corresponding reactions with potassium cyanide/AcOH. The procedures were applied in the syntheses of alkaloids (-)-209D and (+)-prosophylline. PMID:24151151

  20. Pyrrolidinone and pyrrolidine derivatives: Evaluation as inhibitors of InhA and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Matviiuk, Tetiana; Madacki, Jan; Mori, Giorgia; Orena, Beatrice Silvia; Menendez, Christophe; Kysil, Andrii; André-Barrès, Christiane; Rodriguez, Frédéric; Korduláková, Jana; Mallet-Ladeira, Sonia; Voitenko, Zoia; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Lherbet, Christian; Baltas, Michel

    2016-11-10

    A series of GEQ analogues bearing pyrrolidinone or pyrrolidine cores were synthesized and evaluated against InhA, essential target for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) survival. The compounds were also evaluated against M.tb H37Rv growth. Interestingly, some of the compounds, not efficient as InhA inhibitors, are active against M.tb with MICs up to 1.4 μM. In particular, compound 4b was screened with different M.tb mutated strains in order to identify the cellular target, but without success, suggesting a new possible mode of action. PMID:27490025

  1. Divergent Synthesis of Multisubstituted Tetrahydrofurans and Pyrrolidines via Intramolecular Aldol-type Trapping of Onium Ylide Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jing, Changcheng; Xing, Dong; Gao, Lixin; Li, Jia; Hu, Wenhao

    2015-12-21

    This paper reports a divergent strategy for the synthesis of multisubstituted tetrahydrofurans and pyrrolidines, starting from easily accessible β-hydroxyketones or β-aminoketones to react with diazo compounds. Under Rh(II) catalysis, this transformation is proposed to proceed through a metal-carbene-induced oxonium ylide or ammonium ylide formation followed by an intramolecular aldol-type trapping of these active intermediates. A series of highly substituted tetrahydrofurans and pyrrolidines are synthesized in high yields with good to excellent diastereoselectivities. Preliminary biological evaluations revealed that both types of heterocycles show good PTP1B inhibitory activities. PMID:26592374

  2. Substituted 2H-isoquinolin-1-ones as potent Rho-kinase inhibitors: part 3, aryl substituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Bosanac, Todd; Hickey, Eugene R; Ginn, John; Kashem, Mohammed; Kerr, Steven; Kugler, Stanley; Li, Xiang; Olague, Alan; Schlyer, Sabine; Young, Erick R R

    2010-06-15

    The discovery and SAR of a series of beta-aryl substituted pyrrolidine 2H-isoquinolin-1-one inhibitors of Rho-kinase (ROCK) derived from 2 is herein described. SAR studies have shown that aryl groups in the beta-position are optimal for potency. Our efforts focused on improving the ROCK potency of this isoquinolone class of inhibitors which led to the identification of pyrrolidine 32 which demonstrated a 10-fold improvement in aortic ring (AR) potency over 2. PMID:20471253

  3. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory of arsenic dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Courtney M; Pacheco, Juan S Lezama; Keith, Jason M; Daly, Scott R

    2014-06-28

    S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations were performed on a series of As[S2CNR2]3 complexes, where R2 = Et2, (CH2)5 and Ph2, to determine how dithiocarbamate substituents attached to N affect As[S2CNR2]3 electronic structure. Complimentary [PPh4][S2CNR2] salts were also studied to compare dithiocarbamate bonding in the absence of As. The XAS results indicate that changing the orientation of the alkyl substituents from trans to cis (R2 = Et2vs. (CH2)5) yields subtle variations whereas differences associated with a change from alkyl to aryl are much more pronounced. For example, despite the differences in As 4p mixing, the first features in the S K-edge XAS spectra of [PPh4][S2CNPh2] and As[S2CNPh2]3 were both shifted by 0.3 eV compared to their alkyl-substituted derivatives. DFT calculations revealed that the unique shift observed for [PPh4][S2CNPh2] is due to phenyl-induced splitting of the π* orbitals delocalized over N, C and S. A similar phenomenon accounts for the shift observed for As[S2CNPh2]3, but the presence of two unique S environments (As-S and As···S) prevented reliable analysis of As-S covalency from the XAS data. In the absence of experimental values, DFT calculations revealed a decrease in As-S orbital mixing in As[S2CNPh2]3 that stems from a redistribution of electron density to S atoms participating in weaker As···S interactions. Simulated spectra obtained from TDDFT calculations reproduce the experimental differences in the S K-edge XAS data, which suggests that the theory is accurately modeling the experimental differences in As-S orbital mixing. The results highlight how S K-edge XAS and DFT can be used cooperatively to understand the electronic structure of low symmetry coordination complexes containing S atoms in different chemical environments. PMID:24811926

  4. A simple biphasic route to water soluble dithiocarbamate functionalized quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Xu, J.; Goodman, M.; Chen, Y.; Cai, M.; Shinar, J.; Lin, Z.

    2008-06-11

    Hydrophobic trioctylphosphine oxide-functionalized CdSe quantum dots (CdSe-TOPO QDs) were transferred from organic solvent to aqueous solution via a simple yet novel biphasic ligand exchange process in one step, which involved the in-situ formation of hydrophilic dithiocarbamate moieties and subsequent ligand exchange with TOPO at the chloroform/water interface. The resulting water dispersible, dithiocarbamate functionalized CdSe QDs (i.e., D-CdSe) exhibited an increased photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield as compared to the original CdSe-TOPO QDs, suggesting an effective passivation of dithiocarbamate ligands on the QD surface. The D-CdSe QDs were then mixed with hydroxyl terminated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. A decrease in the PL of the mixture was observed, indicating a possible charge transfer from the D-CdSe QDs to the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The reaction of the carboxyl group on the D-CdSe surface with the hydroxyl group on the TiO{sub 2} rendered QDs in direct contact with TiO{sub 2}, thereby facilitating the electronic interaction between them.

  5. Phase control during the synthesis of nickel sulfide nanoparticles from dithiocarbamate precursors.

    PubMed

    Roffey, Anna; Hollingsworth, Nathan; Islam, Husn-Ubayda; Mercy, Maxime; Sankar, Gopinathan; Catlow, C Richard A; Hogarth, Graeme; de Leeuw, Nora H

    2016-06-01

    Square-planar nickel bis(dithiocarbamate) complexes, [Ni(S2CNR2)2], have been prepared and utilised as single source precursors to nanoparticulate nickel sulfides. While they are stable in the solid-state to around 300 °C, heating in oleylamine at 230 °C, 5 mM solutions afford pure α-NiS, where the outcome is independent of the substituents. DFT calculations show an electronic effect rather than steric hindrance influences the resulting particle size. Decomposition of the iso-butyl derivative, [Ni(S2CN(i)Bu2)2], has been studied in detail. There is a temperature-dependence of the phase of the nickel sulfide formed. At low temperatures (150 °C), pure α-NiS is formed. Upon raising the temperature, increasing amounts of β-NiS are produced and at 280 °C this is formed in pure form. A range of concentrations (from 5-50 mM) was also investigated at 180 °C and while in all cases pure α-NiS was formed, particle sizes varied significantly. Thus at low concentrations average particle sizes were ca. 100 nm, but at higher concentrations they increased to ca. 150 nm. The addition of two equivalents of tetra-iso-butyl thiuram disulfide, ((i)Bu2NCS2)2, to the decomposition mixture was found to influence the material formed. At 230 °C and above, α-NiS was generated, in contrast to the results found without added thiuram disulfide, suggesting that addition of ((i)Bu2NCS2)2 stabilises the metastable α-NiS phase. At low temperatures (150-180 °C) and concentrations (5 mM), mixtures of α-NiS and Ni3S4, result. A growing proportion of Ni3S4 is noted upon increasing precursor concentration to 10 mM. At 20 mM a metastable phase of nickel sulfide, NiS2 is formed and as the concentration is increased, α-NiS appears alongside NiS2. Reasons for these variations are discussed. PMID:27173962

  6. 2-Aryl(pyrrolidin-4-yl)acetic acids are potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Budhu, Richard; Huo, Pei; Lynch, Christopher L; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2006-07-01

    A series of 2-aryl(pyrrolidin-4-yl)acetic acids were synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated as agonists of S1P receptors. These analogs were able to induce lowering of lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of mice and were found to have good overall pharmacokinetic properties in rat.

  7. 2,5-Disubstituted pyrrolidine carboxylates as potent, orally active sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Colandrea, Vincent J; Legiec, Irene E; Huo, Pei; Yan, Lin; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Chebret, Gary; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Shei, Gan-Ju; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2006-06-01

    A series of 2,5-cis-disubstituted pyrrolidines were synthesized and evaluated as S1P receptor agonists. Compounds 15-21 were identified with good selectivity over S1P3 which lowered circulating lymphocytes after oral administration in mice.

  8. Removal of mercury (II) by dithiocarbamate surface functionalized magnetite particles: application to synthetic and natural spiked waters.

    PubMed

    Figueira, P; Lopes, C B; Daniel-da-Silva, A L; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Trindade, T

    2011-11-01

    In order to take advantage of the high affinity between mercury and sulphur, magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) particles functionalized with dithiocarbamate groups (CS(2)(-)), were synthesized to be used as a new type of sorbent to remove Hg (II) from synthetic and natural spiked waters. The effectiveness of this type of sorbent was studied, and its potential as cleanup agent for contaminated waters was assessed. Batch stirred tank experiments were carried out by contacting a volume of solution with known amounts of functionalized Fe(3)O(4) particles, in order to study the effect of sorbent dose, salinity, and the kinetics and the equilibrium of this unit operation. A complete Hg (II) removal (ca. 99.8%) was attained with 6 mg/L of magnetic particles for an initial metal concentration of 50 μg/L. It was confirmed that highly complex matrices, such as seawater (ca. 99%) and river water (ca. 97%), do not affect the removal capacity of the functionalized magnetic particles. Concerning isotherms, no significant differences were observed between two- and three-parameter models (P = 0.05%); however, Sips isotherm provided the lowest values of SS and S(x/y), predicting a maximum sorption capacity of 206 mg/g, in the range of experimental conditions under study. The solid loadings measured in this essay surmount the majority of the values found in literature for other type of sorbents.

  9. Design, synthesis and SAR studies of GABA uptake inhibitors derived from 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Steffan, Tobias; Renukappa-Gutke, Thejavathi; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we disclose the design and synthesis of a series of 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid as core structures and the N-arylalkyl derivatives thereof as potential GABA transport inhibitors. The 2-position in the side chain of pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives was substituted with alkyl, hydroxy and amino groups to modulate the activity and selectivity to mGAT1 and mGAT4 proteins. SAR studies of the compounds performed for the four mouse GABA transporter proteins (mGAT1-mGAT4) implied significant potencies and subtype selectivities for 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives. The racemate rac-(u)-13c exhibited the highest potency (pIC50 5.67) at and selectivity for mGAT1 in GABA uptake assays. In fact, the potency of rac-(u)-13c at hGAT-1 (pIC50 6.14) was even higher than its potency at mGAT1. These uptake results for rac-(u)-13c are in line with the binding affinities to the aforesaid proteins mGAT1 (pKi 6.99) and hGAT-1 (pKi 7.18) determined by MS Binding Assay based on NO711 as marker quantified by LC-ESI-MS-MS analysis. Interestingly, the 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid rac-(u)-13d containing 2-{[tris(4-methoxyphenyl)]methoxy} ethyl group at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrolidine ring showed high potency at mGAT4 and a comparatively better selectivity for this protein (>15 against mGAT3) than the well known mGAT4 uptake inhibitor (S)-SNAP-5114.

  10. Bis(dialkyl)dithiocarbamato cobalt(III) complexes of bidentate nitrogen mustards: synthesis, reduction chemistry and biological evaluation as hypoxia-selective cytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Ware, D C; Palmer, H R; Pruijn, F B; Anderson, R F; Brothers, P J; Denny, W A; Wilson, W R

    1998-03-01

    Cobalt(III) complexes [Co(R2dtc)2(L)]+ containing two dithiocarbamate ligands (R = Me, Et, pyrrolidine) and a bidentate nitrogen mustard ligand (L) have been prepared as potential hypoxia-selective cytotoxins. The complexes were synthesized by treatment of the binuclear precursor [Co2(R2dtc)5]+ with the diamine mustards N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylenediamine (BCE) and N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylenediamine (DCE), or their non-alkylating analogues [N,N-diethylethylenediamine (DEE) and N,N'-diethylethylenediamine (BEE)]. Cyclic voltammetry of the complexes in MeCN reveals quasi-reversible behaviour for the Co(III)/Co(II) couple, with E1/2 increasing in the order DCE < DEE approximately BCE < BEE. In MeCN/H2O electrochemical reduction is irreversible, indicating rapid substitution of H2O into the coordination sphere of the Co(II) intermediate. This fast ligand loss was confirmed by pulse radiolysis of [Co(Me2dtc)2(DEE)]+, while steady-state radiolysis showed that the initial intermediate disproportionates to [CoII(H2O)6]2+ + 2[CoII(Me2dtc)3]. The latter species reduces additional parent complex to give an overall stoichiometry of 3 mol parent complex/mol reductant. [Co(Me2dtc)2(DCE)]+ decays rapidly by an analogous mechanism in hypoxic culture medium. This reaction is not inhibited by O2, indicating that reoxidation of the Co(II) intermediate by O2 is not rapid enough to compete with ligand dissociation. The resulting free R2dtc-ligands, rather than the released mustards, are primarily responsible for growth inhibition by [Co(R2dtc)2(L)]+ complexes, although DCE release does contribute to clonogenic cell killing. Clonogenic cell killing is not appreciably enhanced under hypoxic conditions for any of the dithiocarbamato complexes. This finding, coupled with their instability in culture medium, suggests that [Co(R2dtc)2(L)]+ complexes are probably not suited for further development as bioreductive anticancer drugs.

  11. Bis(dialkyl)dithiocarbamato cobalt(III) complexes of bidentate nitrogen mustards: synthesis, reduction chemistry and biological evaluation as hypoxia-selective cytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Ware, D C; Palmer, H R; Pruijn, F B; Anderson, R F; Brothers, P J; Denny, W A; Wilson, W R

    1998-03-01

    Cobalt(III) complexes [Co(R2dtc)2(L)]+ containing two dithiocarbamate ligands (R = Me, Et, pyrrolidine) and a bidentate nitrogen mustard ligand (L) have been prepared as potential hypoxia-selective cytotoxins. The complexes were synthesized by treatment of the binuclear precursor [Co2(R2dtc)5]+ with the diamine mustards N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylenediamine (BCE) and N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylenediamine (DCE), or their non-alkylating analogues [N,N-diethylethylenediamine (DEE) and N,N'-diethylethylenediamine (BEE)]. Cyclic voltammetry of the complexes in MeCN reveals quasi-reversible behaviour for the Co(III)/Co(II) couple, with E1/2 increasing in the order DCE < DEE approximately BCE < BEE. In MeCN/H2O electrochemical reduction is irreversible, indicating rapid substitution of H2O into the coordination sphere of the Co(II) intermediate. This fast ligand loss was confirmed by pulse radiolysis of [Co(Me2dtc)2(DEE)]+, while steady-state radiolysis showed that the initial intermediate disproportionates to [CoII(H2O)6]2+ + 2[CoII(Me2dtc)3]. The latter species reduces additional parent complex to give an overall stoichiometry of 3 mol parent complex/mol reductant. [Co(Me2dtc)2(DCE)]+ decays rapidly by an analogous mechanism in hypoxic culture medium. This reaction is not inhibited by O2, indicating that reoxidation of the Co(II) intermediate by O2 is not rapid enough to compete with ligand dissociation. The resulting free R2dtc-ligands, rather than the released mustards, are primarily responsible for growth inhibition by [Co(R2dtc)2(L)]+ complexes, although DCE release does contribute to clonogenic cell killing. Clonogenic cell killing is not appreciably enhanced under hypoxic conditions for any of the dithiocarbamato complexes. This finding, coupled with their instability in culture medium, suggests that [Co(R2dtc)2(L)]+ complexes are probably not suited for further development as bioreductive anticancer drugs. PMID:9524553

  12. Speciation of AsIII and AsV in fruit juices by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new procedure was developed to speciate and quantify As(III) and As(V) in fruit juices. At pH 3.0, As(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) formed a complex, which was extracted into carbon tetrachloride by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) and subsequently quantified...

  13. Phase control during the synthesis of nickel sulfide nanoparticles from dithiocarbamate precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roffey, Anna; Hollingsworth, Nathan; Islam, Husn-Ubayda; Mercy, Maxime; Sankar, Gopinathan; Catlow, C. Richard A.; Hogarth, Graeme; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2016-05-01

    Square-planar nickel bis(dithiocarbamate) complexes, [Ni(S2CNR2)2], have been prepared and utilised as single source precursors to nanoparticulate nickel sulfides. While they are stable in the solid-state to around 300 °C, heating in oleylamine at 230 °C, 5 mM solutions afford pure α-NiS, where the outcome is independent of the substituents. DFT calculations show an electronic effect rather than steric hindrance influences the resulting particle size. Decomposition of the iso-butyl derivative, [Ni(S2CNiBu2)2], has been studied in detail. There is a temperature-dependence of the phase of the nickel sulfide formed. At low temperatures (150 °C), pure α-NiS is formed. Upon raising the temperature, increasing amounts of β-NiS are produced and at 280 °C this is formed in pure form. A range of concentrations (from 5-50 mM) was also investigated at 180 °C and while in all cases pure α-NiS was formed, particle sizes varied significantly. Thus at low concentrations average particle sizes were ca. 100 nm, but at higher concentrations they increased to ca. 150 nm. The addition of two equivalents of tetra-iso-butyl thiuram disulfide, (iBu2NCS2)2, to the decomposition mixture was found to influence the material formed. At 230 °C and above, α-NiS was generated, in contrast to the results found without added thiuram disulfide, suggesting that addition of (iBu2NCS2)2 stabilises the metastable α-NiS phase. At low temperatures (150-180 °C) and concentrations (5 mM), mixtures of α-NiS and Ni3S4, result. A growing proportion of Ni3S4 is noted upon increasing precursor concentration to 10 mM. At 20 mM a metastable phase of nickel sulfide, NiS2 is formed and as the concentration is increased, α-NiS appears alongside NiS2. Reasons for these variations are discussed.Square-planar nickel bis(dithiocarbamate) complexes, [Ni(S2CNR2)2], have been prepared and utilised as single source precursors to nanoparticulate nickel sulfides. While they are stable in the solid-state to

  14. Highly efficient construction of spirocyclic chromanone-pyrrolidines via Cu(I)/TF-BiphamPhos-catalyzed asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tang-Lin; He, Zhao-Lin; Wang, Chun-Jiang

    2011-09-14

    A facile synthesis of highly functional spiro-[4-chromanone-3,3'-pyrrolidine] bearing one unique spiro quarternary and three tertiary stereogenic centers is developed in excellent stereoselectivity for the first time. PMID:21799997

  15. Dithiocarbamates are strong inhibitors of the beta-class fungal carbonic anhydrases from Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Monti, Simona Maria; Maresca, Alfonso; Viparelli, Francesca; Carta, Fabrizio; De Simone, Giuseppina; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-01-15

    A series of N-mono- and N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates have been investigated as inhibitors of three β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, that is, Can2, CaNce103 and CgNce103, respectively. These enzymes were inhibited with efficacies between the subnanomolar to the micromolar range, depending on the substitution pattern at the nitrogen atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding group. This new class of β-CA inhibitors may have the potential for developing antifungal agents with a diverse mechanism of action compared to the clinically used drugs for which drug resistance was reported, and may also explain the efficacy of dithiocarbamates as agricultural antifungal agents. PMID:22209456

  16. Mild conditions for Pd-catalyzed carboamination of N-protected hex-4-enylamines and 1-, 3-, and 4-substituted pent-4-enylamines. Scope, limitations, and mechanism of pyrrolidine formation.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Myra Beaudoin; Neukom, Joshua D; Wolfe, John P

    2008-11-21

    The use of the weak base Cs2CO3 in Pd-catalyzed carboamination reactions of N-protected gamma-aminoalkenes with aryl bromides leads to greatly increased tolerance of functional groups and alkene substitution. Substrates derived from (E)- or (Z)-hex-4-enylamines are stereospecifically converted to 2,1'-disubstituted pyrrolidine products that result from suprafacial addition of the nitrogen atom and the aryl group across the alkene. Transformations of 4-substituted pent-4-enylamine derivatives proceed in high yield to afford 2,2-disubstituted products, and cis-2,5- or trans-2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidines are generated in good yield with excellent diastereoselectivity from N-protected pent-4-enylamines bearing substituents at C1 or C3. The reactions tolerate a broad array of functional groups, including esters, nitro groups, and enolizable ketones. The scope and limitations of these transformations are described in detail, along with models that account for the observed product stereochemistry. In addition, deuterium labeling experiments, which indicate these reactions proceed via syn-aminopalladation of intermediate palladium(aryl)(amido)complexes regardless of degree of alkene substitution or reaction conditions, are also discussed. PMID:18942792

  17. N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate and N-p-isopropylbenzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate improve the protective effect of diethyldithiocarbamate against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kojima, S; Sugimura, Y; Ono, H; Shimada, H; Funakoshi, T

    1993-03-01

    The protective effects of combined treatment with diethyldithiocarbamate (DED) plus N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (BGD) or DED plus N-p-isopropylbenzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (PBGD) against the testicular toxicity caused by acute exposure to cadmium (Cd) in rats were studied. Rats were injected subcutaneously with 109CdCl2 (3 mg Cd and 74 kBq of 109Cd/kg) and 30 min later, they were injected intraperitoneally with the chelating agents (1 mmol/kg each). Cd injection increased lipid peroxidation and concentrations of hemoglobin, Ca and Fe in the testes, decreased the testicular weight and nonprotein SH (NP-SH), and caused sterility. The coadministration of DED with BGD or PBGD significantly prevented the increase in the lipid peroxidation, hemoglobin, Ca and Fe in the testes, the decrease in the testicular weight and NP-SH, and the sterility caused by Cd injection. DED plus BGD or DED plus PBGD significantly decreased the Cd concentration in the testes without the redistribution of Cd to the brain and kidney, which is observed following treatment with DED alone. The coadministration of DED plus BGD or DED plus PBGD significantly increased the blood Cd concentration and the Cd distribution in the red blood cells compared to Cd alone. These results indicate that the coadministration of BGD or PBGD with DED prevents the accumulation of Cd in the testes on the basis of greater blood distribution of Cd, which results from the uptake of Cd by the red blood cells, without the redistribution of Cd to the brain, resulting in an improvement of the protective effect of DED against the Cd-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:8395932

  18. Enantioselective nitrile anion cyclization to substituted pyrrolidines. A highly efficient synthesis of (3S,4R)-N-tert-butyl-4-arylpyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chung, John Y L; Cvetovich, Raymond; Amato, Joseph; McWilliams, J Christopher; Reamer, Robert; DiMichele, Lisa

    2005-04-29

    [reaction: see text] A practical asymmetric synthesis of N-tert-butyl disubstituted pyrrolidines via a nitrile anion cyclization strategy is described. The five-step chromatography-free synthesis of (3S,4R)-1-tert-butyl-4-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid (2) from 2-chloro-1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-ethanone achieved a 71% overall yield. The cyclization substrate was prepared via a catalytic CBS asymmetric reduction, t-butylamine displacement of the chlorohydrin, and a conjugate addition of the hindered secondary amine to acrylonitrile. The key nitrile anion 5-exo-tet cyclization concomitantly formed the pyrrolidine ring with clean inversion of the C-4 center to afford 1,3,4-trisubstituted chiral pyrrolidine in >95% yield and 94-99% ee. Diethyl chlorophosphate and lithium hexamethyldisilazide were shown to be the respective optimum activating group and base in this cyclization. The trans-cis mixture of the pyrrolidine nitrile undergoes a kinetically controlled epimerization/ saponification to afford the pure trans-pyrrolidine carboxylic acid target compound in >99.9% chemical and optical purity. This chemistry was also shown to be applicable to both electronically neutral and rich substituted phenyl substrates.

  19. Chiral diamines 4: a computational study of the enantioselective deprotonation of Boc-pyrrolidine with an alkyllithium in the presence of a chiral diamine.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, K B; Bailey, W F

    2001-08-29

    The enantioselective deprotonation of N-Boc-pyrrolidine (1) with i-PrLi-(-)-sparteine has been studied at theoretical levels up through B3P86/6-31G. Four low-energy intermediate complexes involving i-PrLi-(-)-sparteine and 1 were located via geometry optimizations; two of these complexes would lead to abstraction of the pro-S hydrogen from 1, and the other two complexes would lead to loss of the pro-R hydrogen. The lowest-energy intermediate complex was found to lead to loss of the pro-S hydrogen as observed experimentally. Transition states for the deprotonations were located using the synchronous transit-guided quasi-Newton method. The calculated activation enthalpy for transfer of the pro-S hydrogen within the lowest-energy intermediate complex, 10.8 kcal/mol, is reasonable for a reaction that occurs at a relatively low temperature, and the calculated kinetic hydrogen isotope effect is in agreement with experimental data. The lower enantioselectivity observed experimentally for deprotonation of 1 using t-BuLi-(-)-sparteine is attributed to a transition-state effect due to increased steric interaction engendered by the bulky t-BuLi. Replacement of the tert-butoxycarbonyl group in 1 by a methoxycarbonyl is predicted to result in a slower deprotonation with somewhat decreased enantioselectivity. Asymmetric deprotonation of 1 using i-PrLi in combination with the C(2)-symmetric diamine, (S,S)-1,2-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)cyclohexane, was calculated to be much less selective than is the deprotonation mediated by (-)-sparteine as observed experimentally. The relative energies of the intermediate complexes were fairly well-reproduced by ONIUM calculations in which the sparteine ligand less its nitrogen atoms was treated by molecular mechanics and the remainder of the complex was treated by quantum mechanics. PMID:11516274

  20. Solute-Solvent Interactions and High Spin ⇌ Low Spin Transitions in Ferric Dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, P.

    1985-01-01

    The HS ⇌ LS transition in ferric dithiocarbamates in a number of solvents has been investigated using NMR and is interpreted in terms of preferential solvation or second co-ordination sphere reorganisation effects. These studies clearly demonstrate that neglect of pseudo contact shifts can lead to erroneous conclusions about the spin delocalisation mechanisms. The spin derealization in these systems is by direct σ-delocalization along the alkyl chain. The As values of 2T2 and 6A1 states have the same sign.

  1. Dithiocarbamates: a new class of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Crystallographic and kinetic investigations.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Aggarwal, Mayank; Maresca, Alfonso; Scozzafava, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-02-11

    The zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) is inhibited by several classes of zinc-binders (sulfonamides, sulfamates, and sulfamides) as well as by compounds which do not interact with the metal ion (phenols, polyamines and coumarins). Here we report a new class of potent CA inhibitors which bind the zinc ion: the dithiocarbamates (DTCs). They coordinate to the zinc ion from the enzyme active site in monodentate manner and establish many favorable interactions with amino acid residues nearby. Several low nanomolar CA I, II and IX inhibitors were detected. PMID:22218610

  2. Allenyl azide cycloaddition chemistry. synthesis of pyrrolidine-containing bicycles and tricycles via the possible intermediacy of azatrimethylenemethane species.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ken S; Iyer, Malliga R

    2005-04-01

    Thermolysis of 5-azidoallenes bearing a C(1) methyl group and either an aryl ring or an alkene on C(1) furnishes tricyclic (from the aryl substrates) or bicyclic (from the alkenyl substrates) pyrrolidine products following formal H-CN addition across an intermediate imine. High levels of diastereoselectivity are observed in all cases studied. This reaction cascade presumably passes through unobserved triazoline and azatrimethylenemethane diyl intermediates en route to product.

  3. Feasible Management of Southern Corn Leaf Blight via Induction of Systemic Resistance by Bacillus cereus C1L in Combination with Reduced Use of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yi-Ru; Lin, Pei-Yu; Chen, Chao-Ying; Huang, Chien-Jui

    2016-01-01

    Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes. Southern corn leaf blight was the model pathosystem for the investigation. When corn plants were drench-treated with Bacillus cereus C1L, a rhizobacterium able to induce systemic resistance in corn plants against southern leaf blight, frequency of spraying dithiocarbamate fungicides could be decreased. The treatment of B. cereus C1L was able to protect maize from southern leaf blight while residues of dithiocarbamates on leaf surface were too low to provide sufficient protection. On the other hand, frequent sprays of mancozeb slightly but significantly reduced growth of corn plants under natural conditions. In contrast, application of B. cereus C1L can significantly promote growth of corn plants whether sprayed with mancozeb or not. Our results provide the information that plant disease can be well controlled by rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in combination with reduced but appropriate application of dithiocarbamate fungicides just before a heavy infection period. An appropriate use of rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth and help plants overcome negative effects caused by dithiocarbamates. PMID:27721698

  4. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs.

    PubMed

    El-Aarag, Bishoy Y A; Kasai, Tomonari; Zahran, Magdy A H; Zakhary, Nadia I; Shigehiro, Tsukasa; Sekhar, Sreeja C; Agwa, Hussein S; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kakuta, Hiroki; Seno, Masaharu

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer. The anti-angiogenicity of thalidomide has inspired a second wave of research on this teratogenic drug. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of two thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs by studying their anti-proliferative effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Their action on the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 was also assessed. Furthermore, their effect on angiogenesis was evaluated through wound healing, migration, tube formation, and nitric oxide (NO) assays. Results illustrated that the proliferation of HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells was not significantly affected by thalidomide at 6.25-100μM. Thalidomide failed to block angiogenesis at similar concentrations. By contrast, thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs exhibited significant anti-proliferative action on HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells without causing cytotoxicity and also showed powerful anti-angiogenicity in wound healing, migration, tube formation, and NO assays. Thalidomide analogs 1 and 2 demonstrated more potent activity to suppress expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 than thalidomide. Analog 1 consistently, showed the highest potency and efficacy in all the assays. Taken together, our results support further development and evaluation of novel thalidomide analogs as anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agents.

  5. Contact dermatitis to a rubber allergen with both dithiocarbamate and benzothiazole structure.

    PubMed

    Bergendorff, Ola; Hansson, Christer

    2007-05-01

    Contact dermatitis to rubber products are often caused by additives used during manufacture, and diagnosed from patch test with established rubber allergen series. In these series the compounds are divided into separate groups such as thiurams, dithiocarbamates and mercaptobenzothiazoles. The objectives were to investigate the substances with allergenic structures present in a diving mask giving rise to facial dermatitis, also those substances including structures from different groups of rubber chemicals. The rubber material was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography and diode-array detector. The patient was tested by epicutaneous tests using pure substances, extracts and authentic rubber material. 2-Benzothiazolyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamylsulfide, was found in the diving mask and the patient showed positive reaction to the pure compound and to extracts of the diving mask. This compound has structures of both mercaptobenzothiazole and thiuram/dithiocarbamate in its formulae. Besides the established groups of rubber accelerators, uncommon allergens with structures from more than one group can be formed or added at vulcanization. Chemical analysis of the product is needed to find these allergens. PMID:17441851

  6. Photostability of CdSe quantum dots functionalized with aromatic dithiocarbamate ligands.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yizheng; Jin, Song; Hamers, Robert J

    2013-12-26

    Organic ligands are widely used to enhance the ability of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to resist photodegradation processes such as photo-oxidation. Because long alkyl chains may adversely affect the performance of QD devices that require fast and efficient charge transfer, shorter aromatic ligands are of increasing interest. In this work, we characterize the formation of phenyl dithiocarbamate (DTC) adducts on CdSe surfaces and the relative effectiveness of different para-substituted phenyl dithiocarbamates to enhance the aqueous photostability of CdSe QDs on TiO2. Optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements show that phenyl DTC ligands can be highly effective at reducing QD photocorrosion in water, and that ligands bearing electron-donating substituents are the most effective. A comparison of the QD photostability resulting from use of ligands bearing DTC versus thiol surface-binding groups shows that the DTC group provides greater QD photostability. Density functional calculations with natural bond order analysis show that the effectiveness of substituted phenyl DTC results from the ability of these ligands to remove positive charge away from the CdSe and to delocalize positive charge on the ligand. PMID:24256318

  7. Masked thiol sugars: chemical behavior and synthetic applications of S-glycopyranosyl-N-monoalkyl dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Megia-Fernandez, Alicia; de la Torre-Gonzalez, Diego; Parada-Aliste, Jose; Lopez-Jaramillo, Francisco Javier; Hernandez-Mateo, Fernando; Santoyo-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2014-02-01

    The chemical behavior of S-glycopyranosyl-N-monoalkyl dithiocarbamates (DTCs) as masked 1-glycosyl thiols, easily prepared by the nucleophilic displacement of 1-halo sugars with dithiocarbamate salts of primary amines, has been studied and synthetically exploited. This behavior relies on the abstraction of the proton of the carbamate functionality that allows controlled access to thiolate sugar intermediates. The basic character of the DTC salts used as reagents leads to thiolates that evolve in situ to symmetrical diglycosyldisulfides (DGDSs) when long reaction times are allowed. Alternatively, controlled unmasking of the thiolate function can be efficiently attained by treatment with an external base of isolated anomeric glycosyl DTCs, the formation of which is prevalent when using short reaction times. In this manner, a second methodology for the preparation of symmetrical DGDSs and a chemical protocol for the S-glycosylation of any electrophilic substrate are established. The applications of this last strategy for the preparation of thioglycosyl vinyl sulfones, thiodisaccharides, and S-linked homo- and heterodivalent neoglycoconjugates are described as a proof-of-concept of the great potential of the sugar DTCs in any chemical scenario in which the covalent attachment of a thiol sugar is required. The evaluation of the biological functionality of some divalent sulfurated sugar systems is also described. PMID:24282075

  8. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs.

    PubMed

    El-Aarag, Bishoy Y A; Kasai, Tomonari; Zahran, Magdy A H; Zakhary, Nadia I; Shigehiro, Tsukasa; Sekhar, Sreeja C; Agwa, Hussein S; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kakuta, Hiroki; Seno, Masaharu

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer. The anti-angiogenicity of thalidomide has inspired a second wave of research on this teratogenic drug. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of two thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs by studying their anti-proliferative effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Their action on the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 was also assessed. Furthermore, their effect on angiogenesis was evaluated through wound healing, migration, tube formation, and nitric oxide (NO) assays. Results illustrated that the proliferation of HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells was not significantly affected by thalidomide at 6.25-100μM. Thalidomide failed to block angiogenesis at similar concentrations. By contrast, thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs exhibited significant anti-proliferative action on HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells without causing cytotoxicity and also showed powerful anti-angiogenicity in wound healing, migration, tube formation, and NO assays. Thalidomide analogs 1 and 2 demonstrated more potent activity to suppress expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 than thalidomide. Analog 1 consistently, showed the highest potency and efficacy in all the assays. Taken together, our results support further development and evaluation of novel thalidomide analogs as anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:24859059

  9. Design, synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation of new dithiocarbamates substituted benzimidazole and chalcones as possible chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Bacharaju, Keerthana; Jambula, Swathi Reddy; Sivan, Sreekanth; Jyostnatangeda, Saritha; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2012-05-01

    A series of novel dithiocarbamates with benzimidazole and chalcone scaffold have been designed synthesised and evaluated for their antimitotic activity. Compounds 4c and 9d display the most promising antimitotic activity with IC(50) of 1.66 μM and 1.52 μM respectively.

  10. Design, synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation of new dithiocarbamates substituted benzimidazole and chalcones as possible chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Bacharaju, Keerthana; Jambula, Swathi Reddy; Sivan, Sreekanth; Jyostnatangeda, Saritha; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2012-05-01

    A series of novel dithiocarbamates with benzimidazole and chalcone scaffold have been designed synthesised and evaluated for their antimitotic activity. Compounds 4c and 9d display the most promising antimitotic activity with IC(50) of 1.66 μM and 1.52 μM respectively. PMID:22460028

  11. Theoretical study on the asymmetric Michael addition of cyclohexanone with trans-beta-nitrostyrene catalyzed by a pyrrolidine-type chiral ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Dongju; Zhang, Changqiao; Liu, Chengbu

    2010-10-01

    The Michael addition of cyclohexanone with trans-beta-nitrostyrene catalyzed by a chiral ionic liquid (CIL) pyrrolidine-imidazolium bromide, which represents a prototype of CIL-promoted asymmetric syntheses, has been investigated by performing density functional theory calculations. We show the details of the mechanism and energetics, the influence of the acid additive on the reactivity, and the functional role of the CIL in the asymmetric addition. It is found that the reaction proceeds via two stages, i.e., the initial enamine formation, where the imine complex is first created and then isomerizes into the enamine intermediate, and the subsequent Michael addition involving a three-step mechanism. The calculations show that the presence of the acid additive changes the imine formation mechanism and lowers the reaction barrier, as well as, more importantly, makes the reaction become highly thermodynamically favored. It is also suggested that both the anion and cation of the CIL synergically facilitate the reaction, which act as the proton acceptor in the imine-enamine tautomerism and the stabilizer of the negative charge in the C-C bond formation process, respectively. The present theoretical study rationalizes the early experimental findings well and provides aid to some extent for the rational design of efficient CIL catalysts.

  12. Tunable diastereoselection of biased rigid systems by Lewis acid induced conformational effects: a rationalization of the vinylation of cyclic nitrones en route to polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Delso, Ignacio; Marca, Eduardo; Mannucci, Vanni; Tejero, Tomás; Goti, Andrea; Merino, Pedro

    2010-08-23

    The diastereofacial selection in addition reactions to biased rigid systems can be modulated by the action of Lewis acids. As an example, the stereoselectivity of the nucleophilic addition of vinyl magnesium bromide (VMB) to cyclic nitrones in the presence of diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC) shows a strong dependence on the temperature and the carbon substituent adjacent at the reaction center; it is remarkable that whereas a high selectivity is obtained at higher temperatures, in the presence of DEAC, a trend to invert the stereochemical course of the reaction is observed at lower temperatures, provided the substituent at C3 of the pyrrolidine ring allows delivery of the vinyl moiety. This behavior and difference in selectivity is to be attributed to the high conformational barriers of the intermediate nitrone-DEAC-VMB complex. A clear inversion of the selectivity is observed at -78 degrees C for the reaction of the nitrone protected as an O-methyl derivative. The present study provides a rationalization for the stereocontrolled addition of nucleophiles to rigid systems (cyclic nitrones).

  13. Biotransformation of Daclatasvir In Vitro and in Nonclinical Species: Formation of the Main Metabolite by Pyrrolidine δ-Oxidation and Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenying; Zhao, Weiping; Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Xiaohua; Lopez, Omar D; Leet, John E; Fancher, R Marcus; Nguyen, Van; Goodrich, Jason; Easter, John; Hong, Yang; Caceres-Cortes, Janet; Chang, Shu Y; Ma, Li; Belema, Makonen; Hamann, Lawrence G; Gao, Min; Zhu, Mingshe; Shu, Yue-Zhong; Humphreys, W Griffith; Johnson, Benjamin M

    2016-06-01

    Daclatasvir is a first-in-class, potent, and selective inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A replication complex. In support of nonclinical studies during discovery and exploratory development, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used in connection with synthetic and radiosynthetic approaches to investigate the biotransformation of daclatasvir in vitro and in cynomolgus monkeys, dogs, mice, and rats. The results of these studies indicated that disposition of daclatasvir was accomplished mainly by the release of unchanged daclatasvir into bile and feces and, secondarily, by oxidative metabolism. Cytochrome P450s were the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of daclatasvir. Oxidative pathways included δ-oxidation of the pyrrolidine moiety, resulting in ring opening to an aminoaldehyde intermediate followed by an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde and the proximal imidazole nitrogen atom. Despite robust formation of the resulting metabolite in multiple systems, rates of covalent binding to protein associated with metabolism of daclatasvir were modest (55.2-67.8 pmol/mg/h) in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form)-supplemented liver microsomes (human, monkey, rat), suggesting that intramolecular rearrangement was favored over intermolecular binding in the formation of this metabolite. This biotransformation profile supported the continued development of daclatasvir, which is now marketed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

  14. Effect of phenyl and benzyl group in heterocyclic dithiocarbamates on the ZnS 4N chromophore: Synthesis, spectral, valence-bond parameters and single crystal X-ray structural studies on (pyridine)bis(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolinedithiocarbamato)zinc(II) and (pyridine)bis(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinedithiocarbamato)zinc(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, N.; Thirumaran, S.; Ciattini, Samuele

    2009-03-01

    Two Zn(II)dithiocarbamates with ZnS 4N chromophores have been synthesized ([Zn(thqdtc) 2(py)] ( 1) and [Zn(thiqdtc) 2(py)] ( 2) (where thqdtc = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolinedithiocarbamate, thiqtc = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinedithiocarbamate and py = pyridine)) from [Zn(thqdtc) 2] ( 3) and [Zn(thiqdtc) 2] ( 4), respectively. Their structures and properties have been characterized by IR and NMR spectra. The structures of both the complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The observed deshielding of the H-2 protons for 1 and 3 and H-1 and H-3 protons for 2 and 4 in the 1H NMR spectra is attributed to the drift of electrons from the nitrogen of the NR 2 group, forcing a high electron density towards sulfur via the thioureide π-system. In the 13C NMR spectra, the most important thioureide (N 13CS 2) carbon signals are observed in the region 204-207 ppm. The upfield shift of NCS 2 carbon signal for 1 (204.2 ppm) from the chemical shift value of 2 (206.9 ppm) is due to electron withdrawing resonance effect of phenyl ring thereby decreasing the double bond character in tetrahydroquinolinedithiocarbamate, whereas benzyl group in tetrahydroisoquinolinedithiocarbamate cannot participate in resonance delocalization in the same way. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of 1 and 2 showed that the zinc atom is pentacoordinated with four sulfur atoms from the dithiocarbamate ligands and one nitrogen atom from the pyridine. VBS values support the correctness of the determined structure. The lower VBS value of 2 is due to the steric effect exerted by the thiqdtc. The phenyl and benzyl group in the heterocyclic dithiocarbamates influences the electronic properties of 1 and 2. The shift of ν C- N(thioureide) and thioureide N 13CS 2 carbon signals are correlated with the electronic effects of the dithiocarbamate ligands.

  15. Docking study and biological evaluation of pyrrolidine-based iminosugars as pharmacological chaperones for Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, Atsushi; Nakagome, Izumi; Sato, Kasumi; Yamamoto, Arisa; Adachi, Isao; Nash, Robert J; Fleet, George W J; Natori, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Yasuka; Imahori, Tatsushi; Yoshimura, Yuichi; Takahata, Hiroki; Hirono, Shuichi

    2016-01-21

    We report on the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of α-1-C-alkylated 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) derivatives as pharmacological chaperones for Gaucher disease. The parent compound, DAB, did not show inhibition of human β-glucocerebrosidase but showed moderate intestinal α-glucosidase inhibition; in contrast, extension of α-1-C-alkyl chain length gave a series of highly potent and selective inhibitors of the β-glucocerebrosidase. Our design of α-1-C-tridecyl-DAB (5j) produced a potent inhibitor of the β-glucocerebrosidase, with IC50 value of 0.77 μM. A molecular docking study revealed that the α-1-C-tridecyl group has a favorable interaction with the hydrophobic pocket and the sugar analogue part (DAB) interacted with essential hydrogen bonds formed to Asp127, Glu235 and Glu340. Furthermore, α-1-C-tridecyl-DAB (5j) displayed enhancement of activity at an effective concentration 10-times lower than isofagomine. α-1-C-Tridecyl-DAB therefore provides the first example of a pyrrolidine iminosugar as a new class of promising pharmacological chaperones with the potential for treatment of Gaucher disease. PMID:26633162

  16. a Mossbauer Effect Study of Iron(iii) Dithiocarbamates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiddy, Judith Mary

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Ever since the pioneering work of Cambi iron(III) trisdithiocarbamates, which have the formula Fe(R _2NCS_2]_3 where R is an alkyl or an aryl group, have formed the basis for understanding spin-state equilibria in iron(III) complexes. Magnetic and infrared studies clearly indicate equilibrium between the high-spin and low-spin states. The Mossbauer spectra, however, show only a single component, indicating rapid relaxation between the two spin states on the Mossbauer timescale. It has been assumed that the spectral parameters are therefore a function of the relative spin-state populations. In this thesis, the results of Mossbauer experiments carried out on a series of iron(III) trisdithiocarbamates with various organic substituents, known to give a range of high-spin and low-spin state populations at room temperature, are presented. An iron(III) bisdithiocarbamate complex, Fe^{57} ((C_5 H_{10})_2NCS _2]_2NCS, was also investigated. The samples were studied at temperatures from 1.3K to 295K, and at pressures between atmospheric pressure and 80kbar at room temperature only. It was found that, in fact, the spin-equilibrium plays only a minor role in determining the Mossbauer spectra of the trisdithiocarbamate compounds. The effects of spin -state relaxation on the temperature dependence of the spectra are, in general, masked by those of slow paramagnetic relaxation which, in contrast to the effects of the spin-equilibrium, are marked and different for each compound. By fitting the spectra to models of paramagnetic relaxation the temperature dependence of the relaxation rates and possible directions of the magnetic hyperfine field relative to the major axis of the electric field gradient were found. The pressure dependence of the spectra was found to be rather similar for all the compounds, the main differences being in the widths and in the asymmetry of the areas of the spectral lines. Both these effects can

  17. Synthesis, spectral and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) dithiocarbamates, and their use as single source precursors for ZnS and CdS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Strydom, Christien A; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S; Hosten, Eric; Jordaan, Anine

    2014-06-21

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characterisation, and thermal studies of pyridyl adducts of Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of N-ethyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate, represented as [ZnL2py] and [CdL2py2], are reported. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of the Zn compound showed that it is five-coordinate with four sulphurs from dithiocarbamate and one nitrogen from pyridine in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. The thermogravimetric studies indicate that the zinc and cadmium compounds undergo fast weight loss, and the temperature at maximum rate of decomposition is at 277 °C and 265 °C respectively, to give the metal (Zn or Cd) sulphide residues. These compounds were used as single molecule precursors to produce nanocrystalline MS (M = Zn, Cd) after thermolysis in hexadecylamine. The morphological and optical properties of the resulting MS nanocrystallites were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). By varying the growth time, the temporal evolution of the optical properties and morphology of the nanocrystals were investigated. PMID:24769861

  18. Synthesis, spectral, structural and computational studies on NiS4 and NiS2NP chromophores: Anagostic and C-H⋯π (chelate) interactions in [Ni(dtc)(PPh3)(NCS)] (dtc = N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)- dithiocarbamate and N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)dithiocarbamate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyaraj, E.; Selvaganapathi, P.; Thirumaran, S.; Ciattini, Samuele

    2016-09-01

    Bis(N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-substituted benzyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)nickel(II) (1-6) and (N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-substituted benzyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)(thiocyanato-N) (triphenylphosphine)nickel(II) (7-12) [substituted benzyl = 2HO-C6H4-CH2- (1,7), 3HO-C6H4-CH2- (2,8), 4HO-C6H4-CH2- (3,9), 4CH3O-C6H4-CH2- (4,10), 4F-C6H4-CH2- (5,11), 4Cl-C6H4-CH2- (6,12)] complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy. In the case of heteroleptic complexes 7-12, the shift in vC-N values to higher wavenumber and the NCS2 carbon signals are shifted to downfield compared to the homoleptic complexes indicating the increasing strength of thioureide vC-N bond due to the presence of π-accepting triphenylphosphine ligand in heteroleptic complexes. Electronic spectral studies on all the complexes (1-12) suggest square planar geometry around the nickel(II). Structures of 10 and 12 have been elucidated by X-ray crystallography. The dithiocarbamate anions in 10 and 12 chelate to the nickel atom. Both the structures reveal C-H⋯Ni intramolecular anagostic interaction. C-H⋯π (chelate) is observed in complexes 10. Supramolecular frame works are stabilised by C-H⋯S, C-H⋯π and C-H⋯Cl non-covalent interaction. The molecular geometry, HOMO-LUMO in the ground state and MEP have been calculated for 10 and 12 using Hartree-Fock (HF) method with LANL2DZ basic set. Molecular electrostatic potential diagram of complexes 10 and 12 support the partial double bond character of C-N (thioureide) bond in dithiocarbamate ligands.

  19. Dithiocarbamates have a common toxic effect on zebrafish body axis formation.

    PubMed

    Tilton, Fred; La Du, Jane K; Vue, Meng; Alzarban, Noor; Tanguay, Robert L

    2006-10-01

    We previously determined that the dithiocarbamate pesticide sodium metam (NaM) and its active ingredient methylisothiocyanate (MITC) were developmentally toxic causing notochord distortions in the zebrafish. In this study, developing zebrafish were exposed to isothiocyanates (ITCs), dithiocarbamates (DTCs) and several degradation products to determine the teratogenic relationship of these chemical classes at the molecular level. All dithiocarbamates tested elicited notochord distortions with notochord NOELs from <4 to 40 ppb, while none of the ITCs caused notochord distortions with the exception of MITC. Carbon disulfide (CS(2)), a common DTC degradate, also caused distortions at concentrations >200 times the DTCs. Whole mount in situ hybridization of developmental markers for collagen (collagen2a1), muscle (myoD), and body axis formation (no tail) was perturbed well after cessation of treatment with pyrolidine-DTC (PDTC), dimethyl-DTC (DMDTC), NaM, MITC, and CS(2). Therefore, distinct albeit related chemical classes share a common toxic effect on zebrafish notochord development. To test the responsiveness of the distortion to metal perturbation, five metal chelators and 2 metals were studied. The membrane permeable copper chelator neocuproine (NCu) was found to cause notochord distortions similar to DTC-related molecules. DMDTC and NCu treated animals were protected with copper, and collagen 2a1 and no tail gene expression patterns were identical to controls in these animals. PDTC, NaM, MITC, and CS(2) were not responsive to copper indicating that the chelation of metals is not the primary means by which these molecules elicit their developmental toxicity. Embryos treated with DMDTC, NaM, and NCu were rescued by adding triciaine (MS-222) which abolishes the spontaneous muscle contractions that begin at 18 hpf. In these animals, only collagen 2a1 expression showed a similar pattern to the other notochord distorting molecules. This indicates that the perturbation of

  20. Dithiocarbamates have a common toxic effect on zebrafish body axis formation

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Fred; La Du, Jane K.; Vue, Meng; Alzarban, Noor; Tanguay, Robert L. . E-mail: Robert.Tanguay@oregonstate.edu

    2006-10-01

    We previously determined that the dithiocarbamate pesticide sodium metam (NaM) and its active ingredient methylisothiocyanate (MITC) were developmentally toxic causing notochord distortions in the zebrafish. In this study, developing zebrafish were exposed to isothiocyanates (ITCs), dithiocarbamates (DTCs) and several degradation products to determine the teratogenic relationship of these chemical classes at the molecular level. All dithiocarbamates tested elicited notochord distortions with notochord NOELs from <4 to 40 ppb, while none of the ITCs caused notochord distortions with the exception of MITC. Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), a common DTC degradate, also caused distortions at concentrations >200 times the DTCs. Whole mount in situ hybridization of developmental markers for collagen (collagen2a1), muscle (myoD), and body axis formation (no tail) was perturbed well after cessation of treatment with pyrolidine-DTC (PDTC), dimethyl-DTC (DMDTC), NaM, MITC, and CS{sub 2}. Therefore, distinct albeit related chemical classes share a common toxic effect on zebrafish notochord development. To test the responsiveness of the distortion to metal perturbation, five metal chelators and 2 metals were studied. The membrane permeable copper chelator neocuproine (NCu) was found to cause notochord distortions similar to DTC-related molecules. DMDTC and NCu treated animals were protected with copper, and collagen 2a1 and no tail gene expression patterns were identical to controls in these animals. PDTC, NaM, MITC, and CS{sub 2} were not responsive to copper indicating that the chelation of metals is not the primary means by which these molecules elicit their developmental toxicity. Embryos treated with DMDTC, NaM, and NCu were rescued by adding triciaine (MS-222) which abolishes the spontaneous muscle contractions that begin at 18 hpf. In these animals, only collagen 2a1 expression showed a similar pattern to the other notochord distorting molecules. This indicates that the

  1. Computer-Aided Design of Orally Bioavailable Pyrrolidine Carboxamide Inhibitors of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Favorable Pharmacokinetic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Affiba Florance; Kone, Mawa; Keita, Melalie; Esmel, Akori; Megnassan, Eugene; N'Guessan, Yao Thomas; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a computational structure-based design of new potent pyrrolidine carboxamide (PCAMs) inhibitors of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). Three-dimensional (3D) models of InhA-PCAMx complexes were prepared by in situ modification of the crystal structure of InhA-PCAM1 (Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry code: 4U0J), the reference compound of a training set of 20 PCAMs with known experimental inhibitory potencies (IC50(exp)). First, we built a gas phase quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) model, linearly correlating the computed enthalpy of the InhA-PCAM complex formation and the IC50(exp). Further, taking into account the solvent effect and loss of inhibitor entropy upon enzyme binding led to a QSAR model with a superior linear correlation between computed Gibbs free energies (ΔΔGcom) of InhA-PCAM complex formation and IC50(exp) (pIC50(exp) = -0.1552·ΔΔGcom + 5.0448, R² = 0.94), which was further validated with a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model generation (PH4). Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VL) of more than 17 million PCAMs. The VL was adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) focused and reduced down to 1.6 million drug like orally bioavailable analogues and PH4 in silico screened to identify new potent PCAMs with predicted IC50(pre) reaching up to 5 nM. Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VL resulted in the proposed novel potent antituberculotic agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:26703572

  2. Computer-Aided Design of Orally Bioavailable Pyrrolidine Carboxamide Inhibitors of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Favorable Pharmacokinetic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Affiba Florance; Kone, Mawa; Keita, Melalie; Esmel, Akori; Megnassan, Eugene; N’Guessan, Yao Thomas; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a computational structure-based design of new potent pyrrolidine carboxamide (PCAMs) inhibitors of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). Three-dimensional (3D) models of InhA-PCAMx complexes were prepared by in situ modification of the crystal structure of InhA-PCAM1 (Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry code: 4U0J), the reference compound of a training set of 20 PCAMs with known experimental inhibitory potencies (IC50exp). First, we built a gas phase quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) model, linearly correlating the computed enthalpy of the InhA-PCAM complex formation and the IC50exp. Further, taking into account the solvent effect and loss of inhibitor entropy upon enzyme binding led to a QSAR model with a superior linear correlation between computed Gibbs free energies (ΔΔGcom) of InhA-PCAM complex formation and IC50exp (pIC50exp = −0.1552·ΔΔGcom + 5.0448, R2 = 0.94), which was further validated with a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model generation (PH4). Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VL) of more than 17 million PCAMs. The VL was adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) focused and reduced down to 1.6 million drug like orally bioavailable analogues and PH4 in silico screened to identify new potent PCAMs with predicted IC50pre reaching up to 5 nM. Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VL resulted in the proposed novel potent antituberculotic agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:26703572

  3. Electroluminescent ZnS:Mn films prepared by an MOCVD method based on dithiocarbamate precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, L. V.; Beletski, A. I.; Svechnikov, G. S.

    1999-05-01

    It is shown that electroluminescent ZnS:Mn films with luminance more than 0268-1242/14/5/013/img6 and luminous efficiency 0268-1242/14/5/013/img7 can be obtained by low-temperature deposition from Mn and Zn dithiocarbamates; subsequent thermal treatment of these films is not necessary. Starting materials were deposited on the substrate heated to a temperature of 220-0268-1242/14/5/013/img8C by spraying organic solution in air at atmospheric pressure. As a result homogeneous polycrystalline layers of ZnS:Mn with a growth rate of 60-0268-1242/14/5/013/img9 have been obtained. The electroluminescent characteristics of the thin films and structures based on various preparation and excitation conditions are presented. The possibility of application of these films as a planar light source is discussed.

  4. Synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of dithiocarbamates as novel antitubulin agents.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yong; Ma, Gao-Yuan; Yang, Ying; Cheng, Kui; Zheng, Qing-Zhong; Mao, Wen-Jun; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-06-15

    A series of novel dithiocarbamate compounds with the chalcone scaffold have been designed and synthesized, and their biological activities were also evaluated as potential antiproliferation and antitubulin polymerization inhibitors. Compound 2n showed the most potent biological activity in vitro, which inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells with IC(50) of 0.04+/-0.01 microM and the polymerization of tubulin with IC(50) of 6.8+/-0.6 microM. To understand the tubulin-inhibitor interaction and the selectivity of the most active compound towards tubulin, molecular modeling studies were performed to dock compound 2n into the colchicine binding site, which suggested probable inhibition mechanism. PMID:20493717

  5. Determination of dithiocarbamates and milneb residues in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Munetomo; Noda, Satoko; Kosugi, Masaki; Ishiduka, Noriko; Mizukoshi, Kazushi; Taniguchi, Makoto; Nemoto, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    A highly sensitive gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method was developed for dithiocarbamates (DTCs) and milneb in foods. DTCs and milneb were extracted from foods with cysteine-EDTA solution as sodium salts, and methylated with methyl iodide. Methyl derivatives of DTCs and milneb were cleaned up on a neutral alumina mini column and determined by GC-MS. The mean recoveries of DTCs and milneb were in the range of 72-120%, except for methiram. The quantification limits were 0.01 mg/kg (as CS(2)) in foods except tea (0.1 mg/kg as CS(2)). The developed method was applied to 10 compounds (4 dimethyldithiocarbamates, 3 ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, polycarbamates, propineb and milneb). PMID:21071904

  6. Reducing the bioavailability of cadmium in contaminated soil by dithiocarbamate chitosan as a new remediation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zheng; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Zhen; Qiu, Dong

    2015-07-01

    Dithiocarbamate chitosan (DTC-CTS) was used as a new amendment for remediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils to reduce the Cd bioavailability. Arabidopsis thaliana was chosen as a model plant to evaluate its efficiency. It was found that DTC-CTS could effectively improve the growth of A. thaliana. The amount of Cd up-taken by A. thaliana could be decreased by as much as 50% compared with that grown in untreated Cd-contaminated soil samples. The chlorophyll content and the aerial biomass of Arabidopsis also increased substantially and eventually returned to a level comparable to plants grown in non-contaminated soils, with the addition of DTC-CTS. These findings suggested that DTC-CTS amendment could be effective in immobilizing Cd and mitigating its accumulation in plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils, with potential application as an in situ remediation of Cd-polluted soils.

  7. Design, synthesis and antiproliferative activity studies of novel dithiocarbamate-chalcone derivates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dong-Jun; Zhang, Sai-Yang; Liu, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jun-Ju; Song, Jian; Zhao, Ruo-Han; Li, Feng; Sun, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hong-Min; Zhang, Yan-Bing

    2016-08-15

    A series of novel dithiocarbamate-chalcone derivates were designed, synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (EC-109, SK-N-SH and MGC-803). Majority of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to potent activity against all the cancer cell lines assayed. Particularly, compounds II2 and II5 exhibited the excellent growth inhibition against SK-N-SH with IC50 values of 2.03μM and 2.46μM, respectively. Further mechanism studies revealed that compound II2 could obviously inhibit the proliferation of SK-N-SH cells by inducing apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. PMID:27423479

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of dithiocarbamates as new cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Altıntop, Mehlika D; Gurkan-Alp, A Selen; Ozkay, Yusuf; Kaplancıklı, Zafer A

    2013-08-01

    In the present paper, a novel series of dithiocarbamates was synthesized via the treatment of 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl chloride with appropriate sodium salts of N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamic acids. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by (1) H NMR, mass spectral data, and elemental analyses. Each derivative was evaluated for its ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) using a modification of Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The most potent AChE inhibitor was found as compound 2g (IC50  = 0.53 ± 0.001 µM) followed by compounds 2f (IC50  = 0.74 ± 0.001 µM) and 2j (IC50  = 0.89 ± 0.002 µM) when compared with donepezil (IC50  = 0.048 ± 0.001 µM). Compounds 2f and 2g were more effective than donepezil (IC50  = 7.88 ± 0.52 µM) on BuChE inhibition. Compounds 2f and 2g exhibited the inhibitory effect on BuChE with IC50 values of 1.39 ± 0.041 and 3.64 ± 0.072 µM, respectively. PMID:23881696

  9. Enantio- and diastereoselective Michael addition reactions of unmodified aldehydes and ketones with nitroolefins catalyzed by a pyrrolidine sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Hao; Lou, Bihshow; Zu, Liansuo; Guo, Hua; Wang, Wei

    2006-05-24

    Chiral (S)-pyrrolidine trifluoromethanesulfonamide has been shown to serve as an effective catalyst for direct Michael addition reactions of aldehydes and ketones with nitroolefins. A wide range of aldehydes and ketones as Michael donors and nitroolefins as acceptors participate in the process, which proceeds with high levels of enantioselectivity (up to 99 % ee) and diastereoselectivity (up to 50:1 d.r.). The methodology has been employed successfully in an efficient synthesis of the potent H(3) agonist Sch 50917. In addition, a practical three-step procedure for the preparation of (S)-pyrrolidine trifluoromethanesulfonamide has been developed. The high levels of stereochemical control attending Michael addition reactions catalyzed by this pyrrolidine sulfonamide, have been investigated by using ab initio and density functional methods. Transition state structures for the rate-limiting C--C bond-forming step, corresponding to re- and si-face addition to the reactive conformation of the key enamine intermediates have been calculated. Analysis of these structures indicates that hydrogen bonding plays an important role in catalysis and that the energy barrier for si-face attack in reactions of aldehydes to form 2R,3S products is lower than that for the re-face attack leading to 2S,3R products. In contrast, the energy barrier for re-face addition is lower than that for si-face addition in reactions of ketones. The computational results, which are in good agreement with the experimental observations, are discussed in the context of the stereochemical course of these Michael addition reactions.

  10. Discovery of pyrrolidine-based β-secretase inhibitors: lead advancement through conformational design for maintenance of ligand binding efficiency.

    PubMed

    Stachel, Shawn J; Steele, Thomas G; Petrocchi, Alessia; Haugabook, Sharie J; McGaughey, Georgia; Katharine Holloway, M; Allison, Timothy; Munshi, Sanjeev; Zuck, Paul; Colussi, Dennis; Tugasheva, Katherine; Wolfe, Abigail; Graham, Samuel L; Vacca, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel series of pyrrolidine derived BACE-1 inhibitors. The potency of the weak initial lead structure was enhanced using library-based SAR methods. The series was then further advanced by rational design while maintaining a minimal ligand binding efficiency threshold. Ultimately, the co-crystal structure was obtained revealing that these inhibitors interacted with the enzyme in a unique fashion. In all, the potency of the series was enhanced by 4 orders of magnitude from the HTS lead with concomitant increases in physical properties needed for series advancement. The progression of these developments in a systematic fashion is described.

  11. Substituted 6-(1-pyrrolidine)quinolin-2(1H)-ones as novel selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Martinborough, Esther; Shen, Yixing; Oeveren, Arjan van; Long, Yun Oliver; Lau, Thomas L S; Marschke, Keith B; Chang, William Y; López, Francisco J; Vajda, Eric G; Rix, Peter J; Viveros, O Humberto; Negro-Vilar, Andrés; Zhi, Lin

    2007-10-18

    The androgen receptor is a ligand inducible transcription factor that is involved in a broad range of physiological functions. Here we describe the discovery of a new class of orally available selective androgen receptor modulators. The lead compound, 6-[(2R,5R)-2-methyl-5-((R)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl]-4-trifluoromethylquinolin-2(1H)-one (6a), showed excellent anabolic activity in muscle with reduced effect on the prostate in a rat model of hypogonadism. The compound also improved bone strength in a rat model of post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  12. Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydroamination of Alkenes: Synthesis of Pyrrolidines Bearing a Tetrasubstituted Carbon Stereocenter.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Shun; Yu, Peng; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Pan; Tan, Bin; Liu, Xin-Yuan

    2015-06-26

    The first highly enantioselective Brønsted acid catalyzed intramolecular hydroamination of alkenes enables the efficient construction of a series of chiral (spirocyclic) pyrrolidines with an α-tetrasubstituted carbon stereocenter with excellent functional group tolerance. A unique feature of this strategy is the use of a thiourea group acting as both the activating and the directing group through cooperative multiple hydrogen bonding with a Brønsted acid and the double bond. The utility of this method is highlighted by the facile construction of chiral synthetic intermediates and important structural motifs that are widely found in organic synthesis.

  13. Pyrrolidine analogs of lobelane: Relationship of affinity for the dihydrotetrabenazine binding site with function of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2)

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Ashish P.; Nickell, Justin R.; Chagkutip, Jaturaporn; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Ring size reduction of the central piperidine ring of lobelane yielded pyrrolidine analogs that showed marked inconsistencies in their ability to bind to the dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site on the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) and their ability to inhibit VMAT2 function. The structure activity relationships indicate that structural modification within the pyrrolidine series resulted in analogs that interact with two different sites, i.e., the DTBZ binding site and an alternative site on VMAT2 to inhibit transporter function. PMID:19691331

  14. Pyrrolidine analogues of lobelane: relationship of affinity for the dihydrotetrabenazine binding site with function of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2).

    PubMed

    Vartak, Ashish P; Nickell, Justin R; Chagkutip, Jaturaporn; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2009-12-10

    Ring size reduction of the central piperidine ring of lobelane yielded pyrrolidine analogues that showed marked inconsistencies in their ability to bind to the dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site on the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) and their ability to inhibit VMAT2 function. The structure-activity relationships indicate that structural modification within the pyrrolidine series resulted in analogues that interact with two different sites, i.e., the DTBZ binding site and an alternative site on VMAT2 to inhibit transporter function.

  15. 3′-Benzoyl-1′-methyl-4′-phenyl­spiro[acenaphthyl­ene-1(2H),2′-pyrrolidin]-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, T.; Vithiya, Scholastica Mary; Ignacimuthu, S.; Ramkumar, V.

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C29H23NO2, the pyrrolidine ring adopts a twisted conformation about one of the C—N bonds. The acenaphthone ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.025 Å) lies almost perpendicular to the pyrrolidine ring [dihedral angle = 88.08 (8)°]. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings is 88.12 (11)°. In the crystal structure, weak C—H⋯π inter­actions connect the mol­ecules. PMID:21589163

  16. Crystal structure of 1-{4-hy-droxy-3-[(pyrrolidin-1-yl)meth-yl]phen-yl}-3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-one.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Abdullah; Akkurt, Mehmet; Gul, Halise Inci; Yerdelen, Kadir Ozden; Celik, Raziye Catak

    2016-05-01

    In the title compound, C20H21NO2, the pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom at the flap position. The central benzene ring makes dihedral angles of 21.39 (10) and 80.10 (15)° with the phenyl ring and the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring, respectively. The mol-ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond, which closes an S(6) ring. A weak C-H⋯π inter-action is observed in the crystal. PMID:27308021

  17. Mutagenicity and metabolism studies on 12 thiuram and dithiocarbamate compounds used as accelerators in the Swedish rubber industry.

    PubMed

    Hedenstedt, A; Rannug, U; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1979-12-01

    12 thiuram and dithiocarbamate compounds used in the rubber industry as accelerators, and to some extent as sources of sulfur, were tested, as well as carbon disulfide, a metabolite found in vivo after dithiocarbamate treatment, for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium. A mutagenic effect on the base-substitution-sensitive strains TA1535 and TA100 was found for 7 compounds. The most potent directly acting mutagens were: tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD), zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram), cadmium diethyldithiocarbamate and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate. Tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TETD), also known as Antabus, and carbon disulfide were non-mutagenic. The relatively low direct mutagenic effect of tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (TMTM) was enhanced in the presence of a metabolizing system (S9 mix). A hypothesis is given regarding the activation process of the monosulfide TMTM.

  18. Bond activation with an apparently benign ethynyl dithiocarbamate Ar-C≡C-S-C(S)NR2.

    PubMed

    Ung, Gaël; Frey, Guido D; Schoeller, Wolfgang W; Bertrand, Guy

    2011-10-10

    The hedgehog molecule: A simple ethynyl dithiocarbamate [Ar-C≡C-S-C(S)NR(2)] is able to cleave a broad range of enthalpically strong σ bonds and to activate carbon dioxide and elemental sulfur. Depending on the substrate, the bond activation process involves either the existence of an equilibrium with the nonobservable mesoionic carbene isomer or the cooperation of the nucleophilic carbon-carbon triple bond and the electrophilic CS carbon atom. PMID:23210141

  19. Pyrrolidine and Piperidine Formation Via Copper(II) Carboxylate Promoted Intramolecular Carboamination of Unactivated Olefins: Diastereoselectivity and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Eric S.; Fuller, Peter H.; Kasi, Dhanalakshmi; Chemler, Sherry R.

    2008-01-01

    An expanded substrate scope and in depth analysis of the reaction mechanism of the copper(II) carboxylate promoted intramolecular carboamination of unactivated alkenes is described. This method provides access to N-functionalized pyrrolidines and piperidines. Both aromatic and aliphatic γ- and δ-alkenyl N-arylsulfonamides undergo the oxidative cyclization reaction efficiently. N-Benzoyl-2-allylaniline also underwent the oxidative cyclization. The terminal olefin substrates examined were more reactive than those with internal olefins, and the latter terminated in elimination rather than carbon-carbon bond formation. The efficiency of the reaction was enhanced by the use of more organic soluble copper(II) carboxylate salts, copper(II) neodecanoate in particular. The reaction times were reduced by the use of microwave heating. High levels of diastereoselectivity were observed in the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, wherein the cis substitution pattern predominates. The mechanism of the reaction is discussed in the context of the observed reactivity and in comparison to analogous reactions promoted by other reagents and conditions. Our evidence supports a mechanism wherein the N-C bond is formed via intramolecular syn aminocupration and the C-C bond is formed via intramolecular addition of a primary carbon radical to an aromatic ring. PMID:17428100

  20. Pyrrolidine and piperidine formation via copper(II) carboxylate-promoted intramolecular carboamination of unactivated olefins: diastereoselectivity and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Eric S; Fuller, Peter H; Kasi, Dhanalakshmi; Chemler, Sherry R

    2007-05-11

    An expanded substrate scope and in-depth analysis of the reaction mechanism of the copper(II) carboxylate-promoted intramolecular carboamination of unactivated alkenes is described. This method provides access to N-functionalized pyrrolidines and piperidines. Both aromatic and aliphatic gamma- and delta-alkenyl N-arylsulfonamides undergo the oxidative cyclization reaction efficiently. N-Benzoyl-2-allylaniline also underwent the oxidative cyclization. The terminal olefin substrates examined were more reactive than those with internal olefins, and the latter terminated in elimination rather than carbon-carbon bond formation. The efficiency of the reaction was enhanced by the use of more organic soluble copper(II) carboxylate salts, copper(II) neodecanoate in particular. The reaction times were reduced by the use of microwave heating. High levels of diastereoselectivity were observed in the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, wherein the cis substitution pattern predominates. The mechanism of the reaction is discussed in the context of the observed reactivity and in comparison to analogous reactions promoted by other reagents and conditions. Our evidence supports a mechanism wherein the N-C bond is formed via intramolecular syn aminocupration and the C-C bond is formed via intramolecular addition of a primary carbon radical to an aromatic ring.

  1. Core assembly mechanism of quinocarcin/SF-1739: bimodular complex nonribosomal peptide synthetases for sequential mannich-type reactions.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Tomoshige; Koketsu, Kento; Minami, Atsushi; Kaneko, Shunsuke; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Oguri, Hiroki; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2013-12-19

    Quinocarcin and SF-1739, potent antitumor antibiotics, share a common tetracyclic tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ)-pyrrolidine core scaffold. Herein, we describe the identification of their biosynthetic gene clusters and biochemical analysis of Qcn18/Cya18 generating the previously unidentified extender unit dehydroarginine, which is a component of the pyrrolidine ring. ATP-inorganic pyrophosphate exchange experiments with five nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) enabled us to identify their substrates. On the basis of these data, we propose that a biosynthetic pathway comprising a three-component NRPS/MbtH family protein complex, Qcn16/17/19, plays a key role in the construction of tetracyclic THIQ-pyrrolidine core scaffold involving sequential Pictet-Spengler and intramolecular Mannich reactions. Furthermore, data derived from gene inactivation experiments led us to propose late-modification steps of quinocarcin.

  2. Pyrrolidine-5,5-trans-lactams as novel mechanism-based inhibitors of human cytomegalovirus protease. Part 3: potency and plasma stability.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Alan D; Exall, Anne M; Haley, Terry M; Jackson, Deborah L; Mason, Andrew M; Weingarten, Gordon G

    2002-07-01

    Mechanism-based inhibitors of HCMV protease, which are stable to human plasma (> or = 20 h) and have single-figure potency in the microM range against HCMV protease, have been developed based on the dansylproline alpha-methyl pyrrolidine-5,5-trans-lactam nucleus.

  3. Synthesis of isofagomine-pyrrolidine hybrid sugars and analogues of (-)-steviamine and (+)-hyacinthacine C5 using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Rima; Palanivel, Ashokkumar; Kulkarni, Sudhir A; Vankar, Yashwant D

    2014-11-21

    Highly regioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between d-arabinose-derived nitrones and d-mannitol-derived trans-olefins have been utilized to synthesize isofagomine-pyrrolidine hybrid sugars, hydroxymethylated analogues of (-)-steviamine and analogues of (+)-hyacinthacine C5. All of the new compounds were subsequently tested against several commercially available glycosidases, and some of them showed good and selective glycosidase inhibition.

  4. The Novel Pyrrolidine Nor-Lobelane Analog UKCP-110 [cis-2,5-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride] Inhibits VMAT2 Function, Methamphetamine-Evoked Dopamine Release, and Methamphetamine Self-Administration in RatsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Joshua S.; Siripurapu, Kiran B.; Nickell, Justin R.; Horton, David B.; Denehy, Emily D.; Vartak, Ashish; Crooks, Peter A.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Both lobeline and lobelane attenuate methamphetamine self-administration in rats by decreasing methamphetamine-induced dopamine release via interaction with vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). A novel derivative of nor-lobelane, cis-2,5-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (UKCP-110), and its trans-isomers, (2R,5R)-trans-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (UKCP-111) and (2S,5S)-trans-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (UKCP-112), were evaluated for inhibition of [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and [3H]dopamine uptake by using a rat synaptic vesicle preparation to assess VMAT2 interaction. Compounds were evaluated for inhibition of [3H]nicotine and [3H]methyllycaconitine binding to assess interaction with the major nicotinic receptor subtypes. In addition, compounds were evaluated for inhibition of methamphetamine-evoked endogenous dopamine release by using striatal slices. The most promising compound, UKCP-110, was evaluated for its ability to decrease methamphetamine self-administration and methamphetamine discriminative stimulus cues and for its effect on food-maintained operant responding. UKCP-110, UKCP-111, and UKCP-112 inhibited [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding (Ki = 2.66 ± 0.37, 1.05 ± 0.10, and 3.80 ± 0.31 μM, respectively) and had high potency inhibiting [3H]dopamine uptake (Ki = 0.028 ± 0.001, 0.046 ± 0.008, 0.043 ± 0.004 μM, respectively), but lacked affinity at nicotinic receptors. Although the trans-isomers did not alter methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release, UKCP-110 inhibited (IC50 = 1.8 ± 0.2 μM; Imax = 67.18 ± 6.11 μM) methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release. At high concentrations, UKCP-110 also increased extracellular dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. It is noteworthy that UKCP-110 decreased the number of methamphetamine self-infusions, while having no effect on food-reinforced behavior or the methamphetamine stimulus cue. Thus, UKCP-110 represents a new lead in the development of novel pharmacotherapies for

  5. The novel pyrrolidine nor-lobelane analog UKCP-110 [cis-2,5-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride] inhibits VMAT2 function, methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release, and methamphetamine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Joshua S; Siripurapu, Kiran B; Nickell, Justin R; Horton, David B; Denehy, Emily D; Vartak, Ashish; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2010-12-01

    Both lobeline and lobelane attenuate methamphetamine self-administration in rats by decreasing methamphetamine-induced dopamine release via interaction with vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). A novel derivative of nor-lobelane, cis-2,5-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (UKCP-110), and its trans-isomers, (2R,5R)-trans-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (UKCP-111) and (2S,5S)-trans-di-(2-phenethyl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride (UKCP-112), were evaluated for inhibition of [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake by using a rat synaptic vesicle preparation to assess VMAT2 interaction. Compounds were evaluated for inhibition of [(3)H]nicotine and [(3)H]methyllycaconitine binding to assess interaction with the major nicotinic receptor subtypes. In addition, compounds were evaluated for inhibition of methamphetamine-evoked endogenous dopamine release by using striatal slices. The most promising compound, UKCP-110, was evaluated for its ability to decrease methamphetamine self-administration and methamphetamine discriminative stimulus cues and for its effect on food-maintained operant responding. UKCP-110, UKCP-111, and UKCP-112 inhibited [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding (K(i) = 2.66 ± 0.37, 1.05 ± 0.10, and 3.80 ± 0.31 μM, respectively) and had high potency inhibiting [(3)H]dopamine uptake (K(i) = 0.028 ± 0.001, 0.046 ± 0.008, 0.043 ± 0.004 μM, respectively), but lacked affinity at nicotinic receptors. Although the trans-isomers did not alter methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release, UKCP-110 inhibited (IC(50) = 1.8 ± 0.2 μM; I(max) = 67.18 ± 6.11 μM) methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release. At high concentrations, UKCP-110 also increased extracellular dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. It is noteworthy that UKCP-110 decreased the number of methamphetamine self-infusions, while having no effect on food-reinforced behavior or the methamphetamine stimulus cue. Thus, UKCP-110 represents a new lead in the development of novel

  6. Solid-state UV-MALDI-MS assay of transition metal dithiocarbamate fungicides.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The determination of transition metal containing dithiocarbamate fungicides represents a challenging aspect of analytical object. They have a low stability, low solubility and stabilize versatile coordination monomers, dimers, disulfides and/or S-oxidized derivatives. Their diverse biological activities and agricultural implementation encompass plant prevention and crop protection against a variety of plants containing fungi and diseases of 400 pathogens and 70 cultures. Nonetheless, those dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are banned for agricultural use in Europe or have expiration at years 2016-2017 because of their highly toxic degradation products and/or metabolites, in particular ethylene thiourea; they found large-scale implementations in materials research and medicine. Despite the broad interdisciplinary of DTC application, due to the above reasons, they have received little attention in the rapidly growing field of analytical chemistry, and in particular, the analytical mass spectrometry. Therefore, the study reported on qualitative, quantitative and structural analysis of ten DTCs (1-10), using the matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI)-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (MS) contributed considerably to the implementation of the method for environmental and foodstuffs monitoring. Its ultrahigh resolving power and capacity for direct solid-state analysis, at limited number of sample pretreatment steps, at concentration levels of analytes of up to femtogram per gram resulted to achievement of a highly precise analytical information for these non-trivial objects. The presented fully validated method and technique is based on the successful ionization of DTCs embedded in three novel organic salts (M1-M3). In this regard, the reported MS and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data as well as the quantum chemical one are able to correlate the molecular structures in condense and in the gas phase. Despite the novelty of the fundamental methodological character

  7. Innovative Disulfide Esters of Dithiocarbamic Acid as Women-Controlled Contraceptive Microbicides: A Bioisosterism Approach.

    PubMed

    Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lokesh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Gupta, Sonal; Kumar, Lalit; Bala, Veenu; Yadav, Santosh K; Singh, Pratiksha; Singh, Nidhi; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sankhwar, Satya N; Shukla, Praveen K; Siddiqi, Imran; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-10-01

    In an ongoing effort to discover an effective, topical, dual-function, non-surfactant contraceptive vaginal microbicide, a novel series of 2,2'-disulfanediylbis(3-(substituted-1-yl)propane-2,1-diyl) disubstituted-1-carbodithioates were designed by using a bioisosterism approach. Thirty-three compounds were synthesized, and interestingly, most demonstrated multiple activities: they were found to be spermicidal at a minimal effective concentration of 1-0.001 %, trichomonacidal against drug-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas strains at minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 10.81-377.64 and 10.81-754.14 μM, respectively, and fungicidal at MIC 7.93-86.50 μM. These compounds were also found to be non-cytotoxic to human cervical (HeLa) epithelial cells and vaginal microflora (Lactobacilli) in vitro. The most promising compound, 2,2'-disulfanediylbis(3-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)propane-2,1-diyl)dipyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (5), exhibited spermicidal activity 15-fold higher than that of the marketed spermicide Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) and also demonstrated microbicidal potency. To identify common structural features required for spermicidal activity, a 3D-QSAR analysis was carried out, as well as in vivo efficacy studies and fluorescent labeling studies to determine the biological targets of compound 5.

  8. Innovative Disulfide Esters of Dithiocarbamic Acid as Women-Controlled Contraceptive Microbicides: A Bioisosterism Approach.

    PubMed

    Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lokesh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Gupta, Sonal; Kumar, Lalit; Bala, Veenu; Yadav, Santosh K; Singh, Pratiksha; Singh, Nidhi; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sankhwar, Satya N; Shukla, Praveen K; Siddiqi, Imran; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-10-01

    In an ongoing effort to discover an effective, topical, dual-function, non-surfactant contraceptive vaginal microbicide, a novel series of 2,2'-disulfanediylbis(3-(substituted-1-yl)propane-2,1-diyl) disubstituted-1-carbodithioates were designed by using a bioisosterism approach. Thirty-three compounds were synthesized, and interestingly, most demonstrated multiple activities: they were found to be spermicidal at a minimal effective concentration of 1-0.001 %, trichomonacidal against drug-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas strains at minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 10.81-377.64 and 10.81-754.14 μM, respectively, and fungicidal at MIC 7.93-86.50 μM. These compounds were also found to be non-cytotoxic to human cervical (HeLa) epithelial cells and vaginal microflora (Lactobacilli) in vitro. The most promising compound, 2,2'-disulfanediylbis(3-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)propane-2,1-diyl)dipyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (5), exhibited spermicidal activity 15-fold higher than that of the marketed spermicide Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) and also demonstrated microbicidal potency. To identify common structural features required for spermicidal activity, a 3D-QSAR analysis was carried out, as well as in vivo efficacy studies and fluorescent labeling studies to determine the biological targets of compound 5. PMID:26337025

  9. Towards a Dithiocarbamate Ligand for CdS Nanoparticle-based Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Andrew; Lacroix, Andrew D.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; MacDonald, Janet E.

    Photocatalysis of water into H2 and O2 presents a clean, renewable route for energy storage and production. Traditionally, most semiconducting nanoparticle research on photocatalysis has focused on the ability to reduce chemical systems using the photoexcited electron. Here we employ a combination of theory and experiments to develop a possible route towards the oxidation of chemical systems via the hole from photoexcitation using an asymmetric bipyridine ligand with conjugated dithiocarbamate ligand bound to the surface of cadmium sulfide nanorods. In particular, we use density functional theory to calculate the electronic levels and optical absorption of the designer ligand, free from the cadmium sulfide surface as well as attached to the surface, with and without the copper center. These calculations are compared with experimental UV/VIS absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements to understand the role of copper chelation. Furthermore, theoretical comparisons are made with a related ligand known to oxidize water under an applied potential bias. Finally, we discuss whether we expect photocatalysis from the ligand and possible improvements to its design.

  10. Method validation and analysis of nine dithiocarbamates in fruits and vegetables by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B; Christensen, H B; Petersen, A; Sloth, J J; Poulsen, M E

    2013-01-01

    An analytical method for separation and quantitative determination of nine dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in fruits and vegetables by using LC-MS/MS was developed, validated and applied to samples purchased in local supermarkets. The nine DTCs were ziram, ferbam, thiram, maneb, zineb, nabam, metiram, mancozeb and propineb. Validation parameters of mean recovery for two matrices at two concentration levels, relative repeatability (RSDr), relative within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR) and LOD were obtained for the nine DTCs. The results from the analysis of fruits and vegetables served as the basis for an exposure assessment within the given commodities and a risk assessment by comparing the calculated exposure to the acceptable daily intake and acute reference dose for various exposure groups. The analysis indicated positive findings of DTCs in apples, pears, plums, table grapes, papaya and broccoli at concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/kg to 2.69 mg/kg expressed as the equivalent amount of CS2. None of the values exceeded the Maximum residue level (MRL) set by the European Union, and furthermore, it was not possible to state whether illegal use had taken place or not, because a clear differentiation between the various DTCs in the LC-MS/MS analysis was lacking. The exposure and risk assessment showed that only for maneb in the case of apples and apple juice, the acute reference dose was exceeded for infants in the United Kingdom and for children in Germany, respectively. PMID:23799268

  11. Structure-activity relationships among dithiocarbamate antidotes for acute cadmium chloride intoxication. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.G.; Jones, M.M.

    1984-03-01

    Eight sodium dithiocarbamates (NaS/sub 2/CNR/sub 1/R/sub 2/) have been examined as antidotes for acute cadmium intoxication. While all of them possess an ability to increase survival when given to mice 2 hr after a lethal (>99%) intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg of CdCl/sub 2/. 2.5H/sub 2/O, their effects on the organ distribution of cadmium vary considerably. It has been possible to show that the accumulation of cadmium in the brain and kidney as well as the survival rates can be correlated with a numerical measure of the polarity of the groups R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/. Each factor has a different dependence on the polarity, but it is possible to construct a composite factor for antidotal efficacy which incorporates survival rate, brain cadmium levels and kidney cadmium levels. The factor constructed here exhibits an optimal value approximately in the middle of the polarity range studied. Compounds which have R/sub 1/ = -CH/sub 2/CH/sub 1/OH and R/sub 2/ = -CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/OH, OR -CH/sub 3/ or -C/sub 2/H/sub 5/ appear to be the most effective antidotes of the compounds examined. 22 references, 4 figures 3 tables.

  12. Oxidation of dithiocarbamates to yield N-nitrosamines by water disinfection oxidants.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh P; Kim, Jae-Hong; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2013-02-01

    Two most commonly used dithiocarbamate (DTC) pesticides, dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), were examined in this study to evaluate their potential to form nitrosamines when in contact with various water disinfection oxidants. Results show that DTCs can serve as nitrosamine precursors, by release of secondary amines through hydrolysis or through reactions with oxidants. The reactions of DTCs with monochloramine and ozone were found to be particularly problematic in the risk of generating nitrosamines, though all four tested oxidants, including free chlorine and chlorine dioxide, formed nitrosamines. NDEA yield from DEDTC was lower, by different degrees, than NDMA yield from DMDTC for all four oxidants, which was attributed to the steric hindrance associated with bulkier reaction intermediate that are more difficult to be further oxidized to form nitrosamine. The yield of nitrosamines increased with the oxidant dosage for both monochloramination and ozonation of DTCs. Results for nitrosamine formation from DTCs at varying pH were found to be consistent with the pH trend of nitrosamine formation from ozonation and monochloramination of secondary amines. Kinetic study results and identification and quantification of reaction products suggest that the DTCs were not significant direct precursors of nitrosamines during monochloramination or ozonation, but rather nitrosamines formed were primarily from reaction of oxidants with the amine which may be generated either through hydrolysis or through oxidation of DTCs. PMID:23176828

  13. Discovery and optimization of novel dual dithiocarbamates as potent anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ri-Dong; Wang, Hui-Ling; Li, Ying-Bo; Wang, Zhong-Qing; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yi-Tao; Ge, Ze-Mei; Li, Run-Tao

    2015-03-26

    A series of dual dithiocarbamates were synthesized and evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activities on human non-small cell lung cancer cell line H460. Nine compounds exhibited significant antiproliferative activities with IC50 less than 1 μM. Among them, compound 14m showed the highest inhibitory activity against H460 cell and inhibited the growth of nine types of tumor cells with IC50 values less than 1 μM. It also achieved IC50 of 54 nM and 23 nM against HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship study indicated that: a) when the methyl group (region A) is substituted with benzene rings, ortho substitution on the benzene ring is favored for activity; b) substitution with heterocyclic structures at region A exhibited greater impact on the anti-tumor activity of compounds, in which pyridine ring, thiazole ring, coumarin and benzo[b]thiophene are favored and quinoline ring is the most favored; c) substitution with different amines (region B) also showed marked effect on the activity of compounds and dimethylamine and morpholine are preferred to other tested amines. PMID:25725374

  14. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and cell selectivity of zinc dithiocarbamates functionalized with hydroxyethyl substituents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yee Seng; Ooi, Kah Kooi; Ang, Kok Pian; Akim, Abdah Md; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Seng, Hoi-Ling; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2015-09-01

    In the solid state each of three binuclear zinc dithiocarbamates bearing hydroxyethyl groups, {Zn[S2CN(R)CH2CH2OH]2}2 for R = iPr (1), CH2CH2OH (2), and Me (3), and an all alkyl species, [Zn(S2CNEt2)2]2 (4), features a centrosymmetric {ZnSCS}2 core with a step topology; both 1 and 3 were isolated as monohydrates. All compounds were broadly cytotoxic, specifically against human cancer cell lines compared with normal cells, with greater potency than cisplatin. Notably, some selectivity were indicated with 2 being the most potent against human ovarian carcinoma cells (cisA2780), and 4 being more cytotoxic toward multidrug resistant human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7R), human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29), and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). Based on human apoptosis PCR-array analysis, caspase activities, DNA fragmentation, cell apoptotic assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements and human topoisomerase I inhibition, induction of apoptosis in HT-29 cells is demonstrated via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Compounds 2-4 activate the p53 gene while 1 activates both p53 and p73. Cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases correlates with inhibition of HT-29 cell growth. Cell invasion is also inhibited by 1-4 which is correlated with down-regulation of NF-κB. PMID:26086852

  15. Dithiocarbamates with potent inhibitory activity against the Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Murat; Carta, Fabrizio; Vullo, Daniela; Isik, Semra; AlOthman, Zeid; Osman, Sameh M; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) prepared from primary or secondary amines, which incorporated amino/hydroxyl-alkyl, mono-/bicyclic aliphatic/heterocyclic rings based on the quinuclidine, piperidine, hydroxy-/carboxy-/amino-substituted piperidine, morpholine and piperazine scaffolds, were investigated for the inhibition of α- and β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) of pharmacologic relevance, such as the human (h) isoform hCA I and II, as well as the Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-CA, scCA. The yeast and its β-CA were shown earlier to be useful models of pathogenic fungal infections. The DTCs investigated here were medium potency hCA I inhibitors (K(I)s of 66.5-910 nM), were more effective as hCA II inhibitors (K(I)s of 8.9-107 nM) and some of them showed excellent, low nanomolar activity against the yeast enzyme, with inhibition constants ranging between 6.4 and 259 nM. The detailed structure activity relationship for inhibition of the yeast and human enzymes is discussed. Several of the investigated DTCs showed excellent selectivity ratios for inhibiting the yeast over the human cytosolic CA isoforms. PMID:25669351

  16. More effective dithiocarbamate derivatives inhibiting carbonic anhydrases, generated by QSAR and computational design.

    PubMed

    Avram, Speranta; Milac, Adina Luminita; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-04-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTC) are promising compounds with potential applications in antitumoral and glaucoma therapy. Our aim is to understand molecular features affecting DTC interaction with carbonic anhydrases (CAs), zinc-containing enzymes maintaining acid-base balance in blood and other tissues. To this end, we generate QSAR models based on a compound series containing 25 DTC, inhibitors of four human (h) CAs isoforms: hCA I, II, IX and XII. We establish that critical physicochemical parameters for DTC inhibitory activity are: hydrophobic, electronic, steric, topological and shape. The predictive power of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: cross-validated correlation q(2) (0.55-0.73), fitted correlation r(2) (0.75-0.84) and standard error of prediction (0.47-0.23). Based on the established QSAR equations, we analyse 22 new DTC derivatives and identify DTC dicarboxilic acids derivatives and their esters as potentially improved inhibitors of CA I, II, IX and XII. PMID:23116520

  17. [Treatment of simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production using dithiocarbamate-type flocculant].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Jia, Yu-Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Cao, Bai-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Lei

    2010-10-01

    A dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the reaction of amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403 and carbon disulfide in alkaline solution. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) for simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production was studied by Jar-test. The effect of the dosage of DTC (T403), hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, and pH on the oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was investigated. The results showed that the chelate polymer formed by DTC (T403) and Fe2+ ion has good oil removal performance by net capturing mechanism. HPAM had a negative effect on oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403). For the treatment of the simulated wastewater containing 0-900 mg/L of HPAM and 300 mg/L of oil, the residual oil concentrations in water samples decreased below 10 mg/L when the dosage of Fe2+ and DTC (T403) was 10 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was affected by pH and good oil removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was below 7.5. DTC (T403) is appropriate for the treatment of oily wastewater containing Fe2+ ion.

  18. Dithiocarbamates are teratogenic to developing zebrafish through inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Boxtel, Antonius L. van; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Fluitsma, Donna M.; Legler, Juliette

    2010-04-15

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are a class of compounds that are extensively used in agriculture as pesticides. As such, humans and wildlife are undoubtedly exposed to these chemicals. Although DTCs are thought to be relatively safe due to their short half lives, it is well established that they are teratogenic to vertebrates, especially to fish. In zebrafish, these teratogenic effects are characterized by distorted notochord development and shortened anterior to posterior axis. DTCs are known copper (Cu) chelators but this does not fully explain the observed teratogenic effects. We show here that DTCs cause malformations in zebrafish that highly resemble teratogenic effects observed by direct inhibition of a group of cuproenzymes termed lysyl oxidases (LOX). Additionally, we demonstrate that partial knockdown of three LOX genes, lox, loxl1 and loxl5b, sensitizes the developing embryo to DTC exposure. Finally, we show that DTCs directly inhibit zebrafish LOX activity in an ex vivo amine oxidase assay. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that DTC induced teratogenic effects are, at least in part, caused by direct inhibition of LOX activity.

  19. Dithiocarbamate-modified starch derivatives with high heavy metal adsorption performance.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Bo; Fan, Wen; Yi, Xiaowei; Wang, Zuohua; Gao, Feng; Li, Yijiu; Gu, Hongbo

    2016-01-20

    In this work, three types of dithiocarbamate (DTC)-modified starch derivatives including DTC starch (DTCS), DTC enzymolysis starch (DTCES) and DTC mesoporous starch (DTCMS) were developed, which showed the significant heavy metal adsorption performance. The adsorption ability of these three DTC modified starch derivatives followed the sequences: DTCMS>DTCES>DTCS. In single metal aqueous solutions, the uptake amount of heavy metal ions onto the modified starches obeyed the orders: Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cr(VI)>Zn(II)>Pb(II). The adsorption mechanism was proved by the chelating between DTC groups and heavy metal ions through the pH effect measurements. A monolayer adsorption of Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Cu(II) onto DTCMS was well fitted rather than the multilayer adsorption of Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of Cu(II) onto starch derivatives was found to be fit well with the pseudo-second-order model. Additionally, in the presence of EDTA, the adsorption ability and uptake amount of heavy metal ions onto these three DTC modified starch derivatives is identical with the results obtained in the absence of EDTA.

  20. Stereoselective synthesis of densely functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones by a conjugate addition/nitro-Mannich/lactamization reaction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James C; Horsfall, Lisa R; Kalogirou, Andreas S; Mills, Matthew R; Stepney, Gregory J; Tizzard, Graham J

    2012-07-20

    Copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of diorgano zinc reagents to nitroacrylate 1 followed by a subsequent nitro-Mannich reaction and in situ lactamization leads to an efficient one-pot synthesis of 1,3,5-trisubstituted 4-nitropyrrolidin-2-ones (5). The versatility of the reaction is shown for a wide range of N-p-(methoxy)phenyl protected aldimines 3 derived from alkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl aldehydes. The densely functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones 5 are isolated as single diastereoisomers (40 examples, 33-84% yield). An enantioselective copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of diethylzinc led to highly crystalline products that could be recrystallized to enantiopurity in high yield. A range of successful chemoselective transformations were investigated, which widens the applicability of the pyrrolidn-2-ones as stereochemically pure building blocks for further organic synthesis. PMID:22708711

  1. Crystal structure of 4-meth­oxy-N-[(pyrrolidin-1-yl)carbo­thio­yl]benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Suhud, Khairi; Heng, Lee Yook; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Ahmad, Musa; Kassim, Mohammad B.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H16N2O2S, the pyrrolidine ring has a twisted conformation on the central –CH2–CH2– bond. Its mean plane is inclined to the 4-meth­oxy­benzoyl ring by 72.79 (15)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the same O-atom acceptor, forming chains along [001]. The chains are linked via slipped parallel π–π inter­actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.7578 (13) Å], forming undulating slabs parallel to (100). PMID:26029426

  2. Enantioselective Construction of Pyrrolidines by Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric [3+2] Cycloaddition of Trimethylenemethane with Imines

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Silverman, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for the enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition of trimethylenemethane (TMM) with imines has been developed. Central to this effort were the novel phosphoramidite ligands developed in our laboratories. The conditions developed to effect an asymmetric TMM reaction using 2-trimethylsilylmethyl allyl acetate were shown to be tolerant of a wide variety of imine acceptors to provide the corresponding pyrrolidine cycloadducts with excellent yields and selectivities. Use of a bis-2-naphthyl phosphoramidite allowed the successful cycloaddition of the parent TMM with N-Boc imines, and has further permitted the reaction of substituted donors with N-tosyl aldimines and ketimines in high regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Use of a diphenylazetidine ligand allows the complimentary synthesis of the exocyclic nitrile product shown, and we demonstrate control of the regioselectivity of the product based on manipulation of the reaction parameters. PMID:22309214

  3. Validation of a GC-MS method for the estimation of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues and safety evaluation of mancozeb in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Mujawar, Sumaiyya; Utture, Sagar C; Fonseca, Eddie; Matarrita, Jessie; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2014-05-01

    A sensitive and rugged residue analysis method was validated for the estimation of dithiocarbamate fungicides in a variety of fruit and vegetable matrices. The sample preparation method involved reaction of dithiocarbamates with Tin(II) chloride in aqueous HCl. The CS2 produced was absorbed into an isooctane layer and estimated by GC-MS selected ion monitoring. Limit of quantification (LOQ) was ⩽40μgkg(-1) for grape, green chilli, tomato, potato, brinjal, pineapple and chayote and the recoveries were within 75-104% (RSD<15% at LOQ). The method could be satisfactorily applied for analysis of real world samples. Dissipation of mancozeb, the most-used dithiocarbamate fungicide, in field followed first+first order kinetics with pre-harvest intervals of 2 and 4days in brinjal, 7 and 10days in grapes and 0day in chilli at single and double dose of agricultural applications. Cooking practices were effective for removal of mancozeb residues from vegetables.

  4. Structure sensitive normal coordinate analysis of metal-diethyldithiocarbamate - complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikosch, H.; Bauer, G.; Kellner, R.; Trendafilova, N. S.; St. Nikolov, G.

    1986-03-01

    Symmetry changes in the course of dissolution are assumed to produce frequency shifts in molecular spectra of N, N-Disubstituted Dithiocarbamates. Using (mass-weighted) cartesian coordinates it is possible to calculate eigenvalues both for the site- and the molecular symmetry. Calculated shifts for Cu- and Zn- complexes are of the same order of magnitude as experimental results and calculation of frequencies even for assumed structures is possible.

  5. Spiro[pyrrolidine-3, 3´-oxindole] as potent anti-breast cancer compounds: Their design, synthesis, biological evaluation and cellular target identification.

    PubMed

    Hati, Santanu; Tripathy, Sayantan; Dutta, Pratip Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Srinivasan, Ramprasad; Singh, Ashutosh; Singh, Shailja; Sen, Subhabrata

    2016-01-01

    The spiro[pyrrolidine-3, 3´-oxindole] moiety is present as a core in number of alkaloids with substantial biological activities. Here in we report design and synthesis of a library of compounds bearing spiro[pyrrolidine-3, 3´-oxindole] motifs that demonstrated exceptional inhibitory activity against the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The synthesis involved a one pot Pictet Spengler-Oxidative ring contraction of tryptamine to the desired scaffolds and occurred in 1:1 THF and water with catalytic trifluoroacetic acid and stoichiometric N-bromosuccinimide as an oxidant. Phenotypic profiling indicated that these molecules induce apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells. Target deconvolution with most potent compound 5l from the library, using chemical proteomics indicated histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and prohibitin 2 as the potential cellular binding partners. Molecular docking of 5l with HDAC2 provided insights pertinent to putative binding interactions. PMID:27573798

  6. Spiro[pyrrolidine-3, 3´-oxindole] as potent anti-breast cancer compounds: Their design, synthesis, biological evaluation and cellular target identification

    PubMed Central

    Hati, Santanu; Tripathy, Sayantan; Dutta, Pratip Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Srinivasan, Ramprasad; Singh, Ashutosh; Singh, Shailja; Sen, Subhabrata

    2016-01-01

    The spiro[pyrrolidine-3, 3´-oxindole] moiety is present as a core in number of alkaloids with substantial biological activities. Here in we report design and synthesis of a library of compounds bearing spiro[pyrrolidine-3, 3´-oxindole] motifs that demonstrated exceptional inhibitory activity against the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The synthesis involved a one pot Pictet Spengler-Oxidative ring contraction of tryptamine to the desired scaffolds and occurred in 1:1 THF and water with catalytic trifluoroacetic acid and stoichiometric N-bromosuccinimide as an oxidant. Phenotypic profiling indicated that these molecules induce apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells. Target deconvolution with most potent compound 5l from the library, using chemical proteomics indicated histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and prohibitin 2 as the potential cellular binding partners. Molecular docking of 5l with HDAC2 provided insights pertinent to putative binding interactions. PMID:27573798

  7. Synthesis, physicochemical, and anticonvulsant properties of new N-Mannich bases derived from pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and its 3-methyl analog.

    PubMed

    Rybka, Sabina; Obniska, Jolanta; Rapacz, Anna; Filipek, Barbara; Kamiński, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    A series of 22 new N-[(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-methyl]-3-methyl-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and pyrrolidine-2,5-dione derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activities in the maximum electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure tests after intraperitoneal injection into mice. The neurotoxicity was determined applying the rotarod test. The in vivo results in mice showed that seven compounds were effective in the MES or/and scPTZ seizure tests. The quantitative evaluation in both tests after i.p. administration into mice revealed that the most active compounds were N-[{4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl}-methyl]-3-methylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione (12) with ED50  = 16.13 mg/kg (MES), ED50  = 133.99 mg/kg (scPTZ) and N-[{4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl}-methyl]-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (23) with ED50  = 37.79 mg/kg (MES), ED50  = 128.82 mg/kg (scPTZ), whereas N-[{4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl}-methyl]-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (24) was effective only in the MES test with ED50  = 16.37 mg/kg. These molecules showed higher potency and also lower neurotoxicity than the reference antiepileptic drugs such as ethosuximide and valproic acid. PMID:25139813

  8. The discovery of novel 5,6,5- and 5,5,6-tricyclic pyrrolidines as potent and selective DPP-4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jason M; Chu, Hong D; Kuethe, Jeffrey T; Gao, Ying-Duo; Scapin, Giovanna; Eiermann, George; He, Huaibing; Li, Xiaohua; Lyons, Kathryn A; Metzger, Joseph; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wu, Joseph K; Xu, Shiyao; Sinha-Roy, Ranabir; Weber, Ann E; Biftu, Tesfaye

    2016-06-01

    Novel potent and selective 5,6,5- and 5,5,6-tricyclic pyrrolidine dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors were identified. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) efforts focused on improving the intrinsic DPP-4 inhibition potency, increasing protease selectivity, and demonstrating clean ion channel and cytochrome P450 profiles while trying to achieve a pharmacokinetic profile suitable for once weekly dosing in humans. PMID:27106708

  9. Biomimetic synthesis of highly biocompatible gold nanoparticles with amino acid-dithiocarbamate as a precursor for SERS imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Liu, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaohai; Huang, Jin; He, Dinggeng; Guo, Xi; Wan, Lan; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin

    2016-03-01

    Amino acid-dithiocarbamate (amino acid-DTC) was developed as both the reductant and ligand stabilizer for biomimetic synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which served as an excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) contrast nanoprobe for cell imaging. Glycine (Gly), glutamic acid (Glu), and histidine (His) with different isoelectric points were chosen as representative amino acid candidates to synthesize corresponding amino acid-DTC compounds through mixing with carbon disulfide (CS2), respectively. The pyrogenic decomposition of amino acid-DTC initiated the reduction synthesis of AuNPs, and the strong coordinating dithiocarbamate group of amino acid-DTC served as a stabilizer that grafted onto the surface of the AuNPs, which rendered the as-prepared nanoparticles a negative surface charge and high colloidal stability. MTT cell viability assay demonstrated that the biomimetic AuNPs possessed neglectful toxicity to the human hepatoma cell, which guaranteed them good biocompatibility for biomedical application. Meanwhile, the biomimetic AuNPs showed a strong SERS effect with an enhancement factor of 9.8 × 105 for the sensing of Rhodamine 6G, and two distinct Raman peaks located at 1363 and 1509 cm-1 could be clearly observed in the cell-imaging experiments. Therefore, biomimetic AuNPs can be explored as an excellent SERS contrast nanoprobe for biomedical imaging, and the amino acid-DTC mediated synthesis of the AuNPs has a great potential in bio-engineering and biomedical imaging applications.

  10. Novel and efficient one-pot five- and six-component reactions for the stereoselective synthesis of highly functionalized enaminones and dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Bararjanian, Morteza; Balalaie, Saeed; Rominger, Frank; Movassagh, Barahman; Bijanzadeh, Hamid Reza

    2011-05-01

    Efficient methods for stereoselective synthesis of polyfunctional (E)-enaminones and (Z)-dithiocarbamates via one-pot five- and six-component sequential Ugi/Nucleophilic addition reactions are described. High yields and high bond forming efficiency, and simple operations are the advantages of this method. PMID:21072590

  11. Direct Phenotypic Screening in Mice: Identification of Individual, Novel Antinociceptive Compounds from a Library of 734,821 Pyrrolidine Bis-piperazines.

    PubMed

    Houghten, Richard A; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P; Dooley, Colette T; Eans, Shainnel O; Santos, Radleigh G; LaVoi, Travis; Nefzi, Adel; Welmaker, Greg; Giulianotti, Marc A; Toll, Lawrence

    2016-01-11

    The hypothesis in the current study is that the simultaneous direct in vivo testing of thousands to millions of systematically arranged mixture-based libraries will facilitate the identification of enhanced individual compounds. Individual compounds identified from such libraries may have increased specificity and decreased side effects early in the discovery phase. Testing began by screening ten diverse scaffolds as single mixtures (ranging from 17,340 to 4,879,681 compounds) for analgesia directly in the mouse tail withdrawal model. The "all X" mixture representing the library TPI-1954 was found to produce significant antinociception and lacked respiratory depression and hyperlocomotor effects using the Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). The TPI-1954 library is a pyrrolidine bis-piperazine and totals 738,192 compounds. This library has 26 functionalities at the first three positions of diversity made up of 28,392 compounds each (26 × 26 × 42) and 42 functionalities at the fourth made up of 19,915 compounds each (26 × 26 × 26). The 120 resulting mixtures representing each of the variable four positions were screened directly in vivo in the mouse 55 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay (ip administration). The 120 samples were then ranked in terms of their antinociceptive activity. The synthesis of 54 individual compounds was then carried out. Nine of the individual compounds produced dose-dependent antinociception equivalent to morphine. In practical terms what this means is that one would not expect multiexponential increases in activity as we move from the all-X mixture, to the positional scanning libraries, to the individual compounds. Actually because of the systematic formatting one would typically anticipate steady increases in activity as the complexity of the mixtures is reduced. This is in fact what we see in the current study. One of the final individual compounds identified, TPI 2213-17, lacked significant respiratory

  12. Direct Phenotypic Screening in Mice: Identification of Individual, Novel Antinociceptive Compounds from a Library of 734 821 Pyrrolidine Bis-piperazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis in the current study is that the simultaneous direct in vivo testing of thousands to millions of systematically arranged mixture-based libraries will facilitate the identification of enhanced individual compounds. Individual compounds identified from such libraries may have increased specificity and decreased side effects early in the discovery phase. Testing began by screening ten diverse scaffolds as single mixtures (ranging from 17 340 to 4 879 681 compounds) for analgesia directly in the mouse tail withdrawal model. The “all X” mixture representing the library TPI-1954 was found to produce significant antinociception and lacked respiratory depression and hyperlocomotor effects using the Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). The TPI-1954 library is a pyrrolidine bis-piperazine and totals 738 192 compounds. This library has 26 functionalities at the first three positions of diversity made up of 28 392 compounds each (26 × 26 × 42) and 42 functionalities at the fourth made up of 19 915 compounds each (26 × 26 × 26). The 120 resulting mixtures representing each of the variable four positions were screened directly in vivo in the mouse 55 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay (ip administration). The 120 samples were then ranked in terms of their antinociceptive activity. The synthesis of 54 individual compounds was then carried out. Nine of the individual compounds produced dose-dependent antinociception equivalent to morphine. In practical terms what this means is that one would not expect multiexponential increases in activity as we move from the all-X mixture, to the positional scanning libraries, to the individual compounds. Actually because of the systematic formatting one would typically anticipate steady increases in activity as the complexity of the mixtures is reduced. This is in fact what we see in the current study. One of the final individual compounds identified, TPI 2213-17, lacked significant

  13. Hydrido copper clusters supported by dithiocarbamates: oxidative hydride removal and neutron diffraction analysis of [Cu7(H){S2C(aza-15-crown-5)}6].

    PubMed

    Liao, Ping-Kuei; Fang, Ching-Shiang; Edwards, Alison J; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W

    2012-06-18

    Reactions of Cu(I) salts with Na(S(2)CR) (R = N(n)Pr(2), NEt(2), aza-15-crown-5), and (Bu(4)N)(BH(4)) in an 8:6:1 ratio in CH(3)CN solution at room temperature yield the monocationic hydride-centered octanuclear Cu(I) clusters, [Cu(8)(H){S(2)CR}(6)](PF(6)) (R = N(n)Pr(2), 1(H); NEt(2), 2(H); aza-15-crown-5, 3(H)). Further reactions of [Cu(8)(H){S(2)CR}(6)](PF(6)) with 1 equiv of (Bu(4)N)(BH(4)) produced neutral heptanuclear copper clusters, [Cu(7)(H){S(2)CR}(6)] (R = N(n)Pr(2), 4(H); NEt(2), 5(H); aza-15-crown-5, 6(H)) and clusters 4-6 can also be generated from the reaction of Cu(BF(4))(2), Na(S(2)CR), and (Bu(4)N)(BH(4)) in a 7:6:8 molar ratio in CH(3)CN. Reformation of cationic Cu(I)(8) clusters by adding 1 equiv of Cu(I) salt to the neutral Cu(7) clusters in solution is observed. Intriguingly, the central hydride in [Cu(8)(H){S(2)CN(n)Pr(2)}(6)](PF(6)) can be oxidatively removed as H(2) by Ce(NO(3))(6)(2-) to yield [Cu(II)(S(2)CN(n)Pr(2))(2)] exploiting the redox-tolerant nature of dithiocarbamates. Regeneration of hydride-centered octanuclear copper clusters from the [Cu(II)(S(2)CN(n)Pr(2))(2)] can be achieved by reaction with Cu(I) ions and borohydride. The hydride release and regeneration of Cu(I)(8) was monitored by UV-visible titration experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first time that hydride encapsulated within a copper cluster can be released as H(2) via chemical means. All complexes have been fully characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, and elemental analysis, and molecular structures of 1(H), 2(H), and 6(H) were clearly established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both 1(H) and 2(H) exhibit a tetracapped tetrahedral Cu(8) skeleton, which is inscribed within a S(12) icosahedron constituted by six dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands in a tetrametallic-tetraconnective (μ(2), μ(2)) bonding mode. The copper framework of 6(H) is a tricapped distorted tetrahedron in which the four-coordinate hydride is demonstrated to occupy the central site by

  14. Irniine, a pyrrolidine alkaloid, isolated from Arisarum vulgare can induce apoptosis and/or necrosis in rat hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Rakba, N; Melhaoui, A; Rissel, M; Morel, I; Loyer, P; Lescoat, G

    2000-10-01

    The effects of irniine, a pyrrolidine alkaloid extracted from the tubers of Arisarum vulgare, on rat hepatocyte primary cultures and rat liver epithelial cell line (RLEC) were studied. Cytotoxicity was first evaluated by LDH release, MTT and NR tests and MDA production, while cellular alterations were visualized by electron microscopy and DNA gel-electrophoresis. In hepatocyte and RLEC cultures, a major toxicity appeared at 40 microM of irniine and was demonstrated by an increase in LDH release and decreases in MTT reduction and NR uptake while concentrations lower than 40 microM did not induce significant changes in these parameters. However, we observed an increase in MDA production at 30 microM. Important alterations of the nuclei and mitochondria were also visualized by electron microscopy in cells treated with 50 microM. Using DNA gel-electrophoresis, we demonstrated that irniine at 40 and 50 microM induced DNA damage. All together these results demonstrate that: (1) Irniine induces a significant hepatotoxicity. (2) Irniine toxicity is not mediated by a metabolic derivative since RLEC, which do not contain a monooxygenase system, were also affected by this compound. (3) Irniine induces a significant DNA damage and oxidative stress which leads to cell death by necrosis and/or by apoptosis. Moreover, our data suggest that the alkaloid irniine contained in A. vulgare may be involved in the toxic symptoms observed after medicinal use or consumption of the plant tubers as food both by humans and animals.

  15. RECOVERY OF URANIUM BY CYCLOALKYLDITHIO-CARBAMATE COMPLEXING

    DOEpatents

    Neville, O.K.

    1959-06-30

    The separation of uranium-233 from an aqueous nitric acid solution of neutron irradiated thorium by selectively complexing the uranium is described. The separation is carried out by contacting the thorium solution with a non- aromatic organic dithiocarbamate selected from the group which consists of alkali and alkaline earth cycloalkyldithiocarbamates and recovering the resulting uranyl cycloalkyldithiocarbamate complex by organic solvent extraction such as with methyl ethyl ketone. The complexed uranium may be stripped from the separated organic phase by scrubbing with one normal nitric acid solution.

  16. Visual Identification of Light-Driven Breakage of the Silver-Dithiocarbamate Bond by Single Plasmonic Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng Fei; Yuan, Bin Fang; Gao, Ming Xuan; Li, Rong Sheng; Ma, Jun; Zou, Hong Yan; Li, Yuan Fang; Li, Ming; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Insight into the nature of metal-sulfur bond, a meaningful one in life science, interface chemistry and organometallic chemistry, is interesting but challenging. By utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance properties of silver nanoparticles, herein we visually identified the photosensitivity of silver-dithiocarbamate (Ag-DTC) bond by using dark field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique at single nanoparticle level. It was found that the breakage of Ag-DTC bond could be accelerated effectively by light irradiation, followed by a pH-dependent horizontal or vertical degradation of the DTC molecules, in which an indispensable preoxidation process of the silver was at first disclosed. These findings suggest a visualization strategy at single plasmonic nanoparticle level which can be excellently applied to explore new stimulus-triggered reactions, and might also open a new way to understand traditional organic reaction mechanisms. PMID:26493773

  17. In vitro evaluation of BO-3482, a novel dithiocarbamate carbapenem with activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Y; Nakamura, K; Kato, Y; Hazumi, N; Hashizume, T; Nakagawa, S

    1997-01-01

    BO-3482, a dithiocarbamate carbapenem, inhibited clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) at 6.25 microg/ml (MIC at which 90% of isolates tested are inhibited [MIC90]), while the MIC90 of imipenem was > 100 microg/ml. BO-3482 was generally less active than imipenem against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, enterococci, and gram-negative bacteria, although BO-3482 showed better activity (MIC90) than imipenem against Enterococcus faecium, Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus mirabilis, and Clostridium difficile. The affinities (50% inhibitory concentrations) of BO-3482 for penicillin-binding protein (PBP) PBP 2' of MRS and PBP 5 of E. faecium (both PBPs have low affinities for ordinary beta-lactam antibiotics) were 3.8 and 20 microg/ml, respectively, reflecting the greater activity of BO-3482 against MRS than against E. faecium. PMID:9333063

  18. Dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids useful as vaginal microbicides also show reverse transcriptase inhibition: design, synthesis, docking and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Bala, Veenu; Jangir, Santosh; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gupta, Sonal; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Lal, Nand; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Chandasana, Hardik; Krishna, Shagun; Rawat, Kavita; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Bhatta, Rabi S; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Tripathi, Rajkamal; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-02-15

    Prophylactic prevention is considered as the most promising strategy to tackle STI/HIV. Twenty-five dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids (14-38) were synthesized as woman controlled topical vaginal microbicides to counter Trichomonas vaginalis and sperm along with RT inhibition potential. The four promising compounds (18, 26, 28 and 33) were tested for safety through cytotoxic assay against human cervical cell line (HeLa) and compatibility with vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Docking study of most promising vaginal microbicide (33) revealed that it docked in a position and orientation similar to known reverse transcriptase inhibitor Nevirapine. The preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetics of compound 33 was performed in NZ-rabbits to evaluate systemic toxicity in comparison to Nonoxynol-9. PMID:25592712

  19. Visual Identification of Light-Driven Breakage of the Silver-Dithiocarbamate Bond by Single Plasmonic Nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng Fei; Yuan, Bin Fang; Gao, Ming Xuan; Li, Rong Sheng; Ma, Jun; Zou, Hong Yan; Li, Yuan Fang; Li, Ming; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-10-01

    Insight into the nature of metal-sulfur bond, a meaningful one in life science, interface chemistry and organometallic chemistry, is interesting but challenging. By utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance properties of silver nanoparticles, herein we visually identified the photosensitivity of silver-dithiocarbamate (Ag-DTC) bond by using dark field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique at single nanoparticle level. It was found that the breakage of Ag-DTC bond could be accelerated effectively by light irradiation, followed by a pH-dependent horizontal or vertical degradation of the DTC molecules, in which an indispensable preoxidation process of the silver was at first disclosed. These findings suggest a visualization strategy at single plasmonic nanoparticle level which can be excellently applied to explore new stimulus-triggered reactions, and might also open a new way to understand traditional organic reaction mechanisms.

  20. Effect of additives on Hg2+ reduction and precipitation inhibited by sodium dithiocarbamate in simulated flue gas desulfurization solutions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rongjie; Hou, Jiaai; Xu, Jiang; Tang, Tingmei; Xu, Xinhua

    2011-11-30

    Mercury (II) (Hg(2+)) ion can be reduced by aqueous S(IV) (sulfite and/or bisulfite) species, which leads to elemental mercury (Hg(0)) emissions in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Numerous reports have demonstrated the high trapping efficiency of sodium dithiocarbamate over heavy metals. In this paper, a novel sodium dithiocarbamate, DTCR, was utilized as a precipitator to control Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) emission against S(IV) in FGD solutions. Results indicated that Hg(2+) reduction efficiency decreased dramatically while precipitation rate peaked at around 91.0% in consistence with the increment of DTCR dosage. Initial pH and temperature had great inhibitory effects on Hg(2+) reduction: the Hg(2+) removal rate gradually increased and reached a plateau along with the increment of temperature and initial pH value. Chloride played a key role in Hg(2+) reduction and precipitation reactions. When Cl(-) concentration increased from 0 to 150 mM, Hg(2+) removal rate dropped from 93.84% to 86.05%, and the Hg(2+) reduction rate remained at a low level (<7.8%). SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and other common metal ions would affect the efficiency of Hg(2+) reduction and precipitation reactions in the simulated desulfurization solutions: Hg(2+) removal rate could always be above 90%, while Hg(2+) reduction rate was maintained at below 10%. The predominance of DTCR over aqueous S(IV), indicated by the results above, has wide industrial applications in FGD systems.

  1. Biomimetic synthesis of highly biocompatible gold nanoparticles with amino acid-dithiocarbamate as a precursor for SERS imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaohai; Huang, Jin; He, Dinggeng; Guo, Xi; Wan, Lan; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin

    2016-03-11

    Amino acid-dithiocarbamate (amino acid-DTC) was developed as both the reductant and ligand stabilizer for biomimetic synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which served as an excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) contrast nanoprobe for cell imaging. Glycine (Gly), glutamic acid (Glu), and histidine (His) with different isoelectric points were chosen as representative amino acid candidates to synthesize corresponding amino acid-DTC compounds through mixing with carbon disulfide (CS2), respectively. The pyrogenic decomposition of amino acid-DTC initiated the reduction synthesis of AuNPs, and the strong coordinating dithiocarbamate group of amino acid-DTC served as a stabilizer that grafted onto the surface of the AuNPs, which rendered the as-prepared nanoparticles a negative surface charge and high colloidal stability. MTT cell viability assay demonstrated that the biomimetic AuNPs possessed neglectful toxicity to the human hepatoma cell, which guaranteed them good biocompatibility for biomedical application. Meanwhile, the biomimetic AuNPs showed a strong SERS effect with an enhancement factor of 9.8 × 10(5) for the sensing of Rhodamine 6G, and two distinct Raman peaks located at 1363 and 1509 cm(-1) could be clearly observed in the cell-imaging experiments. Therefore, biomimetic AuNPs can be explored as an excellent SERS contrast nanoprobe for biomedical imaging, and the amino acid-DTC mediated synthesis of the AuNPs has a great potential in bio-engineering and biomedical imaging applications. PMID:26867113

  2. Effect of additives on Hg2+ reduction and precipitation inhibited by sodium dithiocarbamate in simulated flue gas desulfurization solutions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rongjie; Hou, Jiaai; Xu, Jiang; Tang, Tingmei; Xu, Xinhua

    2011-11-30

    Mercury (II) (Hg(2+)) ion can be reduced by aqueous S(IV) (sulfite and/or bisulfite) species, which leads to elemental mercury (Hg(0)) emissions in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Numerous reports have demonstrated the high trapping efficiency of sodium dithiocarbamate over heavy metals. In this paper, a novel sodium dithiocarbamate, DTCR, was utilized as a precipitator to control Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) emission against S(IV) in FGD solutions. Results indicated that Hg(2+) reduction efficiency decreased dramatically while precipitation rate peaked at around 91.0% in consistence with the increment of DTCR dosage. Initial pH and temperature had great inhibitory effects on Hg(2+) reduction: the Hg(2+) removal rate gradually increased and reached a plateau along with the increment of temperature and initial pH value. Chloride played a key role in Hg(2+) reduction and precipitation reactions. When Cl(-) concentration increased from 0 to 150 mM, Hg(2+) removal rate dropped from 93.84% to 86.05%, and the Hg(2+) reduction rate remained at a low level (<7.8%). SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and other common metal ions would affect the efficiency of Hg(2+) reduction and precipitation reactions in the simulated desulfurization solutions: Hg(2+) removal rate could always be above 90%, while Hg(2+) reduction rate was maintained at below 10%. The predominance of DTCR over aqueous S(IV), indicated by the results above, has wide industrial applications in FGD systems. PMID:21955657

  3. ToF-SIMS analysis of anti-fretting films generated on the surface of ball bearings containing dithiocarbamate and dithiophosphate grease additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, Ricardo G.; Wang, Zhiyu; Duell, Dave; Fowler, David E.

    2004-06-01

    During transport of hard drives from the factory to the end customer, vibrations can induce small repetitive displacements of the ball bearings giving rise to fretting corrosion at the metal surfaces. On the other hand, it has been found that some particular types of grease additives can form thin layers on steel surfaces and thus protect against fretting corrosion. ToF-SIMS has been used to study the chemical nature of layers formed on bearing surfaces containing greases with dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, and metal sulfonate additives. In cases where fretting was prevented, the presence of MoS 2-, FeS - and ion fragments containing Mo-Fe-S - were observed, whereas none of these ions were detected on the surfaces of fretted bearings. Finally, it is inferred that the action of metal sulfonates may have an antagonist effect on the anti-fretting activity of the dithiocarbamate and dithiophosphate compounds studied.

  4. Use of zirconium(IV) arsenophosphate columns for cation exchange separation of metal ions interfering in the spectrophotometric determination of uranium with sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate

    SciTech Connect

    Varshney, K.G.; Agrawal, S.; Anwar, S.; Varshney, K.

    1985-01-01

    A simple cation exchange method has been developed for the quantitative separation of uranium from some metal ions which generally interfere in its spectrophotometric determination using sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate as a reagent. The method requires only a single bed operation and enables a satisfactory (Error + or - separation of uranium (UO/sub 2/ (II)) up to 1080 ..mu..g from ten metal ions on a 2 g column of zirconium (IV) arsenophosphate cation exchanger in H(I) form.

  5. Validation of a GC-MS method for the estimation of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues and safety evaluation of mancozeb in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Mujawar, Sumaiyya; Utture, Sagar C; Fonseca, Eddie; Matarrita, Jessie; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2014-05-01

    A sensitive and rugged residue analysis method was validated for the estimation of dithiocarbamate fungicides in a variety of fruit and vegetable matrices. The sample preparation method involved reaction of dithiocarbamates with Tin(II) chloride in aqueous HCl. The CS2 produced was absorbed into an isooctane layer and estimated by GC-MS selected ion monitoring. Limit of quantification (LOQ) was ⩽40μgkg(-1) for grape, green chilli, tomato, potato, brinjal, pineapple and chayote and the recoveries were within 75-104% (RSD<15% at LOQ). The method could be satisfactorily applied for analysis of real world samples. Dissipation of mancozeb, the most-used dithiocarbamate fungicide, in field followed first+first order kinetics with pre-harvest intervals of 2 and 4days in brinjal, 7 and 10days in grapes and 0day in chilli at single and double dose of agricultural applications. Cooking practices were effective for removal of mancozeb residues from vegetables. PMID:24360436

  6. Antioxidant properties of thio-caffeine derivatives: Identification of the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine as antioxidant and highly potent cytoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Beata; Sierakowska, Arleta; Wandyszewska, Natalia; Warżajtis, Beata; Rychlewska, Urszula; Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Mrówczyńska, Lucyna

    2016-08-15

    A series of nine thio-caffeine analogues were synthesized and characterised by NMR, FT-IR and MS spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of four of them were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The antioxidant properties of all compounds, at concentration ranges from 0.025 to 0.1mg/mL, were evaluated by various chemical- and cell-based antioxidant assays. Human erythrocytes were used to examine in vitro haemolytic activity of all compounds and their protective effect against oxidative haemolysis induced by AAPH, one of the commonly used free radical generator. All compounds studied showed no effect on the human erythrocytes membrane structure and permeability with the exception of 8-(phenylsulfanyl)caffeine. Among the nine caffeine thio-analogues tested, the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine possessed exceptionally high antioxidant properties. Moreover, it protects human erythrocytes against AAPH-induced oxidative damage as efficiently as the standard antioxidant Trolox. Therefore, 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine may have a significant cytoprotective potential caused by its antioxidant activity. PMID:27400888

  7. Antioxidant properties of thio-caffeine derivatives: Identification of the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine as antioxidant and highly potent cytoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Beata; Sierakowska, Arleta; Wandyszewska, Natalia; Warżajtis, Beata; Rychlewska, Urszula; Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Mrówczyńska, Lucyna

    2016-08-15

    A series of nine thio-caffeine analogues were synthesized and characterised by NMR, FT-IR and MS spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of four of them were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The antioxidant properties of all compounds, at concentration ranges from 0.025 to 0.1mg/mL, were evaluated by various chemical- and cell-based antioxidant assays. Human erythrocytes were used to examine in vitro haemolytic activity of all compounds and their protective effect against oxidative haemolysis induced by AAPH, one of the commonly used free radical generator. All compounds studied showed no effect on the human erythrocytes membrane structure and permeability with the exception of 8-(phenylsulfanyl)caffeine. Among the nine caffeine thio-analogues tested, the newly synthesized 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine possessed exceptionally high antioxidant properties. Moreover, it protects human erythrocytes against AAPH-induced oxidative damage as efficiently as the standard antioxidant Trolox. Therefore, 8-[(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonothioyl)sulfanyl]caffeine may have a significant cytoprotective potential caused by its antioxidant activity.

  8. A novel series of 6-substituted 3-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)chromen-2-ones as selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Cecilia; Svensson, Peder; Sonesson, Clas

    2014-02-12

    A series of 6-substituted 3-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)chromen-2-ones (coumarins) have been synthesized and their inhibitory activity to human monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) and B (MAO B) determined. Incorporation of a basic amino function in the C3 position together with substitution at the C6 position produced novel coumarin compounds with selectivity for the MAO A subtype. Substitution in the C6 position with small hydrophilic groups such as hydroxy (19, IC50 = 1.46 μM) or amino (18, IC50 = 3.77 μM) gave the most potent and selective compounds for MAO A. These compounds also showed excellent aqueous solubility properties. Compound 18 [6-amino-3-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)chromen-2-one] administrated in vivo induced in rat brain a neurotransmitter metabolite profile typical of MAO A inhibition: decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) but increased 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) levels.

  9. Crystal structure of poly[bis-(ammonium) [bis-(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tri-carboxyl-ato)dizincate] 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one disolvate].

    PubMed

    Ordonez, Carlos; Fonari, Marina S; Wei, Qiang; Timofeeva, Tatiana V

    2016-05-01

    The title three-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF) compound, {(NH4)2[Zn2(C9H3O6)2]·2C5H9NO} n , features an anionic framework constructed from Zn(2+) cations and benzene-1,3,5-tri-carboxyl-ate (BTC) organic anions. Charge balance is achieved by outer sphere ammonium cations formed by degradation of di-n-butyl-amine in the solvothermal synthesis of the compound. Binuclear {Zn2(COO)2} entities act as the framework's secondary building units. Each Zn(II) atom has a tetrahedral coordination environment with an O4 set of donor atoms. The three-dimensional framework adopts a rutile-type topology and channels are filled in an alternating fashion with ordered and disordered 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol-ecules and ammonium cations. The latter are held in the channels via four N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, including three with the benzene-1,3,5-tri-carboxyl-ate ligands of the anionic framework and one with a 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol-ecule. PMID:27308037

  10. Asymmetric construction of 3-vinylidene-pyrrolidine derivatives containing allene moiety via Ag(I)/TF-BiphamPhos-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides with diethyl 2-(3,3-diphenylpropa-1,2-dienylidene) malonate.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhi-Yong; Fang, Xin; Wang, Chun-Jiang

    2011-05-21

    Catalytic asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of various azomethine ylides with diethyl 2-(3,3-diphenylpropa-1,2-dienylidene)malonate has been developed successfully with good to excellent enantioselectivity for the effcient construction of 3-vinylidene-pyrrolidine derivatives containing a unique allene moiety.

  11. Asymmetric construction of 3-vinylidene-pyrrolidine derivatives containing allene moiety via Ag(I)/TF-BiphamPhos-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides with diethyl 2-(3,3-diphenylpropa-1,2-dienylidene) malonate.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhi-Yong; Fang, Xin; Wang, Chun-Jiang

    2011-05-21

    Catalytic asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of various azomethine ylides with diethyl 2-(3,3-diphenylpropa-1,2-dienylidene)malonate has been developed successfully with good to excellent enantioselectivity for the effcient construction of 3-vinylidene-pyrrolidine derivatives containing a unique allene moiety. PMID:21472159

  12. Dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram detection: comparison of bioluminescent and fluorescent whole-cell bioassays based on hsp22 stress promoter induction.

    PubMed

    Mandon, C A; Diaz-Latoud, C; Arrigo, A-P; Blum, L J

    2006-07-13

    Detection of toxic substances interfering with endocrine system is one of the major preoccupations of the European community. A whole-cell bioassay for pollution detection based on stress induction has been designed. Well characterized toxicants, cadmium chloride and thiram (a dithiocarbamate fungicide), were used to optimize the detection conditions such as time-course conditions, cell line and reporter gene to be used. HeLa cells containing the firefly luciferase (luc) reporter gene under the control of the Drosophila melanogaster hsp22 promoter were compared to liver cells (HepG2) containing the same stress gene promoter fused either to the luc or the EGFP (Enhanced-Green Fluorescent Protein) gene. The sensitivity of the obtained bioassay was found to be enhanced by the concomitant use of liver cells and EGFP reporter gene. The detection limits of the toxicants were then lowered from 1 to 0.1 microM and from 1 to 0.01 microM for CdCl(2) and thiram, respectively.

  13. Primary risk assessment of dimethyldithiocarbamate, a dithiocarbamate fungicide metabolite, based on their probabilistic concentrations in a coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Kono, Kumiko; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Ito, Mana; Ichihashi, Hideki; Fujii, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The primary ecological risk of dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDC), a dithiocarbamate fungicide (DTC) metabolite, was evaluated based on their probabilistic environmental concentration distributions (ECDs) in the coastal environment, Hiroshima Bay, Japan. And their behavior and temporal trends was further considered. This is the first report of the identification of DMDC from environmental seawater and sediment samples. DMDC concentrations in bottom seawater were substantially higher than those in surface seawater, which are associated with the leachability from sediments in bottom seawaters, and with photodegradation in surface seawaters. Furthermore, seasonal risks are dominated by higher concentrations from April to June, indicating temporal variation in the risk to exposed species. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis offered DMDC ECD medians and range (5th to 95th percentiles) of 0.85 ng L(-1) (0.029, 22), 12 ng L(-1) (3.2, 48) and 110 ng kg dry(-1) (9.5, 1200) in surface seawater, bottom seawater and sediment, respectively. Considering that DMDC and DTCs have similar toxicological potential to aquatic organisms, the occurrence of the compound in water is likely to be of biological relevance. In summary, this work provides the first demonstration that the ecological risk of DMDC and its derived DTCs in Hiroshima Bay is relatively high, and that DTCs should be a high priority for future research on marine contamination, especially in bottom seawaters.

  14. Dithiocarbamate/piperazine bridged pyrrolobenzodiazepines as DNA-minor groove binders: synthesis, DNA-binding affinity and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Sreekanth, Kokkonda; Shankaraiah, Nagula; Sathish, Manda; Nekkanti, Shalini; Srinivasulu, Vunnam

    2015-04-01

    A new series of C8-linked dithiocarbamate/piperazine bridged pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine conjugates (5a-c, 6a,b) have been synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic potential and DNA-binding ability. The representative conjugates 5a and 5b have been screened for their cytotoxicity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. Compound 5a has shown promising cytotoxic activity on selected cancer cell lines that display melanoma, leukemia, CNS, ovarian, breast and renal cancer phenotypes. The consequence of further replacement of the 3-cyano-3,3-diphenylpropyl 1-piperazinecarbodithioate in 5b and 5c with 4-methylpiperazine-1-carbodithioate yielded new conjugates 6a and 6b respectively. In addition, the compounds 5c and 6a,b have been evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on some of the selected human cancer cell lines and these conjugates have exhibited significant cytotoxic activity. Further, the DNA-binding ability of these new conjugates has been evaluated by using thermal denaturation (ΔTm) studies. The correlation between structure and DNA-binding ability has been investigated by molecular modeling studies which predicted that 6b exhibits superior DNA-binding ability and these are in agreement with the experimental DNA-binding studies.

  15. Synthesis of a new series of dithiocarbamates with effective human carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity and antiglaucoma action.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Murat; Carta, Fabrizio; Vullo, Daniela; Akdemir, Atilla; Isik, Semra; Lanzi, Cecilia; Scozzafava, Andrea; Masini, Emanuela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-05-15

    A new series of dithiocarbamates (DTCs) was prepared from primary/secondary amines incorporating amino/hydroxyl-alkyl, mono- and bicyclic aliphatic ring systems based on the quinuclidine, piperidine, hydroxy-/carboxy-/amino-substituted piperidine, morpholine and piperazine scaffolds, and carbon disulfide. The compounds were investigated for the inhibition of four mammalian α-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) of pharmacologic relevance, that is, the human (h) hCA I, II, IX and XII, drug targets for antiglaucoma (hCA II and XII) or antitumor (hCA IX/XII) agents. The compounds were moderate or inefficient hCA I inhibitors (off-target isoform for both applications), efficiently inhibited hCA II, whereas some of them were low nanomolar/subnanomolar hCA IX/XII inhibitors. One DTC showed excellent intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering properties in an animal model of glaucoma, with a two times better efficiency compared to the clinically used sulfonamide dorzolamide. PMID:25846066

  16. Dithiocarbamate/piperazine bridged pyrrolobenzodiazepines as DNA-minor groove binders: synthesis, DNA-binding affinity and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Sreekanth, Kokkonda; Shankaraiah, Nagula; Sathish, Manda; Nekkanti, Shalini; Srinivasulu, Vunnam

    2015-04-01

    A new series of C8-linked dithiocarbamate/piperazine bridged pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine conjugates (5a-c, 6a,b) have been synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic potential and DNA-binding ability. The representative conjugates 5a and 5b have been screened for their cytotoxicity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. Compound 5a has shown promising cytotoxic activity on selected cancer cell lines that display melanoma, leukemia, CNS, ovarian, breast and renal cancer phenotypes. The consequence of further replacement of the 3-cyano-3,3-diphenylpropyl 1-piperazinecarbodithioate in 5b and 5c with 4-methylpiperazine-1-carbodithioate yielded new conjugates 6a and 6b respectively. In addition, the compounds 5c and 6a,b have been evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on some of the selected human cancer cell lines and these conjugates have exhibited significant cytotoxic activity. Further, the DNA-binding ability of these new conjugates has been evaluated by using thermal denaturation (ΔTm) studies. The correlation between structure and DNA-binding ability has been investigated by molecular modeling studies which predicted that 6b exhibits superior DNA-binding ability and these are in agreement with the experimental DNA-binding studies. PMID:25665519

  17. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of N-((2-methyl-4(3H)-quinazolinon-6-yl)methyl)dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sheng-Li; Wang, Yao; Zhu, Lin; Liao, Ji; Guo, Yan-Wen; Chen, Lin-Lin; Liu, Hong-Qin; Xu, Xingzhi

    2010-09-01

    A series of N-((2-methyl-4(3H)-quinazolinon-6-yl)methyl)dithiocarbamates 5a-w were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines. We found that compound 5k inhibited proliferation of A549, MCF-7, HeLa, HT29 and HCT-116 cells with IC(50) values of 5.44, 7.15, 12.16, 10.35 and 11.44 microM, respectively. Compound 5i was the most potent with an IC(50) value of 3.65 microM against proliferation of MCF-7 cells, while 5n was the most potent with an IC(50) value of 5.09 microM against proliferation of A549 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that both 5i and 5k arrested A549 cells at S and G2/M phases, suggesting that these compounds act through mechanisms different from 5-fluorouracil, which arrests cells at S phase only. PMID:20538385

  18. Theoretical elucidation on the functional role of pyrrolidine-type ionic liquids in inducing stereoselectivity of the Michael addition of cyclohexanone with trans-β-nitrostyrene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Dongju

    2011-03-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to elucidate the stereoselectivity of the Michael addition of cyclohexanone with trans-β-nitrostyrene, induced by a chiral ionic liquid (CIL) pyrrolidine-imidazolium bromide. By comparison of the C-C bond forming processes in the absence and presence of Br(-) anion, we found that intermolecular H-bonds between the imidazolium cation and the nitro group of trans-β-nitrostyrene and the steric hindrance of the imidazolium cation moiety on the Si-face of enamine dominate the stereoselectivity of the Michael addition. The presence of Br(-) anion obviously reduces the barrier by increasing the polarity of the C4=C5 bond of enamine. The theoretical results rationalize well the early experimental finding, and reveal a valuable clue for the further CIL design with high catalytic efficiency.

  19. (5E)-1-Benzyl-5-(3,3,3-tri­chloro-2-oxo­propyl­idene)pyrrolidin-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Fabiani Claro Flores, Alex; Correia Flores, Darlene; Rosa de Menezes Vicenti, Juliano; Pizzuti, Lucas; Teixeira Campos, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C14H12Cl3NO2, no classical hydrogen-bonding inter­actions are observed. The methyl­ene fragments of the benzyl groups participate in non-classic hydrogen-bond inter­actions with the carbonyl O atoms of neighboring mol­ecules, generating co-operative centrosymmetric dimers with R 5 5(10) ring motifs. The overall mol­ecular arrangement in the unit cell seems to be highly influenced by secondary non-covalent weak C—Cl⋯π [Cl⋯Cg(phenyl ring) = 3.732 (2) Å] and C—O⋯π [O⋯Cg(pyrrolidine ring) = 2.985 (2) Å] contacts. PMID:24940220

  20. Using heteroaryl-lithium reagents as hydroxycarbonyl anion equivalents in conjugate addition reactions with (S,S)-(+)-pseudoephedrine as chiral auxiliary; enantioselective synthesis of 3-substituted pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Beatriz; Ocejo, Marta; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L; Reyes, Efraim; Uria, Uxue

    2013-01-18

    We have developed an efficient protocol for carrying out the stereocontrolled formal conjugate addition of hydroxycarbonyl anion equivalents to α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives using (S,S)-(+)-pseudoephedrine as chiral auxiliary, making use of the synthetic equivalence between the heteroaryl moieties and the carboxylate group. This protocol has been applied as key step in the enantioselective synthesis of 3-substituted pyrrolidines in which, after removing the chiral auxiliary, the heteroaryl moiety is converted into a carboxylate group followed by reduction and double nucleophilic displacement. Alternatively, the access to the same type of heterocyclic scaffold but with opposite absolute configuration has also been accomplished by making use of the regio- and diastereoselective conjugate addition of organolithium reagents to α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides derived from the same chiral auxiliary followed by chiral auxiliary removal, ozonolysis, and reductive amination/intramolecular nucleophilic displacement sequence.

  1. Synthesis of tunable diamine ligands with spiro indane-2,2′-pyrrolidine backbone and their applications in enantioselective Henry reaction.

    PubMed

    Ćwiek, Rafał; Niedziejko, Piotr; Kałuża, Zbigniew

    2014-02-01

    Novel diamine ligands with spiro indane-2,2′-pyrrolidine scaffold were synthesized starting from Seebach’s oxazolidinone 6 and were subsequently employed in asymmetric Henry reaction. Following the initial experimental findings, further synthesis resulted in two types of spiro diamines, with varying substituents at both nitrogen atoms. Ligands of type A, containing a small substituent at N-1′ atom, and a large group at N-1 atom gave predominantly the S-configured β-nitroalcohol, while ligands of type B, with the reversed location of small and large substituents furnished the R-configured product. Both types of ligands turned out to be versatile catalysts for the Henry reaction between nitromethane and an assortment of aryl as well as alkyl aldehydes offering either S- (lig. A) or R-configured (lig. B) nitroalcohols in a good to high chemical yield and an excellent enantioselectivity up to 99% ee.

  2. Synthesis of functionalized 5-substituted thiazolidine-2-thiones via adscititious xanthate-promoted radical cyclization of allyl(alkyl/aryl)dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Gao, Simiao; Zhang, Yu; Dong, Jun; Chen, Ning; Xu, Jiaxi

    2016-01-21

    Functionalized 5-substituted thiazolidine-2-thiones were synthesized efficiently from alkyl allyl(alkyl/aryl)-dithiocarbamates via radical cyclization with the corresponding S-alkyl O-ethyl xanthates as the adscititious radical precursors. The application of the adscititious radical precursors improves not only the yields, but also the efficiency in the radical cyclization reaction significantly. The current adscititious radical precursor method provides a new strategy for the achievement and improvement of some radical reactions which are hardly or difficultly realized by the traditional direct methods. PMID:26626401

  3. The neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid and the dithiocarbamate fungicide mancozeb disrupt the pituitary-thyroid axis of a wildlife bird.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Surya Prakash; Mohanty, Banalata

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid is an important homeostatic regulator of metabolic activities as well as endocrine mechanisms including those of reproduction. Present investigation elucidated the thyroid disrupting potential of a neonicotinoid imidacloprid and a dithiocarbamate mancozeb in a seasonally breeding wildlife bird, Red Munia (Amandava amandava) who is vulnerable to these two pesticides through diet (seed grains and small insects). Adult male birds were exposed to 0.5% LD50 mgkg(-1)bwd(-1) of both the pesticides through food for 30days during the preparatory and breeding phases. Weight, volume and histopathology of thyroid gland were distinctly altered. Disruption of thyroid follicles reflected in nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio (N/C) in epithelial and stromal cells, epithelial cell hypertrophy and altered colloid volume. Impairment of thyroid axis was pesticide and phase specific as evident from the plasma levels of thyroid (T4 and T3) and pituitary (TSH) hormones. In preparatory phase, plasma TSH was increased in response to decrease of T4 on mancozeb exposure showing responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to feedback regulation. On imidacloprid exposure, however, plasma levels of both T4 and TSH were decreased indicating non-functioning of negative feedback mechanism. Increased plasma T3 in response to both the pesticides exposure might be due to synthesis from non-thyroidal source(s) in a compensatory response to decrease level of T4. In breeding phase, impairment of HPT axis was more pronounced as plasma T4, T3 and TSH were significantly decreased in response to both mancozeb and imidacloprid. Thus, low dose pesticide exposure could affect the thyroid homeostasis and reproduction. PMID:25496744

  4. Involvement of NF kappa B in potentiated effect of Mn-containing dithiocarbamates on MPP(+) induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cindi-Ann; Lin, Ying; Maynard, Arlene; Cheng, Shu-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    Humans are exposed to various chemical mixtures daily. The toxic response to a mixture of chemicals could be potentiated or suppressed. This study demonstrates that non-toxic doses of pesticides can induce cellular changes that increase cell sensitivity to other toxins or stress. Pesticide exposure is an environmental risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Manganese (Mn) is essential but high dose exposure may results in neurological dysfunction. Mn-containing dithiocarbamates, maneb (MB) and mancozeb (MZ), are primarily used as pesticides. Studies have shown that MB can augment dopaminergic damage triggered by sub-toxic doses of Parkinsonian mimetic MPTP. However, the mechanism underlying this effect is not clear. Activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has been implicated in MPTP toxicity. Mn stimulates the activation of NF-κB and subsequently induces neuronal injury via an NF-κB dependent mechanism. We speculate that MB and MZ enhance MPTP active metabolite (methyl-4-phenylpyridine ion, MPP(+)) toxicity by activating NF-κB. The activation of NF-κB was observed using Western blot analysis and NF-κB response element driven Luciferase reporter assay. Western blot data demonstrated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and the degradation of IkBα after MB and MZ 4-h treatments. Results of NF-κB response element luciferase reporter assay confirmed that MB and MZ activated NF-κB. The NF-κB inhibitor (SN50) was also shown to alleviate cytotoxicity induced by co-treatment of MB or MZ and MPP(+). This study demonstrates that activation of NF-κB is responsible for the potentiated toxic effect of MB and MZ on MPP(+) induced cytotoxicity. PMID:23744253

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of BO-3482, a novel dithiocarbamate carbapenem, in mice infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, R; Shibata, K; Naito, T; Fuse, A; Asano, K; Hashizume, T; Nakagawa, S

    1997-01-01

    The in vivo activity of BO-3482, which has a dithiocarbamate chain at the C-2 position of 1beta-methyl-carbapenem, was compared with those of vancomycin and imipenem in murine models of septicemia and thigh infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Because BO-3482 was more susceptible than imipenem to renal dehydropeptidase I in a kinetic study of hydrolysis by this renal enzyme, the therapeutic efficacy of BO-3482 was determined during coadministration with cilastatin. In the septicemia models, which involved two homogeneous MRSA strains and one heterogeneous MRSA strain, the 50% effective doses were, respectively, 4.80, 6.06, and 0.46 mg/kg of body weight for BO-3482; 5.56, 2.15, and 1.79 mg/kg for vancomycin; and >200, >200, and 15.9 mg/kg for imipenem. BO-3482 was also as effective as vancomycin in an MRSA septicemia model with mice with cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. In the thigh infection model with a homogeneous MRSA strain, the bacterial counts in tissues treated with BO-3482-cilastatin were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner compared with the counts in those treated with vancomycin and imipenem-cilastatin (P < 0.001). These results indicate that BO-3482-cilastatin is as effective as vancomycin in murine systemic infections and is more bactericidal than vancomycin in local-tissue infections. The potent in vivo activity of BO-3482-cilastatin against such MRSA infections can be ascribed to the good in vitro anti-MRSA activity and improved pharmacokinetics in mice when BO-3482 is combined with cilastatin and to the bactericidal nature of the carbapenem. PMID:9333062

  6. Evaluation of a dithiocarbamate derivative as a model of thiol oxidative stress in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiashu; Potter, Ashley; Xie, Wei; Lynch, Christophina; Seefeldt, Teresa

    2014-05-01

    Thiol redox state (TRS) refers to the balance between reduced thiols and their corresponding disulfides and is mainly reflected by the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). A decrease in GSH/GSSG, which reflects a state of thiol oxidative stress, as well as thiol modifications such as S-glutathionylation, has been shown to have important implications in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, research models for inducing thiol oxidative stress are important tools for studying the pathophysiology of these disease states as well as examining the impact of pharmacological interventions on thiol pathways. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a dithiocarbamate derivative, 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA), as a pharmacological model of thiol oxidative stress by examining the extent of thiol modifications induced in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes and its impact on cellular functions. The extent of thiol oxidative stress produced by 2-AAPA was also compared to other models of oxidative stress including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), diamide, buthionine sulfoximine, and N,N׳-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitroso-urea. Results indicated that 2-AAPA effectively inhibited glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activities and decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio by causing a significant accumulation of GSSG. 2-AAPA also increased the formation of protein disulfides as well as S-glutathionylation. The alteration in TRS led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and increase in reactive oxygen species production. Compared to other models, 2-AAPA is more potent at creating a state of thiol oxidative stress with lower cytotoxicity, higher specificity, and more pharmacological relevance, and could be utilized as a research tool to study TRS-related normal and abnormal biochemical processes in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24607690

  7. Potent inhibitory effects of benzyl and p-xylidine-bis dithiocarbamate sodium salts on activities of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Amin, E; Saboury, A A; Mansuri-Torshizi, H; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A

    2010-04-01

    A novel monofunctional benzyldithiocarbamate, C(6)H(5)CH(2)NHCSSNa (I), and a bifunctional p-xylidine-bis(dithiocarbamate), NaSSCNHCH(2)C(6)H(4)CH(2)NHCSSNa (II), as sodium salts, were synthesized by reaction between p-xylylenediamine or benzylamine with CS(2) in the presence of NaOH. They were characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as (1)H NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. These water-soluble compounds were examined for their inhibition of both activities of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) from a commercial source of Agricus bisporus. l-3,4- Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and l-tyrosine were used as natural substrates for the catecholase and cresolase enzyme reactions, respectively. Kinetic studies showed noncompetitive inhibition of I and mixed type inhibition of II on both activities of MT. The inhibition constant (K(I)) of II was smaller than that of I. Raising the temperature from 27 to 37 degrees C caused a decrease in K(I) values of I and an increase in values of II. The binding process for inhibition of I was only entropy driven, which means that the predominant interaction in the active site of the enzyme is hydrophobic; meanwhile, the electrostatic interaction can be important for the inhibition of II due to the enthalpy driven binding process. Fluorescence studies showed a decrease of emission intensity without a shift of emission maximum in the presence of different concentrations of compounds. An extrinsic fluorescence study did not show any considerable change of the tertiary structure of MT. Probably, the conformation of inhibitor-bound MT is stable and inflexible compared with uninhibited MT.

  8. Intratumoral estrogen sulfotransferase induction contributes to the anti-breast cancer effects of the dithiocarbamate derivative TM208

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xi-wei; Chen, Guang-ping; Song, Yan; Hua, Ming; Wang, Li-jie; Li, Liang; Yuan, Yin; Wang, Si-yuan; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Sulfotransferase-catalyzed sulfation is the most important pathway for inactivating estrogens. Thus, activation of estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) may be an alternative approach for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. In this study we investigated the involvement of EST in anti-breast cancer effects of the dithiocarbamate derivative TM208 in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The viability of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was determined using a SBB assay. Nude mice bearing MCF-7 cells were orally administered TM208 (50 and 150 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 18 days. The xenograft tumors and uteri were collected. The mRNA expression of EST was examined with real-time PCR. EST protein was detected with Western blot, ELISA or immunohistochemical staining assays. A radioactive assay was used to measure the EST activity. Uterotropic bioassay was used to examine the uterine estrogen responses. Results: Treatment with TM208 (10, 15 and 20 μmol/L) concentration-dependently increased EST expression in MCF-7 cells in vitro. Co-treatment with triclosan, an inhibitor of sulfonation, abolished TM208-induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. TM208 exhibited an apparent anti-estrogenic property: it exerted more potent cytotoxicity in E2-treated MCF-7 cells. In the nude mice bearing MCF-7 cells, TM208 administration time-dependently increased the expression and activity of EST, and blocked the gradual increase of E2 concentration in the xenograft tumors. Furthermore, TM208 administration blocked the estrogens-stimulated uterine enlargement. Tamoxifen, a positive control drug, produced similar effects on the expression and activity of EST in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: The induction of EST and reduction of estrogen concentration contribute to the anti-breast cancer action of TM208 and tamoxifen. TM208 may be developed as anticancer drug for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. PMID:25937633

  9. [Mono- and Binuclear Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes with Thiol-containing Ligands in Various Biosystems].

    PubMed

    Vanin, A F; Mikoyan, V D; Kubrina, L N; Borodulin, R R; Burgova, E N

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands, bound with modified bovine serum albumin with high amount of thiol groups, appeared in baker yeast or in animal tissues in the presence of exogenous or endogenous nitric oxide, respectively, are represented predominantly by EPR-silent binuclear form. This form can be transformed into EPR-active mononuclear form of dinitrosyl iron complexes with an increase in pH to basic values, into EPR-active form of mononuclear iron nitrosyl complexes in case of bielectronic recovery of the binuclear form of dinitrosyl iron complexes or under the action of dithiocarbamate derivatives. The latter induced the transformation of dinitrosyl iron complexes into EPR-active mononitrosyl iron complexes with dithiocarbamates. A significant amount of binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands in living systems and identical biological activity of these complexes and endogenous nitric oxide systems allow of considering endogenous binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes as a "working form" of endogenous nitric oxide recognized now as a universal regulator of biological processes. PMID:26394474

  10. Catalytic asymmetric Michael addition of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to Ni(II) complexes of the Schiff base of glycine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Jin, Zhichao; Li, Pengfei; Gao, Jiabin; Yue, Weimin; Liang, Xinmiao; Ye, Jinxing

    2011-02-01

    The conjugate addition of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff base to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes catalyzed by (S)-2-(diphenyl(trimethylsilyloxy)methyl)pyrrolidine afforded adducts in excellent yields with up to 49:1 dr and 95% ee. This method enables the construction of two adjacent chiral centers in one step, and offers an alternative route to chiral α-amino acid derivatives. PMID:21103550

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Studies of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) Complexes of N-Methyl-N-Phenyldithiocarbamate: The Single Crystal Structure of [(C6H5)(CH3)NCS2]4Hg2

    PubMed Central

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H and 13C-NMR). The single crystal X-ray structure of the mercury complex revealed that the complex contains a Hg centre with a distorted tetrahedral coordination sphere in which the dinuclear Hg complex resides on a crystallographic inversion centre and each Hg atom is coordinated to four S atoms from the dithiocarbamate moiety. One dithiocarbamate ligand acts as chelating ligand while the other acts as chelating bridging ligand between two Hg atoms, resulting in a dinuclear eight-member ring. The course of the thermal degradation of the complexes has been investigated using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes show a single weight loss to give MS (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) indicating that they might be useful as single source precursors for the synthesis of MS nanoparticles and thin films. PMID:21673933

  12. Crystal structure of 5''-benzyl-idene-1'-methyl-4'-phenyl-tri-spiro-[ace-naphthyl-ene-1,2'-pyrrolidine-3',1''-cyclo-hexane-3'',2'''-[1,3]dioxane]-2,6''-dione.

    PubMed

    Chandralekha, Kuppan; Gavaskar, Deivasigamani; Sureshbabu, Adukamparai Rajukrishnan; Lakshmi, Srinivasakannan

    2016-03-01

    In the title compound, C36H31NO4, two spiro links connect the methyl-substituted pyrrolidine ring to the ace-naphthyl-ene and cyclo-hexa-none rings. The cyclo-hexa-none ring is further connected to the dioxalane ring by a third spiro junction. The five-membered ring of the ace-naphthylen-1-one ring system adopts a flattened envelope conformation with the ketonic C atom as flap, whereas the dioxalane and pyrrolidine rings each have a twist conformation. The cyclo-hexa-none ring assumes a boat conformation. Three intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving both ketonic O atoms as acceptors are present. In the crystal, C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect centrosymmetrically related mol-ecule into chains parallel to the b axis, forming rings of R 2 (2)(10)and R 2 (2)(8) graph-set motifs. PMID:27006814

  13. 1′-Methyl-4′-(4-methyl­phen­yl)dispiro­[indane-2,3′-pyrrolidine-2′,3′′-indoline]-1,2′′-dione

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, A. M.; Girgis, Adel S.; Shalaby, S. M.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2012-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C27H24N2O2, the pyrrolidin-2-one ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å), the pyrrolidine ring has an envelope conformation (the N atom is the flap atom) and the cyclo­penta­none ring is twisted about the Cq—Cm bond (q = quaternary and m = methylene). The ketone O atoms are directed to opposite sides of the mol­ecule. Supra­molecular chains along the a axis are formed in the crystal packing mediated by N—H⋯N and C—H⋯O inter­actions. These are connected into layers in the ab plane via C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22798861

  14. Crystal structure of 1',1''-dimethyl-4'-(4-cholorophen-yl)di-spiro-[11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline-11,2'-pyrrolidine-3',3''-piperidin]-4''-one.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmi, R A; Suresh, J; Malathi, K; Kumar, R Ranjith; Lakshman, P L Nilantha

    2015-02-01

    In the title compound, C30H27ClN4O, the central pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the methyl-ene C atom being the flap. The quinoxaline and indane rings are each essentially planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.027 (1) and 0.0417 (1) Å, respectively. The pyrrolidine ring forms dihedral angles of 88.25 (1) and 83.76 (1)° with the quinoxaline and indane rings, respectively. A weak intra-molecular C-H⋯N inter-action is observed. In the crystal, C-H⋯π inter-actions lead to supra-molecular chains along [101] that assemble in the ac plane. Connections along the b axis are of the type Cl⋯Cl [3.6538 (16) Å].

  15. Sample preparation techniques in trace element analysis of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagj, Marina; Jakšić, M.; Orlić, I.; Valković, V.

    1985-06-01

    Sample preparation techniques for the analysis of water for trace elements using X-ray emission spectroscopy are described. Fresh water samples for the analysis of transition metals were prepared by complexation with ammonium-pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (APDC) and filtering through a membrane filter. Analyses of water samples for halogenes was done on samples prepared by precipitation with AgNO 3 and subsequent filtration. Two techniques for seawater preparation for uranium determination are described, viz. precipitation with APDC in the presence of iron (II) as a carrier and complexation with APDC followed with adsorption on activated carbon. In all cases trace element levels at 10 -3 μg/g were measured.

  16. Crystal structure of 4'-(2-meth-oxy-quinolin-3-yl)-1'-methyl-dispiro-[indan-2,2'-pyrrolidine-3',3''-indoline]-1,3,2''-trione.

    PubMed

    Mathusalini, Sadasivam; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Mohan, Palathurai Subramaniam; Lin, Chia-Her; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C30H23N3O4, the central 1-methyl-pyrrolidine ring adopts a twist conformation on the N-CH2 bond. The pyrrolidin-2-one ring of the indolin-2-one ring system also has a twist conformation on the C-C bond involving the spiro C atom and the carbonyl C atom. The five-membered ring of the indene-1,3-dione moiety has an envelope conformation with the spiro C atom as the flap. The quinoline ring system adopts an almost planar conformation (r.m.s. deviation = 0.04 Å). The mean planes of the indolin-2-one ring system, the indene-1,3-dione ring system and the the quinoline ring system are inclined to the mean plane of the central 1-methyl-pyrrolidine ring by 77.97 (7), 86.98 (7) and 46.58 (6)°, respectively. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis. The chains are linked via a number of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and C-H⋯π and π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.7404 (9) Å], forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870486

  17. Development and validation of a method for determination of residues of 15 pyrethroids and two metabolites of dithiocarbamates in foods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, C H

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports a novel approach for the detection, confirmation, and quantification of 15 selected pyrethroid pesticides, including pyrethins, and two metabolites of dithiocarbamates in foods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). The proposed method makes use of a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure that combines isolation of the pesticides and sample cleanup in a single step. Analysis of pyrethroids and dithiocarbamate metabolites was performed by UPLC-MS-MS operated with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, respectively. Two specific precursor-product ion transitions were acquired per target compound in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Such acquisition achieved the minimum number of identification points according to European Commission (EC) document no. SANCO/10684/2009, thus fulfilling the EC point system requirement for identification of contaminants in samples. The method was validated with a variety of food samples. Calibration curves were linear and covered from 1 to 800 μg kg(-1) in the sample for all target compounds. Average recoveries, measured at mass fractions of 10 and 100 μg kg(-1) for pyrethroids and 5 and 50 μg kg(-1) for dithiocarbamate metabolites, were in the range of 70-120% for all target compounds with relative standard deviations below 20%. Method limits of quantification (MLOQ) were 10 μg kg(-1) and 5 μg kg(-1) for pyrethroids and dithiocarbamate metabolites, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 600 food samples in the course of the first Hong Kong total diet study with pyrethroids and metabolites of dithiocarbamates being the pesticides determined. PMID:22395452

  18. The tumor proteasome as a novel target for gold(III) complexes: implications for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Milacic, Vesna; Dou, Q. Ping

    2009-01-01

    Although cisplatin plays a vital role in the treatment of several types of human cancer, its wide use is limited by the development of drug resistance and associated toxic side effects. Gold and gold complexes have been used to treat a wide range of ailments for many centuries. In recent years, the use of gold(III) complexes as an alternative to cisplatin treatment was proposed due to the similarities of gold and platinum. Gold(III) is isoelectronic with platinum(II) and gold(III) complexes have the same square-planar geometries as platinum(II) complexes, such as cisplatin. Although it was originally thought that gold(III) complexes might have the same molecular target as cisplatin, several lines of data indicated that proteins, rather than DNA, are targeted by gold complexes. We have recently evaluated cytotoxic and anti-cancer effects of several gold(III) dithiocarbamates against human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We have identified the tumor proteasome as an important target for gold(III) complexes and have shown that proteasome inhibition by gold(III) complexes is associated with apoptosis induction in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, treatment of human breast tumor-bearing nude mice with a gold(III) dithiocarbamate complex was associated with tumor growth inhibition, supporting the significance of its potential development for breast cancer treatment. PMID:20047011

  19. Ligand-free gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes for the non-destructive determination of total dithiocarbamate pesticides after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Giannoulis, Kyriakos M; Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Tsogas, George Z; Vlessidis, Athanasios G

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we describe a simple and sensitive non-destructive method for the determination of the total concentration of dithiocarbamate fungicides (DTCs) in real samples. The proposed method combines for the first time the benefits of an extraction method for sample clean-up and preconcentration with a sensitive colorimetric assay based on gold nanoparticle probes. In this two-step procedure, the target DTCs are isolated from the matrix and preconcentrated by solid phase extraction onto commercially available C18 sorbents. Following elution, the extract containing the target dithiocarbamates, free from most interferences and matrix components, is delivered into an aqueous dispersion of plain citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) which aggregate in response to DTCs coordination on AuNPs surface through multiple gold thiolate bonds. This aggregation is evidenced by changes in the spectral properties of the solution involving a decrease in the original absorbance of Au nanoparticles at 522 nm and the appearance of a new absorption band above 700 nm. An ensuing chromatic shift of the solution from wine-red to purple-blue is observed which is visual by naked eye at concentrations as low as 50 μg L(-1). Further improvement in the detection limits can be accomplished by scaling-down the method to micro-volume conditions alleviating the need to preconcentrate larger sample volumes. Overall, by combining sample clean-up and preconcentration with the strong affinity of DTC thiol group for the gold surface, the total concentration of dithiocarbamate pesticides was successfully determined in various water samples at the low and ultra-low μg L(-1) levels without resorting to destructive techniques, sophisticated instrumentation or post-synthetic modification of gold nanoparticles. Method application in real samples showed good analytical features in terms of recoveries (81.0-94.0%), precision (5.6-8.9%) and reproducibility (~9%) rendering the method as an attractive

  20. Ligand-free gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes for the non-destructive determination of total dithiocarbamate pesticides after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Giannoulis, Kyriakos M; Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Tsogas, George Z; Vlessidis, Athanasios G

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we describe a simple and sensitive non-destructive method for the determination of the total concentration of dithiocarbamate fungicides (DTCs) in real samples. The proposed method combines for the first time the benefits of an extraction method for sample clean-up and preconcentration with a sensitive colorimetric assay based on gold nanoparticle probes. In this two-step procedure, the target DTCs are isolated from the matrix and preconcentrated by solid phase extraction onto commercially available C18 sorbents. Following elution, the extract containing the target dithiocarbamates, free from most interferences and matrix components, is delivered into an aqueous dispersion of plain citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) which aggregate in response to DTCs coordination on AuNPs surface through multiple gold thiolate bonds. This aggregation is evidenced by changes in the spectral properties of the solution involving a decrease in the original absorbance of Au nanoparticles at 522 nm and the appearance of a new absorption band above 700 nm. An ensuing chromatic shift of the solution from wine-red to purple-blue is observed which is visual by naked eye at concentrations as low as 50 μg L(-1). Further improvement in the detection limits can be accomplished by scaling-down the method to micro-volume conditions alleviating the need to preconcentrate larger sample volumes. Overall, by combining sample clean-up and preconcentration with the strong affinity of DTC thiol group for the gold surface, the total concentration of dithiocarbamate pesticides was successfully determined in various water samples at the low and ultra-low μg L(-1) levels without resorting to destructive techniques, sophisticated instrumentation or post-synthetic modification of gold nanoparticles. Method application in real samples showed good analytical features in terms of recoveries (81.0-94.0%), precision (5.6-8.9%) and reproducibility (~9%) rendering the method as an attractive

  1. In vitro heavy-atom effect of palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of pyrrolidine-fused chlorin in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Obata, Makoto; Hirohara, Shiho; Tanaka, Rika; Kinoshita, Isamu; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Tanihara, Masao; Yano, Shigenobu

    2009-05-14

    Introduction of a heavy atom into photosensitizers generally facilitates intersystem crossing and improves the quantum yield (Phi(Delta)) of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), which is a key species in photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, little information is available about the physiological importance of this heavy-atom effect. The aim of this study is to examine the heavy-atom effect in simple metallochlorins in vitro at the cellular level. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide to 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato palladium(II) and platinum(II) afforded metallochlorins 4b and 4c in yields of 17.1 and 12.9%, respectively. The Phi(Delta) values increased in the order of 4a (0.28) < 4b (0.89) < 4c (0.92) in C(6)D(6). The photocytotoxicity of 4a, 4b, and 4c was evaluated in HeLa cells at a light dose of 16 J x cm(-2) with lambda > 500 nm and increased in the order of 4a < 4b < 4c at the concentration of 0.5 microM. The photocytotoxicity of 4b and 4c was significantly inhibited by addition of sodium azide, but not D-mannitol, suggesting that (1)O(2) is the major species causing cell death. Our results clearly indicate that 4b and 4c act as efficient (1)O(2) generators due to the heavy-atom effect in a cellular microenvironment as well as in nonphysiological media. PMID:19378972

  2. 2-DPMP (desoxypipradrol, 2-benzhydrylpiperidine, 2-phenylmethylpiperidine) and D2PM (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidin-2-yl-methanol, diphenylprolinol): A preliminary review.

    PubMed

    Corkery, John M; Elliott, Simon; Schifano, Fabrizio; Corazza, Ornella; Ghodse, A Hamid

    2012-12-01

    2-DPMP (desoxypipradrol, 2-benzhydrylpiperidine, 2-phenylmethylpiperidine) and D2PM (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidin-2-yl-methanol, diphenylprolinol) are psychoactive substances, sold primarily over the Internet and in 'head' shops as 'legal highs', 'research chemicals' or 'plant food'. Originally developed in the 1950s for the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD, 2-DPMP's use soon became very limited. Recreational use of 2-DPMP and D2PM appears to have started in March 2007, but only developed slowly. However, in the UK their popularity grew in 2009, increasing rapidly during summer 2010. At this time, there were many presentations to UK Emergency Departments by patients complaining of undesirable physical and psychiatric effects after taking 2-DPMP. In spring 2011 there were similar presentations for D2PM. Recreational use of these drugs has been reported only occasionally in on-line user fora. There is little scientifically-based literature on the pharmacological, physiological, psychopharmacological, toxicological and epidemiological characteristics of these drugs. Here we describe what is known about them, especially on their toxicity, including what we believe to be the first three deaths involving the use of 2-DPMP in August 2010. There are no international controls imposed on 2-DPMP or D2PM. However, a ban on their UK importation was imposed in November 2011 and they became Class C drugs on 13 June 2012. It is critical that any other cases, including non-fatal overdoses, are documented so that a scientific evidence-base can be established for them.

  3. Molybdenum-Containing Nicotine Hydroxylase Genes in a Nicotine Degradation Pathway That Is a Variant of the Pyridine and Pyrrolidine Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao; Li, Yangyang

    2015-01-01

    Ochrobactrum sp. strain SJY1 utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy via a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (the VPP pathway). Several strains and genes involved in the VPP pathway have recently been reported; however, the first catalyzing step for enzymatic turnover of nicotine is still unclear. In this study, a nicotine hydroxylase for the initial hydroxylation step of nicotine degradation was identified and characterized. The nicotine hydroxylase (VppA), which converts nicotine to 6-hydroxynicotine in the strain SJY1, is encoded by two open reading frames (vppAS and vppAL [subunits S and L, respectively]). The vppA genes were heterologously expressed in the non-nicotine-degrading strains Escherichia coli DH5α and Pseudomonas putida KT2440; only the Pseudomonas strain acquired the ability to degrade nicotine. The small subunit of VppA contained a [2Fe-2S] cluster-binding domain, and the large subunit of VppA contained a molybdenum cofactor-binding domain; however, an FAD-binding domain was not found in VppA. Resting cells cultivated in a molybdenum-deficient medium had low nicotine transformation activity, and excess molybdenum was detected in the purified VppA by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis. Thus, it is demonstrated that VppA is a two-component molybdenum-containing hydroxylase. PMID:26407884

  4. Molybdenum-containing nicotine hydroxylase genes in a nicotine degradation pathway that is a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Tang, Hongzhi; Li, Yangyang; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Ochrobactrum sp. strain SJY1 utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy via a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (the VPP pathway). Several strains and genes involved in the VPP pathway have recently been reported; however, the first catalyzing step for enzymatic turnover of nicotine is still unclear. In this study, a nicotine hydroxylase for the initial hydroxylation step of nicotine degradation was identified and characterized. The nicotine hydroxylase (VppA), which converts nicotine to 6-hydroxynicotine in the strain SJY1, is encoded by two open reading frames (vppAS and vppAL [subunits S and L, respectively]). The vppA genes were heterologously expressed in the non-nicotine-degrading strains Escherichia coli DH5α and Pseudomonas putida KT2440; only the Pseudomonas strain acquired the ability to degrade nicotine. The small subunit of VppA contained a [2Fe-2S] cluster-binding domain, and the large subunit of VppA contained a molybdenum cofactor-binding domain; however, an FAD-binding domain was not found in VppA. Resting cells cultivated in a molybdenum-deficient medium had low nicotine transformation activity, and excess molybdenum was detected in the purified VppA by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis. Thus, it is demonstrated that VppA is a two-component molybdenum-containing hydroxylase.

  5. Thin films of tin(II) sulphide (SnS) by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) using tin(II) dithiocarbamates as single-source precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevin, Punarja; Lewis, David J.; Raftery, James; Azad Malik, M.; O'Brien, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of the asymmetric dithiocarbamates of tin(II) with the formula [Sn(S2CNRR')2] (where R=Et, R'=n-Bu (1); R=Me, R'=n-Bu (2); R=R'=Et (3)) and their use for the deposition of SnS thin films by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) is described. The effects of temperature and the concentration of the precursors on deposition were investigated. The stoichiometry of SnS was best at higher concentrations of precursors (250 mM) and at 450 °C. The direct electronic band gap of the SnS produced by this method was estimated from optical absorbance measurements as 1.2 eV. The composition of films was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) spectroscopy.

  6. Characterization, bioinformatic analysis and dithiocarbamate inhibition studies of two new α-carbonic anhydrases, CAH1 and CAH2, from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, Leo; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Hilvo, Mika; Vullo, Daniela; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Parkkila, Seppo

    2013-03-15

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are essential and ubiquitous enzymes. Thus far, there are no articles on characterization of Drosophila melanogaster α-CAs. Data from invertebrate CA studies may provide opportunities for anti-parasitic drug development because α-CAs are found in many parasite or parasite vector invertebrates. We have expressed and purified D. melanogaster CAH1 and CAH2 as proteins of molecular weights 30kDa and 28kDa. CAH1 is cytoplasmic whereas CAH2 is a membrane-attached protein. Both are highly active enzymes for the CO2 hydration reaction, being efficiently inhibited by acetazolamide. CAH2 in the eye of D. melanogaster may provide a new animal model for CA-related eye diseases. A series of dithiocarbamates were also screened as inhibitors of these enzymes, with some representatives showing inhibition in the low nanomolar range. PMID:22989910

  7. Photodetectors of slit and sandwich types based on CdS and CdS1-xSex films obtained using MOCVD method from dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Ludmila V.; Svechnikov, Sergey V.; Tchoni, Vladimir G.

    1997-04-01

    Here we report the results of working out an original, simple in control and not requiring expensive equipment MOCVD-method for depositing films of semiconductor compounds A2B6. Dithiocarbamates (DTC) are used as starting materials. The compounds are stable, easily synthesized, cheap and low toxic. Atoms of metal and sulfur in the DTC are strongly bonded. The DTC could be easily dissolved in various organic solvents. The experimental unit for film deposition comprises a spraying apparatus, a substrate heater, and a quartz cylinder for separation of a reaction zone from ambience. The process of film deposition is carried out in air conditions. Films of CdS, bright-yellow, transparent, having mirror smooth surface at thickness less than 2 mkm and rough surface at thickness 8-12 mkm, were deposited by spraying cadmium dithiocarbamate, that is DTC with radical C2H5, solution in pyridine on substrates heated to 240-280 degrees C. Deposition rate was 60-90 nm/min. Films obtained were of hexagonal modification, polycrystalline, textured, with low, at the level of centipercents content of oxygen and carbon. Slit type photodetectors based on CdS and CdS1-xSex of 1.0 mkm thickness have dark conductivity (sigma) d equals 10-9 divided by 10-8 Ohm-1cm-1 and photoconductivity (sigma) ph equals 10-2 divided by 10-1 Ohm-1cm-1 at 200 lux. Industrially suitable technology for production of photopotentiometer on the base of these films was developed. Sandwich-type photodetectors In2S3 - CdS: Cu, Cl - In with 8-12 mkm thickness have the same value of photoconductivity and the light-to-dark ratio is 106 divided by 107. Based on sandwich-type photodetectors, a hybrid structure of pyroelectric-photodetector as a resonant-type coordinate-sensitive detector was developed.

  8. Sugar and heavy atom effects of glycoconjugated chlorin palladium complex on photocytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hirohara, Shiho; Kawasaki, Yuji; Funasako, Ryota; Yasui, Nobutaka; Totani, Masayasu; Alitomo, Hiroki; Yuasa, Junpei; Kawai, Tuyoshi; Oka, Chio; Kawaichi, Masashi; Obata, Makoto; Tanihara, Masao

    2012-09-19

    Palladium(II) complexes of glycoconjugated porphyrin and pyrrolidine-fused chlorin were prepared to examine sugar and heavy atom effects on in vitro photocytotoxicity. Cellular uptake into HeLa cells was enhanced by introducing sugar units regardless of other features, such as the central ion (free base or palladium(II) ion) and the ring structure (porphyrin or chlorin). The palladium(II) complex of glycoconjugated pyrrolidine-fused chlorin (PdPC2) exerted an excellent degree of photocytotoxicity not only on HeLa cells, but also on metastatic B16-BL6 cells, weakly metastatic B16F1 cells, and metastatic 4T1 cells. However, free-base glycoconjugated pyrrolidine-fused chlorin (PC2) also exerted similar or much higher photocytotoxicity rather than PdPC2. Therefore, the palladium(II) ion did not improve the in vitro photocytotoxicity of PC2. The enhanced singlet oxygen generation of palladium(II) complexes (i.e., the heavy atom effect) was confirmed at least in O(2)-saturated D(2)O. In addition, the formation of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical were also detected in O(2)-saturated phosphate buffered saline. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation efficiency, which is the product of the (relative) quantum yield of each ROS and the light absorbing ability, did not fit the trends of photocytotoxicity seen for the photosensitizers. In our glycoconjugated photosensitizers tested, the best indicator of the photocytotoxicity was found to be the light absorbing ability (namely, the oscillator strength in the wavelength region applied in the photocytotoxicity test). These results indicated that photochemical characteristics of glycoconjugated photosensitizers were notably susceptible to the microenvironment. The biological characteristics, such as the sugar effect, were a much more reliable approach to improving the photocytotoxicity of photosensitizers. PMID:22946640

  9. Synthesis ZnS:Sm thin films from volatile complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Elena N.; Kovalevskaya, Yu. A.; Bessreguenev, Valentin G.

    2002-11-01

    Deposition and characterization of ZnS, Sm2S3 and ZnS:Sm films are described. The films have been prepared by chemical vapor deposition using new volatile complex compounds, dithiocarbamates of Zn and Sm, as precursors. Characterization includes X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis of the film composition, ellipsometry and spectrophotometry. It has been shown that at relatively low temperatures (about 380 °C) monophase crystalline Sm2S3 films can be fabricated. Doping of ZnS by Sm with dopant concentration up to 2 at. % has been achieved. Effects of Sm doping on structural and optical properties of the film are presented.

  10. Synthesis and properties of ZnS-EuS films grown from volatile complex compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bessergenev, V.G.; Ivanova, E.N.; Kovalevskaya, Y.A.

    1997-10-01

    Deposition and characterization of films of ZnS, EuS and ZnS:Eu are described. The films have been prepared by chemical vapor deposition using new volatile complex compounds, dithiocarbamates of Zn and Eu, as precursors. Characterization includes X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis of the film composition, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and spectrophotometry. The spatial chemical homogeneity of the films has been determined using a recently developed method of differential dissolution and found to be uniform. Doping of ZnS by Eu with dopant concentration up to 0.3 at.% has been achieved. Effects of Eu doping on structural and optical properties of the films are presented.

  11. Comment on "Structural and vibrational studies on 1-(5-Methyl- [1,3,4] thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrolidin-2-ol" [Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 152 (2016) 252-261]. The importance of intramolecular OH ⋯ N hydrogen bonding in the conformational properties of thiadiazol-pyrrolidin-2-ol bearing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurella, Sergio L.; Erben, Mauricio F.

    2016-07-01

    The title paper [1] reports a study on the spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of 1-(5-methyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (MTPN) based on experimental and theoretical data. The latter ones are based on the computed molecular structure for a rather unusual conformer. Here, after a careful analysis of the conformational space of MTPN, the most stable conformation was determined for the molecule isolated in a vacuum, which results to be 21.9 kJ/mol more stable than the conformer reported previously. Our study also includes the closely related species 1-(5-trifluoromethyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (FMTPN). An intramolecular OH ⋯ N hydrogen bond determines the conformational behavior of the [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol group as demonstrated by Natural Bond Orbital population analysis.

  12. (1-{(E)-[Phen-yl(pyridin-2-yl-κN)methyl-idene]amino-κN}pyrrolidin-2-one-κO)bis-(thio-cyanato-κN)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Kunnath, Roji J; Prathapachandra Kurup, M R; Ng, Seik Weng

    2012-10-01

    The Cu(II) atom in the title compound, [Cu(NCS)(2)(C(16)H(15)N(3)O)], is bonded to the N atoms of two thio-cyanate ions, and is N,N'-chelated by the Schiff base ligand. The four N atoms surround the metal atom to form a distorted square; the square environment is distorted towards a square pyramid by a long Cu⋯O inter-action. In the crystal, two C atoms of the pyrrolidin-2-one ring are disordered over two positions in a 1:1 ratio. PMID:23125616

  13. Step-economical access to valuable Weinreb amide 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines by a sequential one-pot two-directional cross-metathesis/cyclizing aza-Michael process.

    PubMed

    Boufroura, Hamza; Mauduit, Marc; Drège, Emmanuelle; Joseph, Delphine

    2013-03-15

    Double cross-metathesis of 1,5-hexadiene with a variety of electron-deficient alkenes including the reluctant Weinreb acrylamide has been successfully accomplished. It was found that the process is quite general, and microwave irradiation effectively accelerates cross-coupling metathesis. This promotes a very versatile and high yielding methodology for the synthesis of symmetric Michael acceptors, which can be transformed into 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines through a sequential one-pot two-directional cross-metathesis/ring-closing double aza-Michael process.

  14. Crystal structure of poly[bis­(ammonium) [bis­(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ato)dizincate] 1-methyl­pyrrolidin-2-one disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Carlos; Fonari, Marina S.; Wei, Qiang; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The title three-dimensional metal–organic framework (MOF) compound, {(NH4)2[Zn2(C9H3O6)2]·2C5H9NO}n, features an anionic framework constructed from Zn2+ cations and benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ate (BTC) organic anions. Charge balance is achieved by outer sphere ammonium cations formed by degradation of di-n-butyl­amine in the solvothermal synthesis of the compound. Binuclear {Zn2(COO)2} entities act as the framework’s secondary building units. Each ZnII atom has a tetrahedral coordination environment with an O4 set of donor atoms. The three-dimensional framework adopts a rutile-type topology and channels are filled in an alternating fashion with ordered and disordered 1-methyl­pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol­ecules and ammonium cations. The latter are held in the channels via four N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, including three with the benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ate ligands of the anionic framework and one with a 1-methyl­pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol­ecule. PMID:27308037

  15. Cloning and Characterization of the Genes Encoding a Cytochrome P450 (PipA) Involved in Piperidine and Pyrrolidine Utilization and Its Regulatory Protein (PipR) in Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155

    PubMed Central

    Poupin, Pascal; Ducrocq, Véronique; Hallier-Soulier, Sylvie; Truffaut, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 enabled the isolation of a mutant strain (called LGM1) altered in the regulation of piperidine and pyrrolidine utilization. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene inactivated in mutant LGM1 was determined from the wild-type strain. This gene (pipR) encoded a member of the GntR family of bacterial regulatory proteins. An insertion element (IS1096), previously described for M. smegmatis, was detected downstream of the gene pipR. Three additional open reading frames were found downstream of IS1096. The first open reading frame (pipA) appeared to encode a protein identified as a cytochrome P450 enzyme. This gene is the first member of a new family, CYP151. By a gene replacement experiment, it was demonstrated that the cytochrome P450 pipA gene is required for piperidine and pyrrolidine utilization in M. smegmatis mc2155. Genes homologous to pipA were detected by hybridization in several, previously isolated, morpholine-degrading mycobacterial strains. A gene encoding a putative [3Fe-4S] ferredoxin (orf1) and a truncated gene encoding a putative glutamine synthetase (orf2′) were found downstream of pipA. PMID:10348853

  16. 4′-(3-Bromo­phen­yl)-1′-methyl­dispiro­[indan-2,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,2′′-indan]-1,3,1′′-trione

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ang Chee; Ali, Mohamed Ashraf; Choon, Tan Soo; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C27H20BrNO3, two intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds both form S(6) rings. The pyrrolidine ring adopts a twisted conformation about the C—C bond bearing the indane ring systems. The other two five-membered rings within the indane systems are in shallow envelope conformations, with the spiro C atoms as the flap atoms. The mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring [maximum deviation = 0.275 (1) Å] makes dihedral angles of 65.25 (7), 78.33 (6) and 75.25 (6)° with the bromo-substituted benzene ring and the mean planes of the mono- and dioxo-substituted indane rings, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. In addition, C—H⋯π inter­actions are observed. PMID:23125700

  17. 3′-[Hy­droxy(4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)meth­yl]-2-oxospiro­[indoline-3,2′-pyrrolidine]-3′-carbonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, E.; SakthiMurugesan, K.; SubbiahPandi, A.; Yuvaraj, P.; Reddy, Boreddy S. R.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C23H19N3O4, the pyran ring adopts a half-chair conformation, while the pyrrolidine (with a C atom as the flap atom) and the five-membered ring in the indoline (with a C atom as the flap atom) ring system adopt slight envelope conformations. The pyrrolidine ring makes dihedral angles of 83.3 (1) and 60.4 (1)° with the mean plane through all non-H atoms of the indoline and chromene ring systems, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected by two unique N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, which form centrosymmetric patterns described by graph-set motifs R 2 2(18) and R 2 2(14). These two motifs combine to form a hydrogen-bonded chain which propagates in the a-axis direction. The crystal structure is also stablized by C—H⋯O inter­actions and by aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions between the pyran and benzene rings of neighbouring mol­ecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.755 (1) Å and slippage = 1.371 (2) Å]. PMID:22259423

  18. Technetium-99m and rhenium-188 complexes with one and two pendant bisphosphonate groups for imaging arterial calcification.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, Jayanta Kumar; Berry, David; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Sunassee, Kavitha; de Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin; Shanahan, Catherine; Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    The first (99m)Tc and (188)Re complexes containing two pendant bisphosphonate groups have been synthesised, based on the mononuclear M(v) nitride core with two dithiocarbamate ligands each with a pendant bisphosphonate. The structural identity of the (99)Tc and stable rhenium analogues as uncharged, mononuclear nitridobis(dithiocarbamate) complexes was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The (99m)Tc complex showed greater affinity for synthetic and biological hydroxyapatite, and greater stability in biological media, than the well-known but poorly-characterised and inhomogeneous bone imaging agent (99m)Tc-MDP. It gave excellent SPECT images of both bone calcification (mice and rats) and vascular calcification (rat model), but the improved stability and the availability of two pendant bisphosphonate groups conferred no dramatic advantage in imaging over the conventional (99m)Tc-MDP agent in which the bisphosphonate group is bound directly to Tc. The (188)Re complex also showed preferential uptake in bone. These tracers and the biological model of vascular calcification offer the opportunity to study the biological interpretation and clinical potential of radionuclide imaging of vascular calcification and to deliver radionuclide therapy to bone metastases.

  19. Sulfur crosslinks from thermal degradation of chitosan dithiocarbamate derivatives and thermodynamic study for sorption of copper and cadmium from aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Yong, Soon Kong; Skinner, William M; Bolan, Nanthi S; Lombi, Enzo; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pristine chitosan beads were modified with sulfur (S)-containing functional groups to produce thiolated chitosan beads (ETB), thereby increasing S donor ligands and crosslinks. The effect of temperature, heating time, carbon disulfide (CS2)/chitosan ratio, and pH on total S content of ETB was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The total S content of ETB increased with increasing CS2/chitosan ratio and decreased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature (>60 °C) and heating time (at 60 °C). Spectroscopic analyses revealed the presence of thiol (-SH)/thione, disulfide (-S-S-), and sulfonate groups in ETB. The thiolation mechanism involves decomposition of dithiocarbamate groups, thereby forming thiourea crosslinks and trithiocarbonate, resulting in -SH oxidation to produce -S-S- crosslinks. The partially formed ETB crosslinks contribute to its acid stability and are thermodynamically feasible in adsorbing Cd and Cu. The S-containing functional groups added to chitinous wastes act as sorbents for metal remediation from acidic environments.

  20. Protection from spontaneous hepatocellular damage by N-benzyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats, an animal model of Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Takahashi, Makiko; Shimada, Akinori; Okawara, Tadashi; Yasutake, Akira; Imamura, Yorishige; Kiyozumi, Morio

    2005-01-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant strain that accumulates excessive tissue copper (Cu) and models the clinical symptoms and biological features of Wilson's disease in humans. We compared the effects of three metal chelating agents, N-benzyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (BGD), d-penicillamine (D-PEN), and triethylenetetramine (TETA), on the biliary and urinary excretions of Cu using LEC rats. The animals were treated ip with each chelating agent (1 mmol/kg body weight) and then the bile and urine samples were collected for 3 h. Because single treatment with BGD markedly stimulated biliary excretion of Cu, the protective effect of repeated BGD injection on spontaneous hepatocellular damage was further examined. Separate groups received two weekly injections of BGD starting at 11 weeks of age and were compared to saline-injected controls. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and bilirubin level were significantly increased in control LEC rats by 19 weeks of age and histopathological analysis demonstrated extensive hepatic damage in these rats. However, repeated BGD injections prevented the increases in serum ALT and bilirubin and blocked the histopathological changes in the liver. Furthermore, although Cu rapidly accumulated in the liver, kidney, spleen, and serum of control LEC rats during the test period, repeated BGD injection largely prevented these increases. These results indicate that BGD treatment is effective in blocking excessive Cu accumulation in LEC rats that, in turn, provides protection from spontaneous liver damage.

  1. Core-shell magnetite-silica dithiocarbamate-derivatised particles achieve the Water Framework Directive quality criteria for mercury in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C B; Figueira, P; Tavares, D S; Lin, Z; Daniel-da-Silva, A L; Duarte, A C; Rocha, J; Trindade, T; Pereira, E

    2013-09-01

    The sorption capacity of nanoporous titanosilicate Engelhard titanosilicate number 4 (ETS-4) and silica-coated magnetite particles derivatised with dithiocarbamate groups towards Hg(II) was evaluated and compared in spiked ultra-pure and spiked surface-river water, for different batch factors. In the former, and using a batch factor of 100 m(3)/kg and an initial Hg(II) concentrations matching the maximum allowed concentration in an effluent discharge, both materials achieve Hg(II) uptake efficiencies in excess of 99 % and a residual metal concentration lower than the guideline value for drinking water quality. For the surface-river water and the same initial concentration, the Hg(II) uptake efficiency of magnetite particles is outstanding, achieving the quality criteria established by the Water Framework Directive (concerning Hg concentration in surface waters) using a batch factor of 50 m(3)/kg, while the efficiency of ETS-4 is significantly inferior. The dissimilar sorbents' Hg(II) removal efficiency is attributed to different uptake mechanisms. This study also highlights the importance of assessing the effective capacity of the sorbents under realistic conditions in order to achieve trustable results.

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopy and thermal study of some nickel(II) complexes containing tridentate Schiff bases and substituted amine ligands, X-ray crystal structure of nickel(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kianfar, Ali Hossein; Bahramian, Masomeh; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    Some new tridentate ONO and ONS Schiff base complexes of [NiL(amine)] (L = Salicylidene2-aminophenol and Salicylidene2-aminothiophenol, amine = benzylamine, morpholine, pyrrolidine and piperidine) were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The geometry of [NiL2(bzlan)] determined by X-ray crystallography indicates that the complex has planar structure and has four coordinate in the solid state. The thermogravimmetry (TG) and differential thermoanalysis (DTA) of the synthesized complexes were carried out in the range of 20-700 °C, leading to decomposition of ONO type in two stages and of ONS type in three stages. The ONO and ONS complexes were decomposed to NiO and NiS respectively. Thermal decomposition of the complexes is closely the depends upon nature of the Schiff base ligands and proceeds via first order kinetics.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopy and thermal study of some nickel(II) complexes containing tridentate Schiff bases and substituted amine ligands, X-ray crystal structure of nickel(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Kianfar, Ali Hossein; Bahramian, Masomeh; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2012-08-01

    Some new tridentate ONO and ONS Schiff base complexes of [NiL(amine)] (L=Salicylidene2-aminophenol and Salicylidene2-aminothiophenol, amine=benzylamine, morpholine, pyrrolidine and piperidine) were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-vis, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The geometry of [NiL(2)(bzlan)] determined by X-ray crystallography indicates that the complex has planar structure and has four coordinate in the solid state. The thermogravimmetry (TG) and differential thermoanalysis (DTA) of the synthesized complexes were carried out in the range of 20-700°C, leading to decomposition of ONO type in two stages and of ONS type in three stages. The ONO and ONS complexes were decomposed to NiO and NiS respectively. Thermal decomposition of the complexes is closely the depends upon nature of the Schiff base ligands and proceeds via first order kinetics. PMID:22525035

  4. A novel dithiocarbamate derivative induces cell apoptosis through p53-dependent intrinsic pathway and suppresses the expression of the E6 oncogene of human papillomavirus 18 in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Qi, Hongxue; Li, Xiaobo; Hou, Xueling; Lu, Xueying; Xiao, Xiangwen

    2015-06-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) exhibit a broad spectrum of antitumor activities, however, their molecular mechanisms of antitumor have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have synthesized a series of novel dithiocarbamate derivatives. These DTCs were examined for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. In this study, one of dithiocarbamate (DTC1) with higher potential for HeLa cells was chosen to investigate molecular mechanisms for its anti-tumor activities. DTC1 could inhibit proliferation, and highly induce apoptosis in HeLa cells by activating caspase-3, -6 and -9; moreover, activities of caspase-3, -6 and -9 were inhibited by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Furthermore, DTC1 decreased the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased expression of cytosol cytochrome c, Bak, Bax and p53 in a time-dependent manner but had no effect on the level of Rb. It was shown that DTC1 induced HeLa cells apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway as tested by the wild type p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α. Additionally, the relative expression of E6 and E7 were evaluated in HPV18-positive (HeLa cells) by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results firstly demonstrated that DTC1 suppressed both expression of E6 mRNA and E6 oncoprotein, but had no effect on the expression of E7 mRNA and protein in HPV18. Our results suggested that DTC1 may serve as novel chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cervical cancer and potential anti-HPV virus candidates that merit further studies. PMID:25772545

  5. A novel dithiocarbamate derivative induces cell apoptosis through p53-dependent intrinsic pathway and suppresses the expression of the E6 oncogene of human papillomavirus 18 in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Qi, Hongxue; Li, Xiaobo; Hou, Xueling; Lu, Xueying; Xiao, Xiangwen

    2015-06-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) exhibit a broad spectrum of antitumor activities, however, their molecular mechanisms of antitumor have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have synthesized a series of novel dithiocarbamate derivatives. These DTCs were examined for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. In this study, one of dithiocarbamate (DTC1) with higher potential for HeLa cells was chosen to investigate molecular mechanisms for its anti-tumor activities. DTC1 could inhibit proliferation, and highly induce apoptosis in HeLa cells by activating caspase-3, -6 and -9; moreover, activities of caspase-3, -6 and -9 were inhibited by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Furthermore, DTC1 decreased the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased expression of cytosol cytochrome c, Bak, Bax and p53 in a time-dependent manner but had no effect on the level of Rb. It was shown that DTC1 induced HeLa cells apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway as tested by the wild type p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α. Additionally, the relative expression of E6 and E7 were evaluated in HPV18-positive (HeLa cells) by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results firstly demonstrated that DTC1 suppressed both expression of E6 mRNA and E6 oncoprotein, but had no effect on the expression of E7 mRNA and protein in HPV18. Our results suggested that DTC1 may serve as novel chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cervical cancer and potential anti-HPV virus candidates that merit further studies.

  6. Solid state structures of cadmium complexes with relevance for biological systems.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Rosa; Castiñeiras, Alfonso; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; García-Santos, Isabel; Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the literature on structural information from crystal structures determined by X-ray diffractometry of cadmium(II) complexes containing ligands of potential biological interest. These ligands fall into three broad classes, (i) those containing N-donors such as purine or pyrimidine bases and derivatives of adenine, guanine or cytosine, (ii) those containing carboxylate groups such as α-amino acids, in particular the twenty essential ones, the water soluble vitamins (B-complex) or the polycarboxylates of EDTA type ligands, and (iii) S-donors such as thiols/thiolates or dithiocarbamates. A crystal and molecular structural analysis has been carried out for some representative complexes of these ligands, specifically addressing the coordination mode of ligands, the coordination environment of cadmium and, in some significant cases, the intermolecular interactions. PMID:23430774

  7. Novel routes to either racemic or enantiopure α-amino-(4-hydroxy-pyrrolidin-3-yl)acetic acid derivatives and biological evaluation of a new promising pharmacological scaffold.

    PubMed

    Cecioni, Samy; Aouadi, Kaïss; Guiard, Julie; Parrot, Sandrine; Strazielle, Nathalie; Blondel, Sandrine; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François; Chapelle, Christian; Denoroy, Luc; Praly, Jean-Pierre

    2015-06-15

    Cycloaddition between (+) or (-)-menthone-derived nitrones and N-benzyl-3-pyrroline afforded enantiopure spiro-fused heterocycles. The reaction occurred enantio- and diastereo-selectively on the less hindered side of the nitrone, the 3-pyrroline N-benzyl group being oriented outwards, thus controlling the configurations of three simultaneously created chiral centers. From either (+) or (-)-menthone, both enantiomeric cycloadducts were synthesized in excellent yield. Removing the chiral auxiliary and the N-benzyl group delivered a series of enantiopure 4-hydroxy-3-glycinyl-pyrrolidine derivatives in 3-5 steps and 36 to 81 overall yields. Using two other achiral nitrones, shorter routes to racemic analogues were developed. Two of the synthesized compounds markedly lowered extracellular glutamate level and modestly interacted with cannabinoid type-1 receptors. As these two neuroactive compounds were devoid of in vitro toxicity and did not cross the blood brain interface, they might represent potential pharmacological agents to target peripheral organs.

  8. Optimization of Phenyl-Substituted Benzimidazole Carboxamide Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors: Identification of (S)-2-(2-Fluoro-4-(pyrrolidin-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide (A-966492), a Highly Potent and Efficacious Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Penning, Thomas D.; Zhu, Gui-Dong; Gong, Jianchun; Thomas, Sheela; Gandhi, Viraj B.; Liu, Xuesong; Shi, Yan; Klinghofer, Vered; Johnson, Eric F.; Park, Chang H.; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Donawho, Cherrie K.; Frost, David J.; Buchanan, Fritz G.; Bukofzer, Gail T.; Rodriguez, Luis E.; Bontcheva-Diaz, Velitchka; Bouska, Jennifer J.; Osterling, Donald J.; Olson, Amanda M.; Marsh, Kennan C.; Luo, Yan; Giranda, Vincent L.

    2010-06-21

    We have developed a series of phenylpyrrolidine- and phenylpiperidine-substituted benzimidazole carboxamide poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors with excellent PARP enzyme potency as well as single-digit nanomolar cellular potency. These efforts led to the identification of (S)-2-(2-fluoro-4-(pyrrolidin-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide (22b, A-966492). Compound 22b displayed excellent potency against the PARP-1 enzyme with a K{sub i} of 1 nM and an EC{sub 50} of 1 nM in a whole cell assay. In addition, 22b is orally bioavailable across multiple species, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and appears to distribute into tumor tissue. It also demonstrated good in vivo efficacy in a B16F10 subcutaneous murine melanoma model in combination with temozolomide and in an MX-1 breast cancer xenograft model both as a single agent and in combination with carboplatin.

  9. Conversion to isothiocyanates via dithiocarbamates for the determination of aromatic primary amines by headspace-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jain, Archana; Reddy-Noone, Kishan; Pillai, Aradhana K K V; Verma, Krishna K

    2013-11-01

    A novel and highly selective method has been developed for the determination of aromatic primary amines by their conversion to dithiocarbamates by reaction with carbon disulphide, and then to isothiocyanates, which are volatile, by heating in the presence of a heavy metal ion. Zinc(II) was selected owing to its low toxicity and optimum yield of isothiocyanates. The latter were sampled by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) on divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fibre, 50/30 μm. The HS-SPME procedure was optimized to provide adequate limits of detection in the analysis of aromatic amines in their real samples by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The method gave rectilinear calibration graph, correlation coefficient and limit of detection, respectively, over the range 0.08-100 μg L(-1), 0.9950-0.9990 and 25-240 ng L(-1) in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 0.01-10 mg L(-1), 0.9910-0.9991 and 0.8-3.0 μg L(-1) in gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. At two different levels, 10 and 40 μg L(-1), the range of intra-day RSD was 3.7-8.5% (GC-MS) and 3.3-9.2% (GC-FID), respectively. The proposed method is simple and rapid, and has been applied to determine aromatic primary amines in the environmental waters, food samples of ice cream powder and soft drinks concentrate, and food colours. The intra-day RSD in the analysis of real samples by GC-MS was in the range 3.6-6.2%. The food/colour samples were found to contain elevated levels of aniline and 2-toluidine. PMID:24139574

  10. Dithiocarbamates and Viral IL-10 Collaborate in the Immortalization and Evasion of Immune Response in EBV-infected Human B Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Irons, Richard D.; Le, Anh Tuan

    2008-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies including several subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) [1]. Lymphoproliferative disease and NHL occurring in severely immunosuppressed individuals almost all involve EBV and have been extensively studied and modeled in vitro. EBV has also been causally associated with some cases of NHL occurring in otherwise immunocompetent individuals. However, a direct role for EBV in the pathogenesis of neoplasms developing in the presence of an otherwise competent immune system has not been established. We investigated potential interactions between dithiocarbamates (DTC), an important class of thiono-sulfur compounds, and EBV leading to immortalization of human B lymphocytes and evasion of cell-mediated immune response in culture. Primary lymphocyte cultures employing wild-type and recombinant EBV mutants were used to assess the respective roles of DTC and viral genes in lymphocyte transformation and survival. Pretreatment of EBV-infected human B lymphocytes with DTC directly enhanced transformation in the absence of T cells (5 nM) and independently increased survival of transformed cells in the presence of competent autologous T cells (10 nM). Both DTC-induced transformation and immortalization of EBV-infected B lymphocytes were dependent on the expression of viral IL-10. These results provide a biological basis for studying collaborations between chemical and virus that alter lymphocyte biology, and provide a rationale for further molecular epidemiology studies to better understand the potential influence of these interactions on the development of NHL and perhaps other viral-associated malignancies. PMID:18163983

  11. Speciation of inorganic arsenic in drinking water by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry after in situ preconcentration with miniature solid-phase extraction disks.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kenta; Inui, Tetsuo; Koike, Yuya; Aizawa, Mamoru; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2015-03-01

    A rapid and simple method using wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry after in situ solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the speciation and evaluation of the concentration of inorganic arsenic (As) in drinking water. The method involves the simultaneous collection of As(III) and As(V) using 13 mm ϕ SPE miniature disks. The removal of Pb(2+) from the sample water was first conducted to avoid the overlapping PbLα and AsKα spectra on the XRF spectrum. To this end, a 50 mL aqueous sample (pH 5-9) was passed through an iminodiacetate chelating disk. The filtrate was adjusted to pH 2-3 with HCl, and then ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate solution was added. The solution was passed through a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene filter placed on a Zr and Ca loaded cation-exchange disk at a flow rate of 12.5 mL min(-1) to separate As(III)-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex and As(V). Each SPE disk was affixed to an acrylic plate using adhesive cellophane tape, and then examined by WDXRF spectrometry. The detection limits of As(III) and As(V) were 0.8 and 0.6 μg L(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to screening for As speciation and concentration evaluation in spring water and well water.

  12. The role of antiferromagnetic exchange interactions in dinuclear Cr(III) dithiocarbamates and a stepwise behavior of magnetic moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytekin, O.; Bayri, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study the role of the antiferromagnetic interactions in recently synthesized dinuclear Cr(III) complex has been investigated. Since there was not enough structural information for the characterization of the synthesis, we claim that there should be antiferromagnetic interactions between the dinuclear Fe(III) ions, if the proposed structure is the real structure. A new experiment is proposed to test the predictions of this theoretical investigation.

  13. Copper(II) complexes with highly water-soluble L- and D-proline-thiosemicarbazone conjugates as potential inhibitors of Topoisomerase IIα.

    PubMed

    Bacher, Felix; Enyedy, Éva A; Nagy, Nóra V; Rockenbauer, Antal; Bognár, Gabriella M; Trondl, Robert; Novak, Maria S; Klapproth, Erik; Kiss, Tamás; Arion, Vladimir B

    2013-08-01

    Two proline-thiosemicarbazone bioconjugates with excellent aqueous solubility, namely, 3-methyl-(S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate-2-formylpyridine thiosemicarbazone [L-Pro-FTSC or (S)-H2L] and 3-methyl-(R)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate-2-formylpyridine thiosemicarbazone [D-Pro-FTSC or (R)-H2L], have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The complexation behavior of L-Pro-FTSC with copper(II) in an aqueous solution and in a 30% (w/w) dimethyl sulfoxide/water mixture has been studied via pH potentiometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, electron paramagnetic resonance, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and spectrofluorimetry. By the reaction of copper(II) acetate with (S)-H2L and (R)-H2L in water, the complexes [Cu(S,R)-L] and [Cu(R,S)-L] have been synthesized and comprehensively characterized. An X-ray diffraction study of [Cu(S,R)-L] showed the formation of a square-pyramidal complex, with the bioconjugate acting as a pentadentate ligand. Both copper(II) complexes displayed antiproliferative activity in CH1 ovarian carcinoma cells and inhibited Topoisomerase IIα activity in a DNA plasmid relaxation assay. PMID:23829568

  14. Axial Coordination and Conformational Heterogeneity of Nickel(II) Tetraphenylporphyrin Complexes with Nitrogenous Bases.

    PubMed

    Jia, Song-Ling; Jentzen, Walter; Shang, Mayou; Song, Xing-Zhi; Ma, Jian-Guo; Scheidt, W. Robert; Shelnutt, John A.

    1998-08-24

    Axial ligation of nickel(II) 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (NiTPP) with pyrrolidine or piperidine has been investigated using X-ray crystallography, UV-visible spectroscopy, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations. By varying the pyrrolidine concentration in dichloromethane, distinct nu(4) Raman lines are found for the four-, five-, and six-coordinate species of NiTPP. The equilibrium constants for addition of the first and second pyrrolidine axial ligands are 1.1 and 3.8 M(-)(1), respectively. The axial ligands and their orientations influence the type and magnitude of the calculated nonplanar distortion. The differences in the calculated energies of the conformers having different ligand rotational angles are small so they may coexist in solution. Because of the similarity in macrocyclic structural parameters of these conformers and the free rotation of the axial ligands, narrow and symmetric nu(2) and nu(8) Raman lines are observed. Nonetheless, the normal-coordinate structural-decomposition analysis of the nonplanar distortions of the calculated structures and the crystal structure of the bis(piperidine) complex reveals a relationship between the orientations of axial ligand(s) and the macrocyclic distortions. For the five-coordinate complex with the plane of the axial ligand bisecting the Ni-N(pyrrole) bonds, a primarily ruffled deformation results. With the ligand plane eclipsing the Ni-N(pyrrole) bonds, a mainly saddled deformation occurs. With the addition of the second axial ligand, the small doming of the five-coordinate complexes disappears, and ruffling or saddling deformations change depending on the relative orientation of the two axial ligands. The crystal structure of the NiTPP bis(piperidine) complex shows a macrocycle distortion composed of wav(x) and wav(y) symmetric deformations, but no ruffling, saddling, or doming. The difference in the calculated and observed distortions results partly from the phenyl group

  15. Developments in asymmetric catalysis by metal complexes of chiral chelating nitrogen-donor ligands.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Christine A; Jones, Nathan D

    2007-11-01

    In part because of their straightforward and modular syntheses from readily available enantiopure starting materials, and their capacity to bind a wide variety of transition metals, chiral, chelating nitrogen-donor ligands have played a prominent role in asymmetric catalysis. A large number of highly enantioselective transformations rely upon these ligands whose reported classes are built around amine, imine, pyrrole, pyrrolidine, oxazoline and oxazolidine donor groups, among others. In this Perspective, we examine a selection of transformative developments in asymmetric catalysis by metal complexes of bi- and polydentate members of this ligand family. We describe approaches to ligand design and synthesis, structure and bonding in coordination complexes, and limitations and future challenges. PMID:17940641

  16. Density functional study of the electronic structure of dye-functionalized fullerenes and their model donor-acceptor complexes containing P3HT.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Tunna; Garnica, Amanda; Paggen, Marina; Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra R

    2016-04-14

    We study the electronic structure of C60 fullerenes functionalized with a thiophene-diketo-pyrrolopyrrole-thiophene based chromophore using density functional theory combined with large polarized basis sets. As the attached chromophore has electron donor character, the functionalization of the fullerene leads to a donor-acceptor (DA) system. We examine in detail the effect of the linker and the addition site on the electronic structure of the functionalized fullerenes. We further study the electronic structure of these DA complexes with a focus on the charge transfer excitations. Finally, we examine the interface of the functionalized fullerenes with the widely used poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) donor. Our results show that all functionalized fullerenes with an exception of the C60-pyrrolidine [6,6], where the pyrrolidine is attached at a [6,6] site, have larger electron affinities relative to the pristine C60 fullerene. We also estimate the quasi-particle gap, lowest charge transfer excitation energy, and the exciton binding energies of the functionalized fullerene-P3MT model systems. Results show that the exciton binding energies in these model complexes are slightly smaller compared to a similarly prepared phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-P3MT complex.

  17. Density functional study of the electronic structure of dye-functionalized fullerenes and their model donor-acceptor complexes containing P3HT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Tunna; Garnica, Amanda; Paggen, Marina; Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra R.

    2016-04-01

    We study the electronic structure of C60 fullerenes functionalized with a thiophene-diketo-pyrrolopyrrole-thiophene based chromophore using density functional theory combined with large polarized basis sets. As the attached chromophore has electron donor character, the functionalization of the fullerene leads to a donor-acceptor (DA) system. We examine in detail the effect of the linker and the addition site on the electronic structure of the functionalized fullerenes. We further study the electronic structure of these DA complexes with a focus on the charge transfer excitations. Finally, we examine the interface of the functionalized fullerenes with the widely used poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) donor. Our results show that all functionalized fullerenes with an exception of the C60-pyrrolidine [6,6], where the pyrrolidine is attached at a [6,6] site, have larger electron affinities relative to the pristine C60 fullerene. We also estimate the quasi-particle gap, lowest charge transfer excitation energy, and the exciton binding energies of the functionalized fullerene-P3MT model systems. Results show that the exciton binding energies in these model complexes are slightly smaller compared to a similarly prepared phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-P3MT complex.

  18. Crystal structure of 1′,1′′-dimethyl-4′-(4-cholorophen­yl)di­spiro­[11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline-11,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3′′-piperidin]-4′′-one

    PubMed Central

    Nagalakshmi, R.A.; Suresh, J.; Malathi, K.; Kumar, R. Ranjith; Lakshman, P. L. Nilantha

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C30H27ClN4O, the central pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the methyl­ene C atom being the flap. The quinoxaline and indane rings are each essentially planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.027 (1) and 0.0417 (1) Å, respectively. The pyrrolidine ring forms dihedral angles of 88.25 (1) and 83.76 (1)° with the quinoxaline and indane rings, respectively. A weak intra­molecular C—H⋯N inter­action is observed. In the crystal, C—H⋯π inter­actions lead to supra­molecular chains along [101] that assemble in the ac plane. Connections along the b axis are of the type Cl⋯Cl [3.6538 (16) Å]. PMID:25878875

  19. Crystal structure of 5''-(4-chloro-benzyl-idene)-4'-(4-chloro-phen-yl)-1'-methyltri-spiro[acenapthylene-1,2'-pyrrolidine-3',1''-cyclo-hexane-3'',2'''-[1,3]dioxane]-2(1H),6''-dione.

    PubMed

    Chandralekha, Kuppan; Gavaskar, Deivasigamani; Sureshbabu, Adukamparai Rajukrishnan; Lakshmi, Srinivasakannan

    2015-11-01

    In the title compound, C36H29Cl2NO4, two spiro links connect the methyl-substituted pyrrolidine ring to the ace-naphthyl-ene and cyclo-hexa-none rings. The cyclo-hexa-none ring is further connected to the dioxalane ring by a third spiro junction. The five-membered ring of the ace-naphthylen-1-one ring system adopts a flattened envelope conformation, with the ketonic C atom as the flap, whereas the dioxalane and pyrrolidine rings each have a twist conformation. The cyclo-hexenone ring assumes a boat conformation. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen-bond inter-action is present. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by non-classical C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains extending parallel to the a axis. PMID:26594541

  20. Pyrrolidine as a cogwheel-like scaffold for the deployment of diverse functionality through cycloaddition reactions of metallo-1,3-dipoles in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, S; Bayrakdarian, M

    2000-03-01

    The reaction of glycinatocopper complexes with cinnamaldehydes under mildy basic aqueous conditions, affords polysubstituted prolines, which can be systematically modified in a number of chemoselective transformations. PMID:10743941

  1. Synthesis, antifungal activities and molecular docking studies of novel 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Yu, Shichong; Li, Renwu; Zhao, Qingjie; Li, Xiang; Wu, Maocheng; Huang, Ting; Chai, Xiaoxun; Hu, Honggang; Wu, Qiuye

    2014-03-01

    A series of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl dithiocarbamates as new analogs of fluconazole were synthesized and their antifungal activities were evaluated. Among these compounds, 2a-f and 3a-q exhibited higher activities than fluconazole against nearly all fungi tested except Aspergillus fumigatus. Noticeably, the in vitro biological activities of 2b, 3a, 3c, 3h-k, and 3o-q against Candida species were much better than those of fluconazole and ketoconazole. Also, 2a-d, 3a-d, 3e-f, 3h-k, 3p and 3q showed higher activities against A. fumi than fluconazole. Computational docking experiments indicated that the inhibition of CYP51 involved a coordination bond with iron of the heme group, the hydrophilic H-bonding region, the hydrophobic region, and the narrow hydrophobic cleft. PMID:24487187

  2. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships for 1-(4-(piperidin-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)pyrrolidin-2-ones as novel non-carboxylate inhibitors of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme AKR1C3.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Daniel M; Flanagan, Jack U; Jamieson, Stephen M F; Silva, Shevan; Rigoreau, Laurent J M; Trivier, Elisabeth; Raynham, Tony; Turnbull, Andrew P; Denny, William A

    2013-04-01

    High expression of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme AKR1C3 in the human prostate and breast has implicated it in the development and progression of leukemias and of prostate and breast cancers. Inhibitors are thus of interest as potential drugs. Most inhibitors of AKR1C3 are carboxylic acids, whose transport into cells is likely dominated by carrier-mediated processes. We describe here a series of (piperidinosulfonamidophenyl)pyrrolidin-2-ones as potent (<100 nM) and isoform-selective non-carboxylate inhibitors of AKR1C3. Structure-activity relationships identified the sulfonamide was critical, and a crystal structure showed the 2-pyrrolidinone does not interact directly with residues in the oxyanion hole. Variations in the position, co-planarity or electronic nature of the pyrrolidinone ring severely diminished activity, as did altering the size or polarity of the piperidino ring. There was a broad correlation between the enzyme potencies of the compounds and their effectiveness at inhibiting AKR1C3 activity in cells.

  3. Design and synthesis of pyrrolidine-5,5-trans-lactams (5-oxohexahydropyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrroles) as novel mechanism-based inhibitors of human cytomegalovirus protease. 2. Potency and chirality.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Alan D; Crame, Andrew J; Ertl, Peter F; Exall, Anne M; Haley, Terry M; Hart, Graham J; Mason, Andrew M; Pennell, Andrew M K; Singh, Onkar M P; Weingarten, Gordon G; Woolven, James M

    2002-01-01

    The stereospecific synthesis of a series of alpha-methylpyrrolidine-5,5-trans-lactam inhibitors of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protease is described. Examination of the SAR in this series has defined the size and chirality of the alpha-substituent, optimized the acyl substituent on the lactam nitrogen, and defined the steric constraint of this functionality. The SAR of the functionality on the pyrrolidine nitrogen of the trans-lactam has been investigated, and this has led to the discovery of potent serine protease inhibitors that are highly selective for the viral enzyme over the mammalian enzymes elastase, thrombin, and acetylcholine esterase. The mechanism of action of our lead compounds has been established by mass spectrometry, and enzymatic degradation of HCMV deltaAla protease acylated with these inhibitors showed that Ser 132 is the active site nucleophile. The crystal structure of HCMV protease was obtained and used to model the conformationally restricted, chiral (S)-proline-alpha-methyl-5,5-trans-lactams into the active site groove of the enzyme, enabling us to direct and rationalize the SAR in this series. The activity against HCMV deltaAla protease is the greatest with inhibitors based on the dansyl-(S)-proline alpha-methyl-5,5-trans-lactam template, which have low nanomolar activity against the viral enzyme.

  4. Crystal structure of ethyl (2S,2'R)-1'-benzyl-3-oxo-3H-di-spiro-[1-benzo-thio-phene-2,3'-pyrrolidine-2',11''-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline]-4'-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, J; Raja, R; Suresh, M; Raghunathan, R; SubbiahPandi, A

    2015-03-01

    In the title compound, C35H27N3O3S, the spiro-linked five-membered rings both adopt twisted conformations. The pyrrolidine ring makes dihedral angles of 80.5 (1) and 77.4 (9)° with the benzo-thio-phene ring system and the quinoxaline ring system, respectively. The S atom and C=O unit of the benzo-thio-phene ring system are disordered over two opposite orientations in a 0.768 (4):0.232 (4) ratio. The atoms of the ethyl side chain are disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.680 (16):0.320 (16) ratio. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O, C-H⋯N and π-π inter-actions [shortest centroid-centroid distance = 3.4145 (19) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional network.

  5. 4′-(4-Fluoro­phen­yl)-1′-methyl­dispiro­[indane-2,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,2′′-indane]-1,3,1′′-trione methanol hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Ashraf; Manogaran, Elumalai; Choon, Tan Soo; Rosli, Mohd Mustaqim; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C29H24FNO5·0.5CH3OH, contains two independent mol­ecules and a one methanol solvent mol­ecule. The methanol mol­ecule is O—H⋯O hydrogen bonded to one of the independent mol­ecules. The pyrrolidine rings in both mol­ecules adopt half-chair conformations, while the cyclo­pentane rings within the indane groups are in flattened envelope conformations, with the spiro C atoms forming the flaps. The benzene rings of the indane ring systems form a dihedral angle of 35.06 (7)° in one independent mol­ecule and 31.16 (8)° in the other. The fluoro-substituted benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 65.35 (6) and 85.87 (7)° with the indane group benzene rings in one mol­ecule, and 72.78 (8) and 77.27 (8)° in the other. In each mol­ecule, a weak intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond forms an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into a three-dimensional network. PMID:23723896

  6. Synthesis, Ex Vivo Evaluation and Radiolabeling of Potent 1,5-Diphenyl-pyrrolidin-2-one Cannabinoid Subtype-1 (CB1) Receptor Ligands as Candidates for In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Sean R.; Krushinski, Joseph H.; Pike, Victor W.; Chernet, Eyassu; Lee, Phebus; Chesterfield, Amy K.; Felder, Christian C.; Halldin, Christer; Schaus, John M.

    2008-01-01

    We have reported that [methyl-11C](3R,5R)-5-(3-methoxy-phenyl)-3-((R)-1-phenyl-ethylamino)-1-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-pyrrolidin-2-one ([11C]8, [11C]MePPEP) binds with high selectivity to cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors in monkey brain in vivo. We now describe the synthesis of 8 and four analogs, namely the 4-fluoro-phenyl (16, FMePPEP), 3-fluoromethoxy (20, FMPEP), 3-fluoromethoxy-d2 (21, FMPEP-d2) and 3-fluoro-ethoxy analogs (22, FEPEP), and report their activity in an ex vivo model designed to identify compounds suitable for use as PET ligands. These ligands showed high, selective potency at CB1 receptors in vitro (Kb < 1 nM). Each ligand (30 μg/kg, i.v.) was injected into rats under baseline and pretreatment conditions (3, rimonabant, 10 mg/kg, i.v.), and quantified at later times in frontal cortex ex vivo with LC-MS detection. Maximal ligand uptakes were high (22.6-48.0 ng/g). Under pretreatment, maximal brain uptakes were greatly reduced (6.5-17.3 ng/g). Since each ligand readily entered brain and bound with high selectivity to CB1 receptors, we then established and here describe methods to produce [11C]8, [11C]16 and [18F]20-22 in adequate activities for evaluation as candidate PET radioligands in vivo. PMID:18800770

  7. Salicylaldiminato derivatives of cyclotriveratrylene: flexible strategy for new rim-metalated CTV complexes.

    PubMed

    Bohle, D S; Stasko, D J

    2000-12-11

    The amino-derivatized cyclotriveratrylene analogue, triaminotrimethoxytribenzocyclononene [CTV(NH2)3(OMe)3], 1, is readily converted into triply substituted imine compounds [CTV(sal)3(OMe)3], 2, in high yield by treatment of the acid salt of 1 with a variety of substituted salicylaldehydes. Cleavage of the protecting methoxy group generates the tristridentate chelate CTV(sal)3(OH)3, 3, which is readily converted into new rim-metalated species CTV(sal)3(ONiL)3, 4a (a, L = pyrrolidine; b, L = 1-n-butyl-imidazole). Taken together, these results illustrate the remarkable synthetic flexibility that is possible for the CTV-based metal complexes by alteration of the metal, the salicylaldehyde component of the CTV ligand, or the ancillary ligands coordinated to the metal. PMID:11151378

  8. Oxidation of formic acid on platinum surfaces decorated with cobalt(III) macrocyclic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanović, S.; Babić-Samardžija, K.; Sovilj, S. P.; Tripković, A.; Jovanović, V. M.

    2009-09-01

    Platinum electrode decorated with three different mixed-ligand cobalt(III) complexes of the general formula [Co(Rdtc)cyclam](ClO4)2 [cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, Rdtc- = morpholine-(Morphdtc), piperidine-(Pipdtc), and 4-methylpiperidine-(4-Mepipdtc) dithiocarbamates, respectively] was used to study oxidation of formic acid in acidic solution. The complexes were adsorbed on differently prepared Pt surfaces, at open circuit potential. The preliminary results show increased catalytic activity of Pt for formic acid oxidation with complex ion adsorbed on the polycrystalline surfaces. The increase in catalytic activity depends on the structure of the complex applied and follows the order of metal-coordinated bidentate ligand as Morphdtc > Pipdtc > 4-Mepipdtc. Based on IR and NMR data, the main characteristics of the Rdtc ligands do not vary dramatically, but high symmetry of the corresponding complexes decreases in the same order. Accordingly, the complexes are distinctively more mobile, causing chemical interactions to occur on the surface with appreciable speed and enhanced selectivity. The effect of the complexes on catalytic activity presumably depends on structural changes on Pt surfaces caused by their adsorption.

  9. Redox reactivity of mononuclear and binuclear rhenium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Six different classes of monomeric and dimeric rhenium complexes containing substituted nitriles, substituted pyridines, dithiocarbamates, and substituted phosphines as ligands were synthesized. Monomers had the general formula ReCl{sub 3} (NCR) (PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, ReCl{sub 3}-(NCCH{sub 3})(P-(aryl-R){sub 3}){sub 2}, and ReOCl{sub 3} (P-(aryl-R){sub 3}){sub 2}. Dimers had the general formula Re{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} (dppm){sub 2} (NCR) and (Re{sub 2}Cl{sub 3}(dppm){sub 2}-(NCR){sub 2}){sup +} (dppm = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) and Re{sub 2}O{sub 3}Cl{sub 4}-(py){sub 4}, where R was an alkyl or halogenated substituent chosen to systematically vary the donor-acceptor properties of the nitrile, pyridine, or phosphine ligand. The effects of this structural change on the function of the molecule was monitored both spectrally and electrochemically. Rate constants for addition of nitriles to the metal-metal bridged dimeric complex were found to vary linearly with the identity of the substitutent. Spectroscopic data followed these trends as well. The structure-function relationships derived from this work will aid in the design of future Technetium and Rhenium-based organ selective radioimaging agents.

  10. The gap junction modifier, GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], improves conduction and reduces atrial fibrillation/flutter in the canine sterile pericarditis model.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Eric I; Liu, Kun; Morgan, Gwen A; Swillo, Robert E; Krueger, Julie A; Gardell, Stephen J; Butera, John; Gruver, Matthew; Kantrowitz, Joel; Feldman, Hal S; Petersen, Jørgen S; Haugan, Ketil; Hennan, James K

    2009-06-01

    Gap junction uncoupling can alter conduction pathways and promote cardiac re-entry mechanisms that potentiate many supraventricular arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL). Our objective was to determine whether GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], a small dipeptide gap junction modifier, can improve conduction and ultimately prevent AF/AFL. In rat atrial strips subjected to metabolic stress, GAP-134 prevented significantly conduction velocity slowing at 10 nM compared with vehicle (p < 0.01). In the canine sterile pericarditis model, conduction time (CT; n = 5), atrial effective refractory period (AERP; n = 3), and AF/AFL duration/inducibility (n = 16) were measured 2 to 3 days postoperatively in conscious dogs. CT was significantly faster after GAP-134 infusion (average plasma concentration, 250 nM) at cycle lengths of 300 ms (66.2 +/- 1.0 versus 62.0 +/- 1.0 ms; p < 0.001) and 200 ms (64.4 +/- 0.9 versus 61.0 +/- 1.3 ms; p < 0.001). No significant changes in AERP were noted after GAP-134 infusion. The mean number of AF/AFL inductions per animal was significantly decreased after GAP-134 infusion (2.7 +/- 0.6 versus 1.6 +/- 0.8; p < 0.01), with total AF/AFL burden being decreased from 12,280 to 6063 s. Western blot experiments showed no change in connexin 43 expression. At concentrations exceeding those described in the AF/AFL experiments, GAP-134 had no effect on heart rate, blood pressure, or any electrocardiogram parameters. In conclusion, GAP-134 shows consistent efficacy on measures of conduction and AF/AFL inducibility in the canine sterile pericarditis model. These findings, along with its oral bioavailability, underscore its potential antiarrhythmic efficacy.

  11. Spiro-oxindole derivative 5-chloro-4',5'-diphenyl-3'-(4-(2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxy) benzoyl) spiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one triggers apoptosis in breast cancer cells via restoration of p53 function.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ruchi; Gupta, Garima; Manohar, Murli; Debnath, Utsab; Popli, Pooja; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S; Konwar, Rituraj; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Atul; Dwivedi, Anila

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a significant health problem due to the involvement of multiple aberrant and redundant signaling pathways in tumorigenesis and the development of resistance to the existing therapeutic agents. Therefore, the search for novel chemotherapeutic agents for effective management of breast cancer is still warranted. In an effort to develop new anti-breast cancer agents, we have synthesized and identified novel spiro-oxindole derivative G613 i.e. 5-chloro-4',5'-diphenyl-3'-(4-(2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxy) benzoyl) spiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one, which has shown growth inhibitory activity in breast cancer cells. The present study was aimed to explore the mechanism of anti-tumorigenic action of this newly identified spiro-oxindole compound. Compound G613 inhibited the Mdm2-p53 interaction in breast cancer cells and tumor xenograft. It caused restoration of p53 function by activating its promoter activity, triggering its nuclear accumulation and preventing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Supportively, molecular docking studies revealed considerable homology in the docking mode of G613 and the known Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, to p53 binding pocket of Mdm2. The activation of p53 led to upregulation of p53 dependent pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, Pumaα and Noxa and enhanced interaction of p53 with bcl2 member proteins thus triggering both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent apoptosis, respectively. Additionally, the compound decreased estrogen receptor activity through sequestration of estrogen receptor α by p53 thereby causing a decreased transcriptional activation and expression of proliferation markers. In conclusion, G613 represents a potent small-molecule inhibitor of the Mdm2-p53 interaction and can serve as a promising lead for developing a new class of anti-cancer therapy for breast cancer patients.

  12. Investigation of the inhibiting action of O-, S- and N-dithiocarbamato(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)cobalt(III) complexes on the corrosion of iron in HClO 4 acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić-Samardžija, K.; Khaled, K. F.; Hackerman, N.

    2005-02-01

    The inhibiting properties of four macrocyclic cobalt(III) complexes of the general formula [Co III(Rdtc)cyclam](ClO 4) 2, where cyclam and Rdtc- refer to 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and morpholine-, thiomorpholine-, piperazine-, N-methylpiperazine-dithiocarbamates, respectively, has been studied on the corrosion of iron in aerated 0.1 M HClO 4 solutions by potentiodynamic polarization (dc) technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ac). Inhibitor efficiency for the corrosion of iron is found to be better for cobalt complexes then for related amino-ligands. The impedance increases with inhibitor concentration. Polarization curves indicate that the inhibitors are predominantly mixed-type. Better protection by the complex inhibitors was obtained with longer immersion time. The best fit for inhibitors adsorption is obtained using the Langmuir isotherm model. Molecular modeling calculations were used to correlate structural properties of the complex species and their inhibition efficiency.

  13. Determination of cadmium, copper, and lead in sodium chloride food salts by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez De Eulate, M J; Montoro, R; Ybañez, N; De La Guardia, M

    1986-01-01

    A method for determination of Cd, Cu, and Pb in sodium chloride food salt samples has been developed. It consists of extraction in 4-methyl-2-pentanone of the complexes formed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and further analysis of the extracts by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Detection limits in ng/g salt were 0.2 for Cd, 0.7 for Cu, and 10.0 for Pb. The coefficients of variation of 12 independent analyses were 13% for Cd (at a level of 0.4 ppb), 18% for Cu (1.6 ppb), and 5% for Pb (40 ppb). The recoveries were 100 +/- 0% for Cd, 115 +/- 14% for Cu, and 100 +/- 13% for Pb. PMID:3771460

  14. Crystal structure of 5′′-(4-chloro­benzyl­idene)-4′-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-1′-methyltri­spiro[acenapthylene-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,1′′-cyclo­hexane-3′′,2′′′-[1,3]dioxane]-2(1H),6′′-dione

    PubMed Central

    Chandralekha, Kuppan; Gavaskar, Deivasigamani; Sureshbabu, Adukamparai Rajukrishnan; Lakshmi, Srinivasakannan

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C36H29Cl2NO4, two spiro links connect the methyl-substituted pyrrolidine ring to the ace­naphthyl­ene and cyclo­hexa­none rings. The cyclo­hexa­none ring is further connected to the dioxalane ring by a third spiro junction. The five-membered ring of the ace­naphthylen-1-one ring system adopts a flattened envelope conformation, with the ketonic C atom as the flap, whereas the dioxalane and pyrrolidine rings each have a twist conformation. The cyclo­hexenone ring assumes a boat conformation. An intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen-bond inter­action is present. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by non-classical C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains extending parallel to the a axis. PMID:26594541

  15. 1-(2-Hy­droxy­eth­yl)-1′-methyl-4′-(naph­thal­en-1-yl)-1′′,2′′,3′′,4′′-tetra­hydro­dispiro­[indoline-3,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,2′′-naphthalene]-2,1′′-dione

    PubMed Central

    Selvanayagam, S.; Sridhar, B.; Saravanan, P.; Raghunathan, R.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C33H30N2O3, the pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation in which the H atom attached the an ortho-C atom deviates from the plane, whereas the cyclo­hexa­none ring in the tetra­hydro­naphthalene fused-ring system adopts a sofa conformation. The oxindoline ring system is almost perpendicular with respect to the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring, with a dihedral angle of 89.0 (1)°. Five intra­molecular C—H⋯O close contacts are observed. In the crystal, mol­ecules associate via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming R 2 2(14) dimers. In addition, there are weak C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22412670

  16. Nicotine Dehydrogenase Complexed with 6-Hydroxypseudooxynicotine Oxidase Involved in the Hybrid Nicotine-Degrading Pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huili; Xie, Kebo; Yu, Wenjun; Hu, Liejie; Huang, Haiyan; Xie, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine, a major toxic alkaloid in tobacco wastes, is degraded by bacteria, mainly via pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. Previously, we discovered a new hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and characterized its key enzyme 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) hydroxylase. Here, we purified the nicotine dehydrogenase initializing the nicotine degradation from the strain and found that it forms a complex with a novel 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine oxidase. The purified complex is composed of three different subunits encoded by ndhAB and pno, where ndhA and ndhB overlap by 4 bp and are ∼26 kb away from pno. As predicted from the gene sequences and from chemical analyses, NdhA (82.4 kDa) and NdhB (17.1 kDa) harbor a molybdopterin cofactor and two [2Fe-2S] clusters, respectively, whereas Pno (73.3 kDa) harbors an flavin mononucleotide and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Mutants with disrupted ndhA or ndhB genes did not grow on nicotine but grew well on 6-hydroxynicotine and HSP, whereas the pno mutant did not grow on nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine but grew well on HSP, indicating that NdhA and NdhB are responsible for initialization of nicotine oxidation. We successfully expressed pno in Escherichia coli and found that the recombinant Pno presented 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reduction activity when it was coupled with 6-hydroxynicotine oxidation. The determination of reaction products catalyzed by the purified enzymes or mutants indicated that NdhAB catalyzed nicotine oxidation to 6-hydroxynicotine, whereas Pno oxidized 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylsemialdehyde pyridine. These results provide new insights into this novel hybrid pathway of nicotine degradation in A. tumefaciens S33. PMID:26729714

  17. A scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the phases formed by the sulfur adsorption on Au(100) from an alkaline solution of 1,4-piperazine(bis)-dithiocarbamate of potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Javier A.; Valenzuela B., José; Cao Milán, R.; Herrera, José; Farías, Mario H.; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2014-11-01

    Piperazine-dithiocarbamate of potassium (K2DTC2pz) was used as a new precursor for the spontaneous deposition of sulfur on the Au(100) surface in alkaline solution. Two new sulfur phases were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These phases were formed by six sulfur atoms (S6 phase, hexamer) and by four sulfur atoms (S4 phase, tetramer with (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure), and they were observed in coexistence with the well-known quasi-square patterns formed by eight sulfur atoms (S8 phase, octomer). A model was proposed where sulfur multilayers were formed by a (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) phase adsorbed directly on the gold surface while one of the other structures: hexamers or octomers were deposited on top. Sulfur layers were formed on gold terraces, vacancies and islands produced by lifting reconstructed surface. Sequential high-resolution STM images allowed the direct observation of the dynamic of the octomers, while the (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure remained static. Images also showed the reversible association/dissociation of the octomer.

  18. Crystal structure of 5′′-benzyl­idene-1′-methyl-4′-phenyl­tri­spiro­[ace­naphthyl­ene-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,1′′-cyclo­hexane-3′′,2′′′-[1,3]dioxane]-2,6′′-dione

    PubMed Central

    Chandralekha, Kuppan; Gavaskar, Deivasigamani; Sureshbabu, Adukamparai Rajukrishnan; Lakshmi, Srinivasakannan

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C36H31NO4, two spiro links connect the methyl-substituted pyrrolidine ring to the ace­naphthyl­ene and cyclo­hexa­none rings. The cyclo­hexa­none ring is further connected to the dioxalane ring by a third spiro junction. The five-membered ring of the ace­naphthylen-1-one ring system adopts a flattened envelope conformation with the ketonic C atom as flap, whereas the dioxalane and pyrrolidine rings each have a twist conformation. The cyclo­hexa­none ring assumes a boat conformation. Three intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving both ketonic O atoms as acceptors are present. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect centrosymmetrically related mol­ecule into chains parallel to the b axis, forming rings of R 2 2(10)and R 2 2(8) graph-set motifs. PMID:27006814

  19. Tuning a Lanthanide Complex To Be Responsive to the Environment in Solution.

    PubMed

    Golkowski, Ryan T; Settineri, Nicholas S; Zhao, Xikang; McMillin, David R

    2015-12-01

    The f-f emissions of lanthanide-ion complexes have predictable emission energies and many practical applications, but the emitting states are generally impervious to the surroundings. This investigation explores ligand- and metal-centered emission processes for a series of mixed-ligand complexes of composition M(X-T)(NO3)3, where the metal ion is europium, gadolinium, terbium, or lutetium, and X-T denotes the tridentate ligand 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (H-T), 4'-phenyl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (Ph-T), or 4'-pyrrolidin-N-yl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (pyrr-T). The presence of the pyrrolidinyl substituent imparts intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) character to the ligand-based excited states and reduces the energy gap between the singlet and the triplet excited states. An enhanced rate of intersystem crossing results in a lutetium complex with a relatively small fluorescence quantum yield (0.15%) and a gadolinium complex with an impressive phosphorescence yield of 9.6% in deaerated solution. The Tb(pyrr-T)(NO3)3 system is unique because the relatively low-energy triplet ILCT state equilibrates with the emissive f-f state. The result is a truly remarkable f-f emission signal that is sensitive to the polarity of the local environment as well as the presence of dioxygen. PMID:26571330

  20. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  1. Synthesis, spectral, single crystal X-ray structural, CShM and BVS characterization of iron(III) cyclohexyl dithiocarbamates and their solvothermal decomposition to nano iron(II) sulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalingam, K.; Srinivasan, S.

    2015-11-01

    [Fe(chmdtc)3] (1), [Fe(chedtc)3] (2), [Fe(achdtc)3] (3) and [Fe(chpdtc)3] (4) (where chmdtc = cyclohexylmethylcarbodithioate, chedtc = cyclohexylethylcarbodithioate, achdtc = allylcyclohexylcarbodithioate and chpdtc = cyclohexylpiperazinecarbodithioate) have been prepared and characterisized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR spectral, magnetic susceptibility, thermogravimetric analysis. The single crystal X-ray crystal structures of [Fe(chedtc)3] (2)and [Fe(chpdtc)3] (4) have been determined. Characteristic thioureide IR bands occur at 1483, 1477, 1454 and 1479 cm-1 for (1), (2), (3) and (4) respectively. Electronic spectral bands at 514,512,510 and 510 nm for (1), (2), (3) and (4) respectively are due to dxy → dx2 - y2 transition. One electron quasi reversible reductions due to Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox process are observed in CV. Magnetic susceptibility measurements exhibit a temperature dependent variation. Final residue obtained in thermal processes is FeS, which indicates the reduction of Fe(III) → Fe(II). Single crystal X-ray structures of [Fe(chedtc)3] (2)and [Fe(chpdtc)3] (4) show that the central atom is in a distorted octahedral environment. The CShM values have been calculated from the structural data as 2.5807 and 3.2329 for (2) and (4) respectively in a scale of zero to hundred. The observed values show that compound (4) is relatively more distorted than (2) in its octahedral coordination due to the steric demands of the cyclohexyl ring attached to piperazine. Both of them prefer octahedral coordination environment over trigonal prism. Bond Valence Sum (BVS) calculations confirmed the oxidation state of iron as +3. A non conventional solvothermal formation of FeS nano particles is reported with iron dithiocarbamates as single source precursors. Morphology and composition of the nano product have been characterized by PXRD and EDX analysis.

  2. Functionalized quantum dots with dopamine dithiocarbamate as the matrix for the quantification of efavirenz in human plasma and as affinity probes for rapid identification of microwave tryptic digested proteins in MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2012-06-01

    Functionalized quantum dots with dopamine dithiocarbamate (QDs-DDTC) were utilized for the first time as an efficient material for the quantification of efavirenz in human plasma of HIV infected patients and rapid identification of microwave tryptic digest proteins (cytochrome c, lysozyme and BSA) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The synthesized QDs-DDTC was characterized by using spectroscopic (UV-visible, FT-IR and (1)H NMR) and microscopic (SEM and TEM) techniques. Functionalized QDs-DDTC exhibited a high desorption/ionization efficiency for the rapid quantification of small molecules (efavirenz, tobramycin and aspartame) at low-mass region. QDs-DDTC has well ability to trap target species, and capable to transfer laser energy for efficient desorption/ionization of analytes with background-free detection. The use of QDs-DDTC as a matrix provided good linearity for the quantification of small molecules (R(2)=~0.9983), with good reproducibility (RSD<10%), in the analysis of efavirenz in the plasma of HIV infected patients by the standard addition method. We also demonstrated that the use of functionalized QDs-DDTC as affinity probes for the rapid identification of microwave tryptic digested proteins (cytochrome c, lysozyme and BSA) by MALDI-TOF-MS. QDs-DDTC-based MALDI-TOF-MS approach provides simplicity, rapidity, accuracy, and precision for the determination of efavirenz in human plasma of HIV infected patients and rapid identification of microwave tryptic digested proteins. This new material presents a marked advance in the development of matrix-free mass spectrometric methods for the rapid and precise quantitative determination of a variety of molecules. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link.

  3. Homogeneous versus supported ONN pincer-type gold and palladium complexes: catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    del Pozo, Carolina; Debono, Nathalie; Corma, Avelino; Iglesias, Marta; Sánchez, Félix

    2009-07-20

    The ONN-tridentate unsymmetrical pincer-type (S)-1-((6-(2-hydroxyphenyl)pyridin-2-yl)methyl)-N-methyl-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)pro-pyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide ligand has been synthesized by an easy method, in high purity and good yield. Its respective palladium(II) and gold(III) complexes have been prepared as air-stable solids. After deprotonation of the -OH group the coordination of the metal ion is completely stereospecific and gives rise to only one diastereoisomer. The complexes, immobilized onto ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41), are shown to be very active catalysts in the hydrogenation of prochiral olefins (98% ee was achieved with the heterogenized chiral Au(MCM-41) complex), hydrosilylation, and Suzuki and Heck C-C coupling reactions, under mild conditions. The reactions were studied with the soluble catalysts as well as their heterogenized counterparts. The high accessibility introduced by the structure of the supports allows the preparation of highly efficient immobilized catalysts. The repeated use of the immobilized catalyst in four cycles demonstrates "homogeneous" catalysis with "heterogeneous" catalysts, thus reducing solvent waste and loss of precious metal and/or ligand. PMID:19492364

  4. Effect of different substituents on the water-solubility and stability properties of 1 : 2 [60]fullerene derivative·gamma-cyclodextrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Hirata, Akiko; Ishikawa, Michiko; Kikuchi, Jun-ichi; Mieda, Shunsuke; Shinoda, Wataru

    2013-12-01

    We have demonstrated that C60 derivatives bearing a pyrrolidine moiety as well as a variety of other substituents can form 1 : 2 complexes with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CDx) using a mechanochemical high-speed vibration milling apparatus. When the influence of the steric hindrance of the substituents on the formation of the complexes was negligible, the water-solubilities of the complexes were shown experimentally to be completely dependent on the hydrophobic properties of the substituent. Furthermore, the stabilities of the γ-CDx-complexes of several different C60 derivatives were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that of the C60·γ-CDx complex, with the solubilities of the complexes showing no correlation to the stabilities. Based on the results of a series of theoretical investigations, we have shown that the stabilities of the γ-CDx-complexes can be affected not only by steric effects but also by the polarities of the substituent groups, which exist in the vicinity of the upper rim of γ-CDx, because the water bound to the polar group can assist in the stabilisation of the complexes. PMID:24061283

  5. The Fe(III) and Ga(III) coordination chemistry of 3-(1-hydroxymethylidene) and 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione: Novel tetramic acid degradation products of homoserine lactone bacterial quorum sensing molecules

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Ariel A.; Hahn, Tobias; Davis, Nicole; Lowery, Colin A.; Struss, Anjali K.; Janda, Kim D.; Böttger, Lars H.; Matzanke, Berthold F.; Carrano, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria use small diffusible molecules to exchange information in a process called quorum sensing (QS). An important class of quorum sensing molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria is the family of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). It was recently discovered that a degradation product of the QS molecule 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone, the tetramic acid 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, is a potent antibacterial agent, thus implying roles for QS outside of simply communication. Because these tetramic acids also appear to bind iron with appreciable affinity it was suggested that metal binding might contribute to their biological activity. Here, using a variety of spectroscopic tools, we describe the coordination chemistry of both the methylidene and decylidene tetramic acid derivatives with Fe(III) and Ga(III) and discuss the potential biological significance of such metal binding. PMID:22178671

  6. Discovery of ((S)-5-(methoxymethyl)-7-(1-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-4,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-6-yl)((S)-2-(3-methylisoxazol-5-yl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone as a potent and selective I(Kur) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Heather J; Lloyd, John; Vaccaro, Wayne; Kover, Alexander; Yan, Lin; Bhave, Gauri; Prol, Joseph; Huynh, Tram; Bhandaru, Rao; Caringal, Yolanda; DiMarco, John; Gan, Jinping; Harper, Tim; Huang, Christine; Conder, Mary Lee; Sun, Huabin; Levesque, Paul; Blanar, Michael; Atwal, Karnail; Wexler, Ruth

    2012-04-12

    Previously disclosed dihydropyrazolopyrimidines are potent and selective blockers of I(Kur) current. A potential liability with this chemotype is the formation of a reactive metabolite which demonstrated covalent binding to protein in vitro. When substituted at the 2 or 3 position, this template yielded potent I(Kur) inhibitors, with selectivity over hERG which did not form reactive metabolites. Subsequent optimization for potency and PK properties lead to the discovery of ((S)-5-(methoxymethyl)-7-(1-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-4,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-6-yl)((S)-2-(3-methylisoxazol-5-yl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone (13j), with an acceptable PK profile in preclinical species and potent efficacy in the preclinical rabbit atrial effective refractory period (AERP) model.

  7. The Fe(III) and Ga(III) coordination chemistry of 3-(1-hydroxymethylidene) and 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione: novel tetramic acid degradation products of homoserine lactone bacterial quorum sensing molecules.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ariel A; Hahn, Tobias; Davis, Nicole; Lowery, Colin A; Struss, Anjali K; Janda, Kim D; Böttger, Lars H; Matzanke, Berthold F; Carrano, Carl J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria use small diffusible molecules to exchange information in a process called quorum sensing (QS). An important class of quorum sensing molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria is the family of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). It was recently discovered that a degradation product of the QS molecule 3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone, the tetramic acid 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, is a potent antibacterial agent, thus implying roles for QS outside of simply communication. Because these tetramic acids also appear to bind iron with appreciable affinity it was suggested that metal binding might contribute to their biological activity. Here, using a variety of spectroscopic tools, we describe the coordination chemistry of both the methylidene and decylidene tetramic acid derivatives with Fe(III) and Ga(III) and discuss the potential biological significance of such metal binding.

  8. The Fe(III) and Ga(III) coordination chemistry of 3-(1-hydroxymethylidene) and 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione: novel tetramic acid degradation products of homoserine lactone bacterial quorum sensing molecules.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ariel A; Hahn, Tobias; Davis, Nicole; Lowery, Colin A; Struss, Anjali K; Janda, Kim D; Böttger, Lars H; Matzanke, Berthold F; Carrano, Carl J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria use small diffusible molecules to exchange information in a process called quorum sensing (QS). An important class of quorum sensing molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria is the family of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). It was recently discovered that a degradation product of the QS molecule 3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone, the tetramic acid 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, is a potent antibacterial agent, thus implying roles for QS outside of simply communication. Because these tetramic acids also appear to bind iron with appreciable affinity it was suggested that metal binding might contribute to their biological activity. Here, using a variety of spectroscopic tools, we describe the coordination chemistry of both the methylidene and decylidene tetramic acid derivatives with Fe(III) and Ga(III) and discuss the potential biological significance of such metal binding. PMID:22178671

  9. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  10. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  11. Supramolecular fullerene-porphyrin chemistry. Fullerene complexation by metalated "jaws porphyrin" hosts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dayong; Tham, Fook S; Reed, Christopher A; Chaker, Leila; Boyd, Peter D W

    2002-06-12

    Porphyrins and fullerenes are spontaneously attracted to each other. This new supramolecular recognition element is explored in discrete, soluble, coordinatively linked porphyrin and metalloporphyrin dimers. Jawlike clefts in these bis-porphyrins are effective hosts for fullerene guests. X-ray structures of the Cu complex with C60 and free-base complexes with C70 and a pyrrolidine-derivatized C60 have been obtained. The electron-rich 6:6 ring-juncture bonds of C60 show unusually close approach to the porphyrin or metalloporphyrin plane. Binding constants in toluene solution increase in the order Fe(II) < Pd(II) < Zn(II) < Mn(II) < Co(II) < Cu(II) < 2H and span the range 490-5200 M-1. Unexpectedly, the free-base porphyrin binds C60 more strongly than the metalated porphyrins. This is ascribed to electrostatic forces, enhancing the largely van der Waals forces of the pi-pi interaction. The ordering with metals is ascribed to a subtle interplay of solvation and weak interaction forces. Conflicting opinions on the relative importance of van der Waals forces, charge transfer, electrostatic attraction, and coordinate bonding are addressed. The supramolecular design principles arising from these studies have potential applications in the preparation of photophysical devices, molecular magnets, molecular conductors, and porous metal-organic frameworks. PMID:12047181

  12. Newer mixed ligand Schiff base complexes from aquo-N-(2‧-hydroxy acetophenone) glycinatocopper(II) as synthon: DFT, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Harun A. R.; Das, Dharitri; Paul, Pradip C.; Mondal, Paritosh; Bhattacharjee, Chira R.

    2014-02-01

    Synthesis of a series of newer mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of aminoacid Schiff base of the type [CuL(X)] (L = N-(2‧-hydroxy acetophenone) glycinate, X = imidazole (im) 2, benzimidazole (benz) 3, pyridine (py) 4, hydrazine (hz) 5,8-hydroxyquinoline (8-hq) 6, pyrrolidine (pyrr) 7, piperidine (pip) 8, and nicotinamide (nic) 9) have been accomplished from the interaction of an aquated Schiff base complex, [CuL(H2O)]·H2O, 1 with some selected neutral nitrogen-donor ligands. The copper(II) Schiff base complex, [CuL(H2O)]·H2O, L = N-(2‧-hydroxy acetophenone) glycinate was synthesized from the reaction of glycine and 2‧ hydroxy acetophenone and copper(II) acetate. The compounds were characterised by elemental analysis, spectral, magnetic and thermal studies. The density functional theory calculations were performed using LANL2DZ and 6-311 G(d, p) basis sets with B3LYP correlation functional to ascertain the stable electronic structure, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, chemical hardness and dipole moment of the mixed ligand complexes. A distorted square planar geometry has been conjectured for the complexes. Antibacterial activities of the ligand and its metal complexes have been tested against selected gram-positive and gram-negative strains and correlated with computational docking scores.

  13. Catalytic Activity of Cationic and Neutral Silver(I)-XPhos Complexes with Nitrogen Ligands or Tolylsulfonate for Mannich and Aza-Diels-Alder Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Grirrane, Abdessamad; Álvarez, Eleuterio; García, Hermenegildo; Corma, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    Cationic and neutral silver(I)-L complexes (L=Buchwald-type biaryl phosphanes) with nitrogen co-ligands or organosulfonate counter ions have been synthesised and characterised through their structural and spectroscopic properties. At room temperature, both cationic and neutral silver(I)-L complexes are extremely active catalysts in the promotion of the single and double A(3) coupling of terminal (di)alkynes, pyrrolidine and formaldehyde. In addition, the aza-Diels-Alder two- and three-component coupling reactions of Danishefsky's diene with an imine or amine and aldehyde are efficiently catalysed by these cationic or neutral silver(I)-L complexes. The solvent influences the catalytic performance due to limited complex solubility or solvent decomposition and reactivity. The isolation of new silver(I)-L complexes with reagents as ligands lends support to mechanistic proposals for such catalytic processes. The activity, stability and metal-distal arene interaction of these silver(I)-L catalysts have been compared with those of analogous cationic gold(I) and copper(I) complexes. PMID:26598792

  14. Carney Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening guidelines may change over time as new technologies are developed and more is learned about Carney complex. It is important to talk with your doctor about appropriate screening tests. Learn more about what to expect when having ...

  15. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  16. Chemical and biological profiles of novel copper(II) complexes containing S-donor ligands for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Giovagnini, Lorena; Sitran, Sergio; Montopoli, Monica; Caparrotta, Laura; Corsini, Maddalena; Rosani, Claudia; Zanello, Piero; Dou, Q Ping; Fregona, Dolores

    2008-07-21

    In the last years, we have synthesized some new platinum(II), palladium(II), gold(I/III) complexes with dithiocarbamato derivatives as potential anticancer drugs, to obtain compounds with superior chemotherapeutic index in terms of increased bioavailability, higher cytotoxicity, and lower side effects than cisplatin. On the basis of the obtained encouraging results, we have been studying the interaction of CuCl2 with methyl-/ethyl-/tert-butylsarcosine-dithiocarbamato moieties in a 1:2 molar ratio; we also synthesized and studied the N,N-dimethyl- and pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamato copper complexes for comparison purposes. The reported compounds have been successfully isolated, purified, and fully characterized by means of several spectroscopic techniques. Moreover, the electrochemical properties of the designed compounds have been studied through cyclic voltammetry. In addition, the behavior in solution was followed by means of UV-vis technique to check the stability with time in physiological conditions. To evaluate their in vitro cytotoxic properties, preliminary biological assays (MTT test) have been carried out on a panel of human tumor cell lines. The results show that cytotoxicity levels of all of the tested complexes are comparable or even greater than that of the reference drug (cisplatin). PMID:18572881

  17. Quenching of singlet oxygen (1deltag) by cobalt complexes with four nitrogen atoms in the equatorial plane.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, P; Vidóczy, T

    2000-11-01

    The quenching of singlet oxygen (1deltag) by cobalt(III)-bis-1,2-benzosemiquinone-diiminato complexes (general structure LCo(111)(BQDI)2ClO4) has been studied in different solvents by measuring the singlet oxygen phosphorescence decay in time-resolved experiments. The axial ligand (Ph3As, Ph3Sb, N-methyl-imidazole, pyrrolidine) has practically no influence on the quenching; however, the chlorinated benzosemiquinone-diiminato complex has a markedly lower quenching rate constant. The solvent effects can be fully explained by the difference in viscosity, which supports the assumption that the quenching is diffusion controlled. The reactive radius of the encounter pair has been estimated to be 0.3 nm, shorter than the radius of the complex itself, which points to the fact that singlet oxygen must approach the central cobalt atom at the (partially) open axial position. The significance of these results regarding the quenching of singlet oxygen by vitamin B12 derivatives is discussed. PMID:11233642

  18. Complex chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  19. Metal-mediated reaction modeled on nature: the activation of isothiocyanates initiated by zinc thiolate complexes.

    PubMed

    Eger, Wilhelm A; Presselt, Martin; Jahn, Burkhard O; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Anders, Ernst

    2011-04-18

    On the basis of detailed theoretical studies of the mode of action of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and models resembling only its reactive core, a complete computational pathway analysis of the reaction between several isothiocyanates and methyl mercaptan activated by a thiolate-bearing model complex [Zn(NH(3))(3)SMe](+) was performed at a high level of density functional theory (DFT). Furthermore, model reactions have been studied in the experiment using relatively stable zinc complexes and have been investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. The model complexes used in the experiment are based upon the well-known azamacrocyclic ligand family ([12]aneN(4), [14]aneN(4), i-[14]aneN(4), and [15]aneN(4)) and are commonly formulated as ([Zn([X]aneN(4))(SBn)]ClO(4). As predicted by our DFT calculations, all of these complexes are capable of insertion into the heterocumulene system. Raman spectroscopic investigations indicate that aryl-substituted isothiocyanates predominantly add to the C═N bond and that the size of the ring-shaped ligands of the zinc complex also has a very significant influence on the selectivity and on the reactivity as well. Unfortunately, the activated isothiocyanate is not able to add to the thiolate-corresponding mercaptan to invoke a CA analogous catalytic cycle. However, more reactive compounds such as methyl iodide can be incorporated. This work gives new insight into the mode of action and reaction path variants derived from the CA principles. Further, aspects of the reliability of DFT calculations concerning the prediction of the selectivity and reactivity are discussed. In addition, the presented synthetic pathways can offer a completely new access to a variety of dithiocarbamates. PMID:21405064

  20. Complexation of the vulcanization accelerator tetramethylthiuram disulfide and related molecules with zinc compounds including zinc oxide clusters (Zn4O4).

    PubMed

    Steudel, Ralf; Steudel, Yana; Wong, Ming Wah

    2008-01-01

    Zinc chemicals are used as activators in the vulcanization of organic polymers with sulfur to produce elastic rubbers. In this work, the reactions of Zn(2+), ZnMe(2), Zn(OMe)(2), Zn(OOCMe)(2), and the heterocubane cluster Zn(4)O(4) with the vulcanization accelerator tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) and with the related radicals and anions Me(2)NCS(2)(*), Me(2)NCS(3)(*), Me(2)NCS(2)(-), and Me(2)NCS(3)(-) have been studied by quantum chemical methods at the MP2/6-31+G(2df,p)//B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory. More than 35 zinc complexes have been structurally characterized and the energies of formation from their components calculated for the first time. The binding energy of TMTD as a bidendate ligand increases in the order ZnMe(2)complexes with the radicals Me(2)NCS(2)(*) and Me(2)NCS(3)(*). Dissociation of the TMTD molecule at the S-S bond on reaction with the Zn(4)O(4) cluster is predicted to be strongly exothermic, in sharp contrast to the endothermic S-S bond dissociation of the free molecule. The same holds for tetramethylthiuram trisulfide (TMTT). Surprisingly, the resulting complexes contain Zn-S as well as S-O bonds. The Zn(4)O(4) nanocluster serves here as a model for bulk zinc oxide used as an activator in rubber vulcanization by sulfur. The further uptake of sulfur atoms by the various complexes from S(8) or TMTD with formation of species derived from the radical Me(2)NCS(3)(*) or the trithiocarbamate anion Me(2)NCS(3)(-) is endothermic for mono- and dinuclear zinc dithiocarbamate (dtc) complexes such as [Zn(dtc)(2)] and [Zn(2)(dtc)(4)], but exothermic in the case of polynuclear zinc oxide species containing bridging ligands as in [Zn(4)O(4)(mu-S(2)CNMe(2))] and [Zn(4)O(4)(mu-dtc)]. Therefore, zinc oxide as a polynuclear species is predicted to promote the formation of trisulfido complexes, which are generally assumed to serve as catalysts for the transfer of

  1. Complexation of the vulcanization accelerator tetramethylthiuram disulfide and related molecules with zinc compounds including zinc oxide clusters (Zn4O4).

    PubMed

    Steudel, Ralf; Steudel, Yana; Wong, Ming Wah

    2008-01-01

    Zinc chemicals are used as activators in the vulcanization of organic polymers with sulfur to produce elastic rubbers. In this work, the reactions of Zn(2+), ZnMe(2), Zn(OMe)(2), Zn(OOCMe)(2), and the heterocubane cluster Zn(4)O(4) with the vulcanization accelerator tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) and with the related radicals and anions Me(2)NCS(2)(*), Me(2)NCS(3)(*), Me(2)NCS(2)(-), and Me(2)NCS(3)(-) have been studied by quantum chemical methods at the MP2/6-31+G(2df,p)//B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory. More than 35 zinc complexes have been structurally characterized and the energies of formation from their components calculated for the first time. The binding energy of TMTD as a bidendate ligand increases in the order ZnMe(2)complexes with the radicals Me(2)NCS(2)(*) and Me(2)NCS(3)(*). Dissociation of the TMTD molecule at the S-S bond on reaction with the Zn(4)O(4) cluster is predicted to be strongly exothermic, in sharp contrast to the endothermic S-S bond dissociation of the free molecule. The same holds for tetramethylthiuram trisulfide (TMTT). Surprisingly, the resulting complexes contain Zn-S as well as S-O bonds. The Zn(4)O(4) nanocluster serves here as a model for bulk zinc oxide used as an activator in rubber vulcanization by sulfur. The further uptake of sulfur atoms by the various complexes from S(8) or TMTD with formation of species derived from the radical Me(2)NCS(3)(*) or the trithiocarbamate anion Me(2)NCS(3)(-) is endothermic for mono- and dinuclear zinc dithiocarbamate (dtc) complexes such as [Zn(dtc)(2)] and [Zn(2)(dtc)(4)], but exothermic in the case of polynuclear zinc oxide species containing bridging ligands as in [Zn(4)O(4)(mu-S(2)CNMe(2))] and [Zn(4)O(4)(mu-dtc)]. Therefore, zinc oxide as a polynuclear species is predicted to promote the formation of trisulfido complexes, which are generally assumed to serve as catalysts for the transfer of

  2. Enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrones to methacrolein catalyzed by (eta5-C5Me5)M{(R)-prophos} containing complexes (M = Rh, Ir; (R)-prophos = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane): on the origin of the enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Daniel; Lamata, M Pilar; Viguri, Fernando; Rodríguez, Ricardo; Oro, Luis A; Lahoz, Fernando J; Balana, Ana I; Tejero, Tomás; Merino, Pedro

    2005-09-28

    The rhodium and iridium Lewis-acid cations [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))M{(R)-Prophos}(H(2)O)](2+) ((R)-Prophos = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) efficiently catalyze the enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrones to methacrolein. Reactions occur with perfect endo selectivity and with enantiomeric excesses up to 96%. Intermediates [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))M{(R)-Prophos}(methacrolein)](SbF(6))(2) (M = Rh (3), Ir (4)) have been spectroscopically and crystallographically characterized. The nitrone complexes [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))M{(R)-Prophos}(nitrone)](SbF(6))(2) (M = Rh, nitrone = 1-pyrrolidine N-oxide (5), 2,3,4,5,-tetrahydropyridine N-oxide (6), 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline N-oxide (7); M = Ir, nitrone = 1-pyrrolidine N-oxide (8)) have been isolated and characterized including the X-ray crystal structure of compounds 6 and 8. The equilibrium between methacrolein and nitrone complexes is also studied. [Ir]-adduct complexes are detected by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. A catalytic cycle involving [M]-methacrolein, [M]-nitrone, as well as [M]-adduct species is proposed, the first complex being the true catalyst. The absolute configuration of the adduct 4-methyl-2-N,3-diphenyl-isoxazolidine-4-carbaldehyde (9) was determined through its (S)-(-)-alpha-methylbenzylamine derivative diastereomer. Structural parameters strongly suggest that the disposition of the methacrolein in 3 and 4 is fixed by CH/pi attractive interactions between the pro-S phenyl ring of the Ph(2)PCH(CH(3)) moiety of the (R)-Prophos ligand and the CHO aldehyde proton. Proton NMR data indicate that this conformation is maintained in solution. From the structural data and the results of catalysis the origin of the enantioselectivity is discussed. PMID:16173773

  3. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  4. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science - which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour - is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  5. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  6. Transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates: Catalysts for asymmetric olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Kuntal

    2012-12-17

    The research presented and discussed in this dissertation involves the synthesis of transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates, and their application in catalytic enantioselective olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation. Neutral oxazolinylboranes are excellent synthetic intermediates for preparing new borate ligands and also developing organometallic complexes. Achiral and optically active bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are synthesized by reaction of 2-lithio-2-oxazolide and 0.50 equiv of dichlorophenylborane. These bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are oligomeric species in solid state resulting from the coordination of an oxazoline to the boron center of another borane monomer. The treatment of chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes with sodium cyclopentadienide provide optically active cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates H[PhB(C5H5)(OxR)2] [OxR = Ox4S-iPr,Me2, Ox4R-iPr,Me2, Ox4S-tBu]. These optically active proligands react with an equivalent of M(NMe2)4 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) to afford corresponding cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 complexes {PhB(C5H4)(OxR)2}M(NMe2)2 in high yields. These group 4 compounds catalyze cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature or below, providing pyrrolidine, piperidine, and azepane with enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. Our mechanistic investigations suggest a non-insertive mechanism involving concerted C-N/C-H bond formation in the turnover limiting step of the catalytic cycle. Among cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 catalysts, the zirconium complex {PhB(C5H4)(Ox4S-iPr,Me2)2}Zr(NMe2)2 ({S-2}Zr(NMe2)2) displays highest activity and enantioselectivity. Interestingly, S-2

  7. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  8. Zinc(II) complexes with dithiocarbamato derivatives: structural characterisation and biological assays on cancerous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Eszter Márta; Sitran, Sergio; Montopoli, Monica; Favaro, Monica; Marchiò, Luciano; Caparrotta, Laura; Fregona, Dolores

    2012-12-01

    Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in the body and it is essential as a cofactor for the structure and function of a number of cellular molecules including enzymes, transcription factors, cellular signalling proteins and DNA repair enzymes. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that zinc could play a role both in the development of various cancers and in the induction of apoptosis in some cell types, however, no established common relationships of zinc with cancer development and progression have been identified. To date, in our research group different metal-dithiocarbamato complexes have been designed that were expected to resemble the main features of cisplatin together with higher activity, improved selectivity and bioavailability, and lower side-effects. On the basis of the obtained encouraging achievements with other metals (such as gold and copper) we have decided to enlarge the studies to the complexes of zinc(II) using the same ligands. Hereby, we report the results on the synthesis and characterisation of ZnL(2) complexes with five different dithiocarbamato derivatives, such as dimethyl-(DMDT), pyrrolidine-(PyDT), methyl-(MSDT), ethyl-(ESDT) and tert-butyl-(TSDT) sarcosinedithiocarbamate. All the obtained compounds have fully been characterised by means of several spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the crystal structure of [Zn(MSDT)(2)](2) dinuclear complex is also reported. In order to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic properties, some biological assays have been carried out on a panel of human tumour cell lines sensible and resistant to cisplatin. Some of the tested compounds show cytotoxicity levels comparable or even greater than the reference drug (cisplatin). PMID:23085593

  9. Convenient route leading to neutral fac-M(CO)3(NNO) complexes (M = Re, 99mTc) coupled to amine pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Chiotellis, Aris; Tsoukalas, Charalambos; Pelecanou, Maria; Raptopoulou, Catherine; Terzis, Aris; Papadopoulos, Minas; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zetta; Pirmettis, Ioannis

    2008-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of three neutral tricarbonyl fac-M(CO)3(NNO) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes based on the picolylamine N,N-diacetic acid (PADA) ligand is reported. One of the two carboxylate groups of the PADA ligand is efficiently and conveniently derivatized with an amine nucleophile through the use of the PADA anhydride. In this work, aniline, benzylamine and pyrrolidine were used as model amine nucleophiles. The rhenium complexes were synthesized using the [NEt4]2[Re(CO)3Br3] precursor and fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods, and X-ray crystallography. The analogous technetium-99m complexes were also prepared quantitatively using the [(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) precursor. The reaction scheme presented for the synthesis of the fac-M(CO)3(NNO) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes can be applied to the development of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals because, in principle, any bioactive pharmacophore bearing an amine group can be used in the place of the model amine nucleophiles. PMID:18293919

  10. Bacterial mutagenicity of dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram.

    PubMed

    Rahden-Staroń, I; Czeczot, H; Pieńkowska, M; Szymczyk-Wasiluk, T

    1997-01-01

    In the present work, within a project of re-evaluation of authorized pesticides coordinated by PZH (National Institute of Hygiene) we aimed at looking for a mechanism of induction of chromosomal aberrations by thiram. We checked its ability to damage bacterial DNA.

  11. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, D; Michal, M; Síma, R; Grossmann, P; Kazakov, D V

    2011-10-01

    Carney complex is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease, with at least two genetic loci including the PRKAR1A gene located on chromosome 17 and the CNC2 locus mapped to chromosome 2. Clinically this syndrome is characterized by multiple myxomas occurring in different anatomic sites, mucocutaneous pigmentary lesions, and a variety of non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, often causing endocrine abnormalities, involving various organs. Knowledge of morphological findings in CNC patients with their typical locations is necessary to raise suspicion of this syndrome by pathologists. Confirmation of the diagnosis allows regular clinical check-ups and early treatment of these patients. PMID:22145222

  12. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  13. Crystal structure of 3′-(1H-indole-3-carbon­yl)-1′-methyl-2-oxo-4′-(4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)spiro­[indoline-3,2′-pyrrolidine]-3′-carbo­nitrile

    PubMed Central

    Savithri, M. P.; Raja, R.; Kathirvelan, D.; Reddy, B. S. R.; SubbiahPandi, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C31H22N4O4, the pyrrolidine ring adopts a twist conformation on the N—CH2 bond. The indolin-2-one and the 1H-indole rings are nearly planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.06 and 0.011 Å, respectively) and are inclined to one another by 34.19 (9)°. The chromene ring system is also nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.029 Å). It is almost normal to the 1H-indole ring system, with a dihedral angle of 88.71 (8)°, and is inclined to the indolin-2-one ring system by 72.76 (8)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to (10-1). The slabs are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:26594587

  14. Carney complex.

    PubMed

    Espiard, Stéphanie; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Carney complex is a rare, dominantly inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, affecting endocrine glands as the adrenal cortex (causing Cushing's syndrome), the pituitary and the thyroid. It is associated with many other nonendocrine tumors, including cardiac myxomas, testicular tumors, melanotic schwannoma, breast myxomatosis, and abnormal pigmentation (lentiginosis) or myxomas of the skin. The gene located on the CNC1 locus was identified 12 years ago as the regulatory subunit 1A (R1A) of the protein kinase A (PRKAR1A) located at 17q22-24. Inactivating heterozygous germline mutations of PRKAR1A are observed in about two thirds of Carney complex patients with some genotype-phenotype correlation useful for follow-up and prognosis. More rarely, mutations of phosphodiesterase genes have been reported in patients presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies help to understand how R1A inactivation leads to tumorigenesis. PRKAR1A appears to be a relatively weak tumorigenic signal which can cooperate with other signaling pathways and tumor suppressors. PMID:23652670

  15. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  16. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  17. Beta-diketiminato calcium and magnesium amides; model complexes for hydroamination catalysis.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anthony G M; Casely, Ian J; Crimmin, Mark R; Hill, Michael S; Lachs, Jennifer R; Mahon, Mary F; Procopiou, Panayiotis A

    2009-05-18

    In a study relevant to group 2-mediated hydroamination catalysis, the reaction of the beta-diketiminato magnesium alkyl complex [{ArNC(Me)CHC(Me)NAr}Mg((n/s)Bu)] (Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3)) with benzylamine, 2-methoxyethylamine, pyrrolidine, and 2-methyl-4,4-diphenylpyrrolidine has been shown to yield the corresponding magnesium amide complexes [{ArNC(Me)CHC(Me)NAr}Mg(NR(1)R(2))] (R(1) = H, R(2) = CH(2)Ph, CH(2)CH(2)OMe; R(1) = R(2) = -(CH(2))(4)-, -CH(Me)CH(2)CPh(2)CH(2)-) within the first point of analysis (30 min) at room temperature in near quantitative yield as monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Reactions proceeded non-reversibly, and the products have been characterized in both solution and the solid state. While single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the magnesium amides are dimeric in the solid state, with aggregation occurring via mu(2)-coordinated amide ligands, NMR studies suggest that for more sterically crowded amide ligands discreet monomeric species exist in solution. In contrast, the calcium complex [{ArNC(Me)CHC(Me)NAr}Ca{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(THF)] reacted reversibly with benzylamine at room temperature to form an equilibrium mixture of a calcium benzylamide and bis(trimethylsilyl)amide. A series of Pulsed-Gradient Spin-Echo NMR studies upon beta-diketiminato calcium amides were consistent with the formation of a dimer in solution. A van't Hoff analysis performed on this mixture allowed DeltaH degrees = -51.3 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS degrees = -134 J mol(-1) of the protonolysis/dimerization reaction to be derived and the Gibbs' free energy to be calculated as DeltaG degrees (298 K) = -11.4 kJ mol(-1). PMID:19326917

  18. Tin(IV) complexes of pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate: synthesis, characterisation and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Menezes, D C; Vieira, F T; de Lima, G M; Porto, A O; Cortés, M E; Ardisson, J D; Albrecht-Schmitt, T E

    2005-12-01

    The reaction of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, [NH4{S2CN(CH2)4}], with SnCl2, [Sn(C6H5)2Cl2], [Sn(C6H5)3Cl], [Sn(C4H9)2Cl2] and [Sn(C6H11)3Cl] produced in good yield the compounds [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}2Cl2] (1), [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}2Ph2] (2), [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}Ph3] (3), [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}2 n-Bu2] (4) and [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}Cy3] (5). The complexes were characterised by infrared, multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C{1H} and 119Sn{1H}) and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopies. In addition, the crystal structure of 4 was determined by X-ray crystallography. The in vitro antifungal activity of the tin(IV) complexes as well of the ligand was performed on human pathogenic fungi, Candida albicans, in concentrations of 0.025; 0.050; 0.100; 0.200; 0.400; 0.800; 1.600 and 3.200 mM. The microorganism presented resistance to the dithiocarbamate ligand and all tin(IV) complexes tested were actives. The highest activity was found for compounds 1 and 4. PMID:16139393

  19. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Losada Grande, Eladio José; Al Kassam Martínez, Daniel; González Boillos, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac and cutaneous myxoma, and endocrine overactivity. Skin pigmentation includes lentigines and blue nevi. Myxomas may occur in breast, skin and heart. Cardiac myxomas may be multiple and occur in any cardiac chamber, and are more prone to recurrence. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD may occur isolated, with no other signs of CNC. Pituitary and thyroid glands and gonads are also involved. The PRKAR1A gene, located in 17 q22-24, encodes type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. Inactivating germline mutations of this gene are found in 70% of patients with CNC. PRKAR1A is a key component of the c-AMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis. Many different mutations have been reported in the PRKAR1A gene. In almost all cases the sequence change was predicted to lead to a premature stop codon and the resultant mutant mRNA was subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. There is no clear genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with CNC. Genetic analysis should be performed in all CNC index cases. All affected patients should be monitored for clinical signs of CNC at least once a year. Genetic diagnosis allows for more effective preparation of more appropriate and effective therapeutic strategies and genetic counseling for patients and gene carriers, and to avoid unnecessary tests to relatives not carrying the gene. PMID:21536508

  20. Bistable molecular switches based on linkage isomerization in ruthenium polypyridyl complexes with a ligand-bound ambidentate motif.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Olof; Johannissen, Linus O; Lomoth, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    Electron-transfer-induced linkage isomerization was investigated in a series of bis-tridentate Ru polypyridyl complexes [Ru(L-X-OH)(Y-tpy)](2+) with ambidentate ligand L-X-OH=bpy-C(R)(OH)-py (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; py=pyridine; R=H, Me, Ph, or tBu) and spectator ligand Y-tpy (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; Y=p-tolyl, p-PhCO(2)Me, Cl, OEt, N-pyrrolidine). The ligand-bound ambidentate motif switches reversibly between N and O coordination in the Ru(II) and Ru(III) state, respectively. The potentials of the Ru(III/II) couple differ by about 0.5 V between the isomers, and this results in a bistable electrochemical response of the molecular switches. The effects of structural modifications in form of substituents on the linking carbon atom of the ambidentate ligand and on the central pyridine moiety of the spectator ligand were investigated by electrochemical and computational methods. Differences in isomerization behavior span six orders of magnitude in rate constants and two orders of magnitude in equilibrium constants. The results can be interpreted in terms of steric and electronic substituent effects and their influence on rotational barriers, ligation geometry, and electron deficiency of the metal center. PMID:19072945

  1. Inhibition of Tumor Proteasome Activity by Gold Dithiocarbamato Complexes via both Redox-Dependent and –Independent Processes

    PubMed Central

    Milacic, Vesna; Ronconi, Luca; Fan, Yuhua; Bi, Caifeng; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q Ping

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported on a gold(III) complex, namely [AuBr2(DMDT)] (N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate) showing potent in vitro and in vivo growth inhibitory activities toward human cancer cells and identifying the cellular proteasome as one of the major targets. However, the importance of the oxidation state of the gold center and the involved mechanism of action has yet to be established. Here we show that both gold(III)- and gold(I)-dithiocarbamato species, namely [AuBr2(ESDT)] (AUL12) and [Au(ESDT)]2 (AUL15), could inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome and 26S proteasome in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, resulting in accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and proteasome target proteins, and induction of cell death, but at significantly different levels. Gold(I) and gold(III) compounds-mediated proteasome inhibition and cell death induction were completely reversed by the addition of a reducing agent, dithiothreitol or N-acetyl-l-cysteine, suggesting the involvement of redox processes. Furthermore, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with gold(III) compound (AUL12), but not the gold(I) analogue (AUL15), resulted in the production of significant level of reactive oxygen species. Our study provides strong evidence that the cellular proteasome is an imporant target of both gold(I) and gold(III) dithiocarbamates, but distinct cellular mechanisms of action are responsible for their different overall effect. PMID:19911377

  2. Selective anticancer agents suppress aging in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Danilov, Anton; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Plyusnina, Ekaterina; Kogan, Valeria; Fedichev, Peter; Moskalev, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of the PI3K, TOR, iNOS, and NF-κB genes increase lifespan of model organisms and reduce the risk of some aging-associated diseases. We studied the effects of inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin), TOR (rapamycin), iNOS (1400W), NF-κB (pyrrolidin dithiocarbamate and QNZ), and the combined effects of inhibitors: PI3K (wortmannin) and TOR (rapamycin), NF-κB (pyrrolidin dithiocarbamates) and PI3K (wortmannin), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamates) and TOR (rapamycin) on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan and quality of life (locomotor activity and fertility). Our data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of PI3K, TOR, NF-κB, and iNOS increases lifespan of Drosophila without decreasing quality of life. The greatest lifespan expanding effect was achieved by a combination of rapamycin (5 μM) and wortmannin (5 μM) (by 23.4%). The bioinformatic analysis (KEGG, REACTOME.PATH, DOLite, and GO.BP) showed the greatest aging-suppressor activity of rapamycin, consistent with experimental data. PMID:24096697

  3. Selective anticancer agents suppress aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Anton; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Plyusnina, Ekaterina; Kogan, Valeria; Fedichev, Peter; Moskalev, Alexey

    2013-09-01

    Mutations of the PI3K, TOR, iNOS, and NF-κB genes increase lifespan of model organisms and reduce the risk of some aging-associated diseases. We studied the effects of inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin), TOR (rapamycin), iNOS (1400W), NF-κB (pyrrolidin dithiocarbamate and QNZ), and the combined effects of inhibitors: PI3K (wortmannin) and TOR (rapamycin), NF-κB (pyrrolidin dithiocarbamates) and PI3K (wortmannin), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamates) and TOR (rapamycin) on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan and quality of life (locomotor activity and fertility). Our data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of PI3K, TOR, NF-κB, and iNOS increases lifespan of Drosophila without decreasing quality of life. The greatest lifespan expanding effect was achieved by a combination of rapamycin (5 μM) and wortmannin (5 μM) (by 23.4%). The bioinformatic analysis (KEGG, REACTOME.PATH, DOLite, and GO.BP) showed the greatest aging-suppressor activity of rapamycin, consistent with experimental data. PMID:24096697

  4. An orally active cathepsin K inhibitor, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 1-{1-[4-fluoro-2-(2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-phenyl]-3-oxo-piperidin-4-ylcarbamoyl}-cyclohexyl)-amide (OST-4077), inhibits osteoclast activity in vitro and bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Kim, H D; Park, J H; Lim, J I; Yang, J S; Kwak, W Y; Sung, S Y; Kim, H J; Kim, S H; Lee, C H; Shim, J Y; Bae, M H; Shin, Y A; Huh, Y; Han, T D; Chong, W; Choi, H; Ahn, B N; Yang, S O; Son, M H

    2006-08-01

    Human cathepsin K, a cysteine proteinase of the papain family, has been recognized as a potential drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis. The predominant expression of cathepsin K in osteoclasts has rendered the enzyme into a major target for the development of novel antiresorptive drugs. Now, we report the pharmacological properties of OST-4077 [furan-2-carboxylic acid (1-{1-[4-fluoro-2-(2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-phenyl]-3-oxo-piperidin-4-ylcarbamoyl}-cyclohexyl)-amide] as a novel selective cathepsin K inhibitor. Human and rat cathepsin K were inhibited in vitro by OST-4077 with the IC50 values of 11 and 427 nM, respectively. OST-4077 suppressed bone resorption induced by rabbit osteoclasts (IC50, 37 nM) but did not affect bone mineralization or cellular alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. Parathyroid hormone-induced bone resorption was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in thyroparathyroidectomized rats gavaged with a single dose of OST-4077 (ED50, 69 mg/kg). When given orally twice daily for 4 weeks to 3-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) rats, OST-4077 dose-dependently prevented bone loss, as monitored by bone densitometry, ash content, and urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline. No change in serum osteocalcin in the OVX rats by OST-4077 suggested that bone formation might not be affected by the agent. In summary, OST-4077 selectively inhibited bone resorbing activities of osteoclasts and prevented bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency but did not affect bone formation. OST-4077, an orally active selective human cathepsin K inhibitor, may have the therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases characterized by excessive bone loss including osteoporosis.

  5. Tert-butyl-2(4,5-dihydrogen-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-3-O-1H-imidazole-3-cationic-1-oxyl-2-pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic ester displays novel cytotoxicity through reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative damage in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Guo, Juan; Zeng, Lihua; Zhang, Jie; Hui, Yanping; Liu, Junye; Qing, Xiangyang; Sun, Xiaoli; Guo, Guozhen

    2011-07-15

    The cytotoxicity of a new nitroxyl nitroxide radical, tert-butyl-2 (4,5-dihydrogen-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-3-O-1H-imidazole-3-cationic-1-oxyl-2-pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic ester (L-NNP) was examined in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. L-NNP treatment resulted in a significant growth inhibition in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Compared with control, 10, 30, and 50μg/ml L-NNP treatments for 48h induced significant cell and nuclei swelling, and organelle distension. The marked cell death was seen in a concentration- and time-dependant manner in L-NNP treated groups. The L-NNP treated group displayed a concentration-dependant increase in DNA double strand damage compared to the control and the 1Gy γ-rays exposure groups. These results suggest that L-NNP could result in more lethal genotoxicity than 1Gy γ-radiation. Based on mitochondrial alteration (membrane potential loss and SDH activity descend), DNA damage, an increase in MDA production, and GSH-PX inactivation, we predicate that L-NNP induces lipid oxidation and oxidative damage in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Since L-NNP initiated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, which could largely be inhibited by NAC pretreatment, the overall data strongly suggest that the mechanism of cytotoxicity of L-NNP was its ability to act as a strong free radical, and significantly increase intracellular reactive oxygen species production. This led to intracellular oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzyme inactivation, resulting in cell death. We hypothesize that the greater cytotoxicity of L-NNP in MDA-MB-231 cells than in MCF-7 cells might be due to more ROS production in MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to more oxidative damage.

  6. Antimony speciation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using solid phase extraction cartridges.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhai; Cai, Qiantao; Guo, Zhong-Xian; Yang, Zhaoguang; Khoo, Soo Beng

    2002-10-01

    A novel and simple method for inorganic antimony speciation is described based on selective solid phase extraction (SPE) separation of antimony(III) and highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection of total antimony and antimony(V) in the aqueous phase of the sample. Non-polar SPE cartridges, such as the Isolute silica-based octyl (C8) sorbent-containing cartridge, selectively retained the Sb(III) complex with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), while the uncomplexed Sb(V) remained as a free species in the solution and passed through the cartridge. The Sb(III) concentration was calculated as the difference between total antimony and Sb(V) concentrations. The detection limit was 1 ng L(-1) antimony. Factors affecting the separation and detection of antimony species were investigated. Acidification of samples led to partial or complete retention of Sb(V) on C8 cartridge. Foreign ions tending to complex with Sb(III) or APDC did not interfere with the retention behavior of the Sb(III)-APDC complex. This method has been successfully applied to antimony speciation of various types of water samples.

  7. Rapid speciation analysis of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Abul; Kumita, Mikio; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Islam, Tajmeri S A; Mori, Shigeru

    2005-02-01

    A simple and rapid method is developed for the simultaneous determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) based on the formation of their different complexes with ammonium pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (APDC). Separation is performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection. The conditions for complex formation and speciation are determined, such as solution pH, amount of APDC, temperature, and type of mobile phase. In order to substantially reduce the analysis time, the separation is carried out without extraction of chromium-APDC complexes from the mother liquor. Under the optimum analysis conditions, the chromatograms obtained show good peak separation, and the absolute detection limits (3s) are 2.2 microg/L for Cr(VI) and 4.5 microg/L for Cr(III). The calibration curves are linear from 3 to 5000 microg/L for Cr(VI) and 5 to 3000 microg/L for Cr(III). The relative standard deviations of peak areas in five measurements using a sample solution of 200 microg/L are less than 2% for Cr(VI) and 4% for Cr(III), indicating good reproducibility for this analytical method. Furthermore, simultaneous determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) is successful with the application of the proposed procedure in the synthetic wastewaters containing common heavy metal ions: Fe(III), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II). PMID:15826369

  8. Hydrogen release from dialkylamine-boranes promoted by Mg and Ca complexes: a DFT analysis of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Butera, Valeria; Russo, Nino; Sicilia, Emilia

    2014-05-12

    Mg and Ca β-diketiminato silylamides [HC{(Me)CN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)}2M(THF)n{N(SiMe3)2}] (M = Mg, n = 0; M = Ca, n = 1) were studied as precatalysts for the dehydrogenation/dehydrocoupling of secondary amine-boranes R2HNBH3 . By reaction with equimolar quantities of amine-boranes, the corresponding amidoborane derivatives are formed, which further react to yield dehydrogenation products such as the cyclic dimer [BH2-NMe2]2. DFT was used here to explore the mechanistic alternatives proposed on the basis of the experimental findings for both Mg and Ca amidoboranes. The influence of the steric demand of amine-boranes on the course of the reaction was examined by performing calculations on the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane (DMAB), pyrrolidine-borane (PB), and diisopropylamine-borane. In spite of the analogies in the catalytic activity of Mg- and Ca-based complexes in the dehydrocoupling of amine-boranes, our theoretical analysis confirmed the experimentally observed lower reactivity of Ca complexes. Differences in catalytic activity of Mg- and Ca-based complexes were examined and rationalized. As a consequence of the increase in ionic radius on going from Mg(2+) to Ca(2+), the dehydrogenation mechanism changes and formation of a key metal hydride intermediate becomes inaccessible. Dimerization is likely to occur off-metal in solution for DMAB and PB, whereas steric hindrance of iPr2NHBH3 hampers formation of the cyclic dimer. The reported results are of particular interest because, although amine-borane dehydrogenation is now well established, mechanistic insight is still lacking for many systems. PMID:24700384

  9. Supramolecular association via Sb...S and C-H...S interactions in dimeric tris(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III): an approach to overcome the concept of steric bulk on such interactions.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, H P S; Carpenter, Jaswant

    2013-12-01

    Tris(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) has been isolated as a dimer in acetonitrile. Single-crystal X-ray analysis shows that the molecule possesses both Sb···S and C-H···S interactions, which results in a supramolecular association in the absence of hydrogen-bonding functionality on the R group. The co-existence in the title compound of such interactions is a unique character of known dimeric antimony(III) alkyl and/or aryl dithiocarbamate complexes. The literature reveals that the species where the alkyl and/or aryl dithiocarbamates carry the following groups: R = methyl (chloroform solvated), ethyl, n-propyl, pyrrolidine, morpholine, piperidine, azepane, benzyl, methylphenyl, are not capable of forming significant hydrogen-bonding interactions. However, either Sb···S or C-H···S intermolecular interactions dominate between two centrosymmetrically related molecules leading to a supramolecular aggregation. In the species where the R group carries hydrogen-bonding functionality, i.e. 2-hydroxylethyl, the C-H···S interactions are subverted by O-H···O hydrogen bonding. In addition, the title compound does not have steric hindrance or any hydrogen-bonding group but is stabilized with the co-existence of Sb···S and C-H···S interactions. Analysis of the secondary interactions of a series of analogues previously reported reveals that steric bulk is unnecessary for the mitigation of Sb···S interactions and for the establishment of C-H···S secondary bonding. PMID:24253087

  10. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  11. Structures of the Class D Carbapenemase OXA-24 from Acinetobacter baumannii in Complex with Doripenem

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kyle D.; Ortega, Caleb J.; Renck, Nicholas A.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Powers, Rachel A.; Leonard, David A.

    2012-02-08

    The emergence of class D {beta}-lactamases with carbapenemase activity presents an enormous challenge to health practitioners, particularly with regard to the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii. Unfortunately, class D {beta}-lactamases with carbapenemase activity are resistant to {beta}-lactamase inhibitors. To better understand the details of the how these enzymes bind and hydrolyze carbapenems, we have determined the structures of two deacylation-deficient variants (K84D and V130D) of the class D carbapenemase OXA-24 with doripenem bound as a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. Doripenem adopts essentially the same configuration in both OXA-24 variant structures, but varies significantly when compared to the non-carbapenemase class D member OXA-1/doripenem complex. The alcohol of the 6a hydroxyethyl moiety is directed away from the general base carboxy-K84, with implications for activation of the deacylating water. The tunnel formed by the Y112/M223 bridge in the apo form of OXA-24 is largely unchanged by the binding of doripenem. The presence of this bridge, however, causes the distal pyrrolidine/sulfonamide group to bind in a drastically different conformation compared to doripenem bound to OXA-1. The resulting difference in the position of the side-chain bridge sulfur of doripenem is consistent with the hypothesis that the tautomeric state of the pyrroline ring contributes to the different carbapenem hydrolysis rates of OXA-1 and OXA-24. These findings represent a snapshot of a key step in the catalytic mechanism of an important class D enzyme, and might be useful for the design of novel inhibitors.

  12. Daunorubicin activates NFkappaB and induces kappaB-dependent gene expression in HL-60 promyelocytic and Jurkat T lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Boland, M P; Foster, S J; O'Neill, L A

    1997-05-16

    The anthracycline antibiotic, daunorubicin, can induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) in cells. Recent work suggests that this event is mediated by ceramide via enhanced ceramide synthase activity. Since the generation of ceramide has been directly linked with the activation of the transcription factor, NFkappaB, this was investigated as a novel target for the action of daunorubicin. Here we describe how treatment of HL-60 promyelocytes and Jurkat T lymphoma cells with daunorubicin results in the activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB. The effect of daunorubicin was evident following 1-2 h treatment, which was in contrast to the time course of activation obtained with the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor, where NFkappaB activation was detected within minutes of cellular stimulation. Activated complexes were shown to contain predominantly p50 and p65/RelA subunit components. Daunorubicin also induced IkappaB degradation and increased the expression of an NFkappaB-linked reporter gene. In addition, the drug was found to strongly potentiate the ability of tumor necrosis factor to induce an NFkappaB-linked reporter gene, suggesting a synergy between these two agents in this response. These events were sensitive to the iron chelator, deferoxamine mesylate (desferal), and the anti-oxidant and metal chelator pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. A structurally related compound, mitoxantrone, which, unlike daunorubicin, is unable to undergo redox cycling in cells, also activated NFkappaB in a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-sensitive manner. A specific inhibitor of ceramide synthase, fumonisin B1, had no effect on daunorubicin induced NFkappaB activation at a range of concentrations previously reported to block apoptosis induced by this drug. However, this agent could inhibit increases in ceramide induced by daunorubicin, in addition to blocking ceramide synthase activity from HL-60 cells which was activated in response to daunorubicin treatment. These data therefore suggest

  13. Towards the chiral metabolomics: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based DL-amino acid analysis after labeling with a new chiral reagent, (S)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl-1-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate, and the application to saliva of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Toshiki; Takayama, Takahiro; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2015-05-22

    A novel triazine-type chiral derivatization reagent, i.e., (S)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl-1-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl) pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (DMT-(S)-Pro-OSu), was developed for the highly sensitive and selective detection of chiral amines and amino acids by UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The enantiomers of amino acids were easily labeled with the reagents at room temperature within 40 min in an alkaline medium containing triethylamine. The diastereomers derived from proteolytic amino acids, except serine, were well separated under isocratic elution conditions by reversed-phase chromatography using an ODS column (Rs=1.2-9.0). DL-Serine was separated by use of an ADME column which has relatively higher polar surface than the conventional ODS column. The characteristic product ions, i.e., m/z 195.3 and m/z 209.3, were detected from all the diastereomers by the collision-induced dissociation of the protonated molecule. A highly sensitive detection on the amol-fmol level was obtained from the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) chromatogram. The chiral amines (e.g., adrenaline and noradrenaline) labeled with DMT-(S)-Pro-OSu were also well separated and sensitively detected by the present procedure. The method using DMT-(S)-Pro-OSu was used for the determination of DL-amino acids in the human saliva from healthy volunteers. Various L-amino acids were identified in the saliva. Furthermore, D-alanine (D-Ala) and D-proline (D-Pro) were also detected in relatively high concentrations (>5%). The ratio was higher in male saliva than in female saliva. However, the difference in the ratio of D-Ala for one day was not very high and the effect of foods and beverage seemed to be negligible. Based on the results using L-Ala-d3, the D-Ala in saliva seemed to be produced due to the racemization with some enzymes such as racemase. The racemization reaction was reversible, i.e., D-Ala-d3 was also racemized to L-Ala-d3 in saliva. Thus, care should be taken during the analysis of DL

  14. Separation-preconcentration of nickel and lead in food samples by a combination of solid-liquid-solid dispersive extraction using SiO2 nanoparticles, ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction.

    PubMed

    Jalbani, Nusrat; Soylak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    A microextraction method for the determination of nickel and lead using solid-liquid-solid dispersive extraction followed by ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SLSDE-ILDLLME) was presented. It was applied to the extraction of nickel and lead from food samples. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as complexing agent, [C4MIM][PF6] as ionic liquid, SiO2 as nanoparticles and 2 mol L(-1) HNO3 as eluent were used. Several important parameters such as amount of IL, extraction time, pH and volume of the complexing agent were investigated. The quantitative recoveries were obtained at pH 7.0 for analytes. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) calculated using 3(Sd)blank/m were 0.17 for Ni(II) and 0.79 µg L(-1) for Pb(II) for aqueous solutions with 125 enrichment factor (EF). The limit of detections of the analyte ions (3(Sd)blank/m) for solid samples were 0.09 µg g(-1) (Ni) and 0.40 µg g(-1) (Pb). The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by the analysis of standard reference material (1577c bovine liver) and spiked recovery test. The proposed method was applied to determine nickel and lead levels in chicken, fish and meat samples.

  15. Ionic liquid-linked dual magnetic microextraction of lead(II) from environmental samples prior to its micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-11-15

    A novel and rapid microextraction approach termed as ionic liquid-linked dual magnetic microextraction (IL-DMME), was developed for the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead. The developed method based on a combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μ-SPE). In the first DLLME step, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4mim][PF6], was selected to extract the lead-pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (Pb-PDC) complex from sample solution by the assistance of vortex agitator. After the first step, fifty milligrams of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were added to extraction of the ionic liquid and Pb-PDC complex in aqueous solution. The effective factors in proposed IL-DMME procedure, including volume of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, amount of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, vortex time, amount of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sample volume and matrix effect were optimized in details. Under the optimal conditions, the method present has low detection limit (0.57 μg L(-1)), high preconcentration factor (160) and good repeatability (<7.5%, n=10). The accuracy of the developed method was evaluated by the analysis of the certified reference materials and addition-recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead in water, plant and hair samples.

  16. Implication of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide generation in ceramide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Quillet-Mary, A; Jaffrézou, J P; Mansat, V; Bordier, C; Naval, J; Laurent, G

    1997-08-22

    The key events implicated in ceramide-triggered apoptosis remain unknown. In this study we show that 25 microM C6-ceramide induced significant H2O2 production within 60 min, which increased up to 180 min in human myeloid leukemia U937 cells. Inactive analogue dihydro-C6-ceramide had no effect. Furthermore, no H2O2 production was observed in C6-ceramide-treated U937 rho degrees cells, which are mitochondrial respiration-deficient. We also present evidence that ceramide-induced activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 is mediated by mitochondrial derived reactive oxygen species. Both H2O2 production, transcription factor activation as well as apoptosis could be inhibited by rotenone and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (specific mitochondrial complexes I and II inhibitors) and antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. These effects could be potentiated by antimycin A (specific complex III mitochondrial inhibitor). H2O2 production was also inhibitable by ruthenium red, suggesting a role of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis alterations in ceramide-induced oxidative stress. Finally, C6-ceramide had no influence on mitochondrial membrane potential within the first 6 h. Altogether, our study points to reactive oxygen species, generated at the ubiquinone site of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, as an early major mediator in ceramide-induced apoptosis. PMID:9261153

  17. Ionic liquid-linked dual magnetic microextraction of lead(II) from environmental samples prior to its micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-11-15

    A novel and rapid microextraction approach termed as ionic liquid-linked dual magnetic microextraction (IL-DMME), was developed for the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead. The developed method based on a combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μ-SPE). In the first DLLME step, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4mim][PF6], was selected to extract the lead-pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (Pb-PDC) complex from sample solution by the assistance of vortex agitator. After the first step, fifty milligrams of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were added to extraction of the ionic liquid and Pb-PDC complex in aqueous solution. The effective factors in proposed IL-DMME procedure, including volume of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, amount of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, vortex time, amount of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sample volume and matrix effect were optimized in details. Under the optimal conditions, the method present has low detection limit (0.57 μg L(-1)), high preconcentration factor (160) and good repeatability (<7.5%, n=10). The accuracy of the developed method was evaluated by the analysis of the certified reference materials and addition-recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead in water, plant and hair samples. PMID:24148489

  18. Dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione as NO and NO⁺ donors.

    PubMed

    Borodulin, Rostislav R; Kubrina, Lyudmila N; Mikoyan, Vasak D; Poltorakov, Alexander P; Shvydkiy, Vyacheslav О; Burbaev, Dosymzhan Sh; Serezhenkov, Vladimir A; Yakhontova, Elena R; Vanin, Anatoly F

    2013-02-28

    It has been found that heating of solutions of the binuclear form of dinitrosyl iron complexes (B-DNIC) with glutathione in a degassed Thunberg apparatus (рН 1.0, 70°С, 6 h) results in their decomposition with a concomitant release of four gaseous NO molecules per one B-DNIC. Further injection of air into the Thunberg apparatus initiates fast oxidation of NO to NO₂ and formation of two GS-NO molecules per one B-DNIC. Under similar conditions, the decomposition of B-DNIC solutions in the Thunberg apparatus in the presence of air is complete within 30-40 min and is accompanied by formation of four GS-NO molecules per one B-DNIC. It is suggested that the latter events are determined by oxidation of B-DNIC iron and concominant release of four nitrosonium ions (NO⁺) from each complex. Binding of NO⁺ to thiol groups of glutathione provokes GS-NO synthesis. At neutral рН, decomposition of B-DNIC is initiated by strong iron chelators, viz., о-phenanthroline and N-methyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (MGD). In the former case, the reaction occurs under anaerobic conditions (degassed Thunberg apparatus) and is accompanied by a release of four NO molecules from B-DNIC. Under identical conditions, MGD-induced decomposition of B-DNIC gives two EPR-active mononuclear mononitrosyl iron complexes with MGD (MNIC-MGD) able to incorporate two iron molecules and two NO molecules from each B-DNIC. The other two NO molecules released from B-DNIC (most probably, in the form of nitrosonium ions) bind to thiol groups of MGD to give corresponding S-nitrosothiols. Acidification of test solutions to рН 1.0 initiates hydrolysis of MGD and, as a consequence, decomposition of MNIC-MGD and the S-nitrosated form of MGD; the gaseous phase contains four NO molecules (as calculated per each B-DNIC). The data obtained testify to the ability of B-DNIC with glutathione (and, probably, of B-DNIC with other thiol-containing ligands) to release both NO molecules and nitrosonium ions upon their

  19. Metallacyclic yttrium alkyl and hydrido complexes: synthesis, structures and catalytic activity in intermolecular olefin hydrophosphination and hydroamination.

    PubMed

    Kissel, Alexander A; Mahrova, Tatyana V; Lyubov, Dmitry M; Cherkasov, Anton V; Fukin, Georgy K; Trifonov, Alexander A; Del Rosal, Iker; Maron, Laurent

    2015-07-21

    Metallacyclic neutral and ionic yttrium alkyl complexes coordinated by a dianionic ene-diamido ligand ([2,6-iPr2C6H3NC(Me)=C(Me)NC6H3iPr2-2,6] = L(1)) [L(1)]Y(CH2SiMe3)(THF)2 (2), {[L(1)]Y(CH2SiMe3)2}(-){Li(THF)4}(+) (3), [L(1)]Y(OEt2)(μ-Me)2Li(TMEDA) (4) were synthesized using a salt-metathesis approach starting from the related chloro complex [L(1)]Y(THF)2(μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2 (1) in 70, 85 and 72% yields respectively. The reactions of 2 with H2 or PhSiH3 afford the dimeric hydride {[L(1)]Y(THF)(μ-H)}2(μ-THF) (5) containing two μ-bridging hydrido and one μ-bridging THF ligands (91 and 85% yields). The X-ray studies of complexes 2, 3 and 5 revealed η(2)-coordination of the C=C fragment of an ene-diamido ligand to a Y cation. DFT calculations were carried out to give an insight into the metal-ligand bonding and especially the interaction between the metal and the ene-diamido ligand. The observed bonding of the ene-diamido fragment is found to reflect the acidity of the metal center in the complex that is partially overcome by a better donation from the double bond (better overlap with an empty d orbital at the yttrium center). The treatment of complex 4 with DME resulted in the C-O bond cleavage of DME and afforded a three nuclear methoxide oxide complex [{[L(1)]Y}3(μ(2)-OMe)3(μ(3)-O)](2-)[Li(DME)3](+)2 (6). Complexes 2, 3, 5 and 7 proved to be efficient precatalysts for the intermolecular hydrophosphination of styrene, 4-vinylpyridine, and 1-nonene with PhPH2 and Ph2PH as well as hydroamination of styrene and pyrrolidine. PMID:25710900

  20. Protein Complexes in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, J. Harry; Abreu, Marco; Wimble, Christopher; Uetz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale analyses of protein complexes have recently become available for Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, yielding 443 and 116 heteromultimeric soluble protein complexes, respectively. We have coupled the results of these mass spectrometry-characterized protein complexes with the 285 “gold standard” protein complexes identified by EcoCyc. A comparison with databases of gene orthology, conservation, and essentiality identified proteins conserved or lost in complexes of other species. For instance, of 285 “gold standard” protein complexes in E. coli, less than 10% are fully conserved among a set of 7 distantly-related bacterial “model” species. Complex conservation follows one of three models: well-conserved complexes, complexes with a conserved core, and complexes with partial conservation but no conserved core. Expanding the comparison to 894 distinct bacterial genomes illustrates fractional conservation and the limits of co-conservation among components of protein complexes: just 14 out of 285 model protein complexes are perfectly conserved across 95% of the genomes used, yet we predict more than 180 may be partially conserved across at least half of the genomes. No clear relationship between gene essentiality and protein complex conservation is observed, as even poorly conserved complexes contain a significant number of essential proteins. Finally, we identify 183 complexes containing well-conserved components and uncharacterized proteins which will be interesting targets for future experimental studies. PMID:25723151

  1. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  2. An automated flow injection system for metal determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry involving on-line fabric disk sorptive extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, A; Kazantzi, V; Samanidou, V; Kabir, A; Furton, K G

    2016-08-15

    A novel flow injection-fabric disk sorptive extraction (FI-FDSE) system was developed for automated determination of trace metals. The platform was based on a minicolumn packed with sol-gel coated fabric media in the form of disks, incorporated into an on-line solid-phase extraction system, coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This configuration provides minor backpressure, resulting in high loading flow rates and shorter analytical cycles. The potentials of this technique were demonstrated for trace lead and cadmium determination in environmental water samples. The applicability of different sol-gel coated FPSE media was investigated. The on-line formed complex of metal with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was retained onto the fabric surface and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) was used to elute the analytes prior to atomization. For 90s preconcentration time, enrichment factors of 140 and 38 and detection limits (3σ) of 1.8 and 0.4μgL(-1) were achieved for lead and cadmium determination, respectively, with a sampling frequency of 30h(-1). The accuracy of the proposed method was estimated by analyzing standard reference materials and spiked water samples. PMID:27260436

  3. Speciation of very low amounts of arsenic and antimony in waters using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Ricardo E.; López-García, Ignacio; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2009-04-01

    A new procedure for the determination of inorganic arsenic (III,V) and antimony (III,V) in water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction separation and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented. At pH 1, As(III) and Sb(III) are complexed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and extracted into the fine droplets formed when mixing carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent), methanol (disperser solvent) and the sample solution. After extraction, the phases are separated by centrifugation, and As(III) and Sb(III) are determined in the organic phase. As(V) and Sb(V) remain in the aqueous layer. Total inorganic As and Sb are determined after the reduction of the pentavalent forms with sodium thiosulphate. As(V) and Sb(V) are calculated by difference. The detection limits are 0.01 and 0.05 µg L - 1 for As(III) and Sb(III), respectively, with an enrichment factor of 115. The relative standard deviation is in the 2.9-4.5% range. The procedure has been applied to the speciation of inorganic As and Sb in bottled, tap and sea water samples with satisfactory results.

  4. On-line preconcentration and determination of copper, lead and chromium(VI) using unloaded polyurethane foam packed column by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in natural waters and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Zachariadis, George A; Stratis, John A

    2002-11-12

    A simple, sensitive and low cost, flow injection time-based method was developed for on-line preconcentration and determination of copper, lead and chromium(VI) at sub mug l(-1) levels in natural waters and biological samples. At the optimum pH, the on-line formed metal-ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) complexes were sorbed on the unloaded commercial polyurethane foam (PUF), and subsequent eluted quantitatively by isobutylmethylketone and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). All chemical, and flow injection variables were optimized for the quantitative preconcentration of each metal and a study of interference level of various ions was also carried out. The system offered improved flexibility, low backpressure and applicability to all the studied metals. At a sample frequency of 36 h(-1) and a 60 s preconcentration time, the enhancement factor was 170, 131 and 28, the detection limit was 0.2, 1.8 and 2.0 mug l(-1), and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (s(r)), was 2.8 (at 10 mug l(-1)), 3.4 (at 50 mug l(-1)) and 3.6% (at 50 mug l(-1)) for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The accuracy of the developed method was sufficient and evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials and spiked water samples. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of environmental samples. PMID:18968813

  5. What is complex about complex disorders?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rather than being polygenic, complex disorders probably represent umbrella terms for collections of conditions caused by rare, recent mutations in any of a large number of different genes. PMID:22269335

  6. Complex-I-ty in aging

    PubMed Central

    Stork, Devon A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of mitochondrial complex I in aging has been studied in both C. elegans and Drosophila, where RNAi knock down of specific complex I subunits has been shown to extend lifespan. More recently, studies in Drosophila have shown that an increase in mitochondrial activity, including complex I-like activity, can also slow aging. In this review, we discuss this apparent paradox. Improved maintenance of mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial homeostasis, may be responsible for lifespan extension in both cases. Decreased electron transport chain activity caused by reducing complex I subunit expression prompts an increase in stress response signaling that leads to enhanced mitochondrial homeostasis during aging. Increased complex I activity, as well as mitochondrial biogenesis, is expected to both directly counteract the decline in mitochondrial health that occurs during aging and may also increase cellular NAD+ levels, which have been linked to mitochondrial homeostatic mechanisms through activation of sirtuins. We suggest that manipulations that increase or decrease complex I activity both converge on improved mitochondrial homeostasis during aging, resulting in prolonged lifespan. PMID:24961226

  7. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  8. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer of the ... two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called vinca ...

  9. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to grow on ... related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called anthracyclines. ...

  10. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. ...

  11. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  12. Complex carbohydrates (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... later. Complex carbohydrate foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber that are important to the health of an ... which do not have the vitamins, minerals, and fiber found in complex and natural carbohydrates. Refined sugars ...

  13. Simply Complex by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Harold G.

    2007-01-01

    Reality--real life--is complex, more complex than can be imagined. The majority of our most pressing issues confronted in the management of organizations are overwhelmingly complex. I make the case for a systems design approach as a remedy. Examples introduced in this paper illuminate conceptual tools that advance how people transform their…

  14. Congruently melting complex oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahams, S.C.; Brandle, C.D. Jr.

    1988-04-26

    A device is described comprising: a material including a complex oxide, characterized in that the complex oxide is essentially free of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, gadolinium gallium garnet and lithium niobate, and the composition of the complex oxide is congruent and differs from stoichiometry by at least 0.1 atomic percent for at least one constituent element.

  15. Crystallization of macromolecular complexes: combinatorial complex crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stura, Enrico A.; Graille, Marc; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste

    2001-11-01

    The usefulness of antibody complexation, as a way of increasing the chances of crystallization needs to be re-evaluated after many antibody complexes have been crystallized and their structure determined. It is somewhat striking that among these, only a small number is a complex with a large protein antigen. The problem is that the effort of raising, cleaving and purifying an Fab is rewarded only by an extra chance of getting crystals; depending on the relative likelihood of crystallization of the complexed and uncomplexed protein. The example of the complex between HIV gp120, CD4 and an Fab fragment from a neutralizing antibody suggests that further complexation of an antigen-antibody complex with a third protein could, by increasing the number of possible combinations, improve the likelihood of crystallization. We propose the use of Ig-binding proteins as a way of extending the method from HIV gp120 to all proteins for which there are monoclonal antibodies. We discuss this technique, combinatorial complex crystallization (CCC), as part of a multi-component system for the enhancement of crystallization of macromolecular complexes. The method makes use of single Ig-binding domains from Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA), Peptostreptococcus magnus protein L (PpL) and the streptococcal protein G (SpG). The generality of the method depends on the ability of these domains to interact with a large repertoire of antibodies without affecting antigen binding. There is strong evidence to suggest that these Ig-binding domains bind outside the antigen-combining site of the antibody without perturbing antigen binding. It is clear from the crystal structure of the single SpG domain complexed with an Fab that the interaction involves mainly the immunoglobulin CH1 domain, a region not involved in antigen recognition. We have recently determined the structure of the complex between a human Fab and the domain D from SpA and found that steric hindrance is unlikely even for large

  16. Complexity transmission during replication

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brian K.

    1979-01-01

    The transmission of complexity during DNA replication has been investigated to clarify the significance of this molecular property in a deterministic process. Complexity was equated with the amount of randomness within an ordered molecular structure and measured by the entropy of a posteriori probabilities for discrete (monomer sequences, atomic bonds) and continuous (torsion angle sequences) structural parameters in polynucleotides, proteins, and ligand molecules. A theoretical analysis revealed that sequence complexity decreases during transmission from DNA to protein. It was also found that sequence complexity limits the attainable complexity in the folding of a polypeptide chain and that a protein cannot interact with a ligand moiety of higher complexity. The analysis indicated, furthermore, that in any deterministic molecular process a cause possesses more complexity than its effect. This outcome broadly complies with Curie's symmetry principle. Results from an analysis of an extensive set of experimental data are presented; they corroborate these findings. It is suggested, therefore, that complexity governs the direction of order—order molecular transformations. Two biological implications are (i) replication of DNA in a stepwise, repetitive manner by a polymerase appears to be a necessary consequence of structural constraints imposed by complexity, and (ii) during evolution, increases in complexity had to involve a nondeterministic mechanism. This latter requirement apparently applied also to development of the first replicating system on earth. PMID:287070

  17. Two giant stellar complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Efremov, E. Yu.

    Common star complexes are huge (0.3-1 kpc in diameter) groups of relatively young stars, associations and clusters. The complexes usually form regular chains along spiral arms of grand design galaxies, being evidently formed and supported by magneto- gravitational instability developing along an arm. Special attention is given to a few large complexes which have signatures of gravitational boundness, such as round shape and high central density. Concentrations of stars and clusters in such a complex in M51 galaxy were found in this paper; we concluded it is possible to suggest that the complex is gravitationally bound. It is also stressed that some properties of the giant complex in NGC 6946 (such as its semicircular and sharp Western edge) are still enigmatic.

  18. Artistic forms and complexity.

    PubMed

    Boon, J-P; Casti, J; Taylor, R P

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the inter-relationship between various concepts of complexity by introducing a complexity 'triangle' featuring objective complexity, subjective complexity and social complexity. Their connections are explored using visual and musical compositions of art. As examples, we quantify the complexity embedded within the paintings of the Jackson Pollock and the musical works of Johann Sebastian Bach. We discuss the challenges inherent in comparisons of the spatial patterns created by Pollock and the sonic patterns created by Bach, including the differing roles that time plays in these investigations. Our results draw attention to some common intriguing characteristics suggesting 'universality' and conjecturing that the fractal nature of art might have an intrinsic value of more general significance. PMID:21382264

  19. Complexation of Optoelectronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreisho, A. S.; Il‧in, M. Yu.; Konyaev, M. A.; Mikhailenko, A. S.; Morozov, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Problems of increasing the efficiency and the functionality of complex optoelectronic systems for monitoring real atmospheric conditions and of their use are discussed. It is shown by the example of a meteorological complex comprising an infrared wind-sensing lidar and an X-range Doppler radar that the complexation of probing systems working in different electromagnetic-radiation ranges opens up new opportunities for determining the meteorological parameters of a turbulent atmosphere and investigating the interaction of radiation with it.

  20. Genetics of complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  1. Study of structural and dynamic characteristics of copper(II) amino acid complexes in solutions by combined EPR and NMR relaxation methods.

    PubMed

    Bukharov, Mikhail S; Shtyrlin, Valery G; Mukhtarov, Anvar Sh; Mamin, Georgy V; Stapf, Siegfried; Mattea, Carlos; Krutikov, Alexander A; Il'in, Alexander N; Serov, Nikita Yu

    2014-05-28

    Structural features and dynamical behaviour of the copper(ii) bis-complexes with glycine, d-alanine, d-valine, l-serine, l-aspartic acid, l-glutamic acid, l-lysine, l-proline, and sarcosine were studied by combined EPR and NMR relaxation methods. The cis and trans isomers were unambiguously assigned and characterized by EPR data. It was found that addition of a salt background has an influence on the cis-trans isomer equilibrium in favour of the formation of the cis isomer. By comparison of NMRD, DFT computations, and structural data it was shown that only one water molecule is coordinated in the axial position of these complexes. The increased exchange rates of this molecule found for Cu(l-Asp)2(2-), Cu(l-Glu)2(2-), Cu(l-LysH)2(2+), and Cu(l-Pro)2 were attributed to its pushing out by side chain groups of the ligands. By simulation of NMRD profiles an increase of lifetimes of the copper(ii) 2nd coordination sphere water molecules was revealed in the presence of additional carboxylic, alcoholic, or ammonium groups of the ligands, as well as the pyrrolidine ring of proline. The very short lifetimes of the 2nd coordination sphere water molecules (4-13 ps at 298 K) were explained in terms of the Frank-Wen structural model by the existence of cavities which draw in quickly enough water molecules from the 2nd coordination sphere.

  2. Study of structural and dynamic characteristics of copper(II) amino acid complexes in solutions by combined EPR and NMR relaxation methods.

    PubMed

    Bukharov, Mikhail S; Shtyrlin, Valery G; Mukhtarov, Anvar Sh; Mamin, Georgy V; Stapf, Siegfried; Mattea, Carlos; Krutikov, Alexander A; Il'in, Alexander N; Serov, Nikita Yu

    2014-05-28

    Structural features and dynamical behaviour of the copper(ii) bis-complexes with glycine, d-alanine, d-valine, l-serine, l-aspartic acid, l-glutamic acid, l-lysine, l-proline, and sarcosine were studied by combined EPR and NMR relaxation methods. The cis and trans isomers were unambiguously assigned and characterized by EPR data. It was found that addition of a salt background has an influence on the cis-trans isomer equilibrium in favour of the formation of the cis isomer. By comparison of NMRD, DFT computations, and structural data it was shown that only one water molecule is coordinated in the axial position of these complexes. The increased exchange rates of this molecule found for Cu(l-Asp)2(2-), Cu(l-Glu)2(2-), Cu(l-LysH)2(2+), and Cu(l-Pro)2 were attributed to its pushing out by side chain groups of the ligands. By simulation of NMRD profiles an increase of lifetimes of the copper(ii) 2nd coordination sphere water molecules was revealed in the presence of additional carboxylic, alcoholic, or ammonium groups of the ligands, as well as the pyrrolidine ring of proline. The very short lifetimes of the 2nd coordination sphere water molecules (4-13 ps at 298 K) were explained in terms of the Frank-Wen structural model by the existence of cavities which draw in quickly enough water molecules from the 2nd coordination sphere. PMID:24722622

  3. DNA-binding and molecular mechanics modelling studies of the bulky chiral platinum(II) complex [PtCl(2)(mepyrr)] (mepyrr=N-methyl-2-aminomethylpyrrolidine).

    PubMed

    Diakos, Connie I; Fenton, Ronald R; Hambley, Trevor W

    2006-12-01

    Detailed studies were carried out on the binding of the enantiomers of [PtCl(2)(mepyrr)] (mepyrr=N-methyl-2-aminomethylpyrrolidine) to dG, d(GpG) and a 52-mer oligonucleotide. The pyrrolidine ligand structure was found to be neither sufficiently rigid nor bulky to enforce a single chirality at the exocyclic amine site in this complex, resulting in the presence of diastereomers that complicated the binding studies. Reaction of the (GpG) dinucleotide with R- and S-[PtCl(2)(mepyrr)] resulted in formation of four [Pt{d(GpG)}(mepyrr)] isomers for each enantiomer as a consequence of the existence of two orientational isomers and two diastereomers. These isomers formed in different amounts most likely as a consequence of the unequal formation of the diastereomers together with stereoselectivity induced by interactions between the dinucleotide and the mepyrr ligand. The [PtCl(2)(mepyrr)] complexes displayed stereoselectivity and enantioselectivity in their reactions with a 52-mer duplex designed to allow formation of only GpG intrastrand adducts. All four bifunctional adducts formed for each enantiomer, providing further evidence of the lack of directing ability of the ligand in formation of the 1,2-intrastrand adduct. Significant amounts of monofunctional species remained in these assays suggesting that the introduction of the methyl substituent to the exocyclic amine inhibited ring-closure to the bifunctional adduct. This was not sufficient to achieve enantiospecificity, but in the case of the R-enantiomer, one of the bifunctional adducts formed in only small amounts. PMID:17083976

  4. Complexity in Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  5. Performance Improvement Assuming Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Individual performers, work teams, and organizations may be considered complex adaptive systems, while most current human performance technologies appear to assume simple determinism. This article explores the apparent mismatch and speculates on future efforts to enhance performance if complexity rather than simplicity is assumed. Included are…

  6. Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisbie, David A.

    A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

  7. Visual Complexity: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  8. Tuberculosis in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Coninx, Rudi

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the key factors and remaining challenges for tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in complex emergencies. A complex emergency is "a humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society where there is total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/or the ongoing United Nations country programme." Some 200 million people are believed to live in countries affected by complex emergencies; almost all of these are developing countries that also bear the main burden of TB. The effects of complex emergencies impact on TB control programmes, interfering with the goals of identifying and curing TB patients and possibly leading to the emergence of MDR-TB. There are many detailed descriptions of aid interventions during complex emergencies; yet TB control programmes are absent from most of these reports. If TB is neglected, it may quickly result in increased morbidity and mortality, as was demonstrated in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Somalia. TB is a major disease in complex emergencies and requires an appropriate public health response. While there is no manual to cover complex emergencies, the interagency manual for TB control in refugee and displaced populations provides valuable guidance. These programmes contribute to the body of evidence needed to compile such a manual, and should ensure that the experiences of TB control in complex emergencies lead to the establishment of evidence-based programmes. PMID:17768523

  9. U1A Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  10. U1A Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-28

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  11. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  12. COMPLEXITY IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enormous complexity of ecosystems is generally obvious under even the most cursory examination. In the modern world, this complexity is further augmented by the linkage of ecosystems to economic and social systems through the human use of the environment for technological pu...

  13. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization. PMID:25815410

  14. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  15. Complexity and behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Rosser, J Barkley; Rosser, Marina V

    2015-04-01

    This paper will consider the relationship between complexity economics and behavioral economics. A crucial key to this is to understand that Herbert Simon was both the founder of explicitly modern behavioral economics as well as one of the early developers of complexity theory. Bounded rationality was essentially derived from Simon's view of the impossibility of full rationality on the part of economic agents. Modern complexity theory through such approaches as agent-based modeling offers an approach to understanding behavioral economics by allowing for specific behavioral responses to be assigned to agents who interact within this context, even without full rationality. Other parts of modern complexity theory are considered in terms of their relationships with behavioral economics. Fundamentally, complexity provides an ultimate foundation for bounded rationality and hence the need to use behavioral economics in a broader array of contexts than most economists have thought appropriate.

  16. Hypergraph coloring complexes

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes–a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen–Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the f- and h-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

  17. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.J.

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the {eta}{sup 5}- and the {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The {sup 77}Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of {eta}{sup 1}(S)-bound thiophenes, {eta}{sup 1}(S)-benzothiophene and {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh{sub 3})Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O{sub 3}SCF{sub 3} was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  18. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  19. Afterglow Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samarian, A. A.; Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M.

    2008-09-07

    The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

  20. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    PubMed

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized.

  1. A complex legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  2. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  3. Equivariant Complex Cobordism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abram, William C.

    We begin with a development of equivariant stable homotopy theory relevant to our work, including a new result on shift desuspension of suspension spectra. We then build on existing techniques of Kriz to compute the equivariant complex cobordism ring of a finite abelian group. Methods of isotropy separation via Tate diagrams are heavily employed, and the key computational tool is the Isotropy Separation Spectral Sequence that is here introduced. We also consider equivariant formal group laws. There is a G-equivariant formal group law corresponding to any complex oriented G-equivariant spectrum E. Since the equivariant complex cobordism spectrum has a canonical complex orientation, there is a corresponding equivariant formal group law. We compute the G-equivariant formal group law corresponding to this spectrum for G finite abelian. This computation is a step in the direction of Greenlees' Conjecture that this equivariant formal group law is algebraically universal.

  4. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  5. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  6. Inside the complexity labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    Although the world we live in is complex, complexity as a science does not have a long history. For generations, most physicists tried to understand everything in terms of interactions between pairs of idealized "test particles". Then, about a 100 years ago, Henri Poincaré pointed out that a fully interacting three-body system was not just the sum of its three component pairs. The famous "three-body problem" was born.

  7. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  8. Cancer and bone: a complex complex.

    PubMed

    van Driel, Marjolein; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

    2014-11-01

    Primary and secondary bone cancers are rare events. However, once settled, a complex process is started involving an extensive amount of factors and interactions. The bone micro-environment is a preferential site for (metastatic) tumor cells to enter, stay, colonize and expand. The fact that the tumor cells affect the complete bone environment involving many cell types and regulatory pathways to stimulate their own growth and escape from therapy is devastating for the patient. Many efforts have been made to get more insight into the mechanisms underlying the communication between bone cells and cancer cells and progress is made in therapeutic interventions. This review will discuss the biological mechanisms of primary bone malignancies (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, multiple myeloma) and secondary bone malignancies (bone metastases) and therapeutic interventions.

  9. Cell complexes through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klette, Reinhard

    2000-10-01

    The history of cell complexes is closely related to the birth and development of topology in general. Johann Benedict Listing (1802 - 1882) introduced the term 'topology' into mathematics in a paper published in 1847, and he also defined cell complexes for the first time in a paper published in 1862. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is often cited as the one who initiated these ideas, but he did not publish either on topology or on cell complexes. The pioneering work of Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) on graphs is also often cited as the birth of topology, and Euler's work was cited by Listing in 1862 as a stimulus for his research on cell complexes. There are different branches in topology which have little in common: point set topology, algebraic topology, differential topology etc. Confusion may arise if just 'topology' is specified, without clarifying the used concept. Topological subjects in mathematics are often related to continuous models, and therefore quite irrelevant to computer based solutions in image analysis. Compared to this, only a minority of topology publications in mathematics addresses discrete spaces which are appropriate for computer-based image analysis. In these cases, often the notion of a cell complex plays a crucial role. This paper briefly reports on a few of these publications. This paper is not intended to cover the very lively progress in cell complex studies within the context of image analysis during the last two decades. Basically it stops its historic review at the time when this subject in image analysis research gained speed in 1980 - 1990. As a general point of view, the paper indicates that image analysis contributes to a fusion of topological concepts, the geometric and the abstract cell structure approach and point set topology, which may lead towards new problems for the study of topologies defined on geometric or abstract cell complexes.

  10. Quantum Complexity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    Carbon has a unique position among elements in the periodic table. It produces an allotrope, graphene, a mechanically robust two dimensional semimetal. The multifarious properties that graphene exhibits has few parallels among elemental metals. From simplicity, namely carbon atoms connected by pure sp2 bonds, a wealth of novel quantum properties emerge. In classical complex systems such as a spin glass or a finance market, several competing agents or elements are responsible for unanticipated and difficult to predict emergent properties. The complex (sic) structure of quantum mechanics is responsbile for an unanticipated set of emergent properties in graphene. We call this quantum complexity. In fact, most quantum systems, phenomena and modern quantum field theory could be viewed as examples of quantum complexity. After giving a brief introduction to the quantum complexity we focus on our own work, which indicates the breadth in the type of quantum phenomena that graphene could support. We review our theoretical suggestions of, (i) spin-1 collective mode in netural graphene, (ii) relativistic type of phenomena in crossed electric and magnetic fields, (iii) room temperature superconductivity in doped graphene and (iv) composite Fermi sea in neutral graphene in uniform magnetic field and (v) two-channel Kondo effect. Except for the relativistic type of phenomena, the rest depend in a fundamental way on a weak electron correlation that exists in the broad two-dimensional band of graphene.

  11. Complexes and imagination.

    PubMed

    Kast, Verena

    2014-11-01

    Fantasies as imaginative activities are seen by Jung as expressions of psychic energy. In the various descriptions of active imagination the observation of the inner image and the dialogue with inner figures, if possible, are important. The model of symbol formation, as Jung describes it, can be experienced in doing active imagination. There is a correspondence between Jung's understanding of complexes and our imaginations: complexes develop a fantasy life. Complex episodes are narratives of difficult dysfunctional relationship episodes that have occurred repeatedly and are internalized with episodic memory. This means that the whole complex episode (the image for the child and the image for the aggressor, connected with emotions) is internalized and can get constellated in everyday relationship. Therefore inner dialogues do not necessarily qualify as active imaginations, often they are the expression of complex-episodes, very similar to fruitless soliloquies. If imaginations of this kind are repeated, new symbols and new possibilities of behaviour are not found. On the contrary, old patterns of behaviour and fantasies are perpetuated and become cemented. Imaginations of this kind need an intervention by the analyst. In clinical examples different kinds of imaginations are discussed. PMID:25331506

  12. Complexes and imagination.

    PubMed

    Kast, Verena

    2014-11-01

    Fantasies as imaginative activities are seen by Jung as expressions of psychic energy. In the various descriptions of active imagination the observation of the inner image and the dialogue with inner figures, if possible, are important. The model of symbol formation, as Jung describes it, can be experienced in doing active imagination. There is a correspondence between Jung's understanding of complexes and our imaginations: complexes develop a fantasy life. Complex episodes are narratives of difficult dysfunctional relationship episodes that have occurred repeatedly and are internalized with episodic memory. This means that the whole complex episode (the image for the child and the image for the aggressor, connected with emotions) is internalized and can get constellated in everyday relationship. Therefore inner dialogues do not necessarily qualify as active imaginations, often they are the expression of complex-episodes, very similar to fruitless soliloquies. If imaginations of this kind are repeated, new symbols and new possibilities of behaviour are not found. On the contrary, old patterns of behaviour and fantasies are perpetuated and become cemented. Imaginations of this kind need an intervention by the analyst. In clinical examples different kinds of imaginations are discussed.

  13. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Robert G.; Buchanan, J. Michael; Stryker, Jeffrey M.; Wax, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A process for functionalizing methane comprising: (a) reacting methane with a hydridoalkyl metal complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]H(R.sub.2) wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.1 represents an alkyl group; R.sub.2 represents an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms; and H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a liquid alkane R.sub.3 H having at least three carbon atoms to form a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]HMe where Me represents a methyl radical. (b) reacting said hydridomethyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X"X'"X"" or CHX'X"X'"; wherein X', X", X"', and X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine and chlorine, to halomethyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]MeX: (c) reacting said halomethyl complex with a mercuric halide of the formula HgX.sub.2 to form a methyl mercuric halide of the formula HgMeX; and (d) reacting said methyl mercuric halide with a molecular halogen of the formula X.sub.2 to form methyl halide.

  14. Simple and Excellent Selective Chemiluminescence-Based CS2 On-Line Detection System for Rapid Analysis of Sulfur-Containing Compounds in Complex Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runkun; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yufei

    2015-06-01

    To study the interesting chemical reaction phenomenon can greatly contribute to the development of an innovative analytical method. In this paper, a simple CL reaction cell was constructed to study the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the thermal oxidation of carbon disulfide (CS2). We found that the CL detection of CS2 exhibits unique characteristics of excellent selectivity and rapid response capacity. Experimental investigations together with theoretical calculation were performed to study the mechanism behind the CL reaction. The results revealed that the main luminous intermediates generated during the thermal degradation of CS2 are SO2* and CO2*. Significantly, this CL emission phenomenon has a wide application due to many sulfur-containing compounds that can convert to CS2 under special conditions. On the basis of this scheme, a CS2-generating and detection system was developed for rapid measurement of CS2 or other compounds that can convert to CS2. The usefulness of the system was demonstrated by measuring dithiocarbamate (DTC) pesticides (selected mancozeb as a representative analyte) based on the evolution of CS2 in spiked agricultural products. Results showed that the system allows online and large volume detection of CS2 under nonequilibrium condition, which greatly reduces the analytical time. The concentrations of mancozeb in the spiked samples were well-quantified with satisfied recoveries of 76.9-97.3%. The system not only addresses the urgent need for rapid in-field screening of DTC residues in foodstuffs but also opens a new opportunity for the fast, convenient, and cost-effective detection of CS2 and some other sulfur-containing compounds in complex samples. PMID:25913203

  15. Alanine water complexes.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  16. Synchronization in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  17. Nonergodic complexity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.

  18. Engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2012-11-14

    Tissue engineering has emerged at the intersection of numerous disciplines to meet a global clinical need for technologies to promote the regeneration of functional living tissues and organs. The complexity of many tissues and organs, coupled with confounding factors that may be associated with the injury or disease underlying the need for repair, is a challenge to traditional engineering approaches. Biomaterials, cells, and other factors are needed to design these constructs, but not all tissues are created equal. Flat tissues (skin); tubular structures (urethra); hollow, nontubular, viscus organs (vagina); and complex solid organs (liver) all present unique challenges in tissue engineering. This review highlights advances in tissue engineering technologies to enable regeneration of complex tissues and organs and to discuss how such innovative, engineered tissues can affect the clinic.

  19. Controllability of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-05-12

    The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. Although control theory offers mathematical tools for steering engineered and natural systems towards a desired state, a framework to control complex self-organized systems is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network, identifying the set of driver nodes with time-dependent control that can guide the system's entire dynamics. We apply these tools to several real networks, finding that the number of driver nodes is determined mainly by the network's degree distribution. We show that sparse inhomogeneous networks, which emerge in many real complex systems, are the most difficult to control, but that dense and homogeneous networks can be controlled using a few driver nodes. Counterintuitively, we find that in both model and real systems the driver nodes tend to avoid the high-degree nodes.

  20. Dissociation as complex adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sel, R

    1997-03-01

    In this article the general theory of complex adaptive systems, substantiated by non-linear dynamics, will be used to put the dissociative disorders into a theoretical framework and clarify their genesis and presentation. When a system is far out of equilibrium, dissipative structures may be formed ('order out of chaos', as Prigogine (1) has put it). These structures provide the starting point for further evolution and co-evolution of competing groups of functional schemata divided on a bifurcation surface. Complex adaptation is almost inevitable in a complicated system (such as the brain) driven by non-linear dynamics. Dissociation is thus regarded as a consequence of adaptation to a chaotic environment rich in contrasts. In a sufficiently complex environment a person with dissociative identity disorder is more adapted and thus more likely to occur than a 'normal' monopersonality individual.