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Sample records for pyykknen esa manninen

  1. ESA Gaia and GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, Rene; Simon, Vojtech; Hudec, Lukas

    2008-05-22

    Albeit focusing on astrometry, the ESA Gaia space mission will also provide spectrophotometry for all objects down to mag 20 over 5 years operation period. Typically 50 to 200 measurements per object including optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources can be expected during this time interval. Also optical afterglows and optical transients of GRBs can be detected and investigated this way.

  2. ESA safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeman, L.

    1988-10-01

    The ESA safety policy, designed to protect human life, investments, and the environment is outlined. A risk assessment procedure which recognizes the lack of objective statistical data is discussed. It considers the consequences, frequency, and probability of an undesirable hazardous event. This risk assessment is applied as an iterative process during all project phases.

  3. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  4. ECOM - ESA's cost modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatelnig, Peter K.

    1996-01-01

    ESA, as an international procurement agency dealing with more than 1200 companies at the same time, must have the ability to assess the price for a product independently from other sources. Especially in the today's environment of flat or even declining budgets ESA has to ensure the value of the contributions coming from their member states. The paper presents a software tool developed by the Cost Analysis Division of ESTEC/ESA, which fits exactly the need for precise and retracable cost estimates for space business projects and components. As an introduction the driving needs and basic cost estimation techniques are presented. ECOM was conceived as a tool for independent price assessment and cost estimation. The gem within ECOM is the database, it contains historical data from ESA projects. The items are grouped in classes and the available data comprises the cost breakdown and the technical description, which are the main performance parameter, number of models, design status and beside the comments, also pictures are available. On the estimate part of ECOM it features all the well-known cost estimation techniques, like estimating using analogy, cost estimating relationship, parametric cost modelling, and includes links to commercial products (PCM, Price-H) as well. ECOM is capable of escalating for any given economical condition and any member state. To prepare reliable prize estimates, the cost analysts need the product tree, the work-package description, the technical description and the HW-matrix. The paper shows examples for the important steps of producing an estimate and is enhanced with authentical screen prints. ECOM is used by the Cost Analysis Division as an expert tool for professional cost estimation for space business projects.

  5. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  6. Venus within ESA probe reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    Venus Express mission controllers at the ESA Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany are making intensive preparations for orbit insertion. This comprises a series of telecommands, engine burns and manoeuvres designed to slow the spacecraft down from a velocity of 29000 km per hour relative to Venus, just before the first burn, to an entry velocity some 15% slower, allowing the probe to be captured into orbit around the planet. The spacecraft will have to ignite its main engine for 50 minutes in order to achieve deceleration and place itself into a highly elliptical orbit around the planet. Most of its 570 kg of onboard propellant will be used for this manoeuvre. The spacecraft’s solar arrays will be positioned so as to reduce the possibility of excessive mechanical load during engine ignition. Over the subsequent days, a series of additional burns will be done to lower the orbit apocentre and to control the pericentre. The aim is to end up in a 24-hour orbit around Venus early in May. The Venus orbit injection operations can be followed live at ESA establishments, with ESOC acting as focal point of interest (see attached programme). In all establishments, ESA specialists will be on hand for interviews. ESA TV will cover this event live from ESOC in Darmstadt. The live transmission will be carried free-to-air. For broadcasters, complete details of the various satellite feeds are listed at http://television.esa.int. The event will be covered on the web at venus.esa.int. The website will feature regular updates, including video coverage of the press conference and podcast from the control room at ESA’s Operations Centre. Media representatives wishing to follow the event at one of the ESA establishments listed below are requested to fill in the attached registration form and fax it back to the place of their choice. For further information, please contact: ESA Media Relations Division Tel : +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Venus Express

  7. Future ESA missions in biology.

    PubMed

    Bonting, S L

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the life sciences research program sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). This program rests on a number of facilities originated by ESA: Spacelab, Space sled, Biorack, Anthrorack, Eureca and its Botany - and Protein Crystallization facilities. They are all to be brought into space and returned by one of the NASA Space Shuttles. With these facilities a wide range of space biology research will be covered: cell biology, developmental biology, botany, human physiology, radiobiology, exobiology and biotechnology. Information is given on how to prepare, submit and execute an experiment proposal.

  8. Future ESA Missions in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1984-12-01

    A survey is given of the life sciences research program sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). This program rests on a number of facilities originated by ESA: Spacelab, Space sled, Biorack, Anthrorack, Eureca and its Botany — and Protein Crystallization facilities. They are all to be brough into space and returned by one of the NASA Space Shuttles. With these facilities a wide range of space biology research will be covered: cell biology, developmental biology, botany, human physiology, radio-biology, exobiology and biotechnology. Information is given on how to prepare, submit and execute an experiment proposal.

  9. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    Astrophysicist Freeman J. Dyson from the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton characterizes IUE as "A little half-meter mirror sitting in the sky, unnoticed by the public, pouring out results". By use of the IUE satellite, astronomers obtain access to the ultraviolet radiation of celestial bodies in unique ways not available by any other means, neither from the ground nor by any other spacecraft currently in orbit. IUE serves a wide community of astronomers all over Europe, the United States and many other parts of the world. It allows the acquisition of critical data for fundamental studies of comets and their evaporation when they approach the Sun, of the mechanisms driving the stellar winds which make many stars lose a significant fraction of their mass (before they die slowly as White Dwarfs or in sudden Supernova explosions), as well as in the search to understand the ways in which black holes possibly power the violent nuclei of Active galaxies. One year ago the project was threatened with termination and serious concern was expressed by astronomers about the potential loss of IUE's capabilities, as a result of NASA not continuing to operate the spacecraft. Under the leadership of ESA, the three Agencies involved in the operations of IUE (ESA, NASA and the United Kingdom's Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, PPARC), reviewed the operations agreements of the Project. A minor investment allowing the implementation of modern management and engineering techniques as well as a complete revision of the communication infrastructure of the project and continuous improvements in efficiency in the ESA management, also taking advantage of today's technologies, both in computing and communications, have made it possible to continue IUE operations within the financial means available, with ESA taking up most of NASA's share in the operations. According to Dr. Willem Wamsteker, ESA's Dutch IUE Project Scientist, "it was a extremely interesting

  10. ESA extends solar observatory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) announced on 24 May that it would extend the life of its Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) from April 2007 to December 2009. Since it was launched in December 1995, SOHO has provided scientists with a view of the Sun's surface. ``This mission extension will allow SOHO to cement its position as the most important spacecraft in the history of solar physics,'' said SOHO project scientist Bernhard Fleck.

  11. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  12. ESA's SMART-1 Mission: Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, G.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project Team

    SMART-1 is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology as part of ESA science programme ``Cosmic Vision''. Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been launched on 27 sept. 2003, as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. SMART-1 orbit pericenter is now outside the inner radiation belt. The current status of SMART-1 will be given at the symposium. After a 15 month cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit.

  13. ESA announces its Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    The announcement will be made at ESA's Head Office, 8-10 rue Mario Nikis in Paris, during a press breakfast starting at 08:30. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached accreditation from and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Office - Paris. Note to editors The announcement will follow a two-day meeting of ESA's Space Science Committee (SPC), composed of Delegates from all ESA's Member States, in Paris on 11 and 12 October. The SPC will decide - on the basis of the Space Science Advisory Committee's (SSAC) recommendations formulated earlier in September - about the next Cornerstone (CS) and Flexi (F) Missions that will be implemented in the framework of ESA's Horizons 2000 Programme. Further information about the Future Mission candidates and the ESA Science Programme can be found at: http://sci.esa.int. In particular the SSAC recommendations to SPC can be found at: http://sci.esa.int/structure/content/index.cfm?aid=1&cid=2304 Further information on ESA at : http//www.esa.int

  14. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  15. Safety risk management for ESA space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. M.

    1991-08-01

    ESA's safety program as defined in ESA PSS-01-40, system safety requirements for ESA space systems, comprise the systematic identification and evaluation of space system hazardous characteristics and their associated risks, together with a process of safety optimization through hazard and risk reduction, and implementation verification. This safety optimization and verification process is termed safety risk management. The fundamental principles of safety risk management are discussed.

  16. ESA SnowLab project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  17. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  18. Golden legacy from ESA's observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    'milestone number' of 1000 scientific papers was reached. Even now ISO's data archive remains a valuable source of new results. For example, some of the latest papers describe the detection of water in 'protostars', which are stars in the process of being born, and studies of numerous nearby galaxies. "Of course we were confident ISO was going to do very well, but its actual productivity has been far beyond our expectations. The publication rate does not even seem to have peaked yet! We expect many more results," Salama says. Note for editors ISO's data archive contains scientific data from about 30 000 observations. Astronomers from all over the world have downloaded almost eight times the equivalent of the entire scientific archive. As much as 35% of all ISO observations have already been published at least once in prestigious scientific journals. ESA is now preparing to continue its infrared investigation of the Universe. The next generation of infrared space observatories is already in the pipeline. ISO is to be followed by the NASA SIRTF observatory to be launched later this year. Then, in 2007, ESA will follow up the pioneering work of ISO with the Herschel Space Observatory, which will become the largest imaging telescope ever put into space. ISO The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was launched in 1995 and operated from November that year to May 1998, when it ran out of the coolant needed to keep its detectors working. At the time it was the most sensitive infrared satellite ever launched and made particularly important studies of the dusty regions of the Universe, where visible light telescopes can see nothing. ESA will reopen its examination of the infrared Universe when Herschel is launched in 2007. Herschel Herschel will be the largest space telescope when, in 2007, it is launched on an Ariane-5 rocket, together with ESA’s cosmology mission, Planck. Herschel’s 3.5-metre diameter mirror will collect longwave infrared radiation from some of the coolest and most

  19. ESA Fire CCI product assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Kaiser, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project is currently computing a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the full ENVISAT-MERIS archive (2002 to 2012). The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". A first, formally validated version has been released for the period 2006 to 2008. It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64, GFED4(s), GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). Output from the ongoing processing of the full MERIS timeseries will be incorporated into the study, as far as available. The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2006-2008 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to

  20. Christmas on Mars: be there with ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    The exciting event can be followed at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, on Thursday, 25 December, from 01:30 to 14:00, together with the mission managers, the operation teams, scientists and top ESA management, including ESA’s Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director of Science David Southwood and ESA’s Director of Technical and Operational Support Gaele Winters. The highlights of the night will be also webcast over the internet http://mars.esa.int. As well as live streaming of key events, the Mars Express site will have daily news, features, images, videos and more. The ESA TV Service will provide live coverage of operations, from the Operations Control Centre at ESOC. All transmission and satellite details are published online at http://television.esa.int All live transmissions are also carried free-to-air on Astra 2 C at 19 degrees East, transponder 57, horizontal, (DVB-MPEG-2), frequency 10832 MHz, Symbol Rate 22000 MS/sec, FEC 5/6. The service name is ESA Media wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Service: +33 (0)1 53 69 76 90.

  1. The Janus faces of ESAs: caveat Chimaera!

    PubMed

    Penny, Hugo; Leckström, Daniel; Goldsmith, David

    2013-06-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a Janus quality as they look back whence they came in developing CKD and, in some cases, also look forwards to a potential kidney transplant with the attendant promise of improvement in quality and often quantity of life. Making the most of this often unique opportunity is key-maximising the chance that the engraftment starts as a success, and then later, preserving good kidney transplant function for as long as possible. Two recently published, independently conceived and executed studies are relevant to both aspects of this quest and thus to all kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Both trials also simultaneously stoke and quench the continuing, heated debates over target haemoglobin (Hb) levels, and the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), in CKD patients. One study--of acute, high-dose ESA administration--adds to the plethora of adverse safety signals swirling around the use of ESAs while surprisingly also showing renal function benefits at 12 months. The other study features chronic lower-dose ESA use in stable KTRs with anaemia and impaired renal function and not only purports to show a salutary effect on 2-year renal function outcomes (and thus reducing "return to dialysis" rates), but also rebuts the now widely accepted current notion that by chronic use of ESAs to target full Hb correction/higher Hb values in anaemic CKD patients, we are potentially causing harm.

  2. ESA strategic planning for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, B.; Reiter, T.; Sourgens, E.

    2014-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is pursuing an independent strategic planning process for consolidating a destination driven (LEO, Moon, Mars) space exploration strategy. ESA's space exploration strategy is driven by the goals to maximise knowledge gain and to contribute to economic growth. International cooperation is a key pillar of ESA's strategy as it is considered both, an enabler for achieving common goals and a benefit, opening new perspective for addressing future challenges. The achievement of ESA's space exploration strategy is enabled through international partnerships. The interagency coordination process conducted within the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) plays an important role in laying the foundations for future partnerships. It has achieved so far the development of a common vision for space exploration, a common plan for implementing the vision in the form of the Global Exploration Roadmap, as well as a common approach for articulating the value of global space exploration. ESA has been a strong promoter and supporter of the interagency coordination process conducted within ISECG and thanks to its unique expertise in international cooperation the Agency has contributed to its success.

  3. ESA's Earth Observation in Support of Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation Programme and its contribution to Geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. A special focus will be put on the Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme and focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. In addition the operational Sentinel satellites have a huge potential for Geoscience. Earth Explorers' emphasis is also on learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The process of Earth Explorer mission selection has given the Earth science community an efficient tool for advancing the understanding of Earth as a system.

  4. The New ESA Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Grotheer, E.; Lim, T.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's planetary missions, making them accessible to the world-wide scientific community.With the advent of new ESA planetary missions, currently in development Bepi Colombo (Mercury) and ExoMars16 (Mars), and later on ExoMars18 (Mars Rover) and JUICE (Jupiter and moons), the PSA faces the need of supporting new functionalities and requirements.Within this scenario there is a need for a new concept of the PSA, supporting both the evolution of the PDS standard (PDS4), and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications toward a better science exploitation. We introduce the new PSA layout, conceived for better data discovery and retrieval, with special emphasis on GIS technology, interoperability and visualization capabilities.

  5. The Gravitational Universe - ESA's L3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Guido; Ando, Masaki; Binetruy, Pierre; Bouyer, Philippe; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Cruise, Mike; Favata, Fabio; Gehler, Martin; Genzel, Reinhard; Jennrich, Oliver; Kasevich, Mark; Klipstein, Bill; Perryman, Michael; Safa, Frederic; Schutz, Bernard; Stebbins, Robin; Vitale, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Following the advice of ESA's Senior Survey Committee (SSC) the Science Programme Committee (SPC) decided in November 2013 to select the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for their L3 mission. The Director of Science and Robotic Exploration (D/SRE) has established a Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team (GOAT) to advise on the scientific and technological approaches for a gravitational wave observatory with a planned launch date in 2034. Our team is comprised of scientists from Europe and the US as well as scientists and engineers from ESA and observers from NASA and JAXA. We meet about every ten weeks, evaluate the technical readiness of all necessary technologies, study the science impact of different mission designs, and will advise ESA on the required future technology development. We will report on our progress and plans forward to a future space-based gravitational-wave observatory. For JAXA.

  6. Aerothermodynamics in Europe: ESA Achievements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muylaert, J.-M.

    2005-02-01

    Europe is faced with challenging aerothermodynamic problems for several of ESA's human space flight and exploration, science, application and launcher programmes. The Aerothermodynamic section at ESA/ESTEC provided technical support to these programmes and implemented research and development programmes to improve industrial tools for design in a way to strengthen the co-operation between universities, research establishments and industry. The ESA programmes involving Aerothermodynamics are: • Human space flight and exploration: CARV, PARES, IRDT, EXPERT, EVD, ATV, COLUMBUS • Science programmes : Huygens, MARS, VEX • Launcher programmes: ARIANE, VEGA, Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). • Satellite telecommunication and earth observation programmes: MSG, EOLUS, CRYOSAT, GOCE • Technological Research programmes: improvements of the tools for design and analysis of space vehicles (ground-based facilities, flight test and measurement techniques and numerical/physical modelling validation activities) The paper will review past ESA aerothermodynamic activities by highlighting achievements obtained on the occasion of the past 4 Aerothermodynamics symposia. Critical aerothermodynamic issues for the design of reentry space vehicles and launchers will be addressed. A number of analysis and test results will be presented, the need for advanced numerical tools will be addressed and the importance of flight-testing will be identified for the validation of the methods and procedures for flight extrapolation of results obtained from ground-based facilities.

  7. The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkrad, H.; Beltrami, P.; Hauptmann, S.; Martin, C.; Sdunnus, H.; Stokes, H.; Walker, R.; Wilkinson, J.

    2004-01-01

    The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002 was jointly produced by an industrial consortium and ESA, under an ESA contract. The Handbook is a non-regulatory, self-standing document, providing technical information in support of European debris mitigation standards. The necessity of debris mitigation is illustrated in the context of historic launch activities and operational practices, which led to the current debris environment, with corresponding collision flux levels. Based on detailed population evolution models, this initial population is analyzed with respect to its growth and stability under different traffic assumptions. The implementation of debris mitigation measures, in particular the de-orbiting of spacecraft and upper stages, is shown to reduce the debris growth to an acceptable level within a few decades. The risk on ground due to re-entering space objects, its assessment, and its control is also analyzed. For on-orbit systems, collision risk reduction by avoidance manoeuvres, and passive protection by shielding is outlined. ESA's Handbook also compares recommended debris mitigation and risk reduction practices proposed by several other space agencies. The Handbook will be available at the begin of 2003.

  8. The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkrad, H.; Beltrami, P.; Hauptmann, S.; Martin, C.; Sdunnus, H.; Stokes, H.; Walker, R.; Wilkinson, J.

    The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002 was jointly produced by an industrial consortium and ESA, under an ESA contract. The Handbook is a non-regulatory, self-standing document, providing technical information in support of European debris mitigation standards. The necessity of debris mitigation is illustrated in the context of historic launch activities and operational practices, which led to the current debris environment, with corresponding collision flux levels. Based on detailed population evolution models, this initial population is analysed with respect to its growth and stability under different traffic assumptions. The implementation of debris mitigation measures, in particular the de-orbiting of spacecraft and upper stages, is shown to reduce the debris growth to an acceptable level within a few decades. The risk on ground due to re-entering space objects, its assessment, and its control is also analysed. For on-orbit systems, collision risk reduction by avoidance manoeuvres, and passive protection by shielding is outlined. ESA's Handbook also compares recommended debris mitigation and risk reduction practices proposed by several other space agencies. The Handbook will be available by the end of 2002.

  9. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  10. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the Russian led science payload, focusing on developing an characterising the resource opportunities offered at the lunar surface. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. In the frame of a broader future international programme under discussion through the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) future missions are under investigation that would provide access to the lunar surface through international cooperation and human-robotic partnerships.

  11. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the exploration missions of the future.

  12. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Foing, Bernard H.; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernado; Schiemann, Jens

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the abundance, composition and isotopes of lunar volatiles in polar regions, and their associated chemistry. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterise and utilise polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the

  13. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Espinasse, S.; Hufenbach, B.

    2013-09-01

    Lunar exploration continues to be a priority for the European Space Agency (ESA) and is recognized as the next step for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Moon is also recognized as an important scientific target providing vital information on the history of the inner solar system; Earth and the emergence of life, and fundamental information on the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets. The Moon also provides a platform that can be utilized for fundamental science and to prepare the way for exploration deeper into space and towards a human Mars mission, the ultimate exploration goal. Lunar missions can also provide a means of preparing for a Mars sample return mission, which is an important long term robotic milestone. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. These include activities on the ISS and participation with US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017. Future activities planned activities also include participation in international robotic missions. These activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future. We present ESA's plans for Lunar exploration and the current status of activities. In particular we will show that this programme gives rise to unique scientific opportunities and prepares scientifically and technologically for future exploratory steps.

  14. ESA Technologies for Space Debris Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormnes, K.; Le Letty, R.; Summerer, L.; Schonenborg, R.; Dubois-Matra, O.; Luraschi, E.; Cropp, A.; Krag, H.; Delaval, J.

    2013-08-01

    Space debris is an existing and growing problem for space operations. Studies show that for a continued use of LEO, 5 - 10 large and strategically chosen debris need to be removed every year. The European Space Agency (ESA) is actively pursuing technologies and systems for space debris removal under its Clean Space initiative. This overview paper describes the activities that are currently ongoing at ESA and that have already been completed. Additionally it outlines the plan for the near future. The technologies under study fall in two main categories corresponding to whether a pushing or a pulling manoeuvre is required for the de-orbitation. ESA is studying the option of using a tethered capture system for controlled de-orbitation through pulling where the capture is performed using throw-nets or alternatively a harpoon. The Agency is also studying rigid capture systems with a particular emphasis on tentacles (potentially combined with a robotic arm). Here the de-orbitation is achieved through a push-manoeuvre. Additionally, a number of activities will be discussed that are ongoing to develop supporting technologies for these scenarios, or to develop systems for de-orbiting debris that can be allowed to re-enter in an uncontrolled manner. The short term goal and main driver for the current technology developments is to achieve sufficient TRL on required technologies to support a potential de-orbitation mission to remove a large and strategically chosen piece of debris.

  15. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  16. The ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  17. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  18. Lunar Exploration and Science Opportunities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Schiemann, J.; Patti, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavour. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  19. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Patti, B.; Schiemann, J.; Hufenbach, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  20. ESA situational awareness of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Keil, Ralf; Kraft, Stefan; Lupi, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    ESA SSA Period 2 started at the beginning of 2013 and will last until the end of 2016. For the Space Weather Segment, transition to Period 2 introduced an increasing amount of development of new space weather service capability in addition to networking existing European assets. This transition was started already towards the end of SSA Period 1 with the initiation of the SSA Space Weather Segment architecture definition studies and activities enhancing existing space weather assets. The objective of Period 2 has been to initiate SWE space segment developments in the form of hosted payload missions and further expand the federated service network. A strong focus has been placed on demonstration and testing of European capabilities in the range of SWE service domains with a view to establishing core products which can form the basis of SWE service provision during SSA Period 3. This focus has been particularly addressed in the SSA Expert Service Centre (ESC) Definition and Development activity that was started in September 2015. This presentation will cover the current status of the SSA SWE Segment and the achievements during SSA Programme Periods 1 and 2. Particular attention is given to the federated approach that allow building the end user services on the best European expertise. The presentation will also outline the plans for the Space Weather capability development in the framework of the ESA SSA Programme in 2017-2020.

  1. The ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, A.; Hilgers, A.; Daly, E.

    Following the completion in 2001 of two parallel studies to consider the feasibility of a European Space Weather Programme ESA embarked upon a space weather pilot study with the goal of prototyping European space weather services and assessing the overall market for such within Europe This pilot project centred on a number of targeted service development activities supported by a common infrastructure and making use of only existing space weather assets Each service activity included clear participation from at least one identified service user who was requested to provide initial requirements and regular feedback during the operational phase of the service These service activities are now reaching the end of their 2-year development and testing phase and are now accessible each with an element of the service in the public domain see http www esa-spaceweathet net swenet An additional crucial element of the study was the inclusion of a comprehensive and independent analysis of the benefits both economic and strategic of embarking on a programme which would include the deployment of an infrastructure with space-based elements The results of this study will be reported together with their implication for future coordinated European activities in this field

  2. ATLID, ESA Atmospheric LIDAR Developement Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira do Carmo, João; Hélière, Arnaud; Le Hors, L.; Toulemont, Y.; Lefebvre, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ATmospheric LIDAR ATLID[1] is part of the payload of the Earth Cloud and Aerosol Explorer[2] (EarthCARE) satellite mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Living Planet Programme. EarthCARE is a joint collaborative satellite mission conducted between ESA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (JAXA) that delivers the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) instrument. The payload consists of four instruments on the same platform with the common goal to provide a picture of the 3D-dimensional spatial and the temporal structure of the radiative flux field at the top of atmosphere, within the atmosphere and at the Earth's surface. This paper is presenting an updated status of the development of the ATLID instrument and its subsystem design. The instrument has recently completed its detailed design, and most of its subsystems are already under manufacturing of their Flight Model (FM) parts and running specific qualification activities. Clouds and aerosols are currently one of the biggest uncertainties in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions that drive the climate system. A better modelling of the relationship between clouds, aerosols and radiation is therefore amongst the highest priorities in climate research and weather prediction.

  3. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the Moon and various recent and coming orbital missions including Smart-1, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are advancing our understanding. In 2004 the US announced a new Vision for Space Exploration [1], whose objectives are focused towards human missions to the Moon and Mars. The European Space Agency has established similar objectives for Europe, described in [2] and approved at the ESA ministerial council (2009). There is considerable potential for international cooperation in these activities, as formulated in the recently agreed Global Exploration Strategy [3]. Present lunar exploration activities at ESA emphasise the development of European technologies and capabilities, to enable European participation in future international human exploration of the Moon. A major element in this contribution has been identified as a large lunar cargo lander, which would fulfill an ATV-like function, providing logistical support to human activities on the Moon, extending the duration of sorties and the capabilities of human explorers. To meet this ultimate goal, ESA is currently considering various possible development approaches, involving lunar landers of different sizes. Lunar Lander Mission Options A high capacity cargo lander able to deliver consumables, equipment and small infrastructure, in both sortie and outpost mission scenarios, would use a full Ariane 5 launch and is foreseen in the 2020-2025 timeframe. ESA is also considering an intermediate, smaller-scale mission beforehand, to mature the necessary landing technologies, to demonstrate human-related capabilities in preparation of human presence on the Moon and in general to gain experience in landing and operating on the lunar surface. Within this frame, ESA is currently leading several feasibility studies of a small lunar lander mission, also called "MoonNEXT". This mission is foreseen to be to be launched from Kourou with a

  4. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  5. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Manaud, Nicolas; Martinez, Santa; Szumlas, Marek; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; PSA Development Team

    2013-04-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. The PSA currently holds data from Mars Express, Venus Express, SMART-1, Huygens, Rosetta and Giotto, as well as several ground-based cometary observations. It will be used for archiving on ExoMars, BepiColombo and for the European contributions to Chandrayaan-1. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Advanced Search Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. - The Map-based Interface is currently operational only for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA data. This interface allows an end-user to specify a region-of-interest by dragging a box onto a base map of Mars. From this interface, it is possible to directly visualize query results. The Map-based and Advanced interfaces are linked and cross-compatible. If a user defines a region-of-interest in the Map-based interface, the results can be refined by entering more detailed search parameters in the Advanced interface. - The FTP Browser Interface is designed for more experienced users, and allows for direct browsing and access of the data set content through ftp-tree search. Each dataset contains documentation and calibration information in addition to the scientific or engineering data. All PSA data are prepared by the corresponding instrument teams, and are made to comply with the internationally recognized PDS standards. PSA supports the instrument teams in the full archiving process, from the definition of the data products, meta-data and product labels through to

  6. Aspects of ESA s public outreach programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maree, H.

    The Science Programme Communication Service is currently implementing a new policy to increase the overall public interest in ESA Science Programme by adopting new ways of promoting its activities, accordingly to the simple principle that "different target audiences have different needs". It is clear that the general public (i.e. "the man in the street" / "the average tax- payer") rarely has the knowledge and the background to understand what exactly a space mission is, what it does and why it does it ("Mission oriented approach"). The experience has shown that a space mission becomes "popular" amongst this target audience when the relevant communication is done by passing generic/bas ic/simple messages ("Thematic oriented approach"). The careful selection of adequate supports together with efficient distribution and promotion networks are also key parameters for success of the latter approach. One should also note that the overall objective of this new policy, is to raise people's interest in space in general. By presenting the information under the ESA brand, the public will start more and more to associate this brand and Europe to space exploration. Within the next twelve months, four scientific missions will be launched. Interestingly, tree of them (SMART-1, ROSETTA and MARS EXPRESS) offer a unique opportunity to implement the new communication policy under the single thematic : Europe is exploring the Solar System. Nevertheless, the study of the various mission profiles and their potential communication impact lead us to choose to reach out the general public primarily via the sub-thematic : Europe goes to Mars.

  7. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) selected gravitational-wave astrophysics as the science theme for its third large mission opportunity, known as `L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is: (1) participating in ESA's early mission activities, (2) developing potential US technology contributions, (3) participating in ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission, (4) and conducting a study of how NASA might participate. This talk will survey the status of these activities.

  8. Critical laser technology developments and ESA space qualification approach in support of ESA's Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahir, Mustapha; Durand, Yannig

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, ESA's approach to lasers and detectors space evaluation and qualification will be explored. ESA has its own international qualification system, the ESCC system. This system guarantees reliability, assurance and quality of components, and hence a successful space mission. An overview of the ESCC (European Space Component Coordination) system, as well as the relevant ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standards) related standards addressing components and hybrid qualification will be given. These standards are being constantly updated, through well structured working groups, constantly coming up with new ways of qualifying space components. These components are themselves constantly changing in terms of material, technology, and manufacturing processes. The development of advanced Lidar systems for space applications and their evaluation by airborne or ground based test campaigns is an important strategic element of the ESA Earth Observation Programme. These systems depend on robust and reliable lasers and detector at their core function. Since the early eighties, ESA has been supporting the development of the critical subsystems of any Lidar, i.e. lasers and detectors. Several missions, involving different kinds of lidars, provide the requirements to be addressed in the Lidar risk mitigation activities. They also present a challenge concerning their space qualification and reliability assurance. These missions are: ADM-Aeolus flying ALADIN a Doppler Wind Lidar; EarthCARE embarking ATLID an Atmospheric Backscatter Lidar; three missions studied for their feasibilities: WALES, A-SCOPE and ACCURATE, all using Differential Absorption Lidar in different ways to measure respectively profiles of water vapour, total column of CO2 and greenhouse gases in an occultation geometry.

  9. ESA's Living Planet Programme: The Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA's) Living Planet Programme marks the beginning of a new chapter in European led Earth Observation, based on focussed science user-driven missions. The Earth Explorer missions seek to advance the understanding of complex Earth system processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Each of the Explorer missions is adapted to address a specific scientific problem whilst at the same time building on the heritage of, and the experience gained from a decade of successful continuous scientific obervations made by the larger ERS-1, and -2 and Envisat missions. The Living Planet Programme's Explorer line of smaller and focused missions is also complemented by a parallel line of applications-driven Earth Watch missions address mature operational applications and the provision of services. Specifically, the science-driven Explorer missions are designed to further the demonstration of new satellite-based observing techniques that will allow us to develop our knowledge of the Earth system. Four new missions are currently under development, that will soon begin a sequence of launches beginning in 2004 with CryoSat. Several new mission concepts are also undergoing detailed study, with subsequent consideration for approval. The existing approved missions seek to measure: climate-induced changes in polar terrestrial and sea ice masses; a high resolution Earth gravity field; vertical wind vector profiles; and soil moisture and ocean salinity. Mission concepts under study address a broad array of Earth processes from Earth's magnetic field through stratospheric chemistry to terrestrial vegetation. The Explorers employ a wide array of technologies such as lidars for the sensing of clouds, winds, water vapour and other atmospheric constituents; radars for ice and ocean topography, land and ocean monitoring, cloud profiling and rain monitoring; passive instruments covering the UV through far infrared, including

  10. ESA Sentinel-1 Mission and Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floury, Nicolas; Attema, Evert; Davidson, Malcolm; Levrini, Guido; Rommen, Björn; Rosich, Betlem; Snoeij, Paul

    The global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space component relies on existing and planned space assets by European States, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the European Space Agency (ESA), as well as new complementary developments by ESA. The new developments are implemented in terms of five families of satellites called Sentinels. The Sentinel-1 mission is an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission at C-band designed to supply all-weather day-and-night imagery to a number of operational Earth observation based services. Three priorities (fasttrack services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment, - surveillance of marine environment, - monitoring land surface motion risks, - mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture, - mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. Sentinel-1 has been designed to address medium resolution applications. It includes a main mode of operation that features a wide swath (250 km) and a medium resolution (5 m x 20 m). The two-satellite constellation offers six days exact repeat and the conflict-free operations based on the main operational mode allow exploiting every single data take. This paper describes the Sentinel-1 mission, provides an overview of the mission requirements, and presents some of the key user driven information products, the crucial requirements for operational sustainable services being continuity of data supply, frequent revisit, geographical coverage and timeliness. As data products from the Agency‘s successful ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services, Sentinel-1 data products need to maintain and in some ways to improve data quality levels of the Agency

  11. Radar sounder performances for ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquin, Y. P.; Kofman, W. W.; Heggy, E.; Hérique, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Jupiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) is the first Large-class mission chosen as part of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission will study Jovian icy moons Ganymede and Europa as potential habitats for life, addressing two key themes of Cosmic Vision namely the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, and the Solar System interactions. The radar sounder instrument on this mission will have great potential to address specific science questions such as the presence of subsurface liquid water and ice shell geophysical structures. One major constraint for radar sounding is the roughness of the planetary surface. The work presented will focus on the characterization of Ganymede's surface topography to better understand its surface properties from a radar point of view. These results should help to put constraints on the design of JUICE's radar sounder. We use topographic data derived from the Voyager and Galileo missions images to try to characterize the surface structure and to quantify its geometry (in terms of slopes and RMS heights mainly). This study will help us evaluating the radar budget in a statistical approach. In addition, deterministic simulations of surface radar echoes conducted on synthetic surfaces -extrapolated from Digital Elevation Models- will be presented to better assess radar sounding performances.

  12. Euclid - an ESA Medium Class Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, B.

    2016-10-01

    Euclid is an ESA Medium Class mission in the Cosmic Visions program to be launched in 2020. With its 1.2 m telescope, Euclid is going to survey 15,000 deg2 of extragalactic sky in a broad optical band with outstanding image quality fit for weak gravitational lensing measurements. It will also provide near-infrared slitless spectroscopy of more than 107 emission-line galaxies with the main goal of measuring galaxy clustering. Imaging in three near-infrared bands by Euclid will be complemented by ground-based follow-up in optical bands to supply high-quality photometric redshift estimates out to z=2. In combination, its primary cosmological science drivers, weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering, will yield unprecedented constraints on the properties of dark matter and dark energy, as well as the validity of Einstein gravity on large scales. Euclid's rich datasets will facilitate further cosmological probes such as statistics of galaxy clusters or the study of galactic dark matter haloes, and a vast array of legacy science. In the following a brief overview on the Euclid mission and its key science is provided.

  13. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms. PMID:27873868

  14. ESA's Hipparcos finds rebels with a cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 20Kb Credits: S. Kerroudj, B. Famaey & A. Jorissen (Université Libre de Bruxelles) Artist's impression of the Milky Way Artist's impression of our galaxy, the Milky Way, an aggregate of thousands of millions of stars. The spiral arms are clearly visible. They are regions of enhanced density of stars and gas. The Sun is located near the edge of one arm, about half-way from the galactic centre. Spiral arms can impart a kick on stars orbiting close to them. These stars are then forced unto streams running inwards or outwards, whereas the bulk of stars in the Milky Way move in circular orbits around the galactic centre. Using data from ESA’s Hipparcos satellite, astronomers have now identified three such streams, reaching into the solar neighbourhood. High-resolution version (TIFF) Low-resolution version (JPG) The Sun and most stars near it follow an orderly, almost circular orbit around the centre of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Using data from ESA's Hipparcos satellite, a team of European astronomers has now discovered several groups of 'rebel' stars that move in peculiar directions, mostly towards the galactic centre or away from it, running like the spokes of a wheel. These rebels account for about 20% of the stars within 1000 light-years of the Sun, itself located about 25 000 light-years away from the centre of the Milky Way. The data show that rebels in the same group have little to do with each other. They have different ages so, according to scientists, they cannot have formed at the same time nor in the same place. Instead, they must have been forced together. "They resemble casual travel companions more than family members," said Dr Benoit Famaey, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Famaey and his colleagues believe that the cause forcing the rebel stars together on their unusual trajectory is a 'kick' received from one of the Milky Way's spiral arms. The spiral arms are not solid structures but rather regions of higher density of

  15. From ESAS to Ares: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout my career, I have observed many launch vehicle efforts come and go. Although it may appear on the surface that those were dead-end streets, the knowledge we gained through them actually informs the work in progress. Following the tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia's crew, the administration took the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's findings to heart and united the Agency behind the Vision for Space Exploration, with clear goals and objectives, including fielding a new generation of safe, reliable, and affordable space transportation. The genesis of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle activities now under way by a nationwide Government and industry team was the confirmation of the current NASA Administrator in April 2005. Shortly thereafter, he commissioned a team of aerospace experts to conduct the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which gave shape to launch vehicles that will empower America's resurgence in scientific discovery through human and robotic space exploration. In October 2005, I was asked to lead this effort, building the team and forming the partnerships that will, in turn, build America's next human-rated space transportation system. In November 2006, the Ares I team began conducting the System Requirements Review milestone, just 1 year after its formation. We are gaining momentum toward the first test flight of the integrated vehicle system in 2009, just a few short years away. The Agency is now poised to deliver on the commitment this nation has made to advance our interests in space. In its inaugural year, the Ares team has conducted the first human-rated launch vehicle major milestone in over 30 years. Using the Exploration Systems Architecture Study recommendations as a starting point, the vehicle designs have been evolved to best meet customer and stakeholder requirements to fulfill the strategic goals outlined in the Vision for Space Exploration.

  16. ARIEL: an ESA M4 mission candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, L.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Heske, A.; Escudero Sanz, I.; Crouzet, P.-E.

    2016-07-01

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) mission is an M-class mission candidate within the science program Cosmic Vision of the European Space Agency (ESA). It was selected in June 2015 as one of three candidates to enter an assessment phase (phase 0/A). This process involves the definition of science and mission requirements as well as a preliminary model payload, and an internal Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study providing the input to parallel industrial studies (in progress since 2016). After this process, the three candidates will be reviewed and in mid-2017 one of them will be selected as the M4 mission for launch in 2026. ARIEL is a survey-type mission dedicated to the characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres. Using the differential technique of transit spectroscopy, ARIEL will obtain transmission and/or emission spectra of the atmospheres of a large and diverse sample of known exoplanets (~500) covering a wide range of masses, densities, equilibrium temperatures, orbital properties and host-star characteristics. This will include hot Jupiters to warm Super-Earths, orbiting M5 to F0 stars. This paper describes critical requirements, and reports on the results of the Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study that was conducted in June / July 2015, providing a description of the resulting spacecraft design. It will employ a 0.7 m x 1.1 m off-axis three mirror telescope, feeding four photometric channels in the VNIR range (0.5-1.95 μm) and an IR spectrometer covering 1.95-7.8 μm.

  17. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The outcome of the ESA Council at Ministerial level held in Edinburgh in November 2001 was not as positive as expected for the Agency's Science Programme. It appeared that the money made available would not be sufficient to carry out the Long Term Programme approved by the Science Programme Committee in October 2000, based on financial assumptions approved by the same Committee in Bern in May 1999. The resources granted in Edinburgh taken at their face value meant the cancellation of a mission (e.g. GAIA). At the conclusion of the exercise, following extensive consultations with all its partners, the Executive could propose a revised plan, which not only maintained the missions approved in October 2000, but added the Eddington mission in addition. The new plan, strongly endorsed by the Science Programme Committee on the occasion of its 99th meeting, contains the following missions, listed by production groups: Astrophysics Group 1: XMM-Newton (1999), INTEGRAL (2002). X and Gamma Ray Observatories (studying the 'violent' universe) Group 2: Herschel, exploring the infrared and microwave universe; Planck, to study the cosmic microwave background; Eddington, searching for extra-solar planets and studying the stellar seismology. (The three missions will be launched in the 2007-2008 timeframe.) Group 3: GAIA, the ultimate galaxy mapper (to be launched no later than 2012). Missions will follow in the same group after 2012. Solar System Science: Group 1:Rosetta, a trip to a comet (2003); Mars Express, a Mars orbiter carrying the Beagle2 lander (2003); (Venus Express, a Venus orbiter, would have been in this group.) Group 2: SMART-1, which will demonstrate solar propulsion technology while on its way to the Moon (2003); BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, a mission to take a closer look at the Sun (missions to be launched in 2011-2012). Fundamental Physics missions: (one group only) STEP (2005) the 'equivalence principle' test, SMART2, a technology

  18. ESA unveils its big XMM spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-02-01

    have to imagine the big tube of XMM filled with focused X-rays en route to the detectors », says Robert Lainé, ESA's project manager for XMM. « That is the whole purpose of the mission, and our chief preoccupation has been with the three multi-mirror modules that accomplish it. Critics thought we were too ambitious, trying to nest 58 precisely formed mirrors together in each module. No one had ever attempted such a feat before. It was not easy, but thanks to excellent innovative work by European industry, XMM's telescopes are even better than we hoped ». X-rays are focused by glancing them off a carefully shaped mirror, like a bucket without a bottom. In a single-mirror telescope, most of the incoming X-rays miss the mirror. To catch more of them, designers nest multiple mirrors inside one another. Before XMM, astronomers had to choose between many mirrors with relatively poor focusing, or a very few mirrors with a sharp focus. With 58 precision-made mirrors in each of its three X-ray telescopes, XMM combines enormous gathering power with accurate focusing. Carl Zeiss in Germany made shaped and polished mandrels (moulds) for mirrors of 58 different diameters, up to 70 cm for the widest. Media Lario in Italy made the mirrors by electrodeposition of nickel on the mandrels, coated their inner surfaces with gold, and carefully assembled them in their nested configuration, in a framework fabricated by APCO in Switzerland. The performance of each XMM mirror module has been verified in special facilities of the Centre Spatial de Liège in Belgium and the Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestriche Physik in Germany. The first flight model conformed with the specification, and the second and third were even better. Some facts about XMM The total surface area of the extremely thin mirror that gathers X-rays in XMM's three multi-mirror telescopes (taken together) is larger than 200 m2. Two of the three X-ray telescopes are fitted with reflection grating spectrometers for the

  19. ESA's Integral satellite ready for lift-off from Baikonur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    ESA's INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) satellite, will be launched by a Proton launcher from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on 17 October at 06:41 CEST (Central European Summer Time). The most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched, INTEGRAL is a truly international mission involving all ESA member states plus the USA and Russia. It carries four instruments from teams led by scientists in Italy, France, Germany, Denmark and Spain to gather and analyse gamma-rays, X-rays and visible light from celestial objects. INTEGRAL will give astronomers across the world their clearest views yet of the most extreme environments in the Universe. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and from processes that made the Universe inhabitable. Media representatives in Europe can follow the videotransmission of the launch at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy or ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) in Spain. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide video news releases and live coverage of the launch between 06:15-07:00 and 08:00-08:30 CEST. Details of the transmission schedule for the various Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/integrallaunch starting at 06:15 hrs.

  20. Follow the Mars Express launch from one of ESA's establishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Europe’s first mission to the Red Planet will reach its target in December, after a six-month journey. Mars Express will help scientists answer questions about the Martian landscape, atmosphere and the origin of life that remain open, although a wealth of information is already available. Media representatives in Europe can follow the launch and initial orbital operations at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, or ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy and the Italian Space Agency, ASI, are organising a joint event at the University of Rome. ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) and the CDTI, the Spanish institution in charge of space issues, are organising a joint event in Spain at the Museo Principe Felipe de la Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias in Valencia. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide live televised coverage of the launch and initial orbital operations with English commentary, between 19:15 and 22:00 CEST. Satellite: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Reception frequency: 10832 MHz Polarisation: Horizontal Symbol rate: 22 Msymb/s FEC: 5/6 Service ID: 61950 Service name: ESA TXT: none Details of the transmission schedule and satellite details for the various pre-launch Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int. The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/marsexpresslaunch starting at 19:15 hrs. Here you can also find the launch diary, news, press releases, videos, images and more.

  1. ESA's SMART-1 satellite ready for lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    During the night of Saturday 27/Sunday 28 September, ESA’s SMART-1 satellite will be launched by an Ariane 5 rocket from Europe’s spaceport at Kourou at 20:02 hrs local time (01:02 hrs Central European Summer Time, 23:02 hrs GMT). SMART-1 is the first of a series of ‘Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology’ designed to test key technologies for future spacecraft. It is Europe’s first mission to the Moon. Among the new technologies to be tested is the solar-electric propulsion which will power the spacecraft to its target. SMART-1 will help solve such questions as how the Moon came into being and whether there is water there. Media representatives in Europe can follow the launch and initial orbital operations at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands or ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide live televised coverage of the launch and initial orbital operations with English commentary, between 00:40 and 02:00 CEST. Satellite: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Transponder 57, horizontal, MPEG-2, MCPC Reception frequency: 10832 MHz Polarisation: Horizontal Symbol rate: 22000 MS/sec FEC: 5/6 Service name: ESA Details of the transmission schedule and the various pre-launch Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int. On the ESA SMART-1 special website at: http://www.esa.int/smart1 you can also find news, press releases, videos, images and more about the mission.

  2. ESA to launch six scientific satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    ship to Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Since then, all the satellite subsystems and scientific instruments have been thoroughly tested and found to be in order. ISO is now waiting its turn to be mated with the Ariane 44P launcher. The launch campaign will resume in early October for a launch on 3 November. Preparations for flight operations by ESA's space operation centre, ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany and the flight control centre at Villafranca, near Madrid, Spain are also in the final stages. Most of the work in the last two months before a launch involves training and performing simulations to prove flight readiness. The scientific community is eagerly awaiting the preliminary results of ISO's first look into space in November. SOHO SOHO arrived at Kennedy Space Centre on 1 August. It was given a welcome by hurricane ERIN, which forced an immediate transfer to its reserved NASA facility just after its transport plane had safely landed. Spacecraft preparation for launch has started with a thorough check of all the systems and instruments onboard SOHO and will proceed with an end-to-end test with the NASA control station at Goddard Spaceflight Centre. Parallel activities are proceeding in Europe on the final testing and inspection of the four reaction wheels which the spacecraft control system uses to keep all its instruments pointed very precisely at the sun. At the end of its preparation, the spacecraft will be mated to its Atlas IIAS launcher, which is due to lift off in the first week of December. CLUSTER All four Cluster spacecraft, together with all ancillary equipment, have now arrived at Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The spacecraft have been set up for final electrical testing in the Final Assembly Building , a new Ariane 5 facility. Major milestones in the campaign are the start of spacecraft fuelling operations at the beginning of November and the start of integration of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle in mid- December. The

  3. mkESA: enhanced suffix array construction tool.

    PubMed

    Homann, Robert; Fleer, David; Giegerich, Robert; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2009-04-15

    We introduce the tool mkESA, an open source program for constructing enhanced suffix arrays (ESAs), striving for low memory consumption, yet high practical speed. mkESA is a user-friendly program written in portable C99, based on a parallelized version of the Deep-Shallow suffix array construction algorithm, which is known for its high speed and small memory usage. The tool handles large FASTA files with multiple sequences, and computes suffix arrays and various additional tables, such as the LCP table (longest common prefix) or the inverse suffix array, from given sequence data.

  4. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  5. Operation IceBridge/ESA Collaboration Benefits All

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the second straight year, NASA's Operation IceBridge is collaborating with the European Space Agency's CryoVEx program, flying aircraft low over Arctic sea ice while ESA's CryoSat satellite orb...

  6. ESA Experiments with the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillouet, Claude; Briganti, Luca; Schwarzwalder, Achim

    2008-06-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an ESA developed facility dedicated to gravitational biology and especially to plant research. However, experiments using small animals, like insects and small invertebrates are also possible. EMCS is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006 and four experiments, including two from ESA, have been already performed. Several others are in their final development phase and shall be flown within the next following years.

  7. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Cecconi, Baptiste; Fraenz, Markus; Hagermann, Axel; Heather, David; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Svedhem, Hakan; Widemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug. The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa References: Heather, D., Barthelemy, M., Manaud, N., Martinez, S., Szumlas, M., Vazquez, J. L., Osuna, P. and the PSA Development Team (2013) ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status, Activities and Plans. EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626

  8. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. P.; Cecconi, B.; Fraenz, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heather, D.; Rosenblatt, P.; Svedhem, H.; Widemann, T.

    2014-04-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa

  9. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  10. ESA's Drop Tower Utilisation Activities 2000 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, Ewald; Blum, J.; Callens, N.; Eigenbrod, Ch.; Koudelka, O.; Orr, A.; Rosa, C. C.; Vedernikov, A.; Will, S.; Reimann, J.; Wurm, G.

    2011-11-01

    The European Space Research and Technology Center ESTEC, ESA's premises in Noordwijk, The Netherlands, has a long lasting cooperation with the ZARM-FAB (Centre of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity—Drop Tower Operation and Service Company) in Bremen on the utilization of the Drop Tower for ground-based microgravity research and space hardware development studies. During the period January 2000 to December 2011 ESA will have procured in total some 840 drops addressing a variety of scientific and technological disciplines. The experiments are usually carried out in campaigns of 15 to 20 drops each, with an annual average of about 5 campaigns. The cooperation agreement between ESA and the ZARM-FAB includes experiment preparation advice by ZARM's experts, the integration of the hardware into the drop capsule, dedicated safety reviews, the execution of the drop or catapult experiments, the post-flight payload de-integration as well as the handover of acquired data to the experimenters. The experiment hardware itself is provided by the scientists or has to be procured from sources outside of ESA's drop tower utilization contract. ESA appreciates the cooperation of the ZARM-FAB in Bremen whose drop- and catapult facility provides excellent microgravity quality, is operated by a highly competent, flexible and extremely supportive expert team, allows campaign integration at relatively short notice throughout the entire year, offers real-time experiment operations and immediately after each drop delivers experiment results and provides on-site hardware modification possibilities.

  11. ESA is now a major player in global space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    * Results from the star-fixing satellite Hipparcos, released this summer to the world's astronomers, give the positions and motions of 118,000 stars a hundred times more accurately than ever before. * Every day the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, examines 45 cosmic objects on average at many different wavelengths never observable before, giving fresh insights into cosmic history and chemistry. * Invaluable new knowledge of the Sun comes from SOHO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which is the first spacecraft able to observe the Sun's deep interior as well as its stormy surface and atmosphere. Besides these missions making present headlines, several other spacecraft are helping to fulfil ESA's scientific objectives. * 2 - * The launch in October 1997 of ESA's probe Huygens, aboard the Cassini spacecraft bound for Saturn, foreshadows a breakthrough in planetary science in 2004. That is when Huygens will carry its scientific instruments into the unique and puzzling atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. * Ulysses, also built in Europe, is exploring hitherto unknown regions of space, after making the first-ever visit to the Sun's polar regions in 1994-95. It will return to the Sun in 2000-2001, to observe the effects of the climax of solar activity due at that time. * The Cluster 2 mission, announced in April 1997 and to be launched in 2000, will explore the Earth's space environment far more throughly than ever before. ESA's decision to replace the four Cluster satellites lost in a launch accident in 1996 ensures that Europe will continue as the leader in solar-terrestrial research in space. * An example of the three unique 58-mirror X-ray telescopes for the XMM mission was unveiled for the press in May 1997. When it goes into orbit in 1999 XMM will make, in seconds, observations of cosmic objects that took hours with previous X-ray astronomy missions. * The Hubble Space Telescope, in which ESA is a partner, continues to deliver the sharpest pictures of the

  12. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  13. ESA on RAINEWS24: A Case Study of Television Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    2005-12-01

    In May 2000, ESRIN, the Italian establishment of the European Space Agency (ESA), started a collaboration with the television channel Rainews24. Rainews24 is the "allnews" channel of Italian public television (RAI) and is now about 10 years old. It transmits 24 hours a day and is the most watched all-news satellite channel in Italy. Each Thursday an ESA representative (Stefano Sandrelli) is interviewed by a professional RAI journalist in a 5-6 minute long slot that follows the 5 pm news bulletin. The broadcast is repeated late at night or in the early hours of Thursday and Friday. Interviews are strictly linked to the weekly news and are prepared on the morning of the same day by the ESA representative in collaboration with a RAI journalist. The subject is chosen from the most topical news items of the week: video, images and animations are provided by the ESA television service and by press agencies (Reuters etc.). The interviews are largely informal and resemble a dialogue rather than an academic discussion "from space". Even though they focus on ESA activities, they are not advertisements: space science and research is dealt with as a human activity, so both the positive and negative aspects of space exploration and exploitation may emerge. Although this outreach activity began as an experiment, the ESA interviews have become a fixed feature. As a result of five years of uninterrupted collaboration, over 200 interviews have been recorded, with about 30% of the interviews dedicated to pure astronomy. A welcome positive feature is that the interviews are seen by Rainews24 as an open source of daily news.

  14. Technology validation of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Lemmel, Frederic; Smit, Hans; Blommaert, Sander; Oosterbroek, Tim; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Visser, Ivo; Heijnen, Jerko; Butler, Bart

    2016-07-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz. The manufacture of such large device in large quantity constitutes an unprecedented effort. To de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation team is characterizing the electro-optical performance of a number of PLATO devices before and after proton irradiation.

  15. ESA-SSA Review of Space Weather Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space. The first phase of the ESA SSA system development will be finished in 2012 and the next phase is foreseen to be started after the ESA Ministerial Council meeting in November 2012. The definition of measurement requirements for the Space Weather Segment (SWE) of the ESA SSA system has been based on the space weather service requirements defined the by expected users of the system. This document, SSA SWE Customer Requirements Document (CRD), has been defined in a iterative process together with the members of the SSA User Representative Group (URG) and the delegates representing the European states participating the programme. Based on the SWE CRD, ESA with the support of the European industry has produced two documents: SSA SWE System Requirements Document (SRD) and SSA SWE Product Specification (PS). SWE PS contains the requirements for the measurements data required by the SSA SWE system. The SWE PS document has been recently rigorously reviewed by the SSA URG in the framework of the SSA System Requirements Review (SRR). The support provided by the Steering Board of the ESA Space Weather Working Team (SWWT) in this review was extremely useful. The members of the SWWT SB representing the scientific community and the provisional service providers were able to give very detailed comments regarding the measurement requirements for accuracy, cadence, timeliness, etc. As these parameters will be provisional design and cost drivers for the ESA SSA system, definition of the appropriate values at this point in the programme is crucial. This paper provides an overview of the measurement requirements for the SWE Segment of the ESA SSA Programme. The paper discusses the requirement definition process, the customer and service provider inputs, and the critical requirements as they have

  16. ESA's CCD test bench for the PLATO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Bloemmaert, Sander; Lemmel, Frederic; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Smit, Hans; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz and at -70 C. To de-risk the PLATO CCD qualification programme initiated in 2014 and support the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section from the Future Missions Office has developed a dedicated test bench.

  17. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, the European Space Agency (ESA) selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as 'L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is supporting: (1) US participation in early mission studies, (2) US technology development, (3) pre-decadal preparations, (4) ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission and (5) the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System project. This talk summarizes NASA's preparations for a future gravitational-wave mission.

  18. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    X-ray brightness map hi-res Size hi-res: 38 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. X-ray brightness map This map shows "surface brightness" or how luminous the region is. The larger of the two galaxy clusters is brighter, shown here as a white and red spot. A second cluster resides about "2 o'clock" from this, shown by a batch of yellow surrounded by green. Luminosity is related to density, so the densest regions (cluster cores) are the brightest regions. The white color corresponds to regions of the highest surface brightness, followed by red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. High resolution version (JPG format) 38 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 525 Kb Temperature map Credits: NASA Artist’s impression of cosmic head on collision The event details what the scientists are calling the perfect cosmic storm: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions, tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. The tiny dots in this artist's concept are galaxies containing thousand million of stars. Animated GIF version Temperature map hi-res Size hi-res: 57 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. Temperature map This image shows the temperature of gas in and around the two merging galaxy clusters, based directly on X-ray data. The galaxies themselves are difficult to identify; the image highlights the hot ‘invisible’ gas between the clusters heated by shock waves. The white colour corresponds to regions of the highest temperature - million of degrees, hotter than the surface of the Sun - followed by red, orange, yellow and blue. High resolution version (JPG format) 57 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 819 Kb The event details what the scientists are calling the ‘perfect cosmic storm’: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions

  19. A Comparison of ESA and NASA Space Debris Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, S.

    1996-12-01

    NASA recently developed a new orbital debris environment model for spacecraft design and observations in low earth orbit. This model has been implemented at ESA/ESTEC in an application which is able to assess debris flux distributions according to target and impactor orbital parameters as well as the directional dependencies of the impactor fluxes. In this paper, the following three models are compared: the above mentioned NASA model, the ESA MASTER Analyst Application, developed under ESA/ESOC contract in 1995 and the current NASA space debris reference model, which was developed in 1989. The conceptual designs of the three models are discussed and their quantitative predictions are compared for various target orbit characteristics, including more detailed analysis of the orbits of ERS-1, LDEF and ISSA (International Space Station Alpha). It is shown in particular that considerable discrepancies of more than one order of magnitude exist between the predictions of the different models in the region of sub-mm sized particles as well as for diameters greater than 1cm. Refined predictions of the debris flux given by the different models taking into account the orientation of the surface are investigated in the case of LDEF and ISSA. For further information on ESA and NASA space debris modelling activities have a look at the following sites:

    • Space Debris Activities at ESOC
    • Modelling the Space Environment at ESTEC
    • UNO Office of Outer Space Affairs
    • NASA-JSC Space Science Branch

  20. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_11_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    surface of the moon and, most importantly, the presence of layers of dark material at the top of crater walls. "The imaging team is in hot debate at the moment on the interpretations of our findings," said Dr Carolyn Porco, Cassini imaging team leader at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, USA. "Based on our images, some of us are leaning towards the view that has been promoted recently, that Phoebe is probably ice-rich and may be an object originating in the outer solar system, more related to comets and Kuiper Belt objects than to asteroids." The high-resolution images of Phoebe show a world of dramatic landforms, with landslides and linear structures such as grooves, ridges and chains of pits. Craters are ubiquitous, with many smaller than one kilometre. "This means, besides the big ones, lots of projectiles smaller than 100 metres must have hit Phoebe," said Prof. Gerhard Neukum, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany, and a member of the imaging team. Whether these projectiles came from outside or within the Saturn system is debatable. There is a suspicion that Phoebe, the largest of Saturn's outer moons, might be parent to the other, much smaller retrograde outer moons that orbit Saturn. They could have resulted from the impact ejecta that formed the many craters on Phoebe. Besides these stunning images, the instruments on board Cassini collected a wealth of other data, which will allow scientists to study the surface structures, determine the mass and composition of Phoebe and create a global map of it. "If these additional data confirm that Phoebe is mostly ice, covered by layers of dust, this may well mean that we are looking at a 'leftover' from the formation of the Solar System about 4600 million years ago," said Dr Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist. Phoebe might indeed be an icy wanderer from the distant outer reaches of the Solar System, which, like a comet, was dislodged from the Kuiper Belt and captured by Saturn when the planet was

  1. Demonstrating xLuna on ESA EXOMADER Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present xLuna [1] and its successful demonstration on the ESA EXOMArs DEmonstration Rover (EXOMADER) [2]. xLuna is a Linux-specific hypervisor extension for RTEMS, a Real-time Executive already used on ESA missions. On xLuna, RTEMS runs natively and directly on top of the hardware providing all its native services to real- time control applications. On top of the hypervisor runs a Linux kernel para-virtualised specifically for the system that provides all the well known POSIX based services and an endless set of software libraries to payload applications. On the demonstration, the complete navigation software of the rover (with stereo image processing and path processing) that was being tested ran on xLuna's Linux subsystem, while the RTEMS components were running control tasks. Due to impossibilities of integration, the RTEMS tasks running were simulated. The control was performed by existing HW.

  2. Joint NASA-ESA Outer Planet Mission study overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.-P.; Niebur, C.; Cutts, J.; Falkner, P.; Greeley, R.; Lunine, J.; Blanc, M.; Coustenis, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Matson, D.; Clark, K.; Reh, K.; Stankov, A.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, ESA and NASA performed joint studies of two highly capable scientific missions to the outer planets: the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) and the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM). Joint Science Definition Teams (JSDTs) were formed with U.S. and European membership to guide study activities that were conducted collaboratively by engineering teams working on both sides of the Atlantic. EJSM comprises the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) that would be provided by NASA and the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) that would be provided by ESA. Both spacecraft would be launched independently in 2020, and arrive 6 years later for a 3-4 year mission within the Jupiter System. Both orbiters would explore Jupiter's system on trajectories that include flybys of Io (JEO only), Europa (JEO only), Ganymede and Callisto. The operation of JEO would culminate in orbit around Europa while that of JGO would culminate in orbit around Ganymede. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) comprises a Titan Orbiter provided by NASA that would carry two Titan in situ elements provided by ESA: the montgolfière and the lake lander. The mission would launch in 2020 and arrive 9 years later for a 4-year duration in the Saturn system. Following delivery of the ESA in situ elements to Titan, the Titan Orbiter would explore the Saturn system via a 2-year tour that includes Enceladus and Titan flybys. The montgolfière would last at least 6-12 months at Titan and the lake lander 8-10 hours. Following the Saturn system tour, the Titan Orbiter would culminate in a ~2-year orbit around Titan. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned between the orbiter and in situ elements. The ESA contribution to this joint endeavor will be implemented as the first Cosmic Vision Large-class (L1) mission; the NASA contribution will be implemented as the Outer Planet Flagship Mission. The contribution to each mission is being reviewed and

  3. ESA's X-ray space observatory XMM takes first pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    Under the aegis of Prof. Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, the mission's Principal Investigators will be presenting these spectacular first images at a press conference to be held on 9 February at the ESA Vilspa facility at Villafranca/Madrid in Spain, where the XMM Science Operations Centre is located. The event will also be the occasion for several major announcements concerning the XMM mission. In particular Professor Bonnet will launch the third XMM competition "Stargazing" - previously announced in September 1999. This will address European youngsters, 16 to 18 years old, who will be offered the unique opportunity of winning observing time using the X-ray telescope. Commissioning phase starts After a successful launch from Kourou on Ariane 504 on 10 December 1999, XMM was brought to its final operational orbit in the following week. The telescope doors on the X-ray Mirror Modules and on the Optical Monitor telescope were opened on 17/18 December. The Radiation Monitor was activated on 19 December and the spacecraft was put into a quiet mode over the Christmas and New Year period. The mission's scientific data is being received, processed and dispatched to astronomers by the XMM Science Operations Centre in Villafranca. Operations with the spacecraft restarted there on 4 January when, as part of the commissioning phase, all the science payloads were switched on one after the other for initial verifications. By the week of 17 January functional tests had begun on the Optical Monitor, the EPIC pn, the two EPIC MOS and the two RGS instruments. The internal doors of the EPIC cameras were opened whilst keeping the camera filter wheels closed. Astounding first images After a series of engineering exposures, all three EPIC cameras were used in turn, between 19-24 January, to take several views of two different extragalactic regions of the Universe. These views, featuring a variety of extended and X-ray point sources, were chosen to demonstrate the full

  4. ESA space spin-offs benefits for the health sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Bianca; Detsis, Emmanouil; Peeters, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Humanity will be faced with an important number of future challenges, including an expansion of the lifespan, a considerable increase of the population (estimated 9 billion by 2050) and a depletion of resources. These factors could trigger an increase of chronic diseases and various other health concerns that would bear a heavy weight on finances worldwide. Scientific advances can play an important role in solving a number of these problems, space technology; in general, can propose a panoply of possible solutions and applications that can make life on Earth easier and better for everyone. Satellites, Earth Observation, the International Space Station (ISS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) may not be the first tools that come to mind when thinking of improving health, yet there are many ways in which ESA and its programmes contribute to the health care arena. The research focuses on quantifying two ESA spin-offs to provide an initial view on how space can contribute to worldwide health. This quantification is part of the present strategy not only to show macroeconomic return factors for space in general, but also to identify and describe samples of 'best practice' type of examples close to the general public's interest. For each of the 'best practices' the methodology takes into account the cost of the space hardware/software, a number of tangible and intangible benefits, as well as some logical assumptions in order to determine the potential overall returns. Some of the hindering factors for a precise quantification are also highlighted. In conclusion, the study recommends a way in which ESA's spin-offs can be taken into account early on in the development process of space programmes in order to generate higher awareness with the general public and also to provide measurable returns.

  5. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Androes, G. M.; Reeves, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    To test the validity of the ARC approach to Spacelab, several missions simulating aspects of Spacelab operations have been conducted as part of the ASSESS Program. Each mission was designed to evaluate potential Shuttle/Spacelab concepts in increasing detail. For this mission, emphasis was placed on development and exercise of management techniques planned for Spacelab using management participants from NASA and ESA who have responsibilities for Spacelab 1 which will be launched in 1980.

  6. Ozone profile retrievals from the ESA GOME instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Kerridge, Brian J.; Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The potential of the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to produce ozone profile information has been examined by carrying out two sample retrievals using simulated GOME data. The first retrieval examines the potential of the GOME instrument to produce stratospheric ozone profiles using the traditional back-scatter ultraviolet technique, while the second examines the possibility of obtaining tropospheric profile information, and improving the quality of the stratospheric profile retrievals, by exploiting the temperature dependence of the ozone Huggins bands.

  7. ESRO/ESA and Denmark. Participation by research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmandsen, Preben

    2003-09-01

    These notes are prepared to give an impression of considerations and activities in Denmark related to ESRO and ESA, roughly in the period 1964 to 1990. In a number of chapters we consider early space-related research in Denmark, the initial phase of the ESRO era and the following period, including the phase of transition from ESRO to ESA when Denmark seriously considered leaving the space co-operation. A chapter gives examples of activities in the ESA era within space science and astronomy, Earth Observation and microgravity, followed by a final one dealing with the national management of optional programmes and the involvement by industry. In drafting the notes we have taken advantage of the work carried out in the Introductory Studies carried out to secure and place in order the archives of the Danish Space Research Advisory Committee. In this connection excerpts of individual documents (mostly minutes of meetings, letters and reports) were taken. To a great extent they form the basis for many of the points made in the notes.

  8. SNAP (Sentinel Application Platform) and the ESA Sentinel 3 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Marco; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten; Peters, Marco; Veci, Luis; Malik, Julien; Regner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ESA is developing three new free open source Toolboxes for the scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The Toolboxes are based on a common software platform, namely the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). SNAP is an evolution of the proven ESA BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current BEAM and NEST functionality including multi-mission support for SAR and optical missions to support ESA and third party missions for years to come. The Sentinel-3 Toolbox includes generic function for visualisation and analysis of Sentinel-3 OLCI and SLSTR Level 1 and Level 2 data, as well as specific processing tools such as cloud screening, water constituent retrieval and SST retrieval. The Toolbox will put emphasis on access to remote in-situ databases such as Felyx or MERMAID, and exploitation of the data-uncertainty information which is included in the Sentinel-3 data products. New image classification, segmentation and filtering methods, as well as interoperability with the ORFEO Toolbox and the GDAL libraries will be additional new tools. New challenges stemming from Sentinel-3 sensors, such as raster data in different resolutions within a single dataset, will be supported gracefully. The development of SNAP and the Sentinel Toolboxes is funded through the “Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM)” programme, a new programme element of ESA’s fourth period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017).

  9. ESA and the arts: A programme in the making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, David

    2007-01-01

    Space exploration is arguably the greatest voyage of discovery ever undertaken and just as artists have traditionally accompanied the great ocean and land voyages of the past, so artists have been and are at the forefront of space voyages of the future. Increasingly, the European Space Agency (ESA) is being asked to support or participate in artistic and cultural events, largely as a result of its study into science fiction literature and artwork. The paper first gives an overview of the relationship between space and art by discussing art that has been sent into space, orbital sculptures, art on Earth seen from space, and performance art and dance in zero gravity. The paper then provides an update on ESA's involvement in some activities in this domain including the organization of science fiction and space art exhibitions, workshops and competitions, and a recently launched study into how ESA might use the European components of the International Space Station for artistic and cultural events to enable the public to better share the human experience of space missions and interact with the sights and sounds of space.

  10. The ESA/NASA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, O.; Allen, M.

    2011-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA), in close cooperation with NASA, has established the ExoMars Programme to investigate the Martian environment and habitability, and to demonstrate new technologies paving the way for a future sample return mission. Within this programme, the first proposed mission consists of an ESA spacecraft that will carry an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator. It will be launched in January 2016 with a NASA supplied Atlas V rocket. The scientific goals of the mission are to study Martian atmospheric trace gases, with a focus on chemical species that could reflect the existence of extant active processes (geological or biological). More specifically, the mission will detect the chemical compounds, characterise their spatial and temporal variability and localise their sources on the surface. Five instruments (see table) will be accommodated on the orbiter to achieve these objectives. Following an aerobraking phase, the scientific mission is expected to begin in spring 2017 for a period of at least one Martian year. The presentation will focus primarily on the description of the mission, responsibilities between ESA and NASA, payload, timelines and milestones.

  11. ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle. Independent Aerothermodynamic Characterization And Aerodatabase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufolo, Giuseppe C.; Di Benedetto, Sara; Walpot, Louis; Roncioni, Pietro; Marini, Marco

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project, the European Space Agency (ESA) is coordinating a series of technical assistance activities aimed at verifying and supporting the IXV industrial design and development process. The technical assistance is operated with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), by means of the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA), and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under the super visioning and coordination of ESA IXV team. One of the purposes of the activity is to develop an independent capability for the assessment and verification of the industrial results with respect to the aerothermodynamic characterization of the IXV vehicle. To this aim CIRA is developing and independent AeroThermodynamics DataBase (ATDB), intended as a tool generating in output the time histories of local quantities (heat flux, pressure, skin friction) for each point of the IXV vehicle and for each trajectory (in a pre-defined envelope), together with an uncertainties model. The reference Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions needed for the development of the tool have been provided by ESA-ESTEC (with the CFD code LORE) and CIRA (with the CFD code H3NS).

  12. ESA astronauts assigned to Tethered Satellite System mission - STS-75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    The TSS project is a joint NASA/ASI (Italian Space Agency) effort. On STS-75, the five-foot diameter (1.6 metre) Italia built satellite is scheduled to be deployed on the end of a 1 mile long (20 kilometre) conductive tether to study the electrodynamic effects of moving such a tether through the Earth's magnetic field. The experiment will also test techniques for managing the tethered spacecraft at great distances. Throughout the 13-day flight, additional experiments housed in the orbiter's payload bay will give scientists access to s for microgravity and fundamental science investigations. The USMP is designed to provide the foundation for advanced scientific investigations similar to those planned aboard the International Space Station. Claude Nicollier, who is Swiss, was selected by ESA in 1978 as one of three European payload specialists to train for the SPACELAB-1 mission. He was a mission specialist on STS- 46 (31 July-8 August 1992), during which the crew members deployed ESA's retrievable science platform (EURECA) and conducted the first TSS test flight. A few months after his return from this mission Claude Nicollier was selected as mission specialist for STS-61 (2-13 December 1993). He contributed considerably to the complete success of the Hubble Space Telescope repair and refurbishment mission and in particular the replacement of the ESA-provided solar arrays. Maurizio Cheli, an Italian, was selected by ESA in May 1992 along with five other young candidates to expand the corps of ESA astronauts. He has been in Houston since mid-1992 and has qualified as mission specialist at NASA's Johnson Space Center there. STS-75 will be his first Shuttle flight. Marine Corps Lt. Col. Andrew M. Allen will command Space Shuttle Columbia's STS-75 mission. Joining Allen are Air Force Major Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; payload commander Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Ph. D; Italian Space Agency (ASI) TSS payload specialist Umberto Guidoni, Ph.D; mission specialist Jeffrey A

  13. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  14. The Software Architecture of the Upgraded ESA DRAMA Software Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebschull, Christopher; Flegel, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Mockel, Marek; Braun, Vitali; Radtke, Jonas; Wiedemann, Carsten; Vorsmann, Peter; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Krag, Holger

    2013-08-01

    In the beginnings of man's space flight activities there was the belief that space is so big that everybody could use it without any repercussions. However during the last six decades the increasing use of Earth's orbits has lead to a rapid growth in the space debris environment, which has a big influence on current and future space missions. For this reason ESA issued the "Requirements on Space Debris Mitigation for ESA Projects" [1] in 2008, which apply to all ESA missions henceforth. The DRAMA (Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis) software suite had been developed to support the planning of space missions to comply with these requirements. During the last year the DRAMA software suite has been upgraded under ESA contract by TUBS and DEIMOS to include additional tools and increase the performance of existing ones. This paper describes the overall software architecture of the ESA DRAMA software suite. Specifically the new graphical user interface, which manages the five main tools ARES (Assessment of Risk Event Statistics), MIDAS (MASTER-based Impact Flux and Damage Assessment Software), OSCAR (Orbital Spacecraft Active Removal), CROC (Cross Section of Complex Bodies) and SARA (Re-entry Survival and Risk Analysis) is being discussed. The advancements are highlighted as well as the challenges that arise from the integration of the five tool interfaces. A framework had been developed at the ILR and was used for MASTER-2009 and PROOF-2009. The Java based GUI framework, enables the cross-platform deployment, and its underlying model-view-presenter (MVP) software pattern, meet strict design requirements necessary to ensure a robust and reliable method of operation in an environment where the GUI is separated from the processing back-end. While the GUI framework evolved with each project, allowing an increasing degree of integration of services like validators for input fields, it has also increased in complexity. The paper will conclude with an outlook on

  15. 78 FR 18585 - FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of... pesticide registrations under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and associated... facilitate ESA pesticide consultations and coordination across these Federal agencies, and calls for...

  16. EsaD, a secretion factor for the Ess pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Butler, Emily K; Missiakas, Dominique M

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encodes the Sec-independent Ess secretion pathway, an ortholog of mycobacterial T7 secretion systems which is required for the virulence of this Gram-positive microbe. The Ess (ESX secretion) pathway was previously defined as a genomic cluster of eight genes, esxA, esaA, essA, essB, esaB, essC, esaC, and esxB. essABC encode membrane proteins involved in the stable expression of esxA, esxB, and esaC, genes specifying three secreted polypeptide substrates. esaB, which encodes a small cytoplasmic protein, represses the synthesis of EsaC but not that of EsxA and EsxB. Here we investigated a hitherto uncharacterized gene, esaD, located downstream of esxB. Expression of esaD is activated by mutations in esaB and essB. EsaD, the 617-amino-acid product of esaD, is positioned in the membrane and is also accessible to EsaD-specific antibodies on the bacterial surface. S. aureus mutants lacking esaD are defective in the secretion of EsxA. Following intravenous inoculation of mice, S. aureus esaD mutants generate fewer abscesses with a reduced bacterial load compared to wild-type parent strain Newman. The chromosomes of Listeria and Bacillus species with Ess pathways also harbor esaD homologues downstream of esxB, suggesting that the contributory role of EsaD in Ess secretion may be shared among Gram-positive pathogens.

  17. ESA airborne campaigns in support of Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tania; Davidson, Malcolm; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Perrera, Andrea; Bianchi, Remo

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. ESA campaigns address all phases of a spaceborne missions, from the very beginning of the design phase during which exploratory or proof-of-concept campaigns are carried out to the post-launch exploitation phase for calibration and validation. We present four recent campaigns illustrating the objectives and implementation of such campaigns. Wavemill Proof Of Concept, an exploratory campaign to demonstrate feasibility of a future Earth Explorer (EE) mission, took place in October 2011 in the Liverpool Bay area in the UK. The main objectives, successfully achieved, were to test Astrium UKs new airborne X-band SAR instrument capability to obtain high resolution ocean current and topology retrievals. Results showed that new airborne instrument is able to retrieve ocean currents to an accuracy of ± 10 cms-1. The IceSAR2012 campaign was set up to support of ESA's EE Candidate 7,BIOMASS. Its main objective was to document P-band radiometric signatures over ice-sheets, by upgrading ESA's airborne POLARIS P-band radar ice sounder with SAR capability. Campaign

  18. ESA research and development activity on SSA-NEO preliminary definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.

    2010-10-01

    The paper gives an account of goals, prospects, and planning of the first ESA research associated with definition of the SSA-NEO segment and puts it in the context of ESA system engineering practices of ESA (as defined in ESA’s ECSS standards).

  19. Green light for deployment of ESA's Mars Express radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    ESA's decision to deploy MARSIS follows eight months of intensive computer simulations and technical investigations on both sides of the Atlantic. These were to assess possible harmful boom configurations during deployment and to determine any effects on the spacecraft and its scientific instruments. The three radar booms of MARSIS were initially to have been deployed in April 2004, towards the end of the Mars Express instrument commissioning phase. They consist of a pair of 20-metre hollow cylinders, each 2.5 centimetres in diameter, and a 7-metre boom. No satisfactory ground test of deployment in flight conditions was possible, so that verification of the booms' performance had to rely on computer simulation. Just prior to their scheduled release, improved computer simulations carried out by the manufacturer, Astro Aerospace (California), revealed the possibility of a whiplash effect before they locked in their final outstretched positions, so that they might hit the spacecraft. Following advice from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which contributed the boom system to the Italian-led MARSIS radar instrument, and the Mars Express science team, ESA put an immediate hold on deployment until a complete understanding of the dynamics was obtained. JPL led a comprehensive investigation, including simulations, theoretical studies and tests on representative booms, the latter to assess potential aging of the boom material. European experts, from ESA and the former spacecraft prime contractor, Astrium SAS, France, worked closely with JPL throughout the entire investigation. An independent engineering review board, composed of ESA and industry experts, met in January to evaluate the findings and advise on ‘if and when’ to proceed with deployment. The ESA review board, at its final meeting on 25 January, recommended deployment of the MARSIS booms. The rationale for the decision was based on the results of the analyses, which showed the possible impact scenarios

  20. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  1. ESA SSA Space Weather Services Supporting Space Surveillance and Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain; Fletcher, Emmet

    2012-07-01

    ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space research or services. This will be performed through providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge regarding the environment, the threats and the sustainable exploitation of the outer space surrounding the planet Earth. SSA serves the implementation of the strategic missions of the European Space Policy based on the peaceful uses of the outer space by all states, by supporting the autonomous capacity to securely and safely operate the critical European space infrastructures. The Space Weather (SWE) Segment of the SSA will provide user services related to the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. These services will include near real time information and forecasts about the characteristics of the space environment and predictions of space weather impacts on sensitive spaceborne and ground based infrastructure. The SSA SWE system will also include establishment of a permanent database for analysis, model development and scientific research. These services are will support a wide variety of user domains including spacecraft designers, spacecraft operators, human space flights, users and operators of transionospheric radio links, and space weather research community. The precursor SWE services to be established starting in 2010. This presentation provides an overview of the ESA SSA SWE services focused on supporting the Space Surveillance and Tracking users. This services include estimates of the atmospheric drag and archive and forecasts of the geomagnetic and solar indices. In addition, the SSA SWE system will provide nowcasts of the ionospheric group delay to support mitigation of the ionospheric impact on radar signals. The paper will discuss the user requirements for the services, the data

  2. Happy families - cutting the cost of ESA Mission Ground Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merri, Mario; Ercolani, Alessandro; Guerrucci, Damiano; Reggestad, Vemund; Verrier, David; Emanuelli, Pier Paolo; Ferri, Paolo

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, ESA has adopted a new approach to reduce cost and risk in the development and operation of ground software. The "mission family" concept is the basis for cost-effective mission control systems for monitoring and controlling spacecraft, and operational simulators for testing and training. This concept is complemented by exploiting reusable software using a "delta" approach. Since families of missions have lifetimes much longer than the individual projects, the challenges of evolving ground software and hardware platforms over ten or more years must be met.

  3. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Engdahl, Marcus; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Arino, Olivier; Bojkov, Bojan; Ferran, Gaston; Donlon, Craig; Kern, Michael; Scipal, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The prime objective of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 20 years. It aims to further strengthen the international leadership of European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit observations from future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address many new avenues of scientific research that will be opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 covering Sentinel 1 (FRINGE /SEASAR ), Sentinel 2 ( S2 symposium), Sentinel 3 (COAST-ALT workshop , 20 Years Progress in Radar Altimetry, Sentinel 3 OLCI/SLSTR 2012 workshop) and Sentinel 4-5 (Atmospheric Science Confrence). The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the work plan 2013 for the SEOM element. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing, validating and maintaining open-source, multi-mission, scientific software toolboxes capable to handle the Sentinels data products 2. Stimulating the development and validation of advanced EO methods and observation strategies in particular the new TOpS mode on Sentinel 1, the new band settings on Sentinel 2, the new geometry/bands of Sentinel 3 OLCI ,SLSTR intruments and the advanced delay-doppler (SAR) altimeter exploitation. 3. Continuing to federate, support and expand the multi-disciplinary expert EO research communities by organizing thematic workshops and ensuring high-quality scientific publications linked to these research domains. Promoting widespread scientific use of data. 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinel s data

  4. Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambeck, K.

    In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.

  5. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  6. "Europe lands on Mars" - Media event at ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz operated by Starsem, the European probe - built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet's structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On board Mars Express tests have been run to check that the instruments are functioning correctly. Mars Express has successfully come through its first power test on the whole spacecraft after the gigantic solar flare on 28 October. Since 17 November the onboard software has been 'frozen' after several updates and the spacecraft is now quietly proceeding to its destination. Before even entering into Martian orbit to perform its mission, Mars Express has to face another challenge: safely delivering the Beagle 2 lander to its destination. This task, starting on 19 December, will not be without risk. First of all, to deliver the lander where planned, Mars Express has been put on a collision course with Mars, since Beagle 2 does not have a propulsion system of its own and must therefore be 'carried' precisely to its destination. This means that after separation, Mars Express has to veer away quickly to avoid crashing onto the planet. During the cruise Beagle 2 will take its power from the mother spacecraft, Mars Express. After separation and until its solar arrays are fully deployed on the surface, Beagle 2 must rely on its own battery, which cannot last beyond 6 days. So, like a caring parent, Mars Express must release Beagle 2 at the last possible moment to ensure that the lander has enough power for the rest of its journey to the surface. Only then can Mars Express change its orientation and rapidly fire the thrusters to get away

  7. Mission to the Moon: An ESA study on future exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing worldwide interest in the continuation of lunar exploration has convinced ESA to carry out an investigation of the motivations to return to the Moon to establish a permanent or a semi-permanent manned lunar base. This study also considers the possible role Europe could play in the future exploration and possible utilization of the Moon. The study concentrated in this first phase mainly on scientific questions, leaving technological issues such as transportation, the role of humans, infrastructure, and policy matters to a later phase. It only partially considered questions relating to the exploitation of lunar resources and the impact of human activities on science.

  8. Antenna pointing mechanism for ESA ENVISAT polar platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrano, J.; SanMillan, J.; Santiago, R.

    1996-01-01

    INTA is currently developing a two-degree-of-freedom antenna pointing mechanism (APM) as part of the ESA ENVISAT POLAR PLATFORM (PPF) program. This mechanism will drive a Ka-band antenna within the Data-Relay Satellite System (DRS) on board the Polar Platform satellite. The first mission using PPF is ENVISAT, which is expected to be flown in 1998. This paper describes the main requirements, design, and test results of this pointing system, as well as the main technical problems from customer requirements and how those have been faced to achieve a final design.

  9. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Cost effective techniques for addressing management and operational activities on Spacelab were identified and analyzed during a ten day NASA-ESA cooperative mission with payload and flight responsibilities handled by the organization assigned for early Spacelabs. Topics discussed include: (1) management concepts and interface relationships; (2) experiment selection; (3) hardware development; (4) payload integration and checkout; (5) selection and training of mission specialists and payload specialists; (6) mission control center/payload operations control center interactions with ground and flight problems; (7) real time interaction during flight between principal investigators and the mission specialist/payload specialist flight crew; and (8) retrieval of scientific data and its analysis.

  10. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  11. ESA's planning and coordination of the OLYMPUS propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbesser-Rastburg, B.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the organization of the OLYMPUS propagation experimenters group (OPEX) is given. Preparations, participation, and experiments are described. Some examples for first statistical results are also reported. OLYMPUS, a 3-axis stabilized communications satellite was launched in 1989 for providing experimental telecommunications payloads and a propagation beacon payload at 12, 20, and 30 GHz to the European Space Agency. From previous experience (OTS), the Agency undertook to carry out extensive preparations with an eye on obtaining the statistical results needed within the limited available lifetime of the spacecraft. The OLYMPUS propagation experiment was conceived as part of ESA's space telecommunications applications program (ESA/IPC/(79)83) with the emphasis on exploring the possibilities and limitations of Ka-band satellite communications. The objectives of the OLYMPUS propagation campaign were: (1) characterization of the slant-path propagation conditions at 20/30 GHz in the various climatic regions of Europe; (2) improvement of the understanding of the link between atmospheric observable (rain rate, cloud thickness, etc.) to propagation impairments such as attenuation, depolarization, scintillation, etc.; and (3) arrive at improved propagation prediction methods.

  12. The ESA-ESTEC New Large EMC Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchail, J.; de Groot, H.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the new ESA -ESTEC large EMC facility, called Maxwell. The net dimensions between the absorber tips of this EMC chamber (14.5m x 10.7m x 11m) make it compatible with Ariane-5 single passenger launch configuration satellites, in line with the other Environmental Test Facilities already existing at ESA - ESTEC, complementing the mechanical vibration (HYDRA), acoustic (LEAF), thermal vacuum (LSS) and antenna/payload radio-frequency test facilities (CPTR). Access for the specimen to the EMC chamber is made possible through a large dimension door (6m wide x 11m high), using a non-conductive 5m x 5m air cushion pallet sliding on an anti-static epoxy coated floor. A specially designed air cooled high power dissipation wall provides the possibility of testing high power telecommunication satellites with a dissipation capability for RF spots up to densities of 3W/cm2. High cleanliness absorbers lining the ceiling, the floor and the man doors have been installed as well as state of the art fire detection and suppression systems in order to ensure a safe testing of Flight Model satellites.

  13. Status of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, N.; Martin, D.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Bavdaz, M.; Fransen, S.; Linder, M.; Peyrou-Lauga, R.; Voirin, T.; Braghin, M.; Mangunsong, S.; van Pelt, M.; Wille, E.

    2012-09-01

    ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) was an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2022. ATHENA was conceived as an ESA-led project, open to the possibility of focused contributions from JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 10 keV, it would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The main scientific objectives of ATHENA include the study of large scale structures, the evolution of black holes, strong gravity effects, neutron star structure as well as investigations into dark matter. The ATHENA mission concept would be based on focal length of 12m achieved via a rigid metering tube and a twoaperture, x-ray telescope. Two identical x-ray mirrors would illuminate fixed focal plane instruments: a cryogenic imaging spectrometer (XMS) and a wide field imager (WFI). The S/C is designed to be fully compatible with Ariane 5 ECA. The observatory would operate at SE-L2, with a nominal lifetime of 5 yr. This paper provides a summary of the reformulation activities, completed in December 2011. An overview of the spacecraft design and of the payload is provided, including both telescope and instruments. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  14. The ESA TTP and Recent Spin-off Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, D.; Brisson, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of its research and development activities, the European Space Agency (ESA) spends some 250m each year and, recognizing the enormous potential of the know-how developed within its R&D activities, set up a Technology Transfer Programme (TTP) some twelve years ago. Over the years, the Programme has achieved some remarkable results with 120 successful transfers of space technologies to the non-space sector; over 120m received by companies making the technologies available; some 15 new companies established as a direct result of exploiting technologies; nearly 2500 jobs created or saved in Europe; and a portfolio of some 300 (out of over 600) active space technologies available for transfer and licencing. Some of the more recent technologies which have been successfully transferred to the non-space sector include the Mamagoose baby safety pyjamas; a spectrographic system being used to compare colours in fabrics and textiles; Earth observation technology employed to assess remotely how much agrochemicals are being used by farmers; and the Dutch solar car, Nuna, which, using European space technologies, finished first in the 2001 World Solar Challenge breaking all records. The paper will give a brief overview of the ESA Technology Transfer Programme and describe some of its recent successful technology transfers.

  15. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  16. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  17. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Almost one year has passed since ESA’s Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Today, a set of new wide-ranging results from the probe’s two-and-a-half hour descent and landing, part of the extraordinary NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, is ready for release. At the same time, ESA’s Mars Express mission is continuing its investigations of Mars, painting a new picture of the 'red planet'. This includes the first ever probing below the surface of Mars, new geological clues with implications for the climate, newly-discovered surface and atmospheric features and, above all, traces of the presence of water on this world. These and other exciting findings from just one year of observations and data analysis - in the context of ESA’s overall scientific achievements - will be the focus of a press conference to be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris at 16:00 on 30 November 2005. Media interested in attending are invited to complete the following registration form. Press conference programme Space Science Highlights 2005 From Huygens to Mars Express 30 November 2005, 16:00 hrs Room 137, European Space Agency Headquarters 8-10 Rue Mario-Nikis, F-75738 Paris Cedex, France 15:30 - Registration 16:00 - A Year of European Space Science Successes Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 16:10 - Highlights of the Huygens Mission Results Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist 16:15 - Robin Duttaroy, Co-Investigator, Doppler Wind Experiment, University of Bonn, Germany 16:20 - Marcello Fulchignoni , Principal Investigator, Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, Université de Paris 7, France 16:25 - John Zarnecki, Principal Investigator, Surface Science Package, Open University, UK 16:30 - François Raulin, Co-Investigator, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer, Université de Paris 12 - Créteil, France 16:35 - Guy Israel, Principal Investigator, Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, Service d

  18. Bold ideas shortlisted for future ESA science projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    ESA's science programme introduced flexi-missions in 1997, to achieve greater flexibility. They replace the medium-scale projects, of which Huygens (Titan lander) and Integral (gamma-ray astronomy) are current examples. The aim is to have two flexi-missions for the price of one medium mission. Mars Express, already under construction for launch in 2003, is the first flexi-mission, or F1. Now under consideration are F2 and F3, each with a cost to ESA of no more than 176 million euros at 1999 prices. The frontrunner in the astronomy field for one of these slots is European participation with NASA in the Next Generation Space Telescope, successor to the NASA-ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Although a formal decision will not be taken until later this year, much European effort has already gone into preparing for this NGST project, due for launch in 2008. That intensifies the competition for the other slot. An embarrassment of riches - of ideas Multinational teams of scientists from Europe's universities and research institutes are backing each of the proposals selected for assessment, half of which concern the Solar System and the Earth's space environment. STORMS is a scheme to use three spacecraft to investigate a source of big trouble for technological systems, after solar eruptions. The "ring current" of energetic charged particles circulates around the equator at altitudes of several times the Earth's radius, and when its intensity varies during solar storms it causes magnetic perturbations at the Earth's surface. Three identical spacecraft, orbiting out to 50,000 kilometres and equally spaced around the equator, could clear up several remaining mysteries of the ring current -- and also provide real-time monitoring of magnetic storms. SOLAR ORBITER would fly on an extended orbit taking it at intervals to within about 30 million kilometres of the Sun -- much closer than the innermost planet, Mercury. At its closest approach the spacecraft would round the Sun at

  19. Optical and dark characterization of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeve, Peter; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Oosterbroek, Tim; Duvet, Ludovic; Beaufort, Thierry; Blommaert, Sander; Butler, Bart; Heijnen, Jerko; Lemmel, Frederic; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Smit, Hans; Visser, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    PLATO - PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars - is the third medium-class mission (M3) to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. It is due for launch in 2025 with the main objective to find and study terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around solar-like stars. The payload consists of >20 cameras; with each camera comprising 4 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), a large number of flight model devices procured by ESA shall ultimately be integrated on the spacecraft. The CCD270 - specially designed and manufactured by e2v for the PLATO mission - is a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) back-illuminated device operating at 4 MHz pixel rate and coming in two variants: full frame and frame transfer. In order to de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section is currently validating the PLATO CCD270. This validation consists in demonstrating that the device achieves its specified electrooptical performance in the relevant environment: operated at 4 MHz, at cold and before and after proton irradiation. As part of this validation, CCD270 devices have been characterized in the dark as well as optically with respect to performance parameters directly relevant for the photometric application of the CCDs. Dark tests comprise the measurement of gain sensitivity to bias voltages, charge injection tests, and measurement of hot and variable pixels after irradiation. In addition, the results of measurements of Quantum Efficiency for a range of angles of incidence, intra- pixel response (non-)uniformity, and response to spot illumination, before and after proton irradiation. In particular, the effect of radiation induced degradation of the charge transfer efficiency on the measured charge in a star-like spot has been studied as a function of signal level and of position on the pixel grid, Also, the effect of various levels of background light on the

  20. Analysis and Optimization of the Recovered ESA Huygens Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeminejad, Bobby

    2002-06-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini - Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. A recently discovered design flaw in the Huygens radio receiver onboard Cassini led to a significantly different mission geometry, redesigned and implemented by both the ESA Huygens and NASA Cassini project teams. A numerical integration of the Orbiter trajectory and the Huygens descent profile with simplified assumptions for Probe attitude and correlated aerodynamic aspects offered the opportunity to re-calculate key mission parameters, which depend on the relative geometry and motion of the bodies. This was a crucial step to assess whether science-imposed constraints were not violated. A review of existing Titan wind and atmosphere models and their physical background led to a subsequent parametric study of their impact on the supersonic entry phase, the parachute descent and finally the bodyfixed landing coordinates of the Probe. In addition to the deterministic (nominal) Probe trajectory, it is important to quantify the influence of various uncertainties that enter into the equations of motion on the results (e.g., state vectors, physical parameters of the environment and the Probe itself). This was done by propagating the system covariance matrix together with the nominal state vectors. A sophisticated Monte Carlo technique developed to save up computation time was then used to determine statistical percentiles of the key parameters. The Probe Orbiter link geometry was characterized by evaluating the link budget and received frequency at receiver level. In this calculation the spin of the Probe and the asymmetric gain pattern of the transmitting antennas was taken into account. The results were then used in a mathematical model that describes the tracking capability of the receiver symbol synchronizer. This allowed the loss of data during the mission to be quantified. A subsequent parametric study of different sets of mission parameters with the

  1. The ESA Meteoroid Model 2010: Enhanced Physical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikarev, Valeri; Mints, Alexey; Drolshagen, Gerhard

    The orbital distributions of meteoroids in interplanetary space are revised in the ESA meteoroid model. In the present update, the chemical composition of the meteoroids is simulated in more detail than in the previous meteoroid models. Silicate and carbonaceous fractions are introduced for all meteoroid populations, and in addition to asteroids and Jupiter-crossing comets, comet 2P/Encke is added as a source. The orbital evolution under planetary gravity, Poynting-Robertson effect and mutual collisions is simulated using analytical approximations. Infrared observations of the zodiacal cloud by the COBE DIRBE instrument, in situ flux measurements by the dust detectors on board Galileo, Ulysses, Pioneer 11 and Helios-1 spacecraft, and the crater size distributions on lunar rock samples retrieved by the Apollo missions are incorporated in the model.

  2. THOR - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaivads, Andris

    2015-04-01

    We present a mission concept THOR (http://thor.irfu.se) that was proposed in the response to the ESA M4 Call. The scientific theme of the THOR mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The THOR mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the THOR mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the THOR mission, THOR's payload and the major science questions to be addressed.

  3. Science Operations For Esa's Smart-1 Mission To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

    The primary objective of the European Space Agency's SMART-1 mission to the Moon is to test and validate a new electric propulsion engine for potential use on other larger ESA Cornerstone missions. However, the SMART-1 spacecraft will also carry a number of scientific instruments and experiments for use en-route to and in orbit about the Moon. SMART-1's major operational constraint is that it will be only contacted twice per week. As a result, there will be a stronger emphasis on mid-term planning, and the spacecraft will be operated using a large list of telecommands sent during the communication windows. This approach leads to a higher probability of there being resource and/or instruments conflicts. To eliminate these, two software tools were developed: the Experiment Planning System (EPS), and the Project Test Bed (PTB). These tools will also allow us to predict the lunar coverage of the scien- tific instruments, and to simulate target selections.

  4. Reference payload of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Didier; Rando, Nicola; Lumb, David; Verhoeve, Peter; Oosterbroek, Tim; Bavdaz, Marcos

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) is one of the three candidates that competed for the first large-class mission (L1) in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme, with a launch planned by 2022 and is the result of the IXO reformulation activities. ATHENA is an ESA-led project and is conceived as the next generation X-ray observatory. It is meant to address fundamental questions about accretion around black-holes, reveal the physics underpinning cosmic feedback, trace the large scale structure of baryons in galaxy clusters and the cosmic as well as a large number of astrophysics and fundamental physics phenomena. The observatory consists of two identical mirrors each illuminating a fixed focal plane instrument, providing collectively 1 m2 effective area at 1 keV. The reference payload consists of a medium resolution wide field imager (WFI) and a high resolution X-ray micro-calorimeter spectrometer (XMS). The WFI is based on a monolithic Si DepFET array providing imaging over a 24 × 24 arcmin2 field of view and a good PSF oversampling. The sensor will measure X-rays in the range 0.1-15 keV and provides near Fano limited energy resolution (150eV at 6keV). The XMS is based on a micro-calorimeter array operating at its transition temperature of ~100mK and provides <3eV resolution. The detector array consists of 32 × 32 pixels covering a 2.3 × 2.3 arcmin2 field of view, co-aligned with the WFI. This paper summarizes the results of the reformulation exercise and provides details on the payload complement and its accommodation on the spacecraft. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  5. SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

  6. ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    The newly refurbished antenna, which is located at the Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station site (VILSPA) near Madrid, has been selected as the prime communication link with the Cluster II spacecraft. The VIL-1 antenna will play a vital role in ESA's Cluster mission by monitoring and controlling the four spacecraft and by receiving the vast amounts of data that will be returned to Earth during two years of operations. Scheduled for launch in summer 2000, the Cluster quartet will complete the most detailed investigation ever made into the interaction between our pl0anet's magnetosphere - the region of space dominated by Earth's magnetic field - and the continuous stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun - the solar wind. This exciting venture is now well under way, following completion of the satellite assembly and test programme and two successful verification flights by the newly developed Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle. The ESA Flight Acceptance Review Board has accordingly given the go-ahead for final launch preparations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. VILSPA, ESA and Cluster II Built in 1975, after an international agreement between the European Space Agency and the Spanish government, VILSPA is part of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Tracking Station Network (ESTRACK). In the last 25 years, VILSPA has supported many ESA and international satellite programmes, including the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), EXOSAT and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to supporting the Cluster II mission, it has been designated as the Science Operations Centre for ESA's XMM Newton mission and for the Far-Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), which is due to launch in 2007. There are now more than half a dozen large dish antennae installed at VILSPA. One of these is the VIL-1 antenna, a 15 metre diameter dish which operates in the S-band radio frequency (1.8 - 2.7 GHz). This antenna has been modernised recently in order

  7. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: International collaborations towards transparent data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for science data returned by all ESA planetary missions. Current holdings include data from Giotto, SMART-1, Cassini-Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta. In addition to the basic management and distribution of these data to the community through our own interfaces, ESA has been working very closely with international partners to globalize the archiving standards used and the access to our data. Part of this ongoing effort is channelled through our participation in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), whose focus is on allowing transparent and interoperable access to data holdings from participating Agencies around the globe. One major focus of this work has been the development of the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) that will allow for the interoperability of archives and sharing of data. This is already used for transparent access to data from Venus Express, and ESA are currently working with ISRO and NASA to provide interoperable access to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 data through our systems using this protocol. Close interactions are ongoing with NASA's Planetary Data System as the standards used for planetary data archiving evolve, and two of our upcoming missions are to be the first to implement the new 'PDS4' standards in ESA: BepiColombo and ExoMars. Projects have been established within the IPDA framework to guide these implementations to try and ensure interoperability and maximise the usability of the data by the community. BepiColombo and ExoMars are both international missions, in collaboration with JAXA and IKI respectively, and a strong focus has been placed on close interaction and collaboration throughout the development of each archive. For both of these missions there is a requirement to share data between the Agencies prior to public access, as well as providing complete open access globally once the proprietary periods have

  8. ESA joins forces with Japan on new infrared sky surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    analysis. This second phase will end with the depletion of the liquid helium needed to cool down the spacecraft telescope and its instruments to only a few degrees above absolute zero. ASTRO-F will then start its third operations phase and continue to make observations of selected celestial targets with its infrared camera only, in a few specific infrared wavelengths. ESA’s involvement: Only two decades have passed since the birth of space-based infrared astronomy; since then, each decade has been marked by the launch of innovative infrared satellites that have revolutionised our very perception of the cosmos. In fact, infrared satellites make possible the detection of cool objects, including planetary systems, interstellar dust and gas, or distant galaxies, all of which are most difficult to study in the visible part of the light spectrum. With infrared astronomy, it is also possible to study the birth of stars and galaxies, the ‘creation’ energy of which peaks in the infrared range. The European Space Agency and Europe have a strong tradition in infrared astronomy, which is now being continued by the participation of the UK, the Netherlands and ESA in ASTRO-F. ESA is providing network support through its ground station in Kiruna (Sweden) for a few passes per day. ESA is also providing expertise and support for the sky-survey data processing. This includes ‘pointing reconstruction’ - which means measuring exactly where the observed objects are in the sky, to help accelerate the production of sky catalogues and ultimately produce a census of the infrared universe. In return, ESA has obtained ten percent of the observing opportunities during the second and third operational phases of the ASTRO-F mission, which is being allocated to European astronomers to perform their proposed observations. “The cooperation offered to ESA by Japan in ASTRO-F will help keep up momentum for European astronomers as they build on their past work with ISO, and look forward to the

  9. ESA and iron therapy in chronic kidney disease: a balance between patient safety and hemoglobin target.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-10-01

    Optimal treatment algorithms for erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and iron therapy in anemic CKD patients are lacking. Kuragano et al. evaluated hemodialysis patients over two years and report increased mortality risk and/or adverse events in those with high serum ferritin levels and high ferritin fluctuations, and an increase in adverse events in iron users. Clinical practice should avoid disproportionately high ESA or iron doses to achieve hemoglobin targets, particularly in those with significant comorbidity or ESA resistance.

  10. Hubble gets new ESA-supplied solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    Derek Eaton, ESA project manager, was overjoyed with the success of the day's spacewalk. "To build two such massive arrays some years apart to such tight tolerances and have one replace the other with so few problems is a tribute to the design and manufacturing skills of ESA and British Aerospace, the prime contractor for the arrays", he said. "The skill of Kathy and Tom contributed greatly to this success". The astronauts began their spacewalk at 09h30 p.m. CST (04h30 a.m. CET, Monday). Their first task was to jettison the troublesome solar array that failed to retract yesterday. Perched on the end of the shuttle's robot arm, 7.5 metres above the cargo bay, Thornton carefully released the array. ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier then pulled the arm away from the free-floating panel and mission commander Dick Covey fired the shuttle's thrusters to back away. Endeavour and the discarded array are moving apart at a rate of 18.5 kilometres each 90-minute orbit of the Earth. The array is expected to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere harmlessly within a year or so. The astronauts had no problems installing the new arrays and stowing the left-hand wing in the cargo bay for the return to Earth. The new arrays will remain rolled-up against the side of the telescope until the fifth spacewalk on Wednesday/Thursday. The telescope itself will be deployed on Saturday. The telescope's first set of arrays flexed in orbit because of the sudden swing in temperature as the craft moved in and out of sunlight. The movement, or "jitter", affected the telescope's pointing system and disrupted observations at times. The Space Telescope Operations Control Centre largely compensated for the problem with special software but this occupied a large amount of computer memory. The new arrays incorporate three major changes to eliminate the problem. The metal bi-stem booms, which support the solar blankets, is protected from extreme temperature changes by a concertina-style sleeve made up of one

  11. Earth Observation Training and Education with ESA LearnEO!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, Valborg; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Dobson, Malcolm; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Del Frate, Fabio; Banks, Chris; Picchiani, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    For society to benefit fully from its investment in Earth observation, EO data must be accessible and familiar to a global community of users who have the skills, knowledge and understanding to use the observations appropriately in their work. Achieving this requires considerable education effort. LearnEO! (www.learn-eo.org) is a new ESA education project that contributes towards making this a reality. LearnEO! has two main aims: to develop new training resources that use data from sensors on ESA satellites to explore a variety of environmental topics, and to stimulate and support members of the EO and education communities who may be willing to develop and share new education resources in the future. The project builds on the UNESCO Bilko project, which currently supplies free software, tutorials, and example data to users in 175 countries. Most of these users are in academic education or research, but the training resources are also of interest to a growing number of professionals in government, NGOs and private enterprise. Typical users are not remote sensing experts, but see satellite data as one of many observational tools. They want an easy, low-cost means to process, display and analyse data from different satellite sensors as part of their work in environmental research, monitoring and policy development. Many of the software improvements and training materials developed in LearnEO! are in response to requests from this user community. The LearnEO! tutorial and peer-reviewed lessons are designed to teach satellite data processing and analysis skills at different levels, from beginner to advanced - where advanced lessons requires some previous experience with Earth observation techniques. The materials are aimed at students and professionals in various branches of Earth sciences who have not yet specialised in specific EO technologies. The lessons are suitable for self-study, university courses at undergraduate to MSc level, or for continued professional

  12. In-situ Observations of Space Debris at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, G.

    Information on the small size (millimetre or smaller) space debris and meteoroid population in space can only be obtained by in-situ detectors or the analysis of retrieved hardware. Past, ongoing and planned ESA activities in this field are presented. In 1996 the GORID impact detector was launched into a geostationary orbit on-board the Russian Express-2 telecommunication satellite. This impact ionisation detector had a sensor surface of 0.1 m2. Until July 2002 when the spacecraft was shut down it recorded more than 3000 impacts in the micrometre size range. Inter alia, GORID measured numerous clusters of events, believed to result from debris clouds, and indicated that debris fluxes in GEO are larger than predicted by present models. Another in-situ detector, DEBIE-1, was launched in October 2001 and is operating on-board the small technology satellite PROBA in a low polar orbit. It has two sensors, each of 0.01m2 size, pointing in different directions. A second detector of this type, DEBIE-2 with 3 sensors, is ready for flight on the EuTEF carrier (external payload to ISS). The data from GORID and DEBIE-1 are stored on-line in EDID (European Detector Impact Database). Post-flight impact analyses of retrieved hardware provide detailed information on the encountered meteoroid and debris fluxes over a large range of sizes. ESA initiated several analyses in the past ((EURECA, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays). The most recent impact analysis was performed for the HST solar arrays retrieved in March 2002. Measured crater sizes in solar cells ranged from about 1 micron to 7 mm. A total of 175 complete penetrations of the 0.7 mm thick arrays were observed. A chemical analysis of impact residues allowed the distinction between space debris and natural meteoroids. Space debris was found to dominate for sizes smaller than 10 microns and larger than about 1 mm. For intermediate sizes impacts are mainly from meteoroids. Results of the analysis and comparisons with

  13. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  14. THE JOINT ESA-NASA EUROPA JUPITER SYSTEM MISSION (EJSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Bunce, E. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Erd, C.; Grasset, O.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, T. V.; Clark, K. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The joint "Europa Jupiter System Mission" (EJSM) is an international mission under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. Its goal is to study Jupiter and its magnetosphere, the diversity of the Galilean satellites, the physical characteristics, composition and geology of their surfaces. Europa and Ganymede are two primary targets of the mission. The reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The two primary goals of the mission are i) to determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and ii) to characterize the processes within the Jupiter system. The science objectives addressing the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressing the second goal are to: i) understand the Jovian satellite system, especially as context for Europa and Ganymede; ii) evaluate the structure and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere; iii) characterize processes of the Jovian magnetodisk/magnetosphere; iv) determine the interactions occurring in the Jovian system; and v) constrain models for the origin of the Jupiter system. Both spacecraft would carry a complement of 11-12 instruments launch separately in 2020 and use a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA

  15. Status of the ESA Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H. R.; Schumann, W.

    2004-11-01

    Following on from the first generation of Meteosat, the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) programme promises to provide advanced and more frequent data for short-range and medium-range weather forecasting and climate monitoring for at least the next 12 years. The MSG programme is a cooperation between ESA and EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites organisation. ESA has been responsible for designing and developing the first of the four satellites in the MSG programme, whilst EUMETSAT has overall responsibility for defining the end-user requirements, developing the ground segment and operating the system. The first MSG satellite, called MSG-1 (METEOSAT 8), was successfully launched on 28August 2002 by an Ariane 5 launcher together with its co-passenger Atlantic Bird. ESOC took over control of the satellite after separation and placed the satellite from the Ariane injection orbit to a quasi-geostationary orbit drifting slowly towards the commissioning longitude at 10.5 deg West. Subsequently EUMETSAT started the satellite commissioning testing. Except the in-orbit failure of an on-board amplifier, with its consequences for the dissemination service, the achieved results show a high degree of compliance with respect to the satellite specification and show very good overall performance of the satellite, in particular for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument to be outstanding. METEOSAT-8 entered routine operations on 29 January 2004. In parallel with the MSG-1 commissioning activities, the integration and test phases on the other MSG satellites has well progressed. Begin March 2004, EUMETSAT took the decision to take the MSG-2 satellite out of storage, resuming testing and work on it towards its final preparation for launch with a launch period now defined between February and April 2005. MSG-3 is entered into storage in summer this year. It is an intermediate storage configuration, after the

  16. Status of ESA's EarthCARE mission, passive instruments payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Hélière, Arnaud; Lefebvre, Alain; Eisinger, Michael; Wehr, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    EarthCARE is ESA's third Earth Explorer Core Mission, with JAXA providing one instrument. The mission allows unique data product synergies to improve understanding of atmospheric cloud-aerosol interactions and Earth's radiation balance. Retrieved data will be used to improve climate and numerical weather prediction models. EarthCARE accommodates two active instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID) and a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and two passive instruments: a Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) and a BroadBand Radiometer (BBR). The instruments will provide simultaneous, collocated imagery, allowing both individual and common data products. The active instruments provide data on microscopic levels, measured through the atmospheric depth. 3-D models of the atmospheric interactions are constructed from the data, which can be used to calculate radiation balance. The large footprint of the MSI provides contextual information for the smaller footprints of the active instruments. Data from the BBR allows the loop to be closed by providing a macroscopic measurement of the radiation balance. This paper will describe the passive instruments development status. MSI is a compact instrument with a 150 km swath providing 500 m pixel data in seven channels, whose retrieved data will give context to the active instrument measurements, as well as providing cloud and aerosol information. BBR measures reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the scene. To reduce uncertainty in the radiance to flux conversion, three independent view angles are observed for each scene. The combined data allows more accurate flux calculations, which can be further improved using MSI data.

  17. M⁴ - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retino, A.; Vaivads, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a mission concept that will be proposed in the response to the upcoming ESA M4 Call. The working name of the mission is M⁴. The scientific theme of the M⁴ mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The M⁴ mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the M⁴ mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the M⁴ mission and its payload as well as illustrate how it will help to address the science questions posed.

  18. The Dark UNiverse Explorer (DUNE): proposal to ESA's cosmic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refregier, A.

    2009-03-01

    The Dark UNiverse Explorer (DUNE) is a wide-field space imager whose primary goal is the study of dark energy and dark matter with unprecedented precision. For this purpose, DUNE is optimised for the measurement of weak gravitational lensing but will also provide complementary measurements of baryonic accoustic oscillations, cluster counts and the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect. Immediate auxiliary goals concern the evolution of galaxies, to be studied with unequalled statistical power, the detailed structure of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and the demographics of Earth-mass planets. DUNE is an Medium-class mission which makes use of readily available components, heritage from other missions, and synergy with ground based facilities to minimise cost and risks. The payload consists of a 1.2 m telescope with a combined visible/NIR field-of-view of 1 deg2. DUNE will carry out an all-sky survey, ranging from 550 to 1600 nm, in one visible and three NIR bands which will form a unique legacy for astronomy. DUNE will yield major advances in a broad range of fields in astrophysics including fundamental cosmology, galaxy evolution, and extrasolar planet search. DUNE was recently selected by ESA as one of the mission concepts to be studied in its Cosmic Vision programme.

  19. Research recommendations of the ESA Topical Team on Artificial Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angie

    Many experts believe that artificial gravity will be required for an interplanetary mission. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for simplifying operational activities, much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before artificial gravity can be successfully implemented. The European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team on Artificial Gravity recommended a comprehensive program to determine the gravity threshold required to reverse or prevent the detrimental effects of microgravity and to evaluate the effects of centrifugation on various physiological functions. Part of the required research can be accomplished using animal models on a dedicated centrifuge in low Earth orbit. Studies of human responses to centrifugation could be performed during ambulatory, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight studies. Artificial-gravity scenarios should not be a priori discarded in Moon and Mars mission designs. One major step is to determine the relationship between the artificial gravity dose level, duration, and frequency and the physiological responses of the major body functions affected by spaceflight. Once its regime characteristics are defined and a dose-response curve is established, artificial gravity should serve as the standard against which all other countermeasure candidates are evaluated, first on Earth and then in space.

  20. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  1. ESA's new European Hubble Science Archive at ESAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) has recently launched a new version of the European Hubble Space Telescope science archive. The new and enhanced archive offers several new features, some of which are not available anywhere else. The new web-based archive has been completely re-engineered and is now faster, more accurate and more robust than ever. Several of its unique features will be presented: the possibility of seeing the exact footprint of each observations on top of an optical all-sky image, the online visualization and inspection of FITS headers, imaging and spectral observation previews without downloading files or the possibility to search for data that has not yet been published in refereed journals. This state-of-the-art science data archive will be the new main access point to HST data for the European astronomical community and will be enhanced in the near-future to include the Hubble Source Catalogue or other high-level data products as required.

  2. ESA hardware for plant research on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.

    The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform on which long-term and shorter experiments with plants will be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for in-flight 1 g controls and for studies with acceleration levels from 0.001 g to 2.0 g. Several experiments are in preparation investigating gravity relating to gene expression, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana and lentil roots. The experiment-specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants and is connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides in-flight video observation, the experiments will be evaluated post-flight by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. About two years after the EMCS launch, ESA's Biolab will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, Biolab will accommodate experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments are presented in this communication.

  3. ESA sees stardust storms heading for Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    The Sun's galactic environment Credits: P.C. Frisch, University of Chicago The Sun's galactic environment The Sun and the nearest stars move through filaments of galactic clouds. Ulysses and the heliosphere hi-res Size hi-res: 1337 kb Credits: ESA (image by D. Hardy) Ulysses and the heliosphere Over more than 17 years of observations above and below the poles of the Sun, the ESA/NASA Ulysses mission has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the Sun itself, its sphere of influence (the heliosphere), and our local interstellar neighbourhood. The mission provided the first-ever map of the heliosphere in the four dimensions of space and time. Ulysses was launched by Space Shuttle Discovery in October 1990. It headed out to Jupiter, arriving in February 1992 for the gravity-assist manoeuvre that swung the craft into its unique solar orbit. It orbited the Sun three times and performed six polar passes. The mission concludes on 1 July 2008. Since its launch in 1990, Ulysses has constantly monitored how much stardust enters the Solar System from the interstellar space around it. Using an on-board instrument called DUST, scientists have discovered that stardust can actually approach the Earth and other planets, but its flow is governed by the Sun's magnetic field, which behaves as a powerful gate-keeper bouncing most of it back. However, during solar maximum - a phase of intense activity inside the Sun that marks the end of each 11-year solar cycle - the magnetic field becomes disordered as its polarity reverses. As a result, the Sun's shielding power weakens and more stardust can sneak in. What is surprising in this new Ulysses discovery is that the amount of stardust has continued to increase even after the solar activity calmed down and the magnetic field resumed its ordered shape in 2001. Scientists believe that this is due to the way in which the polarity changed during solar maximum. Instead of reversing completely, flipping north to south, the Sun

  4. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  5. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  6. CarbonSat: ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.

    2012-04-01

    The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will

  7. ESA chairs the International Living With a Star programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    The Sun is a variable star. The amount of radiation it releases changes constantly, especially at wavelengths that we cannot see, such as ultraviolet. It also releases a stormy ‘wind’ of particles known as the solar wind that buffets the Earth’s magnetic field. Sudden changes in the solar wind can disable communications satellites, disrupt power stations on Earth, and affect passengers in high-flying aircraft. Slow variation in the solar output and even in the solar wind could contribute to climatic changes. Knowing more about these phenomena is therefore very important in different and sometimes unexpected ways. There will be various ILWS mission launches over an approximately ten-year period, starting in 2003. Pooling the resources of the largest fleet of spacecraft in history, the ILWS programme will provide a first global view of the Sun-Earth interaction and lead to a real understanding of it. It will look at the Sun’s effects on other planets also. ESA’s missions form a vital part of ILWS. SOHO and Cluster are leading the way. In 2003, in collaboration with China, a space mission called Double Star will be launched to complement Cluster. In a decade’s time, ESA’s Solar Orbiter will be the centre of interest. It will go closer to the Sun than any solar mission ever before. In between, ESA will assist in exploiting other agency’s missions to the full; it is also currently negotiating to provide ground stations for Japan’s Solar-B mission (launch 2005), and is considering the part it may play in NASA’s STEREO (launch 2005) and Solar Dynamics Orbiter (launch 2007) missions. In addition, ESA’s missions to the other terrestrial planets, Mars Express (launching 2003), Venus Express (launching 2005), and the mission to Mercury, BepiColombo (launching 2011/2012), will carry experiments that look at solar-wind interactions with their respective planets. Hermann Opgenoorth, ESA’s newly appointed Head of Solar and Solar-Terrestrial Missions, is

  8. The 2009 ESA/Danish Mars Simulation Wind Tunnel Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, P.; Merrison, J. P.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.

    2009-04-01

    Simulation of the dynamic environment in immediate proximity to the surface of Mars requires access to simulation facilities which can reproduce the atmospheric properties (pressure, temperature, gas composition, UV-VIS light conditions, wind flow etc.). It also requires access to analogue Martian surface material (soil and dust). Simulations can be carried out in a wind tunnel placed in a tank which can be pumped out, like the 400 mm Ø, 1500 mm long wind tunnel that has operated in the Mars Simulation Laboratory at University of Aarhus, Denmark since 2000 (1). A wide range of applications have taken place, from development, test and calibration of instruments, over tests of solar panels, and aerodynamic studies of granular transport to studies of physical properties of dust materials such as grain electrification, aggregation and magnetic properties (2,3). The Salten Skov I analogue (4) and other Martian regolits and dust analogues have been used in the wind tunnel experiments. With the view to future instrument development, solar panel optimization and future research on Martian surface processes a new ESA supported wind tunnel has been constructed at University of Aarhus, Denmark and is now under building. This wind tunnel will have a cross section of close to 1 x 2 m and be able to reach a wind speed of close to 30 m/s under Martian pressure conditions and with samples cooled down to Martian temperatures. The facility is planned to be finally tested and ready for use in July 2009. ESA, ExoMars use of this facility will have priority. However, research projects in collaboration with external users will also be welcome in the future. Later this year information on access possibilities will be announced at the Mars Simulation Laboratory home page: www.marslab.dk. References: (1) Merrison, J., Bertelsen, P., Frandsen, C., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Knudsen, J.M., Madsen, M.B., Mossin, L., Nielsen, J., Nørnberg, P., Rasmussen, K.R., Uggerhøj, E. and Weyer, G. 2002

  9. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Rosetta’s unique instruments, such as its ultraviolet light instrument ALICE, should be able to make critical contributions to the American mission. About Rosetta Rosetta is the first mission designed to both orbit and land on a comet, and consists of an orbiter and a lander. The spacecraft carries 11 scientific experiments and will be the first mission to undertake long-term exploration of a comet at close quarters. After entering orbit around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the spacecraft will release a small lander onto the icy nucleus. Rosetta will orbit the comet for about a year as it heads towards the Sun, remaining in orbit for another half-year past perihelion (closest approach to the Sun). Comets hold essential information about the origin of our Solar System because they are the most primitive objects in the Solar System and their chemical composition has changed little since their formation. By orbiting and landing on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta will help us reconstruct the history of our own neighbourhood in space. Note for broadcasters: The ESA TV Service will transmit a TV exchange with images of the fly-by, together with science results/images from observations as far as available on 11 March. For further details : http://television.esa.int

  10. The ESA Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre - Phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poedts, Stefaan

    The ESA ITT project (AO/1-6738/11/NL/AT) to develop Phase 1 of a Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre has the following objectives and scope: 1. The construction of a long term (~10 yrs) plan for the future development of a European virtual space weather modelling centre consisting of a new ‘open’ and distributed framework for the coupling of physics based models for space weather phenomena; 2. The assessment of model capabilities and the amount of work required to make them operational by integrating them in this framework and the identification of computing and networking requirements to do so. 3. The design of a system to enable models and other components to be installed locally or geographically distributed and the creation of a validation plan including a system of metrics for testing results. The consortium that took up this challenge involves: 1)the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Prime Contractor, coordinator: Prof. S. Poedts); 2) the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB); 3) the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB); 4) the Von Karman Institute (VKI); 5) DH Consultancy (DHC); 6) Space Applications Services (SAS). The project started on May 14 2012, and will finish in May 2014. Thus, by the time of the meeting, both Phase 1A and Phase 1B (the development of the prototype) will be finished. The final report will be presented incl. the architecture decisions made, the framework, the current models integrated already as well as the model couplers installed. The prototype VSWMC will be demonstrated.

  11. Status of esa smart-1 mission to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; Marini, A.; SMART-1 Technology Working Team

    2003-04-01

    SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been readied for launch in spring 2003 as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 19 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin of the

  12. An ESA roadmap for geobiology in space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Claire R.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Geobiology, and in particular mineral-microbe interactions, has a significant role to play in current and future space exploration. This includes the search for biosignatures in extraterrestrial environments, and the human exploration of space. Microorganisms can be exploited to advance such exploration, such as through biomining, maintenance of life-support systems, and testing of life-detection instrumentation. In view of these potential applications, a European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team "Geobiology in Space Exploration" was developed to explore these applications, and identify research avenues to be investigated to support this endeavour. Through community workshops, a roadmap was produced, with which to define future research directions via a set of 15 recommendations spanning three key areas: Science, Technology, and Community. These roadmap recommendations identify the need for research into: (1) new terrestrial space-analogue environments; (2) community level microbial-mineral interactions; (3) response of biofilms to the space environment; (4) enzymatic and biochemical mineral interaction; (5) technical refinement of instrumentation for space-based microbiology experiments, including precursor flight tests; (6) integration of existing ground-based planetary simulation facilities; (7) integration of fieldsite biogeography with laboratory- and field-based research; (8) modification of existing planetary instruments for new geobiological investigations; (9) development of in situ sample preparation techniques; (10) miniaturisation of existing analytical methods, such as DNA sequencing technology; (11) new sensor technology to analyse chemical interaction in small volume samples; (12) development of reusable Lunar and Near Earth Object experimental platforms; (13) utility of Earth-based research to enable the realistic pursuit of extraterrestrial biosignatures; (14) terrestrial benefits and technological spin-off from existing and future space

  13. ESA' s novel gravitational modeling of irregular planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    A detailed understanding and modeling of the gravitational modeling is required for realistic investigation of the dynamics of orbits close to irregularly shaped bodies. Gravity field modelling up to a certain maximum spherical harmonic degree N involves N2 unkown spherical harmonic coefficients or complex harmonics. The corresponding number of matrix entries reaches till N4 . For missions like CHAMP, GRACE or GOCE, the maximum degree of resolution is 75, 150 and 300 respectively. Therefore, the number of unknowns for a satellite like GOCE will be around 100.000. Since these missions usually fly for a period of time of several years, the number of observations is huge. Hence, gravity field recovery from these missions is a high demanding task. The classical approaches like spherical expansion of the potential lead generally to a high number of coefficients, which reduce the software computational efficiency of the orbit propagation and which have mostly a limited physical meaning. One of the main targets of the activity is the modelling of asteroids, small moons, and cometary bodies. All celestial bodies are irregular by definition. However, the scope of the activity is broad enough as to be able to use the models and the software in quasy-regular bodies as well. Therefore the models and tools could be used for bodies such as the Moon, Mars, Venus, Deimos, Europa, Eros, Mathilda, and Churyumov-Gerasimenko, etc., being these applications relevant for scientific (Rosetta, Bepi Colombo), exploration (Exo-Mars), NEO mitigation (Don Quijote) and Earth observation (GOCE) missions of ESA.

  14. Aerosol Climate Time Series Evaluation In ESA Aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Pinnock, S.

    2015-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. By the end of 2015 full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which are also validated. The paper will summarize and discuss the results of major reprocessing and validation conducted in 2015. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family will be described and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products

  15. ESA's new view of the Milky Way - in gamma rays!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Integral's gamma-ray map of the galaxy hi-res Size hi-res: 430 kb Credits: ESA/SPI team A portion of Integral's gamma-ray map of the galaxy A portion of Integral's gamma-ray map of the galaxy. This false colour picture was taken by the spectrometer on board Integral (SPI) between December 2002 and March 2003. The yellow dots correspond to bright known gamma-rays sources, whilst blue areas indicate regions of low emission. Data similar to these, but in a higher energy range, have been used to study where aluminium and iron are produced in the Galaxy. Since its formation from a cloud of hydrogen and helium gas, around 12 000 million years ago, the Milky Way has gradually been enriched with heavier chemical elements. This has allowed planets and, indeed, life on Earth to form. Today, one of those heavier elements - radioactive aluminium - is spread throughout the Galaxy and, as it decays into magnesium, gives out gamma rays with a wavelength known as the '1809 keV line'. Integral has been mapping this emission with the aim of understanding exactly what is producing all this aluminium. In particular, Integral is looking at the aluminium 'hot spots' that dot the Galaxy to determine whether these are caused by individual celestial objects or the chance alignment of many objects. Astronomers believe that the most likely sources of the aluminium are supernovae (exploding high-mass stars) and, since the decay time of the aluminium is around one million years, Integral's map shows how many stars have died in recent celestial history. Other possible sources of the aluminium include 'red giant' stars or hot blue stars that give out the element naturally. To decide between these options, Integral is also mapping radioactive iron, which is only produced in supernovae. Theories suggest that, during a supernova blast, aluminium and iron should be produced together in the same region of the exploding star. Thus, if the iron's distribution coincides with that of the aluminium, it

  16. ESA NEOCC effort to eliminate high Palermo Scale virtual impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Hainaut, O.; Bernardi, F.

    2014-07-01

    At the moment of this writing about 4 % of the known near-Earth objects are known to have at least one future close approach scenario with a non-negligible collision probability within the next century, as routinely computed by the NEODyS and Sentry systems. The most straightforward way to improve the knowledge of the future dynamics of an NEO in order to exclude (or possibly confirm) some of these possible future impact is to obtain additional astrometric observations of the object as soon as it becomes observable again. In particular, since a large fraction (>98 %) of the known objects currently recognized as possible future impactors have been observed during a single opposition, this usually corresponds to obtaining a new set of observations during a second opposition, a so called ''recovery''. However, in some cases the future observability windows for the target after the discovery apparition may be very limited, either because the object is intrinsically small (and therefore requires a very close and consequently rare approach to become observable) or because its orbital dynamic prevents the observability from the ground for a long timespan (as in the case of quasi-resonant objects with a long synodic period). When this happens, the only short-term way to clarify an impact scenario is to look toward the past, and investigate the possibility that unrecognized detections of the object are already present in the databases of old astronomical images, which are often archived by professional telescopes and made available to the community a few months to years after they are exposed. We will here present an effort lead by the newly formed ESA NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) in Frascati to pursue both these avenues with the intent of improving the orbital knowledge of the highest-rated possible impactors, as defined by the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale (PS in the following). As an example of our ongoing observational activities, we will first present our

  17. Full load of ESA experiments on Maxus-2 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Maxus sounding rockets are built and commercialised by an industrial joint venture, a team comprising of the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and DASA of Germany. ESA is fully funding the scientific payload for this mission. The payload comprises 8 experiments spanning the fields of fluid physics, electrophoresis and cell biology. Scientists from Belgium, France, Germany and Switzerland designed these experiments and the hardware was built by Swedish, German and Italian firms. The experiments are accommodated in 5 autonomous experiment modules and account for an overall mass of about 500 kg out of a total payload of about 800 kg. The first module contains an experiment which aims to check the static and dynamic behaviour of liquids at corners and edges. The second contains a biological experiment on two unicellular organisms (loxodes and paramecium). In their natural habitat (lakes), these organisms make use of the gravity vector for their orientation. Their swimming behaviour in microgravity will be observed on Earth in real time. The third module houses two other biology experiments. One examines the effect of microgravity on particle ingestion of gold beads by human macrophage cells (a type of white blood cell). Macrophage cells digest foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, thereby performing an important function in our immune system. The other experiment investigates the influence of weightlessness on the structure of lymphocytes (white blood cells). The fourth module accommodates three different experiments all dealing with convection phenomena due to surface-tension instabilities (Marangoni convection). Surface tension is that property of liquids which makes raindrops nearly spherical and allows insects to move on water surfaces. These phenomena, which are masked by the effect of gravity on Earth, can be easily studied in microgravity conditions. The fifth module contains an experiment that deals with electrophoresis, i.e. a process which is used to

  18. Aerosol Climate Time Series in ESA Aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. Meanwhile, full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer, but also from ATSR instruments and the POLDER sensor), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which were also validated and improved in the reprocessing. For the three ATSR algorithms the use of an ensemble method was tested. The paper will summarize and discuss the status of dataset reprocessing and validation. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension

  19. ESA's Hipparcos satellite revises the scale of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    Sun, called parallaxes, give the first direct measurements of the distances of large numbers of stars. With the overall calculations completed, the harvest of scientific discoveries has begun. Among those delighted with the immediate irruption into cosmology, from this spacecraft made in Europe, is ESA's director of science, Roger Bonnet. "When supporters of the Hipparcos project argued their case," Bonnet recalls, "they were competing with astrophysical missions with more obvious glamour. But they promised remarkable consequences for all branches of astronomy. And already we see that even the teams using the Hubble Space Telescope will benefit from a verdict from Hipparcos on the distance scale that underpins all their reckonings of the expansion of the Universe." The pulse-rates of the stars Cepheid stars alternately squeeze themselves and relax, like a beating heart. They wax and wane rhythmically in brightness, every few days or weeks, at a rate that depends on their luminosity. Henrietta Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory discovered in the early years of this century that bigger and more brilliant Cepheids vary with a longer period, according to a strict rule. It allows astronomers to gauge relative distances simply by taking the pulse-rates of the Cepheids and measuring their apparent brightnesses. Nearby Cepheids are typically 1000-2000 light-years away. They are too far for even Hipparcos to obtain very exact distance measurements, but by taking twenty-six examples and comparing them, Michael Feast and his colleague Robin Catchpole of RGO Cambridge arrive at consistent statistics. These define the relationship between the period and the luminosity, needed to judge the distances of Cepheids. The zero point is for an imaginary Cepheid pulsating once a day. This would be a star 300 times more luminous than the Sun, according to the Hipparcos data. The slowest Cepheid in the sample, l Carinae, has a period of 36 days and is equivalent to 18,000 suns

  20. Aerosol climate time series from ESA Aerosol_cci (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer-Popp, T.

    2013-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) the Aerosol_cci project (mid 2010 - mid 2013, phase 2 proposed 2014-2016) has conducted intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors AATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. Global datasets for 2008 were produced and validated versus independent ground-based data and other satellite data sets (MODIS, MISR). An additional 17-year dataset is currently generated using ATSR-2/AATSR data. During the three years of the project, intensive collaborative efforts were made to improve the retrieval algorithms focusing on the most critical modules. The team agreed on the use of a common definition for the aerosol optical properties. Cloud masking was evaluated, but a rigorous analysis with a pre-scribed cloud mask did not lead to improvement for all algorithms. Better results were obtained using a post-processing step in which sudden transitions, indicative of possible occurrence of cloud contamination, were removed. Surface parameterization, which is most critical for the nadir only algorithms (MERIS and synergetic AATSR / SCIAMACHY) was studied to a limited extent. The retrieval results for AOD, Ångström exponent (AE) and uncertainties were evaluated by comparison with data from AERONET (and a limited amount of MAN) sun photometer and with satellite data available from MODIS and MISR. Both level2 and level3 (gridded daily) datasets were validated. Several validation metrics were used (standard statistical quantities such as bias, rmse, Pearson correlation, linear regression, as well as scoring approaches to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal correlations against AERONET), and in some cases

  1. Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer-Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Griesfeller, J.; Martynenko, D.; Klüser, L.; Bevan, S.; Davies, W.; Ducos, F.; Deuzé, J. L.; Graigner, R. G.; Heckel, A.; von Hoyningen-Hüne, W.; Kolmonen, P.; Litvinov, P.; North, P.; Poulsen, C. A.; Ramon, D.; Siddans, R.; Sogacheva, L.; Tanre, D.; Thomas, G. E.; Vountas, M.; Descloitres, J.; Griesfeller, J.; Kinne, S.; Schulz, M.; Pinnock, S.

    2013-08-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project Aerosol_cci (2010-2013), algorithms for the production of long-term total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) datasets from European Earth Observation sensors are developed. Starting with eight existing pre-cursor algorithms three analysis steps are conducted to improve and qualify the algorithms: (1) a series of experiments applied to one month of global data to understand several major sensitivities to assumptions needed due to the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem, (2) a round robin exercise of "best" versions of each of these algorithms (defined using the step 1 outcome) applied to four months of global data to identify mature algorithms, and (3) a comprehensive validation exercise applied to one complete year of global data produced by the algorithms selected as mature based on the round robin exercise. The algorithms tested included four using AATSR, three using MERIS and one using PARASOL. This paper summarizes the first step. Three experiments were conducted to assess the potential impact of major assumptions in the various aerosol retrieval algorithms. In the first experiment a common set of four aerosol components was used to provide all algorithms with the same assumptions. The second experiment introduced an aerosol property climatology, derived from a combination of model and sun photometer observations, as a priori information in the retrievals on the occurrence of the common aerosol components. The third experiment assessed the impact of using a common nadir cloud mask for AATSR and MERIS algorithms in order to characterize the sensitivity to remaining cloud contamination in the retrievals against the baseline dataset versions. The impact of the algorithm changes was assessed for one month (September 2008) of data: qualitatively by inspection of monthly mean AOD maps and quantitatively by comparing daily gridded satellite data against daily averaged AERONET sun photometer

  2. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  3. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    At 1.25 billion km from Earth, after a 7-year journey through the Solar system, ESA’s Huygens probe is about to separate from the Cassini orbiter to enter a ballistic trajectory toward Titan, the largest and most mysterious moon of Saturn, in order to dive into its atmosphere on 14 January. This will be the first man-made object to explore in-situ this unique environment, whose chemistry is assumed to be very similar to that of the early Earth just before life began, 3.8 billion years ago. The Cassini-Huygens pair, a joint mission conducted by NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency (ASI), was launched into space on 15 October 1997. With the help of several gravity assist manoeuvres during flybys of Venus, Earth and Jupiter, it took almost 7 years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. The Cassini orbiter, carrying Huygens on its flank, entered an orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004, and began to investigate the ringed planet and its moons for a mission that will last at least four years. The first distant flyby of Titan took place on 2-3 July 2004. It provided data on Titan's atmosphere which were confirmed by the data obtained during the first close flyby on 26 October 2004 at an altitude of 1174 km. These data were used to validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. A second close flyby of Titan by Cassini-Huygens at an altitude of 1200 km is scheduled on 13 December and will provide additional data to further validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. On 17 December the orbiter will be placed on a controlled collision course with Titan in order to release Huygens on the proper trajectory, and on 21 December (some dates and times are subject to minor adjustment for operational reasons, except the entry time on 14 January which is know to within an accuracy of under 2 minutes) all systems will be set up for separation and the Huygens timers will be set to wake the probe a few hours before its arrival at Titan. The Huygens probe is due to separate on

  4. ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR ALACHLOR ESA AND OTHER ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, USEPA published a Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) of 50 chemicals and 10 microorganisms. "Alachlor ESA and other acetanilide herbicide degradation products" is listed on the the 1998 CCL. Acetanilide degradation products are generally more water soluble...

  5. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Pretreatments Only Interim Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and ESA continue to search for an alternative to hexavalent chromium in coatings applications that meet their performance requirements in corrosion protection, cost, operability, and health and safety, while typically specifying that performance must be equal to or greater than existing systems. The overall objective of the collaborative effort between NASA TEERM and ESA is to test and evaluate coating systems (pretreatments, pretreatments with primer, and pretreatments with primer and topcoat) as replacements for hexavalent chrome coatings in aerospace applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing promising coatings identified from previous NASA, ESA, Department of Defense (DOD), and other project experience. Additionally, several new materials will be analyzed according to ESA-identified specifications.

  6. A simplified method to detect epididymal sperm aneuploidy (ESA) in mice using three-chromosome fish

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, X.; O`Hogan, S.; Wyrobek, A.

    1995-11-01

    We developed a new method (ESA) to detect aneuploidy and polyploidy in epididymal sperm of mice using three-chromosome FISH. In comparison to a previous method (TSA-testicular spermatid aneuploidy), which required late-step spermatids, the ESA method utilizes epididymal sperm, which are easier to collect than testicular cells. The ESA method also provides a homogenous population of cells, which significantly speeds up the scoring procedure. A total of 6 mice were investigated by the ESA method and results compared with those obtained by the TSA method: 2 mice each of Robertsonian (8.14) heterozygotes, Rb(8.14) homozygotes and B6C3F1. About 10,000 sperm were scored per mouse. For the ESA method, epididimides were cut into small pieces and filtered. Sperm were prepared for hybridization by sonication and a modification of the DTT/LIS method previously described. Sperm aneuploidy was detected by multi-color FISH using three DNA probes specific for mouse chromosomes X, Y and 8. The sex ratio of X8(49.7%) and Y8(49.6%) did not differ from the expected 1:1. The efficiency of ESA was very high; -0.3% of the cells showed no hybridization domain. Hyperhaploidy frequencies for chromosomes X, Y and 8 compared well between the ESA and TSA methods for Rb(8.14) heterozygous (p=0.79) and B6C3F1 mice (p>0.05). The data obtained from Rb(8.14) homozygotes were similar to those from B6C3F1, as predicted (p=0.3). This highly efficient ESA assay is therefore, recommended for future studies of the mechanism of induction of aneuploidy in male germ cells. It also lays a solid foundation for automated scoring.

  7. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  8. Foton 11: ESA investigates further the space environment and its impact on organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-10-01

    Scientific research conducted under space conditions can provide new insight into how processes occur on Earth and organisms function. The unmanned Foton spacecraft has been used since 1988 to conduct such investigations. Now on its 11th mission and the fifth in which ESA has taken part, Foton is carrying some 80 kg of ESA payload: two ESA research facilities (an incubator and an experiment holder on the outside of the spacecraft) are on board along with 12 scientific experiments. The French space agency (CNES) and the German space agency (DARA) also have payload on the spacecraft. ESA's space-qualified incubator, called Biobox, keeps organisms at predefined conditions. During this mission, the three Biobox experiments are looking at the reaction of bone cells in microgravity. The second ESA facility, a pan-shaped container called Biopan attached to the outside of Foton, is used to expose experiment samples directly to the space environment in order to study the impact of space's extreme temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation, and near-perfect vacuum. On this mission, the six Biopan experiments are concentrating on exobiology, radiation biology and material science. Biopan has a motor-driven, hinged lid and is equipped with devices and sensors that measure the various aspects of the environment to which the experiments are subjected. Once Foton is in orbit, a telecommand is sent from ground and the lid opens to expose the samples to the environment. At the end of the mission, another command is sent and the lid closes. Since Biopan is on the outside of Foton, it also has its own ablative heat shield to protect the facility and samples during the spacecraft's re-entry and landing. Other ESA experiments on board Foton are looking into the effects of weightlessness on bacteria, the biological clocks of beetles and the aging of fruitflies. The scientific investigators responsible for the ESA experiments are from research institutes and universities in Belgium

  9. ESA is hot on the trail of Geminga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XMM-Newton image of Geminga showing the discovery of the twi hi-res Size hi-res: 68 kb Credits: ESA XMM-Newton image of Geminga showing the discovery of the twin tails This image was captured by the EPIC camera on board the satellite. The motion of Geminga across the sky is indicated, showing that the tails are trailing the neutron star. The scale bar corresponds to a distance of 1.5 million million kilometres at the distance of Geminga. Computer models of the shock wave created by Geminga hi-res Size hi-res: 522 kb Credits: Patrizia Caraveo Computer models of the shockwave created by Geminga Computer models of the shockwave created by Geminga show that the best matches to the data occur if the neutron star is travelling virtually across our line of sight. These correspond to the inclinations of less than 30 degrees. A neutron star measures only 20-30 kilometres across and is the dense remnant of an exploded star. Geminga is one of the closest to Earth, at a distance of about 500 light-years. Most neutron stars emit radio emissions, appearing to pulsate like a lighthouse, but Geminga is 'radio-quiet'. It does, however, emit huge quantities of pulsating gamma rays making it one of the brightest gamma-ray sources in the sky. Geminga is the only example of a successfully identified gamma-ray source from which astronomers have gained significant knowledge. It is 350 000 years old and ploughs through space at 120 kilometres per second. Its route creates a shockwave that compresses the gas of the interstellar medium and its naturally embedded magnetic field by a factor of four. Patrizia Caraveo, Instituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Milano, Italy, and her colleagues (at CESR, France, ESO and MPE, Germany) have calculated that the tails are produced because highly energetic electrons become trapped in this enhanced magnetic field. As the electrons spiral inside the magnetic field, they emit the X-rays seen by XMM-Newton. The electrons themselves are created

  10. Come to Noyon (France) and follow the solar eclipse with ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    ESA will feature a special exhibition stand where the public, amateurs and press can obtain information. During the partial eclipse phases, the latest images from ESA's solar observatory SOHO and from other European eclipse sites, coming via the Internet or traditional broadcast, will be shown on a large video screen. The magic of the total eclipse in Noyon will last 2 minutes and 11 seconds. ESA has set up a multi-site eclipse imaging campaign over Europe to capture a long eclipse sequence from the Atlantic, the UK, France (Noyon and Strasbourg), Germany, Austria/ Hungary (at an international camp of young astronomers) and Romania. High-definition still and video images of the eclipse will be available live on the Internet. Check our site http://sci.esa.int/eclipse99/ Noyon will also host a press briefing at the eclipse site Media Centre at 9h30-10h30, and again at 13h15-14h15, after the eclipse shadow has left Europe. Opportunities for interviews with ESA multi-language staff and other specialists will be possible after the eclipse. Over the week leading up to the eclipse, ESA representatives are also participating in press and public conferences. Daily press conferences are scheduled in Strasbourg at the France 3 Auditorium from 4 to 11 August at 16:00-18:00 hrs, in Paris at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle from 5 -12 August (except 11 August) at 10:00-12:00 hrs, and in Stuttgart at the Science Fair, where an ESA/Max Plank Institute stand has also been set up.

  11. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme.

  12. Transitioning research to application in the area of space weather at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgers, Alain; Glover, Alexi; Daly, Eamonn; Luntama, Juha-Pekka

    This presentation gives an overview of the past and current ESA space weather research ac-tivities and discusses the approaches used or foreseen for transitioning research products into application. Since its establishment ESA has supported and coordinated space weather re-search through its various programmes. The scientific programme has especially contributed to the investigation of key scientific aspects of space weather phenomena while the technology and research programmes targeted the effects of space environments on space systems. In 1998 ESA has started consultations among member states and performed studies to identify the requirements for a future European wide space weather application programme encompassing monitoring and forecasting services to support and protect the operation of space and ground based systems. As a by-product, structural developments were made including the establish-ment of a network of space weather service prototypes (SWENET). In 2008 the council of ESA decided to initiate a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme including space weather as one of the pillars together with space surveillance and near-Earth objects elements. Since the Space Weather element is planned to primarily rely on relevant existing assets it will provide a framework for transitioning several research assets of ESA and its member states to operational components of the overall system. Other paths will be considered for other assets which are not directly relevant to the SSA programme or which are still in a early research stage.

  13. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  14. Cost considerations in database selection - A comparison of DIALOG and ESA/IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there are many factors which affect the decision-making process in determining which databases should be selected for conducting the online search on a given topic. In many cases, however, the major consideration will be related to cost. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the costs involved in making use of DIALOG and the European Space Agency's Information Retrieval Service (ESA/IRS). The two services are very comparable in many respects. Attention is given to pricing structure, telecommunications, the number of databases, prints, time requirements, a table listing online costs for DIALOG and ESA/IRS, and differences in mounting databases. It is found that ESA/IRS is competitively priced when compared to DIALOG, and, despite occasionally higher telecommunications costs, may be even more economical to use in some cases.

  15. Large format array controller (aLFA-C): tests and characterisation at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmel, Frédéric; ter Haar, Jörg; van der Biezen, John; Duvet, Ludovic; Nelms, Nick; Blommaert, Sander; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Smit, Hans; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    For future near infrared astronomy missions, ESA is developing a complete detection and conversion chain (photon to SpaceWire chain system): Large Format Array (aLFA-N) based on MCT type detectors. aLFA-C (Astronomy Large Format Array Controller): a versatile cryogenic detector controller. An aLFA-C prototype was developed by Caeleste (Belgium) under ESA contract (400106260400). To validate independently the performances of the aLFA-C prototype and consolidate the definition of the follow-on activity, a dedicated test bench has been designed and developed in ESTEC/ESA within the Payload Technology Validation group. This paper presents the test setup and the performance validation of the first prototype of this controller at room and cryogenic temperature. Test setup and software needed to test the HAWAII-2RG and aLFA-N detectors with the aLFA-C prototype at cryogenic temperature will be also presented.

  16. A new ESA educational initiative: Euro Space Center class teachers in microgravity during parabolic flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Paulis, Pierre Emmanuel; Loosveldt, Edwin; Gering, Dominique; Body, Mireille; Schewijck, Robert

    2005-12-01

    Since 1984, the European Space Agency (ESA) has organized 30 aircraft parabolic flight campaigns in the frame of its Microgravity Programme to perform short duration scientific and technological experiments. On each campaign, ESA invites journalists to report to the general public on the research work conducted in weightlessness. A new initiative was launched in 2000 with the introduction of pedagogical experiments aiming at educating youngsters and the general public on weightlessness effects. In November 2000, four secondary school teachers detached to the Euro Space Center (ESC) participated in the 29th ESA campaign. The ESC in Belgium provides recreational and educational activities for the general public and organizes space classes targeted at primary and secondary school pupils. The four teachers performed simple experiments with gyroscopes, yo-yos, magnetic balls, pendulum and food to explain their different behaviour in weightlessness, to show characteristics and possibilities of the microgravity environment and the difficulties that astronauts encounter in their daily life in orbit.

  17. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Media representatives are invited to INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September to learn about the mission and attend a ceremony at which a container filled with Ferrari's distinctive 'Rosso Corsa' red paint will be integrated with the spacecraft. Mr Antonio Rodotà (ESA Director General), Professor David Southwood (ESA Director of Science), senior representatives of the space industry and a representative from Ferrari will be giving presentations. Together with the ESA Mars Express project manager and project scientist, they will be available for interviews. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September are kindly requested to complete the accreditation form and fax it to: Franco Bonacina, Head of Media Relations ESA/HQ, Paris, France Tel. +33 (0) 1 53697155 Fax. +33 (0) 1 53697690 Notes for Editors: 1. On 18 September at INTESPACE, Toulouse, ESA will integrate a sample of Ferrari's 'Rosso Corsa' red paint with the Mars Express spacecraft. This event is part of a new ESA communication policy aimed mainly at the general public. Ferrari have much to celebrate: the outstanding success of the Scuderia Ferrari, winning their fourth consecutive Formula One constructors' championship and Michael Schumacher his fifth Formula One drivers' championship. Responding to an ESA proposal, Ferrari have agreed to send the symbol of their winning formula on the ESA mission to the Red Planet. When Mars Express blasts into orbit next summer at 10 800 kilometres per hour, it will be the fastest that Ferrari's distinctive red paint has ever travelled. Following successful completion of a series of rigorous tests, the Ferrari red paint sample will be officially certified 'space qualified' at a ceremony at INTESPACE. Housed in a specially constructed glass globe known as FRED, it will then be formally integrated with the Mars Express craft. 2. The main objective of the Mars Express mission is to detect the presence of water below the

  18. The europa initiative for esa's cosmic vision: a potential european contribution to nasa's Europa mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Michel; Jones, Geraint H.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the habitability of Jupiter's icy moons is considered of high priority in the roadmaps of the main space agencies, including the decadal survey and esa's cosmic vision plan. the voyager and galileo missions indicated that europa and ganymede may meet the requirements of habitability, including deep liquid aqueous reservoirs in their interiors. indeed, they constitute different end-terms of ocean worlds, which deserve further characterization in the next decade. esa and nasa are now both planning to explore these ice moons through exciting and ambitious missions. esa selected in 2012 the juice mission mainly focused on ganymede and the jupiter system, while nasa is currently studying and implementing the europa mission. in 2015, nasa invited esa to provide a junior spacecraft to be carried on board its europa mission, opening a collaboration scheme similar to the very successful cassini-huygens approach. in order to define the best contribution that can be made to nasa's europa mission, a europa initiative has emerged in europe. its objective is to elaborate a community-based strategy for the proposition of the best possible esa contribution(s) to nasa's europa mission, as a candidate for the upcoming selection of esa's 5th medium-class mission . the science returns of the different potential contributions are analysed by six international working groups covering complementary science themes: a) magnetospheric interactions; b) exosphere, including neutrals, dust and plumes; c) geochemistry; d) geology, including expressions of exchanges between layers; e) geophysics, including characterization of liquid water distribution; f) astrobiology. each group is considering different spacecraft options in the contexts of their main scientific merits and limitations, their technical feasibility, and of their interest for the development of esa-nasa collaborations. there are five options under consideration: (1) an augmented payload to the europa mission main

  19. Upgrade of DRAMA-ESA's Space Debris Mitigation Analysis Tool Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelhaus, Johannes; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Braun, Vitali; Kebschull, Christopher; de Oliveira, Joaquim Correia; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Raul; Wiedemann, Carsten; Krag, Holger; Vorsmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    One decade ago ESA started the dev elopment of the first version of the software tool called DRAMA (Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis) to enable ESA space programs to assess their compliance with the recommendations in the European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation. This tool was maintained, upgraded and extended during the last year and is now a combination of five individual tools, each addressing a different aspect of debris mitigation. This paper gives an overview of the new DRAMA software in general. Both, the main tools ARES, OSCAR, MIDAS, CROC and SARA will be discussed and the environment used by DRAMA will be explained shortly.

  20. ESA successfully conducts experiment in Advanced Space Robotics on Japanese satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    ETS-VII is the latest in NASDA's series of engineering test satellites. It is dedicated to the in-orbit assessment and demonstration of novel technologies in rendez-vous / docking and space robotics. ETS-VII is in fact a pair of satellites, a larger chaser and a smaller target satellite which can be released for the rendez-vous and docking experiments. The larger satellite carries a robot arm with a stretched length of about 2 m, and a set of experimentation equipment to test the robot's capabilities : a task board on which typical robot manipulation activities can be performed and measured, an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) to be removed and reinstalled, a truss structure to be erected, an antenna assembly mechanism to be actuated and an advanced robot hand. The ESA experiments concern advanced schemes for planning, commanding, controlling and monitoring the activities of a space robot arm system. One set of experiments tests an operational mode called "interactive autonomy", whereby the robot motions are split into typical "tasks" of medium complexity. Ground operators can interact with the tasks (parameterising, commanding, rescheduling, monitoring, interrupting them as needed), relying on the fact that each task will be autonomously executed using appropriate sensor-based control loops (it having been programmed and extensively verified in advance by simulation). This significantly reduces the amount of data traffic over the spacelink - in fact, ETS-VII offers only a few short communications windows per day. Data from ESA experiments will be used to assess the performance of tasks executed with "interactive autonomy" compared with the more traditional telemanipulation at lower control levels. The second group of experiments concerns vision-based robot control. Using the Japanese-provided on-board vision system (which includes one hand camera and one scene-overview camera), it has been demonstrated that reliable automatic object localisation and grasping can be

  1. ESA MS Nicollier, assisted by technicians, dons EMU lower torso in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, seated and wearing a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG), pulls on the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) lower torso as a technician straightens the EMU leg. Nicollier is preparing for an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation and familiarization session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  2. The World Administrative Radio Conference 1992 and its impact on ESA's programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, G. F.; Fromm, H.-H.; Galligan, K. P.; Rogard, R.; Otter, M.

    1992-08-01

    The World Administrative Radio Conference 1992, known familiarly as WARC-92, was held in Malaga-Torremolinos between 3 February and 3 March this year. This WARC, attended by more than 1400 delegates from 127 Member Countries of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and numerous observer organizations such as ESA, may well have been the last of the large WARCs of recent decades.

  3. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  4. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia

    2016-07-01

    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  5. Korean Diaspora in the Age of Globalization: Early Study Abroad (ESA) College Students in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Young

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the unique experiences of international Korean college students in the Midwest who have gone through the early study abroad (ESA) period in the US during their formative secondary school education and the influence of the experiences into their college lives in the mega campus. Two overarching research questions are: 1) how do…

  6. Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA),

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA), set up an experiment at the glovebox on the Space Shuttle Columbias mid-deck. The two mission specialists joined three other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia.

  7. Electrical signature analysis (ESA) developments at the Oak Ridge Diagnostics Applied Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    Since 1985, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed and patented several novel signal conditioning and signature analysis methods that have exploited the intrinsic abilities of conventional electric motors and generators to act as transducers. By using simple nonintrusive sensors such as clamp-on current and voltage probes, these new diagnostic techniques provide an improved means of detecting small time-dependent load and speed variations generated anywhere within an electromechanical system and converting them into revealing signatures that can be used to detect equipment degradation and incipient failures. These developments have been grouped under the general name of electrical signature analysis (ESA) and together provide a breakthrough in the ability to detect, analyze, and correct unwanted changes in process conditions or the presence of abnormalities in electrical and electromechanical equipment. Typical diagnostic information provided by ESA is comparable to that provided by conventional vibration analysis in that both time waveform and frequency spectrum signatures may be produced. The primary benefit of ESA is that an extensive range of diagnostic information can be obtained from a single transducer that may be installed several hundred feet or more from the monitored device on its electrical lines supplying input power (e.g., to a motor) or carrying output power (e.g., from a generator); thus, ESA is truly remote and nonintrusive.

  8. The ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator 3: Have your say on new features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L. H.; Christensen, L. L.; Hurt, R. L.; Nielsen, K.; Johansen, T.

    2008-06-01

    The popular, free ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator image processing software (a plugin for Adobe Photoshop) is about to get simpler, faster and more user-friendly! Here we would like to solicit inputs from the community of users.

  9. Exploring NASA and ESA Atmospheric Data Using GIOVANNI, the Online Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the NASA Goddard online visualization and analysis tool (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users explore various atmospheric phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using NASA MODIS (Terra and Aqua) and ESA MERIS (ENVISAT) aerosol data as an example, we demonstrate Giovanni usage for online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  10. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.

  11. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  12. Assessment Of The Impact Of ESA CCI Land Cover Information For Global Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystova, Iryna G.; Loew, A.; Hangemann, S.; Defourny, P.; Brockmann, C.; Bontemps, S.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing the issues of climate change, the European Space Agency has recently initiated the Global Monitoring of an Essential Climate Variables program (ESA Climate Change Initiative). The main objective is to realize the full potential of the long-term global Earth Observation archives that ESA has established over the last thirty years. Due to well organized data access and transparency for the data quality, as well as long-term scientific and technical support, the provided datasets have become very attractive for the use in Earth System Modeling. The Max Plank Institute for Meteorology is contributing to the ESA CCI via the Climate Modeler User Group (CMUG) activities and is responsible for providing a modeler perspective on the Land Cover and Fire Essential Climate Variables. The new ESA land cover ECV has recently released a new global 300-m land cover dataset. This dataset is supported by an interactive tool which allows flexible horizontal re-scaling and conversion from currently accepted satellite specific land classes to the model- specific Plant Functional Types (PFT) categorization. Such a dataset is an ideal starting point for the generation of the land cover information for the initialization of model cover fractions. In this presentation, we show how the usage of this new dataset affects the model performance, comparing it to the standard model set-up, in terms of energy and water fluxes. To do so, we performed a number of offline land-system simulations with original standard JSBACH land cover information and with the new ESA CCI land cover product. We have analyzed the impact of land cover on a simulated surface albedo, temperature and energy fluxes as well as on the biomass load and fire carbon emissions.

  13. ESA's Support To Science Element (STSE): A New Opportunity for the Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, D.; Herland, E.-A.

    2009-04-01

    In 1998, the document ESA SP-1227: "The Science and Research Elements of ESA's Living Planet Programme", laid out the research objectives for the scientific component of the Living Planet Program. These were formulated around four themes: Earth Interior, Physical Climate, Geosphere/Biosphere and Atmosphere & Marine Environment: Anthropogenic Impact. These themes encompassed the full scope of Earth Science. Although no specific area of Earth Science was prioritised, the document emphasised the need to move towards an integrated Earth System Model, where the role of internationally coordinated scientific programmes and coordination with national programmes and other agencies and organisations were recognised as being a key aspect of the science strategy. In 2006, the EO Science Strategy was updated (ESA/PB-EO(2006)89) under the auspices of the ESA's Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) in wide consultation with the scientific community. The resulting document: "The Changing Earth - New Scientific Challenges for ESA's Living Planet Programme" (ESA/SP-1304) outlines the new scientific direction for the future progress of the ESA Living Planet Programme. In particular, the document set out the 25 major challenges for our understanding of the Earth System with especial focus on those areas of knowledge where satellite data may make a major contribution. Achieving those challenges will require a large international effort involving, novel observation, enhanced data sets, improved models and coordinated research. ESA is contributing to those efforts through its missions (e.g., the ERS1 and 2, ENVISAT, the Meteorological satellites and the coming Earth Explorers and Sentinel series) and exploitation programs. However, in order to further reinforce the ESA support to the scientific community, a dedicated element of the Envelop program was launched in 2008, the Support To Science Element (STSE). STSE aims at providing "scientific support for both future and on

  14. The Swarm Archiving Payload Data Facility, an Instance Configuration of the ESA Multi-Mission Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruin, B.; Martini, A.; Shanmugam, P.; Lopes, C.

    2015-04-01

    The Swarm mission consists of 3 satellites, each carrying an identical set of instruments. The scientific algorithms for processing are organized in 11 separate processing steps including automated product quality control. In total, the mission data consists of data products of several hundred distinct types from raw to level 2 product types and auxiliary data. The systematic production for Swarm within the ESA Archiving and Payload Data Facility (APDF) is performed up to level 2. The production up to L2 (CAT2-mature algorithm) is performed completely within the APDF. A separate systematic production chain from L1B to L2 (CAT1-evolving algorithm) is performed by an external facility (L2PS) with output files archived within the APDF as well. The APDF also performs re-processing exercises. Re-processing may start directly from the acquired data or from any other intermediate level resulting in the need for a refined product version and baseline management. Storage, dissemination and circulation functionality is configurable in the ESA generic multi-mission elements and does not require any software coding. The control of the production is more involved. While the interface towards the algorithmic entities is standardized due to the introduction of a generic IPF interface by ESA, the orchestration of the individual IPFs into the overall workflows is distinctly mission-specific and not as amenable to standardization. The ESA MMFI production management system provides extension points to integrate additional logical elements for the build-up of complex orchestrated workflows. These extension points have been used to inject the Swarm-specific production logic into the system. A noteworthy fact about the APDF is that the dissemination elements are hosted in a high bandwidth infrastructure procured as a managed service, thus affording users a considerable access bandwidth. This paper gives an overview of the Swarm APDF data flows. It describes the elements of the solution

  15. Proteomic Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Regulon in Pantoea stewartii and Identification of Direct Targets of EsaR

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Revathy

    2013-01-01

    The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized. PMID:23913428

  16. ESA activities in the use of microwaves for the remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccoll, D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of activities under way in the European Space Agency (ESA) directed towards Remote Sensing of the oceans and troposphere is discussed. The initial project is the launch of a satellite named ERS-1 with a primary payload of microwave values in theee C- and Ku-bands. This payload is discussed in depth. The secondary payload includes precision location experiments and an instrument to measure sea surface temperature, which are described. The important topic of calibration is extensively discussed, and a review of activities directed towards improvements to the instruments for future satellites is presented. Some discussion of the impact of the instrument payload on the spacecraft design follows and the commitment of ESA to the provision of a service of value to the ultimate user is emphasized.

  17. Benefits of the Nephros Dual Stage Ultrafilter in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Evidence for Improved ESA Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Anthony; Lee, Bobby; Duffy, John; Ferrer, Robin; Vilotta, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Installation of the Nephros Dual Stage Ultrafilter (DSU) added to a conventional hemodialysis unit to achieve ultrapure dialysate was tested in a group of 23 stable outpatients on chronic hemodialysis. Comparing the 6-month period prior to the installation of the filters (as baseline) to the 6-month period after the installation of the filters, we found a significant 40% reduction in the darbepoetin dose needed to maintain a stable hemoglobin level (p < 0.001). In addition, surrogate inflammatory markers, WBC count and serum albumin level, showed small but statistically significant improvements (p = 0.008 and p = 0.042, respectively). In conclusion, the use of the Nephros DSU to further reduce endotoxin exposure in chronic hemodialysis patients can result in improved erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) responsiveness and a lower ESA dose. PMID:26889475

  18. ESA's Toolboxes for Optical Earth Observation Data: BEAM, CHRIS-Box and the Glob-Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomferra, Norman; Peters, Marco; Quast, Ralf; Zuhlke, Marco; Danne, Olaf; Storm, Thomas; Brockmann, Carsten; Regner, Peter

    2010-12-01

    With the launch of ENVISAT in 2002 ESA started the development of the Basic AATSR and MERIS toolbox BEAM [1]. With the requirement to be an open platform for scientists and operational users as well as software developers, ESA laid the foundation for this sustainable and successful open source software development project. Today BEAM is a toolbox and development platform supporting a wide range of optical sensors for Earth Observation, including SMOS, CHRIS/Proba, Landsat/TM, AVNIR, PRISM, MODIS and AVHRR, and enables importing of generic formats such as Geo-TIFF and NetCDF. Widely known is the interactive Visualisation and Analysis Tool VISAT of the BEAM toolbox. On top of the various EO data sources, a wide range of tools and data processors have meanwhile been developed for BEAM.

  19. Use of Data Denial Experiments to Evaluate ESA Forecast Sensitivity Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Manobianco, J; Waight, K; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area shown in Figure 1 that includes Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. The Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) approach uses data generated by a set (ensemble) of perturbed numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations for a sample time period to statistically diagnose the sensitivity of a specified forecast variable (metric) for a target location to parameters at other locations and prior times referred to as the initial condition (IC) or state variables. The ESA approach was tested on the large-scale atmospheric prediction problem by Ancell and Hakim 2007 and Torn and Hakim 2008. ESA was adapted and applied at the mesoscale by Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) to the Tehachapi Pass, CA (warm and cools seasons) and Mid-Colombia Basin (warm season only) wind generation regions. In order to apply the ESA approach at the resolution needed at the mesoscale, Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) developed the Multiple Observation Optimization Algorithm (MOOA). MOOA uses a multivariate regression on a few select IC parameters at one location to determine the incremental improvement of measuring multiple variables (representative of the IC parameters) at various locations. MOOA also determines how much information from each IC parameter contributes to the change in the metric variable at the target location. The Zack et al. studies (2010a, b, and c), demonstrated that forecast sensitivity can be characterized by well-defined, localized patterns for a number of IC variables such as 80-m

  20. NEO follow-up, recovery and precovery campaigns at the ESA NEO Coordination Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Marco; Koschny, Detlef; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Perozzi, Ettore; Borgia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) has been established within the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Among its tasks are the coordination of observational activities and the distribution of up-to-date information on NEOs through its web portal. The Centre is directly involved in observational campaigns with various telescopes, including ESO's VLT and ESA's OGS telescope. We are also developing a network of collaborating observatories, with a variety of capabilities, which are alerted when an important observational opportunity arises. From a service perspective, the system hosted at the NEOCC collects information on NEOs produced by European services and makes it available to users, with a focus on objects with possible collisions with the Earth. Among the tools provided via our portal are the Risk List of all known NEOs with impact solutions, and the Priority List, which allows observers to identify NEOs in most urgent need of observations.

  1. 15 K liquid hydrogen thermal Energy Storage Unit for future ESA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges de Sousa, P.; Martins, D.; Tomás, G.; Barreto, J.; Noite, J.; Linder, M.; Fruchart, D.; de Rango, P.; Haettel, R.; Catarino, I.; Bonfait, G.

    2015-12-01

    A thermal Energy Storage Unit (ESU) using liquid hydrogen has been developed as a solution for absorbing the heat peaks released by the recycling phase of a 300 mK cooler that is a part of the cryogenic chain of one of ESA's new satellites for science missions. This device is capable of storing 400 J of thermal energy between 15 and 16 K by taking advantage of the liquid-to-vapor latent heat of hydrogen in a closed system. This paper describes some results obtained with the development model of the ESU under different configurations and using two types of hydrogen storage: a large expansion volume for ground testing and a much more compact unit, suitable for space applications and that can comply with ESA's mass budget.

  2. System concepts and enabling technologies for an ESA low-cost mission to Jupiter / Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, P.; Koeck, C.; Kemble, Steve; Atzei, Alessandro; Falkner, Peter

    2004-11-01

    The European Space Agency is currently studying the Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME), as part of its Technology Reference Studies (TRS), used for its development plan of technologies enabling future scientific missions. The JME focuses on the exploration of the Jovian system and particularly of Europa. The Jupiter Minisat Orbiter (JMO) study concerns the first mission phase of JME that counts up to three missions using pairs of minisats. The scientific objectives are the investigation of Europa's global topography, the composition of its (sub)surface and the demonstration of existence of a subsurface ocean below its icy crust. The present paper describes the candidate JMO system concept, based on a Europa Orbiter (JEO) supported by a communications relay satellite (JRS), and its associated technology development plan. It summarizes an analysis performed in 2004 jointly by ESA and the EADS-Astrium Company in the frame of an industrial technical assistance to ESA.

  3. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Pretreatments Only Final Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or CR(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings.

  4. The ESA Polar Platform: A work-horse for future Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibaldi, G. G.; Cendral, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Long Term Plan, the Earth Observation Missions play a very important role in contributing to a better knowledge and monitoring of the Earth Environment. Within the range of future Earth Observation missions, the low altitude sun synchronous polar orbit is of special interest because it offers a repeated coverage of the complete surface of the Earth. For this type of mission, a large number of instruments having different technology and application objectives have been developed or are under development in Europe. To cope with those needs, ESA has initiated the development of the Polar Platform as part of its infrastructure to become the work-horse of future Earth Observation Missions in the Polar orbits. This spacecraft bus, through its design modularity, can cope with a wide range of payload complements and instrument requirements so that the future development emphasis in Europe can be placed on payload and observations rather than repeated satellite developments. The Polar Platform design makes maximum use of the SPOT and ERS programmes experience and design in order to reduce development risk and minimize costs. The modular design can cope with different payload accommodation, power and mass requirements as well as different orbit altitudes. The development is well advanced and is now well into the detailed design and development programme, with components and long lead hardware procurement already initiated. The development of the payload complement for the first mission has been initiated in parallel via the POEM-1 Programme. The Polar Platform will also make use of the other ESA's future infrastructure, such as the Ariane 5 Launcher as well as the Data Relay Satellite System in order to ensure global coverage of observations. The launch of the first ESA Polar Platform Mission carrying the POEM-1 Mission is planned for mid-1988. The performance requirements, design and status of development of the Polar Platform

  5. Space Environment Forecasting with Neutron Monitors: Establishing a novel service for the ESA SSA Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Souvatzoglou, George; Paschalis, Pavlos; Sarlanis, Christos; Dimitroulakos, John; Gerontidou, Maria

    2013-04-01

    High-energy particles released at the Sun during a solar flare or a very energetic coronal mass ejection, result to a significant intensity increase at neutron monitor measurements known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). Due to their space weather impact (i.e. risks and failures at communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations) it is crucial to establish a real-time operational system that would be in place to issue reliable and timely GLE Alerts. Currently, the Cosmic Ray group of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens is working towards the establishment of a Neutron Monitor Service that will be made available via the Space Weather Portal operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), under the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Program. To this end, a web interface providing data from multiple Neutron Monitor stations as well as an upgraded GLE Alert will be provided. Both services are now under testing and validation and they will probably enter to an operational phase next year. The core of this Neutron Monitor Service is the GLE Alert software, and therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to upgrade the existing GLE Alert software, to minimize the probability of a false alarm and to enhance the usability of the corresponding results. The ESA Neutron Monitor Service is building upon the infrastructure made available with the implementation of the High-Resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB). In this work the structure of the Neutron Monitor Service for ESA SSA Program and the impact of the novel GLE Alert Service that will be made available to future users via ESA SSA web portal will be presented and further discussed.

  6. ESA MS Nicollier, assisted by technicians, dons EMU upper torso in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, wearing liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) and extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) lower torso, crouches under EMU upper torso. Technicians extend the sleeves enabling Nicollier to insert his arms into the armholes. Once fully suited in the EMU, Nicollier will be lowered via the platform into JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool for an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation and familiarization session.

  7. ESA/ESO collaboration to track potentially threatening near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O.; Koschny, D.; Micheli, M.

    2014-07-01

    A collaboration has been set up between ESA and ESO, within the global effort by the United Nations and its Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS). The UN-COPUOS Action Team 14 put forward recommendations for an international response to the near-Earth-object (NEO) impact threat to form an International Asteroid Warning Network, which the UN General Assembly approved in October 2013. The NEO Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) aims to coordinate and combine information from different sources, and analyse them to predict possible impacts with the Earth, and assess danger, and analyse possible mitigations, including the deflection of a menacing asteroid. With the VLT, ESO's capabilities to observe very faint (but still threatening) NEOs complement ESA's efforts to discover and track these objects. The ESA/ESO campaign focuses on faint objects, with a high value on the Palermo scale, which cannot be observed with smaller telescopes, and on recently discovered NEOs, which are rapidly fading below the detection threshold for smaller telescopes before their orbit can be secured. Technically, the campaign is implemented as a 'Target of Opportunity'' program, in which observations can be queued on VLT's UT1 with FORS at short notice. The first observations targeted 2009 FD, which had been ranked among the top five objects on the NEODyS Risk List. The VLT observations, processed by the European NEODyS system and the JPL-based Sentry system, decreased its Palermo index from -1.8 to -2.6. The campaign currently has a telescope time credit corresponding to 15--20 recoveries per year.

  8. ESA MS Nicollier extends mockup tetherline prior to JSC WETF simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, turning a crank, extends a tetherline from a reel mounted on a mockup of the forward payload bay (PLB) bulkhead. Nicollier familiarizes himself with the operation of the safety tether system prior to donning an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and participating in an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simu- lation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  9. ESA initiatives to improve mechanical design and verification methods for ceramic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Graham; Behar-Lafenetre, Stéphanie; Cornillon, Laurence; Rancurel, Michaël.; Denaux, David; Ballhause, Dirk; Lucarelli, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Current and future space missions demanding ever more stringent stability and precision requirements are driving the need for (ultra) stable and lightweight structures. Materials best suited to meeting these needs in a passive structural design, centre around ceramic materials or specifically tailored CFRP composite. Ceramic materials have essential properties (very low CTE, high stiffness), but also unfavorable properties (low fracture toughness). Ceramic structures feature in a number of current and planned ESA missions. These missions benefit from the superior stiffness and thermo-elastic stability properties of ceramics, but suffer the penalties inherent to the brittle nature of these materials. Current practice in designing and sizing ceramic structures is to treat ceramic materials in a deterministic manner similar to conventional materials but with larger safety factors and conservatively derived material strength properties. This approach is convenient, but can be penalising in mass and in practice does not arrive at an equivalent structural reliability compared to metallic components. There is also no standardised approach for the design and verification of ceramic structures in Europe. To improve this situation, ESA placed two parallel study contracts with Astrium and Thales Alenia Space with the objective to define design and verification methodology for ceramic structures, with the further goal to establish a common `handbook' for design and verification approach. This paper presents an overview of ceramic structures used in current and future ESA missions and summarises the activities to date in the frame of improving and standardising design and verification methods for ceramic structures.

  10. Opportunity for cooperation in space remote sensing technology between ESA and CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Shiju; Cui, Shaochun; Zhang, Bangning

    1998-12-01

    This paper details the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) position and recent development in space remote sensing activities nd gives the author's view of the accomplishment of European Space Agency (ESA) in this field. Space remote sensing technology is a useful scientific and technical means to realize sustainable development of the society of mankind now and future. Peace and development are the common desires of the people across the world and become the current of the present era. Nowadays, cooperation in scientific research and technical works among different countries has been the trend. 'Open the door to the outside world' policy adopted by the Chinese Government gives great warranty and strong motivation for cooperation and communication between China and the world. CAST as a leading space group of China has a strong willing to cooperate with ESA, NASA and other nation's space bodies. At the last part of this paper, author's view about the opportunity of cooperation in space remote sensing technology between ESA and CAST is put forth.

  11. Opto-mechanical modeling of the Herschel Space Telescope at ESA/ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransen, S.; Doyle, D.; Catanzaro, B.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper the opto-mechanical modeling of the Herschel infrared space telescope at ESA/ESTEC is presented. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of all modeling activities that took place between 2006 and 2010. In 2006 ESA commissioned a Tiger Team to review the discrepancy between the prediction and measurement of the change in telescope back focal length of the Herschel infrared space telescope. The understanding of the discrepancy was essential since the telescope did not have a refocusing mechanism and hence had to be shimmed to the focus position at cryogenic operational temperature. A team of 16 engineers and scientists collocated at ESA/ESTEC to review the finite element models, optical models and test data used for the prediction of the telescope back focal length. The methodology of prediction, the uncertainties and the obtained results were critically assessed. The team used various modeling techniques including paraxial optical models, first order linear thermal expansion models, full system and metrology ray tracing, deterministic and stochastic thermo-elastic finite element analyses. The opto-mechanical analysis techniques, assumptions and results are discussed. In addition the impact of new measurements of coefficients of thermal expansion, performed after shimming of the telescope flight model, are addressed.

  12. Benefits of ESA Gravity-Related Hands-on Programmes for University Students' Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Natacha; Ha, Lily; Galeone, Piero

    2016-10-01

    The Education Office of the European Space Agency (ESA) offers university students, from ESA Member and Cooperating States, the opportunity to perform investigations in physical sciences, life sciences, and technology, under different gravity conditions through three educational programmes. The "Fly Your Thesis!" (FYT) programme makes use of parabolic flights and the "Drop Your Thesis!" (DYT) programme utilizes a drop tower as microgravity carriers, while the "Spin Your Thesis!" (SYT) programme uses a large centrifuge to create hypergravity. To date, more than hundred university students had the chance to participate in the design, development, and performance of one or more experiments during dedicated campaigns. In the following paper, we examine demographics of past participants of the ESA Education Office gravity-related opportunities over the past seven years and evaluate the benefits of these educational programmes for the participants' studies and careers. Student teams that participated in one of the programmes between 2009 and 2013 were contacted to fill in a questionnaire. The feedback from the students demonstrate significant benefits extending far beyond the primary educational objectives of these programmes.

  13. ESA's Spaceborne Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus; Recent Achievements and Preparations for Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grete Straume, Anne; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; Culoma, Alain; Mondin, Linda; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Buscaglione, Fabio; Dehn, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Within ESA's Living Planet Programme, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) was chosen as the second Earth Explorer Core mission in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of high spectral resolution Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. ADM-Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. Recently the two ALADIN laser transmitters were successfully qualified and delivered for further instrument integration. The instrument delivery will follow later this year and the satellite qualification and launch readiness is scheduled for 2016. In February 2015, an Aeolus Science and Calibration and Validation (CAL/VAL) Workshop was held in ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, bringing industry, the user community and ESA together to prepare for the Aeolus Commissioning and Operational Phases. During the Workshop the science, instrument and product status, commissioning phase planning and the extensive number of proposals submitted in response to the Aeolus CAL/VAL call in 2014 were presented and discussed. A special session was dedicated to the Aeolus CAL/VAL Implementation Plan. In this paper, the Aeolus mission, status and launch preparation activities are described.

  14. ESA Science Media Day: Rosetta and Integral getting ready for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Media representatives are invited to ESTEC on Tuesday 18 June to learn about these two missions. Professor David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, ESA project managers and project scientists, together with industry representatives, will be giving presentations and be on hand for interviews. Visits to the spacecraft in their test environment will also be included. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at ESA/ESTEC on 18 June are kindly requested to complete the attached accreditation form and fax it to: Heidi Graf, Head of Corporate Communication Office - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands - (Tel. +31(0) 71.565.3006 - Fax. +31(0)71.565.5728). Note for editors: The mission goal for the Rosetta spacecraft is a rendezvous with Comet Wirtanen in 2011. Rosetta will be launched in January 2003 by an Ariane-5 from Kourou, French Guiana. On its eight-year journey to the Comet, the spacecraft will pass close to two asteroids, before studying the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen and its environment in great detail for a period of nearly two years (2011-2013). The spacecraft will also carry a lander to the nucleus and deploy it on the comet's surface. The lander science will focus on in situ study of the composition and structure of the nucleus material. The mission will make an unparalleled study of cometary material and reveal much about how the solar system formed. Integral will have the task of tracking gamma radiation across the entire sky. ESA's International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Integral, will gather gamma rays, the most energetic radiation that comes from space. The spacecraft is scheduled for launch on 17 October this year, from Baikonur, on board a Russian Proton launcher and will help solve some of the biggest mysteries in astronomy. Integral will be the most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and yet at the same time give evidence of the processes that

  15. CO2 Emissions from Air Travel by AGU and ESA Conference Attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B.; Plug, L. J.

    2003-12-01

    Air travel by scientists is one contributor to rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To assess the magnitude of this contribution in per-capita and overall terms, we calculated emissions derived from air travel for two major scientific conferences held in 2002: the western meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco and the Ecological Society of America meeting in Tucson (ESA). Round trip travel distance for sampled attendees is 7971 +/- 6968 km (1 sigma range given, n=337) for AGU and 5452 +/- 5664 km for ESA (n=263), conservatively assuming great circle routes were followed. Using accepted CO2 production rates for commercial aircraft, mean AGU emissions are 1.3 tonnes per attendee and 12351 tonnes total and for ESA 0.9 tonnes per attendee and 3140 tonnes total. Although small compared to total anthropogenic emissions (2.275 x 1010 tonnes y-1 in 1999), per attendee emissions are significant compared to annual per-capita emissions; CO2 emission per AGU and ESA attendee exceeds the per capita annual emission of 42% and 19% of Earth's population, respectively. Per attendee AGU emissions are ≈6% of U.S. and ≈14% of British and Japanese per capita annual emission. Relocation of AGU and ESA to cities which minimize travel distances, Denver and Omaha respectively, would result in modest emission reductions of 8% and 14% (assuming 2002 attendee composition). To form a preliminary estimate of annual CO2 emissions for scientists in academia, we surveyed Earth Science faculty at our home institution. Mean annual air travel distance for professional activities was 38064 km y-1 (7 respondents). The consequent release of 6.1 tonnes y-1 of CO2 is 30% of annual per capita emissions in North America, and exceeds global per capita average of 4 tonnes y-1 by 150%. Society and the environment often benefit from scientific enquiry which is facilitated by travel. These benefits, however, might be balanced against the

  16. ESA switches its infrared space telescope off and will clean its orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    Controllers at the ESA ground station at Villafranca (Madrid, Spain) witnessed the definitive end for the telescope but they didn't have to press any 'red button' or the like. The instructions for the switch off had already been introduced into ISO's computer earlier. ISO's last month of life was used to gather as much technical data as possible. Various software and hardware systems that, due to the superb performance of the spacecraft, did not have to be used during the operational phase were subjected to detailed tests. Results from these tests will benefit future ESA missions, such as XMM and Integral, which use some of the same components, such as the Star Trackers guiding the spacecraft. Also, ISO's farewell included a further last gift for the astronomers. A few of the detectors in the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), one of the four instruments on-board the satellite, could still be used after exhaustion of the liquid helium. In anticipation of this opportunity, a special scientific programme has been prepared and was interleaved with the technology tests. Some 150 extra hours were used to measure nearly 300 stars at wavelengths between 2.4 and 4 microns enabling astronomers to make a detailed spectral classification. In fact, ISO continued to give scientific surprises to the very sad end. ISO's 'last light' observation - taken with the SWS instrument just before midnight on May 10 - was of emission lined from hydrogen in hot supergiant star (eta Canis Majoris). The preliminary results show that this star, supposed to be ordinary, is probably surrounded by a disk of matter. Commenting on the satellite switch off, ESA's Director of Science, Roger Bonnet, said "ISO has allowed us to gain the first clear view of the universe at infrared wavelengths. A great amount of work still awaits us to interpret all ISO's exciting discoveries. We will miss ISO, of course - new answers always bring new questions and the wish for yet more knowledge; that is why ESA is

  17. Operational support to collision avoidance activities by ESA's space debris office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V.; Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Merz, K.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Funke, Q.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Space Debris Office provides a service to support operational collision avoidance activities. This support currently covers ESA's missions Cryosat-2, Sentinel-1A and -2A, the constellation of Swarm-A/B/C in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as missions of third-party customers. In this work, we describe the current collision avoidance process for ESA and third-party missions in LEO. We give an overview on the upgrades developed and implemented since the advent of conjunction summary messages (CSM)/conjunction data messages (CDM), addressing conjunction event detection, collision risk assessment, orbit determination, orbit and covariance propagation, process control, and data handling. We pay special attention to the effect of warning thresholds on the risk reduction and manoeuvre rates, as they are established through risk mitigation and analysis tools, such as ESA's Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis (DRAMA) software suite. To handle the large number of CDMs and the associated risk analyses, a database-centric approach has been developed. All CDMs and risk analysis results are stored in a database. In this way, a temporary local "mini-catalogue" of objects close to our target spacecraft is obtained, which can be used, e.g., for manoeuvre screening and to update the risk analysis whenever a new ephemeris becomes available from the flight dynamics team. The database is also used as the backbone for a Web-based tool, which consists of the visualization component and a collaboration tool that facilitates the status monitoring and task allocation within the support team as well as communication with the control team. The visualization component further supports the information sharing by displaying target and chaser motion over time along with the involved uncertainties. The Web-based solution optimally meets the needs for a concise and easy-to-use way to obtain a situation picture in a very short time, and the support for

  18. European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

  19. UK and ESA announce Beagle 2 inquiry - Investigation to learn lessons from Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Today, the UK Science Minister Lord Sainsbury and the European Space Agency (ESA) announced that an ESA/UK inquiry would be held into the failure the Beagle 2 lander. Lord Sainsbury, of the Department of Trade and Industry, said: "I believe such an inquiry will be very useful. The reasons identified by the Inquiry Board will allow the experience gained from Beagle 2 to be used for the benefit of future European planetary exploration missions." The ESA Director General, Jean-Jacques Dordain, said : "ESA is a partnership of its Member States and sharing the lessons learnt from good and bad experiences is fundamental in cooperation." The Inquiry Board is to be chaired by the ESA Inspector General, René Bonnefoy. The UK deputy chairman will be David Link MBE. The inquiry will investigate whether it can be established why Beagle 2 may have failed and set out any lessons which can be learnt for future missions. Such inquiries are routine in the event of unsuccessful space missions and this one will help inform future ESA robotic missions, to Mars and other bodies in the solar system. The Inquiry Board will be set up under normal ESA procedures by the Inspector General. Because the inquiry is into a British-built lander, it will report to Lord Sainsbury as well as to the Director General of ESA. Its terms of reference are as follows: 1. Technical Issues · Assess the available data/documentation pertaining to the in-orbit operations, environment and performance characterisation, and to the on-ground tests and analyses during development; · Identify possible issues and shortcomings in the above and in the approach adopted, which might have contributed to the loss of the mission; 2. Programmatics · Analyse the programmatic environment (i.e. decision-making processes, level of funding and resources, management and responsibilities, interactions between the various entities) throughout the development phase; · Identify possible issues and shortcomings which might have

  20. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view INTEGRAL will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 22 September. On show will be the full-size structural thermal model which is now beeing examined in ESA's test centre. Following introductions to the project, the INTEGRAL spacecraft can be seen, filmed and photographed in its special clean room environment.. Media representatives wishing to participate in the visit to ESA's test centre and the presentation of INTEGRAL are kindly requested to return by fax the attached registration form to ESA Public relations, Tel. +33 (0) 1.53.69.71.55 - Fax. +33 (0) 1.53.69.76.90. For details please see the attached programme Gamma-ray astronomy - why ? Gamma-rays cannot be detected from the ground since the earth's atmosphere shields us from high energetic radiation. Only space technology has made gamma-astronomy possible. To avoid background radiation effects INTEGRAL will spend most of its time in the orbit outside earth's radiation belts above an altitude of 40'000 km. Gamma-rays are the highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic phenomena occurring in nature and addresses some of the most fundamental problems in physics. We know for instance that most of the chemical elements in our bodies come from long-dead stars. But how were these elements formed? INTEGRAL will register gamma-ray evidence of element-making. Gamma-rays also appear when matter squirms in the intense gravity of collapsed stars or black holes. One of the most important scientific objectives of INTEGRAL is to study such compact objects as neutron stars or black holes. Besides stellar black holes there may exist much bigger specimens of these extremely dense objects. Most astronomers believe that in the heart of our Milky Way as in the centre of other galaxies there may lurk giant black holes. INTEGRAL will have to find evidence of these exotic objects. Even

  1. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  2. ESA SMART-1 mission: results and lessons for future lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We review ESA’s SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. We discuss lessons for future lunar exploration and upcoming missions. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang’ E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to application geostationary missions and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of

  3. ESA Parabolic Flight, Drop Tower and Centrifuge Opportunities for University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Natacha; Ventura-Traveset, Javier; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Eduardo; Gomez-Calero, Carlos; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Pletser, Vladimir; Kufner, Ewald; Krause, Jutta; Lindner, Robert; Gai, Frederic; Eigenbrod, Christian

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Office was established in 1998 with the purpose of motivating young people to study science, engineering and technology subjects and to ensure a qualified workforce for ESA and the European space sector in the future. To this end the ESA Education Office is supporting several hands-on activities including small student satellites and student experiments on sounding rockets, high altitude balloons as well as microgravity and hypergravity platforms. This paper is intended to introduce three new ESA Education Office hands-on activities called "Fly Your Thesis!", "Drop Your Thesis!" and "Spin Your Thesis!". These activities give re-spectively access to aircraft parabolic flight, drop tower and centrifuge campaigns to European students. These educational programmes offer university students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually perform, in microgravity or hypergravity, a scientific or techno-logical experiment which is linked to their syllabus. During the "Fly Your Thesis!" campaigns, the students accompany their experiments onboard the A300 Zero-G aircraft, operated by the company Novespace, based in Bordeaux, France, for a series of three flights of 30 parabolas each, with each parabola providing about 20s of microgravity [1]. "Drop Your Thesis!" campaigns are held in the ZARM Drop Tower, in Bremen, Germany. The installation delivers 4.74s of microgravity in dropping mode and 9.3s in the catapulting mode [2]. Research topics such as fluid physics, fundamental physics, combustion, biology, material sciences, heat transfer, astrophysics, chemistry or biochemistry can greatly benefit from using microgravity platforms. "Spin Your Thesis!" campaigns take place in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) facility, at ESTEC, Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. This facility offers an acceleration from 1 to 20 times Earth's gravity [3]. The use of hypergravity allows completing the scientific picture of how gravity has an

  4. ESA's Mercury mission named BepiColombo in honour of a space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    The mission to Mercury, now named after Prof. Colombo, is one of ESA's science programme "cornerstones". In the course of the comprehensive Horizon 2000 Plus review of the programme five years ago, it was identified by Europe's space scientists as one of the most challenging long-term planetary projects. Mercury is the least known of the inner planets. Its orbit close to the Sun makes it difficult to observe from a distance and hard to reach by spaceflight. As a result, big questions raised by the Mariner 10 flybys of a quarter of a century ago remain unanswered. "I am very pleased we have given the name of BepiColombo to our Mercury cornerstone. Bepi was a great scientist, a great European and a great friend; we could do no better than name one of our most challenging and imaginative missions after him" said Roger Bonnet, Director of ESA Science Programme. Scientists cannot claim to fully understand the origin and history of the Earth itself until they can make sense of Mercury. Why is the planet surprisingly dense ? Where does its magnetic field come from ? What were the effects of massive collisions suffered by Mercury, apparent in shattered zones seen by Mariner 10 ? Is Mercury geologically active ? How does its close proximity to the Sun affect its surface, its tenuous atmosphere and the small magnetic bubble, or magnetosphere, which surrounds it ? BepiColombo will seek the answers to these and other questions with three separate sets of scientific instruments. According to preliminary studies completed in April 1999, a Planetary Orbiter will examine the planet from an orbit over the poles, using two cameras and half a dozen other remote-sensing instruments. Seven detectors in a smaller Magnetospheric Orbiter will observe Mercury's magnetic field and its interactions with the solar wind. A Surface Element dropped by BepiColombo will land near one of the poles of Mercury, where the temperature is milder. Here the instruments will include a camera, a seismometer

  5. Comparing NASA and ESA Cost Estimating Methods for Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Charles D.; vanPelt, Michel O.

    2004-01-01

    To compare working methodologies between the cost engineering functions in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ESA European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), as well as to set-up cost engineering capabilities for future manned Mars projects and other studies which involve similar subsystem technologies in MSFC and ESTEC, a demonstration cost estimate exercise was organized. This exercise was a direct way of enhancing not only cooperation between agencies but also both agencies commitment to credible cost analyses. Cost engineers in MSFC and ESTEC independently prepared life-cycle cost estimates for a reference human Mars project and subsequently compared the results and estimate methods in detail. As a non-sensitive, public domain reference case for human Mars projects, the Mars Direct concept was chosen. In this paper the results of the exercise are shown; the differences and similarities in estimate methodologies, philosophies, and databases between MSFC and ESTEC, as well as the estimate results for the Mars Direct concept. The most significant differences are explained and possible estimate improvements identified. In addition, the Mars Direct plan and the extensive cost breakdown structure jointly set-up by MSFC and ESTEC for this concept are presented. It was found that NASA applied estimate models mainly based on historic Apollo and Space Shuttle cost data, taking into account the changes in technology since then. ESA used models mostly based on European satellite and launcher cost data, taking into account the higher equipment and testing standards for human space flight. Most of NASA's and ESA s estimates for the Mars Direct case are comparable, but there are some important, consistent differences in the estimates for: 1) Large Structures and Thermal Control subsystems; 2) System Level Management, Engineering, Product Assurance and Assembly, Integration and Test/Verification activities; 3) Mission Control; 4) Space Agency Program Level

  6. ESA celebrates Sun-Earth Day on 27-28 April 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Our Sun plays a central role in daily life, by warming and lighting the world, and powering the growth of living plants. Since ancient times, mankind has been aware of its importance, although not always understanding how or why. Now in the space age, man-made satellites monitor and probe the environs of the Sun, observing subtler and sometimes damaging effects on Earth. Studying this “space weather”, the collective term used to describe effects originating from the Sun, is an increasingly important activity in our technology-dependent society. Solar storms are responsible for many dramatic events. A nine-hour power blackout in Canada, disabled satellites and corroded pipelines have all been blamed on the Sun. Even increased radiation risks to airline passengers and crews can result from high solar activity. Forecasting the space weather can alert us to upcoming storms and appropriate actions can be taken to minimise the impact of these events. The ability to forecast comes from our improved understanding of solar events which has been facilitated by solar physics research, including important contributions from six spacecraft built in Europe: SOHO stationed far out in space, the four Cluster satellites orbiting together around the Earth, and Ulysses, which flies over the poles of the Sun. ESA invites you to join in an international effort, to promote public awareness of the dynamics of our Sun and its influence on the Earth. On the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the ESA/NASA SOHO mission, this is an appropriate opportunity to highlight how solar physics research, both from space and from the ground, contributes valuable information which can impact on our daily life. Events in local languages, at more than 40 locations throughout Europe, will celebrate this international Sun-Earth day with the support of ESA.

  7. The new Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Besse, Sebastien; Heather, Dave; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime; ESDC (European Space Data Centre) Team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more specialised views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will be also up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's ExoMars and upcoming BepiColombo missions. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). This contribution will introduce the new PSA, its key features and access interfaces.

  8. Effective methodology to derive strategic decisions from ESA exploration technology roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Top priorities in future international space exploration missions regard the achievement of the necessary maturation of enabling technologies, thereby allowing Europe to play a role commensurate with its industrial, operational and scientific capabilities. As part of the actions derived from this commitment, ESA Technology Roadmaps for Exploration represent a powerful tool to prioritise R&D activities in technologies for space exploration and support the preparation of a consistent procurement plan for space exploration technologies in Europe. The roadmaps illustrate not only the technology procurement (to TRL-8) paths for specific missions envisaged in the present timeframe, but also the achievement for Europe of technological milestones enabling operational capabilities and building blocks, essential for current and future Exploration missions. Coordination of requirements and funding sources among all European stakeholders (ESA, EU, National, and Industry) is one of the objectives of these roadmaps, that show also possible application of the technologies beyond space exploration, both at ESA and outside. The present paper describes the activity that supports the work on-going at ESA on the elaboration and update of these roadmaps and related tools, in order to criticise the followed approach and to suggest methodologies of assessment of the Roadmaps, and to derive strategic decision for the advancement of Space Exploration in Europe. After a review of Technology Areas, Missions/Programmes and related building blocks (architectures) and operational capabilities, technology applicability analyses are presented. The aim is to identify if a specific technology is required, applicable or potentially a demonstrator in the building blocks of the proposed mission concepts. In this way, for each technology it is possible to outline one or more specific plans to increase TRL up to the required level. In practice, this translates into two possible solutions: on the one

  9. The ESA astronaut sleep restraint--its development and use onboard Spacelab and MIR.

    PubMed

    Ockels, W; Stoewer, H

    1990-02-01

    The development of the ESA portable sleep restraint system is described. The system was developed to simulate certain earthbound sleep conditions in microgravity. The restraint is a bag made of two sheets of Nomex(R) cloth stretched over a tubular tension device and provides the astronaut with feedback pressure similar to bedding on Earth. The final prototype of the bag was tested on the German Spacelab-D1 mission and during a six-month mission aboard MIR. Positive feedback from astronauts suggests the need for further evaluation during space flight.

  10. ESAS-Derived Earth Departure Stage Design for Human Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaherty, Kevin; Grant, Michael; Korzun, Ashley; Malo-Molina, Faure; Steinfeldt, Bradley; Stahl, Benjamin; Wilhite, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has set the nation on a course to have humans on Mars as early as 2030. To reduce the cost and risk associated with human Mars exploration, NASA is planning for the Mars architecture to leverage the lunar architecture as fully as possible. This study takes the defined launch vehicles and system capabilities from ESAS and extends their application to DRM 3.0 to design an Earth Departure Stage suitable for the cargo and crew missions to Mars. The impact of a propellant depot in LEO was assessed and sLzed for use with the EDS. To quantitatively assess and compare the effectiveness of alternative designs, an initial baseline architecture was defined using the ESAS launch vehicles and DRM 3.0. The baseline architecture uses three NTR engines, LH2 propellant, no propellant depot in LEO, and launches on the Ares I and Ares V. The Mars transfer and surface elements from DRM 3.0 were considered to be fixed payloads in the design of the EDS. Feasible architecture alternatives were identified from previous architecture studies and anticipated capabilities and compiled in a morphological matrix. ESAS FOMs were used to determine the most critical design attributes for the effectiveness of the EDS. The ESAS-derived FOMs used in this study to assess alternative designs are effectiveness and performance, affordability, reliability, and risk. The individual FOMs were prioritized using the AHP, a method for pairwise comparison. All trades performed were evaluated with respect to the weighted FOMs, creating a Pareto frontier of equivalently ideal solutions. Additionally, each design on the frontier was evaluated based on its fulfillment of the weighted FOMs using TOPSIS, a quantitative method for ordinal ranking of the alternatives. The designs were assessed in an integrated environment using physics-based models for subsystem analysis where possible. However, for certain attributes such as engine type, historical, performance-based mass estimating

  11. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier and PLC Hoffman pose on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman pose in front of the onorbit station controls on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The overhead windows W7 and W8 appear above their heads and the aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 behind them. Hoffman and Nicollier have been training together for a dozen years at JSC. Hoffman was an astronaut candidate in 1978 and Nicollier accompanied a group of trainees in 1980. Note the partially devoured chocolate Space Shuttle floating near the two.

  12. Test data acquisition system for the ESTEC large solar simulator at ESA/ESTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buroni, G.; Zucconi, L.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype data acquisition system is described. The device characteristics, its performance and the system aspects connected to the integration of the data acquisition system into the space simulator instrumentation and environment are discussed. The data acquisition system has a modular architecture and manifold configuration capability. The input characteristics feature high resolution and accuracy/stability for the measurement of low level (thermocouple originated) analog signals, even in the presence of high common mode and S/N figures. The output is serial digital, compatible with ESA data handling standards. The device is designed to be installed in particularly hostile environments, such as that of a solar simulator.

  13. The Role of ESA TEC-QTE in the ISS Safety Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, M.; Rohr, T.; Stienstra, M. H.; Semprimoschnig, C.

    2013-09-01

    On the 17th of July 2000, the Materials and Processes Reciprocal Agreement was signed between NASA and ESA to define the process for selection and certification of materials used in the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Consecutively, on the 20th of June 2003 this agreement was extended to the Automated Transport Vehicle (ATV). It is therefore the responsibility of ESA TEC-QTE, the Materials Space Evaluation and Radiation Effects section, part of the Product Assurance and Safety Department, to ensure that all materials, parts and processes of each of the ISS payloads not only function as required but also do not pose a risk to the safety of the crew members. In this context, TEC-QTE provides qualified expertise to support the ESA Flight Safety Review and assesses safety aspects related to manned projects (materials properties, fluid system compatibility, fungus resistance). This is supported by the Materials Space Evaluation and Radiation Effects section's Materials and Electrical Components laboratory having at its disposition a range of facilities designed to perform environmental effects testing of which off-gassing tests according to ECSS-Q-ST-70-29C (equivalent to NASA STD 6001 test 7) and outgassing tests according to ECSS-Q-ST-70-02C (equivalent to ASTM-E-595). The ESA facility to perform flammability tests according to ECSS-Q-ST-70-21A (equivalent to NASA STD 6001 test1) was moved to Astrium Bremen.TEC-QTE is in charge of reviewing and approving, via RFA or MUA , all materials that do not meet safety requirements as well as COTS or CAM (black boxes) equipment.The safety process ends with the issue of the Materials Certification of the reviewed payload hardware that shows compliance with the relevant materials and processes requirements and standards.In addition to the safety related activities for the ISS, specialised TEC-QTE personnel provide measurements of the air quality inside the ATV and assess whether the toxicity index is within

  14. Present and future Solar System missions in the framework of the ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The Science Directorate is in charge of developing the "Science Mandatory Programme". Through the science programme, ESA implements scientific projects to achieve ambitious objectives. On this ground, science challenges and advancement in technologies work together in a synergistic endeavour. Both long-term science planning and mission calls are bottom-up processes, relying on broad community input and peer review. The Cosmic Vision program is since 2005 the implementation tool for the science mandatory programme. I will present an overview of the space missions in operation, under development and for study with particular emphasis on those visiting the Solar System.

  15. X-38 NASA/DLR/ESA-Dassault Aviation Integrated Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labbe, Steve G.; Perez, Leo F.; Fitzgerald, Steve; Longo, Jose; Rapuc, Marc; Molina, Rafael; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The characterization of the aeroshape selected for the X-38 [Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) demonstrator] is presently being performed as a cooperative endeavour between NASA, DLR (through its TETRA Program), and European Space Agency (ESA) with Dassault Aviation integrating the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic activities. The methodologies selected for characterizing the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic environment of the X-38 are presented. Also, the implications for related disciplines such as Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) with its corresponding Flight Control System (FCS), Structural, and Thermal Protection System (TPS) design are discussed. An attempt is made at defining the additional activities required to support the design of a derived operational CRV.

  16. Features and technologies of ERS-1 (ESA) and X-SAR antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuessler, R.; Wagner, R.

    1986-01-01

    Features and technologies of planar waveguide array antennas developed for spaceborne microwave sensors are described. Such antennas are made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) employing special manufacturing and metallization techniques to achieve satisfactory electrical properties. Mechanical design enables deployable antenna structures necessary for satellite applications (e.g., ESA ERS-1). The slotted waveguide concept provides high aperture efficiency, good beamshaping capabilities, and low losses. These CFRP waveguide antennas feature low mass, high accuracy and stiffness, and can be operated within wide temperature ranges.

  17. Hypergravity Facilities in the ESA Ground-Based Facility Program - Current Research Activities and Future Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frett, Timo; Petrat, Guido; W. A. van Loon, Jack J.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Anken, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Research on Artificial Gravity (AG) created by linear acceleration or centrifugation has a long history and could significantly contribute to realize long-term human spaceflight in the future. Employing centrifuges plays a prominent role in human physiology and gravitational biology. This article gives a short review about the background of Artificial Gravity with respect to hypergravity (including partial gravity) and provides information about actual ESA ground-based facilities for research on a variety of biosystems such as cells, plants, animals or, particularly, humans.

  18. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier conducts IFM on OV-104's waste collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, wearing goggles, face mask, and rubber gloves, reviews inflight maintenance (IFM) checklist procedures before starting waste collection system (WCS) fan separator repair. One of two fan separators used to transfer waster water from the waste management compartment (WMC) to the waste water tank has failed. The suspected accumulation of water in the separator was believed to have occurred during a test dumping of waste water at a lower than normal pressure to evaluate the performance of new nozzles. The WMC is located on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  19. The GHG-CCI Project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative: Data Products and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Alexe, M.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chevallier, F.; Crevoisier, C. D.; De Maziere, M.; De Wachter, E.; Detmers, R.; Dils, B.; Feng, L.; Frankenberg, C.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Hewson, W.; Heymann, J.; Houweling, S.; Kaminski, T.; Laeng, A.; Leeuwen, T. T. v.; Lichtenberg, G.; Marshall, J.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Palmer, P. I.; Parker, R.; Sundstrom, A.-M.; Scholze, M.; Stiller, G.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg- cci.org/) of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is to generate global atmospheric satellite-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) data sets as needed to improve our understanding of the regional sources and sinks of these important greenhouse gases (GHG). Here we present an overview about the latest data set called Climate Research Data Package No. 3 (CRDP3). We focus on the GHG-CCI project core data products, which are near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 (in ppm) and XCH4 (in ppb) retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT (2009-today) nadir mode radiance observations in the near- infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. The GHG- CCI products are primarily individual sensor Level 2 products. However, we also generate merged Level 2 products ("EMMA products"). Here we also present a first GHG-CCI Level 3 product, namely XCO2 and XCH4 in Obs4MIPs format (monthly, 5°x5°).

  20. Is there life out there ? - A new series for the ESA's Web TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clervoy, J. F.; Coliolo, F.

    2012-09-01

    The European Space Agency, ESA, is preparing a new outreach project: a series of short videos for the ESA's Web TV dedicated to the search for life in the Universe. The rationale behind this pilot project is to use stunning images to attract the attention together with a scientific content accessible to people of varying ages, education levels and cultural outlook. We intent to work with scientists across Europe in order to bring the public on a journey from the boundaries of the Cosmos to the core of the Earth looking for the ingredients necessary for life to form and evolve. Our main objectives are: to share discovery, curiosity and sense of adventure in order to make the public a player in the quest of knowledge about who we are, and where do we come from; to educate and engage different target audiences about European space science and exploration activities; encourage international partnerships. I will present you the first trailer that we have realised with two scientists: André Brack, Astrobiologist, Honorary Director of Research at the CNRS, Orleans, France and Gian Gabriele Ori, Research professor in Geology, and Director of the IRSPS, International Reaserch School of Planetary Science, Pescara, Italy. This first presentation gives an overview of the « exobiological » places beyond the Earth and highlights the importance of comparative planetology for better understand our planet. We would like to share with you ideas and advices in order to produce and diffuse this series in the most efficient way.

  1. ESA Sen3Exp Campaign: San Rossore Coastal Zone Monitoring by CHRIS/PROBA-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Magnani, Federico; Nardino, Vanni; Pippi, Ivan; Pieri, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Since 2001 CHRIS sensor on board of Proba-1 is acquiring images all over the World. San Rossore Natural Park was chosen as one of CHRIS test site in the framework of the Cat.1 LBR ESA-EOPI Project ID.2832 on "Assimilation of biophysical and biochemical variables in biochemical and hydrological models at landscape scale". During summer 2009 San Rossore test site was chosen as one of the four sites for the ESA Sen3Exp campaign. CHRIS multi-angle images have been acquired during the campaign giving a valuable contribution to the understanding of vegetation changes in coastal zone areas characterized by heavy anthropogenic activities. In this paper we summarize CHRIS/Proba-1 data processing methodology and Cal/Val activity during Sen3Exp campaign in San Rossore. The obtained results and their use for environmental investigations in order to better understand the complexity of the San Rossore ecosystem, representative of many Mediterranean costal zones, are presented and discussed.

  2. Coronal sounding with three ESA spacecraft during solar conjunction: Radial dependence of radio signal fluctuation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Anatoli; Lukinina, L. A.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Rudash, V. K.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, Michael; Paetzold, Martin

    Coronal radio sounding experiments were carried out using the coherent dual-frequency carrier signals of the three ESA spacecraft Mars Express (MEX), Venus Express (VEX) and Rosetta (ROS) during their solar conjunctions in 2004, 2006 and 2008/2009. The measurements ana-lyzed in this work are the signal frequency and amplitude recorded at both the NASA and ESA ground tracking stations (sample rate: 1 Hz). The solar activity was quite low during these measurement opportunities, particularly for the conjunction in 2008/2009 (average sunspot number = 2.3). Spectral analysis of the frequency records provides two quantities used to characterize coronal turbulence: the intensity of the differential frequency fluctuations σf and the spectral index of the temporal frequency fluctuation spectra αf . The mean frequency fluctuation can be described by a radial power-law σf ∝ R-a . The spectral index, roughly constant at αf ≈ 0.67 for heliocentric distances beyond a certain solar offset distance RKOL , decreases gradually toward smaller solar offset distances. An unexplained discrepancy is found between the observed difference in amplitude fluctuations from S-Band to X-Band and the difference expected from theory.

  3. Development of SCIAMACHY operational ESA level 2 version 5 products and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Bovensmann, H.; Noül, S.; Richter, A.; Buchwitz, M.; von Savigny, C.; Rozanov, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Lichtenberg, G.; Doicu, A.; Schreier, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; Kretschel, K.; Meringer, M.; Hess, M.; Gottwald, M.; Gimeno-Garcia, S.; van Gijsel, J. A. E.; Tilstra, L. G.; Snel, R.; Lerot, C.; van Roozendael, M.; Dehn, A.; Fehr, T.

    Since the foundation of the SCIAMACHY Quality Working Group (SQWG) in a joint inter-agency effort in late 2006 the ESA operational Level 2 processor was significantly improved with respect to data quality and product range. During the last two years the product list was sub-stantially enhanced by new (total columns of SO2, BrO, OClO, H2O, and CO; profiles of BrO, and Limb cloud flags) and improved products (total columns of O3, NO2, Absorbing Aerosol Index; Limb O3 and NO2 profiles). For example, important improvements were achieved in the O3 and NO2 profile retrieval by implementing an upgraded retrieval scheme and now using Level 1 data with appropriate pointing information. Nadir products of total column O3 and the Absorbing Aerosol Index were improved by applying a radiometric degradation correction in the Level 1 to 2 processing step. This paper will summarize on the new Level 2 version 5 ESA products as released in February 2010 and the expected data quality. An outlook on the next product version 6 currently under preparation within the SQWG will also be presented.

  4. Overview on calibration and validation activities for ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, S.; Bouzinac, C.; Delwart, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations will also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. The SMOS launch is foreseen for summer 2009. A major undertaking in any environmental science related satellite mission are the calibration and validation activities. Calibration is an important prerequisite to the performance verification, which demonstrates that the instrument meets its requirements. It is also important for the validation of geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The validation of the data will be handled through a combination of ESA led activities and national efforts. The SMOS Validation and Retrieval Team (SVRT) comprises the scientific contributions that will be made by the projects selected in response to the SMOS calibration and validation Announcement of Opportunity in 2005 as well as the two level 2 Expert Support Laboratories being involved in the development of the soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. For the validation of the soil moisture data products ESA's activities will focus on two main sites, the Valencia Anchor Station, located in the East of Spain, and the Upper Danube Catchment, located in the South of Germany. In preparation to the SMOS commissioning phase, airborne rehearsal campaigns were conducted in spring 2008 over both aforementioned key sites. These will be coupled with a SMOS matchup generation exercise to verify that the methodology proposed actually meets the foreseen

  5. Overview on calibration and validation activities for ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bouzinac, Catherine; Delwart, Steven

    2010-05-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched on 2 November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations will also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. A major undertaking in any environmental science related satellite mission are the calibration and validation activities. Calibration is an important prerequisite to the performance verification, which demonstrates that the instrument meets its requirements. It is also important for the validation of geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The validation of the data will be handled through a combination of ESA led activities and national efforts. The SMOS Validation and Retrieval Team (SVRT) comprises the scientific contributions that will be made by the projects selected in response to the SMOS calibration and validation Announcement of Opportunity in 2005 as well as the two level 2 Expert Support Laboratories being involved in the development of the soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. For the validation of the soil moisture data products ESA's activities will focus on two main sites, the Valencia Anchor Station, located in the East of Spain, and the Upper Danube Catchment, located in the South of Germany. In preparation to the SMOS commissioning phase, airborne rehearsal campaigns were conducted in spring 2008 over both aforementioned key sites and will be repeated, in collaboration with the French Space Agency CNES, in spring 2010. These will be coupled with a SMOS matchup generation

  6. ESA takes part in Earth observation and space science experiments on board the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The ATLAS-2 mission is focusing on Earth observation and space science; three out of the seven instruments have been developed by scientific institutes in Belgium, France and Germany, with support from ESA. Four experiments have been provided by NASA and US scientists. The three European instruments have already shown an excellent performance during the first Atlas mission in March 1992, when they were tended by payload specialist Dirk Frimout, a Belgian astronaut and ESA staff member. Although the main scientific objective of the series of Atlas missions is to achieve continuity of annual measurements over a period as long as a decade, the first scientific results from Atlas can already be considered as a contribution to critical research topics, in particular the environment. The data from ATLAS-2 will add to this achievement. Two European instruments, Solcon and Solspec, are measuring to a very high degree of precision the total irradiation the Earth receives from the Sun - the "solar constant" -and the spectral distribution of this radiation over a wide range of wavelengths. Knowledge of the solar constant and the solar radiation spectrum matters not only for a better understanding of the Sun, but also for improving numerical models of climate and climate change. SOLCON was developed under the responsibility of Dr. Dominique Crommelynck of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Brussels, Belgium. SOLSPEC was instead developed under the responsibility of Dr. Gerard Thuillier of the CNRS, Verrieres le Buisson, France. One of these instruments will be fully remote-controlled by scientists from a laboratory in Belgium, via telecommunications links to the Shuttle, and the data of another will be transmitted to Belgium in real time to follow the results obtained. This approach is known as telescience: using telescience, a scientist can monitor his experiment in real-time, repeat it with different settings, consult his team, process data and adapt his measurements when

  7. ESA's X-ray space telescope proves supernovae can cause mysterious gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    By analysing the afterglow of the gamma-ray burst in the X-ray light, scientists produced the first ever evidence of the presence of chemical elements which were the unmistakable remnants of a supernova explosion which had occurred just a few days before. "We can now confidently say that the death of a massive star, a supernova, was the cause of a gamma-ray burst. However we still don't know exactly how and why these bursts, the most energetic phenomena in the Universe, are triggered," says ESA astronomer Norbert Schartel, a co-author of the original paper, published today in Nature. Gamma-ray bursts were first discovered in 1967 by chance, when satellites designed to look for violations of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty detected strong gamma-ray emissions coming from sources not in the vicinity of Earth, but from outer space. They have been a mystery ever since. They occur as often as several times a day but last for no longer than a couple of minutes, and there is no way to predict when or where the next burst will occur. Consequently they are very difficult to study. For three decades it was not even known whether the explosions were close, in our own Milky Way galaxy, or far away in distant galaxies. But astronomers set up an 'alert system'. This allows them to see the 'afterglow' of the burst before it fades away, by quickly aiming their telescopes at the precise location in the sky shortly after a detector triggers the alert. It is now clear that the bursts occur in galaxies millions of light-years away. The longest burst Technically called 'GRB 011211', it was first detected on 11 December 2001 at 19:09:21 (Universal Time), by the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX. The burst lasted for 270 seconds - the longest one observed by the satellite. A few hours afterwards, when a first analysis confirmed that a burst had indeed been registered, the BeppoSAX team alerted the rest of the astronomical community. ESA's XMM-Newton arrived on the scene 11 hours after the

  8. Are you ready for Mars? - Main media events surrounding the arrival of ESA's Mars Express at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz launcher operated by Starsem, the European probe -built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet’s structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin explored uncharted areas of the Earth in 1830, will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On Christmas Eve the Mars Express orbiter will be steered on a course taking it into an elliptical orbit, where it will safely circle the planet for a minimum of almost 2 Earth years. The Beagle 2 lander - which will have been released from the mother craft a few days earlier (on 19 December) - instead will stay on a collision course with the planet. It too should also be safe, being designed for atmospheric entry and geared for a final soft landing due to a sophisticated system of parachutes and airbags. On arrival, the Mars Express mission control team will report on the outcome of the spacecraft's delicate orbital insertion manoeuvre. It will take some time for Mars Express to manouvre into position to pick communications from Beagle 2. Hence, initially, other means will be used to check that Beagle 2 has landed: first signals from the Beagle 2 landing are expected to be available throughout Christmas Day, either through pick-up and relay of Beagle 2 radio signals by NASA’s Mars Odyssey, or by direct pick-up by the Jodrell Bank radio telescope in the UK. Mars Express will then pass over Beagle 2 in early January 2004, relaying data and images back to Earth. The first images from the cameras of Beagle 2 and Mars Express are expected to be available between the end of the year and the beginning of January 2004. The key dates

  9. Taking advantage of the ESA G-POD service to study deformation processes in mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Cignetti, Martina; Ardizzone, Francesca; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; De Luca, Claudio; Manunta, Michele; Casu, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In mountain environments, the analysis of surface displacements is extremely important for a better understanding the effects of mass wasting phenomena, such as landslides, rock-glaciers, and glacier activity. In this scenario, the use of straightforward tools and approaches to monitor surface displacements at high spatial and temporal resolutions is a real need. Here we use the Parallel-SBAS service recently released within the ESA's Grid Processing On Demand environment (G-POD, http://gpod.eo.esa.int/) to generate Earth's surface deformation time series and interferometric production. This service performs the full SBAS-DInSAR chain starting from Level 0 data, and generates displacement time series. We use the data available on the Virtual Archive 4 (http://eo-virtual-archive4.esa.int/, in the framework of Supersite initiative. In the framework of the HAMMER project (part of the NextData initiative, http://www.nextdataproject.it/ ), we produced mean deformation velocity maps, as well as deformation time series, on a regional scale case (Aosta Valley Region, northern Italy), and at local landslide scale (Puy landslide, Piedmont, northen Italy). The possibility to gather the final results in less than 24h (by processing an average of about 30 SAR images for each frame considered), allowed to perform in relatively short time a large number of attempts. By "tuning" the processing, we have maximized for both datasets the final coverage of coherent points, by analysing the effect of SAR images acquired in the winter season, as well as of the impact of perpendicular and temporal baseline constraints. The results obtained with P-SBAS G-POD service on Valle d'Aosta region have been compared to the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DGSD, reference IFFI project), finding a good correlation with the anomalous areas of surface deformation and the catalogued DGSD. In addition, the results obtained on Valle d'Aosta and Piedmont regions show a good agreement to the

  10. SMART-1 Technology and Science Experiments in Preparation of Future Missions and ESA Cornerstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A. E.; Racca, G. D.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project

    1999-12-01

    SMART-1 is the first ESA Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology, aimed at the demonstration of enabling technologies for future scientific missions. SMART-1's prime technology objective is the demonstration of the solar primary electric propulsion, a key for future interplanetary missions. SMART-1 will use a Stationary Plasma Thruster engine, cruising 15 months to capture a Moon polar orbit. A gallery of images of the spacecraft is available at the web site: http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/smart1/html/11742.html SMART-1 payload aims at monitoring the electric propulsion and its spacecraft environment and to test novel instrument technologies. The Diagnostic Instruments include SPEDE, a spacecraft potential plasma and charged particles detector, to characterise both spacecraft and planetary environment, together with EPDP, a suite of sensors monitoring secondary thrust-ions, charging and deposition effects. Innovative spacecraft technologies will be tested on SMART-1 : Lithium batteries and KATE, an experimental X/Ka-band deep-space transponder, to support radio-science, to monitor the accelerations of the electric propulsion and to test turbo-code technique, enhancing the return of scientific data. The scientific instruments for imaging and spectrometry are: \\begin{itemize} D-CIXS, a compact X-ray spectrometer based on novel SCD detectors and micro-structure optics, to observe X-ray celectial objects and to perform lunar chemistry measurements. SIR, a miniaturised quasi-monolithic point-spectrometer, operating in the Near-IR (0.9 ÷ 2.4 micron), to survey the lunar crust in previously uncovered optical regions. AMIE, a miniature camera based on 3-D integrated electronics, imaging the Moon, and other bodies and supporting LASER-LINK and RSIS. RSIS and LASER-LINK are investigations performed with the SMART-1 Payload: \\begin{itemize} RSIS: A radio-science Experiment to validate in-orbit determination of the libration of the celestial target, based on high

  11. Space safety trajectory optimization and debris analysis using ASTOS at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo; Blasco, Ana; Weikert, Sven

    This paper describes the coupling of the space trajectory optimization software ASTOS with a tool for splashdown analysis of separated spacecraft stages and debris called DARS (Destructive Analysis for Re-entry Spacecraft), and a Risk Analysis Module called RAM. ASTOS is a main reference tool for space trajectory optimization at ESA. It is also used to compute demise and break up of rocket stages and re-entry vehicles and analyze the risk to populated areas. ASTOS software is a simulation and optimization environment to compute optimal trajectories for a variety of complex multi-phase optimal control problems. It consists of fast and powerful optimization programs, PROMIS, CAMTOS, SOCS and TROPIC, that handle large and highly discretized problems, a user interface with multiple plot capability, and GISMO, an integrated graphical iteration monitor to review the optimization process and plot the state and control histories at intermediate steps during the optimization. The optimization programs used by ASTOS use Non-Linear Programming (NLP) mathematical solvers like NPSOL, SLSQP, SLLSQP, and SNOPT. These solvers use Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) mathematical algorithms to find the solution of the non-linear programming problems in trajectory optimization. ASTOS comprises an extensive model library, which allows launcher and re-entry spacecraft trajectory optimization without programming work. DARS considers not only a stage break-up, but also ablation and melting of the fragments, taking diverse materials and shapes into account. The paper discusses hazard due to stage and debris impact, considering the ESA launchers and re-entry vehicles as examples. Previous approaches for the impact point calculation during trajectory optimization are presented. Subsequently the results of these approaches are compared to DARS results. This paper shows that ASTOS and the DARS and RAM extensions can calculate impact points with satisfactory accuracy and calculation time

  12. Two ESA astronauts named to early Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Nicollier and three NASA astronauts, who had already been training for a Hubble servicing mission planned for June 2000, have been reassigned to this earlier mission (STS-103). Jean-Francois Clervoy and two other NASA astronauts will complete the STS-103 crew. The repairs and maintenance of the telescope will require many hours spent working outside the Shuttle and will make extensive use of the Shuttle's robotic arm Nicollier, of Swiss nationality and making his fourth flight, will be part of the team that will perform the "spacewalks". An astronomer by education, he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts on the other end of the arm performed the delicate repairs to the telescope. He also served on STS-46 in 1992 using the robotic arm to deploy ESA's Eureca retrievable spacecraft from the Shuttle, and on STS-75 with the Italian Tethered Satellite System in 1996. Nicollier is currently the chief of the robotics branch in NASA's astronaut office and ESA's lead astronaut in Houston. Jean-Francois Clervoy, of French nationality and making his third flight, will have the lead role in the operation of the robotic arm for this mission. He previously served on STS-66 in 1994 using the robotic arm to deploy and later retrieve the German CRISTA-SPAS atmospheric research satellite, and on STS-84 in 1997, a Shuttle mission to the Russian Mir space station. The other STS-103 crewmembers are: Commander Curtis Brown, pilot Scott Kelly, and mission specialists Steven Smith, Michael Foale and John Grunsfeld. During the flight, the astronauts will replace Hubble's failing pointing system, which allows the telescope to aim at stars, planets and other targets, and install other equipment that will be ready for launch at that time. A second mission to complete the previously-scheduled Hubble refurbishment work is foreseen at a later date. The crew for that mission has not yet been assigned. The Hubble

  13. First Prototype of a Web Map Interface for ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a first prototype of a Web Map Interface that will serve as a proof of concept and design for ESA's future fully web-based Planetary Science Archive (PSA) User Interface. The PSA is ESA's planetary science archiving authority and central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's Solar System missions [1]. All data are compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards and are accessible through several interfaces [2]: in addition to serving all public data via FTP and the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), a Java-based User Interface provides advanced search, preview, download, notification and delivery-basket functionality. It allows the user to query and visualise instrument observations footprints using a map-based interface (currently only available for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA instruments). During the last decade, the planetary mapping science community has increasingly been adopting Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and standards, originally developed for and used in Earth science. There is an ongoing effort to produce and share cartographic products through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services, or as standalone data sets, so that they can be readily used in existing GIS applications [3,4,5]. Previous studies conducted at ESAC [6,7] have helped identify the needs of Planetary GIS users, and define key areas of improvement for the future Web PSA User Interface. Its web map interface shall will provide access to the full geospatial content of the PSA, including (1) observation geometry footprints of all remote sensing instruments, and (2) all georeferenced cartographic products, such as HRSC map-projected data or OMEGA global maps from Mars Express. It shall aim to provide a rich user experience for search and visualisation of this content using modern and interactive web mapping technology. A comprehensive set of built-in context maps from external sources, such as MOLA topography, TES

  14. SMILE: a joint ESA/CAS mission to investigate the interaction between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Walfried; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Wang, Chi; Dai, Lei; Donovan, Eric; Enno, Greg; Escoubet, Philippe; Holland, Andrew; Jing, Li; Kataria, Dhiren; Li, Lei; Read, Andy; Rebuffat, Denis; Romstedt, Jens; Runciman, Chris; Sembay, Steve; Spanswick, Emma; Sykes, Jon; Thornhill, Julian; Wielders, Arno; Zhang, Aibing; Zheng, Jianhua

    2016-07-01

    The Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) is a collaborative science mission between ESA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). SMILE is a novel self-standing mission to observe the coupling of the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere via X-Ray imaging of the solar wind - magnetosphere interaction zones, UV imaging of global auroral distributions and simultaneous in-situ solar wind, magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field measurements. The SMILE mission proposal was submitted by a consortium of European, Chinese and Canadian scientists following a joint call for mission by ESA and CAS. It was formally selected by ESA's Science Programme Committee (SPC) as an element of the ESA Science Program in November 2015, with the goal of a launch at the end of 2021. In order to achieve its scientific objectives, the SMILE payload will comprise four instruments: the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), which will spectrally map the Earth's magnetopause, magnetosheath and magnetospheric cusps; the UltraViolet Imager (UVI), dedicated to imaging the auroral regions; the Light Ion Analyser (LIA) and the MAGnetometer (MAG), which will establish the solar wind properties simultaneously with the imaging instruments. We report on the status of the mission and payload developments and the findings of a design study carried out in parallel at the concurrent design facilities (CDF) of ESA and CAS in October/November 2015.

  15. Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frame Realization with Highly Elliptical Orbit - The ESA STE-QUEST Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svehla, Drazen; Rothacher, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs; Nothnagel, Axel; Willis, Pascal; Biancale, Richard; Ziebart, Marek; Appleby, Graham; Schuh, Harald; Ádám, József; Iess, Luciano; Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    The Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) is a Medium Class fundamental physics mission pre-selected for the M3 slot of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme to test Einstein's Equivalence Principle using atom interferometry and the general and special theory of relativity. Two secondary mission objectives are related to space geodesy: terrestrial and celestial reference frame of the Earth and relativistic geodesy aiming at the realization of unified reference frame for positioning, time, and temporal gravity. The highly elliptical orbit of the STE-QUEST satellite can be used for terrestrial reference frame realization by means of on board GNSS, SLR and VLBI radio source (STE-QUEST metrology link tracked by VLBI antenna - compatible with VLBI2010). By upgrading the on board GNSS receiver for DORIS tracking, the STE-QUEST mission will be similar to the GRASP mission proposal from JPL. Due to the highly elliptical orbit of STE-QUEST (apogee

  16. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission.

    PubMed

    Sims, M R; Pillinger, C T; Wright, I P; Dowson, J; Whitehead, S; Wells, A; Spragg, J E; Fraser, G; Richter, L; Hamacher, H; Johnstone, A; Meredith, N P; de la Nougerede, C; Hancock, B; Turner, R; Peskett, S; Brack, A; Hobbs, J; Newns, M; Senior, A; Humphries, M; Keller, H U; Thomas, N; Lingard, J S; Ng, T C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X-ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies.

  17. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  18. NASA/ESA CT-990 Spacelab simulation. Appendix A: The experiment operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Two experiment operators from Europe and two from the U.S. were selected to live aboard the aircraft along with a mission manager for a six-day period and operate the experiments in behalf of the principal scientists. This appendix discusses the experiment operators and their relationship to the joint mission under the following general headings: selection criteria, training programs, and performance. The performance of the proxy operators was assessed in terms of adequacy of training, amount of scientific data obtained, quality of data obtained, and reactions to problems that arose in experiment operation.

  19. Development of the multi-mode external lighting system for aircraft (M2ESA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John J.

    2005-08-01

    This paper documents the development of the Multi-Mode External Lighting System for Aircraft (M2ESA), a solid-state near-IR and visible light emitting diode-based programmable system designed to replace existing incandescent navigation lights on the exterior of military aircraft, and tailored for use with night vision goggles. Integrated systems of optics, electronics and mechanical structures were designed that were compatible with legacy aircraft systems, and which thus conformed to rigid configuration requirements and severe volume constraints. The genesis of the concept, evolution and general architecture of the system, top-level performance and environmental requirements, integration on the designated aircraft platform (the F-15), and general results of flight demonstration assessments are described.

  20. Status and progress in the Space Surveillance and Tracking Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, E.

    2010-09-01

    In November 2008, the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at Ministerial level approved the start of ESA’s Space Situational Awareness programme. Between 2009 and 2012 a preparatory phase will run that will develop the architectural design of the system, the governance and data policy and the provision of precursor services in the areas of: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near Earth Objects. This paper will concentrate on the first of these segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking. It will develop the following main topics: Customer requirements and their integration, the initiation of an integrated catalogue, extension of correlated data to service provision and international cooperation and data fusion The development of the services resulting from these points will be a key driver in the final architecture. This architecture will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council to further develop a full SSA system from 2012 onwards.

  1. Facilities for Simulation of Microgravity in the ESA Ground-Based Facility Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brungs, Sonja; Egli, Marcel; Wuest, Simon L.; M. Christianen, Peter C.; W. A. van Loon, Jack J.; Ngo Anh, Thu Jennifer; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the role of gravity in fundamental biological processes and, consequently, the impact of exposure to microgravity conditions provide insight into the basics of the development of life as well as enabling long-term space exploration missions. However, experimentation in real microgravity is expensive and scarcely available; thus, a variety of platforms have been developed to provide, on Earth, an experimental condition comparable to real microgravity. With the aim of simulating microgravity conditions, different ground-based facilities (GBF) have been constructed such as clinostats and random positioning machines as well as magnets for magnetic levitation. Here, we give an overview of ground-based facilities for the simulation of microgravity which were used in the frame of an ESA ground-based research programme dedicated to providing scientists access to these experimental capabilities in order to prepare their space experiments.

  2. Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.; Murphy IV, Frank V.; Gould, Ty A.; Jambeck, Per; Val, Dale L.; Cronan, Jr., John E.; Beck von Bodman, Susan; Churchill, Mair E.A.

    2009-04-22

    Acyl-homoserine-L-lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33 {angstrom}. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified.

  3. Spaceborne lasers development for ALADIN instrument on board ADM-Aeolus ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Alberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Bravetti, Paolo; Suetta, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    ALADIN TXA is the first in the world All-Solid-State, Compact, Transmitterlaser Assembly for the first in the world Doppler Wind Lidar inside the ESA Aeolus mission. Its optical architecture is that of a MOPA, medium energy, pulsed, frequency tripled, tunable, almost single transverse and single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG lasers with 50 Hz PRF and a three years in-orbit lifetime. A brief resume of the design, together with the qualification approach and the main experimental results obtained with the two flight models are presented. The main technological challenges faced during the program development and the lesson learnt for future space All-Solid-State lasers will complete the paper.

  4. Identification and Analysis of Landing sites for the ESA ExoMars Rover (2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Bridges, John; Fawdon, Peter; Grindrod, Peter; Gupta, Sanjeev; Michalski, Joe; Conway, Susan

    2014-05-01

    spatial filters in a GIS (Geographical Information systems) to define regions of Mars where landing could be possible. We have used published geological maps of Mars to define areas that are of the appropriate age and integrated published catalogues of morphological indicators of standing water (e.g. delta-like landforms) and of layered terrains, and of the locations and spectral characteristics of minerals indicative of the action of water. Using this GIS we identified ~25 study areas that held promise scientifically, and into which one or more landing 'uncertainty ellipses' could be fitted without breaching the engineering constraints. For each of these, we obtained and processed imaging data (from the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 'CTX' instrument and the ESA Mars Express Orbiter 'HRSC' instrument), high resolution topographic data (again, from ESA's HRSC), and mineralogical data (based on infrared spectrometry data obtained by ESA's OMEGA instrument and NASA's CRISM instrument. Using these data we down-selected to five sites that had the highest potential and which, in some cases, had not been well-described previously in the peer-reviewed literature. At the time of writing, we are undertaking further geomorphological and mineralogical mapping of these sites, with the expectation of submitting 1-3 sites to ESA's ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group by the deadline set at end of February 2014. In this presentation we detail the GIS and terrain analysis element of the work we have done, and describe how the diverse data types and team abilities were harnessed to solve the challenging problem created by ExoMars' stringent scientific and engineering constraints.

  5. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, M. R.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Dowson, J.; Whitehead, S.; Wells, A.; Spragg, J. E.; Fraser, G.; Richter, L.; Hamacher, H.; Johnstone, A.; Meredith, N. P.; de La Nougerede, C.; Hancock, B.; Turner, R.; Peskett, S.; Brack, A.; Hobbs, J.; Newns, M.; Senior, A.; Humphries, M.; Keller, H. U.; Thomas, N.; Lingard, J. S.; Underwood, J. C.; Sale, N. M.; Neal, M. F.; Klingelhofer, G.; Ng, T. C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X- ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies.

  6. Development of Jettisonable Fluid Ground Connector for the ESA Next Generation Launcher Cryogenic Upper Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Nick

    2014-06-01

    RUAG Space have successfully designed, developed and tested a new cryogenic connector sub-system for Hydrogen and Oxygen Filling and Venting of a potential launcher Upper Stage tank. The work was performed within the ESA Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies, Future Launchers Preparatory Programme. The scope of the work was the development of this technology within Europe to a Technology Readiness Level of 5. Basic requirements were that the connector is jettisoned at lift-off, and that the filling of tanks located within the payload fairing volume is feasible. Beginning with concept studies, basic approaches were described and traded off, and more detailed designs and analyses performed for selected concepts. Experimental validation of the connector design was performed using extensive testing to simulate the fluid, mechanical, dynamic and thermal environments of the connector in pre-launch, lift-off and flight conditions.

  7. ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

    2010-05-01

    synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified

  8. New Facility For Micro-Vibration Measurements ESA Reaction Wheel Characterisation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decobert, Francois; Wagner, Mark; Airey, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    A micro-vibration measurement table has been developed by ESA and SEREME for the measurement of micro forces at high frequencies. The motivation for the Research and Development of this new equipment was the characterisation of reaction wheel dynamic behavior which may influence the pointing stability of observation satellites. There was the need to have an improved test equipment being able to quantify very low level forces and moments in 6 degrees of freedom. The measured data can be used as input to numerical analysis and simulation to derive a prediction of the dynamic disturbances induced by the operation of a reaction wheel. The new facility combines higher frequency capability i.e. first bare table resonance modes higher than 1250 Hz with high measurement sensitivity and low force threshold (20mN respectively 2mNm).

  9. The cytotoxic effect of Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) on cancer cells and its application to molecular probe for drug delivery system using lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, T; Ohama, Y; Fukuda, A; Hayashi, M; Kawakubo, A; Kato, K

    2001-07-01

    Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) derived from a marine red alga, Eucheuma serra, is a lectin that specifically binds to mannose-rich carbohydrate chains. ESA is a monomeric molecule, with a molecular weight of29,000. ESA induced cell death against several cancer cell lines, such as colon cancer Colo201 cells and cervix cancer HeLa cells. DNA ladder detection and the induction of caspase-3 activity suggested that the cell death induced by ESA against cancer cells was apoptosis. ESA bound to the cell surface of Colo201 cells in the sugar chain dependent manner. This means that the binding of ESA to the cell surface is specific for mannose-rich sugar chains recognized by ESA. The binding of ESA to the cell surface of Colo201 cells was slightly suppressed by the high concentrations of serum because of the competition with serum components possessing the mannose-rich sugar chain motifs. On the other hand, a lipid vesicle is a very useful microcapsule constructed by multilamellar structure,and adopted as drug or gene carrier. ESA was immobilized on the surface of the lipid vesicles to apply the lipid vesicles to cancer specific drug delivery system. ESA-immobilized lipid vesicles were effectively bound to cancer cell lines compared with plane vesicles.

  10. ESA's billion star surveyor - Flight operations experience from Gaia's first 1.5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, D.; Rudolph, A.; Whitehead, G.; Loureiro, T.; Serpell, E.; di Marco, F.; Marie, J.; Ecale, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper details the initial in-flight mission operations experience from ESA's ultra-precise Gaia spacecraft. Tasked with mapping the positions and movements of 1 billion stars to unprecedented precision (to the 10 s of micro-arc-second level, comparable to the width of a coin on the Moon as viewed from Earth). ESA's Science cornerstone mission is expected to also discover and chart 100,000's of new objects including near Earth Asteroids, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and Quasars. After a flawless launch 19 Dec 2013, Gaia was brought the circa 1.5 million kms into L2 via a sequence of technically demanding orbit transfer manoeuvres using onboard thrusters in thrust vectoring mode. Starting in parallel to this, and lasting 6 months, the full spacecraft was commissioned and brought gradually up to the highest operational mode. A number of problems were detected and tackled during commissioning and early routine phase operations. An apparent dimming of the on-board laser and imaged stars, was tracked down to water ice building up inside the telescope enclosure. Also apparent was more straylight than expected. Elsewhere, a micro-propulsion thruster developed unexpected performance levels and a back-up chemical thruster suffered a failed latch valve. These issues, like several others, were dealt with and solved in a series of review meetings, in-orbit special operations and newly developed procedures and on-board software changes. After commissioning Gaia was working so well that it was producing approximately 45% more science data than originally foreseen, primarily since it was able to see stars fainter than required. The mission operations concept was quickly adapted to partially automate ground operations and increase ground station time to allow the full scientific potential of Gaia to be realised.

  11. Monitoring of the reflectors of ESA's Planck telescope by close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parian, Jafar Amiri; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro

    2007-11-01

    The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. Planck's objective is to analyze, with the highest accuracy ever achieved, the remnants of the radiation that filled the universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the cosmic microwave background. To achieve this aim well-manufactured reflectors are used as parts of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of the Secondary and Primary Reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with diameters of 1.1 and 1.9 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at temperatures down to 95K, using close-range photogrammetric techniques. We have designed an optimal close-range photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the Primary and Secondary Reflectors with a mean relative precision better than 1:1,000,000 and 1:400,000, respectively, to achieve the requested accuracies. Special considerations have been taken into account in different steps of design, such as the determinability of additional parameters under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources of errors. A least squares best-fit ellipsoid was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflector. We present our procedure and the results of processing the photogrammetric measurements of the Flight Models of the Primary and Secondary Reflectors which were executed by Thales Alenia Space France under ESA-ESTEC contract in vacuum and at very low temperatures.

  12. ESA New Generation Science Archives: New Technologies Applied to Graphical User Interface Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Arviset, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Castellanos, J.; Cheek, N.; Costa, H.; Fajersztejn, N.; Gonzalez, J.; Laruelo, A.; Leon, I.; Ortiz, I.; Osuna, P.; Salgado, J.; Stebe, A.; Tapiador, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Science Archives and VO Team (SAT) has undertaken the effort to build state of the art sub-systems for its new generation of archives. At the time of writing this abstract, the new technology has already been applied to the creation of the SOHO and EXOSAT Science Archive s and will be used to re-engineer some of the already existing ESA Science Archives in the future. The Graphical User Interface sub-system has been designed and developed upon the premises of building a lightweight rich client application to query and retrieve scientific data quickly and efficiently; special attention has been paid to the usability and ergonomics of the interface. The system architecture relies on the Model View Controller pattern, which isolates logic from the graphical interface. Multiple window layout arrangements are possible using a docking windows framework with virtually no limitations (InfoNode). New graphical components have been developed to fulfill project-specific user requirements. For example video animations can be generated at runtime based on image data requests matching a specific search criteria. In addition, interoperability is achieved with other tools for data visualization purposes using internationally approved standards (c.f., IVOA SAMP), a messaging protocol already adopted by several analysis tools (ds9, Aladin, Gaia). In order to avoid the increasingly common network constraints affecting the end-user’s daily work the system has been designed to cope with possible restrictive firewall set up. Therefore, ESA New Generation archives are accessible from anyplace where standard basic port 80 HTTP connections are available.

  13. The ESA SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; SMART-1 Science and Technology Working Team

    2000-10-01

    SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The project aims to have the spacecraft ready in October 2002 for launch as an Ariane-5 auxiliary payload. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 15 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemica composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin

  14. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission in ESA assessment study phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert; Barucci, Antonella; Michel, Patrick; Böhnhardt, Hermann; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian; Green, Simon; Lara, Luisa; Marty, Bernard; Romstedt, Jens; Agnolon, David; Koschny, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is an European-led sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive (341843) 2008 EV5, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes and it will provide a sample from a known target with known geological context. Direct investigation of both the regolith and fresh interior fragments is also impossible by any means other than sample return. Primitive material, having experienced less alteration on the asteroid, will be more friable and would not survive atmospheric entry in any discernible amount. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority by a number of the leading space agencies.

  15. NASA's Deep Space Network and ESA's Tracking Network Collaboration to Enable Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Sami; Accomazzo, Andrea; Firre, Daniel; Ferri, Paolo; Liebrecht, Phil; Mann, Greg; Morse, Gary; Costrell, Jim; Kurtik, Susan; Hell, Wolfgang; Warhaut, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Planetary missions travel vast distances in the solar system to explore and answer important scientific questions. To return the data containing their discoveries, communications challenges have to be overcome, namely the relatively low transmitter power, typically 20 Watts at X-band, and the one-over-the-square of the distance loss of the received power, among other factors. These missions were enabled only when leading space agencies developed very large communications antennas to communicate with them as well as provide radio-metric navigation tools. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's ESTRACK network are distributed geographically in order to provide global coverage and utilize stations ranging in size from 34 m to 70 m in diameter. With the increasing number of missions and significant loading on networks' capacity, unique requirements during critical events, and long-baseline interferometry navigation techniques, it became obvious that collaboration between the networks was necessary and in the interest of both agencies and the advancement of planetary and space sciences. NASA and ESA established methods for collaboration that include a generic cross-support agreement as well as mission-specific memoranda of understanding. This collaboration also led to the development of international inter-operability standards. As a result of its success, the DSN-ESTRACK cross support approach is serving as a model for other agencies with similar stations and an interest in collaboration. Over recent years, many critical events were supported and some scientific breakthroughs in planetary science were enabled. This paper will review selected examples of the science resulting from this work and the overall benefits for deep space exploration, including lessons learned, from inter-agency collaboration with communications networks.

  16. Harmonisation and diagnostics of MIPAS ESA CH4 and N2O profiles using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errera, Quentin; Ceccherini, Simone; Christophe, Yves; Chabrillat, Simon; Hegglin, Michaela I.; Lambert, Alyn; Ménard, Richard; Raspollini, Piera; Skachko, Sergey; van Weele, Michiel; Walker, Kaley A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses assimilation experiments of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) profiles retrieved from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). Here we focus on data versions 6 and 7 provided by the ESA processor. These data sets have been assimilated by the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE). The CH4 and N2O retrieved profiles can oscillate, especially in the tropical lower stratosphere. Using the averaging kernels of the observations and a background error covariance matrix, which has previously been calibrated, allows the system to partly remedy this issue and provide assimilated fields that are more regular vertically. In general, there is a good agreement between the BASCOE analyses and independent observations from ACE-FTS (CH4 and N2O) and MLS (N2O), demonstrating the general good quality of CH4 and N2O retrievals provided by MIPAS ESA. Nevertheless, this study also identifies two issues in these data sets. First, time series of the observations show unexpected discontinuities due to an abrupt change in the gain of MIPAS band B, generally occurring after the instrument decontamination. Since the calibration is performed weekly, the abrupt change in the gain affects the measurements until the subsequent calibration is performed. Second, the correlations between BASCOE analyses and independent observations are poor in the lower stratosphere, especially in the tropics, probably due to the presence of outliers in the assimilated data. In this region, we recommend using MIPAS CH4 and N2O retrievals with caution.

  17. ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Integral solves mystery hi-res Size hi-res: 60 kb Credits: Credit: ESA, F. Lebrun (CEA-Saclay). ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery The central regions of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as seen by Integral in gamma rays. With its superior ability to see faint details, Integral correctly reveals the individual sources that comprised the foggy, gamma-ray background seen by previous observatories. The brightest 91 objects seen in this image were classified by Integral as individual sources, while the others appear too faint to be properly characterized at this stage. During the spring and autumn of 2003, Integral observed the central regions of our Galaxy, collecting some of the perpetual glow of diffuse low-energy gamma rays that bathe the entire Galaxy. These gamma rays were first discovered in the mid-1970s by high-flying balloon-borne experiments. Astronomers refer to them as the 'soft' Galactic gamma-ray background, with energies similar to those used in medical X-ray equipment. Initially, astronomers believed that the glow was caused by interactions involving the atoms of the gas that pervades the Galaxy. Whilst this theory could explain the diffuse nature of the emission, since the gas is ubiquitous, it failed to match the observed power of the gamma rays. The gamma rays produced by the proposed mechanisms would be much weaker than those observed. The mystery has remained unanswered for decades. Now Integral's superb gamma-ray telescope IBIS, built for ESA by an international consortium led by Principal Investigator Pietro Ubertini (IAS/CNR, Rome, Italy), has seen clearly that, instead of a fog produced by the interstellar medium, most of the gamma-rays are coming from individual celestial objects. In the view of previous, less sensitive instruments, these objects appeared to merge together. In a paper published today in "Nature", Francois Lebrun (CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France) and his collaborators report the discovery of 91 gamma

  18. Development of New European VLIW Space DSP ASICS, IP Cores and Related Software via ESA Contracts in 2015 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautner, R.

    2015-09-01

    European space industry needs a new generation of payload data processors in order to cope with in-creasing payload data processing requirements. ESA has defined a roadmap for the development of future payload processor hardware which is being implemented. A key part of this roadmap addresses the development of VLIW Digital Signal Processor (DSP) ASICs, IP cores and associated software. In this paper, we first present an overview of the ESA roadmap and the key development routes. We recapitulate the activities that have created the technology base for the ongoing DSP development, and present the ASIC development and several accompanying activities that will lead to the availability of a new space qualified DSP - the Scalable Sensor Data Processor (SSDP) - in the near future. We then present the expected future evolution of this technology area, and summarize the corresponding ESA roadmap part on VLIW DSPs and related IP and software.

  19. N° 15-2000: ESA, CERN and ESO launch "Physics on Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments [1] are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries [2]. In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular

  20. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    The scientific payload was confirmed by ESA's Science Programme Committee in February. Now the scientists must perfect the full range of ultra-sensitive yet spaceworthy instruments in good time for Rosetta's despatch by an Ariane 5 launcher in January 2003. And even as most of the world was admiring Comet Hale-Bopp at its brightest, dedicated astronomers were examining the comet that will be Rosetta's target. Although too faint to be seen with the naked eye, Comet Wirtanen made its closest approach to the Sun on 14 March and a fairly close approach to the Earth on 24 March. This comet comes back every 5.5 years. Rosetta will dance attendance on Comet Wirtanen, not at the next return in 2002, nor even in 2008, but in 2013. The project is an ambitious and patient effort to achieve the most thorough investigation of a comet ever attempted. As the successor to ESA's highly successful Giotto mission to Halley's Comet and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (which took seven years) Rosetta will spend eight years positioning itself. It will manoeuvre around the planets until it is shadowing Comet Wirtanen far beyond Mars, on nearly the same path around the Sun. In 2011 it will rendezvous with the comet and fly near it. In April 2012 Rosetta will go into a near orbit around Comet Wirtanen, and escort it for 17 busy months, as it flies in to make its closest approach to the Sun in September 2013, at the climax of the mission. "The Giotto mission placed us at the forefront of cometary exploration," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "The motivation came from European scientists with a sharp sense of the special importance of comets for understanding the Solar System. The same enthusiasm drives us onward to Rosetta, which will ensure our continued leadership in this important branch of space science." Scientific tasks During its prolonged operations in very close company with the comet's nucleus, Rosetta will map and examine its entire surface from distances of 10 to 50

  1. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-05-29

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells.

  2. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-01-01

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells. PMID:26035023

  3. Science of the Joint ESA-NASA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Michel; Greeley, Ron

    2010-05-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), an international joint mission under study by NASA and ESA, has the overarching theme to investigate the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites—three of which are believed to harbor internal oceans—are the key to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. To this end, the reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO will execute a coordinated exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO carry sets of complementary instruments, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. Encompassed within the overall mission theme are two science goals, (1) Determine whether the Jupiter System harbors habitable worlds and (2) Characterize the processes within the Jupiter System. The science objectives addressed by the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressed by the second goal are to: i) understand the

  4. ESA scientist discovers a way to shortlist stars that might have planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    Traces of the disc surrounding our Solar System Credits: Michael Hauser (Space Telescope Science Institute), the COBE/DIRBE Science Team, and NASA Traces of the disc surrounding our Solar System Traces of the disc surrounding our Solar System. The blue band curving across this image is created by the dust disc surrounding our Solar System. Viewed from afar this would show up as a bright ring surrounding the Sun. The bright band running across the centre of the image is from dust in our Galaxy. This image, taken by the COBE satellite, is a composite of three far-infrared wavelengths (60, 100, and 240 microns). (Photo: Michael Hauser (Space Telescope Science Institute), the COBE/DIRBE Science Team, and NASA) Disc surrounding the Sun Credits: Brad Smith (University of Hawaii), Glenn Schneider (University of Arizona), and NASA Viewed from afar our Solar System would have a bright disc surrounding the Sun Viewed from afar our Solar System would have a bright dust disc surrounding the Sun similar to the disc surrounding this star. This image, taken with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), shows a dust ring around a star called HR 4796A. The image was taken on March 15, 1998. (Photo: Brad Smith (University of Hawaii), Glenn Schneider (University of Arizona), and NASA) Ulysses in flight configuration hi-res Size hi-res: 117 Kb Credits: ESA/Dave Hardy Ulysses at Jupiter encounter Ulysses in flight configuration passing by Jupiter. Remarkably, their discovery gives astronomers a way to determine which other stars in the Galaxy are most likely to harbour planets and allows mission planners to draw up a 'short-list' of stars to be observed by ESA's future planet-search missions, Eddington and Darwin. The discovery of the Solar System's dust ring strengthens the idea that such features around mature stars are signposts to planetary systems. The reason for this is that planetary systems are thought to condense from a cloud of gas and dust

  5. ESA's high-energy observatories spot doughnut-shaped cloud with a black-hole filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 7265 KB Credits: ESA, V. Beckmann (GSFC) Doughnut-shaped cloud surrounds black hole This artist's impression shows the thick dust torus that astronomers believe surrounds supermassive black holes and their accretion discs, like the one harboured in the nucleus of the spiral galaxy NGC 4388. When the torus is seen `edge-on’ as in this case, the visible light emitted by the accretion disc is partially blocked. However, the sharp X-ray and gamma-ray eyes of XMM-Newton and Integral can peer through the thick dust and see how the energy released by the accretion disc interacts with and is absorbed by the torus. Black holes are objects so compact and with gravity so strong that not even light can escape from them. Scientists think that `supermassive’ black holes are located in the cores of most galaxies, including our Milky Way galaxy. They can contain the mass of thousands of millions of suns, confined within a region no larger than our Solar System. They appear to be surrounded by a hot, thin disk of accreting gas and, farther out, the thick doughnut-shaped torus. Depending on the inclination of the torus, it can hide the black hole and the hot accretion disc from the line of sight. Galaxies in which a torus blocks the light from the central accretion disc are called `Seyfert 2’ types and are usually faint to optical telescopes. Another theory, however, is that these galaxies appear rather faint because the central black hole is not actively accreting gas and the disc surrounding it is therefore faint. An international team of astronomers led by Dr Volker Beckmann, Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, USA) has studied one of the nearest objects of this type, a spiral galaxy called NGC 4388, located 65 million light years away in the constellation Virgo. Since NGC 4388 is relatively close, and therefore unusually bright for its class, it is easier to study. Astronomers often study black holes that are aligned face-on, thus avoiding the

  6. The Pilot Project 'Optical Image Correlation' of the ESA Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform (GTEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Since more than 20 years, "Earth Observation" (EO) satellites developed or operated by ESA have provided a wealth of data. In the coming years, the Sentinel missions, along with the Copernicus Contributing Missions as well as Earth Explorers and other, Third Party missions will provide routine monitoring of our environment at the global scale, thereby delivering an unprecedented amount of data. While the availability of the growing volume of environmental data from space represents a unique opportunity for science, general R&D, and applications, it also poses major challenges to fully exploit the potential of archived and daily incoming datasets. Those challenges do not only comprise the discovery, access, processing, and visualization of large data volumes but also an increasing diversity of data sources and end users from different fields (e.g. EO, in-situ monitoring, and modeling). In this context, the GTEP (Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform) initiative aims to build an operational distributed processing platform to maximize the exploitation of EO data from past and future satellite missions for the detection and monitoring of natural hazards. This presentation focuses on the "Optical Image Correlation" Pilot Project (funded by ESA within the GTEP platform) which objectives are to develop an easy-to-use, flexible and distributed processing chain for: 1) the automated reconstruction of surface Digital Elevation Models from stereo (and tristereo) pairs of Spot 6/7 and Pléiades satellite imagery, 2) the creation of ortho-images (panchromatic and multi-spectral) of Landsat 8, Sentinel-2, Spot 6/7 and Pléiades scenes, 3) the calculation of horizontal (E-N) displacement vectors based on sub-pixel image correlation. The processing chains is being implemented on the GEP cloud-based (Hadoop, MapReduce) environment and designed for analysis of surface displacements at local to regional scale (10-1000 km2) targeting in particular co-seismic displacement and slow

  7. Shape modeling technique KOALA validated by ESA Rosetta at (21) Lutetia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carry, B.; Kaasalainen, M.; Merline, W. J.; Müller, T. G.; Jorda, L.; Drummond, J. D.; Berthier, J.; O'Rourke, L.; Ďurech, J.; Küppers, M.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P.; Dumas, C.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    We present here a comparison of our results from ground-based observations of asteroid (21) Lutetia with imaging data acquired during the flyby of the asteroid by the ESA Rosetta mission. This flyby provided a unique opportunity to evaluate and calibrate our method of determination of size, 3-D shape, and spin of an asteroid from ground-based observations. Knowledge of certain observable physical properties of small bodies (e.g., size, spin, 3-D shape, and density) have far-reaching implications in furthering our understanding of these objects, such as composition, internal structure, and the effects of non-gravitational forces. We review the different observing techniques used to determine the above physical properties of asteroids and present our 3-D shape-modeling technique KOALA - Knitted Occultation, Adaptive-optics, and Lightcurve Analysis - which is based on multi-dataset inversion. We compare the results we obtained with KOALA, prior to the flyby, on asteroid (21) Lutetia with the high-spatial resolution images of the asteroid taken with the OSIRIS camera on-board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, during its encounter with Lutetia on 2010 July 10. The spin axis determined with KOALA was found to be accurate to within 2°, while the KOALA diameter determinations were within 2% of the Rosetta-derived values. The 3-D shape of the KOALA model is also confirmed by the spectacular visual agreement between both 3-D shape models (KOALA pre- and OSIRIS post-flyby). We found a typical deviation of only 2 km at local scales between the profiles from KOALA predictions and OSIRIS images, resulting in a volume uncertainty provided by KOALA better than 10%. Radiometric techniques for the interpretation of thermal infrared data also benefit greatly from the KOALA shape model: the absolute size and geometric albedo can be derived with high accuracy, and thermal properties, for example the thermal inertia, can be determined unambiguously. The corresponding Lutetia analysis leads

  8. THERMAP: the mid-infrared (8-16 µm) spectro-imager of the ESA Marco Polo R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groussin, O.; Licandro, J.; Helbert, J.; Alí Lagoa, V.; Brageot, E.; Davidsson, B.; Delbó, M.; Delsanti, A.; Garcia-Talavera, M. R.; Green, S.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lamy, P.; Lellouch, E.; Levacher, P.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Rozitis, B.; Sunshine, J.; Vernazza, P.

    2013-09-01

    THERMAP is a mid-infrared (8-16 μm) spectroimager, selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) in February 2013 for the scientific payload of the Marco Polo R M-class mission. We present in this paper the instrument and its scientific objectives.

  9. Short duration microgravity experiments in physical and life sciences during parabolic flights: the first 30 ESA campaigns.

    PubMed

    Pletser, Vladimir

    2004-11-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights provide repetitively up to 20 s of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences, to test instrumentation and to train astronauts before a space flight. The European Space Agency (ESA) has organized since 1984 thirty parabolic flight campaigns for microgravity research experiments utilizing six different airplanes. More than 360 experiments were successfully conducted during more than 2800 parabolas, representing a cumulated weightlessness time of 15 h 30 m. This paper presents the short duration microgravity research programme of ESA. The experiments conducted during these campaigns are summarized, and the different airplanes used by ESA are shortly presented. The technical capabilities of the Airbus A300 'Zero-G' are addressed. Some Physical Science, Technology and Life Science experiments performed during the last ESA campaigns with the Airbus A300 are presented to show the interest of this unique microgravity research tool to complement, support and prepare orbital microgravity investigations.

  10. ESA ExoMars program: The next step in exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vago, J.; Witasse, O.; Svedhem, H.; Baglioni, P.; Haldemann, A.; Gianfiglio, G.; Blancquaert, T.; McCoy, D.; de Groot, R.

    2015-12-01

    The ExoMars program is an ESA-Roscosmos cooperation with some NASA contributions. ExoMars consists of two missions, one in 2016 and one in 2018. The 2016 mission includes an orbiting satellite dedicated to the study of atmospheric trace gases to acquire information on possible on-going geological or biological processes, and a European entry, descent, and landing demonstrator module (EDM) to achieve a successful soft landing on Mars. The orbiter can also provide data communication services for all surface missions landing on Mars until the end of 2022. The 2018 mission is planned to deliver a 300-kg-class rover and an instrumented landing platform to the Martian surface using a landing system developed by Roscosmos. The 2018 mission is to pursue one of the most outstanding questions of our time by attempting to establish whether life ever existed, or is still present, on Mars today. The article gives an overview of the ExoMars program.

  11. Italian spring accelerometer (ISA) a high sensitive accelerometer for ``BepiColombo'' ESA CORNERSTONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.

    2001-12-01

    The targets of the ESA CORNERSTONE mission to Mercury "BepiColombo" are concerned with both planetary and magnetospheric physics and to test some aspects of the general relativity. A payload devoted to a set of experiments named radio science is located within one of the three proposed modules, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). In particular, a high sensitivity accelerometer ( a min<10 -9√g/ Hz in the range 10 -4- 10 -1 Hz) will measure the inertial acceleration acting on the MPO. Such data, together with tracking data are used to evaluate the purely gravitational trajectory of the MPO, transforming it to a virtual drag-free satellite system. The ISA accelerometer, considered for this mission, is a well-studied instrument developed at the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), with the financial support of the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A prototype of such an instrument was constructed, matching the requirements of the radio science experiment. Results of the study concerning the use of ISA in the BepiColombo mission are reported here, particular care being devoted to the description of the instrument and to its sensitivity and thermal stabilisation.

  12. The SCD - Stem Cell Differentiation ESA Project: Preparatory Work for the Spaceflight Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versari, Silvia; Barenghi, Livia; van Loon, Jack; Bradamante, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Due to spaceflight, astronauts experience serious, weightlessness-induced bone loss because of an unbalanced process of bone remodeling that involves bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as well as osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. The effects of microgravity on osteo-cells have been extensively studied, but it is only recently that consideration has been given to the role of BMSCs. Previous researches indicated that human BMSCs cultured in simulated microgravity (sim-μg) alter their proliferation and differentiation. The spaceflight opportunities for biomedical experiments are rare and suffer from a number of operative constraints that could bias the validity of the experiment itself, but remain a unique opportunity to confirm and explain the effects due to microgravity, that are only partially activated/detectable in simulated conditions. For this reason, we carefully prepared the SCD - STEM CELLS DIFFERENTIATION experiment, selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) and now on the International Space Station (ISS). Here we present the preparatory studies performed on ground to adapt the project to the spaceflight constraints in terms of culture conditions, fixation and storage of human BMSCs in space aiming at satisfying the biological requirements mandatory to retrieve suitable samples for post-flight analyses. We expect to understand better the molecular mechanisms governing human BMSC growth and differentiation hoping to outline new countermeasures against astronaut bone loss.

  13. SCOSII: ESA's new generation of mission control systems: The user's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, P.; Pecchioli, M.; Shurmer, I.

    1994-01-01

    In 1974 ESOC decided to develop a reusable Mission Control System infrastructure for ESA's missions operated under its responsibility. This triggered a long and successful product development line, which started with the Multi Mission Support System (MSSS) which entered in service in 1977 and is still being used today by the MARECS and ECS missions; it was followed in 1989 by a second generation of systems known as SCOS-I, which was/is used by the Hipparcos, ERS-1 and EURECA missions and will continue to support all future ESCO controlled missions until approximately 1995. In the meantime the increasing complexity of future missions together with the emergence of new hardware and software technologies have led ESOC to go for the development of a third generation of control systems, SCOSII, which will support their future missions up to at least the middle of the next decade. The objective of the paper is to present the characteristics of the SCOSII system from the perspective of the mission control team; i.e. it will concentrate on the improvements and advances in the performance, functionality and work efficiency of the system.

  14. TROPOMI on ESA's Sentinel 5p ready for launch and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Johan; Voors, Robert; Ording, Barend; Dingjan, Jos; Veefkind, Pepijn; Ludewig, Antje; Kleipool, Quintus; Hoogeveen, Ruud; Aben, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    TROPOMI is the single instrument on ESA's Sentinel 5 precursor satellite to be launched in October 2016. TROPOMI will measure the atmospheric constituents absorbing in the UV-SWIR wavelength range, being O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, CO, CH2O, and aerosol properties. TROPOMI is a sun back-scatter instrument in the line of SCIAMACHY and OMI with 4 spectrometer bands and a spectral resolution of 0.25 - 0.5 nm. Following the earlier sensors, firstly the spatial resolution is improved by a factor 6 (OMI) to 7 x 7 km2 and at the same time the sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The paper discusses the instrument performances as acquired from on-ground performance / calibration measurements. For the calibration an extremely condensed measurement campaign of 4 months 24/7 measurements was performed with virtually no slack and still gathering all of the data necessary from on-ground measurements. Given the fact that the trace gas signals and their variation in the measured spectra can be quite small, calibration is crucial to get accurate results and this illustrates that TROPOMI is a highly success driven and efficient programme. TROPOMI / Sentinel-5p bridges the data streams from on one hand OMI and SCIAMACHY and on the other hand the future Sentinel-5. It is the first of a series of satellites from the Copernicus programme devoted to air quality and will soon be ready for use.

  15. Long-term laser irradiation tests of optical elements for ESA mission ADM-Aeolus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinhos, Uwe; Mann, Klaus; Bayer, Armin; Endemann, Martin; Wernham, Denny; Pettazzi, Federico; Thibault, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    The European Space Agency ESA is running a series of earth observation missions. In order to perform global windprofile observation based on Doppler-LIDAR, the satellite ADM-Aelolus will be launched in April 2011 and injected into an orbit 400 km above Earth's surface. ADM-Aeolus will be the first satellite ever that is equipped with a UV-laser (emitting at 355 nm) and a reflector telescope. At LLG, a setup was developed that allows monitoring transmission, reflection and fluorescence of laser-irradiated optical components, in order to assess their possible optical degradation due to radiation-induced contaminant deposition in orbit. For both a high-reflecting mirror and an anti-reflective coated window long-term irradiation tests (up to 500 million laser pulses) were performed at a base pressure < 10-9 mbar, using a XeF excimer laser (wavelength 351 nm, repetition rate 1kHz). At this, samples of polymers used inside the satellite (insulators for cabling, adhesives, etc.) were installed into the chamber, and the interaction of their degassing with the sample surfaces under laser irradiation was investigated. Various paramters were varied including pulse repetition rate, view factor and coatings. Optical degradation associated with contaminant adsorption was detected on the irradiated sample sites.

  16. Comparative Analysis of the ESA and NASA Interplanetary Meteoroid Enviroment Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kruger, Harald; Soja, Rachel; Sterken, Veerle; Sternovsky, Zotan; Strub, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Meteoroid environment models are used to assess the hazard arising from meteoroid impacts onto space structures. We have analyzed the current meteoroid models of ESA (IMEM) and of NASA (MEM). These models are based on different sets of measurements. MEM is based on radar meteor observations, lunar impact cratering rate, and on zodiacal light observations while IMEM is based on orbital element distributions of comets and asteroids, the lunar impact cratering rate, thermal radiation observations, and on in situ dust measurements. Both models describe the cratering flux at 1AU quite well; however, the flux of mm-sized meteoroids differs by a factor two due to the different assumed relative speeds. At other heliocentric distances from Mercury to Mars the predicted fluxes differ by up to 2 orders of magnitude between the two models. The current knowledge of the interplanetary meteoroid environment as exemplified by these meteoroid models is insufficient to provide reliable assessment of the risk of meteoroid impacts for human travel in interplanetary space.

  17. Moving from Temporal Coherence to Decorrelation Time of Interferometric Measurements Exploiting ESA's SAR Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foumelis, Michael; Mitraka, Zina; Cuccu, Roberto; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Engdahl, Marcus

    2015-05-01

    Interferometric coherence can be considered as an expression of temporal decorrelation. It is understood that interferometric coherence decreases with time between SAR acquisitions because of changes in surface reflectivity, reducing the quality of SAR phase measurements. This is an intrinsic characteristic of the design of SAR systems that has a significant contribution at longer time scales. Although in the past there was not sufficient amount of SAR data to extract robust statistical metrics for decorrelation, in the present study it is demonstrated that tailored analysis of interferometric coherence exploiting the large SAR archive available by the European Space Agency (ESA), enables the accurate quantification of temporal decorrelation. A methodology to translate the observed rate of coherence loss into decorrelation times over a volcanic landscape, namely the Santorini volcanic complex is the subject treated in this study. Specifically, a sensitivity analysis was performed on a large data stack of interferometric pairs to quantify at a pixel level the time beyond which the interferometric phase becomes practically unusable due to the effect of decorrelation. Though the dependence of decorrelation on various land cover/use types is already documented the provision of additional information regarding the expected time of decorrelation is of practical use especially when EO data are utilized in operational activities. The performed analysis is viewed within the improved capacity of current and future SAR systems, while underlining the necessity for exploitation of archive data.

  18. The instrument control unit of the ESA-PLATO 2.0 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Cosentino, R.; Giusi, G.; Pancrazzi, M.; Noce, V.; Ottensamer, R.; Steller, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pace, E.; Plasson, P.; Peter, G.; Pagano, I.

    2016-07-01

    PLATO 2.0 has been selected by ESA as the third medium-class Mission (M3) of the Cosmic Vision Program. Its Payload is conceived for the discovery of new transiting exoplanets on the disk of their parent stars and for the study of planetary system formation and evolution as well as to answer fundamental questions concerning the existence of other planetary systems like our own, including the presence of potentially habitable new worlds. The PLATO Payload design is based on the adoption of four sets of short focal length telescopes having a large field of view in order to exploit a large sky coverage and to reach, at the same time, the needed photometry accuracy and signalto- noise ratio (S/N) within a few tens of seconds of exposure time. The large amount of data produced by the telescope is collected and processed by means of the Payload's Data Processing System (DPS) composed by many processing electronics units. This paper gives an overview of the PLATO 2.0 DPS, mainly focusing on the architecture and processing capabilities of its Instrument Control Unit (ICU), the electronic subsystem acting as the main interface between the Payload (P/L) and the Spacecraft (S/C).

  19. Spaceflight opportunities on the ISS for plant research--the ESA perspective.

    PubMed

    Brinckmann, E

    1999-01-01

    Two ESA facilities will be available for plant research and other biological experiments on the International Space Station: the Modular Cultivation System (MCS) and BIOLAB. While BIOLAB will be launched with the European "Columbus" Module, MCS will be part of the Early Utilisation Agreement with NASA and integrated in the US Lab. Both facilities use standard Experiment Containers, mounted on two centrifuge rotors providing either microgravity or variable g-levels up to 2xg. Transparent covers allow illumination and observation (also near-infrared) of the internal experiment hardware containing the plant specimen. Standard interface plates provide each container with power and data lines, gas supply (controlled CO2, O2 and water vapour concentration; ethylene removal), and--for MCS only--connectors to water reservoirs. Besides the two concepts of environmental control in both facilities, there is a difference in container size (BIOLAB 0.36 l, height with respect to the g-vector 60 mm; MCS 0.58 l, height 160 mm) and in the degree of automation. The design of BIOLAB and MCS will be complimentary to NASA's Plant Research Unit (volume 20 l, height 380 mm) and should allow continuation of Space research on protoplasts, callus cultures, algae, fungi and seedlings, as earlier flown on Biorack, and new experiments with larger specimens of fungi, mosses and vascular plants.

  20. TEMPO: an ESA-funded project for uncovering significant features of the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; De Santis, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In this work we provide the last results of the ESA (European Space Agency) funded project TEMPO ("Is The Earth's Magnetic field POtentially reversing? New insights from Swarm mission"). The mail goal of this project is to analyse the time and spatial evolution of one of the most important features of the present geomagnetic field, i.e. the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The region covered by this anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and extends over a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean, South America, South Africa and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This large depression of the geomagnetic field strength has its origin in a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the Earth's outer core. The study of the SAA is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation due to the protective role of this potential field against the charged particles forming the solar wind. A further increase of the SAA surface extent could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies because a larger number of solar charged particles could reach the Earth's surface.

  1. Sensor Intercalibration for the ESA GlobAlbedo Project Using QA4EO Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Dale; Mackin, Stephen; Behnert, Irina; Muller, Jan-Peter; Fox, Nigel

    2010-12-01

    Sensor inter-calibration is required in order to facilitate the merging of ATSR2, MERIS, AATSR, VEGETATION and VEGETATION2 spectral surface directional reflectance into a fifteen year land surface broadband albedo map of the entire Earth's land surface (snow and snow-free) for use in Global Climate Model initialisation and verification as part of the ESA GlobAlbedo project (Muller et al., this conference). To achieve this, a measure of the accuracy of every element in the processing chain needs to be made, so that the final broadband albedo contains as accurate as possible an estimate of uncertainty. The Quality Assurance for Earth Observation (QA4EO) protocols, described elsewhere (Fox et al., this conference) are an attempt to establish standardised methods for tasks of this nature. As part of the formulation of the cal/val protocols of QA4EO, an uncertainty assessment is currently being demonstrated using 2 months of data from December 2008-January 2009 from numerous satellites over the Antarctic CEOS endorsed "landnet" test-site, Dome C. Using multi- and hyperspectral data from AATSR, MERIS, AVNIR-2, CBERS, CHRIS-PROBA, Landsat-7, NigeriaSat-1, SPOT and UK-DMC-1, spectral radiance is corrected for atmospheric (mainly O3) and BRDF effects in preparation for intercomparison. The site selection and method of the group project is discussed and some preliminary results of this inter-calibration are shown.

  2. Modelled Ozone Bias Near the Stratopause Using ESA CCI Ozone Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skachko, Sergey; Errera, Quentin; Christophe, Yves; Botek, Edith; Chabrillat, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Photochemical models are known to underestimate the ozone in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (USLM), i.e. above 45 km of altitude. In the present study, we evaluate this issue within the state-of-the-art BASCOE model. A reference BASCOE model under- estimates the ozone in USLM by 30-50%. First, we di- cuss the impact of the vertical model grid and the cor- responding temperature forcing. Second, we investigate the impact on ozone of the gas-phase chemical reaction rates and photo-dissociation cross-sections of the latest Jet Propulson Laboratory (JPL) recommendations pub- lished in 2011. Third, methods of computing the pho- todissociation rates (J-tables) are evaluated. Fourth, a sensitivity test to the solar irradiance spectrum is per- formed. Finally, the impact of the temperature field on the modeled ozone is studied. To this end, we compare the temperature field used in our model with temperature profiles provided by limb and occultation satellite data. The results of our experiments are evaluated using the ESA CCI level 2 ozone data as well as MLS, MIPAS and ACE-FTS to document the ozone underestimation is- sue. As a result, the BASCOE model provides essentially less biased ozone in the USLM. The mean model bias decreases to 0 - 15%.

  3. Exploration of Lunar Craters using a Tracked Microrover Concept for the ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunskill, C.; Smith, B.; Humphrey, S.; Makhlouta, M.; Baig, S.; Lappas, V.

    Robotic exploration of the lunar terrain is a crucial step towards future manned missions. There is evidence to suggest water ice ores may be found in the base of deep, polar craters as a result of the meteorite impacts which created them. These regions are in a permanent state of darkened deep-freeze due to their extreme latitudes, allowing the ice to remain intact. Lunar terrain is extremely inhospitable to all but the most robust of exploration vehicles. Surface conditions around the rim of large craters are rarely favourable for the descent and, more importantly, ascent of a ground-based vehicle. The ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge tasked eight teams from Universities across Europe to build microrovers capable of climbing into a terrestrial analogue of such a lunar crater, search the base for small samples of ore simulants and return them to a lander site outside of the crater. The University of Surrey Space Centre team designed a tracked vehicle based on a modified Mobile Robots Pioneer 3-AT microrover. The Pioneer on-board computer and microcontroller allowed the microrover to be equipped with off-the-shelf components, including a stereo camera for navigation, wireless Ethernet communications system for teleoperation and 5 degree of freedom robotic manipulator.

  4. ESA ExoMars: Pre-launch PanCam Geometric Modeling and Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Li, R.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-08-01

    ExoMars is the flagship mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Aurora Programme. The mobile scientific platform, or rover, will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research. As the ExoMars rover is designed to travel kilometres over the Martian surface, high-precision rover localization and topographic mapping will be critical for traverse path planning and safe planetary surface operations. For such purposes, the ExoMars rover Panoramic Camera system (PanCam) will acquire images that are processed into an imagery network providing vision information for photogrammetric algorithms to localize the rover and generate 3-D mapping products. Since the design of the ExoMars PanCam will influence localization and mapping accuracy, quantitative error analysis of the PanCam design will improve scientists' awareness of the achievable level of accuracy, and enable the PanCam design team to optimize its design to achieve the highest possible level of localization and mapping accuracy. Based on photogrammetric principles and uncertainty propagation theory, we have developed a method to theoretically analyze how mapping and localization accuracy would be affected by various factors, such as length of stereo hard-baseline, focal length, and pixel size, etc.

  5. Close encounters of asteroids before and during the ESA GAIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienga, A.; Bange, J.-F.; Bec-Borsenberger, A.; Thuillot, W.

    2003-08-01

    Observation of close encounters of asteroids is a powerful method to determine their masses. A systematic search of such close encounters of asteroids with diameters larger than 40 km has been made thanks to a procedure to select the most efficient phenomena by means of the observable gravitational deflection. This study allows us to give lists of such single (one encounter) and multiple (several encounters between two pairs of asteroids) phenomena that will be observable from ground based astrometric telescopes from 2003 to 2022. We also give lists of single and multiple phenomena spanning 2010-2022 and implying less sensitive deflections only accessible by space astrometry. These last encounters may be observed during the ESA GAIA space mission. Tables A.1-A.8 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/751 or http://www.imcce.fr

  6. ESA Cryovex 2011 Airborne Campaign for CRYOSAT-2 Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourup, H.; Einarsson, I.; Sandberg, L.; Forsberg, R.; Stenseng, L.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Davidson, M.

    2011-12-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite was carried out in the April-May 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA's CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the performance of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL), the aircraft is equipped with an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) together with a laser scanner. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of SIRAL into both land- and sea ice. This can be done by comparing the radar and laser measurements, as the laser reflects on the surface, and by overflight of laser reflectors. In the spring of 2011 the DTU Space airborne team visited five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the sea ice north of Alert and sea ice around Svalbard in the Fram Strait. Selected tracks were planned to match CryoSat-2 passes and a few of them were flown in formation flight with the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Polar-5 carrying an EM-bird. We present an overview of the 2011 airborne campaign together with first results of the CryoSat-2 underflights.

  7. Large format array NIR detectors for future ESA astronomy missions: characterization and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, David; Crouzet, Pierre-Elie; Duvet, Ludovic; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Smit, Hans; Ter Haar, Jörg; Blommaert, Sander; Visser, Ivo; Lemmel, Frederic; Heijnen, Jerko; Van Der Luijt, Cornelis; Butler, Bart; Beaufort, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    The Payload Technology Validation section in the Future Missions office of ESA's Science directorate at ESTEC provides testing support to present and future missions at different stages in their lifetime, from early technology developments to mission operation validation. In this framework, a test setup to characterize near-infrared (NIR) detectors has been created. In the context of the Astronomy Large Format Array for the near-infrared ("ALFA-N") technology development program, detectors from different suppliers are tested. We report on the characterization progress of the ALFA-N detectors, for which a series of rigorous tests have been performed on two different detectors; one provided by CEA/Leti-CEA/IRFU-SOFRADIR, France and the other by SELEX- UK/ATC, UK. Experimental techniques, the test bench and methods are presented. The conversion gain of two different detectors is measured using the photon transfer curve method. For a Leti LPE detector the persistence effect has been probed across a range of illumination levels to reveal a sharp linear increase of persistence below full-well and a plateauing beyond saturation. The same detector has been proton irradiated which has resulted in no significant dark current increase.

  8. Assimilating ESA-CCI Soil Moisture into the JULES-EMPIRE Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaife, T. L.; Black, E.; Browne, P.; Lewis, J.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface models, such as the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES, the land surface component of the Hadley Centre models) are used in a wide variety of applications, such as climate modelling, flood prediction and crop yield forecasting. However, how best to implement Data Assimilation (DA) for these models remains an open question. At a fundamental level these models are very different from atmospheric models for which traditional DA was developed. This poster describes the integration of JULES with the EMPIRE framework. EMPIRE (Employing MPI for Researching Ensembles) implements a test bed for ensemble based DA techniques that makes use of MPI message passing to exploit all available processing power. In particular EMPIRE contains several flavours of Particle Filter which show promise for the land surface DA problem. Examples of assimilating soil moisture observations from the ESA CCI data set into JULES are given for a number of sites in Africa. The model ensemble is generated by considering uncertainty in the driving data taken from the TAMSAT operational rainfall product. The results show considerable improvement in the modelled soil moisture and in particular the seasonal timing of the soil wetness.

  9. Recent changes in the ice covered Arctic Ocean from ESA's radar altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, K.; Laxon, S.; Ridout, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic is widely cited as the “canary in the coal mine” of climate change and the rapid reduction in the sea ice extent has been measured by passive microwave satellites since the 1970s. However, it was not until in 1993, following the launch ERS1 in 1991, that sea ice thickness could be calculated using data from its radar altimeter. The radar altimeters on ERS2 and Envisat have continued and improved these measurements. We are now in the position where both changes to the sea ice thickness and the effect of these changes on the underlying ocean can be assessed from these data. The radar altimeters onboard these ESA satellites measure both the sea ice freeboard and the elevation of the ocean surface, from which sea ice thickness and the time-variant sea surface topography can be calculated. We present the most recent update of changes to the ice covered Arctic, using data from the Envisat radar altimeter.

  10. ESA and NASA agree new mission scenario for Cassini-Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    After six months of investigations and analysis by a joint ESA/NASA Huygens Recovery Task Force (HRTF), senior management from the two space agencies and members of the Cassini-Huygens scientific community have endorsed several modifications to the mission. These will ensure a return close to 100% of the Huygens science data, with no impact on the nominal prime Cassini tour after the third Titan encounter. The modifications have been introduced because of a design flaw in the Huygens communication system. This problem meant that the Huygens receiver was unable to compensate for the frequency shift between the signal emitted by the Probe and the one received by the Orbiter, due to the Doppler shift (**). This would have resulted in the loss of most of the unique data returned from the Probe during its descent through Titan’s dense atmosphere. To ensure that as much data as possible is returned from the pioneering Probe, the HRTF proposed a new schedule for Cassini’s first orbits around Saturn. The agreed scenario involves shortening Cassini’s first two orbits around the ringed planet and adding a third which provides the required new geometry for the Huygens mission to Titan. In the new scenario, the arrival at Saturn on 1 July 2004 remains unchanged. However, Cassini’s first flyby of Titan will now occur on 26 October, followed by another on 13 December. The Huygens Probe will be released towards Titan on 25 December, for an entry into the moon’s atmosphere 22 days later, on 14 January 2005, seven weeks later than originally planned. To reduce the Doppler shift in the signal from Huygens, the Cassini Orbiter will fly over Titan’s cloud tops at a much higher altitude than originally planned - 65,000 km instead of 1,200 km. This higher orbit has the added advantage that Cassini will be able to preserve the four-year baseline tour through the Saturn system, by resuming its original orbital plan in mid-February 2005. “In any complex space mission problems

  11. ESA Hyporesponsiveness Is Associated with Adverse Events in Maintenance Hemodialysis (MHD) Patients, But Not with Iron Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kuragano, Takahiro; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Matsumura, Osamu; Matsuda, Akihiko; Hara, Taiga; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Murata, Toshiaki; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Hase, Hiroki; Joki, Nobuhiko; Fukatsu, Atushi; Inoue, Toru; Itakura, Yukihiro; Nakanishi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective It has been reported that hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) is associated with adverse events in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). However, it has not been determined whether higher iron storage is associated with an improved response, including better survival, to ESA. Design and Method We measured serum ferritin, hemoglobin (Hb), and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels every three months for two years in 1,095 MHD patients. The weekly dose of ESA to Hb ratio was also calculated as an index of ESA responsiveness (ERI). Results A significant correlation (p<0.001, R = 0.89) between ferritin and Hb was only observed in the patients with ferritin levels <50 ng/mL. High-dose (≥50 mg/week) intravenous iron administration, female sex, low serum albumin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use were significant predictors of a high ERI value (>280); however, serum ferritin and TSAT levels did not predict a higher ERI. In the time-dependent Cox hazard model, the risk for a composite event in the patients with a high ERI (≥280) and a high ferritin level (≥100 ng/mL) was significantly greater (hazard ratio [HR], 2.09, P = 0.033) than that for patients with a high ERI and a low ferritin (<100 ng/mL) level. Conclusion Hb was dependent upon ferritin levels in patients with ferritin levels <50 ng/mL but not in patients with ferritin levels ≥50 ng/mL. Patients with hyporesponsiveness to ESA had a greater risk of composite events, but ERI was unrelated to iron storage. PMID:26933949

  12. ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    First image from the XMM-LSS survey hi-res Size hi-res: 87 kb Credits: ESA First image from the XMM-LSS survey The first image from the XMM-LSS survey is actually a combination of fourteen separate 'pointings' of the space observatory. It represents a region of the sky eight times larger than the full Moon and contains around 25 clusters. The circles represent the sources previously known from the 1991 ROSAT All-Sky Survey. A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region hi-res Size hi-res: 86 kb Credits: ESA A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region of the image and identifies the possible cluster. Each point on this graph represents a single X-ray photons detected by XMM-Newton. Most come from distant actie galaxies and the computer must perform a sophisticated, statistical computation to determine which X-ray come from clusters. Contour map of clusters hi-res Size hi-res: 139 kb Credits: ESA Contour map of clusters The computer programme transforms the XMM-Newton data into a contour map of the cluster's probable extent and superimposes it over the CFHT snapshot, allowing the individual galaxies in the cluster to be targeted for further observations with ESO's VLT, to measure its distance and locate the cluster in the universe. Unlike grains of sand on a beach, matter is not uniformly spread throughout the Universe. Instead, it is concentrated into galaxies like our own which themselves congregate into clusters. These clusters are 'strung' throughout the Universe in a web-like structure. Astronomers have studied this large-scale structure of the nearby Universe but have lacked the instruments to extend the search to the large volumes of the distant Universe. Thanks to its unrivalled sensitivity, in less than three hours, ESA's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton can see back about 7000 million years to a cosmological era when the Universe was about half its present size, and clusters of galaxies

  13. Towards a cooperation between the arts, space science research and the European Space Agency - Preliminary findings of the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Peljhan, Marko

    2014-12-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research.

  14. JANUS: the visible camera onboard the ESA JUICE mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Pasquale; Jaumann, Ralf; Cremonese, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Harald; Debei, Stefano; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Holland, Andrew; Lara, Luisa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission [1] was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE is now in phase A-B1 and its final adoption is planned by late 2014. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. Main targets for this mission will be Jupiter, its satellites and rings and the complex relations within the system. Main focus will be on the detailed investigation of three of Jupiter's Galilean satellites (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), thanks to several fly-bys and 9 months in orbit around Ganymede. JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) is the camera system selected by ESA to fulfill the optical imaging scientific requirements of JUICE. It is being developed by a consortium involving institutes in Italy, Germany, Spain and UK, supported by respective Space Agencies, with the support of Co-Investigators also from USA, France, Japan and Israel. The Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto show an increase in geologic activity with decreasing distance to Jupiter [e.g., 2]. The three icy Galilean satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa show a tremendous diversity of surface features and differ significantly in their specific evolutionary paths. Each of these moons exhibits its own fascinating geologic history - formed by competition and also combination of external and internal processes. Their origins and evolutions are influenced by factors such as density, temperature, composition (volatile compounds), stage of differentiation, volcanism, tectonism, the rheological reaction of ice and salts to stress, tidal effects, and interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere and space. These interactions are still recorded in the present surface geology. The record of geological processes spans from possible cryovolcanism through widespread tectonism to surface degradation and impact cratering

  15. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission in ESA assessment study phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Michel, P.; Cheng, A.; Böhnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Dotto, E.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Lara, L. M.; Marty, B.; Koschny, D.

    2012-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3). The aim of the new Assessment Study is to reduce the cost of the mission while maintaining its high science level, on the basis of advanced studies and technologies, optimization of the mission, and consolidation of the collaboration with other partners (NASA, AEB…). The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. The limited sampling provided by meteorites does not offer the most primitive material available in near-Earth space. More primitive material, having experienced less alteration on the asteroid, will be more friable and would not survive atmospheric entry in any discernible amount. Only in Earth laboratories can instruments measure the individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith with the necessary precision and sensitivity to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority by a number of the leading space agencies. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive binary NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive

  16. Distribution of ESA's planetary mission data via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; Ortiz, Inaki

    Scientific and engineering data from the European Space Agency's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. All data in the PSA are compatible with the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standard of NASA, and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS staff. One major part of the ongoing development of the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) has been to draw upon the lessons learned on both sides of this working relationship in order to refine and streamline the Standards. This is driving towards ‘interoperability' of the data systems maintained at all Agencies archiving planetary data, and it is hoped that in the long-run any data can be obtained from any of the co-operating archives using the same protocol. Currently, the PSA contains data from the GIOTTO spacecraft, several ground-based cometary observations, and the Mars Express, Smart-1, and Huygens missions. Independent reviews for the first Venus Express data are schedule for Spring 2008 and the first Venus Express data should be released on the PSA in late spring 2008. The first data release from the ROSETTA mission is also expected to be released on the PSA by spring 2008. Preparation for the release of data from the SMART-1 spacecraft is ongoing. Future missions such as ExoMars and Bepi- Colombo will also aim to work with the PSA to distribute their data to the community. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Classical Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. By nature, this interface requires careful use and heavy

  17. Generation of long-term time series of remote sensing data using ESA's GPOD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, M. A.; Colin, O.; Mathot, E.

    2009-04-01

    analysis of the data recovered. The service generates also several summaries of all the products processed and stores them in easily usable formats. This service is able to generate year long time series processing several terabytes of data in the order of a couple of hours. It has already been used by several research groups proving its utility. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) used it to survey potential sites for the deploying of ESO's next generation of very large telescopes (E-ELT). Currently it's being used by the Max Planck Institute to characterize their two telescope sites at Mount Graham (US) and Calar Alto (Spain) The system is powered by ESA's GRID Processing on Demand infrastructure. This is a GRID-based operational environment able to process large amounts of remote sensing data in an efficient way. The access to ESA data catalogue coupled with high-performance and sizeable computing resources managed by GRID technologies, enables the user to develop applications that were not feasible till now.

  18. Media event at ESOC: closest encounter between ESA's comet chaser Rosetta and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-02-01

    The critical close swingby of Mars is needed to use the gravity of Mars to modify the spacecraft’s speed and direction. Rosetta will emerge from its martian encounter pointed towards its next target, Earth ! It arrives for a second swingby of our home planet on 13 November (the first having already taken place on 4 March 2005). To take advantage of this upcoming closest of encounters with the Red Planet, Rosetta’s instruments - as well as those on its lander - will be switched on over predefined time slots to perform a series of scientific observations, including planetary imaging. Flight controllers at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) have already set everything ready for this crucial manoeuvre. Launched on 2 March 2004 on an Ariane 5 rocket, Rosetta is the first probe ever designed to enter orbit around a comet’s nucleus and release a lander onto its surface. Arriving at comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the probe will take over a year to conduct a thorough scientific study of this remnant of the primitive nebula which gave birth to our solar system some 4.6 billion years ago. By the end of its epic journey, Rosetta will have performed three Earth and one Mars swingbys in all. It will also have studied asteroids Steins and Lutetia, in September 2008 and July 2010 respectively. Media representatives wishing to follow this Rosetta Mars swingby from the ESOC control centre in Darmstadt/Germany are requested to complete and return the attached reply form. For further information, please contact : ESA Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Programme Rosetta Mars swingby 25 February 2007, 2 a.m. start 02:00 - Doors open & Filming opportunity in Mission Control Room 02:40 - Welcome by David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 02:50 - Rosetta Mars swingby the manoeuvres and flight dynamics, Uwe Feucht, Head of Flight Dynamics Division/Team 03:00 - En route science, first images

  19. Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Fuglesang, Christer; Reiter, Thomas; Damann, Volker; Tognini, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

  20. MIMA: Mars Infrared MApper - The Fourier spectrometer for the ESA Pasteur/ExoMars rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzo, G. A.; Bellucci, G.; Fonti, S.; Saggin, B.; Alberti, E.; Altieri, F.; Politi, R.; Zasova, L.; Mima Team

    The MIMA team is developing a FT-IR miniaturized spectrometer to be mounted on the mast of the ExoMars rover Such instrument shall make remote measurements typically a few tens of meters away searching for evidence of water and of water-related processes e g carbonates sulfates clay minerals and if possible organics A survey instrument of this type will be extremely important for any rover mission on Mars especially for the Pasteur payload on the ExoMars mission whose scientific objective is to search for life and or hazards to humans Survey instruments on rover mast could provide necessary guidance if they can identify water evidence of long standing-water clay minerals carbonates sulfates so that detailed studies and drilling can be conducted at the right location The MIMA design is based on the peculiar pendulum optical design already successfully used on ESA PFS for Mars Express and Venus Express missions The wide spectral range 2-25 micron is not covered by means of a double channel as in PFS but using an innovative architecture two different detectors on the same focal plane sharing the same optical path in order to strongly reduce mass and size In this work MIMA technical and scientific issues will be discussed The MIMA team is Giancarlo Bellucci Team Coordinator Francesca Altieri Maria Blecka Roberto Bonsignori Sergio Fonti Giuseppe A Marzo Sandro Meli Jose Juan Lopez Moreno Boris Moshkin GianGabriele Ori Vincenzo Orofino Romolo Politi Giampaolo Preti Andrea Romoli Ted L Roush Bortolino Saggin Maria

  1. PACA_Rosetta67P: Global Amateur Observing Support for ESA/Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Alexander, Claudia; Morales, Efrain; Feliciano-Rivera, Christiana

    2015-11-01

    The PACA (Professional - Amateur Collaborative Astronomy) Project is an ecosystem of several social media platforms (Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, Flickr, Vimeo) that takes advantage of the global and immediate connectivity amongst amateur astronomers worldwide, that can be galvanized to participate in a given observing campaign. The PACA Project has participated in organized campaigns such as Comet Observing Campaign (CIOC_ISON) in 2013 and Comet Siding Spring (CIOC_SidingSpring)in 2014. Currently the PACA Project is supporting ESA/Rosetta mission with ground-based observations of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) through its perihelion in August 2015 and beyond; providing baseline observations of magnitude and evolution from locations around the globe. Comet 67P/CG will reach its brightest post-perihelion and pass closest to Earth in November 2015. We will present the various benefits of our professional - amateur collaboration: developing and building a core astronomer community; defining an observing campaign from basic information of the comet from its previous apparitions; coordinating with professionals and the mission to acquire observations, albeit low-resolution, but on a long timeline; while addressing the creation of several science products such as the variation of its magnitude over time and the changing morphology. We will present some of our results to date and compare with observations from professionals and previous apparations of the comet. We shall also highlight the challenges faced in building a successful collaborative partnership between the professional and amateur observers and their resolution. With the popularity of mobile platforms and instant connections with peers globally, the multi-faceted social universe has become a vital part of engagement of multiple communities for collaborative scientific partnerships and outreach. We shall also highlight other cometary observing campaigns that The PACA Project has initiated to evolve

  2. Digging supplementary buried channels: investigating the notch architecture within the CCD pixels on ESA's Gaia satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'homme, T.; Murray, N. J.; Crowley, C.; Hopkinson, G.; Brown, A. G. A.; Kohley, R.; Holland, A.

    2013-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Gaia satellite has 106 CCD image sensors which will suffer from increased charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) as a result of radiation damage. To aid the mitigation at low signal levels, the CCD design includes supplementary buried channels (SBCs, otherwise known as `notches') within each CCD column. We present the largest published sample of Gaia CCD SBC full well capacity (FWC) laboratory measurements and simulations based on 13 devices. We find that Gaia CCDs manufactured post-2004 have SBCs with FWCs in the upper half of each CCD that are systematically smaller by two orders of magnitude (≤50 electrons) compared to those manufactured pre-2004 (thousands of electrons). Gaia's faint star (13 ≤ G ≤ 20 mag) astrometric performance predictions by Prod'homme et al. and Holl et al. use pre-2004 SBC FWCs as inputs to their simulations. However, all the CCDs already integrated on to the satellite for the 2013 launch are post-2004. SBC FWC measurements are not available for one of our five post-2004 CCDs but the fact that it meets Gaia's image location requirements suggests that it has SBC FWCs similar to pre-2004. It is too late to measure the SBC FWCs onboard the satellite and it is not possible to theoretically predict them. Gaia's faint star astrometric performance predictions depend on knowledge of the onboard SBC FWCs but as these are currently unavailable, it is not known how representative of the whole focal plane the current predictions are. Therefore, we suggest that Gaia's initial in-orbit calibrations should include measurement of the onboard SBC FWCs. We present a potential method to do this. Faint star astrometric performance predictions based on onboard SBC FWCs at the start of the mission would allow satellite operating conditions or CTI software mitigation to be further optimized to improve the scientific return of Gaia.

  3. ExoMars: ESA's mission to search for signs of life on the red planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardini, B.; Vago, J. L.; Baglioni, P.; Kminek, G.; Gianfiglio, G.

    In the framework of its Aurora Exploration Program in 2011 the European Space Agency ESA plans to launch the ExoMars mission ExoMars will deliver two science elements to the Martian surface a Rover carrying the Pasteur scientific payload and a small fixed surface station ---the Geophysics Environment Package GEP The Rover s scientific objectives are 1 To search for signs of past and present life and 2 To characterise in the shallow subsurface the vertical distribution profile for water and geochemical composition The science goals of GEP are 1 to measure geophysics parameters necessary to understand the planet s long-term internal evolution and habitability and 2 to characterise the local environment and identify hazards to future human missions Over its planned 6-month lifetime the Rover will travel a few kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life It will do this by collecting and analysing samples from within surface rocks and from underground ---down to 2-m depth The very powerful combination of mobility with the capability to access locations where organic molecules might be well preserved is unique to this mission ExoMars will have the right tools to try to answer the question of whether life ever arose on the red planet The ExoMars mission contains two other elements a Carrier and a Descent Module The Carrier will bring the Descent Module to Mars and release it from the hyperbolic arrival trajectory The Descent Module s objective is to safely deploy the Rover and the GEP ---developing a robust

  4. Conceptual design of the X-IFU Instrument Control Unit on board the ESA Athena mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcione, L.; Ligori, S.; Capobianco, V.; Bonino, D.; Valenziano, L.; Guizzo, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Athena is one of L-class missions selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program for the science theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. The Athena model payload includes the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), an advanced actively shielded X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer for high spectral resolution imaging, utilizing cooled Transition Edge Sensors. This paper describes the preliminary architecture of Instrument Control Unit (ICU), which is aimed at operating all XIFU's subsystems, as well as at implementing the main functional interfaces of the instrument with the S/C control unit. The ICU functions include the TC/TM management with S/C, science data formatting and transmission to S/C Mass Memory, housekeeping data handling, time distribution for synchronous operations and the management of the X-IFU components (i.e. CryoCoolers, Filter Wheel, Detector Readout Electronics Event Processor, Power Distribution Unit). ICU functions baseline implementation for the phase-A study foresees the usage of standard and Space-qualified components from the heritage of past and current space missions (e.g. Gaia, Euclid), which currently encompasses Leon2/Leon3 based CPU board and standard Space-qualified interfaces for the exchange commands and data between ICU and X-IFU subsystems. Alternative architecture, arranged around a powerful PowerPC-based CPU, is also briefly presented, with the aim of endowing the system with enhanced hardware resources and processing power capability, for the handling of control and science data processing tasks not defined yet at this stage of the mission study.

  5. ESA's Soil Moisture dnd Ocean Salinity Mission - Contributing to Water Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, S.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. The focus of this paper will be on SMOS's contribution to support water resource management: SMOS surface soil moisture provides the input to derive root-zone soil moisture, which in turn provides the input for the drought index, an important monitoring prediction tool for plant available water. In addition to surface soil moisture, SMOS also provides observations on vegetation optical depth. Both parameters aid agricultural applications such as crop growth, yield forecasting and drought monitoring, and provide input for carbon and land surface modelling. SMOS data products are used in data assimilation and forecasting systems. Over land, assimilating SMOS derived information has shown to have a positive impact on applications such as NWP, stream flow forecasting and the analysis of net ecosystem exchange. Over ocean, both sea surface salinity and severe wind speed have the potential to increase the predictive skill on the seasonal and short- to medium-range forecast range. Operational users in particular in Numerical Weather Prediction and operational hydrology have put forward a requirement for soil moisture data to be available in near-real time (NRT). This has been addressed by developing a fast retrieval for a NRT level 2 soil moisture product based on Neural Networks, which will be available by autumn 2015. This paper will focus on presenting the

  6. The Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter : An ESA Contribution to the Europa-Jupiter System Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drossart, Pierre; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J. P.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Greeley, R.; Fujimoto, M.; EJSM/Jupiter Science Definition Team

    2008-09-01

    In the framework of an outer planets mission, under study after the NASA-Juno mission, the Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would combine a fleet of up to three satellites in order to investigate in depth many questions related to the Jupiter System. These investigations are essential for our understanding of the emergence and evolution of habitable worlds, not only within the Solar System, but also for extrasolar planets investigations. Scientific targets of EJSM will focus on Europa and Ganymede as a key pair of Galilean satellites, to address the questions on their habitability, formation, and internal structure, as well as the coupling with the whole Jovian system : Jupiter's atmosphere and interior, magnetosphere and magnetodisk. .In combination with a Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO likely provided by NASA) and a Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO likely provided by JAXA), ESA is studying a Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The mission scenario includes a direct launch in 2020 with a transfer time to Jupiter of 6 years. After the orbit insertion around Jupiter, a first phase ( 2 years) will be devoted to Jupiter system and Callisto studies, with multiple flybys of Callisto planned at low altitude ( 200 km), followed by a Ganymede orbit insertion and extensive study of Ganymede ( 1 year). In-depth comparative study of inner (Io and Europa) and outer (Ganymede and Callisto) satellites with combined payload of JEO and JGO will address the question of the relative geological evolution of the satellites. On JGO, the transport phenomena in the magnetosphere of Jupiter will be studied in combination with JMO, and the Ganymede magnetosphere will be observed in situ. Jupiter atmosphere investigations on JGO will focus on coupling phenomena between troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, the stratospheric composition and the question of thermospheric heating.

  7. The Lena River Delta Observatory, Arctic Siberia: a Contribution to the ESA DUE Permafrost Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Moritz, Langer; Annett, Bartsch; Sina, Muster; Jennifer, Sobiech; Konstanze, Piel; Günter, Stoof; Anne, Morgenstern; Mathias, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The major task of the ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST is to develop and use Earth Observation services specifically for monitoring and modelling of permafrost. In order to setup the required information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Long-term ground data series and multidisciplinary ongoing projects make the Lena River delta (Arctic Siberia) a prime study region for evaluation and validation of the DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing products. The Lena River Delta located in the zone of continuous permafrost is a key region for Arctic system science. Since 1998, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research AWI in collaboration with the Lena Delta Reserve in Tiksi has operated the German-Russian research station Samoylov. Relevant ground-based data (air temperature, radiation, snow, albedo, soil temperature and moisture) are collected continuously. The high landscape heterogeneity (wet polygonal centres, dry polygonal rims, ponds and lakes) challenges all ground data observations. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and location are being built up. Exclusion and selection criteria will be based on experience, especially the knowledge on parameter variability in time and space. The main focus are the remote sensing products ‘surface temperature', ‘surface moisture', ‘albedo', ‘vegetation' and ‘water'. Statistical and contextural methods will be used for the upscaling from the plot to the meso-scale. Problems will have to be identified such as process-dependent scales and the water body ratio within the pixel.

  8. Columnar- Equiaxed Transition in Solidification processing: The ESA-MAP CETSOL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billia, Bernard; Gandin, Charles-André; Zimmermann, Gerhard; Browne, David; Dupouy, Marie-Danielle

    2005-03-01

    Many castings are the result of a competition between the growth of columnar and equiaxed grains. Indeed, microstructures are at the center of materials science and engineering, and solidification is the most important processing route for structural materials, especially metals and alloys. Presently, microstructure models remain mostly based on diffusive transport mechanisms so that there is a need of critical benchmark data to test fundamental theories of microstructure formation, which often necessitates to have recourse to solidification experiments in the reduced-gravity environment of space. Accordingly, the CETSOL (Columnar-Equiaxed Transition in SOLidification processing)-MAP project of ESA is gathering together European groups with complementary skills to carry out experiments and model the processes, in particular in view of the utilization of reduced-gravity environment that will be afforded by the International Space Station (ISS) to get benchmark data. The ultimate objective of the CETSOL research program is to significantly contribute to the improvement of integrated modeling of grain structure in industrially important castings. To reach this goal, the approach is devised to deepen the quantitative understanding of the basic physical principles that, from the microscopic to the macroscopic scales, govern microstructure formation in solidification processing under diffusive conditions and with fluid flow in the melt. Pending questions are attacked by well-defined model experiments on technical alloys and/or on model transparent systems, physical modeling at microstructure and mesoscopic scales (e.g. large columnar front or equiaxed crystals) and numerical simulation at all scales, up to the macroscopic scales of casting with integrated numerical models.

  9. Radiometric model for the stereo camera STC onboard the BepiColombo ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Martellato, Elena; Simioni, Emanuele; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    The STereoscopic imaging Channel (STC) is one of the instruments on-board the BepiColombo mission, which is an ESA/JAXA Cornerstone mission dedicated to the investigation of the Mercury planet. STC is part of the Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS) suite. STC main scientific objective is the 3D global mapping of the entire surface of Mercury with a mean scale factor of 55 m per pixel at periherm. To determine the design requirements and to model the on-ground and in-flight performance of STC, a radiometric model has been developed. In particular, STC optical characteristics have been used to define the instrument response function. As input for the model, different sources can be taken into account depending on the applications, i.e. to simulate the in-flight or on-ground performances. Mercury expected radiance, the measured Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) integrating sphere radiance, or calibrated stellar fluxes can be considered. Primary outputs of the model are the expected signal per pixel expressed in function of the integration time and its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These outputs allow then to calculate the most appropriate integration times to be used during the different phases of the mission; in particular for the images taken during the calibration campaign on-ground and for the in-flight ones, i.e. surface imaging along the orbit around Mercury and stellar calibration acquisitions. This paper describes the radiometric model structure philosophy, the input and output parameters and presents the radiometric model derived for STC. The predictions of the model will be compared with some measurements obtained during the Flight Model (FM) ground calibration campaign. The results show that the model is valid, in fact the foreseen simulated values are in good agreement with the real measured ones.

  10. Chandra Contributes to ESA's Integral Detection of Closest Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, and also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs should emit similar amounts of gamma-ray energy. The fraction of it detected at Earth should then depend on the 'width' (opening angle) and orientation of the beam as well as on the distance. The energy received should be larger when the beam is narrow or points towards us and smaller when the beam is broad or points away from us. New data collected with ESA's high energy observatories, Integral and XMM-Newton, now show that this picture is not so clear-cut and that the amount of energy emitted by GRBs can vary significantly. "The idea that all GRBs spit out the same amount of gamma rays, or that they are 'standard candles' as we call them, is simply ruled out by the new data," said Dr Sergey Sazonov, from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia) and the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching near Munich (Germany). Sazonov and an international team of researchers studied the GRB detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 and given the code-name of GRB 031203. Within a record 18 seconds of the burst, the Integral Burst Alert System

  11. ESA to test the smartest technique for detecting extrasolar planets from the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    GENIE will use ESO's Very Large Telescopes Credits: European Southern Observatory This photo shows an aerial view of the observing platform on the top of Paranal mountain (from late 1999), with the four enclosu Three 1.8-m VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) and paths of the light beams have been superposed on the photo. Also seen are some of the 30 'stations' where the ATs will be positioned for observations and from where the light beams from the telescopes can enter the Interferometric Tunnel below. The straight structures are supports for the rails on which the telescopes can move from one station to another. The Interferometric Laboratory (partly subterranean) is at the centre of the platform. How nulling interferometry works Credits: ESA 2002/Medialab How nulling interferometry works In nulling interferometry, light from a distant star (red beams) hits each telescope, labelled T1 and T2, simultaneously. Before the resultant light beams are combined, the beam from one telescope is delayed by half a wavelength. This means that when the rays are brought together, peaks from one telescope line up with troughs from the other and so are cancelled out (represented by the straight red line), leaving no starlight. Light from a planet (blue beams), orbiting the star, enters the telescopes at an angle. This introduces a delay in the light reaching the second telescope. So, even after the half wavelength change in one of the rays, when the beams are combined they are reinforced (represented by the large blue waves) rather than cancelled out. Illustration by Medialab. Nulling interferometry combines the signal from a number of different telescopes in such a way that the light from the central star is cancelled out, leaving the much fainter planet easier to see. This is possible because light is a wave with peaks and troughs. Usually when combining light from two or more telescopes, a technique called interferometry, the peaks are lined up with one another to boost the signal

  12. Selection of a Propulsion System for Jason-CS in Order to Fulfil Space Debris Mitigation Requirements for ESA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthen, Bjoern; Beck, Jan; Duske, Norbert; Francis, Richard; Koeble, Klaus-Peter

    2013-08-01

    For two decades, the mission Topex-Poseidon and its successor mission Jason/Ocean Surface Topography Mission provide satellite data for the analysis of sea topography, wave heights and wind speeds. For the continuation of service mission Jason-CS, ESA's choice to rely on the CryoSat-2 platform design permits re-use of a well established product and proven processes. An industrial consortium led by Astrium GmbH has built the satellite CryoSat-2 which for over three years successfully provides altimeter measurements of the polar ice cap thickness evolutions. This platform is perfectly suited for accommodation of the Jason-CS instruments. Unlike CryoSat-2, Jason-CS is required to perform a post-mission disposal according to the Requirements for Space Debris Mitigation for ESA Projects. This paper discusses different technologies in terms of efficiency, feasibility and accommodation, aiming at minimizing necessary spacecraft design modifications.

  13. The SAFE ESA-funded Project: how to approach for an integrated system of earthquake physics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, A.; De Franceschi, G.; Di Giovambattista, R.; Perrone, L.; Alfonsi, L.; Cianchini, G.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Cesaroni, C.; Spogli, L.; Malagnini, A.; Amoruso, L.; Carbone, M.; Abbattista, C.; Drimaco, D.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of the Swarm satellite mission by ESA is to measure the magnetic signals from the Earth. The SAFE (Swarm for Earthquake study) project (funded by ESA in the framework "STSE Swarm+Innovation", 2014) aims at applying the new approach of geosystemics to the analysis of Swarm data for investigating the preparatory phase of earthquakes. The main objective is to explore the possible link between magnetic/ionospheric anomalies and large earthquakes analysing Swarm as well as ground based data (seismic, magnetic, GNSS, etc.). This presentation will show the state of the art in lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC) and the expected contribution of SAFE in the field, showing some recent case studies.

  14. The Sodankylä in situ soil moisture observation network: an example application of ESA CCI soil moisture product evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Jaakko; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Smolander, Tuomo; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Bircher, Simone; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade there has been considerable development in remote sensing techniques relating to soil moisture retrievals over large areas. Within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) a new soil moisture product has been generated, merging different satellite-based surface soil moisture based products. Such remotely sensed data need to be validated by means of in situ observations in different climatic regions. In that context, a comprehensive, distributed network of in situ measurement stations gathering information on soil moisture, as well as soil temperature, has been set up in recent years at the Finnish Meteorological Institute's (FMI) Sodankylä Arctic research station. The network forms a calibration and validation (CAL-VAL) reference site and is used as a tool to evaluate the validity of satellite retrievals of soil properties. In this paper we present the Sodankylä CAL-VAL reference site soil moisture observation network, its instrumentation as well as its areal representativeness over the study area and the region in general as a whole. As an example of data utilization, comparisons of spatially weighted average top-layer soil moisture observations between the years 2012 and 2014 against ESA CCI soil moisture data product estimates are presented and discussed. The comparisons were made against a single ESA CCI data product pixel encapsulating most of the Sodankylä CAL-VAL network sites. Comparisons are made with daily averaged and running weekly averaged soil moisture data as well as through application of an exponential soil moisture filter. The overall achieved correlation between the ESA CCI data product and in situ observations varies considerably (from 0.479 to 0.637) depending on the applied comparison perspective. Similarly, depending on the comparison perspective used, inter-annual correlation comparison results exhibit even more pronounced variation, ranging from 0.166 to 0.840.

  15. Delta-He: a novel marker of inflammation predicting mortality and ESA response in peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Kristin; Beshara, Soheir; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Heimbürger, Olof; Lindholm, Bengt; Hansson, Magnus; Hylander, Britta; Germanis, Guna; Stenvinkel, Peter; Barany, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammation impairs erythropoiesis, iron availability and is associated with a higher mortality risk in patients with end-stage renal disease. We studied the associations between Delta-He [the difference between the reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret-He) and erythrocyte haemoglobin content], a suggested marker of iron availability, and markers of inflammation, iron status, response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and mortality in prevalent peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods Eighty-two PD patients were followed weekly for 12 weeks with an additional follow-up of 36 months. Delta-He, Ret-He and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured weekly and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and iron markers every fourth week. Mortality risk was assessed by Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for potential confounding factors. The relationships between ESA response, inflammatory markers, iron markers and Delta-He were evaluated in the PD patients. The relationship between Delta-He and iron markers was analysed in 87 healthy subjects. Results Delta-He correlated with IL-6 (rho = 0.48, P < 0.001), hs-CRP (rho = 0.36, P < 0.001) and ESA hyporesponsivess index (EHRI; rho = −0.44, P < 0.001) in the PD patients. Delta-He did not correlate with iron markers in PD patients nor in healthy subjects. The mean Delta-He levels were significantly different between the tertiles of EHRI (P < 0.01). Delta-He was associated with all-cause mortality risk in PD patients after adjusting for age, gender, hs-CRP, comorbidity and nutritional status [OR 0.70 (0.51–0.96), P < 0.05]. Conclusions Delta-He independently predicts all-cause mortality in PD patients after adjusting for potential confounders and is a predictor of ESA response in PD patients. PMID:25852889

  16. Planetary protection and humans missions to Mars: summary results from two workshops sponsored by NASA and NASA/ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Kminek, G.; Rummel, J. D.; Nasa; Nasa/Esa Workshop Participants

    Planetary Protection PP requirements will strongly influence mission and spacecraft designs for future human missions to Mars particularly those related to the operation of advanced life support systems ALS extravehicular activities EVA laboratory and in situ sampling operations and systems for environmental monitoring and control EMC In order to initiate communication understanding and working relations between the ALS EVA EMC and PP communities in both NASA and ESA two separate workshops were held to focus on mission-specific PP issues during future human missions to Mars The NASA Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop was held in Houston TX Center for Advanced Space Studies April 2005 and The Mars PP and Human Systems Research and Technology Joint NASA ESA Workshop was held at ESA ESTEC Noordwijk Netherlands May 2005 This poster presentation summarizes the findings of both workshops and their associated recommendations which are summarized as follows The NASA workshop developed a tentative conceptual approach consistent with current PP requirements to provide preliminary guidance in the assessment of EVA ALS EMC and other aspects of human missions The workshop report identified the need for development of a comprehensive classification and zoning system for Mars to minimize contamination and guide operations particularly in relation to COSPAR Special Region and protection of science and environmental conditions Critical research and technology

  17. Revised ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management. Implications for preoperative clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guarracino, F; Baldassarri, R; Priebe, H J

    2015-02-01

    Each year, an increasing number of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery require careful perioperative management to minimize the perioperative risk. Perioperative cardiovascular complications are the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality after major non-cardiac surgery. A Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) has recently published revised Guidelines on the perioperative cardiovascular management of patients scheduled to undergo non-cardiac surgery, which represent the official position of the ESC and ESA on various aspects of perioperative cardiac care. According to the Guidelines effective perioperative cardiac management includes preoperative risk stratification based on preoperative assessment of functional capacity, type of surgery, cardiac risk factors, and cardiovascular function. The ESC/ESA Guidelines discourage indiscriminate routine preoperative cardiac testing, because it is time- and cost-consuming, resource-limiting, and does not improve perioperative outcome. They rather emphasize the importance of individualized preoperative cardiac evaluation and the cooperation between anesthesiologists and cardiologists. We summarize the relevant changes of the 2014 Guidelines as compared to the previous ones, with particular emphasis on preoperative cardiac testing.

  18. Maximising the benefits of satellite LST within the user community: ESA DUE GlobTemperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is the mean radiative skin temperature of an area of land resulting from the mean balance of solar heating and land-atmosphere cooling fluxes. It is a basic determinant of the terrestrial thermal behaviour, as it controls the effective radiating temperature of the Earth's surface. The sensitivity of LST to soil moisture and vegetation cover means it is an important component in numerous applications. With the demand for LST data from Earth Observation currently experiencing considerable growth it is important that the users of this data are appropriately engaged by the LST data providers. The GlobTemperature project under the Data User Element of ESA's 4th Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017) aims to promote the wider uptake of global-scale satellite LST by the research and operational user communities; the key to success depending on the coherence and openness of the interactions between the LST and user communities. By incorporating detailed user input into the specifications, their subsequent testing of the LST data sets, and sustained access to data in a user-friendly manner through common data formats GlobTemperature is enhancing the portfolio of LST products from Earth Observation, while concurrently breaking down the barriers to successful application of such data through its programme of dialogue between the data providers and data users. Here we present the outcomes from the first phase of the project, which is achieving some innovative developments: a globally representative and consistent matchup database enabling validation and intercomparison of multi-sensor LST data sets; a prototype combined geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) global data set for LST to resolve the diurnal cycle which is a key request from users of LST data; the delivery of the first LST data sets via a dedicated Data Portal in harmonised data format; and the establishment, in collaboration with international colleagues

  19. Future satellite missions for time-variable geopotential recovery - results from the ESA Mass Transport Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubelt, T.; Sneeuw, N.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; van Dam, T.; Losch, M.

    2009-04-01

    With the successful GRACE mission (data collection since Spring 2002), global time-variable gravity fields can be recovered beyond the lower degrees for the first time. Although GRACE is able to detect significant features of the time-variable geopotential, e.g. the continental hydrological cycle, trends in ice-mass change in Antarctica or Greenland or sea level rise, its mission concept suffers from inherent deficiencies. The main limitations of GRACE are (i) the range-rate measurements (insufficient accuracy, anisotropy of the leader-follower-formation), (ii) aliasing due to spatial and temporal undersampling and (iii) inaccurate de-aliasing products. This leads to an erroneous North-South striping pattern and a limited accuracy and resolution for many scientific studies. Within the ESA project „Monitoring and Modeling Individual Sources of Mass Distribution and Transport in the Earth System by Means of Satellites" potential future satellite mission concepts, which could improve time-variable geopotential-recovery, have been studied. An improved accuracy of a future laser instrument as well as an enhanced temporal sampling have been regarded in the simulations, which were based on repeat orbits. An enhanced sampling can be achieved by means of multi-satellite-missions, where the spatial and/or temporal resolutions are improved by: 1) additional satellites on interleaved groundtracks and/or 2) time shifted satellites on the same groundtrack. Another possibility is the so-called Pete-Bender-design, where the satellites fly on different repeat-orbits with different inclinations, which also allows for more homogeneous groundtrack coverage. Sophisticated satellite-formations such as cartwheels or gravity wheels have not been regarded so far due to the unsolved technical problems (e.g. control of the laser instrument) related to these designs. The primary objective of the simulation studies was the precise recovery of the input hydrological signal and the trends of

  20. Assessment of Northern Hemisphere Snow Water Equivalent Datasets in ESA SnowPEx project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Cohen, Juval; Ikonen, Jaakko; Derksen, Chris; Mudryk, Lawrence; Nagler, Thomas; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    Reliable information on snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere and Arctic and sub-Arctic regions is needed for climate monitoring, for understanding the Arctic climate system, and for the evaluation of the role of snow cover and its feedback in climate models. In addition to being of significant interest for climatological investigations, reliable information on snow cover is of high value for the purpose of hydrological forecasting and numerical weather prediction. Terrestrial snow covers up to 50 million km² of the Northern Hemisphere in winter and is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore satellite observations provide the best means for timely and complete observations of the global snow cover. There are a number of independent SWE products available that describe the snow conditions on multi-decadal and global scales. Some products are derived using satellite-based information while others rely on meteorological observations and modelling. What is common to practically all the existing hemispheric SWE products, is that their retrieval performance on hemispherical and multi-decadal scales are not accurately known. The purpose of the ESA funded SnowPEx project is to obtain a quantitative understanding of the uncertainty in satellite- as well as model-based SWE products through an internationally coordinated and consistent evaluation exercise. The currently available Northern Hemisphere wide satellite-based SWE datasets which were assessed include 1) the GlobSnow SWE, 2) the NASA Standard SWE, 3) NASA prototype and 4) NSIDC-SSM/I SWE products. The model-based datasets include: 5) the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) product 6) the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Interim Land Reanalysis (ERA-I-Land) which uses a simple snow scheme 7) the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) which uses an intermediate complexity snow scheme; and 8) SWE from the Crocus snow scheme, a

  1. The ESA SMOS+SOS Project: Oceanography using SMOS for innovative air-sea exchange studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Chris; Gommenginger, Christine; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reul, Nicolas; Martin, Matthew; Ash, Ellis; Reverdin, Gilles; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    We report on the work plan of the SMOS+Surface Ocean Salinity and Synergy (SMOS+SOS) project. SMOS+SOS is funded through the Support to Science Element (STSE) component of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Earth Observation Envelope Programme. The SMOS+SOS consortium consists of four organisations namely the National Oceanography Centre (UK), the LOCEAN/IFREMER/CATDS research team (France), the Met Office (UK) and Satellite Oceanographic Consultants Ltd (UK). The end of the SMOS+SOS project will be marked by a final open workshop most likely hosted by the UK Met Office in September/October 2014. The project is concerned with demonstrating the performance and scientific value of SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) products through a number of well-defined case studies. The case studies include: Amazon/Orinoco plumes (freshwater outflow); Agulhas and Gulf Stream (strong water mass boundary); Tropical Pacific/Atlantic (strong precipitation regime); sub-tropical North Atlantic (ie SPURS; strong evaporative regime); and Equatorial Pacific (equatorial upwelling). With SMOS measuring the SSS in the top cm of the ocean, validating SMOS against in situ salinity data taken typically at a few meters depth introduces assumptions about the vertical structure of salinity in the upper ocean. To address these issues, the project will examine and quantify discrepancies between SMOS and in situ surface salinity data at various depths in different regions characterised by strong precipitation or evaporation regimes. Equally, data editing and spatio-temporal averaging play a central role in determining the quality, errors and correlations in SMOS SSS data. The project will explore various processing and spatio-temporal averaging choices to define the SMOS SSS products that best address the needs of the oceanographic and data assimilation user community. One key aspect of this project is to determine how one can achieve useful accuracy/uncertainty in SSS without jeopardising SMOS's ability

  2. 3D Vision on Mars: Stereo processing and visualizations for NASA and ESA rover missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) vision processing is an essential component of planetary rover mission planning and scientific data analysis. Standard ground vision processing products are digital terrain maps, panoramas, and virtual views of the environment. Such processing is currently developed for the PanCam instrument of ESA's ExoMars Rover mission by the PanCam 3D Vision Team under JOANNEUM RESEARCH coordination. Camera calibration, quality estimation of the expected results and the interfaces to other mission elements such as operations planning, rover navigation system and global Mars mapping are a specific focus of the current work. The main goals of the 3D Vision team in this context are: instrument design support & calibration processing: Development of 3D vision functionality Visualization: development of a 3D visualization tool for scientific data analysis. 3D reconstructions from stereo image data during the mission Support for 3D scientific exploitation to characterize the overall landscape geomorphology, processes, and the nature of the geologic record using the reconstructed 3D models. The developed processing framework PRoViP establishes an extensible framework for 3D vision processing in planetary robotic missions. Examples of processing products and capabilities are: Digital Terrain Models, Ortho images, 3D meshes, occlusion, solar illumination-, slope-, roughness-, and hazard-maps. Another important processing capability is the fusion of rover and orbiter based images with the support of multiple missions and sensors (e.g. MSL Mastcam stereo processing). For 3D visualization a tool called PRo3D has been developed to analyze and directly interpret digital outcrop models. Stereo image products derived from Mars rover data can be rendered in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the generated 3D outcrop models. Interpretations can be digitized directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements of the outcrop and sedimentary features

  3. The ESA FELYX High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set System Design and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taberner, M.; Shutler, J.; Walker, P.; Poulter, D.; Piolle, J.-F.; Donlon, C.; Guidetti, V.

    2013-10-01

    Felyx is currently under development and is the latest evolution of a generalised High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set system funded by ESA. It draws on previous prototype developments and experience in the GHRSST, Medspiration, GlobColour and GlobWave projects. In this paper, we outline the design and implementation of the system, and illustrate using the Ocean Colour demonstration activities. Felyx is fundamentally a tool to facilitate the analysis of EO data: it is being developed by IFREMER, PML and Pelamis. It will be free software written in python and javascript. The aim is to provide Earth Observation data producers and users with an opensource, flexible and reusable tool to allow the quality and performance of data streams from satellite, in situ and model sources to be easily monitored and studied. New to this project, is the ability to establish and incorporate multi-sensor match-up database capabilities. The systems will be deployable anywhere and even include interaction mechanisms between the deployed instances. The primary concept of Felyx is to work as an extraction tool. It allows for the extraction of subsets of source data over predefined target areas(which can be static or moving). These data subsets, and associated metrics, can then be accessed by users or client applications either as raw files or through automatic alerts. These data can then be used to generate periodic reports or be used for statistical analysis and visualisation through a flexible web interface. Felyx can be used for subsetting, the generation of statistics, the generation of reports or warnings/alerts, and in-depth analyses, to name a few. There are many potential applications but important uses foreseen are: * monitoring and assessing the quality of Earth observations (e.g. satellite products and time series) through statistical analysis and/or comparison with other data sources * assessing and inter-comparing geophysical inversion algorithms * observing a given phenomenon

  4. ESA DUE GlobTemperature project: Infrared-based LST Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermida, Sofia; Pires, Ana; Ghent, Darren; Trigo, Isabel; DaCamara, Carlos; Remedios, John

    2016-04-01

    One of the purposes of the GlobTemperature project is to provide a product of global Land Surface Temperature (LST) based on Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth polar Orbit (LEO) satellite data. The objective is to use existing LST products, which are obtained from different sensors/platforms, combining them into a harmonized product for a reference view angle. In a first approach, only infra-red based retrievals are considered, and LEO LSTs will be used as a common denominator among geostationary sensors. LST data is provided by a wide range of sensors to optimize spatial coverage, namely: (i) 2 LEO sensors - the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) series of instruments on-board ESA's Envisat, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board NASA's TERRA and AQUA; and (ii) 3 GEO sensors - the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on-board EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), the Japanese Meteorological Imager (JAMI) on-board the Japanese Meteorological Association (JMA) Multifunction Transport SATellite (MTSAT-2), and NASA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The merged LST product is generated in two steps: 1) calibration between each LEO and each GEO that consists in the removal of systematic differences (associated to sensor type and LST algorithms, including calibration, atmospheric and surface emissivity corrections, amongst others) represented by linear regressions; 2) angular correction that consists in bringing all LST data to reference (nadir) view. Angular effects on LST are estimated by means of a kernel model of the surface thermal emission, which describes the angular dependence of LST as function of viewing and illumination geometry. The model is adjusted to MODIS and SEVIRI/MSG LST estimates and validated against LST retrievals from those sensors obtained for other years (not used in the calibration). It is shown that the model leads to a reduction of LST

  5. The Near-Earth Object Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, D. V.; Drolshagen, G.; Bobrinsky, N.

    2010-09-01

    Out of the vast asteroid population in the solar system, about 7000 objects are near-Earth objects and come close to the Earth. When impacting our planet, they can cause significant damage - it is assumed that a large mass extinction about 65 Mio years ago was caused by an asteroid of a few kilometers in size. Up until a few years ago, objects down to about 40 m in size were expected to go through the Earth’s atmosphere and reach the surface and may cause significant damage. Recent impact events have shown that occasionally objects as small as 1 m can reach the ground and produce an impact crater [1], [2], [3]. A number of search programs are ongoing to detect these objects. Two main computing centers determine the risk probability of NEOs, the Sentry system at JPL in the US, and the NeoDys system in Europe. Once an impact threat has been identified, a political process has to start to alert the endangered countries. This is an international process - a NEO could impact anywhere. It is currently discussed in the frame of the so-called Action Team #14 of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations. The Action Team will be active until 2011 and is expected to produce a clear guideline for a political decision process. Historically, most of the activities related to the detection, data dissemination, and computations related to NEOs have been done by the US. In 2008, the advisory board of the European Space Agency(ESA) has approved a programme called 'Space Situational Awareness(SSA) preparatory programme' which also addresses this issue. Its goal is to increase the awareness of the situation in space concerning (a) Space Debris(b) Space Weather(c) Near-Earth Objects As part of the programme, a network of sensors for measurements will be set up. Ground systems will be set up to process the data, and a service to inform users about the situation and give warnings, e.g. about the probability of an NEO coming close to the Earth, will be

  6. First Analysis of Densities Inferred from Accelerometer Data on ESA's Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, S.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Marty, J. C.; Svedhem, H.

    2015-12-01

    After completing its primary science mission, ESA decided to do a risky aerobraking campaign with Venus Express (VEx) in order to gain operational experience as well as to measure high-resolution density profiles at high northern latitude. VEx was in a polar and highly eccentric orbit (e=0.84). In the aerobraking period from 24 June to 11 July 2014, the pericenter was at 75°N at an altitude of 130-134 km, and the local solar time drifted from 6.2 to 4.5 hr. One density profile extending about 3° in latitude on both sides of the pericenter has been obtained for each of the 18 consecutive days at 1 Hz sampling, after ingestion of the 8 Hz accelerometer data in the GINS software. The uncertainty in the derived density is the sum of a systematic part due to the uncertainty in Cd, estimated to be 10%, and a noise and bias part due to the accelerometers. Using the accelerometer errors according to specifications, a signal-to-noise ratio of one is reached on average at 139 km altitude. The validity range of the VEx densities can also be evaluated by means of comparison with a model. The VEx-to-VTS3 density ratios were computed for each profile, and these results are consistent with the specified instrument resolution. VEx densities are on average nearly a factor of 2 smaller than VTS3, which is in agreement with Precise Orbit Determination results obtained for higher altitudes (160-170 km). However, variability of up to tens of percent is visible in the form of wavelike activity as well as an altitude-dependent variation that is revealed by ratios that become smaller towards the start and end of the profile. The latter model error hints at an inaccurate the temperature profile, errors in constituent concentrations, or both. The waves can be interpreted as a superposition of two wave trains with wavelengths of around 100 km and 250 km. Average scale heights over the range of observations (130-140 km) are found to be 2.9+/-0.6 km.

  7. Development of a Low Energy Particle Electron Spectrum Analyzer (LEP-ESA) onboard the ICI-2 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, M.; Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Saito, M.; Asamura, K.; Kasahara, S.

    2008-12-01

    Strong HF radar backscatter echoes are well-known characteristics of the polar cusp region by the ground- based observation of HF radar in the polar ionosphere. The gradient drift instability is regarded as a dominant mode for producing backscatter targets. According to Moen et al. [2002], decameter scale measurement that cannot be achieved by ground-based and satellite observations is required to understand the generation mechanism. Norwegian sounding rocket experiment ICI-2(Investigation of Cusp Irregularities) is proposed in order to single out the mechanism(s) running cusp ionospheric plasma unstable and facilitate backscatter targets for HF radars. The ICI-2 rocket will be launched into cusp ionosphere from Svalbard, Norway in Nov/Dec 2008. We are responsible for developing a low energy particle electron spectrum analyzer (LEP-ESA) that is one of the science payloads onboard the ICI-2 sounding rocket. LEP-ESA covers the energy range between 10eV and 10keV. We designed LEP-ESA to achieve high spatial resolution of ~10m/energy spectrum (16 energy steps). We have confirmed the performance of LEP-ESA by experiments as well as numerical simulations. In order to realize the high spatial resolution, high time resolution is required. For the purpose of high time resolution measurement of low energy electrons we have newly developed an electron detector that consists of Z-stack MCPs (Micro Channel Pates) and 64-channel multi-anode. An ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) with 64-channel fast preamplifiers and counters are installed on the backside of the anode. Since the detected electrons are independently counted by 64 separated anodes, multi-anode can achieve the higher time resolution than any other position sensitive anodes. One of the most severe problems in using a multi- anode is the size of the required electronics that becomes unacceptably large for the sounding rocket / satellite instrument when the number of the channels is large. By using the

  8. Producing Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Information for Climate Research Purposes - ESA DUE Globsnow Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Solberg, Rune; Wiesmann, Andreas; Derksen, Chris; Metsämäki, Sari; Malnes, Eirik; Bojkov, Bojan

    2010-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project aims at creating a global database of snow parameters for climate research purposes. The main objective is to create a long term dataset on two essential snow parameters. The project will provide information concerning the areal extent of snow (SE) on a global scale and snow water equivalent (SWE) for the Northern Hemisphere. Both products will include the end product derived from the satellite data along with accuracy information for each snow parameter. The temporal span of the SE product will be 15 years and the span for the SWE product will be 30 years. A key improvement of the snow products, when compared with the currently available data sets, will be the inclusion of a statistically derived accuracy estimate accompanying each SE or SWE estimate (on a pixel level). In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service will be implemented. The service will provide daily snow maps for hydrological, meteorological, and climate research purposes. The snow products will be based on data acquired from optical and passive microwave-based spaceborne sensors combined with ground-based weather station observations. The work was initiated in November 2008, and is being coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Other project partners involved are NR (Norwegian Computing Centre), ENVEO IT GmbH, GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Environment Canada (EC) and Northern Research Institute (Norut). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms during 2009 using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results have enabled the selection of the algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow SE and SWE products. The SWE product is derived using the FMI Algorithm and the SE product is a combination of NR and

  9. The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System for ESA's Trace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicolas; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is an 11 μrad/px imaging system ready to launch on the European Space Agency's (ESA) ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) on 14 March 2016 from Baikonur. CaSSIS is based around an 880 mm focal length carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) telescope with a 135 mm primary mirror and a 2k x 2k CMOS hybrid detector with 10 micron pixel pitch providing 4.6 m/px imaging from the nominal 400 km circular orbit. The telescope is a slightly modified three mirror anastigmat optical configuration with no central obscuration. The instrument is designed to operate in "push-frame" mode where 2048 x 256 images are acquired at a repetition rate which matches the ground-track velocity (~3 km/s) allowing sufficient overlap for co-registration thereby building image strips along the surface. A filter strip assembly (FSA) is mounted directly above the detector providing images in 4 wavelength bands. Two of these (480.5nm and 676.5nm prior to convolution with the rest of the instrument) correspond closely to bands used by the HiRISE instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter [4]. Two other filters split the NIR wavelengths with centres at 838 nm and close to 985 nm. Analyses show that the filters provide good differentiation between expected surface minerals, particularly Fe-bearing phases (Tornabene et al. LPSC, 2016). CaSSIS is designed to produce stereo from images acquired ~30 s apart by using a rotation drive. The telescope points 10 degrees off-nadir. The drive aligns the telescope with the ground-track direction so that the telescope is pointing forward. After image acquisition, the telescope is rapidly rotated by 180 degrees to point in the opposite direction and the second image of the stereo pair is acquired. CaSSIS will extend the monitoring of past missions to future years allowing the tracking of longer-term changes. It will also provide contemporaneous imaging of regions that may produce unique signatures detected by

  10. Earth Observation in aid of surge monitoring and forecasting: ESA's eSurge Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Phillip; Cipollini, Paolo; Snaith, Helen; Høyer, Jacob; Dwyer, Ned; Dunne, Declan; Stoffelen, Ad; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    The understanding and realistic modelling of surges supports both preparation and mitigation activities and should eventually bring enormous societal benefits, especially to some of the world's poorest countries. Earth Observation data from satellites have an important role to play in storm surge monitoring and forecasting, but the full uptake of these data by the users (such as environmental agencies and tidal prediction centres) must be first encouraged by showcasing their usefulness, and then supported by providing easy access. The European Space Agency has recognized the above needs and, through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, has initiated in 2011 the eSurge project, whose aims are: a) to contribute through Earth Observation to an integrated approach to storm surge, wave, sea-level and flood forecasting as part of a wider optimal strategy for building an improved forecast and warning capability for coastal inundation; and b) to increase the use of the advanced capabilities of ESA and other satellite data for storm surge applications. The project is led by Logica UK, with NOC (UK), DMI (Denmark), CMRC (Ireland) and KNMI (Netherlands) as scientific partners. eSurge aims to provide easy access to a wide range of relevant data for a range of historical surge events, as well as performing a series of experiments to demonstrate the value of this data, and running workshops and training courses to help users make use of the available data. The eSurge database of Earth Observation and in situ measurements for past surge events is now publicly available. In 2013 the project moves into its service demonstration phase, adding more data and events, including a demonstration near real time service. The project works closely with its users in order to meet their needs and to maximise the return of this data. A novel dataset provided by eSurge is coastal altimetry. Coastal altimetry has a prominent role to play as it measures directly the total water level envelope

  11. The design of Janus, the visible camera for the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Schmitz, Nicole; Castro, José Maria; Leese, Mark; Debei, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio; Michalik, Harald

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. During the whole operational phase, JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) will acquire panchromatic and narrow-band images in the visible - NIR range of many targets within the Jovian system: the Galilean satellites surfaces and exospheres, Jupiter atmosphere, minor and irregular satellites, the ring system. After a long trade-off between different design solutions, based on performance requirements, mission design and constraints, the present JANUS design has been based on the following architectural choices detailed below. A catoptric telescope with excellent optical quality is coupled with a framing CMOS detector, avoiding any scan-ning mechanism or operational requirement on the S/C. The three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) off-axis design with F#=4.67 allows an MTF between 62% and 72% at Nyquist, with good straylight rejection. The detector is the CIS115 from e2v; it is a CMOS with a squared 7 micron pixel pitch and image format of 2000x1504. It performs a high readout rate of up to 40 Mpixel/s, high quantum efficiency and low readout noise and dark signal. Fine tuning of instrument parameters allows to perform both high resolution targeted observations and lower resolution global coverage of targets, as required to meet science objectives. The IFoV (Fieldo of View per pixel) is 15 microrad, al-lowing sampling of 7.5 m/pixel from 500 km and 15 km/pixel from 10E6 km, while the FoV is 1.72x1.29 deg. The acquisition parameters allow to cope with the many different observation requirements and conditions that JANUS will face. Design of the two electronics units (a proximity electronics controlling the detector and a main electronics controlling the instrument and the interfaces with

  12. The ESA WACMOS-ET project: advancing in the production of evapotranspiration from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water and energy cycles. It is highly variable in both space and time, across climates and ecosystems, and difficult to estimate as it does not produce either absorption or emission of electromagnetic signals, which precludes a direct estimation from remote sensing techniques. Therefore global observations related to atmospheric and surface parameters have to be combined with an interpretive model to derive an observational ET product at the global scale. Recent comparisons of satellite-based ET products (e.g., within the LandFlux initiative of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment, GEWEX) have been very useful in providing a first measure of product differences, but not very conclusive in terms of understanding the sources of uncertainty. To further advance in this direction a systematic ET inter-comparison is needed whereby the different ET algorithms are run using (to the greatest possible extent) the same driving data and model protocols. In response to this need, ESA has initiated the WACMOS-ET project, a follow on of the first WACMOS project. While the first WACMOS addressed several components of the water and energy cycle, WACMOS- ET focuses on ET production by different methodologies, and it is aimed at advancing towards the development of ET estimates at global and regional scales. The main objectives are to develop a Reference Input Data Set (RIDS) to derive and validate ET estimates, and to perform a cross-comparison, error characterization, and validation exercise of a group of selected ET algorithms driven by the RIDS. Compared with previous efforts primarily based on combining off-the-shelf input products, the preparation of the RIDS with a large degree of internal consistency is considered essential to (1) evaluate the skill of present algorithms in producing ET, (2) facilitate the attribution of the observed differences to model and driving data limitations, and (3) set up a solid

  13. Farewell to a legendary mission : ESA to hand over the IUE archive to the world scientific community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    The IUE Archive, storing two decades of ultraviolet astronomy, has become a historical reference. It contains more than 110 000 spectra from observations that in most cases cannot be repeated, and is an excellent source for studying variable phenomena. The long time-lapse covered and the stability of the instrument have enabled astronomers to witness events they never thought they would, such as the metamorphosis of a very old star into a beautiful planetary nebula: a hot central star surrounded by glowing gas and dust. The IUE archive was the first astronomical archive accessible online -- back in 1985, when the World Wide Web did not even exist-- and has been a key catalyst for science: it has triggered the publication of 3 600 articles in refereed journals so far, and a whole generation of astrophysicists have used IUE data at some stage. During IUE's lifetime the archive was managed by ESA, from the Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station near Madrid (Spain). But not any longer. The IUE archive will now belong to the world scientific community. ESA has created INES (IUE Newly Extracted Spectra), a distribution system that allows IUE data to be accessed faster and more easily from non-ESA national hosts throughout the world, managed entirely by local experts. INES maintenance costs are minimal, and the system is designed for ready incorporation of whatever innovations might come in the future. "The INES system and its data guarantee that future generations of astronomers will be able to use IUE data as much as they want, regardless of whether they know about the technicalities of the mission or whether there is an improvement in archive technology. And the distributed structure is better adapted to changes in user needs than a single archive centre", says Antonio Talavera from the Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics (LAEFF), based at Villafranca. "ESA has created INES using a minimalist engineering approach for the world scientific community

  14. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this presentation is to feature the G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 and Sentniel-3 data, which was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (210'000 SAR passes and 120'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the multi-mission Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing, according to their specific requirements, by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the development contracts awarded by confronting the deliverables to ESA's computations, has been made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for hands-on demonstrations/training in

  15. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-Pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (155'000 SAR passes and 41'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing according to their specific requirements by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing, which can be lengthy due to the required intense number-crunching inherent to SAR processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the awarded development contracts by confronting the deliverables to ESA's prototype, is now made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for on-site demonstrations/training in

  16. ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED AT IPSL AND ESA TO SUPPORT A CO2 DIAL SPACE MISSION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamant, P. H.; Gibert, F.; Édouart, D.; Cuesta, J.; Bruneau, D.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2002, the Institut-Pierre-Simon-Laplace (IPSL) is involved in several projects addressing CO2 monitoring by Dial lidar for environmental science and space borne applications. The activity started with the development of a 2-µm CO2 heterodyne DiAL project. The first instrumental activity gave rise to two new programs to develop a transportable CO2 DiAL in a container using fiber technologies and then an airborne system. In 2006, “A-SCOPE” a proposal aiming at a space borne Integrated Path CO2 DiAL mission has been submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) in response to a Call for Ideas in the framework of the Earth Explorer Mission program. The IPDA technique makes use of signal returns from the surface. Accordingly canopy height and surface information will be provided as spin-off products in addition to dry CO2 mixing ratio as the main products. A-SCOPE has been selected with 5 other missions for phase “0” study and preliminary feasibility assessments by 2 European industrial consortia. A Mission Assessment Group has been formed by ESA to support the mission definition and write a Report for Assessment (ESA SP-1313/1). A-SCOPE and the 5 other potential missions have been presented and discussed during the Users Consultation Meeting (UMC) in Lisbon, Portugal, 20-21 January 2009. The A-SCOPE Report for Assessment, the discussion during UMC and on-going activities will be presented at the conference to support a future mission like “A-SCOPE”.

  17. Identification and characterization of an immunogenic antigen, enolase 2, among excretory/secretory antigens (ESA) of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Xue, Jun-Xin; Liu, Ying-Chun; Li, Tao; Han, Xian-Gan; Wang, Shao-Hui; Chen, Yong-Jun; Qi, Jingjing; Yu, Sheng-Qing; Wang, Quan

    2016-11-01

    An immunogenic protein, enolase 2, was identified among the secreted excretory/secretory antigens (ESAs) from Toxoplasma gondii strain RH using immunoproteomics based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Enolase 2 was cloned, sequenced, and heterologously expressed. BLAST analysis revealed 75-96% similarity with enolases from other parasites. Immunoblotting demonstrated good immunoreactivity of recombinant T. gondii enolase (Tg-enolase 2) to T. gondii-infected animal serum. Purified Tg-enolase 2 was found to catalyze dehydration of 2-phospho-d-glycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate. In vitro studies revealed maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 37 °C, and activity was inhibited by K(+), Ni(2+), Al(3+), Na(+), Cu(2+) and Cr(3+). A monoclonal antibody against Tg-enolase 2 was prepared, 1D6, with the isotype IgG2a/κ. Western blotting revealed that 1D6 reacts with Tg-enolase 2 and native enolase 2, present among T. gondii ESAs. The indirect immunofluorescence assays showed that enolase 2 could be specifically detected on the growing T. gondii tachyzoites. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the surface and intracellular locations of enolase 2 on T. gondii cells. In conclusion, our results clearly show that the enzymatic activity of T. gondii enolase 2 is ion dependent and that it could be influenced by environmental factors. We also provide evidence that enolase 2 is an important immunogenic protein of ESAs from T. gondii and that it is a surface-exposed protein with strong antigenicity and immunogenicity. Our findings indicate that enolase 2 could play important roles in metabolism, immunogenicity and pathogenicity and that it may serve as a novel drug target and candidate vaccine against T. gondii infection.

  18. An Enhanced MWR-Based Wet Tropospheric Correction for Sentinel-3: Inheritance from Past ESA Altimetry Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaro, Clara; Fernandes, Joanna M.

    2015-12-01

    The GNSS-derived Path Delay (GPD) and the Data Combination (DComb) algorithms were developed by University of Porto (U.Porto), in the scope of different projects funded by ESA, to compute a continuous and improved wet tropospheric correction (WTC) for use in satellite altimetry. Both algorithms are mission independent and are based on a linear space-time objective analysis procedure that combines various wet path delay data sources. A new algorithm that gets the best of each aforementioned algorithm (GNSS-derived Path Delay Plus, GPD+) has been developed at U.Porto in the scope of SL_cci project, where the use of consistent and stable in time datasets is of major importance. The algorithm has been applied to the main eight altimetric missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2 and SARAL). Upcoming Sentinel-3 possesses a two-channel on-board radiometer similar to those that were deployed in ERS-1/2 and Envisat. Consequently, the fine-tuning of the GPD+ algorithm to these missions datasets shall enrich it, by increasing its capability to quickly deal with Sentinel-3 data. Foreseeing that the computation of an improved MWR-based WTC for use with Sentinel-3 data will be required, this study focuses on the results obtained for ERS-1/2 and Envisat missions, which are expected to give insight into the computation of this correction for the upcoming ESA altimetric mission. The various WTC corrections available for each mission (in general, the original correction derived from the on-board MWR, the model correction and the one derived from GPD+) are inter-compared either directly or using various sea level anomaly variance statistical analyses. Results show that the GPD+ algorithm is efficient in generating global and continuous datasets, corrected for land and ice contamination and spurious measurements of instrumental origin, with significant impacts on all ESA missions.

  19. The Greenhouse Gas Project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): Phase 2 Achievements and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Alexe, M.; Armante, R.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chavallier, F.; Chedin, A.; Crevoisier, C. D.; De Maziere, M.; De Wachter, E.; Detmers, R.; Dils, B.; Frankenberg, C.; Gonzi, S.; Hahne, P.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Hewson, W.; Heymann, J.; Houweling, S.; Hilker, M.; Kaminski, T.; Kuhlmann, G.; Laeng, A.; Leeuwen, T. T. V.; Lichtenberg, G.; Marshall, J.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Palmer, P. I.; Parker, R.; Somkuti, P.; Scholze, M.; Stiller, G. P.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2015-11-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org/) is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases – namely atmospheric CO2 and CH4 - with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The main goal of GHG-CCI is to generate long-term highly accurate and precise time series of global near-surface-sensitive satellite observations of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, starting with the launch of ESA's ENVISAT satellite. These products are currently retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO- FTS/GOSA T (2009-today) nadir mode observations in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. In addition, other sensors (e.g., IASI and MIPAS) are also considered and in the future also data from other satellites. The GHG-CCI data products and related documentation are freely available via the GHG-CCI website. Here we present an overview about the latest data set (Climate Research Data Package No. 2 (CRDP#2)) focusing on the GHG-CCI core products and present a short overview about GHG-CCI-related achievements in terms of scientific publications.

  20. SAR Altimetry Processing On Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Dinardo, S.

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line, on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor makes use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products and interfaces with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive. The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format, and they are compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processing service is now available to be used by the SAR Altimetry Community worldwide for R&D experiments, on site demonstrations/training in training courses, cross-comparison against third party products, preparation for the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. Initially, the processing was designed and optimized for open ocean studies solely, based on the SAMOSA model developed for Sentinel-3 Ground Segment using CryoSat data, but since June 2015, a new retracker (SAMOSA+) is offered in the service as dedicated retracker for coastal zone, inland water and sea-ice/ice-sheet. In the view of the Sentinel-3 launch, a new flavor of the service

  1. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  2. Development and characterization of a human antibody reference panel against erythropoietin suitable for the standardization of ESA immunogenicity testing.

    PubMed

    Mytych, Daniel T; Barger, Troy E; King, Chadwick; Grauer, Stephanie; Haldankar, Raj; Hsu, Eric; Wu, Michelle Min; Shiwalkar, Mukta; Sanchez, Sergio; Kuck, Andrew; Civoli, Francesca; Sun, Jilin; Swanson, Steven J

    2012-08-31

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) has been used therapeutically for more than two decades in the treatment of anemia. Although EPO is generally well tolerated, in rare cases, patients have developed anti-EPO antibodies that can negatively impact safety and efficacy. Therefore, the detection of antibodies against EPO is a regulatory requirement during clinical development and post-approval. Although it is a rare phenomenon, antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a serious complication than can result from antibodies that develop and neutralize EPO as well as endogenous erythropoietin. Currently, there are no universally accepted analytical methods to detect the full repertoire of binding and neutralizing anti-EPO antibodies. A number of different methods that differ in terms of antibodies detected and assay sensitivities are used by different manufacturers. There is also a lack of antibody reference reagents, and therefore no consistent basis for detecting and measuring anti-EPO antibodies. Reference reagents, with established ranges, are essential to monitor the safety and efficacy of all erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) structurally related to human erythropoietin. This is the first report of the development and characterization of a panel of fully human antibodies against EPO suitable as reference reagents. The characteristics of antibodies within the panel were selected based on the prevalence of non-neutralizing IgG and IgM antibodies in non-PRCA patients and neutralizing IgG antibodies, including IgG1 and IgG4, in antibody-mediated PRCA subjects. The reference panel includes antibodies of high- and low-affinity with binding specificity to neutralizing and non-neutralizing erythropoietin epitopes. The subclass of human antibodies in this reference panel includes an IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4, as well as an IgM isotype. This antibody panel could help select appropriate immunogenicity assays, guide validation, and monitor assay performance

  3. Athena: ESA's X-ray observatory to study the Hot and Energetic Universe in the late 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcons, X.

    2016-06-01

    Athena (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) is the X-ray observatory mission selected by ESA to address the Hot and Energetic Universe theme, due for launch in 2028. In this presentation, on behalf of the Athena Science Study Team (ASST), I will provide an overview of the Athena science objectives, developed thanks to the support of a large community and describe the Athena mission concept and its instruments. I will also report on a number of on-going study activities, including those aiming at placing Athena in the broad astrophysical context of the late 2020s.

  4. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  5. The efficacy of L. (L.) chagasi excreted-secreted antigens (ESAs) for visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis is due to low levels of cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Kesper, Norival; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia; Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta; Umezawa, Eufrosina Setsu

    2013-03-01

    The analysis of promastigote excreted-secreted antigen (ESA) reactivity with 53 visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases showed that each sample reacted regardless of the antigen or the Leishmania species used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) displayed 100% positivity with the L. (L.) chagasi ESA-blot recognizing bands of molecular weight ranging from 26.5 to 31.5 kDa. The analysis of 160 non-visceral cases showed that 5% of the samples cross-reacted with the L. (L.) chagasi ESA-ELISA and 9.4% reacted with the ESA isolated from L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, whereas a high cross-reaction ranging from 24.4% to 25% was observed with total crude promastigote antigens (PRO-ELISA). The ESA-blot of L. (L.) chagasi tested with non-visceral sera samples showed a cross-reaction with 8.8% of cases; most of these cases represented tegumentary leishmaniasis and only one acute chagasic case. These data lead us to recommend the use of ESA as an alternative antigen in VL diagnosis.

  6. Design concepts and options for the Thermal Infrared Imager (TIRI) as part of ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Licandro, Javier; Reyes, Marcos; Delbo, Marco; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Arnold, Jessica; Howe, Chris

    2016-04-01

    ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is being studied as part of the joint ESA/NASA AIDA mission for launch in 2020. AIDA's primary mission is to investigate the effect of a kinetic impactor on the secondary component of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos in late 2022. AIM will characterise the Didymos system and monitor the response of the binary system to the impact. A multi-spectral, thermal-infrared imaging instrument (TIRI) will be an essential component of AIM's remote sensing payload, as it will provide key information on the nature of the surfaces (e.g. presence or absence of materials, degree of compaction, and rock abundance of the regolith) of both components in the Didymos system. The temperature maps provided by TIRI will be important for navigation and spacecraft health and safety for proximity/lander operations. By measuring the asteroids' diurnal thermal responses (thermal inertia) and their surface compositions via spectral signatures, TIRI will provide information on the origin and evolution of the binary system. In this presentation we will discuss possible instrument design for TIRI, exploring options that include imaging spectroscopy to broadband imaging. By using thermal models and compositional analogues of the Didymos system we will show how the performance of each design option compares to the wider scientific goals of the AIDA/AIM mission.

  7. The shadow position sensors (SPS) formation flying metrology subsystem for the ESA PROBA-3 mission: present status and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Noce, V.; Buckley, S.; O'Neill, K.; Bemporad, A.; Fineschi, S.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Loreggia, D.; Casti, M.; Romoli, M.; Massone, G.; Nicolini, G.; Accatino, L.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J. S.; Mechmech, I.; Renotte, E.

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 [1] [2] is a Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) composed of two formation-flying satellites, planned for their joint launch by the end of 2018. Its main purposes have a dual nature: scientific and technological. In particular, it is designed to observe and study the inner part of the visible solar corona, thanks to a dedicated coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun), and to demonstrate the in-orbit formation flying (FF) and attitude control capability of its two satellites. The Coronagraph payload on-board PROBA-3 consists of the following parts: the Coronagraph Instrument (CI) with the Shadow Position Sensor (SPS) on the Coronagraph Spacecraft (CSC), the Occulter Position Sensor (OPSE) [3] [4] and the External Occulting (EO) disk on the Occulter Spacecraft (OSC). The SPS subsystem [5] is one of the main metrological devices of the Mission, adopted to control and to maintain the relative (i.e. between the two satellites) and absolute (i.e. with respect to the Sun) FF attitude. It is composed of eight micro arrays of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) [6] that shall be able to measure, with the required sensitivity and dynamic range as asked by ESA, the penumbral light intensity on the Coronagraph entrance pupil. With the present paper we describe the testing activities on the SPS breadboard (BB) and Development Model (DM) as well as the present status and future developments of this PROBA-3 metrological subsystem.

  8. A multi-satellite concept in support of high latitude permafrost modelling and monitoring - The ESA DUE Permafrost project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Annett; Duguay, Claude; Schmullius, Christiane; Strozzi, Tazio; Heim, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    A number of remotely sensed products have been developed in the past which provide information relevant to permafrost distribution on circumpolar scale. They comprise parameters such as land surface temperature, land cover, soil moisture, disturbances, snow and terrain. A monitoring system of high latitude permafrost requires regular and multiscale observation of all these parameters. Further on, the datasets need to meet requirements of permafrost models as well as support related research in geomorphology, botany and hydrology. Such a comprehensive database is setup within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) program. The ESA DUE Permafrost project establishes a monitoring system on local to pan-boreal/arctic scale based on satellite data. Within this project permafrost relevant remotely sensed products are assessed and eventually provided to users. The complexity of the phenomenon permafrost requires the close cooperation with the scientific community working in this field. The consortium is led by I.P.F, Vienna University of Technology and supported by four partners: Gamma Remote Sensing, University of Waterloo, Jena University and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost

  9. First Results from The PACA_Rosetta67P Group in Support of ESA/Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2016-10-01

    The PACA_Rosetta67P Facebook group is the amateur observing program, complementary to the ground-based professional observations, in support of ESA/Rosetta mission to the comet 67P/Churyumovs-Gerasimenko (CG). The amateur campaign has followed the ESA/Rosetta's escort of 67P from August 2014 to present. Although 67P/CG is faint in its current apparition (it is a Jupiter Family comet, with a period of 6.45 years and is on its seventh passage of the inner solar system), the comet is known to brighten from about a month before perihelion and post perihelion. The comet behaved as expected. With the vast amount of data collected by the global amateur network, we are now able to (i) archive the data to allow it to be crowdsourced by the professionals; (ii) mine the data to determine various trends such as the variation of magnitude with respect to heliospheric distance; map the changes in Afrho (the dust activity parameter) and a long baseline of observations that show features similar to the features seen in the ground-based observations of the professionals. We will highlight the campaign and the results now possible to determine and compare with other observations taken at the same time. We will highlight the first results of the campaign, with the challenges and lessons learned to apply when developing other amateur observing programs.

  10. Overview on calibration and validation activities and first results for ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bouzinac, Catherine; Delwart, Steven; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched on 2 November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations will also provide information on the characteri-sation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. A major undertaking in any environmental science related satellite mission are the calibration and validation activities. Calibration is an important prerequisite to the performance verifica-tion, which demonstrates that the instrument meets its requirements. It is also important for the validation of geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The validation of the data will be handled through a combination of ESA led activities and national efforts. The SMOS Validation and Retrieval Team (SVRT) comprises the scientific contributions that will be made by the projects selected in response to the SMOS calibration and validation Announcement of Opportunity in 2005 as well as the two level 2 Expert Support Laboratories being involved in the development of the soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. For the validation of the soil moisture data products ESA's activities will focus on two main sites, the Valencia Anchor Station, located in the East of Spain, and the Upper Danube Catchment, located in the South of Germany. In preparation to the SMOS commissioning phase, airborne rehearsal campaigns were conducted in spring 2008 over both aforementioned key sites and will be repeated, in collaboration with the French Space Agency CNES, in spring 2010. These will be coupled with a SMOS matchup generation

  11. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARIN Level-2 geophysical data products.. The Processor will make use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products. These output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) and other NetCDF tool. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARIN FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development experiments, to support the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training in training courses and workshops, cross-comparison against third party products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation for the Sentinel-3 Topographic mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal

  12. Upgrade of the ESA DRAMA OSCAR Tool: Analysis of Disposal Strategies Considering Current Standards for Future Solar and Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V.; Sanchez-Ortiz, N.; Gelhaus, J.; Kebschull, C.; Flegel, S.; Mockel, M.; Wiedemann, C.; Krag, H.; Vorsmann, P.

    2013-08-01

    In 2008 the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 62/217, endorsing the space debris mitigation guidelines (SDMG) of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS). These guidelines contain recommendations for satellite operators to implement measures for various mission phases in order to reduce the further accumulation of space debris in space and especially within the protected regions. These are defined within the SDMG as being the LEO region (up to 2,000 km altitude) and the GEO region (∼200 km in altitude around the GEO altitude and ∼15 degrees latitude). In the first version of ESA's DRAMA tool suite, OSCAR (Orbital SpaceCraft Active Removal) was designed as a tool to allow users the analysis of different disposal stragies for spacecraft in the LEO and GEO region. The upgrade of the ESA DRAMA tool suite by TUBS and DEIMOS under ESA/ESOC contract included the development of a renewed version of the existing OSCAR tool, allowing in its current version the consideration of different future solar and geomagnetic activity scenarios and besides the already known disposal systems (chemical and electric propulsion, as well as electrodynamic tether) the analysis of the orbital evolution using drag augmentation devices. One of the primary goals was to implement techniques recommended by current standards. The recommendations from the SDMG were used for the definition of the critical regions as well as compliance criteria, the user may check his disposal strategy against. For satellites operating in GEO, the ISO 26872:2010 (Space Systems - Disposal of satellites operating at geosynchronous altitude) standard was accounted for. For the generation of future solar and geomagnetic activity, the standards ISO 27852:2011 (Space Systems -Estimation of orbit lifetime) and the ECSS-E-ST-10-04C (Space engineering - Space environment) have been considered and recommended modeling approaches were implemented. In this paper, the OSCAR tool is presented, giving

  13. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  14. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  15. The ESA-ANISAP Study: Retrieval Of Tropospheric Water Vapour Fields By Using Co-Rotating LEO Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, F.; Facheris, L.; Cuccoli, F.; Lapini, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study for the estimation of 2-D maps of atmospheric water vapour content from integrated water vapour measurements carried out by a constellation of co-rotating low earth orbit satellites. The proposed method uses the normalised differential spectral attenuation (NDSA) approachable to achieve integrated water vapour content information from attenuations measurements over microwave links among the satellites - and tomographic techniques to solve the inverse problem of atmospheric water vapour field reconstruction. This study is undertaken as a task of the on-going research developed under the ESA-ANISAP project. Some simulation results demonstrating the feasibility of the reconstruction of 2-D maps of atmospheric water vapour content are presented.

  16. CryoSat Plus For Oceans: an ESA Project for CryoSat-2 Data Exploitation Over Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jerome; Clarizia, Maria-Paola; Roca, Monica; Gommenginger, Christine; Naeije, Marc; Labroue, Sylvie; Picot, Nicolas; Fernandes, Joana; Andersen, Ole; Cancet, Mathilde; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The ESA Cryosat-2 mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the Cryosat-2 mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter also presents the opportunity of demonstrating significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications, based on expected performance enhancements which include improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution. The "Cryosat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) project is supported by ESA under the Support To Science Element Programme. CP4O started in June 2012, and will continue to December 2013. The objectives of CP4O are: • to build a sound scientific basis for new scientific and operational applications of Cryosat-2 data over the open ocean, polar ocean, coastal seas and for sea-floor mapping. • to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and extend their application beyond the initial mission objectives. • to ensure that the scientific return of the Cryosat-2 mission is maximised. This work is to be carried out within four sub-themes: Open Ocean Altimetry, Polar Ocean Altimetry, Coastal Zone Altimetry, Sea Floor Altimetry. The first activities of the project are to provide a summary of scientific requirements which take advantage of the new capabilities offered by the Cryosat SIRAL altimeter and to provide a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art, which includes an assessment of the currently available Cryosat-2 data products This presentation will provide an overview of the project and present the results from the first activities described above. The results of CP4O will also prove highly relevant to support the planning for future missions, including Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS which will also carry SAR enabled altimeters.

  17. Utilisation and Further Development of Space Science Results in the ESA SSA Programme Space Weather Service Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.

  18. Improved Oceanographic Measurements from SAR Altimetry: Results and Scientific Roadmap from the ESA Cryosat Plus for Oceans Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Cotton, D.; Andersen, O. B.; Boy, F.; Cancet, M.; Dinardo, S.; Gommenginger, C.; Egido, A.; Fernandes, J.; Garcia, P. N.; Lucas, B.; Moreau, T.; Naeije, M.; Scharroo, R.; Stenseng, L.

    2014-12-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. It thus provides the first opportunity to test and evaluate, using real data, the significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications. The objective of the CryoSat Plus for Oceans (CP4O) project is to develop and evaluate new ocean products from CryoSat data and so maximize the scientific return of CryoSat over oceans. The main focus of CP4O has been on the additional measurement capabilities that are offered by the SAR mode of the SIRAL altimeter, with further work in developing improved geophysical corrections. CP4O has developed SAR based ocean products for application in four themes: Open Oceans, Coastal Oceans, Polar Oceans and Sea Floor Topography. The team has developed a number of new processing schemes and compared and evaluated the resultant data products. This work has clearly demonstrated the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry and has also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. The project finishes in the summer of 2014, so this paper presents an overview of the major results and outlines a proposed roadmap for the further development and exploitation of these results in operational and scientific applications. The results are of course also highly relevant to support the planning for future missions, including Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS. The "CryoSat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) project has been supported by ESA (Support To Science Element) and CNES.

  19. Improved Oceanographic Measurements from SAR Altimetry: Results and Scientific Roadmap from the ESA CryoSat Plus For Oceans Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, David; Andersen, Ole; Boy, Francois; Cancet, Mathilde; Dinardo, Salvatore; Gommenginger, Christine; Egido, Alejandro; Fernandes, Joana; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Lucas, Bruno; Moreau, Thomas; Naeije, Marc; Scharroo, Remko; Stenseng, Lars; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. It thus provides the first opportunity to test and evaluate, using real data, the significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications. The objective of the CryoSat Plus for Oceans (CP4O) project was to develop and evaluate new ocean products from CryoSat data and so maximize the scientific return of CryoSat over oceans. The main focus of CP4O has been on the additional measurement capabilities that are offered by the SAR mode of the SIRAL altimeter, with further work in developing improved geophysical corrections. CP4O has developed SAR based ocean products for application in four themes: Open Oceans, Coastal Oceans, Polar Oceans and Sea Floor Topography. The team has developed a number of new processing schemes and compared and evaluated the resultant data products. This work has clearly demonstrated the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry and has also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. The project finished in 2014, so this paper presents an overview of the major results and outlines a proposed roadmap for the further development and exploitation of these results in operational and scientific applications. The results are of course also highly relevant to support the planning for future missions, including Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6. The "CryoSat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) project has been supported by ESA (Support To Science Element) and CNES.

  20. Three-Dimensional Ballistocardiography and Seismocardiography in Parabolic Flight: Preliminary Results from the ESA B3D Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migeotte, P.-F.; De Ridder, S.; Neyt, X.; Pattyn, N.; Di Rienzo, M.; Beck, L.; Gauger, P.; Limper, U.; Prisk, G. K.; Rusanov, V.; Funtova, I.; Baevsky, R. M.; Tank, J.

    2013-02-01

    Ballistocardiography (BCG) is a technique that had a large interest in cardiology between the fifties and eighties. Typically BCG consisted in the recording of mechanical acceleration (Acc), caused by cardiac activity, on a subject lying on a table. As Acc was recorded only in the 2-dimensions (2D) of the horizontal plane, the antero-posterior (Z-axis) component was often neglected. From past experiments conducted in space [1,2] it was suggested that this component was comparable in magnitude to the other two and that Ballistocardiography should be recorded in three dimensions (3D). These observations and the recent modest regain of interest in the BCG technique were the starting point of the B3D project selected by ESA for the definition phase after the AO-2009. We recorded 3D Acc at various positions on the surface of the body (close to the centre of mass (CM), at the apex of the heart and on the sternum) of 8 healthy volunteers during free floating periods of parabolic flight (PF) manoeuvre (ESA 55th and DLR 19th PF campaigns conducted on-board the A300-zéroG airplane of NOVESPACE). Out of the many recordings collected, only a very limited number provided body Acc free from artefacts. Nevertheless, our results show that Seismocardiograms (SCG) and Ballistocardiograms (BCG) waves were qualitatively and quantitatively comparable in the frontal plane while larger differences were present along the antero-posterior component. Our limited number of artefact free episodes demonstrates the intrinsic difficulties of 3D recordings of SCG and BCG in PF and thus the need for a study in sustained microgravity. Moreover, our results confirm that the ventro-dorsal component of BCG is of similar amplitude as the other two which further demonstrates that the three components are essential to provide a physiological interpretation of BCG and SCG signals.

  1. Improved Oceanographic Measurements from SAR Altimetry: Results and Scientific Roadmap from ESA CryoSat Plus for Oceans Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, P. D.; Andersen, O.; Stenseng, L.; Boy, F.; Cancet, M.; Cipollini, P.; Gommenginger, C.; Dinardo, S.; Egido, A.; Fernandes, M. J.; Garcia, P. N.; Moreau, T.; Naeije, M.; Scharroo, R.; Lucas, B.; Benveniste, J.

    2016-08-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the CryoSat mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the CryoSat SIRAL altimeter also presents significant potential benefits for ocean applications including improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution.The "Cryosat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) project, supported by the ESA Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme and by CNES, was dedicated to the exploitation of Cryosat-2 data over the open and coastal ocean. The general objectives of the CP4O project were: To build a sound scientific basis for new oceanographic applications of Cryosat-2 data; to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and to ensure that the scientific return of the Cryosat-2 mission is maximised.This task was addressed within four specific themes: Open Ocean Altimetry; High Resolution Coastal Zone Altimetry; High Resolution Polar Ocean Altimetry; High Resolution Sea-Floor Bathymetry, with further work in developing improved geophysical corrections. The Cryosat Plus 4 Oceans (CP4O) consortium brought together a uniquely strong team of key European experts to develop and validate new algorithms and products to enable users to fully exploit the novel capabilities of the Cryosat-2 mission for observations over ocean. The consortium was led by SatOC (UK), and included CLS (France), Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands), DTU Space (Denmark), isardSat (Spain), National Oceanography Centre (UK), Noveltis (France), Starlab (Spain) and the University of Porto (Portugal).This paper presents an overview of the major results and outlines a proposed roadmap for the further development and exploitation of these results in operational and scientific applications.

  2. The X/Ka Celestial Reference Frame: Results from combined NASA-ESA baselines including Malargüe, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. E.; Garcí-Miró, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Madde, R.; Mercolino, M.; Naudet, C. J.; Snedeker, L. G.; Sotuela, I.; White, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    An X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) celestial reference frame has been constructed using a combined NASA and ESA Deep Space Network. Observations at X/Ka-band are motivated by their ability to access more compact source morphology and reduced core shift relative to observations at the historically standard S/X-band. In 86 observing sessions we detected 631 sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and the full range of declinations. The collaboration between NASA and ESA's deep space antenna in Malargüe, Argentina was created with an emphasis on addressing weaknesses in the southern hemisphere. The accuracy of the resulting CRF was quantified by comparison of 520 X/Ka sources in common with the S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 producing wRMS agreement of 175 μas in RA cos(dec) and 220 μas in Declination. There is evidence for systematic errors at the ~100 μas level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of phase calibration, troposphere mismodelling, and terrestrial frame distortions. Actions are underway to reduce all of these errors. The recent successful launch of the Gaia optical astrometric satellite motivates work to tie the radio and optical frames. Existing X/Ka data and simulated Gaia data predict a frame tie precision of ~10 μas (1-sigma, per 3-D rotation component) with anticipated improvements having the potential to produce a tie of 5 μas per component. If XKa precision can be pushed below 100 µas, the XKa frame has potential to produce a tie to Gaia that is superior to S/X due to reduced astrophysical systematics at X/Ka relative to S/X.

  3. SINBAD electronic models of the interface and control system for the NOMAD spectrometer on board of ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerónimo Zafra, José M.; Sanz Mesa, Rosario; Gómez López, Juan M.; Rodríguez Gómez, Julio F.; Aparicio del Moral, Beatriz; Morales Muñoz, Rafael; Candini, Gian Paolo; Pastor Morales, M. Carmen; Robles Muñoz, Nicolás.; López-Moreno, José Juan; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Neefs, Eddy; Drummond, Rachel; Delanoye, Sofie; Berkenbosch, Sophie; Clairquin, Roland; Ristic, Bojan; Maes, Jeroen; Bonnewijn, Sabrina; Patel, Manish R.; Leese, Mark

    2016-07-01

    NOMAD is a spectrometer suite: UV-visible-IR spectral ranges. NOMAD is part of the payload of ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. SINBAD boards are in charge of the communication and management of the power and control between the spacecraft and the instrument channels. SINBAD development took four years, while the entire development and test required five years, a very short time to develop an instrument devoted to a space mission. The hardware of SINBAD is shown in the attached poster: developed boards, prototype boards and final models. The models were delivered to the ESA in order to testing and integration with the spacecraft.

  4. Planetary entry vehicle design for planned and potential ESA missions to Titan, Mars, and Earth return (FGE TN 51/92)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arthur

    1993-04-01

    Design of ballistic planetary entry probes for planned ESA/NASA Titan, Mars, and Earth-Return missions is discussed with emphasis on the common design constraints. The choice of aeroshell configuration and some of the simple design rules are outlined which are used initially at pre-feasibility stages. These include the influence of body dynamics, conventional aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics. Prediction of the aerothermodynamic environment and influence of uncertainties in the basic physics and chemistry are seen to dominate. Analysis methodology and some of the ESA sponsored experimental program which was initiated to tackle the lack of basic chemistry data is discussed.

  5. ESA radiation and micro-meteoroid models applied to Space Weathering of atmosphere-less bodies: icy moons and asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallat, Claire; Altobelli, Nicolas; Cornet, Thomas; Schmidt, Jürgen; Navarro, Sara; Erd, Christian; Witasse, Olivier; Rodmann, Jens; Mints, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    The Galilean moons reveal large albedo variations on their surfaces, in particular between their leading and trailing hemispheres. The differences observed are likely the results of a balance between various weathering processes of the surface, determined by the moons' local environment. Chemical and physical alterations occur at the surface, triggered by multiple exogenic energy deposit processes (radiolysis, plasma sputtering, micro-meteoroids impacts, …).The observed variations are probably due to anisotropy in the energy fluxes received on each hemisphere and due to to a different relative contribution of the weathering agents (plasma, dust…) as function of the distance to Jupiter. We will be testing this hypothesis by estimating quantitatively the kinetic energy flux impacting different part of the surfaces of the Galilean moons. This work is essential in the context of the future missions to the Jovian moons, such as the JUICE ESA mission, as a proper understanding of the moons' surface history can be achieved only if one is able to constrain the balance between exogenic and endogenic alteration processes.Impacts of dust particles coming from the Galilean moons and evolving dynamically in the Jovian system will be simulated using the Jovian Micrometeoroid Environment Model (JMEM) [1]. Direct interplanetary dust impacts are simulated using the prediction of the Interplanetary Micrometeoroid Environment Model (IMEM) [2] computed at Jupiter's Hill radius, taking into account gravitational focusing by the planet. Finally, electron and ion fluxes interacting with different parts of the moons' surfaces can be estimated using the Jovian Specification Environment model (JOSE) [3].In parallel, signature of surface weathering will be assessed using reflectance maps based on the Galileo imaging data.Those models will also be applied, for comparison, to other atmosphere-less bodies of the solar system such as the asteroids Ceres, Vesta and Pallas.References[1] Liu et

  6. Preliminary results of ESA Category-1 Project 5834 "Application of DInSAR technique to areas of active ground deformations"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, B.; D'Auria, L.

    2009-04-01

    We have established a processing chain of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for identification and parametrisation of deformation sources in areas of active ground deformation (e.g. seismogenic areas, volcanic districts). SAR data from European Space Agency (ESA) satellites ERS-2 and ENVISAT are used. SAR and InSAR data processing LEVEL 0 SAR data are focussed to Single Look Complex (SLC) through ROI_PAC (Copyright 2002-2008, Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory). We perform an advanced data processing using Doris (Kampes and Usai, 1999) a single program that can do most common steps of the interferometric radar processing starting from SLC data to generation of interferometric products and geocoding. Unwrapping of interferometric phase is performed using the public domain software snaphu (Chen and Zebker, 2001). Modeling of deformation sources We propose a novel inversion approach base on non-linear inversion. The forward modeling is provided by the semi-analytic deformation model for point sources and finite faults. The parameters of the fault (center position, width, height, rake and seismic moment) are inverted using a combination of non-linear optimization algorithms (as Monte-Carlo, Nelder&Mead Simplex and Simulated Annealing). The misfit function defined for the optimization is based on the L2 norm of the error weighted by the coherence of the considered spatial point. Test datasets To test our modeling procedure we chose three different study areas, refer to mainly strike-slip seismogenic sources with different orientation to respect satellite Line Of Sight (LOS): December 26 2003 Iranian earthquake (Bam e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ENVISAT ASAR narrow swath IS2 (RAW and SLCs); August 17 1999 Turkey earthquake (Izmit e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs); June 17-21 2000 Iceland earthquakes, data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs). Tests carried over real

  7. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA Climate Change Initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Cazenave, Anny; Ablain, Michael; Larnicol, Gilles; Benveniste, Jerome; Johannessen, Johnny; Timms, Gary; Andersen, Ole; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Quartly, Graham; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Meyssignac, Benoit; Scharffenberg, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, new altimeter standards have been developed and the best one have been recently selected in order to produce a full

  8. New observations of asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, primary target of the ESA Marco Polo-R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, J.; Mothé-Diniz, T.; Licandro, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.

    2011-06-01

    Context. Near-Earth asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is the primary target of the ESA Marco Polo-R mission, which was selected for the assessment study phase of ESA M3 missions. This is a primitive (C-type), binary asteroid that will allow new research to be performed. The primary is a rapidly rotating (3.6 h) small asteroid (1.4 km diameter) that is almost spherical and has a satellite of ~400 m. Aims: We analyse new ground-based spectroscopic data of 1996 FG3 to help us characterise its surface composition and prepare for the mission. Methods: We obtained a near-infrared spectrum covering the range 0.8-2.5 μm, using the camera-spectrograph NICS at the 3.6 m telescope TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo), located at "El Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory on La Palma, Spain. We combine our near-infrared spectrum with previously published data, and compare all the available spectra of this asteroid with the spectra of meteorites to constrain the mineralogy of the asteroid. Results: Our spectrum of FG3 differs remarkably from previously published ones. Spectral classification performed using the complete visible and near-infrared range yields more than one result, varying from C to Xk types. However, all the possible spectral types indicate that this asteroid is a primitive object. The comparison with meteorites behaves in the same way, providing several good matches to our new near-infrared spectrum (CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, and L6 and H4 ordinary chondrites), and only one match in the case of the previously published spectra (weakly shocked H4 ordinary chondrite, dark vein). The albedo of the asteroid (~0.04), is typical of a primitive object, and is consistent with the reflectance value at 0.55 μm of the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. Further observations will be essential to help us characterise more clearly the mineralogy of this asteroid.

  9. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA climate change initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of a first version of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. Within phase II, new altimeter standards have been developed and tested in order to reprocess the dataset with the best standards for climate studies. The reprocessed ECV will be released in summer 2016. We will present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product

  10. A stable, unbiased, long-term satellite based data record of sea surface temperature from ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick; Good, Simon; Merchant, Chris

    2013-04-01

    The study of climate change demands long-term, stable observational records of climate variables such as sea surface temperature (SST). ESA's Climate Change Initiative was set up to unlock the potential of satellite data records for this purpose. As part of this initiative, 13 projects were established to develop the data records for different essential climate variables - aerosol, cloud, fire, greenhouse gases, glaciers, ice sheets, land cover, ocean colour, ozone, sea ice, sea level, soil moisture and SST. In this presentation we describe the development work that has taken place in the SST project and present new prototype data products that are available now for users to trial. The SST project began in 2010 and has now produced two prototype products. The first is a long-term product (covering mid-1991 - 2010 currently, but with a view to update this in the future), which prioritises length of data record and stability over other considerations. It is based on data from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series of satellite instruments. The product aims to combine the favourable stability and bias characteristics of ATSR data with the geographical coverage achieved with the AVHRR series. Following an algorithm selection process, an optimal estimation approach to retrieving SST from the satellite measurements from both sensors was adopted. The retrievals do not depend on in situ data and so this data record represents an independent assessment of SST change. In situ data are, however, being used to validate the resulting data. The second data product demonstrates the coverage that can be achieved using the modern satellite observing system including, for example, geostationary satellite data. Six months worth of data have been processed for this demonstration product. The prototype SST products will be released in April to users to trial in their work. The long term product will be available as

  11. critcial human health issues in connection with future human missions to mMars: the HUMEX study of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Humex Team

    ESA has recently initiated a study of the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the stress environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Emphasis was laid on human health and performance care as well as Advanced Life Support Developments including Bioregenerative Life Support Systems and environmental monitoring. The overall study goals were as follows: (i) to define reference scenarios for a European participation in human exploration and to estimate their influence on the Life Sciences and Life Support requirements; (ii) for selected mission scenarios, to critically assess the limiting factors for human health, wellbeing, and performance and to recommend relevant countermeasures; (iii) for selected mission scenarios, to critically assess the potential of Advanced Life Support Developments and to pro-pose a European strategy including terrestrial applications; (iv) to critically assess the feasibility of existing facilities and technologies on ground and in space as test-beds in preparation for human exploratory missions and to develop a test plan for ground and ISS campaigns; (v) to develop a roadmap for a future European strategy towards human exploratory missions, including preparatory activities and terrestrial applications and benefits. Two scenarios for a Mars mission were selected: (i) with a 30 days stay on Mars, and (ii) with about 500 days stay on Mars. The impact on human health, perform-ance and well being has been investigated from the view point of (i) the effects of microgravity (during space travel), reduced gravity (on Mars) and abrupt gravity changes (during launch and landing), (ii) the effects of cosmic radiation including solar particle events, (iii) psychological issues as well as general health care. Coun-termeasures as well as necessary research using ground-based testbeds and/or the ISS have been defined. The need for highly intelligent autonomous diagnostic and therapy systems was emphasized. Advanced life support

  12. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA Explorer Platform spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohwiesner, Bill; Claudinon, Bernard

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability since 1984 to enable Hermes to automatically dock with Columbus. As a result, ESA with Matra, MBB, and other space companies have developed technologies that are also directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments, and suggest how these capabilities could be used, together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite, to minimize new development and accomplish a cost effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program. Several RV sensors have been developed at breadboard level for the Hermes/Columbus program by Matra, MBB, and SAAB. Detailed algorithms for automatic rendezvous, closure, and capture have been developed by ESA and CNES for application with Hermes to Columbus rendezvous and docking, and they currently are being verified with closed-loop software simulation. The algorithms have multiple closed-loop control modes and phases starting at long range using GPS navigation. Differential navigation is used for coast/continuous thrust homing, holdpoint acquisition, V-bar hopping, and station point acquisition. The proximity operation sensor is used for final closure and capture. A subset of these algorithms, comprising the proximity operations algorithms, could easily be extracted and tailored to a limited objective closure and capture flight demonstration.

  13. Space Electron Density Gradient Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Sounder and ESA/NASA CLUSTER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides a direct comparison between data captured by a new embedded reconfigurable digital sounder, different ground-based ionospheric sounders spread around Europe and the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The CLUSTER mission consists of four identical space probes flying in a formation that allows measurements of the electron density gradient in the local magnetic field. Both the ground-based and the spacecraft instrumentations assist in studying the motion, geometry and boundaries of the plasmasphere. The comparison results are in accordance to each other. Some slight deviations among the captured data were expected from the beginning of this investigation. These small discrepancies are reasonable and seriatim analyzed. The results of this research are significant, since the level of the plasma's ionization, which is related to the solar activity, dominates the propagation of electromagnetic waves through it. Similarly, unusually high solar activity presents serious hazards to orbiting satellites, spaceborne instrumentation, satellite communications and infrastructure located on the Earth's surface. Long-term collaborative study of the data is required to continue, in order to identify and determine the enhanced risk in advance. This would allow scientists to propose an immediate cure.

  14. First Results from the D-CIXS X-ray Spectrometer on the ESA SMART-1 Lunar Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.

    2004-05-01

    The DCIXS (Demonstrator Compact Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) on the recently launched ESA technology demonstration mission SMART-1 consists of a high throughput spectrometer, which will perform spatially localised X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and a solar monitor to provide the calibration of the illumination necessary to produce a global map of absolute lunar elemental abundance. The objective is to provide high quality spectroscopic mapping of the Moon, while at the same time demonstrating a radically novel approach to instrument building. D-CIXS will provide the first global coverage of the lunar surface in X-rays, providing measurements of Fe, Mg, Al and Si under normal solar conditions and several others during solar flare events. The combination of DCIXS data with information obtained from other instruments on SMART-1 and from previous missions, will allow a more detailed look at some of the fundamental questions that remain regarding the origin and evolution of the Moon and will help us to map Lunar resources more effectively. DCIXS will also carry out cruise science. We will present first results.

  15. Re-Entry Analysis Comparison with Different Solar Activity Models of Spent Upper Stage Using ESA's DRAMA Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Emmanuelle; Braun, Vitali

    2013-09-01

    The goal of the paper is to investigate the influence of different methods for solar activity forecasts on the simulation of residual lifetime of upper stages in GTO. For this study the OSCAR software from the ESA DRAMA tool suite was used to perform an orbital decay simulation for an Ariane 4 upper stage (1997-016-C) from 1997 to 2012. As a reference, the orbital decay of the rocket body has been compared to TLE data available from Space-Track. For the simulation, it was possible to select between a best-guess scenario (including best case and worst case scenarios), constant equivalent solar activity, ECSS standard cycle or any user-selected historic cycle and solar activity sampled through a Monte Carlo approach. In addition, the evolution of the orbit has been analysed taking orbit perturbation into account (Drag, Geopotential, Third Bodies effect). Finally a sensitivity on the mass and cross-section area of the upper-stage have been performed in order to understand which parameter may influence the residual life in GTO.

  16. Protein sequences insight into heavy metal tolerance in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 encoded by plasmid pESA3.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Kajsik, Michal; Forsythe, Stephen; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2015-12-01

    The recently annotated genome of the bacterium Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 suggests that the organism has the ability to bind heavy metals. This study demonstrates heavy metal tolerance in C. sakazakii, in which proteins with the heavy metal interaction were recognized by computational and experimental study. As the result, approximately one-fourth of proteins encoded on the plasmid pESA3 are proposed to have potential interaction with heavy metals. Interaction between heavy metals and predicted proteins was further corroborated using protein crystal structures from protein data bank database and comparison of metal-binding ligands. In addition, a phylogenetic study was undertaken for the toxic heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, which generated relatedness clustering for lead, cadmium and arsenic. Laboratory studies confirmed the organism's tolerance to tellurite, copper and silver. These experimental and computational study data extend our understanding of the genes encoding for proteins of this important neonatal pathogen and provide further insights into the genotypes associated with features that can contribute to its persistence in the environment. The information will be of value for future environmental protection from heavy toxic metals.

  17. Validation Of The Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System By The Field Data Of ESA SPARC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernetskiy, Maxim; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip

    2013-12-01

    The Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) project is uses the weak constraint variational data assimilation (DA) technique for the estimation of land surface parameters and their uncertainties by the remote sensing data. The main goal of the project is to make full use of different sources of optical sensors data, to provide improved estimation of structural and biophysical parameters of land surface. Therefore a software tool - the EO-LDAS prototype - was developed. Within the frame of this work, the possibilities of EO- LDAS have been demonstrated for MERIS/Envisat and CHRIS/Proba data acquired during ESA SPARC 2004 field campaign over an agricultural test-site near Barrax (Spain). We have used a regularization approach and conditions of spatial smoothness in order to better constrain the problem. The EO-LDAS prototype has been used to implement the weak constrain data assimilation (DA) system, to estimate leaf area index (LAI) and Chlorophyll (a + b) concentration as well as their uncertainties.

  18. ESA Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission CarbonSat: Error Budget for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Methane Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Bovensmann, H.; Reuter, M.; Krings, T.; Heymann, J.; Schneising, O.; Burrows, J. P.; Boesch, H.; Meijer, Y.; Sierk, B.; Loscher, A.; Caron, J.; Ingmann, P.

    2015-11-01

    CarbonSat is one of two candidate missions for ESA's Earth Explorer 8 (EE8) satellite; one of them will be selected for implementation in November 2015 for a targeted launch date around 2023. The main goal of CarbonSat is to advance our knowledge of the sources and sinks, both natural and man-made, of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases; carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from the global via the sub-continental to the local scale. CarbonSat will be the first satellite mission to image local scale emission hot spots of CO2 (e.g., cities, volcanoes, industrial areas) and CH4 (e.g., fossil fuel production, landfills, seeps) and to quantify their emissions and discriminate them from surrounding biospheric fluxes. The primary geophysical data products of CarbonSat are atmospheric column- averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 (in ppm) and XCH4 (in ppb), respectively. In addition, CarbonSat will deliver a number of secondary data products, which will also be of good quality, such as vegetation chlorophyll Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) as retrieved from clear solar Fraunhofer lines located at 755 nm; SIF will be retrieved simultaneously with the primary products. Here we present an updated error budget using the latest retrieval algorithm and instrument/mission specification focusing on nadir observations over land.

  19. Improved Oceanographic Measurements from SAR Altimetry: Results and Scientific Roadmap from ESA CryoSat Plus for Oceans Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, P. David; Andersen, Ole; Boy, Francois; Cancet, Mathilde; Cipollini, Paolo; Dinardo, Salvatore; Gommenginger, Christine; Egido, Alejandro; Fernandes, Joana M.; Garcia, Pablo Nilo; Lucas, Bruno; Moreau, Thomas; Naeije, Marc; Scharroo, Remko; Stenseng, Lars; Benveniste, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. It thus provides the first opportunity to test and evaluate, using real data, the significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications. The objective of the CryoSat Plus for Oceans (CP4O) project was to develop and evaluate new ocean products from CryoSat data and so maximize the scientific return of CryoSat over oceans. The main focus of CP4O has been on the additional measurement capabilities that are offered by the SAR mode of the SIRAL altimeter, with further work in developing improved geophysical corrections. CP4O has developed SAR based ocean products for application in four themes: Open Oceans, Coastal Oceans, Polar Oceans and Sea Floor Topography. The team has developed a number of new processing schemes and compared and evaluated the resultant data products. This work has clearly demonstrated the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry and has also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. This paper presents an overview of the major results and outlines a proposed roadmap for the further development and exploitation of these results in operational and scientific applications, with particular focus on their relevance for Sentinel-3.

  20. Protective immunity against acute toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice induced by a DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii 10 kDa excretory-secretory antigen (TgESA10).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yujian; Sun, Xiaoni; Zhang, Zhenchao; Liu, Tingqi; Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-11-30

    Toxoplasma gondii 10 kDa excretory-secretory antigen (TgESA10) is involved in the early stages of host invasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding TgESA10 gene against acute T. gondii infection in mice. The gene sequence encoding TgESA10 was inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX I, and the efficacy of intramuscular vaccination of BALB/c mice with pVAX-ESA10 was analyzed. Mice immunized with pVAX-ESA10 elicited high titers of total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgA and IgM antibodies, while IgE showed no changes. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17, while no significant changes were detected in TGF-β1. Additionally, we found that pVAX-ESA10 enhanced the activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and the expression of MHC-I and MHC-II molecules in spleen in mice. Immunization with pVAX-ESA10 significantly prolonged survival time (14.3 ± 1.7 days) after challenge infection with the virulent T. gondii RH strain, compared with the control groups which died within 8 days. These results suggested that TgESA10 DNA vaccine could trigger strong humoral and cellular responses and induce partial protection against acute toxoplasmosis.

  1. Using a Simple Knowledge Organization System to facilitate Catalogue and Search for the ESA CCI Open Data Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Antony; Bennett, Victoria; Donegan, Steve; Juckes, Martin; Kershaw, Philip; Petrie, Ruth; Stephens, Ag; Waterfall, Alison

    2016-04-01

    The ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is a €75m programme that runs from 2009-2016, with a goal to provide stable, long-term, satellite-based essential climate variable (ECV) data products for climate modellers and researchers. As part of the CCI, ESA have funded the Open Data Portal project to establish a central repository to bring together the data from these multiple sources and make it available in a consistent way, in order to maximise its dissemination amongst the international user community. Search capabilities are a critical component to attaining this goal. To this end, the project is providing dataset-level metadata in the form of ISO 19115 records served via a standard OGC CSW interface. In addition, the Open Data Portal is re-using the search system from the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), successfully applied to support CMIP5 (5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) and obs4MIPs. This uses a tightly defined controlled vocabulary of metadata terms, the DRS (The Data Reference Syntax) which encompass different aspects of the data. This system hs facilitated the construction of a powerful faceted search interface to enable users to discover data at the individual file level of granularity through ESGF's web portal frontend. The use of a consistent set of model experiments for CMIP5 allowed the definition of a uniform DRS for all model data served from ESGF. For CCI however, there are thirteen ECVs, each of which is derived from multiple sources and different science communities resulting in highly heterogeneous metadata. An analysis has been undertaken of the concepts in use, with the aim to produce a CCI DRS which could be provide a single authoritative source for cataloguing and searching the CCI data for the Open Data Portal. The use of SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) and OWL (Web Ontology Language) to represent the DRS are a natural fit and provide controlled vocabularies as well as a way to represent relationships between

  2. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    ). Other differential expression was observed for genes involved in chemotaxis, flagellum formation and nitrogen metabolism. Except genes related to oxidoreduction system, the same group of genes were found in the simulated microgravity study. Transcriptomic data were combined to LC-MS/MS proteomic data collected from the same R. rubrum samples since parallel profiling of mRNA and protein on a global scale could provide insight into metabolic mechanisms underlying complex biological systems. These results indicate that low doses of ionising radiation and changes in gravity on life-support microorganisms have observable effects and deserve specific attention in the perspective of long term space missions. The presented project was financially supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) (PRODEX agreements No C90247 and No 90094). We are grateful to C. Lasseur and C. Pailĺ, both from ESTEC/ESA, e for their constant support and advice.

  3. CryoSat Plus For Oceans: an ESA Project for CryoSat-2 Data Exploitation Over Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Cotton, D.; Clarizia, M.; Roca, M.; Gommenginger, C. P.; Naeije, M. C.; Labroue, S.; Picot, N.; Fernandes, J.; Andersen, O. B.; Cancet, M.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The ESA CryoSat-2 mission is the first space mission to carry a space-borne radar altimeter that is able to operate in the conventional pulsewidth-limited (LRM) mode and in the novel Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the Cryosat-2 mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter also presents the possibility of demonstrating significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications, based on expected performance enhancements which include improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution. With this scope in mind, the "CryoSat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) Project, dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 Data over ocean, supported by the ESA STSE (Support To Science Element) programme, brings together an expert European consortium comprising: DTU Space, isardSAT, National Oceanography Centre , Noveltis, SatOC, Starlab, TU Delft, the University of Porto and CLS (supported by CNES),. The objectives of CP4O are: - to build a sound scientific basis for new scientific and operational applications of Cryosat-2 data over the open ocean, polar ocean, coastal seas and for sea-floor mapping. - to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter , and extend their application beyond the initial mission objectives. - to ensure that the scientific return of the Cryosat-2 mission is maximised. In particular four themes will be addressed: -Open Ocean Altimetry: Combining GOCE Geoid Model with CryoSat Oceanographic LRM Products for the retrieval of CryoSat MSS/MDT model over open ocean surfaces and for analysis of mesoscale and large scale prominent open ocean features. Under this priority the project will also foster the exploitation of the finer resolution and higher SNR of novel CryoSat SAR Data to detect short spatial scale open ocean features. -High Resolution Polar

  4. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission candidate as ESA-M3 class mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Lara, Luisa-M.; Marty, Bernard; Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Cheng, Andy; Bohnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John R.; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.

    2015-03-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESAfs Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3). The aim of the new Assessment Study is to reduce the cost of the mission while maintaining its high science level, on the basis of advanced studies and technologies, as well as optimization of the mission. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive binary NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive binary NEA (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return: the choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily compared to a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible to obtain from a single object. Precise measurements of the mutual orbit and rotation state of both components can be used to probe higher-level harmonics of the gravitational potential, and therefore the internal structure. A unique opportunity is offered to study the dynamical evolution driven by the YORP/Yarkovsky thermal effects. Possible migration of regolith on the primary from poles to equator allows the increasing maturity of asteroidal regolith with time to be expressed as a latitude-dependent trend, with the most-weathered material at the equator matching what is seen in the secondary. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system

  5. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  6. FANTINA: Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA- Payload For Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Biele, J.; Bousquet, P.; Ciarletti, V.; Ho, T. M.; Issler, J. L.; Kofman, W.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Puget, P.; Souyris, J. C.; Ulamec, S.; van Zoest, T.; Zine, S.

    2012-04-01

    The internal structure of small bodies is still poorly known and has never been measured directly. There is no way to determine from ground based observation whether the body is a monolithic piece of rock or a rubble-pile, an aggregate of boulders held together by gravity and how much porosity it contains, both in the form of micro-scale or macro-scale porosity. Knowing this structure is a key point for a better understanding of the asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. It is the main objective of the FANTINA experience proposed Payload for Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission: FANTINA (Marco Polo's Daughter) for Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA is to provide measurement capabilities and science data which are not accessible by remote sensing of the asteroid from the Marco-Polo R spacecraft alone and which complement the analysis of the returned samples. The FANTINA payload is a Lander carrying the ASSERT experiment and a complementary payload to be defined: ASSERT is a bistatic CONSERT/Rosetta-like radar to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of the asteroid in order to characterise its composition and its heterogeneity from decimetric to global scale. The lander is a long-lived bus in the 10-kg class derived from MASCOT/Hayabusa 2. This paper reviews the science rationale of FANTINA in the context of the Marco Polo R mission to 1996FG3. The surface package concept will be reviewed including the radar tomography principles. So a preliminary design and budget will be done.

  7. Temperature and current accelerated lifetime conditions and testing of laser diodes for ESA BepiColombo space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumel, Genady; Karni, Yoram; Cohen, Shalom; Rech, Markus; Weidlich, Kai

    2011-03-01

    System designers and end users of diode pumped solid state lasers often require knowledge of the operability limits of QCW laser diode pump sources and their predicted reliability performance as a function of operating conditions. Accelerated ageing at elevated temperatures, duty cycles and/or currents allows extended lifetime testing of diode stacks to be executed on compressed timescales with high confidence. We present a novel, time-efficient technique for the determination of accelerated lifetime test conditions using degradation rate data, rather than the traditionally used failures against time data. To assess the effect of thermally accelerated ageing, 4 groups of 4 stacks each were operated for 60 million pulses at different temperature stress levels by varying the pulse repetition rate from 100Hz to 250Hz. The measured power degradation rates fitted to an Arrhenius type model, result in activation energy of 0.47- 0.74eV, apparently indicating two thermally activated degradation modes with different activation energies. Similarly, for current accelerated ageing, another 4 groups of 4 stacks were tested at operation currents from 120A to 150A. The optical power degradation rates due to current stress follow a power law behavior with a current acceleration factor of 1.7. The obtained acceleration parameters allowed considerable reduction of the lifetime test duration, which would have otherwise taken an unacceptably long time under nominal operating conditions. The successful results of the accelerated lifetime have been a major milestone enabling qualification of SCD stacks as pump sources for the laser altimeter in ESA Bepi-Colombo space mission. The presented reliability analysis allows life test qualification programs to be accelerated for generic QCW stacks and their lifetime to be predicted in various operating environments.

  8. Improvements of Storm Surge Modelling in the Gulf of Venice with Satellite Data: The ESA Due Esurge-Venice Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasio, F.; Bajo, M.; Vignudelli, S.; Papa, A.; della Valle, A.; Umgiesser, G.; Donlon, C.; Zecchetto, S.

    2016-08-01

    Among the most detrimental natural phenomena, storm surges heavily endanger the environment, the economy and the everyday life of sea-side countries and coastal zones. Considering that 120.000.000 people live in the Mediterranean area, with additional 200.000.000 presences in Summer for tourism purposes, the correct prediction of storm surges is crucial to avoid fatalities and economic losses. Earth Observation (EO) can play an important role in operational storm surge forecasting, yet it is not widely diffused in the storm surge community. In 2011 the European Space Agency (ESA), through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, financed two projects aimed at encouraging the uptake of EO data in this sector: eSurge and eSurge-Venice (eSV). The former was intended to address the issues of a wider users' community, while the latter was focused on a restricted geographical area: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Venice. Among the objectives of the two projects there were a number of storm surge hindcast experiments using satellite data, to demonstrate the improvements on the surge forecast brought by EO. We report here the results of the hindcast experiments of the eSV project. They were aimed to test the sensitivity of a storm surge model to a forcing wind field modified with scatterometer data in order to reduce the bias between simulated and observed winds. Hindcast experiments were also performed to test the response of the storm surge model to the assimilation, with a dual 4D-Var system, of satellite altimetry observations as model errors of the initial state of the sea surface level. Remarkable improvements on the storm surge forecast have been obtained for what concerns the modified model wind forcing. Encouraging results have been obtained also in the assimilation experiments.

  9. ARIEL: Atmospheric Remote Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey. A proposal for the ESA Cosmic Vision M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, E.; Micela, G.; Ariel Team

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) is a proposal in response to the call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4). This mission will be devoted to observe spectroscopically in the IR a large population (hundreds to one thousand) of known planets in our Galaxy, opening a new discovery space in the field of extrasolar planet exploration and enabling a quantum leap in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far away worlds. The population of planets will include warm and hot gas‑giants, Neptunes and large terrestrial planets. The main ARIEL goal is the determination of the composition, formation and history of these planetary systems In order to fulfill the scientific goals of ARIEL, we propose the development of a 1‑meter class aperture space telescope, passively cooled to 70‑80K, to observe the combined light of stars and their planets, building on the current experience of transit and combined light observations with Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based telescopes. While JWST and EELT will initiate a detailed mid- to high-resolution IR spectroscopic observation of a few tens of planets, this mission will extend the study to a much larger (an order of magnitude difference) representative population of extrasolar planets discovered by ESA GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, NASA Kepler II, TESS and from the ground. The statistical perspective provided by this mission, will allow us to address some of the fundamental questions of the Cosmic Vision programme: What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? ls our Solar System unique, rare or very common? How does the Solar System work?

  10. Report on ESA Topical Team on the Large Radius Human Centrifuge: "The Human Hypergravity Habitat; H3"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bücker, N.; Berte, J.; Bok, K.; Bos, J.; Boyle, R.; Bravenoer, N.; Chouker, A.; Clement, G.; Cras, P.; Denise, D.; Eekhoff, M.; Felsenberg, D.; Fong, K.; Fuller, C.; Groen, E.; Heer, M.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Iwase, S.; Karemaker, J. M.; Linnarsson, D.; Lüthen, C.; Narici, M.; Norsk, P.; Paloski, W.; Rutten, M.; Saggini, R.; Stephan, A.; Ullrich, O.; Vautmans, V.; Wuyts, F.; Young, L.

    Over the last decades a significant amount of knowledge has been accumulated on the adap-tation of the human body going into near weightless conditions and on its re-adaptation to 1g Earth conditions after space flight. Ground-based paradigms for microgravity simulation have been developed such as head down tilted bed rest and dry-immersion. In such systems the adaptations to long term immobilization and to head-ward fluid shifts have been studied. Questions we address here are: can long-term ground-based centrifugation help us to under-stand and even predict the adaptations to long-term increased gravity conditions? How does the body adapt to chronic (days, weeks or longer) exposure to a hypergravity environment? And, once the body has fully adapted to a hypergravity environment, how does it re-adapt going from a hypergravity state back to a relatively hypo-gravity condition of 1g, or even going from a centrifuge / hypergravity environment into a bed-rest setting? Can such transitions in well-controlled studies bring us closer to understanding the consequences of gravity transitions that the crews will likely experience going to the Moon or to Mars. Is hypergravity a good model to study the effect of re-entry in gravitational environments after long duration space flight? In an ESA -supported Topical Team we address all organ systems known so far to change directly or indirectly by altered gravity conditions. We will identify to which gravity levels the human body can be exposed for longer periods of time and what protocols could be applied to address the questions at hand. We also identify the technology required to ac-complish such long duration hypergravity and re-adaptation studies. Issues like ethics, safety and required logistics should be addressed. As there is limited experience with exposure of hu-man test subjects to prolonged periods of moderately increased g-forces, unexpected harm may occur. Therefore, the information, disclosure and informed consent

  11. Monitoring small land subsidence phenomena in the Marmara see region by new SAR generation satellite ESA Sentinel 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantone, Alessio; Riccardi, Paolo; Pasquali, Paolo; Defilippi, Marco; Peternier, Achille

    2015-04-01

    The Marmara see region is a large and dense urbanized area affected by tectonics deformations due to the presence of the underlying North Anatolia Fault. This area is affected by strong seismic phenomena (Izmith and Duzce earthquake), and by landslide and small surface deformation. The new generation ESA SAR satellites Copernicus Sentinel-1 system TOPS (Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans in azimuth) permit a short acquisition repetition cycle, an extreme large coverage, a high spatial resolution to respect the covered area and a small baseline separation. All of those characteristics suggest an intensive exploitation of these data through the usage of the interferometry technology and in particular the stacking interferometry for the small terrain displacement monitoring. The Sentinel-1 mission is made up of a constellation of two satellites (A and B units) each carrying a C-band SAR sensor. The objective of the S-1 mission is to acquire systematically with a 12-day repeat orbit cycle for each satellite with a small orbital baselines, characteristics particularly suited for interferometry application. In the near future, when both satellites will be active, there will be an acquisition every 6 days, covering the whole area. The first TOPSAR interferogram has been successfully produced, and the SARScape® stacking processing chains (SBAS and PSI) have been update to support this new sensor. The SBAS (Small Baseline) technique seems to be the best candidate for this application relatively to the morphology and large extension of Marmara region. Moreover the new incremental SBAS will permit a velocity map (at about 25 meters spatial resolution) estimation at near real time at each Sentinel-1 acquisition. We are collecting imaging over the Marmara since October 2014 within the framework of European FP7 Marsite project. In February-March 2015 we will have enough acquisition to perform the first SBAS TOPSAR monitoring of this area. The SBAS processing chain has

  12. ``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

    2006-12-01

    XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite

  13. Mobile Payload Element (MPE): Concept study for a sample fetching rover for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarmann, R.; Jaumann, R.; Claasen, F.; Apfelbeck, M.; Klinkner, S.; Richter, L.; Schwendner, J.; Wolf, M.; Hofmann, P.

    2012-12-01

    In late 2010, the DLR Space Administration invited the German industry to submit a proposal for a study about a Mobile Payload Element (MPE), which could be a German national contribution to the ESA Lunar Lander Mission. Several spots in the south polar region of the moon come into consideration as landing site for this mission. All possible spots provide sustained periods of solar illumination, interrupted by darkness periods of several 10 h. The MPE is outlined to be a small, autonomous, innovative vehicle in the 10 kg class for scouting and sampling the environment in the vicinity of the lunar landing site. The novel capabilities of the MPE will be to acquire samples of lunar regolith from surface, subsurface as well as shadowed locations, define their geological context and bring them back to the lander. This will enable access to samples that are not contaminated by the lander descent propulsion system plumes to increase the chances of detecting any indigenous lunar volatiles contained within the samples. Kayser-Threde, as prime industrial contractor for Phase 0/A, has assembled for this study a team of German partners with relevant industrial and institutional competence in space robotics and lunar science. The primary scientific objective of the MPE is to acquire clearly documented samples and to bring them to the lander for analysis with the onboard Lunar Dust Analysis Package (L-DAP) and Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP). Due to the unstable nature of volatiles, which are of particular scientific interest, the MPE design needs to provide a safe storage and transportation of the samples to the lander. The proposed MPE rover concept has a four-wheeled chassis configuration with active suspension, being a compromise between innovation and mass efficiency. The suspension chosen allows a compact stowage of the MPE on the lander as well as precise alignment of the solar generators and instruments. Since therefore no further complex mechanics are

  14. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B.

    2014-12-01

    The scope of this work is to show the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data and upcoming Sentinel-3 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on demand CryoSat-2 SAR data, starting from L1a (FBR) data up to SAR Level-2 geophysical data products.The service is based on SARvatore Processor Prototype and it The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimety Toolbox) and its successor, the up-coming Sentinel-3 Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools.Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is possible to easily select the geographical area of interest along with the time of interest. As of August 2014 the service allows the user to select data for most of 2013 and part of 2014, no geographical restriction on this data. It is expected that before Fall 2014 all the mission (when available) will be at the disposal of the users.The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options..The processing service is meant to be used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross-comparison against third part products, preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc.So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces.

  15. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jerome; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data and upcoming Sentinel-3 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on demand CryoSat-2 SAR data, starting from L1a (FBR) data up to SAR Level-2 geophysical data products, with the possibility to build and download the stack data products (L1b-S). The service is based on SARvatore Processor Prototype and the output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimety Toolbox) and its successor, the up-coming Sentinel-3 Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is possible to easily select the geographical area of interest along with the time of interest. As of December 2014 the service allows the user to select all available mission data from 2010 to end of 2014, without any geographical restriction on this data. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options.. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross-comparison against third part products, preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces.

  16. Production of satellite-derived aerosol climate data records: current status of the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    and the Aerosol_cci team Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project Aerosol_cci (Phase 1: 2010 -2014; Phase 2: 2014-2017) intensive work has been conducted to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors ATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Ångström coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. The cooperation between the project partners, including both the retrieval teams and independent validation teams, has resulted in a strong improvement of most algorithms. In particular the AATSR retrieved AOD is qualitatively similar to that from MODIS, usually taken as the standard, MISR and SeaWiFS. This conclusion has been reached form several different ways of validation of the L2 and L3 products, using AERONET sun photometer data as the common ground-truth for the application of both 'traditional' statistical techniques and a 'scoring' technique using spatial and temporal correlations. Quantitatively, the limited AATSR swath width of 500km results in a smaller amount of data. Nevertheless, the assimilation of AATSR-retrieved AOD, together with MODIS data, contributes to improving the in the ECMWF climate model results. In addition to the multi-spectral AOD, and thus the Ångström Exponent, also a per-pixel uncertainty is provided and validated. By the end of Aerosol_cci Phase 1 the ATSR algorithms have been applied to both ATSR-2 and AATSR resulting in an AOD time series of 17 years. In phase 2 this work is continued with a focus on the further improvement of the ATSR algorithms as well as those for the other instruments and algorithms, mentioned above, which in phase 1 were considered less mature. The first efforts are on the further characterization of the uncertainties and on better understanding of the

  17. Ozone Structure and Variabiligy in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere as Seen by Envisat and ESA Third-Party Mission Limb Profiling Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofieva, V. F.; Tamminen, J.; Hakkarainen, J.; Kyrola, E.; Sofiev, M.; Stiller, G.; Laeng, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Lossow, S.; Weber, M.; Rahpoe, N.; Rozanov, A.; Degenstein, D.; Bourassa, A.; Walker, K. A.; Hubert, D.; van Roozendael, M.; Zehner, C.

    2015-11-01

    In this technical note, we compare the spatio-temporal distributions and variations of the ozone field in the UTLS obtained from the limb instruments participating in the ESA Climate Change Initiative for Ozone (Ozone_cci): MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS on Envisat, OSIRIS on Odin, and ACE-FTS on SCISAT. We study seasonal variations and the influence of Asian Summer Monsoon on UTLS ozone. The observational distributions by Ozone_cci instruments are generally in good agreement. This consistency of the observed patterns allows creating Level 3 datasets and parameters, which can be useful for validation of chemistry climate models.

  18. A new CO2 and CH4 satellite-derived dataset from the GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org/) is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases - specifically atmospheric CO2 and CH4 - with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The main goal of GHG-CCI is to generate long-term highly accurate and precise time series of global near-surface sensitive satellite observations of CO2 and CH4. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT are currently the two main satellite instruments used within this project as their spectral radiance observations in the near-infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum permit retrievals of CO2 and CH4 columns that are sensitive down to the Earth's surface and because multi-year time series can be derived from these data. In addition other satellite instruments such as IASI/METOP and MIPAS/ENVISAT are also used. In the presentation an overview about the latest data products will be given, which are part of a data set called Climate Research Data Package No. 3 (CRDP3). This data set is available free of charge from the GHG-CCI project website.

  19. Requirements on Atmospheric Entry of Small Probes for Several Planets: Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus in Preparation for the Future ESA Cosmic Vision Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomuta, D.; Rebuffat, D.; Larranaga, J.; Erd, C.; Bavdaz, M.; Falkner, P.

    2011-02-01

    In preparation for the ESA Cosmic Vision new call for medium class missions, a set of entry probes for inner and outer planets have been preliminary investigated by ESA using its Concurrent Design Facility. These Entry Probe missions are hypothetically assumed for launching time 2020-2035. A preliminary design of the probes arrived at a mass of about 300kg. In the following, the study is focused on the entry conditions for each of the planets Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus with the aim to define the conditions for the Entry and Descent System (EDS) and its required technologies. For Venus case, two scenarios where considered: one where the entry probe is released during a typical gravity assist by a large interplanetary mission and another scenario featuring a stand alone mission targeted to Venus. During the entry in Venus atmosphere (mainly composed of CO2 (96.5%) and N2 (3.5%)), the probes are subjected to maximum heat fluxes of 60MW/m2, which is highly demanding in both scenarios. For the outer planet missions, only flyby scenarios with a targeted release of the probe were considered. The entry probes for the outer planets are subjected to heat fluxes above 100MW/m2, which is even more challenging the Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and therefore requiring the use of special high temperature protection technology to prevent the destruction during the entry. ESA efforts for future missions are directed towards the development of an European Light Ablative Material (ELAM), though used in PEP study only for the Back Cover of the Entry Module. The TPS as well as both radiative and convective heat fluxes need simulations and verification by means of ground facility experiments. Based on the lessons learned from previous mission studies (mission to a near-Earth objects c.f. Marco Polo, Deimos Sample return), an Atmospheric Mars Sample Return is now under study. For sample return missions on return to Earth, a passive re-entry capsule delivering the sample

  20. Satellite-Derived Aerosol Climate Data Records in the ESA Aerosol_Cci Project: From ERS-2, Envisat to Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; North, Peter R. J.; Heckel, Andreas; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-12-01

    With the focus of Sentinel-3 on ocean applications and services, important parts of the payload are the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) and the Ocean Land Colour Instrument (OLCI). Apart from Ocean applications, these instruments are also very important for atmospheric observations and in particular for aerosol retrieval. This is the reason why the predecessor instruments AATSR and MERIS have extensively been used in the ESA Climate Change Initiative project Aerosol_cci. In this contribution a brief overview of the current status of the Aerosol_cci project is presented. Full-mission time series of ATSR-2 and AATSR have been processed to provide 17 years of global aerosol information. Selected examples of recent achievements are presented. The experience with ATSR-2, AATSR and MERIS will be used to continue the current time series with SLSTR and OLCI.

  1. Functional Screening of the Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 Genome reveals a role for ProP (ESA_02131) in carnitine uptake.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Audrey; Sleator, Roy D

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a neonatal pathogen responsible for up to 80% of fatalities in infected infants. Low birth weight infants and neonates infected with C. sakazakii suffer necrotizing enterocolitis, bacteraemia and meningitis. The mode of transmission most often associated with infection is powdered infant formula (PIF) which, with an aw of ∼0.2, is too low to allow most microorganisms to persist. Survival of C. sakazakii in environments subject to extreme hyperosmotic stress has previously been attributed to the uptake of compatible solutes including proline and betaine. Herein, we report the construction and screening of a C. sakazakii genome bank and the identification of ProP (ESA_02131) as a carnitine uptake system.

  2. Monitoring Ground Deformation Using Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baselines (SBAS) Techniques Integrated in the ESA RSS Service: The Case Study of Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Manuel J.; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the infrastructure monitoring of areas which had experienced significant urbanization and therefore, also an increase of the exploitation of natural resources. Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PS-InSAR) and Small Baselines (SBAS) approaches are applied to three study areas for which large datasets of SAR images are available in ascending and descending modes to finally deploy deformation maps of different buildings and infrastructures. Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia areas have been selected for this study, having experienced an increase of the exploitation of natural resources in parallel with their urban expansion. Moreover, Rome is a very special case, where Cultural Heritage permeating the city and its surroundings would suggest the necessity of a tool for monitoring the stability of the different sites. This work wants to analyse the potential deformation that had occurred in these areas during the period 1992 to 2010, by applying Persistent Scatters Interferometry to ESA ERS SAR and Envisat ASAR data.

  3. The ESA-NASA 'CHOICE' Study: Winterover at Concordia Station, Interior Antarctica, as an Analog for Spaceflight-Associated Immune Dysregu1ation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E,; Feuerecker, M.; Salam, A. P.; Rybka, A.; Stowe, R. P.; Morrels, M.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Quintens, Roel; Thieme, U.; Kaufmann, I.; Baatout, D. S.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.; Chouker, A.

    2011-01-01

    For ground-based space physiological research, the choice of analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over at the European Concordia Station is potentially a ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID). Concordia missions consist of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation, disrupted circadian rhythms and international crews. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assess innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivataion and stress factors during Concordia winter-over deployment. To date, not all samples have been analyzed. Here, only data will be preliminary presented for those parameters where sample/data analysis is completed (i.e., Leukocyte subsets, T cell function, and intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles.)

  4. The E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA Euclid Dark Energy Mission: a general view after positive conclusion of the assessment phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenziano, L.; Zerbi, F. M.; Cimatti, A.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Butler, R. C.; Content, R.; Corcione, L.; de Rosa, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gianotti, F.; Giro, E.; Grange, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Ligori, S.; Martin, L.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Nicastro, L.; Riva, M.; Robberto, M.; Sharples, R.; Spanò, P.; Talbot, G.; Trifoglio, M.; Wink, R.; Zamkotsian, F.

    2010-07-01

    The Euclid Near-Infrared Spectrometer (E-NIS) Instrument was conceived as the spectroscopic probe on-board the ESA Dark Energy Mission Euclid. Together with the Euclid Imaging Channel (EIC) in its Visible (VIS) and Near Infrared (NIP) declinations, NIS formed part of the Euclid Mission Concept derived in assessment phase and submitted to the Cosmic Vision Down-selection process from which emerged selected and with extremely high ranking. The Definition phase, started a few months ago, is currently examining a substantial re-arrangement of the payload configuration due to technical and programmatic aspects. This paper presents the general lines of the assessment phase payload concept on which the positive down-selection judgments have been based.

  5. Functional Screening of the Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 Genome reveals a role for ProP (ESA_02131) in carnitine uptake

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Audrey; Sleator, Roy D

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a neonatal pathogen responsible for up to 80% of fatalities in infected infants. Low birth weight infants and neonates infected with C. sakazakii suffer necrotizing enterocolitis, bacteraemia and meningitis. The mode of transmission most often associated with infection is powdered infant formula (PIF) which, with an aw of ∼0.2, is too low to allow most microorganisms to persist. Survival of C. sakazakii in environments subject to extreme hyperosmotic stress has previously been attributed to the uptake of compatible solutes including proline and betaine. Herein, we report the construction and screening of a C. sakazakii genome bank and the identification of ProP (ESA_02131) as a carnitine uptake system. PMID:25915804

  6. Design of a satellite end-to-end mission performance simulator for imaging spectrometers and its application to the ESA's FLEX/Sentinel-3 tandem mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicent, Jorge; Sabater, Neus; Tenjo, Carolina; Acarreta, Juan R.; Manzano, María.; Rivera, Juan P.; Jurado, Pedro; Franco, Raffaella; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose

    2015-09-01

    The performance analysis of a satellite mission requires specific tools that can simulate the behavior of the platform; its payload; and the acquisition of scientific data from synthetic scenes. These software tools, called End-to-End Mission Performance Simulators (E2ES), are promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the goal of consolidating the instrument and mission requirements as well as optimizing the implemented data processing algorithms. Nevertheless, most developed E2ES are designed for a specific satellite mission and can hardly be adapted to other satellite missions. In the frame of ESA's FLEX mission activities, an E2ES is being developed based on a generic architecture for passive optical missions. FLEX E2ES implements a state-of-the-art synthetic scene generator that is coupled with dedicated algorithms that model the platform and instrument characteristics. This work will describe the flexibility of the FLEX E2ES to simulate complex synthetic scenes with a variety of land cover classes, topography and cloud cover that are observed separately by each instrument (FLORIS, OLCI and SLSTR). The implemented algorithms allows modelling the sensor behavior, i.e. the spectral/spatial resampling of the input scene; the geometry of acquisition; the sensor noises and non-uniformity effects (e.g. stray-light, spectral smile and radiometric noise); and the full retrieval scheme up to Level-2 products. It is expected that the design methodology implemented in FLEX E2ES can be used as baseline for other imaging spectrometer missions and will be further expanded towards a generic E2ES software tool.

  7. The ESA Cloud_cci project: generation of multi-decadal, consistent, global data sets of cloud properties with uncertainty information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelberg, Stefan; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; Schlundt, Cornelia; Sus, Oliver; Hollmann, Rainer; Poulsen, Caroline; ESA Cloud cci Team

    2016-04-01

    In 2010 the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Cloud project was started along with 12 other CCI projects covering atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial "essential climate variables (ECV)". The main goal is the generation of satellite-based climate data records that meet the challenging requirements of the Global Climate Observing System. The objective target within the ESA Cloud_cci project is the generation of long-term coherent cloud property datasets covering 33 years that also provide mathematically consistent uncertainty information following the optimal estimation (OE) retrieval theory. The cloud properties considered are cloud mask, cloud top level estimates, cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and post processed parameters such as cloud liquid and ice water path. In this presentation we will discuss the benefit of using an optimal estimation retrieval framework, which provides consistence among the retrieved cloud variables and pixel-based uncertainty estimates based on different passive instruments such as AVHRR, MODIS and AATSR. We will summarize the results of the project so far along with ongoing further developments that currently take place. Our results will be compared with other well-established satellite data records, surface observations and cloud climatologies (e.g., PATMOS-X, ISCCP, CLARA-A2, MODIS collection 6, SYNOP). These inter-comparison results will indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the Cloud_cci datasets. Finally, we will present long-term time series of the retrieved cloud variables for AVHRR (1982-2014) that enable global, multi-decadal analyses of clouds.

  8. The ESA Cloud_cci Project: Generation of Multi-Decadal, Consistent, Global Data Sets of Cloud Properties with Uncertainty Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelberg, S.; Stengel, M.; Schlundt, C.; Sus, O.; Hollmann, R.; Poulsen, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010 the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Cloud project was started along with 12 other CCI projects covering atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial "essential climate variables (ECV)". The main goal is the generation of satellite-based climate data records that meet the challenging requirements of the Global Climate Observing System. The objective target within the ESA Cloud_cci project is the generation of long-term coherent cloud property datasets covering 33 years that also provide mathematically consistent uncertainty information following the optimal estimation (OE) retrieval theory. The cloud properties considered are cloud mask, cloud top level estimates, cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and post processed parameters such as cloud liquid and ice water path. In this presentation we will discuss the benefit of using an optimal estimation retrieval framework, which provides consistence among the retrieved cloud variables and pixel-based uncertainty estimates based on different passive instruments such as AVHRR, MODIS and AATSR. We will summarize the results of the project so far along with ongoing further developments that currently take place. Our results will be compared with other well-established satellite data records, surface observations and cloud climatologies (e.g., PATMOS-X, ISCCP, CLARA-A2, MODIS collection 6, SYNOP). These inter-comparison results will indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the Cloud_cci datasets. Finally, we will present long-term time series of the retrieved cloud variables for AVHRR (1982-2014) that enable global, multi-decadal analyses of clouds.

  9. The effect of space radiation on immunoassay reagents: Implications for the Life Marker Chip Experiment for ESA's ExoMars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derveni, Mariliza

    In recent years, the rise of interest in planetary exploration and the emergence of Astrobiology as a promising field of research have lead to a number of programmes aiming to develop sensitive instruments for the detection of the molecular signatures of life in extreme environments. An antibody assay-based life detection instrument, the Life Marker Chip (LMC), is currently under development by a UK-lead consortium, commissioned for the ExoMars mission, the European Space Agency's (ESA) flagship mission to Mars, in collaboration with NASA. The molecular reagents at the core of instruments such as the LMC have no heritage of interplanetary mission use. Therefore, the design of such instruments for space missions must take into account a number of risk factors, among which the intense radiation environment that will be encountered en route to and on the surface of planets. In order to study the effects of space radiation on lyophilised immunoassay reagents, including antibodies and fluorescent dyes, a number of ground-based and space studies were carried out, the latter in the form of ESA's 2007 BIOPAN-6 low-earth orbit (LEO) space exposure platform. These experiments demonstrated the ability of antibodies and dyes to survive radiation doses up to ten times those expected for the ExoMars mission and remain functional after exposure to the physical environment of spacecraft launch and atmosphere re-entry, provided the samples were appropriately pre-treated and packaged. The combined ground and space radiation campaign lead to the conclusion that the radiation dose levels envisaged for the ExoMars mission will not be an insurmountable problem for the immunoassay components of the Life Marker Chip instrument.

  10. Earth Observation in Support of Science and Applications Development in the Field "land and Environment": Synthesis Results from the Esa-Most Dragon Cooperation Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartalis, C.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.; Ban, Y.; Bao, Y.; Bi, Y.; Defourny, P.; Del Barrio, G.; Fan, J.; Gao, Z.; Gong, H.; Gong, J.; Gong, P.; Li, C.; Pignatti, S.; Sarris, A.; Yang, G.

    2015-04-01

    Dragon is a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the P.R. China. The Programme, initiated in 2004, focuses on the exploitation of ESA, Third Party Missions (TPM) and Chinese Earth Observation (EO) data for geo-science and applications development in land, ocean and atmospheric applications. In particular, the Programme brings together joint Sino- European teams to investigate 50 thematic projects. In this paper, the results of the research projects1 in the thematic field "Land and Environment" will be briefly presented, whereas emphasis will be given in the assessment of the usefulness of the results for an integrated assessment of the state of the environment in the respective study areas. Furthermore new knowledge gained in such fields as desertification assessment, drought and epidemics' monitoring, forest modeling, cropwatch monitoring, climate change vulnerability (including climate change adaptation and mitigation plans), urbanization monitoring and land use/cover change assessment and monitoring, will be presented. Such knowledge will be also linked to the capacities of Earth Observation systems (and of the respective EO data) to support the temporal, spatial and spectral requirements of the research studies. The potential of DRAGON to support such targets as "technology and knowledge transfer at the bilateral level", "common EO database for exploitation" and "data sharing and open access data policy" will be also presented. Finally special consideration will be given in highlighting the replication potential of the techniques as developed in the course of the projects, as well as on the importance of the scientific results for environmental policy drafting and decision making.

  11. Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 - Part 1: Retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspollini, P.; Carli, B.; Carlotti, M.; Ceccherini, S.; Dehn, A.; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; López-Puertas, M.; Niro, F.; Remedios, J. J.; Ridolfi, M.; Sembhi, H.; Sgheri, L.; von Clarmann, T.

    2013-09-01

    The MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) instrument on the Envisat (Environmental satellite) satellite has provided vertical profiles of the atmospheric composition on a global scale for almost ten years. The MIPAS mission is divided in two phases: the full resolution phase, from 2002 to 2004, and the optimized resolution phase, from 2005 to 2012, which is characterized by a finer vertical and horizontal sampling attained through a reduction of the spectral resolution. While the description and characterization of the products of the ESA processor for the full resolution phase has been already described in previous papers, in this paper we focus on the performances of the latest version of the ESA (European Space Agency) processor, named ML2PP V6 (MIPAS Level 2 Prototype Processor), which has been used for reprocessing the entire mission. The ESA processor had to perform the operational near real time analysis of the observations and its products needed to be available for data assimilation. Therefore, it has been designed for fast, continuous and automated analysis of observations made in quite different atmospheric conditions and for a minimum use of external constraints in order to avoid biases in the products. The dense vertical sampling of the measurements adopted in the second phase of the MIPAS mission resulted in sampling intervals finer than the instantaneous field of view of the instrument. Together with the choice of a retrieval grid aligned with the vertical sampling of the measurements, this made ill-conditioned the retrieval problem of the MIPAS operational processor. This problem has been handled with minimal changes to the original retrieval approach but with significant improvements nonetheless. The Levenberg-Marquardt method, already present in the retrieval scheme for its capability to provide fast convergence for nonlinear problems, is now also exploited for the reduction of the ill-conditioning of the inversion. An

  12. Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 - Part I: retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspollini, P.; Carli, B.; Carlotti, M.; Ceccherini, S.; Dehn, A.; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; López-Puertas, M.; Niro, F.; Remedios, J. J.; Ridolfi, M.; Sembhi, H.; Sgheri, L.; von Clarmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    The MIPAS instrument on the ENVISAT satellite has provided vertical profiles of the atmospheric composition on a global scale for almost ten years. The MIPAS mission is divided in two phases, the full resolution phase, from 2002 to 2004, and the optimized resolution phase, from 2005 to 2012, which is characterized by a finer vertical and horizontal sampling attained through a reduction of the spectral resolution. While the description and characterization of the products of the ESA processor for the full resolution phase has been already described in previous papers, in this paper we focus on the performances of the latest version of the ESA processor, named ML2PP V6, which has been used for reprocessing the entire mission. The ESA processor had to perform the operational near real time analysis of the observations and its products needed to be available for data assimilation. Therefore, it has been designed for fast, continuous and automated analysis of observations made in quite different atmospheric conditions and for a minimum use of external constraints in order to avoid biases in the products. The dense vertical sampling of the measurements adopted in the second phase of the MIPAS mission resulted in sampling intervals finer than the instantaneous field of view of the instrument. Together with the choice of a retrieval grid aligned with the vertical sampling of the measurements, this made ill-conditioned the retrieval formalism of the MIPAS operational processor. This problem has been handled with minimal changes to the original retrieval approach but with significant improvements nonetheless. The Levenberg-Marquardt method, already present in the retrieval scheme for its capability to provide fast convergence for non-linear problems, is now also exploited for the reduction of the ill-conditioning of the inversion. An expression specifically designed for the regularizing Levenberg-Marquardt method has been implemented for the computation of the covariance

  13. HiRISE/NEOCE: an ESA M5 formation flying proposed mission combining high resolution and coronagraphy for ultimate observations of the chromosphere, corona and interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc; Von Fay-Siebenburgen (Erdélyi), Robert

    2016-07-01

    The global understanding of the solar environment through the magnetic field emergence and dissipation, and its influence on Earth, is at the centre of the four major thematics addressed by HiRISE/NEOCE (High Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy Explorer/New Externally Occulted Coronagraph Experiment). They are interlinked and also complementary: the internal structure of the Sun determines the surface activity and dynamics that trigger magnetic field structuring which evolution, variation and dissipation will, in turn, explain the coronal heating onset and the major energy releases that feed the influence of the Sun on Earth. The 4 major themes of HiRISE/NEOCE are: - fine structure of the chromosphere-corona interface by 2D spectroscopy in FUV at very high resolution; - coronal heating roots in inner corona by ultimate externally-occulted coronagraphy; - resolved and global helioseismology thanks to continuity and stability of observing at L1 Lagrange point; - solar variability and space climate with a global comprehensive view of UV variability as well. Recent missions have shown the definite role of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled by the emerging magnetic field, guided by the coronal magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. This is implemented in HiRISE/NEOCE, to be proposed for ESA M5 ideally placed at the L1 Lagrangian point, providing FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (two satellites in formation flying 375 m apart minimizing scattered light) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and velocities up to the solar upper chromosphere, transition zone and inner corona with, in particular, 2D very high resolution multi

  14. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste; Liakos, Alexios; Xilouris, Manolis; Boumis, Panayotis; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Marousis, Athanassios; Dapergolas, Anastasios; Fytsilis, Anastasios; Noutsopoulos, Andreas; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Els, Sebastian; Koschny, Detlef; Lock, Tim; Navarro, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects via lunar monitoring. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years, starting in the Summer 2016, in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The project involves: (i) a complete refurbishment of the 40 year old 1.2m Kryoneri telescope of the National Observatory of Athens, (ii) development of a Lunar imager for the prime focus with two fast-frame sCMOS cameras, and (iii) procurement of servers for data processing and storage. Furthermore, we have developed a software system that controls the telescope and the cameras, processes the images and automatically detects lunar flashes. NELIOTA provides a web-based user interface, where the impact events, after their verification and characterization, will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The novelty of this project is the dedication of a large, 1.2m telescope for lunar monitoring, which is expected to characterize the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  15. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste; Xilouris, Manolis; Boumis, Panos; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Maroussis, Athanasios; Dapergolas, Anastasios; Fytsilis, Anastasios; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Tsinganos, Kanaris

    2015-08-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope at the National Observatory of Athens, procuring two fast-frame cameras, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar monitoring telescopes. NELIOTA is therefore expected to characterise the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  16. Determination of the microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly, testing and launch facilities: First results of the ESA project MiDiv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Fritze, D.; Verbarg, S.; Nellen, J.; Horneck, G.; Stackebrandt, E.; Kminek, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the near future, an increasing number of in situ life detection and sample return missions to planets and other solar system bodies will be launched. The demand to control spacecraft-carried microbial contamination becomes obvious. COSPAR (Committee of Space Research) has defined guidelines and bioburden limits for different types of missions and target bodies. The first step in the implementation of these planetary protection guidelines encompasses a qualitative and quantitative inventory of the bioburden of spacecraft assembly facilities. With information about the composition of these microbial communities the development and/or optimization of adequate cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures for spacecraft preparation before launch will be possible. In the ESA project MiDiv, we started to investigate the diversity of cultivable microorganisms found on spacecraft and spacecraft assembly halls using the satellites SMART-1 and ROSETTA as test objects. The analyses to date include cultivation of microorganisms by varying pH, temperature, oxygen, and pasteurization. A culture collection of bacterial isolates and a database of 16S RNA gene sequences have been established. The results of our preliminary work, including the numbers of colony forming units, differentiated as aerobes and facultative anaerobes as well as their phylogenetic classification, give a first overview of the breadth of physiological potential of the identified microorganisms and their capability to withstand various cleaning and sterilizing procedures currently used for the planetary protection.

  17. A system for generating multi-resolution Digital Terrain Models of Mars based on the ESA Mars Express and NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yershov, V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a processing system for generating multiresolution digital terrain models (DTM) of Mars within the the iMars project of the European Seventh Framework Programme. This system is based on a non-rigorous sensor model for processing highresolution stereoscopic images obtained fromthe High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera and Context Camera (CTX) onboard the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft. The system includes geodetic control based on the polynomial fit of the input CTX images with respect to to a reference image obtained from the ESA Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). The input image processing is based on the Integrated Software for Images and Spectrometers (ISIS) and the NASA Ames stereo pipeline. The accuracy of the produced CTX DTM is improved by aligning it with the reference HRSC DTMand the altimetry data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The higher-resolution HiRISE imagery data are processed in the the same way, except that the reference images and DTMs are taken from the CTX results obtained during the first processing stage. A quality assessment of image photogrammetric registration is demonstrated by using data generated by the NASA Ames stereo pipeline and the BAE Socet system. Such DTMs will be produced for all available stereo-pairs and be displayed asWMS layers within the iMarsWeb GIS.

  18. Formation flying metrology for the ESA-PROBA3 mission: the Shadow Position Sensors (SPS) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Bemporad, A.; Buckley, S.; O'Neill, K.; Fineschi, S.; Noce, V.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Romoli, M.; Loreggia, D.; Nicolini, G.; Massone, G.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J. S.; Renotte, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning to launch in 2018 the PROBA3 Mission, designed to demonstrate the inorbit formation flying (FF) attitude capability of its two satellites and to observe the inner part of the visible solar corona as the main scientific objective. The solar corona will be observed thanks to the presence on the first satellite, facing the Sun, of an external occulter producing an artificial eclipse of the Sun disk. The second satellite will carry on the coronagraph telescope and the digital camera system in order to perform imaging of the inner part of the corona in visible polarized light, from 1.08 R⦿ up to about 3 R⦿. One of the main metrological subsystems used to control and to maintain the relative (i.e. between the two satellites) and absolute (i.e. with respect to the Sun) FF attitude is the Shadow Position Sensor (SPS) assembly. It is composed of eight micro arrays of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) able to measure with the required sensitivity and dynamic range the penumbral light intensity on the Coronagraph entrance pupil. In the following of the present paper we describe the overall SPS subsystem and its readout electronics with respect to the capability to satisfy the mission requirements, from the light conversion process on board the silicon-based SPS devices up to the digital signal readout and sampling.

  19. Stratospheric Radiation Environment measurements, calibrations and pattern recognition by CERN MEDIPIX-2 and TIMEPIX Radiation Imaging Detectors on ESA BEXUS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbar, J.; Jakubek, J.; Scheirich, J.

    2009-12-01

    Results of the first two experiments using a MEDIPIX-2 and TIMEPIX detector for cosmic ray imaging in stratospheric environment are presented. The detecting device was based on hybrid pixel detector of MEDIPIX-2/TIMEPIX developed at CERN with USB interface developed at Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics of Czech Technical University in Prague. The detector was used in its tracking mode allowing it to operate as an ''active nuclear emulsion'' The actual flight time of BEXUS7 on 8th October 2008 was over 4 hours, with 2 hours at stable floating altitude of 26km. The flight opportunity was provided by Education dept. of European Space Agency (ESA) and Eurolaunch (Collaboration of SSC and DLR, German Space Agency). The motivation was to check proper calibration by detecting height-dependent profiles of ionizing radiation, also testing detector endurance and performance. BEXUS is quite ideal platform for such in-situ measurements. Not only because of the high altitudes reached, but also due to its slow ascent velocity for statistically relevant sampling of the ambient environment. Detector performance was evaluated for further design implications of advanced concept focusing on Cosmic Ray Induced Ionization rate measurements prepared for flight with additional instrumentation in October 2009 on BEXUS8. The preliminary results of the second campaign to be presented in scope of the outcomes of first campaign.

  20. Preliminary Results From The ESA STSE Project On SST Diurnal Variability, Its Regional Extent And Implications In Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV: REX-IMAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte B.; Hoyer, Jacob L.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents some preliminary results of the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M.). Comparisons of SEVIRI SST with AATSR show zero biases and standard deviations around 0.5 K mostly in the Tropics where SEVIRI is found colder. Sensitivity tests on the methodology to derive foundation temperature fields show that using only quality 5 SEVIRI data results in warmer foundation fields while there is an added 0.2 K variability when using multi-day composites. Diurnal warming signals exceeding 2 K are identified in the European Seas but also in the mid-latitudes of the North and South Atlantic as well as in areas with strong currents. In the attempt to connect temperature measurements from satellites and in situ instruments, the 1-dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is applied. Preliminary results show that the initial temperature and salinity profiles may give a warmer start-up in the model while the light extinction scheme is a controlling factor for the amplitude and vertical extend of the daily signal.

  1. The front-end electronics of the Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX) on the ESA Solar Orbiter satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, O.; Bednarzik, M.; Commichau, V.; Graczyk, R.; Gröbelbauer, H. P.; Hurford, G.; Krucker, S.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Przepiórka, A.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.; Viertel, G.

    2012-12-01

    Solar Orbiter is an ESA mission to study the heliosphere in proximity to the Sun, scheduled for launch in January 2017. It carries a suite of ten instruments for comprehensive remote-sensing and in-situ measurements. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX), one of the remote sensing instruments, images X-rays between 4 and 150keV using an Fourier technique. The angular resolution is 7 arcsec and the spectral resolution 1keV full-width-half-maximum at 6keV. X-ray detection uses pixelized Cadmium Telluride crystals provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The crystals are bonded to read-out hybrids developed by CEA Saclay, called Caliste-SO, incorporating a low-noise, low-power analog front-end ASIC IDeF-X HD. The crystals are cooled to -20°C to obtain very low leakage currents of less than 60pA per pixel, the prerequisite for obtaining the required spectral resolution. This article briefly describes the mission goals and then details the front-end electronics design and main challenges, resulting in part from the allocation limit in mass of 7kg and in power of 4W. Emphasis is placed on the design influence of the cooling requirement within the warm environment of a mission approaching the Sun to within the orbit of Mercury. The design for the long-term in-flight energy calibration is also explained.

  2. The ground support equipment for the E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA-Euclid Dark Energy Mission in the baseline configuration presented in phase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Franceschi, Enrico; Nicastro, Luciano; Valenziano, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo Maria; Cimatti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Euclid is a high-precision survey mission to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. The Euclid Mission concept presented in the Assessment Phase Study Report1 was selected by ESA on February 2010 to undergo a competitive Definition Phase. Euclid is a candidate for launch in the first slice of the Cosmic Vision Plan (M1/M2), with a possible launch date of 2018. In this paper we refer to the instrument baseline configuration identified in the Assessment Phase. It consisted of a Korsch telescope with a primary mirror of 1.2 m diameter and a focal plane hosting 3 scientific instruments, each with a field of view of 0.5 deg2: (1) E-VIS: a CCD based optical imaging channel, (2) E-NIP: a NIR imaging photometry channel, and (3) E-NIS: a NIR slitless spectral channel. We present the conceptual design developed in the Assessment Phase study for the Ground Support Equipment required to support the assembly, integration and verification operations at instrument level for the E-NIS baseline configuration, with particular regards to the scientific and calibration activities.

  3. The ESA/NASA Multi-Aircraft ATV-1 Re-Entry Campaign: Analysis of Airborne Intensified Video Observations from the NASA/JSC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Ed; Maley, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark; Beaulieu, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, a joint ESA/NASA multi-instrument airborne observing campaign was conducted over the Southern Pacific ocean. The objective was the acquisition of data to support detailed atmospheric re-entry analysis for the first flight of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)-1. Skilled observers were deployed aboard two aircraft which were flown at 12.8 km altitude within visible range of the ATV-1 re-entry zone. The observers operated a suite of instruments with low-light-level detection sensitivity including still cameras, high speed and 30 fps video cameras, and spectrographs. The collected data has provided valuable information regarding the dynamic time evolution of the ATV-1 re-entry fragmentation. Specifically, the data has satisfied the primary mission objective of recording the explosion of ATV-1's primary fuel tank and thereby validating predictions regarding the tanks demise and the altitude of its occurrence. Furthermore, the data contains the brightness and trajectories of several hundred ATV-1 fragments. It is the analysis of these properties, as recorded by the particular instrument set sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center, which we present here.

  4. Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an

  5. Arianespace top performance benefits ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luest, Reimar

    1986-06-01

    The economic exploitation of space is growing in importance. The achievements in telecommunication satellites are reviewed. There are also numerous practical applications of earth reconnaissance from space which are also of considerable significance economically. Examples of these are the monitoring of pollution, sea and coastal surveillance, geological reconnaissance, cartography, and weather forecasting. The exploitation of zero gravity could also be of increasing significance in the areas of materials research and process engineering; chemical processes; liquid and gas physics; pharmacology; and biosciences. The role of the Arianespace is discussed in terms of economic and political impact on Europe.

  6. The ESA SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station Area in the Framework of the SMOS Cal/Val AO Project no. 3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA defined and designed the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the purpose of repeating the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming that all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim was to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April 2008, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 was chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the campaign consisted of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish

  7. The ESA-NASA CHOICE Study: Winterover at Concordia Station, Interior Antarctica, A Potential Analog for Spaceflight-Associated Immune Dysregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D L.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    For ground-based space physiological research, the choice of terrestrial analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over at the European Concordia Station is potentially a superior ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID). Concordia missions consist of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation, disrupted circadian rhythms and international crews. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assesses innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivation and stress factors during Concordia winterover deployment. Initial data obtained from the first study deployment (2009 mission; 'n' of 6) will be presented, and logistical challenges regarding analog usage for biological studies will also be discussed. The total WBC increased, and alterations in some peripheral leukocyte populations were observed during winterover at Concordia Station. Percentages of lymphocytes and monocytes increased, and levels of senescent CD8+ T cells were increased during deployment. Transient increases in constitutively activated T cell subsets were observed, at mission time points associated with endemic disease outbreaks. T cell function (early blastogenesis response) was increased near the entry/exit deployment phases, and production of most measured cytokines increased during deployment. Salivary cortisol demonstrated high variability during winterover, but was generally increased. A 2-point circadian rhythm of cortisol measurement (morning/evening) was unaltered during winterover. Perceived stress was mildly elevated during winterover. Other measures, including in-vitro DTH assessment, viral specific T cell number/function and latent herpesvirus reactivation have not yet been completed for the 2009 winterover subjects. Based on the preliminary data, alterations in immune cell distribution and function appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-103) - Install Fish Screens to Protect ESA Listed Steelhead and Bull Trout in the Walla Walla Basin – Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2003-06-11

    Proposed Action: Install Fish Screens to Protect ESA Listed Steelhead and Bull Trout in the Walla Walla Basin – Phase II Minor Diversion Screen Installations. BPA is proposing to provide cost share for a program that will protect ESA-listed salmonid species in the Walla Walla River Basin through the installation of state and federally approved fish screen on over 300 water diversions in the Walla Walla River Basin. This program will involve a wide variety of projects including the installation of screens for both pump and gravity fed surface water diversions. This project will be implemented in conjunction with the Walla Walla County Conservation District, Columbia County Conservation District, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Walla Walla Community College, Washington Department of Ecology, and local irrigators. ESA-listed steelhead and bull trout are presently at risk in the Walla Walla Basin as a result of a combination of factors that primarily involve insufficient flow, extensive habitat degradation, and mortality from surface water diversions. Unscreened or improperly screened diversions can damage fish scaling and induce stress, both of which can be lethal. They are also known to cause migration delays and increased predation; impinge fish against screen surfaces; or, in cases where screen mesh size is too large, allow juvenile fish to be drawn directly into functioning irrigation systems resulting in direct mortality. The goal of this project is to eliminate imminent mortality risks to ESA-listed fish arising from inadequate irrigation diversions in the Walla Walla Basin by upgrading screens to current state and federal juvenile fish screen standards.

  9. Using ground data of the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) for the evaluation of ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost remote sensing derived products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elger, K.; Heim, B.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, Ch.; Duguay, C.; Hachem, S.; Soliman, A.; Boike, J.; Langer, M.; Lantuit, H.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost is one of the essential climate variables addressed by the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GCOS). Remote sensing data provide area-wide monitoring of e.g. surface temperatures or soil surface status (frozen or thawed state) in the Arctic and Subarctic, where ground data collection is difficult and restricted to local measurements at few monitoring sites. The task of the ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost project is to build-up an Earth observation service for northern high-latitudinal permafrost applications with extensive involvement of the international permafrost research community (www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost). The satellite-derived DUE Permafrost products are Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, Surface Frozen and Thawed State, Digital Elevation Model (locally as remote sensing product and circumpolar as non-remote sensing product) and Subsidence, and Land Cover. Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, and Surface Frozen and Thawed State will be provided for the circumpolar permafrost area north of 55° N with 25 km spatial resolution. In addition, regional products with higher spatial resolution were developed for five case study regions in different permafrost zones of the tundra and taiga (Laptev Sea [RU], Central Yakutia [RU], Western Siberia [RU], Alaska N-S transect, [US] Mackenzie River and Valley [CA]). This study shows the evaluation of two DUE Permafrost regional products, Land Surface Temperature and Surface Frozen and Thawed State, using freely available ground truth data from the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) and monitoring data from the Russian-German Samoylov research station in the Lena River Delta (Central Siberia, RU). The GTN-P permafrost monitoring sites with their position in different permafrost zones are highly qualified for the validation of DUE Permafrost remote sensing products. Air and surface temperatures with high-temporal resolution from eleven GTN-P sites in Alaska

  10. Global land cover products tailored to the needs of the climate modeling community - Land Cover project of the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontemps, S.; Defourny, P.; Radoux, J.; Kalogirou, V.; Arino, O.

    2012-04-01

    Improving the systematic observation of land cover, as an Essential Climate Variable, will support the United Framework Convention on Climate Change effort to reduce the uncertainties in our understanding of the climate system and to better cope with climate change. The Land Cover project of the ESA Climate Change Initiative aims at contributing to this effort by providing new global land cover products tailored to the expectations of the climate modeling community. During the first three months of the project, consultation mechanisms were established with this community to identify its specific requirements in terms of satellite-based global land cover products. This assessment highlighted specific needs in terms of land cover characterization, accuracy of products, as well as stability and consistency, needs that are currently not met or even addressed. Based on this outcome, the project revisits the current land cover representation and mapping approaches. First, the stable and dynamic components of land cover are distinguished. The stable component refers to the set of land surface features that remains stable over time and thus defines the land cover independently of any sources of temporary or natural variability. Conversely, the dynamic component is directly related to this temporary or natural variability that can induce some variation in land observation over time but without changing the land cover state in its essence (e.g. flood, snow on forest, etc.). Second, the project focuses on the possibility to generate such stable global land cover maps. Previous projects, like GlobCover and MODIS Land Cover, have indeed shown that products' stability is a key issue. In delivering successive global products derived from the same sensor, they highlighted the existence of spurious year-to-year variability in land cover labels, which were not associated with land cover change but with phenology, disturbances or landscape heterogeneity. An innovative land cover

  11. On the control of magnetic perturbing field onboard landers: the Magnetometer Protection program for the ESA ExoMars/Humboldt MSMO magnetometer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menvielle, M.; Primdahl, F.; Brauer, P.; Falkenberg, T. V.; Jensen, P. A.; Merayo, J. M.; Vennerstrom, S.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic field observations at a planetary surface have a wide potential of scientific applications, ranging from processes in the dynamic interaction between the planet environment and the solar wind, to determining the structure and thermal evolution of the interior of the planet as well as characterizing its sub-surface. Magnetic fields are generated by electric currents in the planetary space environment, induced currents in the planetary interior and possibly remanent magnetism. In consequence, hardly any other single physical quantity can be used in such a variety of studies related to planetary research. The major difficulty in implementing a magnetometer experiment onboard a lander is to achieve at acceptable costs a good Magnetometer Protection, namely to control the perturbing magnetic field generated by the lander during operations at the planetary surface, so as to achieve the least magnetic contamination of the magnetometer data by lander generated magnetic perturbations, and thus the best possible magnetic signal to magnetic noise ratio, thus ensuring the best possible magnetometer experiment science return. The purpose of this talk is to show that simple and non-expensive solutions enable one to limit the intensity of lander generated perturbing magnetic fields to levels that are compliant with the science based measurement requirements. The presented solutions are based upon ‘best effort' to being critically concerned with magnetic noise reduction, with emphasis on good and simple engineering techniques enabling minimization of and control over the magnetic perturbations at the magnetometer sensor during the surface operations phase. The presentation deals with the case history of the ongoing preparation of the MSMO magnetometer experiment, which is part the Humboldt scientific payload in the frame of the ESA ExoMars mission. Experience from previous missions constitutes the background for the MSMO Magnetometer Protection strategy. DC and AC

  12. Automated science target selection for future Mars rovers: A machine vision approach for the future ESA ExoMars 2018 rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA ExoMars 2018 rover is planned to perform autonomous science target selection (ASTS) using the approaches described in [1]. However, the approaches shown to date have focused on coarse features rather than the identification of specific geomorphological units. These higher-level "geoobjects" can later be employed to perform intelligent reasoning or machine learning. In this work, we show the next stage in the ASTS through examples displaying the identification of bedding planes (not just linear features in rock-face images) and the identification and discrimination of rocks in a rock-strewn landscape (not just rocks). We initially detect the layers and rocks in 2D processing via morphological gradient detection [1] and graph cuts based segmentation [2] respectively. To take this further requires the retrieval of 3D point clouds and the combined processing of point clouds and images for reasoning about the scene. An example is the differentiation of rocks in rover images. This will depend on knowledge of range and range-order of features. We show demonstrations of these "geo-objects" using MER and MSL (released through the PDS) as well as data collected within the EU-PRoViScout project (http://proviscout.eu). An initial assessment will be performed of the automated "geo-objects" using the OpenSource StereoViewer developed within the EU-PRoViSG project (http://provisg.eu) which is released in sourceforge. In future, additional 3D measurement tools will be developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViDE2 project, which started on 1.1.13. References: [1] M. Woods, A. Shaw, D. Barnes, D. Price, D. Long, D. Pullan, (2009) "Autonomous Science for an ExoMars Rover-Like Mission", Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue: Special Issue on Space Robotics, Part II, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 358-390. [2] J. Shi, J. Malik, (2000) "Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 22. [3] D. Shin, and J.-P. Muller (2009

  13. Temporal aliasing effects on future gravity satellite missions and their assessment – Lessons from the ESA-SC4MGV project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daras, Ilias; Pail, Roland; Visser, Pieter; Weigelt, Matthias; Iran-Pour, Siavash; Murböck, Michael; Gruber, Thomas; Texeira da Encarnação, Joao; Sneeuw, Nico; Tonetti, Stefania; Christian, Siemes; van den IJssel, Jose; Cornara, Stefania; van Dam, Tonie; Cesare, Stefano; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Temporal aliasing is expected to add up to the error budget of future gravity satellite missions of low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) type in such a way, that it could act as a constraining factor on their way to achieve the expected accuracy that new generation sensors could provide. Within the scope of the ESA-SC4MGV project, we investigate the impact of temporal aliasing on future gravity satellite missions as well as methods for its minimization. This is achieved on the one hand by optimizing the choice for the orbital configuration, and on the other by optimizing the gravity field retrieval techniques accordingly. In this study we investigate the contribution of all error sources to the error budget and prove that temporal aliasing errors are one of the biggest contributors. We explore the advantages of using two in-line pairs in reducing temporal aliasing errors. For this purpose, the optimized orbit constellation consisting of two in-line pairs of a Bender type configuration is used as our "baseline" scenario. Using the "baseline" scenario, we investigate gravity field processing methods that lead in a reduction of the temporal aliasing errors. As a first step we apply the so-called "Wiese" approach, which suggests co-estimating low resolution gravity fields at short time intervals in order to directly estimate the short-term signals that alias into the combined solution. We demonstrate the ability of the "Wiese" approach to minimize temporal aliasing errors for our "baseline" scenario. Moreover, we fine-tune the "Wiese" parameterization options such as the duration and the resolution of the gravity field solutions estimated at high frequency, in order to maximize the effectiveness of the method at reducing the temporal aliasing effects with respect to our chosen Bender constellation. As a step forward, we experiment with alternative parameterizations that combine low and medium spatial resolution gravity fields at different time intervals

  14. ESA DUE Permafrost: Evaluation of remote sensing derived products using ground data from the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elger, K. K.; Heim, B.; Lantuit, H.; Boike, J.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, C.; Duguay, C. R.; Hachem, S.; Soliman, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    The task of the ESA DUE Permafrost project is to build up an Earth observation service for high-latitudinal permafrost applications with extensive involvement of the permafrost research community. The DUE Permafrost products derived from remote sensing are land surface temperature (LST), surface soil moisture (SSM), surface frozen and thawed state (freeze/ thaw), terrain, land cover, and surface waters. Weekly and monthly averages for most of the DUE Permafrost products will be made available for the years 2007-2010. The DUE Permafrost products are provided for the circumpolar permafrost area (north of 55°N) with 25 km spatial resolution. In addition, regional products with higher spatial resolution (300-1000 m/ pixel) were developed for five case study regions. These regions are: (1) the Laptev Sea and Eastern Siberian Sea Region (RU, continuous very cold permafrost/ tundra), (2) the Yakutsk Region (RU, continuous cold permafrost/ taiga), (3) the Western Siberian transect including Yamal Peninsula and Ob Region (RU, continuous to discontinuous/ taiga-tundra), (4) the Alaska Highway Transect (US, continuous to discontinuous/ taiga-tundra), and (5) the Mackenzie Delta and Valley Transect (CA, continuous to discontinuous/ taiga-tundra). The challenge of the programme is to adapt remote sensing products that are well established and tested in agricultural low and mid-latitudinal areas for highly heterogeneous taiga/ tundra permafrost landscapes in arctic regions. Ground data is essential for the evaluation of DUE Permafrost products and is provided by user groups and global networks. A major part of the DUE Permafrost core user group is contributing to GTN-P, the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost. Its main programmes, the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) and the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) have been thoroughly overhauled during the last International Polar Year (2007-2008). Their spatial coverage has been extended to provide a true circumpolar

  15. Evaluation of sensitivity to desertification by a modified ESAs method in two sub-Saharan peri-urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric

    2013-04-01

    Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century. The African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Due to its complexity, dynamism and extent, desertification is complicated to check and assess. The absence of an agreed methodology for the identification of affected areas is a critical point in desertification monitoring and assessment. An integrated approach which uses both qualitative and quantitative measures is crucial to reach the aim of sustainable resource use and has to be reflected in application of sets of indicators. The selection of appropriate indicators and their integration and interpretation should be conducted by the objectives to be achieved and the questions to be answered. This study, carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (Climate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to assess the sensitivity to desertification in peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification And Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (vegetation, soil, climate) and anthropogenic factors (land management). All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and an Index of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAI). Changes and integrations to the original methodology have been set taking into account the environmental and social features of the whole sub-Saharan west Africa in order to allow the use of

  16. Extending the X/Ka Celestial Reference Frame over the South Polar Cap: Results from combined NASA-ESA Deep Space Network baselines to Malargüe, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; de Vicente, J.; Dugast, M.; García-Miró, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Maddè, R.; Mercolino, M.; Naudet, C. J.; Snedeker, L. G.; Sotuela, I.; White, L. A.

    2013-03-01

    In order to extend the X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) Celestial Reference Frame coverage over the south polar cap region of declinations -45 to -90 deg, we developed a collaboration between the NASA and ESA Deep Space Networks. In particular ESA's new 35-meter X/Ka-band antenna in Malargüe, Argentina which became operational in January 2013 is now available for X/Ka VLBI baselines to NASA's antennas in Tidbinbilla, Australia; Goldstone, California; and Robledo, Spain. We report first fringes on baselines from Malargüe to Tidbinbilla, Goldstone, and Robledo using a semi-portable digital backend recording at 256 Mbps. To the best of our knowledge the Giga-lambda Malargüe-Tidbinbilla baseline is producing the highest resolution interferometry ever achieved over the south polar cap. We will present the distribution of Ka-band sources detected on this all-southern baseline. Lastly, we will discuss the prospects for using these new baselines to improve the astrometric accuracy of the X/Ka frame in the southern hemisphere.

  17. [Interior] Configuration options, habitability and architectural aspects of the transfer habitat module (THM) and the surface habitat on Mars (SHM)/ESA's AURORA human mission to Mars (HMM) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    This paper discusses the findings for [Interior] configuration options, habitability and architectural aspects of a first human spacecraft to Mars. In 2003 the space architecture office LIQUIFER was invited by the European Space Agency's (ESA) AURORA Program committee to consult the scientists and engineers from the European Space and Technology Center (ESTEC) and other European industrial communities with developing the first human mission to Mars, which will take place in 2030, regarding the architectural issues of crewed habitats. The task was to develop an interior configuration for a transfer vehicle (TV) to Mars, especially a transfer habitation module (THM) and a surface habitat module (SHM) on Mars. The total travel time Earth—Mars and back for a crew of six amounts to approximately 900 days. After a 200-day-flight three crewmembers will land on Mars in the Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) and will live and work in the SHM for 30 days. For 500 days before the 200-day journey back the spacecraft continues to circle the Martian orbit for further exploration. The entire mission program is based on our present knowledge of technology. The project was compiled during a constant feedback-design process and trans-disciplinary collaboration sessions in the ESA-ESTEC concurrent design facility. Long-term human space flight sets new spatial conditions and requirements to the design concept. The guidelines were developed from relevant numbers and facts of recognized standards, interviews with astronauts/cosmonauts and from analyses about habitability, sociology, psychology and configuration concepts of earlier space stations in combination with the topics of the individual's perception and relation of space. Result of this study is the development of a prototype concept for the THM and SHM with detailed information and complete plans of the interior configuration, including mass calculations. In addition the study contains a detailed explanation of the development of

  18. ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    First step: catching Venus To begin to explore our Earth’s hot and hazy sister planet, Venus Express must complete a critical first step, the most challenging one following launch. This involves a set of complex operations and manoeuvres that will inject the spacecraft into orbit. The Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) manoeuvre allows the spacecraft to reduce its speed relative to Venus, so that it can be captured by the planet’s gravitation. The manoeuvre is a critical one which must proceed at precisely the right place and time. The VOI phase officially started on 4 April and will not be completed until 13 April. It is split into three main sub-phases. The first consists in preparing or initialising the spacecraft for the actual capture manoeuvre so as to avoid the risk of the spacecraft going into safe mode, should parameters unrelated to VOI go off-range. The capture manoeuvre itself consists of a main-engine burn lasting about 50 minutes on the morning of 11 April starting at 09:17 (Central European Summer Time). This is the second main VOI sub-phase. The final sub-phase will be restoring all spacecraft functions, notably resuming communications with Earth and uplinking the commands to be executed during the preliminary ‘capture’ orbit. Orbital capture is controlled by an automatic sequence of predefined commands, uploaded to the spacecraft four days prior to VOI. This sequence is the minimum set needed to perform the main-engine burn. All spacecraft operations are controlled and commanded by the ground control team located at ESA’s European Spacecraft Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. Timeeline of major VOI events (some times subject to change) 4 Aprilacecraft transmitter connected to low gain antenna is switched on. During its interplanetary cruise and during the scientific part of the mission to come, Venus Express communicates with Earth by means of its two high gain antennas. However, during the orbit capture phase (11 April), these two antennas become unusable because of the spacecraft’s required orientation at that time. The low gain antenna, carrying a feeble but instantly recognisable signal, will be transmitting throughout all VOI manoeuvres. This will allow ground controllers to monitor the velocity change during the burn, using NASA’s Deep Space Network’s 70-metre antenna near Madrid, Spain. No other means of communication with the Earth is possible during the capture burn. 5 and 9 April, targeting control manoeuvres. Two time slots are available to adjust course if needed. Given the high accuracy of the course correction performed end of March, Venus Express is currently on the right trajectory for a successful capture into orbit and it is therefore unlikely that either of these two extra slots will be required. 10 to 11 April, final preparations for VOI manoeuvre. 24 to 12 hours before VOI, spacecraft controllers will command Venus Express into its final configuration for the burn. Over the final 12 hours, they will monitor its status, ready to deal with any contingencies requiring last-minute trajectory correction or any revising of the main-engine burn duration. 11 April, 08:03 (CEST), ‘slew’ manoeuvre. This manoeuvre lasts about half an hour and rotates Venus Express so that the main engine faces the direction of motion. Thanks to this, the burn will slow down (rather than accelerate) the spacecraft. 11 April, 09:17 (CEST), main-engine burn starts. A few minutes after firing of the spacecraft thrusters to make sure the propellant settles in the feed lines to the main engine, the latter will begin its 50-minute long burn, ending at 10:07. This thrust will reduce the initial velocity of 29 000 kilometres per hour (in relation to Venus) by 15 percent, allowing capture. Venus Express will settle into its preliminary, elongated nine-day orbit. On capture, it will be at about 120 million kilometres from the Earth and, at its nearest point, within 400 km of the surface of Venus. During the burn, at 09:45 (CEST), Venus Express will disappear behind the planet and will not be visible from Earth. This is known as its ‘occultation’ period. The spacecraft will re-emerge from behind Venus’s disc some ten minutes later. So, even with the low gain antenna’s signal, it will only be visible during the first half of the burn and the last six minutes. Receiving the spacecraft signal after the occultation period will be the first positive sign of successful orbit insertion. 11 April, h 11:13 (CEST), re-establish communication with Earth. At the end of the burn, Venus Express still has to perform a few automatic operations. These re-orient the solar panels towards the sun and one of the high gain antennas (the smaller High Gain Antenna 2) towards Earth. If everything goes as expected, at 11:13 the spacecraft should be able to establish its first communication link with ESA’s Cebreros ground station near Madrid. Over the next few hours, it will send much-awaited information about its state of health. Information about its actual trajectory will be available from ESOC’s flight dynamics team around 12:30 (CEST). 12 to 13 April 2006, full reactivation starts. During the 24 hours following orbital capture, time will be devoted to reactivating all spacecraft functions, including all internal monitoring capacity. By the morning of the 13th, the larger ‘High Gain Antenna 1, hitherto unused, will be oriented and fed by the transmitter to communicate with Earth. The two high gain antennas, located on different sides of the spacecraft, will be used alternately during the mission, to avoid exposure to the sun of critical equipment on the outside. Reaching final orbit A series of further manoeuvres and many more days will be required to settle Venus Express into its final orbit. The preliminary nine-day orbit is elliptical, ranging from 350 000 kilometres at its furthest point from the planet (apocentre) to less than 400 kilometres at its closest (pericentre). During this period, Venus Express will also have to perform seven burns (two with the main engine, five with its banks of thrusters) to gradually reduce the apocentre of the following orbits. Final orbit will be reached on 7 May after 16 loops around the planet. It will be a polar orbit, ranging from 66 000 to 250 kilometres from Venus and with a pericentre located at above latitude 80° North. On 22 April, Venus Express will start its in-orbit commissioning phase. Its instruments will be switched on one by one for detailed checking until 13 May, then operated all together or in groups. This allows simultaneous observation of phenomena to be tested, to be ready for the nominal science phase beginning on 4 Ju