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Sample records for qc urine samples

  1. Development and validation of a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of fenoterol in human plasma and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, M; Ramamoorthy, A; Strait, J; Wainer, I W; Moaddel, R

    2013-08-15

    Due to the lack of sensitivity in current methods for the determination of fenoterol (Fen), a rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of (R,R')-Fen and (R,R';S,S')-Fen in plasma and urine. The method was fully validated and was linear from 50pg/ml to 2000pg/ml for plasma and from 2.500ng/ml to 160ng/ml for urine with a lower limit of quantitation of 52.8pg/ml in plasma. The coefficient of variation was <15% for the high QC standards and <10% for the low QC standards in plasma and was <15% for the high and low QC standards in urine. The relative concentrations of (R,R')-Fen and (S,S')-Fen were determined using a chirobiotic T chiral stationary phase. The method was used to determine the concentration of (R,R')-Fen in plasma and urine samples obtained in an oral cross-over study of (R,R')-Fen and (R,R';S,S')-Fen formulations. The results demonstrated a potential pre-systemic enantioselective interaction in which the (S,S')-Fen reduces the sulfation of the active (R,R')-Fen. The data suggest that a non-racemic mixture of the Fen enantiomers may provide better bioavailability of the active (R,R')-Fen for use in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Development and Validation of a Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Fenoterol in Human Plasma and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, M.; Ramamoorthy, A.; Strait, J.; Wainer, I. W.; Moaddel, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the lack of sensitivity in current methods for the determination of fenoterol (Fen). A rapid, LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of (R,R′)-Fen and (R,R′;S,S′)-Fen in plasma and urine. The method was fully validated and was linear from 50 pg/ml to 2000 pg/ml for plasma and from 2.500 ng/ml to 160 ng/ml for urine with a lower limit of quantitation of 52.8 pg/ml in plasma. The coefficient of variation was <15% for the high QC standards and <10% for the low QC standards in plasma and was <15% for the high and low QC standards in urine. The relative concentrations of (R,R′)-Fen and (S,S′)-Fen were determined using a chirobiotic T chiral stationary phase. The method was used to determine the concentration of (R,R′)-Fen in plasma and urine samples obtained in an oral cross-over study of (R,R′)-Fen and (R,R′;S,S′)-Fen formulations. The results demonstrated a potential pre-systemic enantioselective interaction in which the (S,S′)-Fen reduces the sulfation of the active (R,R′)-Fen. The data suggests that a non-racemic mixture of the Fen enantiomers may provide better bioavailability of the active (R,R′)-Fen for use in the treatment of cardiovascular disease PMID:23872161

  3. Metabolomic analysis of urine samples by UHPLC-QTOF-MS: Impact of normalization strategies.

    PubMed

    Gagnebin, Yoric; Tonoli, David; Lescuyer, Pierre; Ponte, Belen; de Seigneux, Sophie; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Schappler, Julie; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge

    2017-02-22

    Among the various biological matrices used in metabolomics, urine is a biofluid of major interest because of its non-invasive collection and its availability in large quantities. However, significant sources of variability in urine metabolomics based on UHPLC-MS are related to the analytical drift and variation of the sample concentration, thus requiring normalization. A sequential normalization strategy was developed to remove these detrimental effects, including: (i) pre-acquisition sample normalization by individual dilution factors to narrow the concentration range and to standardize the analytical conditions, (ii) post-acquisition data normalization by quality control-based robust LOESS signal correction (QC-RLSC) to correct for potential analytical drift, and (iii) post-acquisition data normalization by MS total useful signal (MSTUS) or probabilistic quotient normalization (PQN) to prevent the impact of concentration variability. This generic strategy was performed with urine samples from healthy individuals and was further implemented in the context of a clinical study to detect alterations in urine metabolomic profiles due to kidney failure. In the case of kidney failure, the relation between creatinine/osmolality and the sample concentration is modified, and relying only on these measurements for normalization could be highly detrimental. The sequential normalization strategy was demonstrated to significantly improve patient stratification by decreasing the unwanted variability and thus enhancing data quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head ... water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before ...

  5. QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Innis, B.E.

    1993-07-21

    This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories alsomore » measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.« less

  6. Basic or extended urine sampling to analyse urine production?

    PubMed

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Kapila, Vansh; Weiss, Jeffrey; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Everaert, Karel

    2017-09-01

    Frequency volume charts are valuable tools to objectify urine production in patients with nocturia, enuresis or nocturnal incontinence. Analyses of daytime and nighttime urine (=basic collection) or analyses of urine samples collected every 3 h (=extended collection) extend this evaluation by describing circadian patterns of water and solute diuresis (=renal function profiles). To assess intra-individual correlation and agreement between renal function profiles provided using basic and extended urine collections, and using two extended urine collections. To create a short-form of the extended collection. This prospective observational study was executed at Ghent University Hospital, Belgium. Study participation was open for anyone visiting the hospital. Participants collected one basic and two extended 24-h urine collections. Urinary levels of osmolality, sodium and creatinine were determined. There was a moderate to strong correlation between results of basic and extended urinalyses. Comparing both extended urinalyses showed a moderate correlation between the eight individual samples and a weak to strong correlation between the mean daytime and nighttime values of renal functions. Different samples could be considered as most representative for mean daytime values, while all samples collected between 03 and 05am showed the highest agreement with mean nighttime values of renal function. Since there is a good correlation and agreement between basic and extended urine collections to study the mechanisms underlying urine production, the choice of urine sampling method to evaluate urine production depends on the purpose. A nighttime-only urine sample collected between 03 and 05am may be the most practical approach. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Urine sampling and collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Reinhardt, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    This specification defines the performance and design requirements for the urine sampling and collection system engineering model and establishes requirements for its design, development, and test. The model shall provide conceptual verification of a system applicable to manned space flight which will automatically provide for collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine.

  8. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides andmore » strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.« less

  9. Mean population salt intake estimated from 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason H Y; Woodward, Mark; Barzi, Federica; Land, Mary-Anne; McLean, Rachael; Webster, Jacqui; Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Neal, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Estimating equations based on spot urine samples have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-h urine collections for determining mean population salt intake. This review compares estimates of mean population salt intake based upon spot and 24-h urine samples. We systematically searched for all studies that reported estimates of daily salt intake based upon both spot and 24-h urine samples for the same population. The associations between the two were quantified and compared overall and in subsets of studies. A total of 538 records were identified, 108 were assessed as full text and 29 were included. The included studies involved 10,414 participants from 34 countries and made 71 comparisons available for the primary analysis. Overall average population salt intake estimated from 24-h urine samples was 9.3 g/day compared with 9.0 g/day estimated from the spot urine samples. Estimates based upon spot urine samples had excellent sensitivity (97%) and specificity (100%) at classifying mean population salt intake as above or below the World Health Organization maximum target of 5 g/day. Compared with the 24-h samples, estimates based upon spot urine overestimated intake at lower levels of consumption and underestimated intake at higher levels of consumption. Estimates of mean population salt intake based upon spot urine samples can provide countries with a good indication of mean population salt intake and whether action on salt consumption is required. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Quantitative determination of BAF312, a S1P-R modulator, in human urine by LC-MS/MS: prevention and recovery of lost analyte due to container surface adsorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkui; Luo, Suyi; Smith, Harold T; Tse, Francis L S

    2010-02-15

    Analyte loss due to non-specific binding, especially container surface adsorption, is not uncommon in the quantitative analysis of urine samples. In developing a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of a drug candidate, BAF312, in human urine, a simple procedure was outlined for identification, confirmation and prevention of analyte non-specific binding to a container surface and to recover the 'non-specific loss' of an analyte, if no transfer has occurred to the original urine samples. Non-specific binding or container surface adsorption can be quickly identified by using freshly spiked urine calibration standards and pre-pooled QC samples during a LC-MS/MS feasibility run. The resulting low recovery of an analyte in urine samples can be prevented through the use of additives, such as the non-ionic surfactant Tween-80, CHAPS and others, to the container prior to urine sample collection. If the urine samples have not been transferred from the bulk container, the 'non-specific binding' of an analyte to the container surface can be reversed by the addition of a specified amount of CHAPS, Tween-80 or bovine serum albumin, followed by appropriate mixing. Among the above agents, Tween-80 is the most cost-effective. beta-cyclodextrin may be suitable in stabilizing the analyte of interest in urine via pre-treating the matrix with the agent. However, post-addition of beta-cyclodextrin to untreated urine samples does not recover the 'lost' analyte due to non-specific binding or container surface adsorption. In the case of BAF312, a dynamic range of 0.0200-20.0 ng/ml in human urine was validated with an overall accuracy and precision for QC sample results ranging from -3.2 to 5.1% (bias) and 3.9 to 10.2% (CV), respectively. Pre- and post-addition of 0.5% (v/v) Tween-80 to the container provided excellent overall analyte recovery and minimal MS signal suppression when a liquid-liquid extraction in combination with an isocratic LC separation was employed. The

  11. Chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method development for the detection of salbutamol in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sue Hay; Lee, Warren; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Tan, Soo Choon

    2016-07-01

    A sequential solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of salbutamol enantiomers in porcine urine. Porcine urine samples were hydrolysed with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase from Helix pomatia and then subjected to a double solid-phase extraction (SPE) first using the Abs-Elut Nexus SPE and then followed by the Bond Elut Phenylboronic Acid (PBA) SPE. The salbutamol enantiomers were separated using the Astec CHIROBIOTIC™ T HPLC column (3.0mm×100mm; 5μm) maintained at 15°C with a 15min isocratic run at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The mobile phase constituted of 5mM ammonium formate in methanol. Salbutamol and salbutamol-tert-butyl-d9 (internal standard, IS) was monitored and quantified with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method showed good linearity for the range of 0.1-10ng/mL with limit of quantification at 0.3ng/mL. Analysis of the QC samples showed intra- and inter-assay precisions to be less than 5.04%, and recovery ranging from 83.82 to 102.33%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of initial stream urine samples and cervical samples for detection of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Mao; Yamagishi, Yuka; Izumi, Koji; Miyazaki, Narimi; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kato, Hideo; Nishiyama, Naoya; Koizumi, Yusuke; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-08-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is a treatable and preventable cancer. Medical efforts to reduce rates of cervical cancer focus on the promotion of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and the promotion of routine cervical cancer screening done by cervical cytology and cervical HPV testing. Urine-based HPV testing would be simple and noninvasive approach to screen for cervical cancer. Two biospecimens (clinician-taken sample from cervix and initial stream urine sample) were provided from a total of 240 healthy women attending for cancer screening provided for HPV testing. We have assessed the HPV detection rates among cervical samples and pellet fraction of urine samples using HPV test (Anyplex™ II HPV28 Detection kit, Seegene, Korea). Among 240 samples screened, HPV prevalence was 42.9% in pellet fractions of urine samples. The agreement between the two kinds of samples was 98.4%, k = 0.792. Discordant results were observed in 27 cases; 5 were positive only by urine samples and 22 were positive only by smear samples. Sensitivity and specificity for all HPV DNA in pellet fractions of urine using cervical samples as reference was 68.4% and 99.9%. Comparing methodologies of collection of samples for HPV detection, they showed the higher agreements for almost genotypes between cervical samples and pellet fractions of urine samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in women. Additional research in a larger and general screening population would be needed. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of occupational exposure to methylene chloride: sampling protocol and stability of urine samples.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Erica; Tabak, Arek; Shcherb, Inna; Wiener, Avi; Bentur, Yedidia

    2005-01-01

    A sampling protocol for biomonitoring of the volatile solvent methylene chloride (MeCl(2)) by analysis of urine from exposed workers was established. Storage temperature, sample volume in headspace vial (HSV), and time to sealing HSV on determination of MeCl(2) in urine were evaluated. MeCl(2) was analyzed by a solid-phase microextraction technique combined with gas chromatography. Volume of urine in HSV has no effect on MeCl(2) analysis. Delays of 30 and 60 min from collection of urine until sealing the HSV caused 14.47 +/- 6.98% and 26.17 +/- 9.57% decreases from baseline concentration, respectively. MeCl(2) concentration in spiked urine samples stored in sealed HSVs decreased on day 2 and then remained stable for 2 weeks. Refrigeration did not improve recovery although it seems to be associated with less variability. MeCl(2) in urine samples of seven exposed workers was in the range of 0.02-0.06 mg/L. Sampling of MeCl(2)-containing urine should include collection of urine in closed plastic bottles, transfer to HSV within 15 min, sealing and clamping of HSV within 15 s, and storage of HSV in refrigeration until analysis, but no longer than 2 weeks. Standard samples should be prepared on the day of test sample collection and handled under the same conditions.

  14. Does the Exposure of Urine Samples to Air Affect Diagnostic Tests for Urine Acidification?

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Joo-Hark; Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Sun-Moon; Han, Sang-Woong; Oh, Man-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives For accurate measurement of pH, urine collection under oil to limit the escape of CO2 on air exposure is recommended. This study aims to test the hypothesis that urine collection under oil is not necessary in acidic urine in which bicarbonate and CO2 are minor buffers, because loss of CO2 would have little effect on its pH. Design, setting, participants, & measurements One hundred consecutive random urine samples were collected under oil and analyzed for pH, pCO2, and HCO3− immediately and after 5 minutes of vigorous shaking in uncovered flasks to allow CO2 escape. Results The pH values in 97 unshaken samples ranged from 5.03 to 6.83. With shaking, urine pCO2 decreased by 76%, whereas urine HCO3− decreased by 60%. Meanwhile, urine baseline median pH (interquartile range) of 5.84 (5.44–6.25) increased to 5.93 (5.50–6.54) after shaking (ΔpH=0.12 [0.07–0.29], P<0.001). ΔpH with pH≤6.0 was significantly lower than the ΔpH with pH>6.0 (0.08 [0.05–0.12] versus 0.36 [0.23–0.51], P<0.001). Overall, the lower the baseline pH, the smaller the ΔpH. Conclusions The calculation of buffer reactions in a hypothetical acidic urine predicted a negligible effect on urine pH on loss of CO2 by air exposure, which was empirically proven by the experimental study. Therefore, exposure of urine to air does not substantially alter the results of diagnostic tests for urine acidification, and urine collection under oil is not necessary. PMID:22700881

  15. Estimating mean change in population salt intake using spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristina S; Wu, Jason H Y; Webster, Jacqui; Grimes, Carley; Woodward, Mark; Nowson, Caryl A; Neal, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    Spot urine samples are easier to collect than 24-h urine samples and have been used with estimating equations to derive the mean daily salt intake of a population. Whether equations using data from spot urine samples can also be used to estimate change in mean daily population salt intake over time is unknown. We compared estimates of change in mean daily population salt intake based upon 24-h urine collections with estimates derived using equations based on spot urine samples. Paired and unpaired 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples were collected from individuals in two Australian populations, in 2011 and 2014. Estimates of change in daily mean population salt intake between 2011 and 2014 were obtained directly from the 24-h urine samples and by applying established estimating equations (Kawasaki, Tanaka, Mage, Toft, INTERSALT) to the data from spot urine samples. Differences between 2011 and 2014 were calculated using mixed models. A total of 1000 participants provided a 24-h urine sample and a spot urine sample in 2011, and 1012 did so in 2014 (paired samples n = 870; unpaired samples n = 1142). The participants were community-dwelling individuals living in the State of Victoria or the town of Lithgow in the State of New South Wales, Australia, with a mean age of 55 years in 2011. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference in population salt intake between 2011 and 2014 determined from the 24-h urine samples was -0.48g/day (-0.74 to -0.21; P < 0.001). The corresponding result estimated from the spot urine samples was -0.24 g/day (-0.42 to -0.06; P = 0.01) using the Tanaka equation, -0.42 g/day (-0.70 to -0.13; p = 0.004) using the Kawasaki equation, -0.51 g/day (-1.00 to -0.01; P = 0.046) using the Mage equation, -0.26 g/day (-0.42 to -0.10; P = 0.001) using the Toft equation, -0.20 g/day (-0.32 to -0.09; P = 0.001) using the INTERSALT equation and -0.27 g/day (-0.39 to -0.15; P < 0.001) using the

  16. Optimization for Peptide Sample Preparation for Urine Peptidomics

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan

    2014-02-25

    Analysis of native or endogenous peptides in biofluids can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms. Furthermore, the detected peptides may also have utility as potential biomarkers for non-invasive monitoring of human diseases. The non-invasive nature of urine collection and the abundance of peptides in the urine makes analysis by high-throughput ‘peptidomics’ methods , an attractive approach for investigating the pathogenesis of renal disease. However, urine peptidomics methodologies can be problematic with regards to difficulties associated with sample preparation. The urine matrix can provide significant background interference in making the analytical measurements that it hampers both the identification of peptides andmore » the depth of the peptidomics read when utilizing LC-MS based peptidome analysis. We report on a novel adaptation of the standard solid phase extraction (SPE) method to a modified SPE (mSPE) approach for improved peptide yield and analysis sensitivity with LC-MS based peptidomics in terms of time, cost, clogging of the LC-MS column, peptide yield, peptide quality, and number of peptides identified by each method. Expense and time requirements were comparable for both SPE and mSPE, but more interfering contaminants from the urine matrix were evident in the SPE preparations (e.g., clogging of the LC-MS columns, yellowish background coloration of prepared samples due to retained urobilin, lower peptide yields) when compared to the mSPE method. When we compared data from technical replicates of 4 runs, the mSPE method provided significantly improved efficiencies for the preparation of samples from urine (e.g., mSPE peptide identification 82% versus 18% with SPE; p = 8.92E-05). Additionally, peptide identifications, when applying the mSPE method, highlighted the biology of differential activation of urine peptidases during acute renal transplant rejection with distinct laddering of specific peptides, which was obscured for most

  17. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  18. Immunoreactive LH in long-term frozen human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet Kaur Surindar; Jimenez, Mark; Newman, Ron; Handelsman, David J

    2014-04-01

    Urine provides a convenient non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for measurement of certain hormones. Urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) measurements have been used for endocrinology research and anti-doping testing. However, the commercially available LH immunoassays are developed and validated for human blood samples but not urine so that LH assays intended for use with urine samples need thorough validation. Therefore, the present study evaluated the measurement of urinary LH immunoreactivity using previously validated immunofluorometric (IF) and immunochemiluminometric (ICL) LH assays after prolonged frozen storage. LH was measured in serial urine samples following administration of a single injection of one of two doses of recombinant human chorionic hormone (rhCG) with assays run at the end of study (2008) and again after four years of frozen (-20 °C) storage where samples were stored without adding preservatives. The ICL assay showed quantitatively reproducible LH measurements after prolonged -20 °C storage. However, the IF immunoassay gave consistently lower LH levels relative to ICL (2008) with a further proportionate reduction after four years of sample storage (2012). Yet, both the assays displayed similar patterns of the time-course of urine LH measurement both before and after four years of frozen storage. In conclusion, we found that both immunoassays are suitable for urinary LH measurements with ICL assay being more robust for quantitative urinary LH measurement such as for anti-doping purposes, whereas the IF could be applicable for research studies where urine LH levels are compared within-study but not in absolute terms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  20. Comparison of population iodine estimates from 24-hour urine and timed-spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E; Swanson, Christine A; Sullivan, Kevin M; Chen, Te-Ching; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Dodd, Kevin W; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2014-04-01

    Median urine iodine concentration (UIC; μg/L) in spot urine samples is recommended for monitoring population iodine status. Other common measures are iodine:creatinine ratio (I/Cr; μg/g) and estimated 24-hour urine iodine excretion (UIE; I/Cr × predicted 24-hour Cr; μg/day). Despite different units, these measures are often used interchangeably, and it is unclear how they compare with the reference standard 24-hour UIE. Volunteers aged 18-39 years collected all their urine samples for 24 hours (n=400). Voids from morning, afternoon, evening, overnight, and a composite 24-hour sample were analyzed for iodine. We calculated median observed 24-hour UIE and 24-hour UIC, and spot UIC, I/Cr, and two measures of estimated UIE calculated using predicted 24-hour Cr from published estimates by Kesteloot and Joosens (varies by age and sex) and published equations by Mage et al. (varies by age, sex, race, and anthropometric measures). We examined mean differences and relative difference across iodine excretion levels using Bland-Altman plots. Median 24-hour UIE was 173.6 μg/day and 24-hour UIC was 144.8 μg/L. From timed-spot urine samples, estimates were: UIC 147.3-156.2 μg/L; I/Cr 103.6-114.3 μg/g, estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) 145.7-163.3 μg/day; and estimated 24-hour UIE (Mage) 176.5-187.7 μg/day. Iodine measures did not vary consistently by timing of spot urine collection. Compared with observed 24-hour UIE, on average, estimated (Mage) 24-hour UIE was not significantly different, while estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) was significantly different for some ethnicity/sex groups. Compared with 24-hour UIC, on average, spot UIC did not differ. Estimates of UIC, I/Cr, and estimated 24-hour UIE (I/Cr × predicted 24-hour Cr) from spot urine samples should not be used interchangeably. Estimated 24-hour UIE, where predicted 24-hour Cr varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and anthropometric measures and was calculated with prediction

  1. Rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-02-27

    A new method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for the rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples following a radiological incident. If a radiological dispersive device event or a nuclear accident occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of radionuclides in urine samples to ensure the safety of the public. Large numbers of urine samples will have to be analyzed very quickly. This new SRNL method was applied to 100 mL urine aliquots, however this method can be applied to smaller or larger sample aliquots as needed.more » The method was optimized for rapid turnaround times; urine samples may be prepared for counting in <3 h. A rapid calcium phosphate precipitation method was used to pre-concentrate 226Ra from the urine sample matrix, followed by removal of calcium by cation exchange separation. A stacked elution method using DGA Resin was used to purify the 226Ra during the cation exchange elution step. This approach combines the cation resin elution step with the simultaneous purification of 226Ra with DGA Resin, saving time. 133Ba was used instead of 225Ra as tracer to allow immediate counting; however, 225Ra can still be used as an option. The rapid purification of 226Ra to remove interferences using DGA Resin was compared with a slightly longer Ln Resin approach. A final barium sulfate micro-precipitation step was used with isopropanol present to reduce solubility; producing alpha spectrometry sources with peaks typically <40 keV FWHM (full width half max). This new rapid method is fast, has very high tracer yield (>90 %), and removes interferences effectively. The sample preparation method can also be adapted to ICP-MS measurement of 226Ra, with rapid removal of isobaric interferences.« less

  2. Estimating population salt intake in India using spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.

  3. MELFI Urine Sample First Insertion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-11

    ISS019-E-005715 (11 April 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, performs an insertion of urine samples into the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) study in the Japanese Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  4. Ultrasonic-based membrane aided sample preparation of urine proteomes.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; Santos, Hugo M; López-Fernández, H; Lodeiro, Carlos; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Capelo, J L

    2018-02-01

    A new ultrafast ultrasonic-based method for shotgun proteomics as well as label-free protein quantification in urine samples is developed. The method first separates the urine proteins using nitrocellulose-based membranes and then proteins are in-membrane digested using trypsin. The enzymatic digestion process is accelerated from overnight to four minutes using a sonoreactor ultrasonic device. Overall, the sample treatment pipeline comprising protein separation, digestion and identification is done in just 3h. The process is assessed using urine of healthy volunteers. The method shows that male can be differentiated from female using the protein content of urine in a fast, easy and straightforward way. 232 and 226 proteins are identified in urine of male and female, respectively. From this, 162 are common to both genders, whilst 70 are unique to male and 64 to female. From the 162 common proteins, 13 are present at levels statistically different (p < 0.05). The method matches the analytical minimalism concept as outlined by Halls, as each stage of this analysis is evaluated to minimize the time, cost, sample requirement, reagent consumption, energy requirements and production of waste products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproducibility of urinary biomarkers in multiple 24-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Franke, Adrian A; Rosner, Bernard; Curhan, Gary C; Willett, Walter C

    2017-01-01

    Limited knowledge regarding the reproducibility of biomarkers in 24-h urine samples has hindered the collection and use of the samples in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of various markers in repeat 24-h urine samples. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of biomarkers measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected in 3168 participants in the NHS (Nurses' Health Study), NHSII (Nurses' Health Study II), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. In 742 women with 4 samples each collected over the course of 1 y, ICCs for sodium were 0.32 in the NHS and 0.34 in the NHSII. In 2439 men and women with 2 samples each collected over 1 wk to ≥1 mo, the ICCs ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 for sodium at various intervals between collections. The urinary excretion of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and other urinary markers showed generally higher reproducibility (ICCs >0.4). In 47 women with two 24-h urine samples, ICCs ranged from 0.15 (catechin) to 0.75 (enterolactone) for polyphenol metabolites. For phthalates, ICCs were generally ≤0.26 except for monobenzyl phthalate (ICC: 0.55), whereas the ICC was 0.39 for bisphenol A (BPA). We further estimated that, for the large majority of the biomarkers, the mean of three 24-h urine samples could provide a correlation of ≥0.8 with true long-term urinary excretion. These data suggest that the urinary excretion of various biomarkers, such as minerals, electrolytes, most polyphenols, and BPA, is reasonably reproducible in 24-h urine samples that are collected within a few days or ≤1 y. Our findings show that three 24-h samples are sufficient for the measurement of long-term exposure status in epidemiologic studies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. QA/QC in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, F.C.

    1992-05-01

    Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) of analytical chemistry laboratory activities are essential to the validity and usefulness of resultant data. However, in themselves, conventional QA/QC measures will not always ensure that fraudulent data are not generated. Conventional QA/QC measures are based on the assumption that work will be done in good faith; to assure against fraudulent practices, QA/QC measures must be tailored to specific analyses protocols in anticipation of intentional misapplication of those protocols. Application of specific QA/QC measures to ensure against fraudulent practices result in an increased administrative burden being placed on the analytical process; accordingly, in keepingmore » with graded QA philosophy, data quality objectives must be used to identify specific points of concern for special control to minimize the administrative impact.« less

  7. Sample preparation and storage can change arsenic speciation in human urine.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, J; Lai, V W; Cullen, W R; Ma, M; Lu, X; Le, X C

    1999-11-01

    Stability of chemical speciation during sample handling and storage is a prerequisite to obtaining reliable results of trace element speciation analysis. There is no comprehensive information on the stability of common arsenic species, such as inorganic arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and arsenobetaine, in human urine. We compared the effects of the following storage conditions on the stability of these arsenic species: temperature (25, 4, and -20 degrees C), storage time (1, 2, 4, and 8 months), and the use of additives (HCl, sodium azide, benzoic acid, benzyltrimethylammonium chloride, and cetylpyridinium chloride). HPLC with both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and hydride generation atomic fluorescence detection techniques were used for the speciation of arsenic. We found that all five of the arsenic species were stable for up to 2 months when urine samples were stored at 4 and -20 degrees C without any additives. For longer period of storage (4 and 8 months), the stability of arsenic species was dependent on urine matrices. Whereas the arsenic speciation in some urine samples was stable for the entire 8 months at both 4 and -20 degrees C, other urine samples stored under identical conditions showed substantial changes in the concentration of As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid. The use of additives did not improve the stability of arsenic speciation in urine. The addition of 0.1 mol/L HCl (final concentration) to urine samples produced relative changes in inorganic As(III) and As(V) concentrations. Low temperature (4 and -20 degrees C) conditions are suitable for the storage of urine samples for up to 2 months. Untreated samples maintain their concentration of arsenic species, and additives have no particular benefit. Strong acidification is not appropriate for speciation analysis.

  8. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  9. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  10. Sample handling for mass spectrometric proteomic investigations of human urine.

    PubMed

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Høgdall, Claus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; T'jampens, Davy; Hellmann, Marja-Leena; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Fung, Eric T; Høgdall, Estrid

    2008-09-01

    Because of its non-invasive sample collection method, human urine is an attractive biological material both for discovering biomarkers and for use in future screening trials for different diseases. Before urine can be used for these applications, standardized protocols for sample handling that optimize protein stability are required. In this explorative study, we examine the influence of different urine collection methods, storage temperatures, storage times, and repetitive freeze-thaw procedures on the protein profiles obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Prospectively collected urine samples from 11 women were collected as either morning or midday specimens. The effects of storage temperature, time to freezing, and freeze-thaw cycles were assessed by calculating the number, intensity, and reproducibility of peaks visualized by SELDI-TOF-MS. On the CM10 array, 122 peaks were detected and 28 peaks were found to be significantly different between urine types, storage temperature and time to freezing. On the IMAC-Cu array, 65 peaks were detected and 1 peak was found to be significantly different according to time to freezing. No significant differences were demonstrated for freeze-thaw cycles. Optimal handling and storage conditions are necessary in clinical urine proteomic investigations. Collection of urine with a single and consistently performed protocol is needed to reduce analytical bias. Collecting only one urine type, which is stored for a limited period at 4°C until freezing at -80°C prior to analysis will provide the most stable profiles. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Importance of sample preparation for molecular diagnosis of lyme borreliosis from urine.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, A R; Schmidt, B L; Derler, A-M; Aberer, E

    2002-12-01

    Urine PCR has been used for the diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in recent years but has been abandoned because of its low sensitivity and the irreproducibility of the results. Our study aimed to analyze technical details related to sample preparation and detection methods. Crucial for a successful urine PCR were (i) avoidance of the first morning urine sample; (ii) centrifugation at 36,000 x g; and (iii) the extraction method, with only DNAzol of the seven different extraction methods used yielding positive results with patient urine specimens. Furthermore, storage of frozen urine samples at -80 degrees C reduced the sensitivity of a positive urine PCR result obtained with samples from 72 untreated erythema migrans (EM) patients from 85% in the first 3 months to <30% after more than 3 months. Bands were detected at 276 bp on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels after amplification by a nested PCR. The specificity of bands for 32 of 33 samples was proven by hybridization with a GEN-ETI-K-DEIA kit and for a 10 further positive amplicons by sequencing. By using all of these steps to optimize the urine PCR technique, B. burgdorferi infection could be diagnosed by using urine samples from EM patients with a sensitivity (85%) substantially better than that of serological methods (50%). This improved method could be of future importance as an additional laboratory technique for the diagnosis of unclear, unrecognized borrelia infections and diseases possibly related to Lyme borreliosis.

  12. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY WATER AND URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared tomore » NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.« less

  13. Countably QC-Approximating Posets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuxin; Xu, Luoshan

    2014-01-01

    As a generalization of countably C-approximating posets, the concept of countably QC-approximating posets is introduced. With the countably QC-approximating property, some characterizations of generalized completely distributive lattices and generalized countably approximating posets are given. The main results are as follows: (1) a complete lattice is generalized completely distributive if and only if it is countably QC-approximating and weakly generalized countably approximating; (2) a poset L having countably directed joins is generalized countably approximating if and only if the lattice σ c(L)op of all σ-Scott-closed subsets of L is weakly generalized countably approximating. PMID:25165730

  14. Reproducibility of urinary biomarkers in multiple 24-h urine samples123

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Franke, Adrian A; Rosner, Bernard; Curhan, Gary C; Willett, Walter C

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited knowledge regarding the reproducibility of biomarkers in 24-h urine samples has hindered the collection and use of the samples in epidemiologic studies. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of various markers in repeat 24-h urine samples. Design: We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of biomarkers measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected in 3168 participants in the NHS (Nurses’ Health Study), NHSII (Nurses’ Health Study II), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Results: In 742 women with 4 samples each collected over the course of 1 y, ICCs for sodium were 0.32 in the NHS and 0.34 in the NHSII. In 2439 men and women with 2 samples each collected over 1 wk to ≥1 mo, the ICCs ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 for sodium at various intervals between collections. The urinary excretion of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and other urinary markers showed generally higher reproducibility (ICCs >0.4). In 47 women with two 24-h urine samples, ICCs ranged from 0.15 (catechin) to 0.75 (enterolactone) for polyphenol metabolites. For phthalates, ICCs were generally ≤0.26 except for monobenzyl phthalate (ICC: 0.55), whereas the ICC was 0.39 for bisphenol A (BPA). We further estimated that, for the large majority of the biomarkers, the mean of three 24-h urine samples could provide a correlation of ≥0.8 with true long-term urinary excretion. Conclusions: These data suggest that the urinary excretion of various biomarkers, such as minerals, electrolytes, most polyphenols, and BPA, is reasonably reproducible in 24-h urine samples that are collected within a few days or ≤1 y. Our findings show that three 24-h samples are sufficient for the measurement of long-term exposure status in epidemiologic studies. PMID:28049663

  15. Prednisolone and prednisone neo-formation in bovine urine after sampling.

    PubMed

    Arioli, F; Casati, A; Fidani, M; Silvestri, M; Pompa, G

    2012-06-01

    The rise in the frequency of detecting prednisolone in bovine urine from northern Italy has come into focus of attention in recent years. The possibility that neo-formation of prednisolone or that prednisone may occur in urine after collection of samples was therefore investigated. Cow urine collected for official routine controls in Lombardy containing more than 80 ng/ml cortisol, and prednisolone and prednisone below the decision limit (CCα) of the method (0.4 and 0.5 ng/ml, respectively) was used. The C1-2 dehydrogenation of naturally present cortisol and cortisone was checked by incubating urine, both contaminated and uncontaminated with faeces, at 37°C and by collecting samples at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h. The influence of Helix pomatia juice was also investigated in order to determine whether deconjugation could influence the reliability of the results. All samples were analysed by HPLC-MS3 for the presence of cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone and prednisone in negative electrospray ionisation mode, utilising the consecutive reaction monitoring of product ions derived from the formate molecular adduct ([M+HCOO]-). The observed neo-formation of prednisolone shows that inappropriate temperatures in sample storage and processing can result in an incorrect accusation of non-compliance. The faecal contamination of urine, performed with the aim to mimic a collection conducted without the necessary care, moreover, evoked a high increase in prednisolone concentration in two out of seven animals. Moreover, H. pomatia juice had no significant effect on the prednisolone concentration, indicating that this corticosteroid is present in its free form in cow urine.

  16. Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients: a diagnostic accuracy review.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune

    2016-06-08

    Choice of urine sampling technique in urinary tract infection may impact diagnostic accuracy and thus lead to possible over- or undertreatment. Currently no evidencebased consensus exists regarding correct sampling technique of urine from women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of urine culture from different sampling-techniques in symptomatic non-pregnant women in primary care. A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline and Embase for clinical studies conducted in primary care using a randomized or paired design to compare the result of urine culture obtained with two or more collection techniques in adult, female, non-pregnant patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection. We evaluated quality of the studies and compared accuracy based on dichotomized outcomes. We included seven studies investigating urine sampling technique in 1062 symptomatic patients in primary care. Mid-stream-clean-catch had a positive predictive value of 0.79 to 0.95 and a negative predictive value close to 1 compared to sterile techniques. Two randomized controlled trials found no difference in infection rate between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples. At present, no evidence suggests that sampling technique affects the accuracy of the microbiological diagnosis in non-pregnant women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. However, the evidence presented is in-direct and the difference between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples remains to be investigated in a paired design to verify the present findings.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of four metabolites of sulfur mustard in urine samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Cai; Liu, Shi-Lei; Xi, Hai-Ling; Yu, Hui-Lan; Zhou, Shi-Kun; Huang, Gui-Lan; Liang, Long-Hui; Liu, Jing-Quan

    2017-04-07

    Four HD urinary metabolites including hydrolysis metabolite thiodiglycol (TDG), glutathione-derived metabolite 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-S-(N-acetylcysteinyl)ethane] (SBSNAE), as well as the β-lyase metabolites 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane] (SBMSE) and 1-methylsulfinyl-2-[2-(methylthio) ethylsulfonyl]ethane (MSMTESE) are considered as important biomarkers for short-term retrospective detection of HD exposure. In this study, a single method for simultaneous quantification of the four HD metabolites in urine samples was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The four urinary metabolites were simultaneously extracted from urinary samples using a solid phase extraction (SPE) method with high extraction recoveries for all four metabolites varied in the range of 71.1-103% followed by UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The SPE is simple and high effective only requiring 0.1mL of urinary samples and 0.5h time consuming. The problem of previous co-elution of TDG and SBSNAE in UHPLC was well solved, and complete separation of TDG, SBSNAE, SBMSE and MSMTESE from SPE-processed urine matrix was obtained to increase specificity and sensitivity. A full method validation was performed for each analyte in urine matrix. The linear range of calibration curves for the four analytes were respectively from 0.50-500ngmL -1 for TDG and SBSNAE, 0.05-500ngmL -1 for SBMSE and MSMTESE with coefficient of determination value (R 2 ) ≥0.990. The limit of detection was 0.25ngmL -1 for TDG and SBSNAE, 0.01ngmL -1 for SBMSE and MSMTESE spiked in normal urine. The intra/inter-day precision for each analyte at three QC levels had relative standard deviation (%RSD) of ≤10.3%, and the intra/inter-day accuracy ranged between 88.0-108%. This developed method allows for simultaneous and trace measurement of four HD urinary metabolites within one single determination with the lowest usage amount of urine samples over all previous methods This

  18. A method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Yamagishi, Ryoma; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2017-12-01

    In the region contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident, radioactive contamination of live cattle should be checked before slaughter. In this study, we establish a precise method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples. Blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 71 cattle on two farms in the 'difficult-to-return zone'. Urine 137 Cs, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, and creatinine were measured and various estimation methods for blood 137 Cs were tested. The average error rate of the estimation was 54.2% without correction. Correcting for urine creatinine, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, or potassium improved the precision of the estimation. Correcting for specific gravity using the following formula gave the most precise estimate (average error rate = 16.9%): [blood 137 Cs] = [urinary 137 Cs]/([specific gravity] - 1)/329. Urine samples are faster to measure than blood samples because urine can be obtained in larger quantities and has a higher 137 Cs concentration than blood. These advantages of urine and the estimation precision demonstrated in our study, indicate that estimation of blood 137 Cs using urine samples is a practical means of monitoring radioactive contamination in live cattle. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Validation of a multi-analyte HPLC-DAD method for determination of uric acid, creatinine, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid and 2-methylhippuric acid in human urine.

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Grunwald, Soeren; Hoeke, Henrike; Mueller, Andrea; Roeder, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin; Wissenbach, Dirk K

    2015-08-15

    During the last decades exposure sciences and epidemiological studies attracts more attention to unravel the mechanisms for the development of chronic diseases. According to this an existing HPLC-DAD method for determination of creatinine in urine samples was expended for seven analytes and validated. Creatinine, uric acid, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were separated by gradient elution (formate buffer/methanol) using an Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution column (4.6mm×100mm). No interfering signals were detected in mobile phase. After injection of blank urine samples signals for the endogenous compounds but no interferences were detected. All analytes were linear in the selected calibration range and a non weighted calibration model was chosen. Bias, intra-day and inter-day precision for all analytes were below 20% for quality control (QC) low and below 10% for QC medium and high. The limits of quantification in mobile phase were in line with reported reference values but had to be adjusted in urine for homovanillic acid (45mg/L), niacinamide 58.5(mg/L), and indole-3-acetic acid (63mg/L). Comparison of creatinine data obtained by the existing method with those of the developed method showing differences from -120mg/L to +110mg/L with a mean of differences of 29.0mg/L for 50 authentic urine samples. Analyzing 50 authentic urine samples, uric acid, creatinine, hippuric acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were detected in (nearly) all samples. However, homovanillic acid was detected in 40%, niacinamide in 4% and indole-3-acetic acid was never detected within the selected samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  1. Droplet Digital™ PCR Next-Generation Sequencing Library QC Assay.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Nicholas J

    2018-01-01

    Digital PCR is a valuable tool to quantify next-generation sequencing (NGS) libraries precisely and accurately. Accurately quantifying NGS libraries enable accurate loading of the libraries on to the sequencer and thus improve sequencing performance by reducing under and overloading error. Accurate quantification also benefits users by enabling uniform loading of indexed/barcoded libraries which in turn greatly improves sequencing uniformity of the indexed/barcoded samples. The advantages gained by employing the Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR™) library QC assay includes the precise and accurate quantification in addition to size quality assessment, enabling users to QC their sequencing libraries with confidence.

  2. QA/QC in the laboratory. Session F

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, F.C.

    1992-05-01

    Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) of analytical chemistry laboratory activities are essential to the validity and usefulness of resultant data. However, in themselves, conventional QA/QC measures will not always ensure that fraudulent data are not generated. Conventional QA/QC measures are based on the assumption that work will be done in good faith; to assure against fraudulent practices, QA/QC measures must be tailored to specific analyses protocols in anticipation of intentional misapplication of those protocols. Application of specific QA/QC measures to ensure against fraudulent practices result in an increased administrative burden being placed on the analytical process; accordingly, in keepingmore » with graded QA philosophy, data quality objectives must be used to identify specific points of concern for special control to minimize the administrative impact.« less

  3. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tubes compared with nonpreservative urine samples stored at 4°C and room temperature.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, Stephen W; Schwartz, Matthew; Dam, Lisa; Riedel, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    The stability of urine specimens submitted for culture remains a challenge for many laboratories because of delays in specimen transport. We evaluated the usefulness of BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube in ensuring specimen stability. Clinical urine specimens collected in sterile collection cups (n = 110) were plated onto sheep blood and MacConkey agar following standard laboratory procedures guidelines. Thereafter, specimens were divided into 3 storage conditions: nonpreservative, refrigerated; nonpreservative, room temperature (RT); BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube, RT. For each sample type, additional cultures were set up at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours. Initially, 18 specimens had no growth, 32 showed mixed skin flora, and 60 yielded at least 1 uropathogen. Increased colony counts of uropathogens were observed for nonpreserved urine samples stored at RT; these changes were statistically significant. Minor differences between refrigerated urine samples and BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube samples were seen but were not statistically significant. The use of preservative-containing collection tubes is desirable to ensure specimen stability when prompt processing or refrigeration is not feasible.

  4. Urine stability and steroid profile: towards a screening index of urine sample degradation for anti-doping purpose.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Monica; Abate, Maria Gabriella; Alocci, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Stinchelli, Raffaella; Molaioni, Francesco; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2011-01-10

    The presence of microorganisms in urine samples, under favourable conditions of storage and transportation, may alter the concentration of steroid hormones, thus altering the correct evaluation of the urinary steroid profile in doping control analysis. According to the rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA technical document TD2004 EAAS), a testosterone deconjugation higher than 5% and the presence of 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione in the deconjugated fraction, are reliable indicators of urine degradation. The determination of these markers would require an additional quantitative analysis since the steroids screening analysis, in anti-doping laboratories, is performed in the total (free+conjugated) fraction. The aim of this work is therefore to establish reliable threshold values for some representative compounds (namely 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione) in the total fraction in order to predict directly at the screening stage the potential microbial degradation of the urine samples. Preliminary evidence on the most suitable degradation indexes has been obtained by measuring the urinary concentration of testosterone, epitestosterone, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric every day for 15 days in the deconjugated, glucuronide and total fraction of 10 pools of urines from 60 healthy subjects, stored under different pH and temperature conditions, and isolating the samples with one or more markers of degradation according to the WADA technical document TD2004EAAS. The threshold values for 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione were therefore obtained correlating the testosterone deconjugation rate with the urinary concentrations of 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione in the total fraction. The threshold values suggested as indexes of urine degradation in the total fraction were: 10 ng mL(-1) for 5α-androstane-3,17-dione

  5. Temporal variability of urinary cadmium in spot urine samples and first morning voids.

    PubMed

    Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Zhao, Yuan; Ahn, Hongshik; Harrington, James M; Levine, Keith E; Demple, Bruce; Marsit, Carmen J; Gonzalez, Adam; Luft, Benjamin; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic heavy metal. Urinary levels of cadmium are considered to be an indicator of long-term body burden, as cadmium accumulates in the kidneys and has a half-life of at least 10 years. However, the temporal stability of the biomarker in urine samples from a non-occupationally exposed population has not been rigorously established. We used repeated measurements of urinary cadmium (U-Cd) in spot urine samples and first morning voids from two separate cohorts, to assess the temporal stability of the samples. Urine samples from two cohorts including individuals of both sexes were measured for cadmium and creatinine. The first cohort (Home Observation of Perinatal Exposure (HOPE)) consisted of 21 never-smokers, who provided four first morning urine samples 2-5 days apart, and one additional sample roughly 1 month later. The second cohort (World Trade Center-Health Program (WTC-HP)) consisted of 78 individuals, including 52 never-smokers, 22 former smokers and 4 current smokers, who provided 2 spot urine samples 6 months apart, on average. Intra-class correlation was computed for groups of replicates from each individual to assess temporal variability. The median creatinine-adjusted U-Cd level (0.19 and 0.21 μg/g in the HOPE and WTC-HP, respectively) was similar to levels recorded in the United States by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The intra-class correlation (ICC) was high (0.76 and 0.78 for HOPE and WTC-HP, respectively) and similar between cohorts, irrespective of whether samples were collected days or months apart. Both single spot or first morning urine cadmium samples show good to excellent reproducibility in low-exposure populations.

  6. Simple DNA extraction of urine samples: Effects of storage temperature and storage time.

    PubMed

    Ng, Huey Hian; Ang, Hwee Chen; Hoe, See Ying; Lim, Mae-Lynn; Tai, Hua Eng; Soh, Richard Choon Hock; Syn, Christopher Kiu-Choong

    2018-06-01

    Urine samples are commonly analysed in cases with suspected illicit drug consumption. In events of alleged sample mishandling, urine sample source identification may be necessary. A simple DNA extraction procedure suitable for STR typing of urine samples was established on the Promega Maxwell ® 16 paramagnetic silica bead platform. A small sample volume of 1.7mL was used. Samples were stored at room temperature, 4°C and -20°C for 100days to investigate the influence of storage temperature and time on extracted DNA quantity and success rate of STR typing. Samples stored at room temperature exhibited a faster decline in DNA yield with time and lower typing success rates as compared to those at 4°C and -20°C. This trend can likely be attributed to DNA degradation. In conclusion, this study presents a quick and effective DNA extraction protocol from a small urine volume stored for up to 100days at 4°C and -20°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid LC-MRM-MS assay for simultaneous quantification of choline, betaine, trimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and creatinine in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueqing; Zeisel, Steven H; Zhang, Shucha

    2015-06-17

    There is a growing interest in analyzing choline, betaine, and their gut microbial metabolites including trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in body fluids due to the high relevance of these compounds for human health and diseases. A stable isotope dilution (SID)-LC-MRM-MS assay was developed for the simultaneous determination of choline, betaine, TMA, TMAO, and creatinine in human plasma and urine. The assay was validated using quality control (QC) plasma samples, spiked at low, medium, and high levels. Freeze-thaw stability was also evaluated. The utility of this assay for urine was demonstrated using a nutritional clinical study on the effect of various egg doses on TMAO production in humans. This assay has a wide dynamic range (R 2 > 0.994) for all the analytes (choline: 0.122-250 μM; betaine: 0.488-1000 μM; TMA: 0.244-250 μM; TMAO: 0.061-62.5 μM; and creatinine: 0.977-2000 μM). High intra- and inter-day precision (CV < 6%) and high accuracy (< 15% error) were observed from the QC plasma samples. The assay is reliable for samples undergoing multiple freeze-thaw cycles (tested up to eight cycles). The assay also works for urine samples as demonstrated by a clinical study in which we observed a significant, positive linear response to various egg doses for urinary concentrations of all the analytes except creatinine. A rapid SID-LC-MRM-MS assay for simultaneous quantification of choline, betaine, TMA, TMAO, and creatinine has been developed and validated, and is expected to find wide application in nutrition and cardiovascular studies as well as diagnosis and management of trimethylaminuria. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Urine Sample Preparation in 96-Well Filter Plates for Quantitative Clinical Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Urine is an important, noninvasively collected body fluid source for the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based shotgun proteomics has evolved as a sensitive and informative technique to discover candidate disease biomarkers from urine specimens. Filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) generates peptide samples from protein mixtures of cell lysate or body fluid origin. Here, we describe a FASP method adapted to 96-well filter plates, named 96FASP. Soluble urine concentrates containing ∼10 μg of total protein were processed by 96FASP and LC-MS resulting in 700–900 protein identifications at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR). The experimental repeatability, as assessed by label-free quantification and Pearson correlation analysis for shared proteins among replicates, was high (R ≥ 0.97). Application to urinary pellet lysates which is of particular interest in the context of urinary tract infection analysis was also demonstrated. On average, 1700 proteins (±398) were identified in five experiments. In a pilot study using 96FASP for analysis of eight soluble urine samples, we demonstrated that protein profiles of technical replicates invariably clustered; the protein profiles for distinct urine donors were very different from each other. Robust, highly parallel methods to generate peptide mixtures from urine and other body fluids are critical to increase cost-effectiveness in clinical proteomics projects. This 96FASP method has potential to become a gold standard for high-throughput quantitative clinical proteomics. PMID:24797144

  9. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, Terry T.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  10. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, T.T.

    1993-03-02

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  11. Lead Quantification in Urine Samples of Athletes by Coupling DLLME with UV-Vis Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Hakim; Helalizadeh, Masoumeh

    2017-04-01

    Urine lead level is one of the most employed measures of lead exposure and risk. The urine samples used in this study were obtained from ten healthy male cyclists. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry was utilized for preconcentration, extraction, and determination of lead in urine samples. Optimization of the independent variables was carried out based on chemometric methods in three steps. According to the screening and optimization study, 133 μL of CCl 4 (extracting solvent), 1.34 mL ethanol (dispersing solvent), pH 2.0, 0.00 % of salt, and 0.1 % O,O-diethyl dithiophosphoric (chelating agent) were used as the optimum independent variables for microextraction and determination of lead. Under the optimized conditions, R 2 was 0.9991, and linearity range was 0.01-100 μg L -1 . Precision was evaluated in terms of repeatability and intermediate precision, with relative standard deviations being <9.1 and <15.3 %, respectively. The accuracy was estimated using urine samples of cyclists as real samples and it was confirmed. The relative error of ≤5 % was considered significant in the method specificity study. The lead concentration mean for the cyclists was 3.79 μg L -1 in urine samples. As a result, the proposed method is a robust technique to quantify lead concentrations higher than 11.6 ng L -1 in urine samples.

  12. Performing a urine dipstick test with a clean-catch urine sample is an accurate screening method for urinary tract infections in young infants.

    PubMed

    Herreros, María Luisa; Tagarro, Alfredo; García-Pose, Araceli; Sánchez, Aida; Cañete, Alfonso; Gili, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated using urine dipstick tests with the clean-catch method to screen for urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile infants under 90 days of age. We carried out a comparative diagnostic accuracy study of infants under 90 days old, who were studied for unexplained fever without any source, in the emergency room of a hospital in Madrid from January 2011 to January 2013. We obtained matched samples of urine using two different methods: a clean-catch, standardised stimulation technique and catheterisation collection. The results of the leucocyte esterase test and nitrite test were compared with their urine cultures. We obtained 60 pairs of matched samples. A combined analysis of leukocyte esterase and, or, nitrites yielded a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 80% for the diagnosis of UTIs in clean-catch samples. The sensitivity of leukocyte esterase and, or, nitrites in samples obtained by catheterisation were not statistically different to the clean-catch samples (p = 0.592). Performing urine dipstick tests using urine samples obtained by the clean-catch method was an accurate screening test for diagnosing UTIs in febrile infants of less than 90 days old. This provided a good alternative to bladder catheterisation when screening for UTIs. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Filter paper saturated by urine sample in metabolic disorders detection by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Hélène; Garrigue, Marie-Ange; De Vos, Aymeric; Antar, Catherine; Labarthe, François; Maillot, François; Andres, Christian R; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2010-02-01

    NMR spectroscopy of urine samples is able to diagnose many inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). However, urinary metabolites have a poor stability, requiring special care for routine analysis (storage of urine at -20 or -80 degrees C, fast transport). The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability of dried urine filter paper for urine storage and transport and to evaluate the ability of NMR to detect several IEM using this method. Urine samples from five healthy subjects were analyzed by (1)H NMR following different storage conditions (-20 vs 4 degrees C vs dried on filter paper) and at different time points (24 h, 48 h, 96 h, and 7 days). Urine pattern of fresh urine was considered as a reference. We analyzed the conservation of some amino acids and organic acids using Bland and Altman plot with intraclass correlation coefficient determination. Then, we evaluated the use of filter paper to detect four different IEM (methylmalonic and isovaleric acidurias, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and cystinuria). Analysis of urine samples from healthy subjects revealed a high stability of studied molecules (ICC > 0.8) even after 7 days of storage on filter paper. Moreover, an excellent preservation of metabolites specifically accumulated in IEM was observed when analysis of dried urine filter paper was compared to fresh urine (coefficient of variation < 15%). This preliminary study demonstrates that storage of dried urine on filter paper is reliable for (1)H NMR spectroscopy analysis. Preservation of urine molecules over time using that method is convenient for routine clinical practice.

  14. Diagnosis of neonatal group B Streptococcus sepsis by nested-PCR of residual urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Cezarino, Bruno Nicolino; Yamamoto, Lidia; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Rocha, Daisy; Okay, Thelma Suely

    2008-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains the most common cause of early-onset sepsis in newborns. Laboratory gold-standard, broth culture methods are highly specific, but lack sensitivity. The aim of this study was to validate a nested-PCR and to determine whether residue volumes of urine samples obtained by non invasive, non sterile methods could be used to confirm neonatal GBS sepsis. The nested-PCR was performed with primers of the major GBS surface antigen. Unavailability of biological samples to perform life supporting exams, as well as others to elucidate the etiology of infections is a frequent problem concerning newborn patients. Nevertheless, we decided to include cases according to strict criteria: newborns had to present with signs and symptoms compatible with GBS infection; at least one of the following biological samples had to be sent for culture: blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid; availability of residue volumes of the samples sent for cultures, or of others collected on the day of hospitalization, prior to antibiotic therapy prescription, to be analyzed by PCR; favorable outcome after GBS empiric treatment. In only one newborn GBS infection was confirmed by cultures, while infection was only presumptive in the other three patients (they fulfilled inclusion criteria but were GBS-culture negative). From a total of 12 biological samples (5 blood, 3 CSF and 4 urine specimen), eight were tested by culture methods (2/8 were positive), and 8 were tested by PCR (7/8 were positive), and only 4 samples were simultaneously tested by both methods (1 positive by culture and 3 by PCR). In conclusion, although based on a restricted number of neonates and samples, our results suggest that the proposed nested-PCR might be used to diagnose GBS sepsis as it has successfully amplified the three types of biological samples analyzed (blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid), and was more sensitive than culture methods as PCR in urine confirmed diagnosis in all four patients

  15. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detections in Urine, Vulvar, and Cervical Samples from Women Attending a Colposcopy Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Dunn, S. Terence; Brown, David; Allen, Richard A.; Eby, Yolanda J.; Smith, Katie; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Zhang, Roy R.; Gold, Michael A.; Schiffman, Mark; Walker, Joan L.; Castle, Philip E.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    While urine-based sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) is being explored as a simple and noninvasive approach for cervical cancer screening, data comparing HPV genotyping in urine and those in cellular sampling of the cervix and vulva, and their correlation with rigorously confirmed cervical disease status, are sparse. We performed HPV genotyping on voided-urine and clinician-collected vulvar and cervical samples from 72 women undergoing colposcopy. Although urine-based HPV carcinogenic HPV detection was lower (58.3%) than cervical (73.6%) and vulvar (72.1%) detection (P = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively), the agreement of urine HPV with cervical and vulvar HPV was moderate (kappa = 0.55) and substantial (kappa = 0.62), respectively. Urine-based carcinogenic HPV detection had a clinical sensitivity of 80.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.7 to 93.5) and a specificity of 53.3% (95% CI = 37.9 to 68.3) for diagnosing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 (CIN2/3) on histology; 90.0% of CIN3 was positive for urine HPV. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity values for vulvar sampling were 92% (95% CI = 74 to 99) and 40.5% (95% CI = 25.6 to 56.7), and those for cervical sampling were 96.2% (95% CI = 80.4 to 99.9) and 40% (95% CI = 25.7 to 55.7), respectively. HPV16 was the most common carcinogenic genotype detectable in 25% of urine, 33.8% of vulvar, and 31.9% of cervical samples overall, with prevalence increasing with cervical disease grade, regardless of the sampling method. Stronger cervical HPV PCR signal strengths were associated with increased frequency of urine HPV detection. In summary, the relatively lower detection rates but comparable clinical performance of urine-based HPV sampling underscore the need for larger studies to evaluate urine-based sampling for cervical cancer screening, epidemiologic studies, and postvaccination HPV disease surveillance. PMID:24197879

  16. Application of clinical assay quality control (QC) to multivariate proteomics data: a workflow exemplified by 2-DE QC.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David; Bramwell, David

    2013-12-16

    Proteomics technologies can be effective for the discovery and assay of protein forms altered with disease. However, few examples of successful biomarker discovery yet exist. Critical to addressing this is the widespread implementation of appropriate QC (quality control) methodology. Such QC should combine the rigour of clinical laboratory assays with a suitable treatment of the complexity of the proteome by targeting separate assignable causes of variation. We demonstrate an approach, metric and example workflow for users to develop such targeted QC rules systematically and objectively, using a publicly available plasma DIGE data set. Hierarchical clustering analysis of standard channels is first used to discover correlated groups of features corresponding to specific assignable sources of technical variation. These effects are then quantified using a statistical distance metric, and followed on control charts. This allows measurement of process drift and the detection of runs that outlie for any given effect. A known technical issue on originally rejected gels was detected validating this approach, and relevant novel effects were also detected and classified effectively. Our approach was effective for 2-DE QC. Whilst we demonstrated this in a retrospective DIGE experiment, the principles would apply to ongoing QC and other proteomic technologies. This work asserts that properly carried out QC is essential to proteomics discovery experiments. Its significance is that it provides one possible novel framework for applying such methods, with a particular consideration of how to handle the complexity of the proteome. It not only focusses on 2DE-based methodology but also demonstrates general principles. A combination of results and discussion based upon a publicly available data set is used to illustrate the approach and allows a structured discussion of factors that experimenters may wish to bear in mind in other situations. The demonstration is on retrospective data

  17. Comparison between Urine and Cervical Samples for HPV DNA Detection and Typing in Young Women in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cómbita, Alba Lucía; Gheit, Tarik; González, Paula; Puerto, Devi; Murillo, Raúl Hernando; Montoya, Luisa; Vorsters, Alex; Van Keer, Severien; Van Damme, Pierre; Tommasino, Massimo; Hernández-Suárez, Gustavo; Sánchez, Laura; Herrero, Rolando; Wiesner, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Urine sampling for HPV DNA detection has been proposed as an effective method for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination programs; however, conflicting results have been reported. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of optimized urine HPV DNA testing in women aged 19 to 25 years. Optimization process included the use of first void urine, immediate mixing of urine with DNA preservative, and the concentration of all HPV DNA, including cell-free DNA fragments. Urine and cervical samples were collected from 535 young women attending cervical screening at health centers from two Colombian cities. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using an HPV type-specific multiplex genotyping assay, which combines multiplex polymerase chain reaction with bead-based Luminex technology. Concordance between HPV DNA detection in urine and cervical samples was determined using kappa statistics and McNemar tests. The accuracy of HPV DNA testing in urine samples was evaluated measuring sensitivity and specificity using as reference the results obtained from cervical samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA11.2 software. The findings revealed an overall HPV prevalence of 60.00% in cervical samples and 64.72% in urine samples, HPV-16 being the most frequent HPV type detected in both specimens. Moreover, our results indicate that detection of HPV DNA in first void urine provides similar results to those obtained with cervical samples and can be used to monitor HPV vaccination trials and programs as evidenced by the substantial concordance found for the detection of the four vaccine types. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 766-71. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. ChronQC: a quality control monitoring system for clinical next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tawari, Nilesh R; Seow, Justine Jia Wen; Perumal, Dharuman; Ow, Jack L; Ang, Shimin; Devasia, Arun George; Ng, Pauline C

    2018-05-15

    ChronQC is a quality control (QC) tracking system for clinical implementation of next-generation sequencing (NGS). ChronQC generates time series plots for various QC metrics to allow comparison of current runs to historical runs. ChronQC has multiple features for tracking QC data including Westgard rules for clinical validity, laboratory-defined thresholds and historical observations within a specified time period. Users can record their notes and corrective actions directly onto the plots for long-term recordkeeping. ChronQC facilitates regular monitoring of clinical NGS to enable adherence to high quality clinical standards. ChronQC is freely available on GitHub (https://github.com/nilesh-tawari/ChronQC), Docker (https://hub.docker.com/r/nileshtawari/chronqc/) and the Python Package Index. ChronQC is implemented in Python and runs on all common operating systems (Windows, Linux and Mac OS X). tawari.nilesh@gmail.com or pauline.c.ng@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Bancu, Ioana; Oliveira-Tercero, Anna; Armengol, María Pilar; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Del Portillo, Hernando A.; Lauzurica-Valdemoros, Ricardo; Borràs, Francesc E.

    2015-01-01

    Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9). The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs. When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein) were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species. To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches. PMID:26025625

  20. WE-AB-206-00: Diagnostic QA/QC Hands-On Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound and to provide updates in ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The first half of this workshop will include two presentations reviewing diagnostic ultrasound QA/QC and ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The second half of the workshop will include live demonstrations of basic QC tests. An array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be available for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environmentmore » with live demonstrations and on-site instructors. The targeted attendees are medical physicists in diagnostic imaging. Learning Objectives: Gain familiarity with common elements of a QA/QC program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging dentify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools Learn ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements Jennifer Walter is an employee of American College of Radiology on Ultrasound Accreditation.« less

  1. RNA-SeQC: RNA-seq metrics for quality control and process optimization.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, David S; Levin, Joshua Z; Sivachenko, Andrey; Fennell, Timothy; Nazaire, Marc-Danie; Williams, Chris; Reich, Michael; Winckler, Wendy; Getz, Gad

    2012-06-01

    RNA-seq, the application of next-generation sequencing to RNA, provides transcriptome-wide characterization of cellular activity. Assessment of sequencing performance and library quality is critical to the interpretation of RNA-seq data, yet few tools exist to address this issue. We introduce RNA-SeQC, a program which provides key measures of data quality. These metrics include yield, alignment and duplication rates; GC bias, rRNA content, regions of alignment (exon, intron and intragenic), continuity of coverage, 3'/5' bias and count of detectable transcripts, among others. The software provides multi-sample evaluation of library construction protocols, input materials and other experimental parameters. The modularity of the software enables pipeline integration and the routine monitoring of key measures of data quality such as the number of alignable reads, duplication rates and rRNA contamination. RNA-SeQC allows investigators to make informed decisions about sample inclusion in downstream analysis. In summary, RNA-SeQC provides quality control measures critical to experiment design, process optimization and downstream computational analysis. See www.genepattern.org to run online, or www.broadinstitute.org/rna-seqc/ for a command line tool.

  2. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions. PMID:23865070

  3. Reproducibility of NMR analysis of urine samples: impact of sample preparation, storage conditions, and animal health status.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining (1)H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at -20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  4. Detection and genotyping of HPV in urine samples from Chilean women attending primary health care centers.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Nicolás; Balanda, Monserrat; Hidalgo, Wilma; Martín, Héctor San; Aceituno, Alexis; Roldán, Francisco; Villalón, Tania; Hott, Melissa; Espinoza, Gloria; Quiero, Andrea; Valenzuela, María T; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignant neoplasm in women worldwide representing approximately 10% of all types of cancers. Triage of women through cervical cytology has been an important strategy for the surveillance and control of new cases of cervical cancer. However, in many regions around the world cervical cytology has a low coverage compared to developed countries. The molecular detection of HPV is the most effective method to increase the screening sensitivity of women at risk of developing cervical cancer. There are very few studies about the efficacy of urine testing for detection of HPV in women followed up in primary health care centers. Consequently, the efficacy of using urine HPV screening in these populations has not been addressed yet. Here, we compared the detection of HPV in simultaneous urine and cervical samples of women followed up in primary health care centers. Urine and cervical samples were analyzed in 543 women attending at primary health care centers. HPV was detected by real time PCR, and HPV typing performed by PCR-RLB. A general HPV concordance of 86.2% (κ = 0.72) was determined between urine and cervical samples. The concordance for HPV-16 and 18 was almost perfect (κ = 0.82) and strong (κ = 0.77), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for all HPV genotypes in urine using cervical samples as reference were 82.1 and 93.7%, respectively. The results showed that urine is a good alternative as clinical sample for HPV screening in women attending primary health care centers. Therefore, urine should be used as an alternative sample for increasing triage coverage either in refractory women participating in Pap surveillance programs or when cervical samples are not available.

  5. Evaluation of Equations for Predicting 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion from Casual Urine Samples in Asian Adults.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Clare; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Wei-Yen; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-01

    The collection of 24-h urine samples for the estimation of sodium intake is burdensome, and the utility of spot urine samples in Southeast Asian populations is unclear. We aimed to assess the validity of prediction equations with the use of spot urine concentrations. A sample of 144 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 y were recruited from the Singapore Health 2 Study conducted in 2014. Participants collected urine for 24 h in multiple small bottles on a single day. To determine the optimal collection time for a spot urine sample, a 1-mL sample was taken from a random bottle collected in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Published equations and a newly derived equation were used to predict 24-h sodium excretion from spot urine samples. The mean ± SD concentration of sodium from the 24-h urine sample was 125 ± 53.4 mmol/d, which is equivalent to 7.2 ± 3.1 g salt. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement at the group level between estimated and actual 24-h sodium excretion, with biases for the morning period of -3.5 mmol (95% CI: -14.8, 7.8 mmol; new equation) and 1.46 mmol (95% CI: -10.0, 13.0 mmol; Intersalt equation). A larger bias of 25.7 mmol (95% CI: 12.2, 39.3 mmol) was observed for the Tanaka equation in the morning period. The prediction accuracy did not differ significantly for spot urine samples collected at different times of the day or at a random time of day (P = 0.11-0.76). This study suggests that the application of both our own newly derived equation and the Intersalt equation to spot urine concentrations may be useful in predicting group means for 24-h sodium excretion in urban Asian populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Long-term frozen storage of urine samples: a trouble to get PCR results in Schistosoma spp. DNA detection?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Velasco Tirado, Virginia; Carranza Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Muro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis remains a serious worldwide public health problem. At present, a sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection is not yet available. The potential for detecting schistosome-derived DNA by PCR-based methods in human clinical samples is currently being investigated as a diagnostic tool with potential application in routine schistosomiasis diagnosis. Collection of diagnostic samples such as stool or blood is usually difficult in some populations. However, urine is a biological sample that can be collected in a non-invasive method, easy to get from people of all ages and easy in management, but as a sample for PCR diagnosis is still not widely used. This could be due to the high variability in the reported efficiency of detection as a result of the high variation in urine samples' storage or conditions for handling and DNA preservation and extraction methods. We evaluate different commercial DNA extraction methods from a series of long-term frozen storage human urine samples from patients with parasitological confirmed schistosomiasis in order to assess the PCR effectiveness for Schistosoma spp. detection. Patients urine samples were frozen for 18 months up to 7 years until use. Results were compared with those obtained in PCR assays using fresh healthy human urine artificially contaminated with Schistosoma mansoni DNA and urine samples from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni cercariae stored frozen for at least 12 months before use. PCR results in fresh human artificial urine samples using different DNA based extraction methods were much more effective than those obtained when long-term frozen human urine samples were used as the source of DNA template. Long-term frozen human urine samples are probably not a good source for DNA extraction for use as a template in PCR detection of Schistosoma spp., regardless of the DNA method of extraction used.

  7. Porphyrins - urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine uroporphyrin; Urine coproporphyrin; Porphyria - uroporphyrin ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. This is called a random urine sample. If needed, your health care provider ...

  8. Estimation of Daily Sodium and Potassium Excretion Using Spot Urine and 24-Hour Urine Samples in a Black Population (Benin).

    PubMed

    Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Houehanou, Corine; Chianéa, Thierry; Dalmay, François; Bigot, André; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Bovet, Pascal; Houinato, Dismand; Desport, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-01

    The 24-hour urine collection method is considered the gold standard for the estimation of ingested potassium and sodium. Because of the impracticalities of collecting all urine over a 24-hour period, spot urine is often used for epidemiological investigations. This study aims to assess the agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements to determine sodium and potassium intake. A total of 402 participants aged 25 to 64 years were randomly selected in South Benin. Spot urine was taken during the second urination of the day. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected. Samples (2-mL) were taken and then stored at -20°C. The analysis was carried out using potentiometric dosage. The agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements was established using Bland-Altman plots. A total of 354 results were analyzed. Daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride urinary excretion means were 10.2±4.9 g/24 h and 2.9±1.4 g/24 h, respectively. Estimated daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride means from the spot urine were 10.7±7.0 g/24 h and 3.9±2.1 g/24 h, respectively. Concordance coefficients were 0.61 at d=-0.5 g, (d±2SD=-11 g and 10.1 g) for sodium chloride and 0.61 at d=-1 g, (d±2SD=-3.8 g and 1.8 g) for potassium chloride. Spot urine method is acceptable for estimating 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion to assess sodium and potassium intake in a black population. However, the confidence interval for the mean difference, which is too large, makes the sodium chloride results inadmissible at a clinical level. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The method of urine sampling is not a valid predictor for vesicoureteral reflux in children after febrile urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Haid, Bernhard; Roesch, Judith; Strasser, Christa; Oswald, Josef

    2017-10-01

    The likelihood of detecting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) after febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in children logically should correlate with the correct diagnosis of the UTI. Beneath the unspecific symptoms of fever urine analysis is the main diagnostic criterion for the exact diagnosis of febrile UTIs in children. Use of inadequate urine sampling techniques during diagnosis may lead to impaired accuracy in UTI diagnosis. This could lead to the assumption that children, having diagnosed their UTI by the use of possibly inadequate urine sampling techniques should not be evaluated as consequently compared to those, where the diagnosis relied on sterile urine sampling techniques. We hypothesized that children with possibly contaminated urine samples during the initial diagnosis may show a lower rate of VUR in subsequent VCUGs because of a wrong diagnosis initially compared to children, where accurate urine sampling techniques were used. Between 2009 and 2014, a total of 555 patients underwent a primary VCUG at our department indicated because of febrile UTIs. Patients with urine collection methods other than bag urine and catheter/suprapubic aspiration (SPA) were excluded from this study (mid-stream urine, potty urine, n = 149). We evaluated 402 patients (male/female 131/271, mean age 1.91 years), VUR rates and grades were compared between patients where urine was sampled by the use of a urine bag only at the time of diagnosis (n = 296, 73.6%) and those where sterile urine sampling (catheter, suprapubic puncture) was performed (n = 106, 26.3%). 4 patients were excluded due to equivocal data on urine sampling. VUR rate in children after sterile urine sampling using a catheter or SPA accounted to 31.1%. In those where urine samples acquired by the use of urine bags were used, 33.7% showed VUR on subsequent VCUG (p = 0.718). There were no significant differences as to VUR grades or gender, although VUR was much more commonly diagnosed in female patients (37

  10. Modulated Raman spectroscopy for enhanced identification of bladder tumor cells in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Mazilu, Michael; De Luca, Anna Chiara; Carruthers, Antonia E; Dholakia, Kishan; Neilson, Sam; Sargeant, Harry; Briscoe, Tina; Herrington, C Simon; Riches, Andrew C

    2011-03-01

    Standard Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is a noninvasive technique that is used in the biomedical field to discriminate between normal and cancer cells. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background detracts from the use of SRS in real-time clinical applications. Recently, we have reported a novel modulated Raman spectroscopy (MRS) technique to extract the Raman spectra from the background. In this paper, we present the first application of MRS to the identification of human urothelial cells (SV-HUC-1) and bladder cancer cells (MGH) in urine samples. These results are compared to those obtained by SRS. Classification using the principal component analysis clearly shows that MRS allows discrimination between Raman spectra of SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells with high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (95%). MRS is also used to distinguish between SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells after exposure to urine for up to 6 h. We observe a marked change in the MRS of SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells with time in urine, indicating that the conditions of sample collection will be important for the application of this methodology to clinical urine samples.

  11. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting ...

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. The UPCR in samples with low

  14. Doping control study of AICAR in post-race urine and plasma samples from horses.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Kwok, Wai Him; Chan, George H M; Choi, Timmy L S; Ho, Emmie N M; Jaubert, Murielle; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Bonnaire, Yves; Cawley, Adam; Ming Williams, H; Keledjian, John; Brooks, Lydia; Chambers, Adam; Lin, Yuanyuan; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-09-01

    Acadesine, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside, commonly known as AICAR, is a naturally occurring adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator in many mammals, including humans and horses. AICAR has attracted considerable attention recently in the field of doping control because of a study showing the enhancement of endurance performance in unexercised or untrained mice, resulting in the term 'exercise pill'. Its use has been classified as gene doping by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), and since it is endogenous, it may only be possible to control deliberate administration of AICAR to racehorses after establishment of an appropriate threshold. Herein we report our studies of AICAR in post-race equine urine and plasma samples including statistical studies of AICAR concentrations determined from 1,470 urine samples collected from thoroughbreds and standardbreds and analyzed in Australia, France, and Hong Kong. Quantification methods in equine urine and plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were developed by the laboratories in each country. An exchange of spiked urine and plasma samples between the three countries was conducted, confirming no significant differences in the methods. However, the concentration of AICAR in plasma was found to increase upon haemolysis of whole blood samples, impeding the establishment of a suitable threshold in equine plasma. A possible urine screening cut-off at 600 ng/mL for the control of AICAR in racehorses could be considered for adoption. Application of the proposed screening cut-off to urine samples collected after intravenous administration of a small dose (2 g) of AICAR to a mare yielded a short detection time of approximately 4.5 h. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Nutrition and Repository: Insertion of Urine Sample into MELFI

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-18

    ISS019-E-010170 (18 April 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, performs an insertion of urine samples into the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) study in the Japanese Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  16. Nutrition and Repository: Insertion of Urine Sample into MELFI

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-18

    ISS019-E-010165 (18 April 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, performs an insertion of urine samples into the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) study in the Japanese Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  17. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... A 24-hour urine sample is most often needed: On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you wake up in the morning. ...

  18. Urine melanin test

    MedlinePlus

    Thormahlen's test; Melanin - urine ... A clean-catch urine sample is needed. ... this substance that it shows up in the urine. ... Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may ... measurements or test different samples. Talk to your health ...

  19. Evaluation of 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol in clinical and forensic urine samples.

    PubMed

    Sydow, Konrad; Wiedfeld, Christopher; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Stratmann, Bernd; Hess, Cornelius

    2018-06-01

    Because of the lack of characteristic morphological findings post mortem diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and identification of diabetic coma can be complicated. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), the 1-deoxy form of glucose, competes with glucose for renal reabsorption. Therefore low serum concentrations of 1,5-AG, reflect hyperglycemic excursions over the prior 1-2 weeks in diabetic patients. Next to clinical applications determination of 1,5-AG can also be used in forensic analysis. To investigate the elimination of 1,5-AG, a liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the determination of 1,5-AG and creatinine in urine was developed and validated according to international guidelines. To evaluate ante mortem concentrations of 1,5-AG spot urine samples of 30 healthy subjects, 46 type 1 and 46 type 2 diabetic patients were analyzed. 1,5-AG urine concentrations of diabetic patients were significantly (p<0.001) lower (mean: 1.54μg/ml, n=92) compared to concentrations of healthy subjects (mean: 4.76μg/ml, n=30) which led to the idea that 1,5-AG urine concentrations post mortem might help in the interpretation of a diabetic coma post mortem. Urine of 47 deceased non-diabetics, 37 deceased diabetic and 9 cases of diabetic coma were measured. Comparison of blood and urine 1,5-AG concentrations in clinic samples (linear, R 2 =0.13) and forensic samples (linear, R 2 =0.02) showed no correlation. Urinary levels of 1,5-AG in deceased diabetic (mean 6.9μg/ml) and in non-diabetic patients (mean 6.3μg/ml) did not show a significant difference (p=0.752). However, urinary 1,5-AG concentrations in deceased due to diabetic coma (mean: 1.7μg/ml) were significantly lower than in non-diabetic (mean: 6.3μg/ml, p=0.039) and lower than in diabetic cases (mean: 4.7μg/ml, p=0.058). The determination of a reliable cut-off for the differentiation of diabetic to diabetic coma cases was not possible. Normalization of urinary 1,5-AG concentrations with the respective creatinine

  20. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry method for the detection of busulphan and its metabolites in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    El-Serafi, Ibrahim; Terelius, Ylva; Twelkmeyer, Brigitte; Hagbjörk, Ann-Louise; Hassan, Zuzana; Hassan, Moustapha

    2013-01-15

    Busulphan is an alkylating agent used as conditioning regimen prior to stem cell transplantation. Busulphan is metabolized in the liver and four major metabolites have been identified. The first metabolite is tetrahydrothiophene which is oxidized to tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide, then sulfolane and finally 3-hydroxy sulfolane. Despite the low molecular weight and wide polarity range of busulphan and its four metabolites, the use of a fused silica non-polar column significantly enhanced the automated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of their detection in one simple method. The limit of quantification was 0.5μM for busulphan and all its metabolites except 3-OH sulfolane, which was 1.25μM. This method was validated for all the compounds in both human plasma and urine. Lower limits of quantifications (LLOQs) were run in pentaplicate per compound and all results were within 20% of the nominal values. The recovery was determined by comparing the peak area of two quality control (QC) samples, before and after extraction in plasma and urine, in triplicate. Acceptable precision and accuracy have been obtained; at least 3 standard curves have been run for each compound using three different QCs covering the calibration curve in triplicate. The QC values were within 15% (SD) of the nominal values. Selectivity and sensitivity of all compounds have been measured. Compounds were stable up to 50 days after extraction in -20°C and 48h at RT. Moreover, the compounds were stable for three cycles of freezing and thawing. The method was applied in a clinical case where the patient received high dose busulphan; all the compounds have been detected, identified and quantified both in plasma and urine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-throughput analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine with online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Wille, Sarah M R; Samyn, Nele; Wood, Michelle; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; De Boeck, Gert

    2009-01-01

    An automated online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS) method for the analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nucleodur Sphinx RP column with an LC gradient (a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile), ensuring the elution of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, PMA, and ephedrine within 11 min. The method was fully validated, according to international guidelines, using only 100 and 50 microL of blood and urine, respectively. The method showed an excellent intra- and interassay precision (relative standard deviation < 11.2% and bias < 13%) for two external quality control samples (QC) for both matrices and three and two 'in house' QCs for blood and urine, respectively. Responses were linear over the investigated range (r(2) > 0.99, 2.5-400 microg/L for blood and 25-1000 microg/L for urine). Limits of quantification were determined to be 2.5 and 25 microg/L for blood and urine, respectively. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 microg/L for blood and 0.25 to 2.5 microg/L for urine, depending on the compound. Furthermore, the analytes and the processed samples were demonstrated to be stable (in the autosampler for at least 72 h and after three freeze/thaw cycles), and no disturbing matrix effects were observed for all compounds. Moreover, no carryover was observed after the analysis of high concentration samples (15,000 microg/L). The method was subsequently applied to authentic blood and urine samples obtained from forensic cases, which covered a broad range of concentrations. The validation results and actual sample analyses demonstrated that this method is rugged, precise, accurate, and well-suited for routine analysis as more than 72 samples are analyzed non-stop in 24 h with minimum sample handling. The combination of the high-throughput online SPE and the well-known sensitivity and selectivity

  2. Simultaneous determination of nine neonicotinoids in human urine using isotope-dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Wang, Ximing; Li, Zhe; Jin, Hangbiao; Lu, Zhengbiao; Yu, Chang; Huang, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Meirong

    2018-05-14

    Neonicotinoids (neonics), a class of systemic insecticides, have been frequently detected in pollen, vegetables, and fruits. Recently, an increasing concern has been aroused for human exposure to neonics. However, biological monitoring for quantifying body burden of neonics has rarely been reported. In this study, we developed an isotope-dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to simultaneously quantify nine neonics, including acetamiprid (ACE), thiamethoxam (THIAM), imidacloprid (IMIP), clothianidin (CLO), flonicamid (FLO), thiacloprid (THIAC), dinotefuran (DIN), nitenpyram (NIT), and imidaclothiz (IMIT) in urine. The limits of quantification were 0.1 μg/L for ACE, FLO, DIN, NIT and IMIT, and 0.2 μg/L for THIAM, IMIP, CLO, and THIAC. The overall recoveries were 80.8-103%, 81.5-91.7% and 83.0-92.3% for QA/QC samples fortifying at 1, 25, and 100 μg/L levels, respectively. UPLC/MS/MS method was used to analyze urine samples obtained from 10 children in Hangzhou, China. The detection frequencies were 80% for ACE and IMIP, 70% for THIAM and CLO, 20% for DIN and IMIT and 10% for THIAC. FLO and NIT were not detected in those urine samples. The data provided here will be helpful for conducting biological monitoring of neonics exposure in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality Control (QC) System Development for the Pell Grant Program: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    The objectives of the Pell Grant quality control (QC) system and the general definition of QC are considered. Attention is also directed to: the objectives of the Stage II Pell Grant QC system design and testing project, the approach used to develop the QC system, and the interface of the QC system and the Pell Grant delivery system. The…

  4. [Delayed testing for the diagnosis of fungi in the urines. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes for the storage of urine samples at room temperature].

    PubMed

    Baixench, M T; Al-Sheikh, M; Paugam, A

    2005-01-01

    The study included 37 urine samples which have been artificially infected with low levels (10(3) CFU/mL) of various fungi strains. We compared the effects of sample storage, up to 48 hours, at room temperature, in a urine evacuated tube containing specific additives with storage at + 4 degrees C, for the same length of time, in a urine evacuated tube without any additives. There have been no differences of results (speed of growth and colony size) between the 2 modes of storage. However, the experience has shown that samples needed a careful mixing before seeding to avoid underdetection of the strains. Based on the study results, the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes are suitable for delayed testing for the diagnosis of urine fungal infection.

  5. Long-Term Frozen Storage of Urine Samples: A Trouble to Get PCR Results in Schistosoma spp. DNA Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Velasco Tirado, Virginia; Carranza Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Muro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background Human schistosomiasis remains a serious worldwide public health problem. At present, a sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection is not yet available. The potential for detecting schistosome-derived DNA by PCR-based methods in human clinical samples is currently being investigated as a diagnostic tool with potential application in routine schistosomiasis diagnosis. Collection of diagnostic samples such as stool or blood is usually difficult in some populations. However, urine is a biological sample that can be collected in a non-invasive method, easy to get from people of all ages and easy in management, but as a sample for PCR diagnosis is still not widely used. This could be due to the high variability in the reported efficiency of detection as a result of the high variation in urine samples’ storage or conditions for handling and DNA preservation and extraction methods. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluate different commercial DNA extraction methods from a series of long-term frozen storage human urine samples from patients with parasitological confirmed schistosomiasis in order to assess the PCR effectiveness for Schistosoma spp. detection. Patientś urine samples were frozen for 18 months up to 7 years until use. Results were compared with those obtained in PCR assays using fresh healthy human urine artificially contaminated with Schistosoma mansoni DNA and urine samples from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni cercariae stored frozen for at least 12 months before use. PCR results in fresh human artificial urine samples using different DNA based extraction methods were much more effective than those obtained when long-term frozen human urine samples were used as the source of DNA template. Conclusions/Significance Long-term frozen human urine samples are probably not a good source for DNA extraction for use as a template in PCR detection of Schistosoma spp., regardless of the DNA method of

  6. Development of a new protocol for rapid bacterial identification and susceptibility testing directly from urine samples.

    PubMed

    Zboromyrska, Y; Rubio, E; Alejo, I; Vergara, A; Mons, A; Campo, I; Bosch, J; Marco, F; Vila, J

    2016-06-01

    The current gold standard method for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) is urine culture that requires 18-48 h for the identification of the causative microorganisms and an additional 24 h until the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are available. The aim of this study was to shorten the time of urine sample processing by a combination of flow cytometry for screening and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for bacterial identification followed by AST directly from urine. The study was divided into two parts. During the first part, 675 urine samples were processed by a flow cytometry device and a cut-off value of bacterial count was determined to select samples for direct identification by MALDI-TOF-MS at ≥5 × 10(6) bacteria/mL. During the second part, 163 of 1029 processed samples reached the cut-off value. The sample preparation protocol for direct identification included two centrifugation and two washing steps. Direct AST was performed by the disc diffusion method if a reliable direct identification was obtained. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identification was performed in 140 urine samples; 125 of the samples were positive by urine culture, 12 were contaminated and 3 were negative. Reliable direct identification was obtained in 108 (86.4%) of the 125 positive samples. AST was performed in 102 identified samples, and the results were fully concordant with the routine method among 83 monomicrobial infections. In conclusion, the turnaround time of the protocol described to diagnose UTI was about 1 h for microbial identification and 18-24 h for AST. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using high volume centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Rao, D D; Dubla, Rupali; Yadav, J R

    2017-07-01

    The conventional radio-analytical technique used for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples involves anion exchange/TEVA column separation followed by alpha spectrometry. This sequence of analysis consumes nearly 3-4 days for completion. Many a times excreta analysis results are required urgently, particularly under repeat and incidental/emergency situations. Therefore, there is need to reduce the analysis time for the estimation of Pu-isotopes in bioassay samples. This paper gives the details of standardization of a rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using multi-purpose centrifuge, TEVA resin followed by alpha spectrometry. The rapid method involves oxidation of urine samples, co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate followed by sample preparation using high volume centrifuge and separation of Pu using TEVA resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using 236 Pu tracer recovery by alpha spectrometry. Ten routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 47-88% with a mean and standard deviation of 64.4% and 11.3% respectively. With this newly standardized technique, the whole analytical procedure is completed within 9h (one working day hour). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The examination of urine samples for pathogenic microbes by the luciferase assay for ATP. 1: The effect of the presence of fungi, fungal like bacteria and kidney cells in urine samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, V. N.

    1973-01-01

    A method for accurately determining urinary tract infections in man is introduced. The method is based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration in urine samples after removing nonbacterial ATP. Adenosine triphosphate concentration is measured from the bioluminescent reaction of luciferase when mixed with ATP. An examination was also made of the effectiveness of rupturing agents on monkey kidney cells Candia albicans, a Rhodotorula species, and a Streptomyces species in determining whether these cells could contribute ATP to the bacterial ATP value of a urine sample.

  9. FQC Dashboard: integrates FastQC results into a web-based, interactive, and extensible FASTQ quality control tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Joseph; Pirrung, Meg; McCue, Lee Ann

    FQC is software that facilitates quality control of FASTQ files by carrying out a QC protocol using FastQC, parsing results, and aggregating quality metrics into an interactive dashboard designed to richly summarize individual sequencing runs. The dashboard groups samples in dropdowns for navigation among the data sets, utilizes human-readable configuration files to manipulate the pages and tabs, and is extensible with CSV data.

  10. FQC Dashboard: integrates FastQC results into a web-based, interactive, and extensible FASTQ quality control tool

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Joseph; Pirrung, Meg; McCue, Lee Ann

    2017-06-09

    FQC is software that facilitates quality control of FASTQ files by carrying out a QC protocol using FastQC, parsing results, and aggregating quality metrics into an interactive dashboard designed to richly summarize individual sequencing runs. The dashboard groups samples in dropdowns for navigation among the data sets, utilizes human-readable configuration files to manipulate the pages and tabs, and is extensible with CSV data.

  11. Introduction of sample tubes with sodium azide as a preservative for ethyl glucuronide in urine.

    PubMed

    Luginbühl, Marc; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct alcohol marker, which is widely used for clinical and forensic applications, mainly for abstinence control. However, the instability of EtG in urine against bacterial degradation or the post-collectional synthesis of EtG in contaminated samples may cause false interpretation of EtG results in urine samples. This study evaluates the potential of sodium azide in tubes used for urine collection to hinder degradation of ethyl glucuronide by bacterial metabolism taking place during growth of bacterial colonies. The tubes are part of a commercial oral fluid collection device. The sampling system was tested with different gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species previously observed in urinary tract infections, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterecoccus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition of bacterial growth by sodium azide, resulting in lower numbers of colony forming units compared to control samples, was observed for all tested bacterial species. To test the prevention of EtG degradation by the predominant pathogen in urinary tract infection, sterile-filtered urine and deficient medium were spiked with EtG, and inoculated with E. coli prior to incubation for 4 days at 37 °C in tubes with and without sodium azide. Samples were collected every 24 hours, during four consecutive days, whereby the colony forming units (CFU) were counted on Columbia blood agar plates, and EtG was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. As expected, EtG degradation was observed when standard polypropylene tubes were used for the storage of contaminated samples. However, urine specimens collected in sodium azide tubes showed no or very limited bacterial growth and no EtG degradation. As a conclusion, sodium azide is useful to reduce bacterial growth of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It inhibits the degradation of EtG by E. coli and can be used for

  12. Biomonitoring of trace elements in urine samples of children from a coal-mining region.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marina Dos; Flores Soares, Maria Cristina; Martins Baisch, Paulo Roberto; Muccillo Baisch, Ana Luíza; Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Flavio Manoel

    2018-04-01

    Biomonitoring through urine samples is important for evaluating environmental exposure, since urine is the main form of excretion for most chemical elements. Children are considered more vulnerable to adverse environmental conditions, especially children in developing countries. This study aimed to biomonitor trace elements in urine samples in children from a coal-mining region in the extreme south of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 children between 6 and 11 years of age. Socioeconomic data and urine samples were collected to estimate the concentration of iron, zinc, selenium, lead, and cadmium. The prevalence of metals above the reference values was 52.0% for Se, followed by 15.6% for Zn. The data point toward a vulnerability to adverse environmental conditions in these children. Although the concentrations of the elements did not reveal intoxication cases, biomonitoring should be carried out continuously in order to assess exposure to metals and ensure the health of the population. This article provides data that help determine natural levels of metallic elements in children, specifically in South America, which have not yet been established. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A dilute-and-shoot flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of phenobarbital in urine.

    PubMed

    Alagandula, Ravali; Zhou, Xiang; Guo, Baochuan

    2017-01-15

    Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is the gold standard of urine drug testing. However, current LC-based methods are time consuming, limiting the throughput of MS-based testing and increasing the cost. This is particularly problematic for quantification of drugs such as phenobarbital, which is often analyzed in a separate run because they must be negatively ionized. This study examined the feasibility of using a dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method without LC separation to quantify drugs with phenobarbital as a model system. Briefly, a urine sample containing phenobarbital was first diluted by 10 times, followed by flow injection of the diluted sample to mass spectrometer. Quantification and detection of phenobarbital were achieved by an electrospray negative ionization MS/MS system operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the stable-isotope-labeled drug as internal standard. The dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method developed was linear with a dynamic range of 50-2000 ng/mL of phenobarbital and correlation coefficient > 0.9996. The coefficients of variation and relative errors for intra- and inter-assays at four quality control (QC) levels (50, 125, 445 and 1600 ng/mL) were 3.0% and 5.0%, respectively. The total run time to quantify one sample was 2 min, and the sensitivity and specificity of the method did not deteriorate even after 1200 consecutive injections. Our method can accurately and robustly quantify phenobarbital in urine without LC separation. Because of its 2 min run time, the method can process 720 samples per day. This feasibility study shows that the dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method can be a general way for fast analysis of drugs in urine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. QC-ART: A tool for real-time quality control assessment of mass spectrometry-based proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Bryan A; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Bramer, Lisa M; Thompson, Allison M; Ansong, Charles K; Clauss, Therese; Gritsenko, Marina A; Monroe, Matthew E; Moore, Ronald J; Orton, Daniel J; Piehowski, Paul D; Schepmoes, Athena A; Smith, Richard D; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Metz, Thomas O

    2018-04-17

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics studies of large sample cohorts can easily require from months to years to complete. Acquiring consistent, high-quality data in such large-scale studies is challenging because of normal variations in instrumentation performance over time, as well as artifacts introduced by the samples themselves, such as those due to collection, storage and processing. Existing quality control methods for proteomics data primarily focus on post-hoc analysis to remove low-quality data that would degrade downstream statistics; they are not designed to evaluate the data in near real-time, which would allow for interventions as soon as deviations in data quality are detected.  In addition to flagging analyses that demonstrate outlier behavior, evaluating how the data structure changes over time can aide in understanding typical instrument performance or identify issues such as a degradation in data quality due to the need for instrument cleaning and/or re-calibration.  To address this gap for proteomics, we developed Quality Control Analysis in Real-Time (QC-ART), a tool for evaluating data as they are acquired in order to dynamically flag potential issues with instrument performance or sample quality.  QC-ART has similar accuracy as standard post-hoc analysis methods with the additional benefit of real-time analysis.  We demonstrate the utility and performance of QC-ART in identifying deviations in data quality due to both instrument and sample issues in near real-time for LC-MS-based plasma proteomics analyses of a sample subset of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young cohort. We also present a case where QC-ART facilitated the identification of oxidative modifications, which are often underappreciated in proteomic experiments. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and the Roche cobas 4800 HPV test using urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Do-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Na Rae; Lee, Bomyee; Shin, Hye Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Seo, Sang-Soo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Joo, Jungnam

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing based on cervical samples is important for use in cervical cancer screening. However, cervical sampling is invasive. Therefore, non-invasive methods for detecting HPV, such as urine samples, are needed. For HPV detection in urine samples, two real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) tests, Roche cobas 4800 test (Roche_HPV; Roche Molecular Diagnostics) and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test (Abbott_HPV; Abbott Laboratories) were compared to standard cervical samples. The performance of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV for HPV detection was evaluated at the National Cancer Center using 100 paired cervical and urine samples. The tests were also compared using urine samples stored at various temperatures and for a range of durations. The overall agreement between the Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests using urine samples for any hrHPV type was substantial (86.0% with a kappa value of 0.7173), and that for HPV 16/18 was nearly perfect (99.0% with a kappa value of 0.9668). The relative sensitivities (based on cervical samples) for HPV 16/18 detection using Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV with urine samples were 79.2% (95% CI; 57.9-92.9%) and 81.8% (95% CI; 59.7-94.8%), respectively. When the cut-off C T value for Abbott_HPV was extended to 40 for urine samples, the relative sensitivity of Abbott_HPV increased to 91.7% from 81.8% for HPV16/18 detection and to 87.0% from 68.5% for other hrHPV detection. The specificity was not affected by the change in the C T threshold. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV showed high concordance. However, HPV DNA detection using urine samples was inferior to HPV DNA detection using cervical samples. Interestingly, when the cut-off C T value was set to 40, Abbott_HPV using urine samples showed high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to those obtained using cervical samples. Fully automated DNA extraction and detection systems, such as Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV, could reduce the variability in HPV detection and accelerate the standardization of HPV

  16. Self-sampling with HPV mRNA analyses from vagina and urine compared with cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Asciutto, Katrin Christine; Ernstson, Avalon; Forslund, Ola; Borgfeldt, Christer

    2018-04-01

    In order to increase coverage in the organized cervical screening program, self-sampling with HPV analyses has been suggested. The aim was to compare human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA detection in vaginal and urine self-collected samples with clinician-taken cervical samples and the corresponding clinician-taken histological specimens. Self-collected vaginal, urine and clinician-taken cervical samples were analyzed from 209 women with the Aptima mRNA assay (Hologic Inc, MA, USA). Cervical cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and/or the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) were performed in every examination. The sensitivity of the HPV mRNA test in detecting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)/adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)/cancer cases was as follows: for the vaginal self-samples 85.5% (95% CI; 75.0-92.8), the urinary samples 44.8% (95% CI; 32.6-57.4), and for routine cytology 81.7% (95% CI; 70.7-89.9). For the clinician-taken cervical HPV samples the sensitivity of the HPV mRNA test in detecting HSIL/AIS/cancer was 100.0% (95% CI; 94.9-100.0). The specificity of the HPV mRNA was similar for the clinician-taken cervical HPV samples and the self-samples: 49.0% vs. 48.1%. The urinary HPV samples had a specificity of 61.9% and cytology had a specificity of 93.3%. The sensitivity of the Aptima HPV mRNA test in detecting HSIL/AIS/cancer from vaginal self-samples was similar to that of routine cytology. The Aptima HPV mRNA vaginal self-sampling analysis may serve as a complement in screening programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Misclassification of iodine intake level from morning spot urine samples with high iodine excretion among Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-05-14

    Iodine nutrition is commonly assessed from iodine excretion in urine. A 24 h urine sample is ideal, but it is cumbersome and inconvenient. Hence, spot urine samples with creatinine to adjust for differences in void volume are widely used. Still, the importance of ethnicity and the timing of spot urine samples need to be settled. We, thus, collected 104 early morning spot urine samples and 24 h urine samples from Inuit and non-Inuit living in Greenland. Diet was assessed by a FFQ. Demographic data were collected from the national registry and by questionnaires. Iodine was measured using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, creatinine using the Jaffe method and para-amino benzoic acid by the HPLC method for the estimation of completeness of urine sampling and compensation of incomplete urine samples to 24 h excretion. A population-based recruitment was done from the capital city, a major town and a settlement (n 36/48/20). Participants were seventy-eight Inuit and twenty-six non-Inuit. The median 24 h iodine excretion was 138 (25th-75th percentile 89-225) μg/97 (25th-75th percentile 72-124) μg in Inuit/non-Inuit (P= 0.030), and 153 (25th-75th percentile 97-251) μg/102 (25th-75th percentile 73-138) μg (P= 0.026) when including compensated iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples increased with a rising intake of traditional Inuit foods (P= 0.005). Iodine excretion was lower in morning spot urine samples than in 24 h urine samples (P< 0.001). This difference was associated with iodine intake levels (P< 0.001), and was statistically significant when the iodine excretion level was above 150 μg/24 h. In conclusion, the iodine intake level was underestimated from morning spot urine samples if iodine excretion was above the recommended level.

  18. HCG in urine

    MedlinePlus

    Beta-HCG - urine; Human chorionic gonadotropin - urine; Pregnancy test - hCG in urine ... To collect a urine sample, you urinate into a special (sterile) cup. Home pregnancy tests require the test strip to be dipped into ...

  19. Development and validation of a simple and robust method for arsenic speciation in human urine using HPLC/ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sen, Indranil; Zou, Wei; Alvaran, Josephine; Nguyen, Linda; Gajek, Ryszard; She, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    In order to better distinguish the different toxic inorganic and organic forms of arsenic (As) exposure in individuals, we have developed and validated a simple and robust analytical method for determining the following six As species in human urine: arsenous (III) acid (As-III), As (V) acid, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine (AsB), and arsenocholine. In this method, human urine is diluted using a pH 5.8 buffer, separation is performed using an anion exchange column with isocratic HPLC, and detection is achieved using inductively coupled plasma-MS. The method uses a single mobile phase consisting of low concentrations of both phosphate buffer (5 mM) and ammonium nitrate salt (5 mM) at pH 9.0; this minimizes the column equilibration time and overcomes challenges with separation between AsB and As-III. In addition, As-III oxidation is prevented by degassing the sample preparation buffer at pH 5.8, degassing the mobile phase online at pH 9.0, and by the use of low temperature (-70 °C) and flip-cap airtight tubes for long term storage of samples. The method was validated using externally provided reference samples. Results were in agreement with target values at varying concentrations and successfully passed external performance test criteria. Internal QC samples were prepared and repeatedly analyzed to assess the method's long-term precision, and further analyses were completed on anonymous donor urine to assess the quality of the method's baseline separation. Results from analyses of external reference samples agreed with target values at varying concentrations, and results from precision studies yielded absolute CV values of 3-14% and recovery from 82 to 115% for the six As species. Analysis of anonymous donor urine confirmed the well-resolved baseline separation capabilities of the method for real participant samples.

  20. Diagnostic value of JC/BK virus antibody immunohistochemistry staining in urine samples from posttransplant immunosuppressed patients in relation to polyomavirus reactivation.

    PubMed

    Yuste, Rosario Sanchez; Frías, Carolina; López, Ana; Vallejo, Carlos; Martín, Paloma; Bellas, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of cytology and immunohistochemistry staining (IHS) of urine samples for polyomavirus reactivation diagnosis. Sixty-eight urine samples collected from 18 immunosuppressed patients were analyzed by Papanicolaou and IHS with a JC/BK virus-specific monoclonal antibody. Overall, polyomavirus BK (BKV) was positive in 11 of 18 patients (61.1%) (3 of whom developed hemorrhagic cystitis) and in 23 of 68 urine samples (28%). Of 23 samples, 4 (17%) were positive by 1 of the 2 techniques, only. Of 23 samples, 19 (83%) were positive by both methods. In matching urine samples from the same patient, the number of BKV-infected positive cells detected by IHS in urine slides was higher than those detected by Papanicolaou staining (71.3%). The main advantage of LHS is that it allowed confirmation of BKV infection diagnosis in urine samples. IHS detected more BKV-infected cells in samples with few positive urothelial cells, which would have gone undetected if only Papanicolaou staining had been used as the BKV screening method. Urine samples testing for BKV by both techniques will improve diagnosis in asymptomatic patients, allowing early therapeutic intervention and a better clinical outcome.

  1. Testing for nandrolone metabolites in urine samples of professional athletes and sedentary subjects by GC/MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Sommavilla, Marco; Rossi, Ruggero

    2002-12-01

    The concentrations of nandrolone metabolites, 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) were analysed in urine samples of professional athletes doing intense physical activity and sedentary subjects to verify if there was endogenous production of nandrolone and if there was any link between physical effort and the urinary metabolites of the steroid. We collected 18 urine samples from professional footballers age range 20-30 years, all from the same team, and 18 urine samples from males not doing any physical activity, age range 20-30 years. Neither group used nandrolone. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of urinary nandrolone metabolites were carried out by GC/MS followed by GC/MS/MS to confirm positive samples. This technique has been demonstrated to be an excellent analytical approach for the determination of anabolic steroids at very low detection limits in complex matrices such as urine. In five urine samples from professional footballers traces of 19-NA were detected. No trace of 19-NA was found in the group of sedentary subjects and no trace of 19-NE was found in any urine sample. The absence of nandrolone metabolites in sedentary subjects supports the hypothesis that the presence of 19-NA and 19-NE could be linked to physical effort even though the origin is not yet clear. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 40 CFR 98.44 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.44 Section 98.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.44 Monitoring and QA/QC...

  3. 40 CFR 98.44 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.44 Section 98.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.44 Monitoring and QA/QC...

  4. 40 CFR 98.44 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.44 Section 98.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.44 Monitoring and QA/QC...

  5. 40 CFR 98.44 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.44 Section 98.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.44 Monitoring and QA/QC...

  6. 40 CFR 98.44 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.44 Section 98.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.44 Monitoring and QA/QC...

  7. Thio-dimethylarsinate is a common metabolite in urine samples from arsenic-exposed women in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Raml, Reingard; Rumpler, Alice; Goessler, Walter

    2007-08-01

    Over the last 6 years, much work on arsenic species in urine samples has been directed toward the determination of the reduced dimethylated arsenic species, DMA(III), because of its high toxicity and perceived key role in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. Recent work, however, has suggested that DMA(III) may at times have been misidentified because its chromatographic properties can be similar to those of thio-dimethylarsinate (thio-DMA). We analyzed by HPLC-ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) urine samples from 75 arsenic-exposed women from Bangladesh with total arsenic concentrations ranging from 8 to 1034 {mu}g As/L and found that thio-DMA was presentmore » in 44% of the samples at concentrations ranging mostly from trace amounts to 24 {mu}g As/L (one sample contained 123 {mu}g As/L). Cytotoxicity testing with HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocarcinoma indicated that thio-DMA was about 10-fold more cytotoxic than dimethylarsinate (DMA). The widespread occurrence of thio-DMA in urine from these arsenic-exposed women suggests that this arsenical may also be present in other urine samples and has so far escaped detection. The work highlights the need for analytical methods providing specific determinations of arsenic compounds in future studies on arsenic metabolism and toxicology.« less

  8. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

  9. Urine Cytology

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of cells were found in your urine sample. You may need to repeat the test. Negative. This means no cancer cells were identified in your urine sample. Atypical. This indicates that some abnormalities were found ...

  10. Detection of Genital HPV Infection Using Urine Samples: a Population Based Study in India.

    PubMed

    Sabeena, Sasidharanpillai; Bhat, Parvati; Kamath, Veena; Mathew, Mary; Aswathyraj, Sushama; Devadiga, Santhosha; Prabhu, Suresha; Hindol, Maity; Chameetachal, Akhil; Krishnan, Anjana; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second commonest cancer among Indian women and its association with human papilloma virus (HPV) is well established. This preventable cancer accounts for the maximum number of cancer related deaths among rural Indian women. Unlike in developed countries there are no organized cervical cancer screening programmes in India due to lack of resources and manpower. To detect genital HPV infection using urine samples among asymptomatic rural women in the age group of 18-65 years. The study area chosen was Perdoor village in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka State and all the women in the age group of 18-65 years formed the study cohort. A cross sectional study was conducted by house visits and 1,305 women were enrolled in the study. After taking written informed consent a data sheet was filled and early stream random urine samples were collected, transported to a laboratory at 4OC and aliquoted. Samples were tested using nested HPV PCR with PGMY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers. Positive cases were genotyped by sequence analysis. Study participants included 1,134 sexually active and 171 unmarried women with a mean age at marriage of 22.1 (SD=3.9) years. Study area showed high female literacy rate of 86.6%. Five urine samples tested positive for HPV DNA (0.4%). We found very low genital HPV infection rate among women from monogamous community. This is the first major population based study carried out among asymptomatic rural women to detect genital HPV infectio from Karnataka using urine samples.

  11. 40 CFR 98.64 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.64 Section 98.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production § 98.64 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements...

  12. 40 CFR 98.334 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.334 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. If..., belt weigh feeders, weighed purchased quantities in shipments or containers, combination of bulk...

  13. 40 CFR 98.334 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.334 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. If..., belt weigh feeders, weighed purchased quantities in shipments or containers, combination of bulk...

  14. 40 CFR 98.334 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.334 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. If..., belt weigh feeders, weighed purchased quantities in shipments or containers, combination of bulk...

  15. 40 CFR 98.334 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.334 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. If..., belt weigh feeders, weighed purchased quantities in shipments or containers, combination of bulk...

  16. 40 CFR 98.64 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.64 Section 98.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production § 98.64 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements...

  17. 40 CFR 98.84 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.84 Section 98.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.84 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements...

  18. Protein urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine protein; Albumin - urine; Urine albumin; Proteinuria; Albuminuria ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The color change ...

  19. 40 CFR 98.94 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.94 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) For calendar year 2011 monitoring, you may follow the provisions in paragraphs (a)(1) through...

  20. 40 CFR 98.94 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.94 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) For calendar year 2011 monitoring, you may follow the provisions in paragraphs (a)(1) through...

  1. 40 CFR 98.94 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.94 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) For calendar year 2011 monitoring, you may follow the provisions in paragraphs (a)(1) through...

  2. 40 CFR 98.94 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.94 Monitoring and QA/QC...-specific heel factors for each container type for each gas used, according to the procedures in paragraphs...

  3. Determination of (210)Po in drinking water and urine samples using copper sulfide microprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Nicolas; Dai, Xiongxin

    2014-06-17

    Polonium-210 ((210)Po) can be rapidly determined in drinking water and urine samples by alpha spectrometry using copper sulfide (CuS) microprecipitation. For drinking water, Po in 10 mL samples was directly coprecipitated onto the filter for alpha counting without any purification. For urine, 10 mL of sample was heated, oxidized with KBrO3 for a short time (∼5 min), and subsequently centrifuged to remove the suspended organic matter. The CuS microprecipitation was then applied to the supernatant. Large batches of samples can be prepared using this technique with high recoveries (∼85%). The figures of merit of the methods were determined, and the developed methods fulfill the requirements for emergency and routine radioassays. The efficiency and reliability of the procedures were confirmed using spiked samples.

  4. 40 CFR 98.424 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.424 Monitoring and QA/QC... determine quantity in accordance with this paragraph. (i) Reporters that supply CO2 in containers using...

  5. 40 CFR 98.424 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.424 Monitoring and QA/QC... determine quantity in accordance with this paragraph. (i) Reporters that supply CO2 in containers using...

  6. 40 CFR 98.424 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.424 Monitoring and QA/QC... determine quantity in accordance with this paragraph. (i) Reporters that supply CO2 in containers using...

  7. 40 CFR 98.424 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.424 Monitoring and QA/QC... determine quantity in accordance with this paragraph. (i) Reporters that supply CO2 in containers using...

  8. Evidence for false-positive results for boldenone testing of veal urine due to faecal cross-contamination during sampling.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo Rossi, C A; Arioli, F; Bassini, A; Chiesa, L M; Dell'Orto, V; Montana, M; Pompa, G

    2004-08-01

    European Directive 96/22/EC, which controls veterinary residues in animals, does not permit the presence of synthetic growth promoters in products of animal origin or in livestock. Boldenone is categorized in class A3 (growth promoters -- steroids) and is thus a banned substance. Testing of veal urine for banned substances is part of the European Union statutory programme for animals going into the food chain. In relation to this monitoring, three studies were conducted to investigate the apparent presence of the banned growth promoter boldenone in veal urine, which was suspected as being caused by interference from faecal contamination of the sample. In the first study, urine samples were collected at different times (time 0 and after 30 min) using (1) a conventional zoonotechnical apron and (2) a technique designed specifically to avoid faecal contamination ('kettle'). This resulted in samples that were, respectively, positive and negative for the presence of alpha-boldenone (alpha-BOL). In a second study, urine samples negative to alpha-BOL were collected from eight veal calves, but became positive after deliberate faecal contamination. In a third study, data obtained from the Italian RNP (Residual National Program) indicated that 18.1% of 3295 urine samples collected using the zootechnical apron were positive for alpha-BOL and 2.1% for beta-boldenone (beta-BOL), whilst of 902 samples collected using the kettle, beta-BOL was not detected in any samples and only 0.2% were positive to alpha-BOL, in concentrations lower than 2 ng ml(-1). These results further support the supposition that faecal contamination of the urine during sample collection can lead to false-positive results during boldenone analysis.

  9. The influence of freezer storage of urine samples on the BONN-Risk-Index for calcium oxalate crystallization.

    PubMed

    Laube, Norbert; Zimmermann, Diana J

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to quantify the effect of a 1-week freezer storage of urine on its calcium oxalate crystallization risk. Calcium oxalate is the most common urinary stone material observed in urolithiasis patients in western and affluent countries. The BONN-Risk-Index of calcium oxalate crystallization risk in human urine is determined from a crystallization experiment performed on untreated native urine samples. We tested the influence of a 1-week freezing on the BONN-Risk-Index value as well as the effect of the sample freezing on the urinary osmolality. In vitro crystallization experiments in 49 native urine samples from stone-forming and non-stone forming individuals were performed in order to determine their calcium oxalate crystallization risk according to the BONN-Risk-Index approach. Comparison of the results derived from original sample investigations with those obtained from the thawed aliquots by statistical evaluation shows that i) no significant deviation from linearity between both results exists and ii) both results are identical by statistical means. This is valid for both, the BONN-Risk-Index and the osmolality data. The differences in the BONN-Risk-Index results of both procedures of BONN-Risk-Index determination, however, exceed the clinically acceptable difference. Thus, determination of the urinary calcium oxalate crystallization risk from thawed urine samples cannot be recommended.

  10. Evaluation of a nested-PCR for mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Heidi Lacerda Alves; de Albuquerque Montenegro, Rosana; de Araújo Lima, Juliana Falcão; da Rocha Poroca, Diogo; da Costa Lima, Juliana Figueirêdo; Maria Lapa Montenegro, Lílian; Crovella, Sergio; Charifker Schindler, Haiana

    2011-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its variations, such as the nested-PCR, have been described as promising techniques for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). With the aim of evaluating the usefulness of a nested-PCR method on samples of blood and urine of patients suspected of tuberculosis we analyzed 192 clinical samples, using as a molecular target the insertion element IS6110 specific of M. tuberculosis genome. Nested-PCR method showed higher sensitivity in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (47.8% and 52% in blood and urine) when compared to patients with the pulmonary form of the disease (sensitivity of 29% and 26.9% in blood and urine), regardless of the type of biological sample used. The nested-PCR is a rapid technique that, even if not showing a good sensitivity, should be considered as a helpful tool especially in the extrapulmonary cases or in cases where confirmatory diagnosis is quite difficult to be achieved by routine methods. The performance of PCR-based techniques should be considered and tested in future works on other types of biological specimens besides sputum, like blood and urine, readily obtainable in most cases. The improving of M. tuberculosis nested-PCR detection in TB affected patients will give the possibility of an earlier detection of bacilli thus interrupting the transmission chain of the disease.

  11. Human urine as test material in 1H NMR-based metabonomics: recommendations for sample preparation and storage.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Michael; Hansen, Steen H; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Cornett, Claus

    2007-02-01

    Metabonomic approaches are believed to have the capability of revolutionizing diagnosis of diseases and assessment of patient conditions after medical interventions. In order to ensure comparability of metabonomic 1H NMR data from different studies, we suggest validated sample preparation guidelines for human urine based on a stability study that evaluates effects of storage time and temperature, freeze-drying, and the presence of preservatives. The results indicated that human urine samples should be stored at or below -25 degrees C, as no changes in the 1H NMR fingerprints have been observed during storage at this temperature for 26 weeks. Formation of acetate, presumably due to microbial contamination, was occasionally observed in samples stored at 4 degrees C without addition of a preservative. Addition of a preserving agent is not mandatory provided that the samples are stored at -25 degrees C. Thus, no differences were observed between 1H NMR spectra of nonpreserved urines and urines with added sodium azide and stored at -25 degrees C, whereas the presence of sodium fluoride caused a shift of especially citrate resonances. Freeze-drying of urine and reconstitution in D2O at pH 7.4 resulted in the disappearance of the creatinine CH2 signal at delta 4.06 due to deuteration. A study evaluating the effects of phosphate buffer concentration on signal variability and assessment of the probability of citrate or creatinine resonances crossing bucket border (a boundary between adjacent integrated regions) led to the conclusion that a minimum buffer concentration of 0.3 M is adequate for normal urines used in this study. However, final buffer concentration of 1 M will be required for very concentrated urines.

  12. 40 CFR 98.474 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.474 Monitoring and QA/QC.... (2) You must determine the quarterly mass or volume of contents in all containers if you receive CO2...

  13. 40 CFR 98.474 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.474 Monitoring and QA/QC.... (2) You must determine the quarterly mass or volume of contents in all containers if you receive CO2...

  14. 40 CFR 98.474 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.474 Monitoring and QA/QC.... (2) You must determine the quarterly mass or volume of contents in all containers if you receive CO2...

  15. LC-MS/MS quantification of free and Fab-bound colchicine in plasma, urine and organs following colchicine administration and colchicine-specific Fab fragments treatment in Göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Allard, Julien; Sardaby, Marine; Thompson, Adrian; Clutton, R Eddie; Eddleston, Michael; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2017-08-15

    Clinical evaluation of a colchicine specific antigen-binding fragment (Fab) in order to treat colchicine poisoning required the development of an accurate method allowing quantification of free and Fab-bound colchicine in plasma and urine, and free colchicine in tissues, to measure colchicine redistribution after Fab administration. Three methods have been developed for this purpose, and validated in plasma, urine and liver: total colchicine was determined after denaturation of Fab by dilution in water and heating; free colchicine was separated from Fab-bound colchicine by filtration with 30KDa micro-filters; tissues were homogenized in a tissue mixer. Deuterated colchicine was used as internal standard. Samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed with a LC-MS/MS. LOQ were 0.5ng/mL in plasma and urine for free and total colchicine and 5pg/mg in tissues. The methods were linear in the 0.5-100ng/mL range in plasma and urine, and 5-300pg/mg in tissues with determination coefficients>0.99. Precision and accuracy of QC samples presented a CV<9.4%. The methods require only 200μL of sample and allow a high throughput due to short analytical run (2min). These methods were successfully applied to a pig intoxicated with colchicine and treated with colchicine specific Fab fragments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for human papillomavirus detection in urine samples of heterosexual men visiting urological clinics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazufumi; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Yaegashi, Hiroshi; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Izumi, Kouji; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Mizokami, Atsushi

    2018-05-11

    The present study aimed to investigate human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and identify risk factors for HPV detection in urine samples among heterosexual men attending urological clinics. Spot urine samples including initial stream were collected from 845 participants, and the cell pellets were preserved into liquid-based cytological solution. After DNA extraction from each sample, HPV-DNA amplification and genotyping were performed using Luminex multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Participants completed a questionnaire on their age, education, smoking status, sexuality, age of sexual debut, marital status, and present history of sexually transmitted infections. Data from 803 patients were included in the analysis. Overall HPV and high-risk (HR)HPV prevalence in urine samples were 6.2% and 3.1%, respectively. HPV and HR-HPV prevalences were the highest in men with urethritis, and were significantly higher than those without urethritis. HPV detection was the most common in men aged 40-49 years, although significant detection differences were not age-related. Urethritis was an independent risk factor for HPV detection from urine samples, with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.548 (95%CI; 1.802-11.476) (p = 0.001). On the other hand, a sub-analysis excluding men with urethritis demonstrated that prostate cancer was a significant risk factor for HPV detection, with OR of 2.844 (95%CI; 1.046-7.732) (p = 0.0410), whereas was not a significant risk for HR-HPV detection in urine samples. Prostate cancer may represent a risk factor for HPV detection in the urine of men without urethritis. The authors did not register to Clinical Trial because this is observational and cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 40 CFR 98.424 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.424 Monitoring and QA/QC... containers shall measure the mass in each CO2 container using weigh bills, scales, or load cells and sum the...

  18. Determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate in human urine samples by ion exclusion and ion exchange two-dimensional chromatography system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junwei; Deng, Zhifen; Zhu, Zuoyi; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guoqing; Sun, Yu-An; Zhu, Yan

    2017-12-15

    A two-dimensional ion chromatography system was developed for the determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine samples. Ion exclusion chromatography was used in the first dimensional separation for elimination of urine matrices and detection of GHB above 10mgL -1 , ion exchange chromatography was used in the second dimensional separation via column-switching technique for detection of GHB above 0.08mgL -1 . Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the ion exclusion and ion exchange chromatography separation system exhibited satisfactory repeatability (RSD<3.1%, n=6) and good linearity in the range of 50-1000mgL -1 and 0.5-100mgL -1 , respectively. By this method, concentrations of GHB in the selected human urine samples were detected in the range of 0-1.57mgL -1 . The urine sample containing 0.89mgL -1 GHB was selected to evaluate the accuracy; the spiked recoveries of GHB were 95.9-102.8%. The results showed that the two-dimensional ion chromatography system was convenient and practical for the determination of GHB in human urine samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stability of drugs of abuse in urine samples stored at -20 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Dugan, S; Bogema, S; Schwartz, R W; Lappas, N T

    1994-01-01

    Isolated studies of the stability of individual drugs of abuse have been reported. However, few have evaluated stability in frozen urine samples stored for 12 months. We have determined the stability of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-COOH-THC), amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine, codeine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and phencyclidine in 236 physiological urine samples. Following the initial quantitative analysis, the samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 12 months and then reanalyzed. All drug concentrations were determined by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods with cutoff concentrations of 5 ng/mL for 9-COOH-THC and phencyclidine and 100 ng/mL for each of the other drugs. The average change in the concentrations of these drugs following this long-term storage was not extensive except for an average change of -37% in cocaine concentrations.

  20. Novel micro-extraction by packed sorbent procedure for the liquid chromatographic analysis of antiepileptic drugs in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Rani, Susheela; Malik, Ashok K; Singh, Baldev

    2012-02-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of the antiepileptic drugs, phenobarbital (PHB), phenytoin (PTN), carbamazepine (CBZ), primidone (PRM) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) in human plasma and urine samples by using micro-extraction in a packed syringe as the sample preparation method connected with LC/UV (MEPS/LC/UV) is described. Micro-extraction in a packed syringe (MEPS) is a new miniaturized, solid-phase extraction technique that can be connected online to gas or liquid chromatography without any modifications. In MEPS approximately 1 mg of the solid packing material is inserted into a syringe (100-250 μL) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. The bed can be coated to provide selective and suitable sampling conditions. The new method is very promising, easy to use, fully automated, inexpensive and quick. The standard curves were obtained within the concentration range 1-500 ng/mL in both plasma and urine samples. The results showed high correlation coefficients (R(2) >0.988) for all of the analytes within the calibration range. The extraction recovery was found to be between 88.56 and 99.38%. The limit of quantification was found to be between 0.132 and 1.956 ng/mL. The precision (RSD) values of quality control samples (QC) had a maximum deviation of 4.9%. A comparison of the detection limits with similar methods indicates high sensitivity of the present method. The method is applied for the analysis of these drugs in real urine and plasma samples of epileptic patients. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Validity of a portable urine refractometer: the effects of sample freezing.

    PubMed

    Sparks, S Andy; Close, Graeme L

    2013-01-01

    The use of portable urine osmometers is widespread, but no studies have assessed the validity of this measurement technique. Furthermore, it is unclear what effect freezing has on osmolality. One-hundred participants of mean (±SD) age 25.1 ± 7.6 years, height 1.77 ± 0.1 m and weight 77.1 ± 10.8 kg provided single urine samples that were analysed using freeze point depression (FPD) and refractometry (RI). Samples were then frozen at -80°C (n = 81) and thawed prior to re-analysis. Differences between methods and freezing were determined using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Relationships between measurements were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and typical error of estimate (TE). Osmolality was lower (P = 0.001) using RI (634.2 ± 339.8 mOsm · kgH2O(-1)) compared with FPD (656.7 ± 334.1 mOsm · kgH2O(-1)) but the TE was trivial (0.17). Freezing significantly reduced mean osmolality using FPD (656.7 ± 341.1 to 606.5 ± 333.4 mOsm · kgH2O(-1); P < 0.001), but samples were still highly related following freezing (ICC, r = 0.979, P < 0.001, CI = 0.993-0.997; TE = 0.15; and r=0.995, P < 0.001, CI = 0.967-0.986; TE = 0.07 for RI and FPD respectively). Despite mean differences between methods and as a result of freezing, such differences are physiologically trivial. Therefore, the use of RI appears to be a valid measurement tool to determine urine osmolality.

  2. Improved sensitivity of the urine CAA lateral-flow assay for diagnosing active Schistosoma infections by using larger sample volumes.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; de Dood, Claudia J; Kariuki, Thomas M; Ochola, Elizabeth A; Karanja, Diana M S; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; van Dam, Govert J

    2015-04-22

    Accurate determination of Schistosoma infection rates in low endemic regions to examine progress towards interruption of transmission and elimination requires highly sensitive diagnostic tools. An existing lateral flow (LF) based test demonstrating ongoing infections through detection of worm circulating anodic antigen (CAA), was improved for sensitivity through implementation of a protocol allowing increased sample input. Urine is the preferred sample as collection is non-invasive and sample volume is generally not a restriction. Centrifugal filtration devices provided a method to concentrate supernatant of urine samples extracted with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). For field trials a practical sample volume of 2 mL urine allowed detection of CAA down to 0.3 pg/mL. The method was evaluated on a set of urine samples (n = 113) from an S. mansoni endemic region (Kisumu, Kenya) and compared to stool microscopy (Kato Katz, KK). In this analysis true positivity was defined as a sample with either a positive KK or UCAA test. Implementation of the concentration method increased clinical sensitivity (Sn) from 44 to 98% when moving from the standard 10 μL (UCAA10 assay) to 2000 μL (UCAA2000 assay) urine sample input. Sn for KK varied between 23 and 35% for a duplicate KK (single stool, two slides) to 52% for a six-fold KK (three consecutive day stools, two slides). The UCAA2000 assay indicated 47 positive samples with CAA concentration above 0.3 pg/mL. The six-fold KK detected 25 egg positives; 1 sample with 2 eggs detected in the 6-fold KK was not identified with the UCAA2000 assay. Larger sample input increased Sn of the UCAA assay to a level indicating 'true' infection. Only a single 2 mL urine sample is needed, but analysing larger sample volumes could still increase test accuracy. The UCAA2000 test is an appropriate candidate for accurate identification of all infected individuals in low-endemic regions. Assay materials do not require refrigeration and collected

  3. Joint design of QC-LDPC codes for coded cooperation system with joint iterative decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunwai; Yang, Fengfan; Tang, Lei; Ejaz, Saqib; Luo, Lin; Maharaj, B. T.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate joint design of quasi-cyclic low-density-parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes for coded cooperation system with joint iterative decoding in the destination. First, QC-LDPC codes based on the base matrix and exponent matrix are introduced, and then we describe two types of girth-4 cycles in QC-LDPC codes employed by the source and relay. In the equivalent parity-check matrix corresponding to the jointly designed QC-LDPC codes employed by the source and relay, all girth-4 cycles including both type I and type II are cancelled. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the jointly designed QC-LDPC coded cooperation well combines cooperation gain and channel coding gain, and outperforms the coded non-cooperation under the same conditions. Furthermore, the bit error rate performance of the coded cooperation employing jointly designed QC-LDPC codes is better than those of random LDPC codes and separately designed QC-LDPC codes over AWGN channels.

  4. Influence of Freezing and Storage Procedure on Human Urine Samples in NMR-Based Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Rist, Manuela J.; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Görling, Benjamin; Bub, Achim; Heissler, Stefan; Watzl, Bernhard; Luy, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    It is consensus in the metabolomics community that standardized protocols should be followed for sample handling, storage and analysis, as it is of utmost importance to maintain constant measurement conditions to identify subtle biological differences. The aim of this work, therefore, was to systematically investigate the influence of freezing procedures and storage temperatures and their effect on NMR spectra as a potentially disturbing aspect for NMR-based metabolomics studies. Urine samples were collected from two healthy volunteers, centrifuged and divided into aliquots. Urine aliquots were frozen either at −20 °C, on dry ice, at −80 °C or in liquid nitrogen and then stored at −20 °C, −80 °C or in liquid nitrogen vapor phase for 1–5 weeks before NMR analysis. Results show spectral changes depending on the freezing procedure, with samples frozen on dry ice showing the largest deviations. The effect was found to be based on pH differences, which were caused by variations in CO2 concentrations introduced by the freezing procedure. Thus, we recommend that urine samples should be frozen at −20 °C and transferred to lower storage temperatures within one week and that freezing procedures should be part of the publication protocol. PMID:24957990

  5. Influence of Freezing and Storage Procedure on Human Urine Samples in NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Rist, Manuela J; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Görling, Benjamin; Bub, Achim; Heissler, Stefan; Watzl, Bernhard; Luy, Burkhard

    2013-04-09

    It is consensus in the metabolomics community that standardized protocols should be followed for sample handling, storage and analysis, as it is of utmost importance to maintain constant measurement conditions to identify subtle biological differences. The aim of this work, therefore, was to systematically investigate the influence of freezing procedures and storage temperatures and their effect on NMR spectra as a potentially disturbing aspect for NMR-based metabolomics studies. Urine samples were collected from two healthy volunteers, centrifuged and divided into aliquots. Urine aliquots were frozen either at -20 °C, on dry ice, at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -20 °C, -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen vapor phase for 1-5 weeks before NMR analysis. Results show spectral changes depending on the freezing procedure, with samples frozen on dry ice showing the largest deviations. The effect was found to be based on pH differences, which were caused by variations in CO2 concentrations introduced by the freezing procedure. Thus, we recommend that urine samples should be frozen at -20 °C and transferred to lower storage temperatures within one week and that freezing procedures should be part of the publication protocol.

  6. Improved bacterial identification directly from urine samples with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Koichi; Shigemura, Katsumi; Onuma, Ken-Ichiro; Nishida, Masako; Fujiwara, Mayu; Kobayashi, Saori; Yamasaki, Mika; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamamichi, Fukashi; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Tokimatsu, Issei; Fujisawa, Masato

    2018-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) contributes to rapid identification of pathogens in the clinic but has not yet performed especially well for Gram-positive cocci (GPC) causing complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). The goal of this study was to investigate the possible clinical use of MALDI-TOF MS as a rapid method for bacterial identification directly from urine in complicated UTI. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to urine samples gathered from 142 suspected complicated UTI patients in 2015-2017. We modified the standard procedure (Method 1) for sample preparation by adding an initial 10 minutes of ultrasonication followed by centrifugation at 500 g for 1 minutes to remove debris such as epithelial cells and leukocytes from the urine (Method 2). In 133 urine culture-positive bacteria, the rate of corresponded with urine culture in GPC by MALDI-TOF MS in urine with standard sample preparation (Method 1) was 16.7%, but the modified sample preparation (Method 2) significantly improved that rate to 52.2% (P=.045). Method 2 also improved the identification accuracy for Gram-negative rods (GNR) from 77.1% to 94.2% (P=.022). The modified Method 2 significantly improved the average MALDI score from 1.408±0.153 to 2.166±0.045 (P=.000) for GPC and slightly improved the score from 2.107±0.061 to 2.164±0.037 for GNR. The modified sample preparation for MALDI-TOF MS can improve identification accuracy for complicated UTI causative bacteria. This simple modification offers a rapid and accurate routine diagnosis for UTI, and may possibly be a substitute for urine cultures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

  8. The Urine Preservative Acetic Acid Degrades Urine Protein: Implications for Urine Biorepositories and the AASK Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Almaani, Salem; Hebert, Lee A; Rovin, Brad H; Birmingham, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    Patients enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study who exhibited overt proteinuria have been reported to show high nonalbumin proteinuria (NAP), which is characteristic of a tubulopathy. To determine whether African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension nephropathy (AASK-N) is a tubulopathy, we obtained urine samples of 37 patients with AASK-N, with 24-hour protein-to-creatinine ratios (milligrams per milligram) ranging from 0.2 to 1.0, from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases repository and tested for seven markers of tubular proteinuria. By protocol, each sample had been collected in acetic acid (0.5%; mean final concentration). Compared with samples from patients with lupus nephritis or healthy black controls, AASK-N samples had lower amounts of six markers. Four markers (albumin, β -2-microglobulin, cystatin C, and osteopontin) were undetectable in most AASK-N samples. Examination by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining revealed protein profiles indicative of severe protein degradation in 34 of 37 AASK-N urine samples. Treatment of lupus nephritis urine samples with 0.5% acetic acid produced the same protein degradation profile as that of AASK-N urine. We conclude that the increased NAP in AASK-N is an artifact of acetic acid-mediated degradation of albumin. The AASK-N repository urine samples have been compromised by the acetic acid preservative. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. The Urine Preservative Acetic Acid Degrades Urine Protein: Implications for Urine Biorepositories and the AASK Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Almaani, Salem; Hebert, Lee A.; Rovin, Brad H.

    2017-01-01

    Patients enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study who exhibited overt proteinuria have been reported to show high nonalbumin proteinuria (NAP), which is characteristic of a tubulopathy. To determine whether African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension nephropathy (AASK-N) is a tubulopathy, we obtained urine samples of 37 patients with AASK-N, with 24-hour protein-to-creatinine ratios (milligrams per milligram) ranging from 0.2 to 1.0, from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases repository and tested for seven markers of tubular proteinuria. By protocol, each sample had been collected in acetic acid (0.5%; mean final concentration). Compared with samples from patients with lupus nephritis or healthy black controls, AASK-N samples had lower amounts of six markers. Four markers (albumin, β-2-microglobulin, cystatin C, and osteopontin) were undetectable in most AASK-N samples. Examination by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining revealed protein profiles indicative of severe protein degradation in 34 of 37 AASK-N urine samples. Treatment of lupus nephritis urine samples with 0.5% acetic acid produced the same protein degradation profile as that of AASK-N urine. We conclude that the increased NAP in AASK-N is an artifact of acetic acid–mediated degradation of albumin. The AASK-N repository urine samples have been compromised by the acetic acid preservative. PMID:28104821

  10. Correlation of the levels of glycosaminoglycans between urine and dried urine in filter paper samples and their stability over time under different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Breier, Ana Carolina; Cé, Jaqueline; Coelho, Janice Carneiro

    2014-06-10

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of lysosomal storage diseases caused by the deficiency/absence of enzymes which catalyze the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The use of biological samples dried on filter paper has been increasing because it makes it easy to ship them to reference laboratories. Urinary GAGs are the main biomarkers of MPS and, thus, we studied the correlations of determinations to GAGs and creatinine, as well as compared the GAGs' profile on electrophoresis, between urine and dried urine in filter paper (DUFP) samples. We also assessed the GAG stability over time under different storage temperatures. We quantified the GAG concentration in both sample types and compared the results by Pearson correlation. The results were very similar, with r=0.97 for creatinine and with r=0.94 and r=0.98 for GAGs for controls and patients, respectively, with similar electrophoretic profiles. The GAG stability in DUFP was up to 30days at -20, 4, and 25°C and up to 21days at 37°C. Our proposal assessed urinary GAGs in DUFP and concluded that these samples can be used in the investigation of MPS, replacing urine samples in neonatal screening and monitoring of therapies, due to ease of transportation and storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the concurrent presence of hepatitis A virus genome in serum, stool, saliva, and urine samples of hepatitis A patients.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Madhuri S; Bhalla, Shilpa; Kalrao, Vijay R; Dhongade, Ramchandra K; Chitambar, Shobha D

    2014-04-01

    The use of saliva and urine as an alternative to serum samples for detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibodies has been documented. However, these samples remain underreported or unexplored for shedding of HAV. To address this issue, paired serum, stool, saliva, and urine samples collected from hepatitis A patients were screened by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of HAV RNA. HAV RNA was detected in 67.6% (44/65), 52.3% (34/65), 8.7% (5/57), and 12.3% (8/65) of the serum, stool, saliva, and urine samples, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained for partial RNA polymerase region grouped HAV strains from all of the clinical samples of the study in subgenotype IIIA. Low frequency of HAV nucleic acid in saliva and urine samples indicates limited utility of these samples in genomic studies on HAV but suggests its potential for transmission and infection of hepatitis A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  13. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Lara R.; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A.; Luke, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes 2H and 18O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of 2H and 18O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that 2H and 18O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used. PMID:25977450

  14. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Dugas, Lara R; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2015-07-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes (2)H and (18)O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of (2)H and (18)O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that (2)H and (18)O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Characterizing a Quantum Cascade Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrometer (QC-TILDAS) for Measurements of Atmospheric Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, R.; Murphy, J. G.; van Haarlem, R.; Pattey, E.; O'Brien, J.

    2009-05-01

    A compact, fast response Quantum Cascade Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrometer (QC- TILDAS) for measurements of ammonia has been evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions. Absorption of radiation from a pulsed, thermoelectrically cooled QC laser occurs at reduced pressure in a 76 m path length, 0.5 L volume multiple pass absorption cell. Detection is achieved using a thermoelectrically cooled HgCdTe infrared detector. A novel sampling technique was used, consisting of a short, heated, quartz inlet with a hydrophobic coating to minimize the adsorption of ammonia to surfaces. The inlet contains a critical orifice that reduces the pressure, a virtual impactor for separation of particles and additional ports for delivering ammonia free background air and calibration gas standards. This instrument has been found to have a detection limit of 0.3 ppb with a time resolution of 1 s. The sampling technique has been compared to the results of a conventional lead salt Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) absorption spectrometer during a laboratory intercomparison. Various lengths and types of sample inlet tubing material, heated and unheated, under dry and ambient humidity conditions with ammonia concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ppb were investigated. Preliminary analysis suggests the time response improves with the use of short, PFA tubing sampling lines. No significant improvement was observed when using a heated sampling line and humidity was seen to play an important role on the bi-exponential decay of ammonia. A field intercomparison of the QC-TILDAS with a modified Thermo 42C chemiluminescence based analyzer was also performed at Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE) in the rural town of Egbert, ON between May-July 2008. Background tests and calibrations using two different permeation tube sources and an ammonia gas cylinder were regularly carried out throughout the study. Results indicate a very good correlation

  16. A QC approach to the determination of day-to-day reproducibility and robustness of LC-MS methods for global metabolite profiling in metabonomics/metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Gika, Helen G; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Earll, Mark; Wilson, Ian D

    2012-09-01

    An approach to the determination of day-to-day analytical robustness of LC-MS-based methods for global metabolic profiling using a pooled QC sample is presented for the evaluation of metabonomic/metabolomic data. A set of 60 urine samples were repeatedly analyzed on five different days and the day-to-day reproducibility of the data obtained was determined. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed with the aim of evaluating variability and selected peaks were assessed and validated in terms of retention time stability, mass accuracy and intensity. The methodology enables the repeatability/reproducibility of extended analytical runs in large-scale studies to be determined, allowing the elimination of analytical (as opposed to biological) variability, in order to discover true patterns and correlations within the data. The day-to-day variability of the data revealed by this process suggested that, for this particular system, 3 days continuous operation was possible without the need for maintenance and cleaning. Variation was generally based on signal intensity changes over the 7-day period of the study, and was mainly a result of source contamination.

  17. Direct Analysis of Amphetamine Stimulants in a Whole Urine Sample by Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevelin, Eduardo J.; Salami, Fernanda H.; Alves, Marcela N. R.; De Martinis, Bruno S.; Crotti, Antônio E. M.; Moraes, Luiz A. B.

    2016-05-01

    Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are among illicit stimulant drugs that are most often used worldwide. A major challenge is to develop a fast and efficient methodology involving minimal sample preparation to analyze ATS in biological fluids. In this study, a urine pool solution containing amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, sibutramine, and fenfluramine at concentrations ranging from 0.5 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL was prepared and analyzed by atmospheric solids analysis probe tandem mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). A urine sample and saliva collected from a volunteer contributor (V1) were also analyzed. The limit of detection of the tested compounds ranged between 0.002 and 0.4 ng/mL in urine samples; the signal-to-noise ratio was 5. These results demonstrated that the ASAP-MS/MS methodology is applicable for the fast detection of ATS in urine samples with great sensitivity and specificity, without the need for cleanup, preconcentration, or chromatographic separation. Thus ASAP-MS/MS could potentially be used in clinical and forensic toxicology applications.

  18. SELDI-TOF MS of quadruplicate urine and serum samples to evaluate changes related to storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Traum, Avram Z; Wells, Meghan P; Aivado, Manuel; Libermann, Towia A; Ramoni, Marco F; Schachter, Asher D

    2006-03-01

    Proteomic profiling with SELDI-TOF MS has facilitated the discovery of disease-specific protein profiles. However, multicenter studies are often hindered by the logistics required for prompt deep-freezing of samples in liquid nitrogen or dry ice within the clinic setting prior to shipping. We report high concordance between MS profiles within sets of quadruplicate split urine and serum samples deep-frozen at 0, 2, 6, and 24 h after sample collection. Gage R&R results confirm that deep-freezing times are not a statistically significant source of SELDI-TOF MS variability for either blood or urine.

  19. Development of QC Procedures for Ocean Data Obtained by National Research Projects of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. D.; Park, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    To establish data management system for ocean data obtained by national research projects of Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea, KIOST conducted standardization and development of QC procedures. After reviewing and analyzing the existing international and domestic ocean-data standards and QC procedures, the draft version of standards and QC procedures were prepared. The proposed standards and QC procedures were reviewed and revised by experts in the field of oceanography and academic societies several times. A technical report on the standards of 25 data items and 12 QC procedures for physical, chemical, biological and geological data items. The QC procedure for temperature and salinity data was set up by referring the manuals published by GTSPP, ARGO and IOOS QARTOD. It consists of 16 QC tests applicable for vertical profile data and time series data obtained in real-time mode and delay mode. Three regional range tests to inspect annual, seasonal and monthly variations were included in the procedure. Three programs were developed to calculate and provide upper limit and lower limit of temperature and salinity at depth from 0 to 1550m. TS data of World Ocean Database, ARGO, GTSPP and in-house data of KIOST were analysed statistically to calculate regional limit of Northwest Pacific area. Based on statistical analysis, the programs calculate regional ranges using mean and standard deviation at 3 kind of grid systems (3° grid, 1° grid and 0.5° grid) and provide recommendation. The QC procedures for 12 data items were set up during 1st phase of national program for data management (2012-2015) and are being applied to national research projects practically at 2nd phase (2016-2019). The QC procedures will be revised by reviewing the result of QC application when the 2nd phase of data management programs is completed.

  20. Variability of Organophosphorous Pesticide Metabolite Levels in Spot and 24-hr Urine Samples Collected from Young Children during 1 Week

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Katherine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Chevrier, Jonathan; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in spot urine samples are frequently used to characterize children’s exposures to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. However, variable exposure and short biological half-lives of OP pesticides could result in highly variable measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Objective: We examined within- and between-child variability in DAP metabolites in urine samples collected during 1 week. Methods: We collected spot urine samples over 7 consecutive days from 25 children (3–6 years of age). On two of the days, we collected 24-hr voids. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary DAP metabolite concentrations and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of spot urine samples as predictors of high (top 20%) or elevated (top 40%) weekly average DAP metabolite concentrations. Results: Within-child variance exceeded between-child variance by a factor of two to eight, depending on metabolite grouping. Although total DAP concentrations in single spot urine samples were moderately to strongly associated with concentrations in same-day 24-hr samples (r ≈ 0.6–0.8, p < 0.01), concentrations in spot samples collected > 1 day apart and in 24-hr samples collected 3 days apart were weakly correlated (r ≈ –0.21 to 0.38). Single spot samples predicted high (top 20%) and elevated (top 40%) full-week average total DAP excretion with only moderate sensitivity (≈ 0.52 and ≈ 0.67, respectively) but relatively high specificity (≈ 0.88 and ≈ 0.78, respectively). Conclusions: The high variability we observed in children’s DAP metabolite concentrations suggests that single-day urine samples provide only a brief snapshot of exposure. Sensitivity analyses suggest that classification of cumulative OP exposure based on spot samples is prone to type 2 classification errors. PMID:23052012

  1. AfterQC: automatic filtering, trimming, error removing and quality control for fastq data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shifu; Huang, Tanxiao; Zhou, Yanqing; Han, Yue; Xu, Mingyan; Gu, Jia

    2017-03-14

    Some applications, especially those clinical applications requiring high accuracy of sequencing data, usually have to face the troubles caused by unavoidable sequencing errors. Several tools have been proposed to profile the sequencing quality, but few of them can quantify or correct the sequencing errors. This unmet requirement motivated us to develop AfterQC, a tool with functions to profile sequencing errors and correct most of them, plus highly automated quality control and data filtering features. Different from most tools, AfterQC analyses the overlapping of paired sequences for pair-end sequencing data. Based on overlapping analysis, AfterQC can detect and cut adapters, and furthermore it gives a novel function to correct wrong bases in the overlapping regions. Another new feature is to detect and visualise sequencing bubbles, which can be commonly found on the flowcell lanes and may raise sequencing errors. Besides normal per cycle quality and base content plotting, AfterQC also provides features like polyX (a long sub-sequence of a same base X) filtering, automatic trimming and K-MER based strand bias profiling. For each single or pair of FastQ files, AfterQC filters out bad reads, detects and eliminates sequencer's bubble effects, trims reads at front and tail, detects the sequencing errors and corrects part of them, and finally outputs clean data and generates HTML reports with interactive figures. AfterQC can run in batch mode with multiprocess support, it can run with a single FastQ file, a single pair of FastQ files (for pair-end sequencing), or a folder for all included FastQ files to be processed automatically. Based on overlapping analysis, AfterQC can estimate the sequencing error rate and profile the error transform distribution. The results of our error profiling tests show that the error distribution is highly platform dependent. Much more than just another new quality control (QC) tool, AfterQC is able to perform quality control, data

  2. Stability of Drugs of Abuse in Urine Samples at Room Temperature by Use of a Salts Mixture.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Manuela; Graziano, Silvia; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Minutillo, Adele; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Scarsella, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    It has long been recognized that ensuring analyte stability is of crucial importance in the use of any quantitative bioanalytical method. As analyses are usually not performed directly after collection of the biological samples, but after these have been processed and stored, it is essential that analyte stability can be maintained at storage conditions to ensure that the obtained concentration results adequately reflect those directly after sampling. The conservation of urine samples in refrigerated/ frozen conditions is strongly recommended; but not always feasible. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of some well-known drugs of abuse methamphetamine (MA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), benzoylecgonine (BE), and morphine (MOR) in urine samples kept at room temperature by adding a salt mixture (sodium citrate, sodium ascorbate, borax). Two different urine samples were prepared with and without salt mixture, stored at room temperature and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0, 1, 7, 15, and 30 days after collection/preparation to look for eventual analyte degradation. Methamphetamine showed no significant changes with respect to the time of collection/ preparation (T0) up to 7 days later (T7), with or without salt mixture addiction. Then a significant degradation occurred in both salted and non salted urine. BE decrease was observed starting from day 1 after sample collection in salted and not salted samples, respectively. Salt addition seemed to reduce at least the initial BE degradation, with a significant difference (p<0.001) at 7 and 15 days of storage. However, the degradation was not more prevented in salted samples at 30 days of storage. A 20% decrease of MOR concentration was observed starting from day 1 after collection/preparation, both in salted and not salted samples with no subsequent decrease. With regard to THCCOOH, a significant decrease was observed starting from 7 days after collection

  3. Rapid screening of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in urine samples using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Petinal, Carmen; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria; Cela, Rafael

    2005-07-01

    In this paper a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) method is proposed for a rapid analysis of some frequently prescribed selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI)-venlafaxine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, fluoxetine, citalopram, and sertraline-in urine samples. The SPME-based method enables simultaneous determination of the target SSRI after simple in-situ derivatization of some of the target compounds. Calibration curves in water and in urine were validated and statistically compared. This revealed the absence of matrix effect and, in consequence, the possibility of quantifying SSRI in urine samples by external water calibration. Intra-day and inter-day precision was satisfactory for all the target compounds (relative standard deviation, RSD, <14%) and the detection limits achieved were <0.4 ng mL(-1) urine. The time required for the SPME step and for GC analysis (30 min each) enables high throughput. The method was applied to real urine samples from different patients being treated with some of these pharmaceuticals. Some SSRI metabolites were also detected and tentatively identified.

  4. Effects of storage time and temperature on pH, specific gravity, and crystal formation in urine samples from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Albasan, Hasan; Lulich, Jody P; Osborne, Carl A; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Ulrich, Lisa K; Carpenter, Kathleen A

    2003-01-15

    To determine effects of storage temperature and time on pH and specific gravity of and number and size of crystals in urine samples from dogs and cats. Randomized complete block design. 31 dogs and 8 cats. Aliquots of each urine sample were analyzed within 60 minutes of collection or after storage at room or refrigeration temperatures (20 vs 6 degrees C [68 vs 43 degrees F]) for 6 or 24 hours. Crystals formed in samples from 11 of 39 (28%) animals. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals formed in vitro in samples from 1 cat and 8 dogs. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) crystals formed in vitro in samples from 2 dogs. Compared with aliquots stored at room temperature, refrigeration increased the number and size of crystals that formed in vitro; however, the increase in number and size of MAP crystals in stored urine samples was not significant. Increased storage time and decreased storage temperature were associated with a significant increase in number of CaOx crystals formed. Greater numbers of crystals formed in urine aliquots stored for 24 hours than in aliquots stored for 6 hours. Storage time and temperature did not have a significant effect on pH or specific gravity. Urine samples should be analyzed within 60 minutes of collection to minimize temperature- and time-dependent effects on in vitro crystal formation. Presence of crystals observed in stored samples should be validated by reevaluation of fresh urine.

  5. Discordant genotyping results using DNA isolated from anti-doping control urine samples.

    PubMed

    Choong, Eva; Schulze, Jenny J; Ericsson, Magnus; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2017-07-01

    The UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism is known to correlate to urinary concentration of testosterone-glucuronide and hence this genotype exerts a large impact on the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, a biomarker for testosterone doping. The objective of this study was to assess if DNA isolated from athletes' urine samples (n = 713) obtained in routine doping controls could be targeted for genotyping analysis for future integration in the athlete's passport. A control population (n = 21) including both urine and blood DNA was used for genotyping concordance test. Another aim was to study a large group (n = 596) of authentic elite athletes in respect of urinary steroid profile in relation to genetic variation. First we found that the genotype results when using urine-derived DNA did not correlate sufficiently with the genotype obtained from whole blood DNA. Secondly we found males with one or two UGT2B17 alleles had higher T/E (mean 1.63 ± 0.93) than females (mean 1.28 ± 1.08), p˂0.001. Unexpectedly, we found that several male del/del athletes in power sports had a T/E ˃1. If men in power sport exert a different urinary steroid profile needs to be further investigated. The other polymorphisms investigated in the CYP17A1, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 genes did not show any associations with testosterone and epitestosterone concentrations. Our results show that genotyping using urine samples according to our method is not useful in an anti-doping setting. Instead, it is of importance for the anti-doping test programs to include baseline values in the ABP to minimize any putative impact of genotype. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Nappy pad urine samples for investigation and treatment of UTI in young children: the 'DUTY' prospective diagnostic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Butler, Christopher C; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Lawton, Michael; O'Brien, Kathryn; Wootton, Mandy; Hood, Kerenza; Hollingworth, William; Little, Paul; Delaney, Brendan C; van der Voort, Judith; Dudley, Jan; Birnie, Kate; Pickles, Timothy; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Downing, Harriet; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Lisles, Catherine; Rumsby, Kate; Durbaba, Stevo; Whiting, Penny; Harman, Kim; Howe, Robin; MacGowan, Alasdair; Fletcher, Margaret; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-07-01

    The added diagnostic utility of nappy pad urine samples and the proportion that are contaminated is unknown. To develop a clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) based on sampling using the nappy pad method. Acutely unwell children <5 years presenting to 233 UK primary care sites. Logistic regression to identify independent associations of symptoms, signs, and urine dipstick test results with UTI; diagnostic utility quantified as area under the receiver operator curves (AUROC). Nappy pad rule characteristics, AUROC, and contamination, compared with findings from clean-catch samples. Nappy pad samples were obtained from 3205 children (82% aged <2 years; 48% female), culture results were available for 2277 (71.0%) and 30 (1.3%) had a UTI on culture. Female sex, smelly urine, darker urine, and the absence of nappy rash were independently associated with a UTI, with an internally-validated, coefficient model AUROC of 0.81 (0.87 for clean-catch), which increased to 0.87 (0.90 for clean-catch) with the addition of dipstick results. GPs' 'working diagnosis' had an AUROC 0.63 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.53 to 0.72). A total of 12.2% of nappy pad and 1.8% of clean-catch samples were 'frankly contaminated' (risk ratio 6.66; 95% CI = 4.95 to 8.96; P<0.001). Nappy pad urine culture results, with features that can be reported by parents and dipstick tests, can be clinically useful, but are less accurate and more often contaminated compared with clean-catch urine culture. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  7. Efficient sample preparation method based on solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction for the trace detection of butachlor in urine and waste water samples.

    PubMed

    Aladaghlo, Zolfaghar; Fakhari, Alireza; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    In this work, an efficient sample preparation method termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was applied. The used sample preparation method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent (benzophenone) into the aqueous sample to maximize the interaction surface. In this approach, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by inserting a solution of the sorbent and disperser solvent into the aqueous sample. The cloudy solution created from the dispersion of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After pre-concentration of the butachlor, the cloudy solution was centrifuged and butachlor in the sediment phase dissolved in ethanol and determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Under the optimized conditions (solution pH = 7.0, sorbent: benzophenone, 2%, disperser solvent: ethanol, 500 μL, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 3 min), the method detection limit for butachlor was 2, 3 and 3 μg/L for distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Furthermore, the preconcentration factor was 198.8, 175.0, and 174.2 in distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was successfully used for the trace monitoring of butachlor in urine and waste water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  9. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  10. A Simple and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Free 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine in Human Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zuwei; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary free 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), an oxidized product of DNA, and is frequently chosen as a biomarker of oxidative stress in humans, including studies of oxidative DNA damage during space flight. It is challenging to accurately and efficiently quantify urinary free 8OHdG in large scale human studies. LC-MS/MS is emerging as a preferable analytical technique owing its high sensitivity, selectivity and efficiency, compared to some traditional methods such as ELISA and HPLC. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the determination of free 8OHdG in human urine. Sample preparation was done by solid phase extraction with a Waters Oasis HLB 96 well plate. A Waters Alliance 2795 HT Separation Module combined with a Quattro Micro tandem mass spectrometer was used as the LC-MS/MS system. The runtime of one injection can be less than 5 minutes using a reversed phase C18 column and an isocratic flow of methanol/water. ESI positive ions were quantified in the multiple reaction modes (MRM) using m/z 284 yields 168 for 8OHdG and m/z 289 yields173 for stable isotope labeled internal standard [(15)N5] 8OHdG. With this method for 8OHdG, a lower limit of quantitation of 1.0 nM (0.28 ng/mL) has been achieved using 100 microliter urine sample. The analytical range is between 1.0 and 100 nM with a correlation coefficient greater than or equal to 0.99. Good reproducibility can be obtained with intra-assay and inter-assay CVs less than or equal to 10% for 8OHdG spiked urine QC samples. This method can be used in high-throughput routine analysis of free 8OHdG in human urine.

  11. Quality control in urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Takubo, T; Tatsumi, N

    1999-01-01

    Quality control (QC) has been introduced in laboratories, and QC surveys in urinalysis have been performed by College of American Pathologist, by Japanese Association of Medical Technologists, by Osaka Medical Association and by manufacturers. QC survey in urinalysis for synthetic urine by the reagent strip and instrument made in same manufacturer, and by an automated urine cell analyser provided satisfactory results among laboratories. QC survey in urinalysis for synthetic urine by the reagent strips and instruments made by various manufacturers indicated differences in the determination values among manufacturers, and between manual and automated methods because the reagent strips and instruments have different characteristics, respectively. QC photo survey in urinalysis on the microscopic photos of urine sediment constituents indicated differences in the identification of cells among laboratories. From the results, it is necessary to standardize a reagent strip method, manual and automated methods, and synthetic urine.

  12. Quality assurance in the pre-analytical phase of human urine samples by (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Budde, Kathrin; Gök, Ömer-Necmi; Pietzner, Maik; Meisinger, Christine; Leitzmann, Michael; Nauck, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches investigate changes in metabolite profiles, which may reflect changes in metabolic pathways and provide information correlated with a specific biological process or pathophysiology. High-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy is used to identify metabolites in biofluids and tissue samples qualitatively and quantitatively. This pre-analytical study evaluated the effects of storage time and temperature on (1)H NMR spectra from human urine in two settings. Firstly, to evaluate short time effects probably due to acute delay in sample handling and secondly, the effect of prolonged storage up to one month to find markers of sample miss-handling. A number of statistical procedures were used to assess the differences between samples stored under different conditions, including Projection to Latent Structure Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), non-parametric testing as well as mixed effect linear regression analysis. The results indicate that human urine samples can be stored at 10 °C for 24 h or at -80 °C for 1 month, as no relevant changes in (1)H NMR fingerprints were observed during these time periods and temperature conditions. However, some metabolites most likely of microbial origin showed alterations during prolonged storage but without facilitating classification. In conclusion, the presented protocol for urine sample handling and semi-automatic metabolite quantification is suitable for large-scale epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and nerve-growth-factor (NGF) concentrations in serum and urine samples of dogs with neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Kordass, Ulrike; Carlson, Regina; Stein, Veronika Maria; Tipold, Andrea

    2016-01-08

    The purpose of this study was to prove the hypothesis that C-reactive protein (CRP) and nerve growth factor (NGF) may be potential biomarkers for lower urinary tract disorders and may be able to distinguish between micturition dysfunctions of different origin in dogs with spinal cord diseases. NGF- and CRP- concentrations were measured in serum and urine samples using specific ELISA-Kits. Results in urine were standardized by urine-creatinine levels. CRP in serum was detectable in 32/76 and in urine samples in 40/76 patients. NGF could be measured in all serum and in 70/76 urine samples. Urinary CRP concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with micturition dysfunction (p = 0.0009) and in dogs with different neurological diseases (p = 0.0020) compared to the control group. However, comparing dogs with spinal cord disorders with and without associated micturition dysfunction no significant difference could be detected for NGF and CRP values in urine or serum samples. Additionally, levels did not decrease significantly, when measured at the time when the dogs regained the ability to urinate properly (urinary NGF p = 0.7962; urinary CRP p = 0.078). Urine samples with bacteria and/or leukocytes had no significant increase in urinary NGF (p = 0.1112) or CRP (p = 0.0534) concentrations, but higher CRP-levels in urine from dogs with cystitis were found compared to dogs without signs of cystitis. From these data we conclude that neither CRP nor NGF in urine or serum can be considered as reliable biomarkers for micturition disorders in dogs with spinal cord disorders in a clinical setting, but their production might be part of the pathogenesis of such disorders. Significantly higher levels of CRP could be found in the urine of dogs with micturition dysfunctions compared to control dogs. This phenomenon could potentially be explained by unspecific extrahepatic CRP production by smooth muscle cells in the dilated bladder.

  14. Use of a holder-vacuum tube device to save on-site hands in preparing urine samples for head-space gas-chromatography, and its application to determine the time allowance for sample sealing.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshio; Sumino, Kimiaki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate urine sample preparation prior to head-space gas-chromatographic (HS-GC) analysis. Urine samples containing one of the five solvents (acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene) at the levels of biological exposure limits were aspirated into a vacuum tube via holder, a device commercially available for venous blood collection (the vacuum tube method). The urine sample, 5 ml, was quantitatively transferred to a 20-ml head-space vial prior to HS-GC analysis. The loaded tubes were stored at +4 ℃ in dark for up to 3 d. The vacuum tube method facilitated on-site procedures of urine sample preparation for HS-GC with no significant loss of solvents in the sample and no need of skilled hands, whereas on-site sample preparation time was significantly reduced. Furthermore, no loss of solvents was detected during the 3-d storage, irrespective of hydrophilic (acetone) or lipophilic solvent (toluene). In a pilot application, high performance of the vacuum tube method in sealing a sample in an air-tight space succeeded to confirm that no solvent will be lost when sealing is completed within 5 min after urine voiding, and that the allowance time is as long as 30 min in case of toluene in urine. The use of the holder-vacuum tube device not only saves hands for transfer of the sample to air-tight space, but facilitates sample storage prior to HS-GC analysis.

  15. Detection of tobacco-related biomarkers in urine samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy coupled with thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; Han, Sungyub; Li, Xiao Sheryl

    2013-08-01

    The nicotine metabolites, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC) are considered as superior biomarkers for identifying tobacco exposure. More importantly, the ratio of 3HC to cotinine is a good indicator to phenotype individuals for cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapy for tobacco addiction. In this paper, a simple, robust and novel method based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy coupled with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was developed to directly quantify the biomarkers in human urine samples. This is the first time surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to detect cotinine and 3HC in urine samples. The linear dynamic range for the detection of cotinine is from 40 nM to 8 μM while that of 3HC is from 1 μM to 15 μM. The detection limits are 10 nM and 0.2 μM for cotinine and 3HC, respectively. The proposed method was further validated by quantifying the concentration of both cotinine and 3HC in smokers' urine samples. This TLC-SERS method allows the direct detection of cotinine in the urine samples of both active and passive smokers and the detection of 3HC in smokers.

  16. Biomonitoring of 33 Elements in Blood and Urine Samples from Coastal Populations in Sanmen County of Zhejiang Province.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-jing; Luo, Ru-xin; Ma, Dong; Zhuo, Xian-yi

    2016-04-01

    To determine the normal reference values of 33 elements, Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Zn and Zr, in the blood and urine samples from the general population in Sanmen County of Zhejiang province, a typical coastal area of eastern China. The 33 elements in 272 blood and 300 urine samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The normality test of data was conducted using SPSS 17.0 Statistics. The data was compared with other reports. The normal reference values of the 33 elements in the blood and urine samples from the general population in Sanmen County were obtained, which of some elements were found to be similar with other reports, such as Co, Cu, Mn and Sr, while As, Cd, Hg and Pb were generally found to be higher than those previously reported. There was a wide variation between the reports from different countries in blood Ba. The normal reference values of the 33 elements in the blood and urine samples from the general population in Sanmen County are established, and successfully applied to two poisoning cases.

  17. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Camila; Brandão, Eduardo; Oliveira, Paula; Rocha, Abraham; Rego, Tamisa; Medeiros, Rafael; Aguiar-Santos, Ana; Ferraz, João; Reis, Christian; Araujo, Paulo; Carvalho, Luiz; Melo, Fabio L

    2014-12-01

    The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2) and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2), which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.

  18. False-positive LSD testing in urine samples from intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, J; Zörntlein, S; Lotz, J; Becker, J; Kern, T; Rittner, C

    1998-09-01

    Unexpected positive results for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) were found in urine samples from 12 patients in an intensive care unit in a routine screening using the CEDIA DAU assay. None of these test results could be confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, but all samples contained the mucolytic drug ambroxol. Further studies demonstrated that ambroxol exhibits a significant cross-reactivity in the CEDIA DAU LSD assay. Therefore, positive LSD results obtained with the CEDIA DAU assay have to be critically evaluated, particularly during the cold season, when infections of the respiratory tract often result in more frequent use of mucolytic medications.

  19. Reliable Quantification of the Potential for Equations Based on Spot Urine Samples to Estimate Population Salt Intake: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason Hy; Woodward, Mark; Land, Mary-Anne; McLean, Rachael; Webster, Jacqui; Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Nowson, Caryl A; Elliott, Paul; Cogswell, Mary; Toft, Ulla; Mill, Jose G; Furlanetto, Tania W; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Hong, Yet Hoi; Cohall, Damian; Luzardo, Leonella; Noboa, Oscar; Holm, Ellen; Gerbes, Alexander L; Senousy, Bahaa; Pinar Kara, Sonat; Brewster, Lizzy M; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Subramanian, Srinivas; Teo, Boon Wee; Allen, Norrina; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Polonia, Jorge; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Campbell, Norm Rc; Neal, Bruce; Petersen, Kristina S

    2016-09-21

    Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status, and timing of spot urine collection will be explored. The capacity of spot urine samples to measure change in salt intake over time will also be determined. Finally, we aim to develop a novel equation (or equations) that performs better than existing equations to estimate mean population salt intake. A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data will be conducted. A search has been conducted to identify human studies that report salt (or sodium) excretion based upon 24-hour urine samples and spot urine samples. There were no restrictions on language, study sample size, or characteristics of the study population. MEDLINE via OvidSP (1946-present), Premedline via OvidSP, EMBASE, Global Health via OvidSP (1910-present), and the Cochrane Library were searched, and two reviewers identified eligible studies. The authors of these studies will be invited to contribute data according to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical characteristics; (2) assess the reliability of using spot urine samples to measure population changes in salt intake overtime; and (3) develop a novel equation that performs better than existing equations

  20. FQC Dashboard: integrates FastQC results into a web-based, interactive, and extensible FASTQ quality control tool.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph; Pirrung, Meg; McCue, Lee Ann

    2017-06-09

    FQC is software that facilitates quality control of FASTQ files by carrying out a QC protocol using FastQC, parsing results, and aggregating quality metrics into an interactive dashboard designed to richly summarize individual sequencing runs. The dashboard groups samples in dropdowns for navigation among the data sets, utilizes human-readable configuration files to manipulate the pages and tabs, and is extensible with CSV data. FQC is implemented in Python 3 and Javascript, and is maintained under an MIT license. Documentation and source code is available at: https://github.com/pnnl/fqc . joseph.brown@pnnl.gov. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. High throughput-screening of animal urine samples: It is fast but is it also reliable?

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Anton

    2016-05-01

    Advanced analytical technologies like ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry can be used for veterinary drug screening of animal urine. The technique is sufficiently robust and reliable to detect veterinary drugs in urine samples of animals where the maximum residue limit of these compounds in organs like muscle, kidney, or liver has been exceeded. The limitations and possibilities of the technique are discussed. The most critical point is the variability of the drug concentration ratio between the tissue and urine. Ways to manage the false positive and false negatives are discussed. The capability to confirm findings and the possibility of semi-targeted analysis are also addressed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of the performance of Human Papillomavirus testing in paired urine and clinician-collected cervical samples among women aged over 30 years in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Tshomo, Ugyen; Franceschi, Silvia; Tshokey, Tshokey; Tobgay, Tashi; Baussano, Iacopo; Tenet, Vanessa; Snijders, Peter J F; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Vorsters, Alex; Clifford, Gary M

    2017-04-08

    Urine sampling may offer a less invasive solution than cervical sampling to test for human papillomavirus (HPV) for HPV vaccine impact monitoring. Paired samples of urine and exfoliated cervical cells were obtained for 89 women with history of high-risk (HR) HPV-positive normal cytology in Bhutan. Urine sampling protocol included self-collection of first-void urine immediately into a conservation medium and procedures to optimize DNA yield. Colposcopical abnormalities were biopsied. Two HPV assays were used: a multiplex type-specific PCR (E7-MPG) and a less analytically sensitive GP5+/6+ PCR followed by reverse line blot. HPV positivity for 21 types common to both assays was similar in urine and cells by E7-MPG (62.9% and 57.3%, respectively, p = 0.32) but lower in urine by GP5+/6+ (30.3% and 40.4%, p = 0.05). HPV6/11/16/18 positivity did not significantly differ between urine and cells by either assay. Sensitivity of urine (using cells as gold standard) to detect 21 HPV types was 80% and 58% for E7-MPG and GP5+/6+, respectively, with specificity 61% and 89%. HPV type distribution in urine and cells was similar, regardless of assay. The 5 detected CIN3+ were HR-HPV positive in cells by both assays, compared to 4 and 3 by E7-MPG and GP5+/6+, respectively, in urine samples. For the monitoring of vaccine impact, we demonstrate validity of a urine sampling protocol to obtain HPV prevalence data that are broadly comparable to that from cervical cells. However, detection of HPV in urine varies according to assay sensitivity, presumably because low level infections are frequent.

  3. Genotyping of Leptospira directly in urine samples of cattle demonstrates a diversity of species and strains in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hamond, C; Pestana, C P; Medeiros, M A; Lilenbaum, W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Leptospira in urine samples of cattle by direct sequencing of the secY gene. The validity of this approach was assessed using ten Leptospira strains obtained from cattle in Brazil and 77 DNA samples previously extracted from cattle urine, that were positive by PCR for the genus-specific lipL32 gene of Leptospira. Direct sequencing identified 24 (31·1%) interpretable secY sequences and these were identical to those obtained from direct DNA sequencing of the urine samples from which they were recovered. Phylogenetic analyses identified four species: L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. noguchii, and L. santarosai with the most prevalent genotypes being associated with L. borgpetersenii. While direct sequencing cannot, as yet, replace culturing of leptospires, it is a valid additional tool for epidemiological studies. An unexpected finding from this study was the genetic diversity of Leptospira infecting Brazilian cattle.

  4. Isolation of infectious Zika virus from a urine sample cultured in SIRC cells from a patient suspected of having rubella virus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Isabel de; Namiyama, Gislene Mitsue; Cabral, Gabriela Bastos; Ferreira, João Leandro; Taniwaki, Noemi; Afonso, Ana Maria Sardinha; Lima, Isabella Rillo; Brigido, Luís Fernando Macedo de

    2018-01-01

    A great variety of viruses which cause exanthema share other clinical manifestations, making the etiologic identification a very difficult task, relying exclusively on the clinical examination. Rubella virus (RV) infection during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In the present report, we described the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) particles in urine samples and also ZIKV isolation in SIRC cells from the urine of a patient in acute phase of suspected rubella disease. The 50-year-old unvaccinated woman living in Sao Paulo, Brazil, was admitted to the emergency room with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia and prostration. Urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-qPCR. SIRC and Vero cells were inoculated with urine samples during 7 days. RT-qPCR was performed using measles virus (MV) and RV primers and both were found to be negative. After this result, RT-qPCR was performed for parvovirus B19, herpes virus 6 and ZIKV. The urine sample and the isolate were positive by Real Time PCR for ZIKV and negative for all other viruses tested. The sequences isolated are from the Asiatic lineage.

  5. Nappy pad urine samples for investigation and treatment of UTI in young children: the ‘DUTY’ prospective diagnostic cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Christopher C; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Lawton, Michael; O’Brien, Kathryn; Wootton, Mandy; Hood, Kerenza; Hollingworth, William; Little, Paul; Delaney, Brendan C; van der Voort, Judith; Dudley, Jan; Birnie, Kate; Pickles, Timothy; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Downing, Harriet; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Lisles, Catherine; Rumsby, Kate; Durbaba, Stevo; Whiting, Penny; Harman, Kim; Howe, Robin; MacGowan, Alasdair; Fletcher, Margaret; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-01-01

    Background The added diagnostic utility of nappy pad urine samples and the proportion that are contaminated is unknown. Aim To develop a clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) based on sampling using the nappy pad method. Design and setting Acutely unwell children <5 years presenting to 233 UK primary care sites. Method Logistic regression to identify independent associations of symptoms, signs, and urine dipstick test results with UTI; diagnostic utility quantified as area under the receiver operator curves (AUROC). Nappy pad rule characteristics, AUROC, and contamination, compared with findings from clean-catch samples. Results Nappy pad samples were obtained from 3205 children (82% aged <2 years; 48% female), culture results were available for 2277 (71.0%) and 30 (1.3%) had a UTI on culture. Female sex, smelly urine, darker urine, and the absence of nappy rash were independently associated with a UTI, with an internally-validated, coefficient model AUROC of 0.81 (0.87 for clean-catch), which increased to 0.87 (0.90 for clean-catch) with the addition of dipstick results. GPs’ ‘working diagnosis’ had an AUROC 0.63 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.53 to 0.72). A total of 12.2% of nappy pad and 1.8% of clean-catch samples were ‘frankly contaminated’ (risk ratio 6.66; 95% CI = 4.95 to 8.96; P<0.001). Conclusion Nappy pad urine culture results, with features that can be reported by parents and dipstick tests, can be clinically useful, but are less accurate and more often contaminated compared with clean-catch urine culture. PMID:27364678

  6. One-step liquid-liquid extraction of cocaine from urine samples for gas chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Farina, Marcelo; Yonamine, Maurício; Silva, Ovandir A

    2002-07-17

    An improved technique for cocaine extraction from urine samples for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis is described. Employing a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of cocaine with a mixture of ethyl ether:isopropanol (9:1) the method presents a mean recovery of 74.49%. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 5 and 20 ng/ml, respectively. The method is highly precise (coefficient of variation (CV) <8%) and linear from 20 to 2000 ng/ml. It can he applied to detect the presence of cocaine in urine as a marker of its recent use in drug abuse treatment protocols.

  7. Quantitative determinations of levofloxacin and rifampicin in pharmaceutical and urine samples using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, A. A.; Mossa, H. A.; Barsoum, B. N.

    2005-11-01

    Rapid, specific and simple methods for determining levofloxacin and rifampicin antibiotic drugs in pharmaceutical and human urine samples were developed. The methods are based on 1H NMR spectroscopy using maleic acid as an internal standard and DMSO-d6 as NMR solvent. Integration of NMR signals at 8.9 and 8.2 ppm were, respectively, used for calculating the concentration of levofloxacin and rifampicin drugs per unit dose. Maleic acid signal at 6.2 ppm was used as the reference signal. Recoveries of (97.0-99.4) ± 0.5 and (98.3-99.7) ± 1.08% were obtained for pure levofloxacin and rifampicin, respectively. Corresponding recoveries of 98.5-100.3 and 96.8-100.0 were, respectively, obtained in pharmaceutical capsules and urine samples. Relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) values ≤2.7 were obtained for analyzed drugs in pure, pharmaceutical and urine samples. Statistical Student's t-test gave t-values ≤2.87 indicating insignificant difference between the real and the experimental values at the 95% confidence level. F-test revealed insignificant difference in precisions between the developed NMR methods and each of fluorimetric and HPLC methods for analyzing levofloxacin and rifampicin.

  8. (32)P measurment of urine samples and internal dose assessment for radiation workers in life science laboratories.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S; Pak, M-J; Park, S; Yoo, J; Ha, W-H; Jang, H-K; Kim, J K

    2014-12-01

    (32)P measurements of urine samples and internal dose assessments were conducted for workers in life science laboratories. A procedure for sample pre-treatment was established and validation was performed to exclude interference and to detect (32)P levels accurately. The detection conditions for Cherenkov radiation were evaluated and the accuracy of Cherenkov radiation measurements validated. The analytical and measurement procedures were applied to urine samples collected from 11 workers from life sciences laboratories. The results of the measurements generally indicated very low background radiation levels, but daily urine samples from two workers were above the minimum detectable activity. The (32)P concentrations for two of the workers were 29.3  ±  10.4 Bq•d(-1) and 24.1  ±  11.8 Bq•d(-1), respectively, at intake levels of 4.12 kBq and 2.61 kBq. The effective doses for these two workers were 4.6 μSv and 2.9 μSv. Overall, the results indicate very low levels of radioactivity, except for cases related to specific working conditions.

  9. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in acutely unwell children in general practice: a prospective study with systematic urine sampling.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kathryn; Edwards, Adrian; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C

    2013-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children may be associated with long-term complications that could be prevented by prompt treatment. To determine the prevalence of UTI in acutely ill children ≤ 5 years presenting in general practice and to explore patterns of presenting symptoms and urine sampling strategies. Prospective observational study with systematic urine sampling, in general practices in Wales, UK. In total, 1003 children were recruited from 13 general practices between March 2008 and July 2010. The prevalence of UTI was determined and multivariable analysis performed to determine the probability of UTI. Out of 597 (60.0%) children who provided urine samples within 2 days, the prevalence of UTI was 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.3% to 8.0%) overall, 7.3% in those < 3 years and 3.2% in 3-5 year olds. Neither a history of fever nor the absence of an alternative source of infection was associated with UTI (P = 0.64; P = 0.69, respectively). The probability of UTI in children aged ≥3 years without increased urinary frequency or dysuria was 2%. The probability of UTI was ≥5% in all other groups. Urine sampling based purely on GP suspicion would have missed 80% of UTIs, while a sampling strategy based on current guidelines would have missed 50%. Approximately 6% of acutely unwell children presenting to UK general practice met the criteria for a laboratory diagnosis of UTI. This higher than previously recognised prior probability of UTI warrants raised awareness of the condition and suggests clinicians should lower their threshold for urine sampling in young children. The absence of fever or presence of an alternative source of infection, as emphasised in current guidelines, may not rule out UTI in young children with adequate certainty.

  10. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in acutely unwell children in general practice: a prospective study with systematic urine sampling

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kathryn; Edwards, Adrian; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children may be associated with long-term complications that could be prevented by prompt treatment. Aim To determine the prevalence of UTI in acutely ill children ≤ 5 years presenting in general practice and to explore patterns of presenting symptoms and urine sampling strategies. Design and setting Prospective observational study with systematic urine sampling, in general practices in Wales, UK. Method In total, 1003 children were recruited from 13 general practices between March 2008 and July 2010. The prevalence of UTI was determined and multivariable analysis performed to determine the probability of UTI. Result Out of 597 (60.0%) children who provided urine samples within 2 days, the prevalence of UTI was 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.3% to 8.0%) overall, 7.3% in those < 3 years and 3.2% in 3–5 year olds. Neither a history of fever nor the absence of an alternative source of infection was associated with UTI (P = 0.64; P = 0.69, respectively). The probability of UTI in children aged ≥3 years without increased urinary frequency or dysuria was 2%. The probability of UTI was ≥5% in all other groups. Urine sampling based purely on GP suspicion would have missed 80% of UTIs, while a sampling strategy based on current guidelines would have missed 50%. Conclusion Approximately 6% of acutely unwell children presenting to UK general practice met the criteria for a laboratory diagnosis of UTI. This higher than previously recognised prior probability of UTI warrants raised awareness of the condition and suggests clinicians should lower their threshold for urine sampling in young children. The absence of fever or presence of an alternative source of infection, as emphasised in current guidelines, may not rule out UTI in young children with adequate certainty. PMID:23561695

  11. Fast QC-LDPC code for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qi; Udeh, Chinonso Paschal; Wu, Rangzhong

    2017-02-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication systems use the atmosphere as a propagation medium. Hence the atmospheric turbulence effects lead to multiplicative noise related with signal intensity. In order to suppress the signal fading induced by multiplicative noise, we propose a fast Quasi-Cyclic (QC) Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code for FSO Communication systems. As a linear block code based on sparse matrix, the performances of QC-LDPC is extremely near to the Shannon limit. Currently, the studies on LDPC code in FSO Communications is mainly focused on Gauss-channel and Rayleigh-channel, respectively. In this study, the LDPC code design over atmospheric turbulence channel which is nether Gauss-channel nor Rayleigh-channel is closer to the practical situation. Based on the characteristics of atmospheric channel, which is modeled as logarithmic-normal distribution and K-distribution, we designed a special QC-LDPC code, and deduced the log-likelihood ratio (LLR). An irregular QC-LDPC code for fast coding, of which the rates are variable, is proposed in this paper. The proposed code achieves excellent performance of LDPC codes and can present the characteristics of high efficiency in low rate, stable in high rate and less number of iteration. The result of belief propagation (BP) decoding shows that the bit error rate (BER) obviously reduced as the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increased. Therefore, the LDPC channel coding technology can effectively improve the performance of FSO. At the same time, the BER, after decoding reduces with the increase of SNR arbitrarily, and not having error limitation platform phenomenon with error rate slowing down.

  12. An investigation of the stability of free and glucuronidated 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in authentic urine samples.

    PubMed

    Skopp, Gisela; Pötsch, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Preanalytical stability of a drug and its major metabolites is an important consideration in pharmacokinetic studies or whenever the analyte pattern is used to estimate drug habits. Firstly, the stability of free and glucuronidated 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH, THCCOOglu) in authentic urine samples was investigated. Random urine samples of cannabis users (n = 38) were stored at -20, 4, and 20 degrees C up to 15 days and up to 5 days at 40 degrees C, and alterations of the analyte pattern during storage were followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Secondly, the influence of pH (range 5.0-8.0) on the stability of the analytes was studied using spiked urine to elucidate the results obtained from authentic samples. In authentic urine samples, the initial pH ranged from 5.1 to 8.8. The glucuronide was found to be highly labile at a storage temperature of 4 degrees C and above. Initially, 18 urine samples tested positive for THCCOOH. After 2 days storage at 20 degrees C, THCCOOH was detectable in a further 4 samples, and 7 more samples tested positive for THCCOOH (5-81 ng/mL) after 15 days. Depending on time and temperature, the glucuronide concentration decreased, resulting in an increase of THCCOOH concentration. However, a loss in mean total THCCOOH concentration was found, which was significantly higher in deteriorated samples than in samples without signs of deterioration after 15 days of storage at 20 degrees C. In the drug-free urine sample separately spiked with THCCOOglu or THCCOOH, the investigations on the stability of the target analytes at various pH values revealed that THCCOOH was stable at pH 5.0. At higher pH values, its concentration slightly decreased with time, and about 69% of the initial THCCOOH concentration was still present at pH 8.0 on day 5. THCCOOglu concentrations rapidly decreased with increasing pH value. For example, only 72% of the initial THCCOOglu concentration could be detected at p

  13. Advantage of multiple spot urine collections for estimating daily sodium excretion: comparison with two 24-h urine collections as reference.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Ri, Yui; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Several estimation methods for 24-h sodium excretion using spot urine sample have been reported, but accurate estimation at the individual level remains difficult. We aimed to clarify the most accurate method of estimating 24-h sodium excretion with different numbers of available spot urine samples. A total of 370 participants from throughout Japan collected multiple 24-h urine and spot urine samples independently. Participants were allocated randomly into a development and a validation dataset. Two estimation methods were established in the development dataset using the two 24-h sodium excretion samples as reference: the 'simple mean method' estimated by multiplying the sodium-creatinine ratio by predicted 24-h creatinine excretion, whereas the 'regression method' employed linear regression analysis. The accuracy of the two methods was examined by comparing the estimated means and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) in the validation dataset. Mean sodium excretion by the simple mean method with three spot urine samples was closest to that by 24-h collection (difference: -1.62  mmol/day). CCC with the simple mean method increased with an increased number of spot urine samples at 0.20, 0.31, and 0.42 using one, two, and three samples, respectively. This method with three spot urine samples yielded higher CCC than the regression method (0.40). When only one spot urine sample was available for each study participant, CCC was higher with the regression method (0.36). The simple mean method with three spot urine samples yielded the most accurate estimates of sodium excretion. When only one spot urine sample was available, the regression method was preferable.

  14. Comparison of Different Matrices as Potential Quality Control Samples for Neurochemical Dementia Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lelental, Natalia; Brandner, Sebastian; Kofanova, Olga; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Andreasson, Ulf; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Mroczko, Barbara; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz; Teunissen, Charlotte; Mollenhauer, Brit; Parnetti, Lucilla; Chiasserini, Davide; Molinuevo, Jose Luis; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Verbeek, Marcel M; Andreasen, Niels; Brosseron, Frederic; Bahl, Justyna M C; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Hausner, Lucrezia; Frölich, Lutz; Labonte, Anne; Poirier, Judes; Miller, Anne-Marie; Zilka, Norbert; Kovacech, Branislav; Urbani, Andrea; Suardi, Silvia; Oliveira, Catarina; Baldeiras, Ines; Dubois, Bruno; Rot, Uros; Lehmann, Sylvain; Skinningsrud, Anders; Betsou, Fay; Wiltfang, Jens; Gkatzima, Olymbia; Winblad, Bengt; Buchfelder, Michael; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Assay-vendor independent quality control (QC) samples for neurochemical dementia diagnostics (NDD) biomarkers are so far commercially unavailable. This requires that NDD laboratories prepare their own QC samples, for example by pooling leftover cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. To prepare and test alternative matrices for QC samples that could facilitate intra- and inter-laboratory QC of the NDD biomarkers. Three matrices were validated in this study: (A) human pooled CSF, (B) Aβ peptides spiked into human prediluted plasma, and (C) Aβ peptides spiked into solution of bovine serum albumin in phosphate-buffered saline. All matrices were tested also after supplementation with an antibacterial agent (sodium azide). We analyzed short- and long-term stability of the biomarkers with ELISA and chemiluminescence (Fujirebio Europe, MSD, IBL International), and performed an inter-laboratory variability study. NDD biomarkers turned out to be stable in almost all samples stored at the tested conditions for up to 14 days as well as in samples stored deep-frozen (at - 80°C) for up to one year. Sodium azide did not influence biomarker stability. Inter-center variability of the samples sent at room temperature (pooled CSF, freeze-dried CSF, and four artificial matrices) was comparable to the results obtained on deep-frozen samples in other large-scale projects. Our results suggest that it is possible to replace self-made, CSF-based QC samples with large-scale volumes of QC materials prepared with artificial peptides and matrices. This would greatly facilitate intra- and inter-laboratory QC schedules for NDD measurements.

  15. RAPID DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES IN URINE BY INDUCTIVELY-COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ALPHA SPECTROMETRY: A HYBRID APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.

    2009-05-27

    A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and short-lived actinides by alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by alpha spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are splitmore » between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long- and short-lived actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3 h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6 h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and short-lived actinide isotopes. 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 243Am, 234U, 235U and 238U were measured by ICP-MS, while 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample is preferred

  16. FPGA implementation of high-performance QC-LDPC decoder for optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ding; Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2015-01-01

    Forward error correction is as one of the key technologies enabling the next-generation high-speed fiber optical communications. Quasi-cyclic (QC) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been considered as one of the promising candidates due to their large coding gain performance and low implementation complexity. In this paper, we present our designed QC-LDPC code with girth 10 and 25% overhead based on pairwise balanced design. By FPGAbased emulation, we demonstrate that the 5-bit soft-decision LDPC decoder can achieve 11.8dB net coding gain with no error floor at BER of 10-15 avoiding using any outer code or post-processing method. We believe that the proposed single QC-LDPC code is a promising solution for 400Gb/s optical communication systems and beyond.

  17. Nitrites in Urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why do I need a nitrites in urine test? Your health care provider may have ordered a urinalysis as part ... Fever What happens during a nitrites in urine test? Your health care provider will need to collect a sample of ...

  18. Urobilinogen in Urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why do I need a urobilinogen in urine test? Your health care provider may have ordered this test as part ... skin What happens during a urobilinogen in urine test? Your health care provider will need to collect a sample of ...

  19. Ionic Liquid Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method for the Determination of Irinotecan, an Anticancer Drug, in Water and Urine Samples Using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Deniz; Karadaş, Cennet; Kara, Derya

    2017-05-01

    A new, simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the determination of irinotecan, an anticancer drug, in water and urine samples using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as the extraction solvent, and ethanol was used as the disperser solvent. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, including sample pH, volume of the ionic liquid, choice of the dispersive solvent and its volume, concentration of NaCl, and extraction and centrifugation times, were investigated and optimized. The effect of interfering species on the recovery of irinotecan was also examined. Under optimal conditions, the LOD (3σ) was 48.7 μg/L without any preconcentration. Because the urine sample was diluted 10-fold, the LOD for urine would be 487 μg/L. However, this could be improved 16-fold if preconcentration using a 40 mL aliquot of the sample is used. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of irinotecan in tap water, river water, and urine samples spiked with 10.20 mg/L for the water samples and 8.32 mg/L for the urine sample. The average recovery values of irinotecan determined were 99.1% for tap water, 109.4% for river water, and 96.1% for urine.

  20. Quality control in urodynamics and the role of software support in the QC procedure.

    PubMed

    Hogan, S; Jarvis, P; Gammie, A; Abrams, P

    2011-11-01

    This article aims to identify quality control (QC) best practice, to review published QC audits in order to identify how closely good practice is followed, and to carry out a market survey of the software features that support QC offered by urodynamics machines available in the UK. All UK distributors of urodynamic systems were contacted and asked to provide information on the software features relating to data quality of the products they supply. The results of the market survey show that the features offered by manufacturers differ greatly. Automated features, which can be turned off in most cases, include: cough recognition, detrusor contraction detection, and high pressure alerts. There are currently no systems that assess data quality based on published guidelines. A literature review of current QC guidelines for urodynamics was carried out; QC audits were included in the literature review to see how closely guidelines were being followed. This review highlights the fact that basic QC is not being carried out effectively by urodynamicists. Based on the software features currently available and the results of the literature review there is both the need and capacity for a greater degree of automation in relation to urodynamic data quality and accuracy assessment. Some progress has been made in this area and certain manufacturers have already developed automated cough detection. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Detection of recombinant EPO in blood and urine samples with EPO WGA MAIIA, IEF and SAR-PAGE after microdose injections.

    PubMed

    Dehnes, Yvette; Shalina, Alexandra; Myrvold, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The misuse of microdoses of performance enhancing drugs like erythropoietin (EPO) constitutes a major challenge in doping analysis. When injected intravenously, the half-life of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) like epoetin alfa, beta, and zeta is only a few hours and hence, the window for direct detection of rhEPO in urine is small. In order to investigate the detection window for rhEPO directly in blood and urine with a combined affinity chromatography and lateral flow immunoassay (EPO WGA MAIIA), we recruited nine healthy people who each received six intravenously injected microdoses (7.5 IU/kg) of NeoRecormon (epoetin beta) over a period of three weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected in the days following the injections and analyzed with EPO WGA MAIIA as well as the current validated methods for rhEPO; isoelectric focusing (IEF) and sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SAR-PAGE). For samples collected 18 h after a microdose, the sensitivity of the EPO WGA MAIIA assay was 100% in plasma and 87.5% in urine samples at the respective 98% specificity threshold levels. In comparison, the sensitivity in plasma and urine was 75% and 100%, respectively, with IEF, and 87.5% in plasma and 100% in urine when analyzed with SAR-PAGE. We conclude that EPO WGA MAIIA is a sensitive assay for the detection of rhEPO, with the potential of being a fast, supplemental screening assay for use in doping analysis.

  2. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recente pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered na inaccurate result. A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH.

  3. Evaluation of LSSP-PCR for identification of Leptospira spp. in urine samples of cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Koury, Matilde Cota

    2006-12-20

    We evaluated the use of low-stringency single specific primer PCR (LSSP-PCR) for genetically typing Leptospira directly from urine samples of cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis. Urine samples obtained from 40 cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis were amplified by specific PCR using the following primers: Internal 1/Internal 2 and G1/G2. The internal primers were designed from the gene sequence of the outer membrane lipoprotein Lip32 from Leptospira kirschneri, strain RM52. The PCR products were amplified with these two pairs of primers, which had approximately 497 and 285bp, respectively, and were subsequently used as a template for LSSP-PCR analysis. The genetic signatures from the leptospires which were present in the urine samples allowed us to make a preliminary identification of the leptospires by comparing the LSSP-PCR profiles obtained directly from urine samples with those from reference leptospires. The LSSP-PCR profiles obtained with the Internal 1 primer or with the G1 primer allowed the grouping of the leptospires into serogroups. LSSP-PCR was found to be a useful and sensitive approach capable of identifying leptospires directly from biological samples without the need for prior bacterial isolation. In conclusion, the LSSP-PCR technique may still be helpful in discriminating serogroups of Leptospira from different animal reservoirs, since the early identification of carrier animals and information on the shedding state are crucial to prevent the spread of leptospiral infection to other animals and humans.

  4. A novel construction scheme of QC-LDPC codes based on the RU algorithm for optical transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Liang, Meng-qi; Wang, Yong; Lin, Jin-zhao; Pang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    A novel lower-complexity construction scheme of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes for optical transmission systems is proposed based on the structure of the parity-check matrix for the Richardson-Urbanke (RU) algorithm. Furthermore, a novel irregular QC-LDPC(4 288, 4 020) code with high code-rate of 0.937 is constructed by this novel construction scheme. The simulation analyses show that the net coding gain ( NCG) of the novel irregular QC-LDPC(4 288,4 020) code is respectively 2.08 dB, 1.25 dB and 0.29 dB more than those of the classic RS(255, 239) code, the LDPC(32 640, 30 592) code and the irregular QC-LDPC(3 843, 3 603) code at the bit error rate ( BER) of 10-6. The irregular QC-LDPC(4 288, 4 020) code has the lower encoding/decoding complexity compared with the LDPC(32 640, 30 592) code and the irregular QC-LDPC(3 843, 3 603) code. The proposed novel QC-LDPC(4 288, 4 020) code can be more suitable for the increasing development requirements of high-speed optical transmission systems.

  5. Adulteration of urine by "Urine Luck".

    PubMed

    Wu, A H; Bristol, B; Sexton, K; Cassella-McLane, G; Holtman, V; Hill, D W

    1999-07-01

    In vitro adulterants are used to invalidate assays for urine drugs of abuse. The present study examined the effect of pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) found in the product "Urine Luck". PCC was prepared and added to positive urine controls at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 g/L. The controls were assayed for methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine (BE), codeine and morphine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and phencyclidine (PCP) with the Emit II (Syva) and Abuscreen Online (Roche) immunoassays, and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two tests were also developed to detect PCC in urine: a spot test to detect chromate ions using 10 g/L 1,5-diphenylcarbazide as the indicator, and a GC/MS assay for pyridine. We tested 150 samples submitted for routine urinalysis, compliance, and workplace drug testing for PCC, using these assays. Response rates decreased at 100 g/L PCC for all Emit II drug assays and for the Abuscreen morphine and THC assays. In contrast, the Abuscreen amphetamine assay produced apparently higher results, and no effect was seen on the results for BE or PCP. The PCC did not affect the GC/MS recovery of methamphetamine, BE, PCP, or their deuterated internal standards, but decreased GC/MS recovery of the opiates at both intermediate (50 g/L) and high (100 g/L) PCC concentrations and apparent concentrations of THC and THC-d3 at all PCC concentrations. Two of 50 samples submitted for workplace drug testing under chain-of-custody conditions were positive for PCC, whereas none of the remaining 100 specimens submitted for routine urinalysis or compliance drug testing were positive. PCC is an effective adulterant for urine drug testing of THC and opiates. Identification of PCC use can be accomplished with use of a spot test for the oxidant.

  6. EVALUATION OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS FOR QUANTATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE IN URINE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consisted of a laboratory study to evaluate an extraction and analysis method for quantifying biomarkers of pesticide exposure and creatinine in urine samples collected with commercially-available disposable diapers. For large exposure studies, such as the National ...

  7. A needle extraction utilizing a molecularly imprinted-sol-gel xerogel for on-line microextraction of the lung cancer biomarker bilirubin from plasma and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Jabbar, Dunia; Colmsjö, Anders; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-10-31

    In the present work, a needle trap utilizing a molecularly imprinted sol-gel xerogel was prepared for the on-line microextraction of bilirubin from plasma and urine samples. Each prepared needle could be used for approximately one hundred extractions before it was discarded. Imprinted and non-imprinted sol-gel xerogel were applied for the extraction of bilirubin from plasma and urine samples. The produced molecularly imprinted sol-gel xerogel polymer showed high binding capacity and fast adsorption/desorption kinetics for bilirubin in plasma and urine samples. The adsorption capacity of molecularly imprinted sol-gel xerogel polymer was approximately 60% higher than that of non-imprinted polymer. The effect of the conditioning, washing and elution solvents, pH, extraction time, adsorption capacity and imprinting factor were investigated. The limit of detection and the lower limit of quantification were set to 1.6 and 5nmolL(-1), respectively using plasma or urine samples. The standard calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range of 5-1000nmolL(-1) in both plasma and urine samples. The coefficients of determination values (R(2)) were ≥0.998 for all runs. The extraction recovery was approximately 80% for BR in the human plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of magnetic ODS-PAN thin-films for microextraction of quetiapine and clozapine in plasma and urine samples followed by HPLC-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zou, Juan; Cai, Pei-Shan; Xiong, Chao-Mei; Ruan, Jin-Lan

    2016-06-05

    In this study, conventional thin-film microextraction (TFME) was endowed with magnetic by introducing superparamagnetic SiO2@Fe3O4 nanoparticles in thin-films. Novel magnetic octadecylsilane (ODS)-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) thin-films were prepared by spraying, and used for the microextraction of quetiapine and clozapine in plasma and urine samples, followed by the detection of HPLC-UV. The influencing factors on the extraction efficiency of magnetic ODS-PAN TFME, including pH, extraction time, desorption solvent, desorption time, and ion strength were investigated systematically. Under the optimal conditions, both analytes showed good linearity over ranges of 0.070-9.000μgmL(-1) and 0.012-9.000μgmL(-1) in plasma and urine samples, respectively, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) above 0.9990. Limits of detection (LODs) for quetiapine in plasma and urine samples were 0.013 and 0.003μgmL(-1), respectively. LODs for clozapine in plasma and urine samples were 0.015 and 0.003μgmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quetiapine and clozapine were less than 9.23%. After the validation, the protocol was successfully applied for the determination of quetiapine and clozapine in patients' plasma and urine samples with satisfactory recoveries between 99-110%. The proposed magnetic ODS-PAN TFME was very simple, fast and easy to handle. It showed high potential as a powerful pretreatment technology for routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct trace-elemental analysis of urine samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after sample deposition on clinical filter papers.

    PubMed

    Aramendía, Maite; Rello, Luis; Vanhaecke, Frank; Resano, Martín

    2012-10-16

    Collection of biological fluids on clinical filter papers shows important advantages from a logistic point of view, although analysis of these specimens is far from straightforward. Concerning urine analysis, and particularly when direct trace elemental analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) is aimed at, several problems arise, such as lack of sensitivity or different distribution of the analytes on the filter paper, rendering obtaining reliable quantitative results quite difficult. In this paper, a novel approach for urine collection is proposed, which circumvents many of these problems. This methodology consists on the use of precut filter paper discs where large amounts of sample can be retained upon a single deposition. This provides higher amounts of the target analytes and, thus, sufficient sensitivity, and allows addition of an adequate internal standard at the clinical lab prior to analysis, therefore making it suitable for a strategy based on unsupervised sample collection and ulterior analysis at referral centers. On the basis of this sampling methodology, an analytical method was developed for the direct determination of several elements in urine (Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb, Sn, Tl, Pb, and V) at the low μg L(-1) level by means of LA-ICPMS. The method developed provides good results in terms of accuracy and LODs (≤1 μg L(-1) for most of the analytes tested), with a precision in the range of 15%, fit-for-purpose for clinical control analysis.

  10. Results of the Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program for April 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Cheryl L.

    2012-07-19

    A total of 58 urine samples and 10 fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010) to General Engineering Laboratories, South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am 235U, 238U, elemental uranium and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year as well as four tissue samples for 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am and 241Pu. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.3% of the total samplesmore » submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP, GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 33% of the analyses processed by GEL during the third year of this contract were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 21 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty (Table 4).« less

  11. Results of The Excreta Bioassay Quality Control Program For April 1, 2010 Through March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Cheryl L.

    2012-07-19

    A total of 76 urine samples and 10 spiked fecal samples were submitted during the report period (April 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011) to GEL Laboratories, LLC in South Carolina by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP) to check the accuracy, precision, and detection levels of their analyses. Urine analyses for 14C, Sr, for 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am, 235U, 238U, 238U-mass and fecal analyses for 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu were tested this year. The number of QC urine samples submitted during the report period represented 1.1% of the total samples submitted. In addition to the samples provided by IDP,more » GEL was also required to conduct their own QC program, and submit the results of analyses to IDP. About 31% of the analyses processed by GEL during the first year of contract 112512 were quality control samples. GEL tested the performance of 23 radioisotopes, all of which met or exceeded the specifications in the Statement of Work within statistical uncertainty except the slightly elevated relative bias for 243,244Cm (Table 4).« less

  12. In vitro synthesis and characterisation of three fenoterol sulfoconjugates detected in fenoterol post-administration urine samples.

    PubMed

    Orlovius, A K; Guddat, S; Gütschow, M; Thevis, M; Schänzer, W

    2013-11-01

    Fenoterol, a fast-acting β2-adrenergic agonist, is used in the therapy of obstructive pulmonary diseases and for the inhibition of premature labour obstetrics. Doping control for β2-agonists, which are prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency, is commonly performed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after hydrolysis of phase II metabolites. The continuing development of analytical procedures has led to direct injection of urine samples without sample preparation becoming a viable tool. For the detection of substances without sample preparation, including hydrolysis, detailed information of the phase II metabolism of the substances is essential. In this study, human S9 fractions of different tissues and two recombinant sulfotransferases were investigated for their potential to form fenoterol sulfoconjugates, which were characterised in detail. Two mono-sulfoconjugates and one bis-sulfoconjugate were synthesised and their structures confirmed by liquid chromatography–high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry. All of the metabolites were identified as esterified phenolic compounds. Excretion studies with orally and inhalatively administered fenoterol proved the occurrence of the sulfoconjugates in vivo. Inhalatively administered fenoterol resulted in the detection of the two monosulfoconjugates in low amounts in urine due to the lower inhalation dose of fenoterol compared to the oral dose. After oral uptake of fenoterol, the two mono-sulfoconjugates and a fenoterol bis-sulfoconjugate were detected in urine. This is the first report of the bis-sulfoconjugate.

  13. Black market products confiscated in Norway 2011-2014 compared to analytical findings in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Hullstein, Ingunn R; Malerod-Fjeld, Helle; Dehnes, Yvette; Hemmersbach, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Doping agents are widely and illicitly distributed through the Internet. Analysis of these preparations is useful in order to monitor the availability of prohibited substances on the market, and more importantly to predict which substances are expected to be found in urine samples collected from athletes and to aid clinical and forensic investigations. Based on a close collaboration with the Norwegian police and the Norwegian custom authorities, the Norwegian Doping Control Laboratory has performed analyses of confiscated material suspected of containing doping agents. The analyses were performed using gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS). The majority (67%) of the analyzed black market products contained anabolic- androgenic steroids (AAS) as expected, whereas peptide- and protein-based doping substances were identified in 28% of the preparations. The Norwegian Doping Control Laboratory receives samples collected from recreational and elite athletes in addition to samples collected in clinical and forensic investigations. The findings in the seized material reflected the findings in the urine samples analyzed regarding the anabolic steroids. Thus, analyzing material seized in Norway may give a good indication of doping agents available on the local market. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antibiotic use in heavy pigs: Comparison between urine and muscle samples from food chain animals analysed by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Luca Maria; Nobile, Maria; Panseri, Sara; Arioli, Francesco

    2017-11-15

    The antibiotic overuse in zoothechnics, due to prophylactic and therapeutic treatments, or to their growth-promoting activity, is a major cause for the onset of widespread antibiotic resistance. Of particular relevance to this study, is the antibiotic abuse in pig breeding. Despite the comprehensive literature on residue controls in pig muscle, data on pig urine, a non-invasive, on-farm collectable matrix, are lacking. Therefore, we validated an HPLC-MS/MS method to detect 29 antimicrobials from eight classes and applied it to 43 anonymous pig urine and muscle paired samples and fulfilled the parameters in agreement with the Commission Decision 2002/657/UE. The analytical limits were moreover much lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) required by the Commission Regulation 37/2010/UE. In the samples, antibiotics were usually detected at higher frequencies and concentrations in urine than muscle. Urine proved a useful tool to detect antibiotic administration and their excessive use in pig farming is depicted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Determination of thiopental in urine sample with high-performance liquid chromatography using iodine-azide reaction as a postcolumn detection system.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Robert; Ciesielski, Witold

    2005-09-25

    The reaction between iodine and azide ions induced by thiopental was utilized as a postcolumn reaction for chromatographic determination of thiopental. The method is based on the separation of thiopental on an Nova-Pak CN HP column with an acetonitrile-aqueous solution of sodium azide as a mobile phase, followed by spectrophotometric measurement of the residual iodine (lambda=350 nm) from the postcolumn iodine-azide reaction induced by thiopental after mixing an iodine solution containing iodide ions with the column effluent containing azide ions and thiopental. Chromatograms obtained for thiopental showed negative peaks as a result of the decrease in background absorbance. The detection limit (defined as S/N=3) was 20 nM (0.4 pmol injected amount) for thiopental. Calibration graphs, plotted as peak area versus concentrations, were linear from 40 nM. The elaborated method was applied to determine thiopental in urine samples. The detection limit (defined as S/N=3) was 0.025 nmol/ml urine. Calibration graphs, plotted as peak area versus concentrations, were linear from 0.05 nmol/ml urine. Authentic urine samples were analyzed, thiopental was determined at nmol/ml urine level.

  16. Effects of diet composition on mutagenic activity in urine.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Tsugio

    2004-01-01

    The effects of dietary habits on mutagenic activity in urine were investigated using the umu test based on the use of the genetically engineered bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 pSK1002. Genotoxic effects in sample urine were detected by measuring the activation of the SOS response in the bacteria and recording the beta- galactosidase activity. Human subjects consisted of smokers and non-smokers. Urine from subjects who consumed fish showed the highest mutagenic activity, followed by the urine samples from subjects who ate pork or beef. Chicken induced a low level of mutagenic activity. When the subjects ate fried or roasted animal foods, the urine samples gave higher mutagenicity than the urine samples from the subject who consumed non-fried or non-roasted animal foods. When the subject ate vegetables along with a diet rich in animal foods, the activity in urine decreased. Herbs and spices gave the same tendency toward decline as vegetables. Non-smoker urine shower mutagenic activity than samples from smokers.

  17. Quantifying cobalt in doping control urine samples--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krug, Oliver; Kutscher, Daniel; Piper, Thomas; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Since first reports on the impact of metals such as manganese and cobalt on erythropoiesis were published in the late 1920s, cobaltous chloride became a viable though not widespread means for the treatment of anaemic conditions. Today, its use is de facto eliminated from clinical practice; however, its (mis)use in human as well as animal sport as an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent has been discussed frequently. In order to assess possible analytical options and to provide relevant information on the prevalence of cobalt use/misuse among athletes, urinary cobalt concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) from four groups of subjects. The cohorts consisted of (1) a reference population with specimens of 100 non-elite athletes (not being part of the doping control system), (2) a total of 96 doping control samples from endurance sport athletes, (3) elimination study urine samples collected from six individuals having ingested cobaltous chloride (500 µg/day) through dietary supplements, and (4) samples from people supplementing vitamin B12 (cobalamin) at 500 µg/day, accounting for approximately 22 µg of cobalt. The obtained results demonstrated that urinary cobalt concentrations of the reference population as well as the group of elite athletes were within normal ranges (0.1-2.2 ng/mL). A modest but significant difference between these two groups was observed (Wilcoxon rank sum test, p < 0.01) with the athletes' samples presenting slightly higher urinary cobalt levels. The elimination study urine specimens yielded cobalt concentrations between 40 and 318 ng/mL during the first 6 h post-administration, and levels remained elevated (>22 ng/mL) up to 33 h. Oral supplementation of 500 µg of cobalamin did not result in urinary cobalt concentrations > 2 ng/mL. Based on these pilot study data it is concluded that measuring the urinary concentration of cobalt can provide information indicating the use

  18. Performance of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis using serum, urine, and cyst fluid samples

    PubMed Central

    Chaya, DR; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic zoonosis which presents with variable clinical manifestations. Currently the diagnosis of this disease is based on radiological findings and serological tests which lack specificity. Although antigen detection from the cyst fluid is the most specific, it is seldom done due to the complications involved. Detecting the presence of Echinococcus granulosus specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could provide a definitive diagnosis of CE. Materials and Methods: An in-house PCR assay was devised to detect E. granulosus specific DNA in serum, urine and hydatid cyst fluid. The ability of the PCR to detect E. granulosus in the above mentioned samples were observed in comparison with other antigen and antibody detection tests. Results: Serum samples from surgically confirmed patients of CE with ruptured cysts contained the corresponding DNA while the in the majority of cases who had an intact cyst had no DNA of E. granulosus in their serum. DNA of E. granulosus was not found to be excreted in urine. PCR performed equal to antigen detection ELISA while testing hydatid cyst fluid samples. Conclusions: Serum and urine might not serve as useful samples for the molecular diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. However, PCR can be useful on serum samples to detect ruptured hydatid cysts and on hydatid cyst fluid to confirm the parasitic diagnosis. PMID:24754027

  19. Performance of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis using serum, urine, and cyst fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Chaya, Dr; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic zoonosis which presents with variable clinical manifestations. Currently the diagnosis of this disease is based on radiological findings and serological tests which lack specificity. Although antigen detection from the cyst fluid is the most specific, it is seldom done due to the complications involved. Detecting the presence of Echinococcus granulosus specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could provide a definitive diagnosis of CE. An in-house PCR assay was devised to detect E. granulosus specific DNA in serum, urine and hydatid cyst fluid. The ability of the PCR to detect E. granulosus in the above mentioned samples were observed in comparison with other antigen and antibody detection tests. Serum samples from surgically confirmed patients of CE with ruptured cysts contained the corresponding DNA while the in the majority of cases who had an intact cyst had no DNA of E. granulosus in their serum. DNA of E. granulosus was not found to be excreted in urine. PCR performed equal to antigen detection ELISA while testing hydatid cyst fluid samples. Serum and urine might not serve as useful samples for the molecular diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. However, PCR can be useful on serum samples to detect ruptured hydatid cysts and on hydatid cyst fluid to confirm the parasitic diagnosis.

  20. A novel construction method of QC-LDPC codes based on CRT for optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Liang, Meng-qi; Wang, Yong; Lin, Jin-zhao; Pang, Yu

    2016-05-01

    A novel construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes is proposed based on Chinese remainder theory (CRT). The method can not only increase the code length without reducing the girth, but also greatly enhance the code rate, so it is easy to construct a high-rate code. The simulation results show that at the bit error rate ( BER) of 10-7, the net coding gain ( NCG) of the regular QC-LDPC(4 851, 4 546) code is respectively 2.06 dB, 1.36 dB, 0.53 dB and 0.31 dB more than those of the classic RS(255, 239) code in ITU-T G.975, the LDPC(32 640, 30 592) code in ITU-T G.975.1, the QC-LDPC(3 664, 3 436) code constructed by the improved combining construction method based on CRT and the irregular QC-LDPC(3 843, 3 603) code constructed by the construction method based on the Galois field ( GF( q)) multiplicative group. Furthermore, all these five codes have the same code rate of 0.937. Therefore, the regular QC-LDPC(4 851, 4 546) code constructed by the proposed construction method has excellent error-correction performance, and can be more suitable for optical transmission systems.

  1. Stability of cannabinoids in urine in three storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Golding Fraga, S; Díaz-Flores Estévez, J; Díaz Romero, C

    1998-01-01

    Stability of cannabinoid compounds in urine samples were evaluated using several storage temperatures. Appreciable losses (> 22.4 percent) were observed in some urine samples, after being stored at room temperature for 10 days. Lower losses (8.1 percent) were observed when the urine samples were refrigerated for 4 weeks. The behavior of urine samples depended on the analyzed urine. This could be due to the different stability of the cannabinoids present in each urine sample. Important losses of 8.0 +/- 10.6, 15.8 +/- 4.2, and 19.6 +/- 6.7 percent were found when the urine samples were frozen during 40 days, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Average losses (> > 5 percent) can be observed after one day which could mainly be due to the decrease of the solubility of 11-nor-U9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) or adsorption process of cannabinoid molecules to the plastic storage containers.

  2. Utility of Cytospin and Cell block Technology in Evaluation of Body Fluids and Urine Samples: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Irmeen; Rehman, Suhailur; Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Ansari, Hena A; Chauhan, Sunanda

    2018-01-01

    Cytologic examination of body fluids commonly involves the use of direct or sediment smears, cytocentrifuge preparations, membrane filter preparations, or cell block sections. Cytospin and cell block techniques are extremely useful in improving cell yield of thin serous effusions and urine samples, and ensure high diagnostic efficacy. We studied cytospin preparations and cell block sections prepared from 180 samples of body fluids and urine samples to compare the relative efficiency of cell retrieval, preservation of cell morphology, ease of application of special stains, and diagnostic efficacy. Samples were collected and processed to prepare cytospin smears and cell block sections. We observed that overall, cell yield and preservation of individual cell morphology were better in cytospin preparations as compared to cell blocks, while preservation of architectural pattern was better in cell block sections. The number of suspicious cases also decreased on cell block sections, with increased detection of malignancy. It was difficult to prepare cell blocks from urine samples due to low cellularity. Cytospin technology is a quick, efficient, and cost-effective method of increasing cell yield in hypocellular samples, with better preservation of cell morphology. Cell blocks are better prepared from high cellularity fluids; however, tissue architecture is better studied, with improved rate of diagnosis and decrease in ambiguous results. Numerous sections can be prepared from a small amount of material. Special stains and immunochemical stains can be easily applied to cell blocks. It also provides a source of archival material.

  3. Sample preparation and UHPLC-FD analysis of pteridines in human urine.

    PubMed

    Tomšíková, H; Solich, P; Nováková, L

    2014-07-01

    Elevated levels of pteridines can indicate the activation of cellular immune system by certain diseases. No work dealing with the simultaneous determination of urinary neopterin, biopterin and their reduced forms has been published. Therefore, a new SPE-UHPLC-FD method for the analysis of these compounds has been developed. The main emphasis was put on the stability of dihydroforms during the sample processing and storage. As a stabilizing agent, dithiothreitol, at various concentrations, and various pH values (3.8-9.8) of working solutions were tested. Chromatographic separation was performed under HILIC isocratic conditions on BEH Amide column. The method was linear for the calibration standard solutions in the range of 10-10,000 ng/ml (dihydroforms) and 0.5-1000 ng/ml (oxidized forms), and for real samples in the range of 25-1000 ng/ml (dihydroforms) and 1-100 ng/ml (oxidized forms). The development of a new SPE sample preparation method was carried out on different types of sorbents (based on a mixed-mode cation exchange, porous graphitic carbon and a polymer comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic components). Final validation was performed on a MCAX SPE column. Method accuracy ranged from 76.9 to 121.9%. The intra- and inter-day precision did not exceed 10.7%. The method provided high sensitivity for the use in routine clinical measurements of urine (LLOQ 1 ng/ml for oxidized forms and 25 ng/ml for dihydroforms). Average concentrations of biopterin, neopterin, and dihydrobiopterin found in urine of healthy persons were related to the mol of creatinine (66.8, 142.3, and 257.3 μmol/mol of creatinine, respectively) which corresponded to the literature data. The concentration of dihydroneopterin obtained using our method was 98.8 μmol/mol of creatinine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene

    2018-04-13

    While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  5. Hollow-fiber-supported liquid phase microextraction with in situ derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of chlorophenols in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Ito, Rie; Kawaguchi, Migaku; Honda, Hidehiro; Koganei, Youji; Okanouchi, Noriya; Sakui, Norihiro; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-09-01

    A simple and highly sensitive method that involves hollow-fiber-supported liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) with in situ derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of chlorophenols (CPs) such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TrCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (TeCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human urine samples. Human urine samples were enzymatically de-conjugated with beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase. After de-conjugation, HF-LPME with in situ derivatization was performed. After extraction, 2 microl of extract was carefully withdrawn into a syringe and injected into the GC-MS system. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and quantification (S/N>10) of CPs in the human urine samples are 0.1-0.2 ng ml(-1) and 0.5-1 ng ml(-1), respectively. The calibration curve for CPs is linear with a correlation coefficient of >0.99 in the range of 0.5-500 ng ml(-1) for DCP and TrCP, and of 1-500 ng ml(-1) for TeCP and PCP, respectively. The average recoveries of CPs (n=6) in human urine samples are 81.0-104.0% (R.S.D.: 1.9-6.6%) with correction using added surrogate standards. When the proposed method was applied to human urine samples, CPs were detected at sub-ng ml(-1) level.

  6. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bachega, José Fernando R.; Timmers, Luís Fernando S.M.; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R.; Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid quantum chemical (QC)/molecular mechanical (MM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions, that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo, that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  7. Using hair, nail and urine samples for human exposure assessment of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Zhou, Zhen; Liang, Yong; Cai, Yaqi

    2018-09-15

    Non-invasive samples present ethical and practical benefits for investigating human exposure to hazardous contaminants, but analytical challenges and difficulties to interpret the results limit their application in biomonitoring. Here we investigated the potential for using hair, nail and urine samples as a measure of internal exposure to an array of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in two populations with different exposure conditions. Paired urine-serum measurements of PFASs from a group of highly exposed fishery employees displayed strong correlations for PFASs with three to eight perfluorinated carbons (ρ > 0.653; p < 0.01). Consistent statistical correlations and transfer ratios in nails and hair from both populations demonstrated that these non-invasive samples can be used as a measure of internal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and C8 chlorinated polyfluoralkyl ether sulfonic acid (C8 Cl-PFESA). Contrastingly, the infrequent detections and/or lack of consistent transfer ratios for perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid and short-chain PFASs in hair and nail samples indicate passive uptake from the external environment rather than uptake and internal distribution. Collectively, the study supports the use of urine samples as a valid measure of internal exposure for a range of short- and medium-chain PFASs, while the validity of nail and hair samples as a measure of internal exposure may vary for different PFASs and populations. The ubiquitous detection of C8 Cl-PFESA in all sample matrices from both populations indicates widespread exposure to this contaminant of emerging concern in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The resident microflora of voided midstream urine of healthy controls: standard versus expanded urine culture protocols.

    PubMed

    Coorevits, L; Heytens, S; Boelens, J; Claeys, G

    2017-04-01

    The workup and interpretation of urine cultures is not always clear-cut, especially for midstream samples contaminated with commensals. Standard urine culture (SUC) protocols are designed in favor of growth of uropathogens at the expense of commensals. In selected clinical situations, however, it is essential to trace fastidious or new uropathogens by expanding the urine culture conditions (EUC). The aim of our study was to map the microflora in midstream urine specimens from healthy controls by means of EUC, in view of the interpretation of bacterial culture results in symptomatic patients. Midstream urine specimens from 101 healthy controls (86 females and 15 males) were examined using both SUC and EUC. Whilst 73 % of samples examined by SUC showed no growth at 10 3  colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, 91 % of samples examined by EUC grew bacterial species in large numbers (≥10 4  CFU/mL). Asymptomatic bacteriuria, as defined by the European guidelines for urinalysis, was detected in six samples with both protocols. EUC revealed 98 different species, mostly Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Corynebacterium. None of the samples grew Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium urealyticum, or Aerococcus urinae. Samples from females contained higher bacterial loads and showed higher bacterial diversity compared to males. Midstream urine of healthy controls contains large communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident microflora, only revealed by EUC. Hence, the use of EUC instead of SUC in a routine setting would result in more sensitive but less specific results, requiring critical interpretation. In our view, EUC should be reserved for limited indications.

  9. Validation of a urine color scale for assessment of urine osmolality in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, Stavros A; Johnson, Evan C; Bougatsas, Dimitris; Arnaoutis, Giannis; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Perrier, Erica; Klein, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Urine color (UC) is a practical tool for hydration assessment. The technique has been validated in adults, but has not been tested in children. The purpose of the study was to test the validity of the urine color scale in young, healthy boys and girls, as a marker of urine concentration, investigate its diagnostic ability of detecting hypohydration and examine the ability of children to self-assess UC. A total of 210 children participated (age: 8-14 years, body mass: 43.4 ± 12.6 kg, height: 1.49 ± 0.13 m, body fat: 25.2 ± 7.8 %). Data collection included: two single urine samples (first morning and before lunch) and 24-h sampling. Hydration status was assessed via urine osmolality (UOsmo) and UC via the eight-point color scale. Mean UC was 3 ± 1 and UOsmo 686 ± 223 mmol kg(-1). UC displayed a positive relationship as a predictor of UOsmo (R (2): 0.45, P < 0.001). Based on the receiver operating curve, UC has good overall classification ability for the three samples (area under the curve 85-92 %), with good sensitivity (92-98 %) and specificity (55-68 %) for detecting hypohydration. The overall accuracy of the self-assessment of UC in the morning or the noon samples ranged from 67 to 78 %. Further threshold analysis indicated that the optimal self-assessed UC threshold for hypohydration was ≥4. The classical eight-point urine color scale is a valid method to assess hydration in children of age 8-14 years, either by researchers or self-assessment.

  10. ECLSS Sustaining Compatibility Testing on Urine Processor Assembly Nonmetallic Materials for Reformulation of Pretreated Urine Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    On International Space Station (ISS), the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) converts human urine and flush water into potable water. The urine is acid-pretreated primarily to control microbial growth. In recent years, the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) pretreatment was believed to be largely responsible for producing salt crystals capable of plugging filters in UPA components and significantly reducing the percentage of water recovery from urine. In 2012, ISS management decided to change the acid pretreatment for urine from sulfuric to phosphoric with the goal of eliminating or minimizing formation of salt crystals. In 2013-2014, as part of the qualification of the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) formulation, samples of 12 nonmetallic materials used in UPA components were immersed for up to one year in pretreated urine and brine solutions made with the new H3PO4 formulation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to measure modulus (stiffness) of the immersed samples compared to virgin control samples. Such compatibility data obtained by DMA for the H3PO4-based solutions were compared to DMA data obtained for the H2SO4-based solutions in 2002-2003.

  11. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  12. Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance Among Community Derived Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae Using Urine Sample: A Study From Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Lohiya, Ayush; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite world-wide evidence of increased antibiotic resistance, there is scarce data on antibiotic resistance in community settings. One of the reason being difficulty in collection of biological specimen (traditionally stool) in community from apparently healthy individuals. Hence, finding an alternative specimen that is easier to obtain in a community setting or in large scale surveys for the purpose, is crucial. We conducted this study to explore the feasibility of using urine samples for deriving community based estimates of antibiotic resistance and to estimate the magnitude of resistance among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia against multiple antibiotics in apparently healthy individuals residing in a rural community of Haryana, North India. Materials and Methods Eligible individuals were apparently healthy, aged 18 years or older. Using the health management information system (HMIS) of Ballabgarh Health Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), sampling frame was prepared. Potential individuals were identified using simple random sampling. Random urine sample was collected in a sterile container and transported to laboratory under ambient condition. Species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae was done using Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) 2012 guidelines. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae, Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae, and Carbapenem producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were identified from the urine samples. Results A total of 433 individuals participated in the study (non-response rate – 13.4%), out of which 58 (13.4%) were positive for Enterobacteriaceae, 8.1% for E. coli and 5.3% for K. pneumoniae. Resistance against penicillin (amoxicillin/ampicillin) for E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 62.8% and 100.0% respectively. Isolates resistant to co-trimoxazole were 5.7% and 0.0% respectively. None of the isolates

  13. Simultaneous LC/MS/MS determination of thiols and disulfides in urine samples based on differential labeling with ferrocene-based maleimides.

    PubMed

    Seiwert, Bettina; Karst, Uwe

    2007-09-15

    A method for the simultaneous determination of a series of thiols and disulfides in urine samples has been developed based on the sequential labeling of free and bound thiol functionalities with two ferrocene-based maleimide reagents. The sample is first exposed to N-(2-ferroceneethyl)maleimide, thus leading to the derivatization of free thiol groups in the sample. After quantitative reaction and subsequent reduction of the disulfide-bound thiols by tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, the newly formed thiol functionalities are reacted with ferrocenecarboxylic acid-(2-maleimidoyl)ethylamide. The reaction products are determined by LC/MS/MS in the multiple reaction mode, and precursor ion scan as well as neutral loss scan is applied to detect unknown further thiols. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of free and disulfide-bound thiols in urine samples. Limits of detection are 30 to 110 nM, and the linear range comprises two decades of concentration, thus covering the relevant concentration range of thiols in urine samples. The thiol and disulfide concentrations were referred to the creatinine content to compensate for different sample volumes. As some calibration standards for the disulfides are not commercially available, they were synthesized in an electrochemical flow-through cell. This allowed the synthesis of hetero- and homodimeric disulfides.

  14. Utility of Cytospin and Cell block Technology in Evaluation of Body Fluids and Urine Samples: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Irmeen; Rehman, Suhailur; Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Ansari, Hena A.; Chauhan, Sunanda

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cytologic examination of body fluids commonly involves the use of direct or sediment smears, cytocentrifuge preparations, membrane filter preparations, or cell block sections. Cytospin and cell block techniques are extremely useful in improving cell yield of thin serous effusions and urine samples, and ensure high diagnostic efficacy. Materials and Methods: We studied cytospin preparations and cell block sections prepared from 180 samples of body fluids and urine samples to compare the relative efficiency of cell retrieval, preservation of cell morphology, ease of application of special stains, and diagnostic efficacy. Samples were collected and processed to prepare cytospin smears and cell block sections. Results: We observed that overall, cell yield and preservation of individual cell morphology were better in cytospin preparations as compared to cell blocks, while preservation of architectural pattern was better in cell block sections. The number of suspicious cases also decreased on cell block sections, with increased detection of malignancy. It was difficult to prepare cell blocks from urine samples due to low cellularity. Conclusions: Cytospin technology is a quick, efficient, and cost-effective method of increasing cell yield in hypocellular samples, with better preservation of cell morphology. Cell blocks are better prepared from high cellularity fluids; however, tissue architecture is better studied, with improved rate of diagnosis and decrease in ambiguous results. Numerous sections can be prepared from a small amount of material. Special stains and immunochemical stains can be easily applied to cell blocks. It also provides a source of archival material. PMID:29643653

  15. Consideration of the degree of increase in urine metadrenalines provides superior specificity in the diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma than additional urine catecholamine measurement.

    PubMed

    Scargill, J J; Reed, P; Kane, J

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of fractionated plasma or urine metadrenalines is the recommended screening test in the diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma, with clinical cut-offs geared towards diagnostic sensitivity. Current practice at Salford Royal Hospital is to add urine catecholamines onto samples with raised urine metadrenalines, with the aim of adding specificity to a diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma. This practice was reviewed by identifying a series of patients with raised urine metadrenalines who had catecholamines reflectively added. A total of 358 samples were identified from 242 patients, of which 228 had urine catecholamines measured. A diagnosis of 'phaeochromocytoma' (n = 41) or 'no phaeochromocytoma' (n = 90) was obtained in 131 of 228 patients, giving raised urine metadrenalines a positive predictive value for phaeochromocytoma of 31%. The finding of increased urine catecholamines in samples with raised urine metadrenalines increased specificity for phaeochromocytoma to 70%. However, 95% diagnostic specificity for phaeochromocytoma could be achieved by the introduction of a second cut-off for urine metadrenalines geared towards maximizing specificity. Consideration of the degree of increase in urine metadrenalines is a superior method of determining the likelihood of phaeochromocytoma than measurement of urine catecholamines.

  16. 40 CFR 98.74 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.74 Monitoring and QA/QC... (c)(8) of this section. (f) [Reserved] (g) If CO2 from ammonia production is used to produce urea at...

  17. 40 CFR 98.74 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.74 Monitoring and QA/QC... (c)(8) of this section. (f)[Reserved] (g) If CO2 from ammonia production is used to produce urea at...

  18. 40 CFR 98.74 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.74 Monitoring and QA/QC... (c)(8) of this section. (f)[Reserved] (g) If CO2 from ammonia production is used to produce urea at...

  19. 40 CFR 98.74 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.74 Monitoring and QA/QC... (c)(8) of this section. (f) [Reserved] (g) If CO2 from ammonia production is used to produce urea at...

  20. Feline urine metabolomic signature: characterization of low-molecular-weight substances in urine from domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vélez, Sol-Maiam; Villarino, Nicolas F

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This aim of this study was to characterize the composition and content of the feline urine metabolome. Methods Eight healthy domestic cats were acclimated at least 10 days before starting the study. Urine samples (~2 ml) were collected by ultrasound-guided cystocentesis. Samples were centrifuged at 1000 × g for 8 mins, and the supernatant was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometery. The urine metabolome was characterized using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Results Three hundred and eighteen metabolites were detected in the urine of the eight cats. These molecules are key components of at least 100 metabolic pathways. Feline urine appears to be dominated by carbohydrates, carbohydrate conjugates, organic acid and derivatives, and amino acids and analogs. The five most abundant molecules were phenaceturic acid, hippuric acid, pseudouridine phosphate and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid. Conclusions and relevance This study is the first to characterize the feline urine metabolome. The results of this study revealed the presence of multiple low-molecular-weight substances that were not known to be present in feline urine. As expected, the origin of the metabolites detected in urine was diverse, including endogenous compounds and molecules biosynthesized by microbes. Also, the diet seemed to have had a relevant role on the urine metabolome. Further exploration of the urine metabolic phenotype will open a window for discovering unknown, or poorly understood, metabolic pathways. In turn, this will advance our understanding of feline biology and lead to new insights in feline physiology, nutrition and medicine.

  1. [Sampling, storage and transport of biological materials collected from living and deceased subjects for determination of concentration levels of ethyl alcohol and similarly acting substances. A proposal of updating the blood and urine sampling protocol].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Reguła, Krystyna; Pieśniak, Dorota; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Szpiech, Beata; Jankowski, Zbigniew

    2007-01-01

    The present paper emphasizes the most common mistakes committed at the beginning of an analytical procedure. To shorten the time and decrease the cost of determinations of substances with similar to alcohol activity, it is postulated to introduce mass-scale screening analysis of saliva collected from a living subject at the site of the event, with all positive results confirmed in blood or urine samples. If no saliva sample is collected for toxicology, a urine sample, allowing for a stat fast screening analysis, and a blood sample, to confirm the result, should be ensured. Inappropriate storage of a blood sample in the tube without a preservative can cause sample spilling and its irretrievable loss. The authors propose updating the "Blood/urine sampling protocol", with the updated version to be introduced into practice following consultations and revisions.

  2. Monitoring of exposure to methylpentanes by diffusive sampling and urine analysis for alcoholic metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, T; Mizunuma, K; Yasugi, T; Horiguchi, S; Iguchi, H; Mutti, A; Ghittori, S; Ikeda, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the possibilities of personal ambient monitoring and biological monitoring for methylpentane isomers. METHODS--The performance of activated carbon cloth to absorb 2- and 3-methylpentane was studied by experimental vapour exposure followed by solvent extraction and gas chromatography (GC). Urine from workers and rats exposed to 2- and 3-methylpentane was analysed by GC with or without acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. RESULTS--Carbon cloth absorbed 2- and 3-methylpentane linearly to exposures up to eight hours and to 400 ppm, and was sensitive enough to detect a 15 minute peak of exposure. The two isomers were clearly separated from hexane on a DB-1 column. For analysis of the urine, enzymatic hydrolysis was superior to acid hydrolysis. Exposure of rats to methylpentane vapours showed that 2-methyl-2-pentanol and 3-methyl-2-pentanol were excreted in urine in proportion to the dose of 2-methylpentane and 3-methylpentane, respectively. 2-Methyl derivatives of 1-, 3-, and 4-propanol, 2-methylpentane-2,4-diol, and 3-methyl-2-pentanol were minor metabolites. Analysis of urine from the exposed workers showed that 2-methyl- and 3-methyl-2-pentanol are leading urinary metabolites after exposure to the corresponding methylpentane. CONCLUSIONS--Diffusive sampling is applicable to monitor 2- and 3-methylpentane vapours as is the case for hexane vapour. 2-Methyl-2-pentanol and 3-methyl-2-pentanol will be markers of occupational exposure to 2-methylpentane and 3-methylpentane, respectively. Also, 2-methylpentane-2,4-diol might be a marker of exposure to 2-methylpentane. PMID:8535496

  3. Construction method of QC-LDPC codes based on multiplicative group of finite field in optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sheng; Ao, Xiang; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    In order to meet the needs of high-speed development of optical communication system, a construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes based on multiplicative group of finite field is proposed. The Tanner graph of parity check matrix of the code constructed by this method has no cycle of length 4, and it can make sure that the obtained code can get a good distance property. Simulation results show that when the bit error rate ( BER) is 10-6, in the same simulation environment, the net coding gain ( NCG) of the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code with the code rate of 93.7% in this paper is improved by 2.18 dB and 1.6 dB respectively compared with those of the RS(255, 239) code in ITU-T G.975 and the LDPC(3 2640, 3 0592) code in ITU-T G.975.1. In addition, the NCG of the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code is respectively 0.2 dB and 0.4 dB higher compared with those of the SG-QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code based on the two different subgroups in finite field and the AS-QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code based on the two arbitrary sets of a finite field. Thus, the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code in this paper can be well applied in optical communication systems.

  4. Optimization of solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of capilliposide B and its active metabolite in rat urine and feces: Overcoming nonspecific binding.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongzhe; Zhou, Xing; Li, Wenyi; Hu, Bingying; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Hongliang

    2016-11-30

    Capilliposide B, a novel oleanane triterpenoid saponin isolated from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl, showed significant anti-tumor activities in recent studies. To characterize the excretion of Capilliposide B, a reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Capilliposide B and its active metabolite, Capilliposide A in rat urine and feces. Sample preparation using a solid-phase extraction procedure was optimized by acidification of samples at various degrees, providing extensive sample clean-up with a high extraction recovery. In addition, rat urinary samples were pretreated with CHAPS, an anti-adsorptive agent, for overcoming nonspecific analytes adsorption during sample storage and process. The method validation was conducted over the curve range of 10.0-5000ng/ml for both analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the QC samples showed ≤11.0% RSD and -10.4-12.8% relative error. The method was successfully applied to an excretion study of Capilliposide B following intravenous administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Urine osmolality in the US population: Implications for environmental biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Weidemann, Darcy; Weaver, Virginia; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Neu, Alicia; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Background For many environmental chemicals, concentrations in spot urine samples are considered valid surrogates of exposure and internal dose. To correct for urine dilution, spot urine concentrations are commonly adjusted for urinary creatinine. There are, however, several concerns about the use of urine creatinine. While urine osmolality is an attractive alternative; its characteristics and determinants in the general population remain unknown. Our objective was to describe the determinants of urine osmolality and to contrast the difference between osmolality and creatinine in urine. Methods From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2012, 10,769 participants aged 16 years or older with measured urine osmolality and creatinine were used in the analysis. Very dilute and very concentrated urine was defined as urine creatinine lower than 0.3 g/l and higher than 3 g/l, respectively. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations of interest. Results Urine osmolality and creatinine were highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.75) and their respective median values were 648 mOsm/kg and 1.07 g/l. The prevalence of very dilute and very concentrated urine samples was 8.1% and 3.1%, respectively. Factors associated in the same direction with both urine osmolality and urine creatinine included age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, water intake, and blood osmolality. The magnitude of associations expressed as percent change was significantly stronger with creatinine than osmolality. Compared to urine creatinine, urine osmolality did not vary by diabetes status but was affected by daily total protein intake. Participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) had significantly higher urine creatinine concentrations but lower urine osmolality. Both very dilute and concentrated urine were associated with a diverse array of sociodemographic, medical conditions, and dietary factors

  6. jqcML: an open-source java API for mass spectrometry quality control data in the qcML format.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart; Laukens, Kris

    2014-07-03

    The awareness that systematic quality control is an essential factor to enable the growth of proteomics into a mature analytical discipline has increased over the past few years. To this aim, a controlled vocabulary and document structure have recently been proposed by Walzer et al. to store and disseminate quality-control metrics for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics experiments, called qcML. To facilitate the adoption of this standardized quality control routine, we introduce jqcML, a Java application programming interface (API) for the qcML data format. First, jqcML provides a complete object model to represent qcML data. Second, jqcML provides the ability to read, write, and work in a uniform manner with qcML data from different sources, including the XML-based qcML file format and the relational database qcDB. Interaction with the XML-based file format is obtained through the Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB), while generic database functionality is obtained by the Java Persistence API (JPA). jqcML is released as open-source software under the permissive Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/proteinspector/jqcml .

  7. Clenbuterol storage stability in the bovine urine and liver samples used for European official control in the azores islands (portugal).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Isabel; Jesuino, Bruno; Barbosa, Jorge; Ferreira, Humberto; Ramos, Fernando; Matos, José; da Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha

    2009-02-11

    Clenbuterol is a well-known growth promoter, illegally used in farm animals, especially in cattle. Samples collected for the screening of beta(2)-agonist residues in Portuguese Azores Islands must travel through all the nine islands until they reach Azores Central Laboratory. If any suspicious sample is detected, it must be further transported to the National Reference Laboratory in Lisbon for confirmation. As a consequence of these circumstances, samples are submitted to different transport and storage times, as well as different temperature conditions and in some cases successive freezing and thawing cycles. As clenbuterol is the most detected beta(2)-agonist growth promoter in the Portuguese Residue Monitoring Plan, studies were conducted on the stability of this compound in incurred samples (bovine liver and urine) at +4, -20 and -60 degrees C over time. Samples kept at -20 degrees C were also analyzed over time after successive freezing and thawing cycles. The analyses of clenbuterol over time were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Clenbuterol in incurred urine and liver samples was significantly stable up to 20 weeks at -20 and -60 degrees C and after, at least, six consecutive freezings and thawings. At +4 degrees C, clenbuterol remained stable, at least until 12 weeks in urine and up to 20 weeks in liver.

  8. 40 CFR 98.434 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Contained in Pre-Charged Equipment or Closed-Cell Foams § 98.434 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) For... equipment or closed-cell foam in the correct quantities (metric tons) and units (kg per piece of equipment...

  9. 40 CFR 98.434 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Contained in Pre-Charged Equipment or Closed-Cell Foams § 98.434 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) For... equipment or closed-cell foam in the correct quantities (metric tons) and units (kg per piece of equipment...

  10. Assessing the potential for racial bias in hair analysis for cocaine: examining the relative risk of positive outcomes when comparing urine samples to hair samples.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowski, Tom

    2011-03-20

    This article examines the conjecture that hair analysis, performed to detect cocaine use or exposure, is biased against African Americans. It does so by comparing the outcomes of 33,928 hair and 105,792 urine samples collected from both African American and white subjects. In making this comparison the analysis seeks to determine if there is a departure in rates of positive and negative outcomes when comparing the results of hair analysis for cocaine to the results from urinalysis for cocaine by racial group. It treats urine as an unbiased test. It compares both the relative ratios of positive outcomes when comparing the two groups and it calculates the relative risk of outcomes for each group for having positive or negative outcomes. The findings show that the ratios of each racial group are effectively same for hair and urine assays, and they also show that the relative risk and risk estimates for positive and negative outcomes are the same for both racial groups. Considering all samples, the cocaine positive risk estimate for the hair samples comparing the two racial groups is 3.28 and for urinalysis the risk estimate is 3.10 (Breslow-Day χ(2) .250, 1 df, p = 0.617) a non-significant difference in risk. For pre-employment samples, the cocaine positive risk estimate for the hair samples comparing the two racial groups is 3.10 and for urinalysis the risk estimate is 2.90 (Breslow-Day χ(2) .281, df = 1, p = 0.595), also a non-significant difference in risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Empiric antibiotic treatment for urinary tract infection in preschool children: susceptibilities of urine sample isolates.

    PubMed

    Butler, Christopher C; O'Brien, Kathryn; Wootton, Mandy; Pickles, Timothy; Hood, Kerenza; Howe, Robin; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Dudley, Jan; Van Der Voort, Judith; Rumsby, Kate; Little, Paul; Downing, Harriet; Harman, Kim; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic treatment recommendations based on susceptibility data from routinely submitted urine samples may be biased because of variation in sampling, laboratory procedures and inclusion of repeat samples, leading to uncertainty about empirical treatment. To describe and compare susceptibilities of Escherichia coli cultured from routinely submitted samples, with E. coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI) from a cohort of systematically sampled, acutely unwell children. Susceptibilities of 1458 E. coli isolates submitted during the course of routine primary care for children <5 years (routine care samples), compared to susceptibilities of 79 E. coli isolates causing UTI from 5107 children <5 years presenting to primary care with an acute illness [systematic sampling: the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY) cohort]. The percentage of E. coli sensitive to antibiotics cultured from routinely submitted samples were as follows: amoxicillin 45.1% (95% confidence interval: 42.5-47.7%); co-amoxiclav using the lower systemic break point (BP) 86.6% (84.7-88.3%); cephalexin 95.1% (93.9-96.1%); trimethoprim 74.0% (71.7-76.2%) and nitrofurantoin 98.2% (97.4-98.8%). The percentage of E. coli sensitive to antibiotics cultured from systematically sampled DUTY urines considered to be positive for UTI were as follows: amoxicillin 50.6% (39.8-61.4%); co-amoxiclav using the systemic BP 83.5% (73.9-90.1%); co-amoxiclav using the urinary BP 94.9% (87.7-98.4%); cephalexin 98.7% (93.2-99.8%); trimethoprim 70.9% (60.1-80.0%); nitrofurantoin 100% (95.3-100.0%) and ciprofloxacin 96.2% (89.4-98.7%). Escherichia coli susceptibilities from routine and systematically obtained samples were similar. Most UTIs in preschool children remain susceptible to nitrofurantoin, co-amoxiclav and cephalexin. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Evaluation of urovysion and cytology for bladder cancer detection: a study of 1835 paired urine samples with clinical and histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Dimashkieh, Haythem; Wolff, Daynna J; Smith, T Michael; Houser, Patricia M; Nietert, Paul J; Yang, Jack

    2013-10-01

    Urine cytology has been used for screening of bladder cancer but has been limited by its low sensitivity. UroVysion is a multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay that detects common chromosome abnormalities in bladder cancers. For this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of multiprobe FISH and urine cytology in detecting urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in the same urine sample. In total, 1835 cases with the following criteria were selected: valid results from both the multiprobe FISH assay and urine cytology in the same urine sample, histologic and/or cystoscopic follow-up within 4 months of the original tests, or at least 3 years of clinical follow-up information. The results of FISH and cytology were correlated with clinical outcomes derived from a combination of histologic, cystoscopic, and clinical follow-up information. Of 1835 cases, 1045 cases were from patients undergoing surveillance of recurrent UCC, and 790 were for hematuria. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in detecting UCC were 61.9%, 89.7%, 53.9%, and 92.4%, respectively, for FISH and 29.1%, 96.9%, 64.4%, and 87.5%, respectively, for cytology. The performance of both FISH and cytology generally was better in the surveillance population and in samples with high-grade UCC. In 95 of 296 cases with atypical cytology that were proven to have UCC, 61 cases, mostly high-grade UCC, were positive using the multiprobe FISH assay. The UroVysion multiprobe FISH assay was more sensitive than urine cytology in detecting UCC, but it produced more false-positive results. The current data suggest that the use of FISH as a reflex test after an equivocal cytologic diagnosis may play an effective role in detecting UCC. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  13. 40 CFR 98.434 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Contained in Pre-Charged Equipment or Closed-Cell Foams § 98.434 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) For... equipment or closed-cell foam in the correct quantities and units. [74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended...

  14. Sensitive and rapid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by recombinase polymerase amplification directly from urine samples.

    PubMed

    Krõlov, Katrin; Frolova, Jekaterina; Tudoran, Oana; Suhorutsenko, Julia; Lehto, Taavi; Sibul, Hiljar; Mäger, Imre; Laanpere, Made; Tulp, Indrek; Langel, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted human pathogen. Infection results in minimal to no symptoms in approximately two-thirds of women and therefore often goes undiagnosed. C. trachomatis infections are a major public health concern because of the potential severe long-term consequences, including an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. To date, several point-of-care tests have been developed for C. trachomatis diagnostics. Although many of them are fast and specific, they lack the required sensitivity for large-scale application. We describe a rapid and sensitive form of detection directly from urine samples. The assay uses recombinase polymerase amplification and has a minimum detection limit of 5 to 12 pathogens per test. Furthermore, it enables detection within 20 minutes directly from urine samples without DNA purification before the amplification reaction. Initial analysis of the assay from clinical patient samples had a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 92%-100%) and a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI, 51%-97%). The whole procedure is fairly simple and does not require specific machinery, making it potentially applicable in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  16. Application of dried spot cards as a rapid sample treatment method for determining hydroxytyrosol metabolites in human urine samples. Comparison with microelution solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Serra, Aida; Rubió, Laura; Macià, Alba; Valls, Rosa-M; Catalán, Úrsula; de la Torre, Rafael; Motilva, Maria-José

    2013-11-01

    Two different rapid sample pretreatment strategies, dried spot cards, and microelution solid-phase extraction plates (μSPE), with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) have been developed and validated for the determination of hydroxytyrosol and its metabolites in spiked human urine samples. Hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol-3'-O-glucuronide, hydroxytyrosol-4'-O-glucuronide, hydroxytyrosol-3-O-sulphate, and homovanillic alcohol-4'-O-glucuronide were used as the target compounds. Using the FTA DMPK-A dried urine spot card under optimum conditions, with 5 μL of preconcentrated urine volume and 100 μL of methanol/water (50/50, v/v) as the elution solvent, the extraction recovery (%R) of the compounds studied was higher than 80%, and the matrix effect (%ME) was less than 8%. The stability of these cards and punching at the centre or side of the card were also studied, obtaining an excellent stability after 7 days of storage and complete homogeneity across the surface of the dried drop. The different μSPE parameters that affect the efficiency were also studied, and under optimum conditions, the %R and the %ME were higher than 70% and lower than 17%, respectively. The linearity range in dried urine spot cards was 2.5-20 μM for all the metabolites, with the exception of hydroxytyrosol-3-O-sulphate and hydroxytyrosol, which were 0.3-70 μM and 2.5-50 μM respectively. With regards to μSPE, the linearity range was 0.5-5 μM for all the studied compounds, except for hydroxytyrosol-3-O-sulphate, which was 0.08-5 μM. The quantification limits (LOQs) were 0.3-2.5 μM and 0.08-0.5 μM in dried spot cards and in μSPE, respectively. The two developed methods were then applied and compared for determining hydroxytyrosol and its metabolites in human 24 h-urine samples after a sustained consumption (21 days) of a phenol-enriched virgin olive oil. The metabolites identified were hydroxytyrosol in its glucuronide and sulphate

  17. Simultaneous immunostaining with anti-S100P and anti-SV40 antibodies revealed the origin of BK virus-infected decoy cells in voided urine samples.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, S; Yanai, H; Sato, M; Shinno, Y; Taniguchi, K; Yamadori, I; Miki, Y; Sato, Y; Yoshino, T; Takahashi, K

    2015-08-01

    Methods for determining the origin of BK virus (BKV)-infected cells (decoy cells) in clinical urine samples have not been established although they could enhance the diagnosis of BKV infection in immunocompromised patients. We performed simultaneous immunostaining with anti-S100P (a urothelial marker) and anti-SV40 antibodies in 66 clinical urine samples exhibiting SV40 positivity and a decoy-cell appearance on Papanicolaou staining. The clinical voided urine samples included seven cases of renal transplantation, 47 cases of cancer therapy and 12 cases of non-neoplastic disease. SurePath(™) liquid-based cytology was used for the urine samples. BKV-infected cells were categorized as SV40(+)/S100P(+) and SV40 (+)/S100p(-). SV40(+)/S100P(-) cells were found in 55 cases (83.4%); nine cases (13.6%) carried both SV40(+)/S100P(-) and SV40(+)/S100P(+) cells. The former were identified as BKV infection in renal tubules and the latter in both the renal tubules and urothelial epithelia. The remaining two cases (3.0%) had only SV40(+)/S100P(+) cells of urothelial origin. Simultaneous immunostaining with anti-S100P and anti-SV40 is a useful method for determining the origin of BKV-infected cells in clinical urine samples from immunocompromised patients such as renal transplantation recipients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Substitution of human for horse urine disproves an accusation of doping*.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Silvina; Kienast, Mariana E; Villegas-Castagnasso, Egle E; Pena, Natalia L; Manganare, Marcos M; Posik, Diego; Peral-García, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2008-09-01

    In order to detect switching and/or manipulation of samples, the owner of a stallion asked our lab to perform a DNA test on a positive doping urine sample. The objective was to compare the urine DNA profile versus blood and hair DNA profiles from the same stallion. At first, 10 microsatellite markers were investigated to determine the horse identity. No results were obtained when horse specific markers were typed in the urine sample. In order to confirm the species origin of this sample we analyzed the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. This analysis from blood and hair samples produced reproducible and clear PCR-RFLP patterns and DNA sequence match with those expected for horse, while the urine sample results were coincident with human. These results allowed us to exclude the urine sample from the questioned stallion and determine its human species origin, confirming the manipulation of urine sample.

  19. HPLC-MS/MS analysis of anthocyanins in human plasma and urine using protein precipitation and dilute-and-shoot sample preparation methods, respectively.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Song, Jiuxue; Huang, Karen; Michel, Deborah; Fang, Jim

    2018-05-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed to analyze anthocyanins in urine and plasma to further understand their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The method employed a Synergi RP-Max column (250 × 4.6 mm, 4 μm) and an API 4000 mass spectrometer. A gradient elution system consisted of mobile phase A (water-1% formic acid) and mobile phase B (acetonitrile) with a flow rate of 0.60 mL/min. The gradient was initiated at 5% B, increased to 21% B at 20 min, and then increased to 40% B at 35 min. The analysis of anthocyanins presents a challenge because of the poor stability of anthocyanins during sample preparation, especially during solvent evaporation. In this method, the degradation of anthocyanins was minimized using protein precipitation and dilute-and-shoot and sample preparation methods for plasma and urine, respectively. No interferences were observed from endogenous compounds. The method has been used to analyze anthocyanin concentrations in urine and plasma samples from volunteers administered saskatoon berries. Cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-xyloside and quercetin-3-galactoside, the five major flavonoid components in saskatoon berries, were identified in plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A novel QC-LDPC code based on the finite field multiplicative group for optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Xu, Liang; Tong, Qing-zhen

    2013-09-01

    A novel construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) code is proposed based on the finite field multiplicative group, which has easier construction, more flexible code-length code-rate adjustment and lower encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, a regular QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code is constructed. The simulation results show that the constructed QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code can gain better error correction performance under the condition of the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with iterative decoding sum-product algorithm (SPA). At the bit error rate (BER) of 10-6, the net coding gain (NCG) of the constructed QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code is 1.8 dB, 0.9 dB and 0.2 dB more than that of the classic RS(255,239) code in ITU-T G.975, the LDPC(32640,30592) code in ITU-T G.975.1 and the SCG-LDPC(3969,3720) code constructed by the random method, respectively. So it is more suitable for optical communication systems.

  1. Simple, fast and reliable liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of theophylline in urine, saliva and plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Gürbay, Aylin; Aydin, Ahmet; Sahin, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric method were developed, validated and applied for the determination of theophylline in biological fluids. Liquid- liquid extraction is performed for isolation of the drug and elimination of plasma and saliva interferences. Urine samples were applied without any extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using 60:40 methanol:water as mobile phase under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/min with UV detection at 280 nm in HPLC method. UV spectrophotometric analysis was performed at 275 nm. the limit of quantification: 1.1 µg/mL for urine, 1.9 µg/mL for saliva, 3.1 µg/mL for plasma; recovery: 94.85% for plasma, 100.45% for saliva, 101.39% for urine; intra-day precision: 0.22-2.33%, inter-day precision: 3.17-13.12%. Spectrophotometric analysis results were as follows: the limit of quantitation: 5.23 µg/mL for plasma, 8.7 µg/mL for urine; recovery: 98.27% for plasma, 95.25% for urine; intra-day precision: 2.37 - 3.00%, inter-day precision: 5.43-7.91%. It can be concluded that this validated HPLC method is easy, precise, accurate, sensitive and selective for determination of theophylline in biological samples. Also spectrophotometric analysis can be used where it can be applicable.

  2. Determination of organophosphate diesters in urine samples by a high-sensitivity method based on ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J; Yu, Hongxia

    2015-12-24

    Organophosphate (OP) diesters in urine samples have potential use as biomarkers of organism exposure to environmentally relevant OP triester precursors and in particular OP triester flame retardants. This present study developed a quantitatively sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC-MS) based method for urine and the determination of OP diesters (i.e. diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), bis(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEHP), bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP), and bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP)). Fortified with the 7 OP diesters, 1mL of human urine sample was cleaned up using weak anion exchange solid phase extraction and eluted with high ionic strength ammonium acetate buffer. Subsequently, 4 non-chlorinated OP diesters were directly determined using UHPLC-electrospray(-)-triple quadrupole-MS (UHPLC-ESI(-)-QqQ-MS), and UHPLC-ESI(+)-QqQ-MS was used for determination of 3 chlorinated OP diesters after methylation using diazomethane. Recovery efficiencies of OP diesters ranged from 88 to 160% at three spiking levels (0.4, 2 and 10ng/mL urine). Matrix effects (MEs) and method limits of quantification (MLOQs) were 15-134% and 0.10-0.32ng/mL urine, respectively. Concentrations of OP diesters in n=12 urine samples (from 4 Canadian residents, 2014) varied as follows, nd-<0.28 (DNBP), nd-1.29 (DPHP), nd-<0.28 (DEHP), <0.16-12.33 (BCEP), nd-1.17 (BCDIPP) and nd-0.68ng/mL (BCIPP). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. 40 CFR 98.434 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.434 Section 98.434 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Importers and Exporters of Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases...

  4. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MARKERS:BLOOD AND URINE SAMPLE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES (EOHSI-AP-209-040)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure describes the process for collecting and analyzing blood and urine samples. The presence of chemical contaminants in biological specimens such as blood, urine, and hair represent a measure of the internal dose or body burden for a given individual derived from the ...

  5. Determination of finasteride and its metabolite in urine by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with field-enhanced sample stacking and sweeping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hsien; Chao, Yu-Ying; Lin, Yi-Hui; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2018-04-27

    The on-line preconcentration technique of field-enhanced sample stacking and sweeping (FESS-sweeping) are combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to monitor the concentrations of finasteride, which is used in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and its metabolite, finasteride carboxylic acid (M3), in urine samples. DLLME is used to concentrate and eliminate the interferences of urine samples and uses chloroform as an extracting solvent and acetonitrile as a disperser solvent. A high conductivity buffer (HCB) was introduced into capillary and then sample plug (90.7% capillary length) was injected into capillary. After applying voltage, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) swept the analytes from the low conductivity sample solution into HCB. The analytes were concentrated on the field-enhanced sample stacking boundary. The limit of detection for the analytes is 20 ng mL -1 . The sensitivity enrichment of finasteride and M3 are 362-fold and 480-fold, respectively, compared with the conventional MEKC method. The on-line preconcentration technique of field-enhanced sample stacking and sweeping possess good selectivity because the endogenous steroid did not interfere the detection of finasteride and M3. The analytical technique is applied to investigate the concentrations in urine samples from patients who have been administered finasteride for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia; the amount of M3 detected in 12 h was 72.69 ± 4.18 μg. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Strong-LAMP: A LAMP Assay for Strongyloides spp. Detection in Stool and Urine Samples. Towards the Diagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis Starting from a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Sánchez-Hernández, Alicia; Gandasegui, Javier; Bajo Santos, Cristina; López-Abán, Julio; Saugar, José María; Rodríguez, Esperanza; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, the chief causative agent of human strongyloidiasis, is a nematode globally distributed but mainly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Chronic infection is often clinically asymptomatic but it can result in severe hyperinfection syndrome or disseminated strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients. There is a great diversity of techniques used in diagnosing the disease, but definitive diagnosis is accomplished by parasitological examination of stool samples for morphological identification of parasite. Until now, no molecular method has been tested in urine samples as an alternative to stool samples for diagnosing strongyloidiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a new molecular LAMP assay in a well-established Wistar rat experimental infection model using both stool and, for the first time, urine samples. The LAMP assay was also clinically evaluated in patients´ stool samples. Stool and urine samples were obtained daily during a 28-day period from rats infected subcutaneously with different infective third-stage larvae doses of S. venezuelensis. The dynamics of parasite infection was determined by daily counting the number of eggs per gram of feces from day 1 to 28 post-infection. A set of primers for LAMP assay based on a DNA partial sequence in the 18S rRNA gene from S. venezuelensis was designed. The set up LAMP assay (namely, Strong-LAMP) allowed the sensitive detection of S. venezuelensis DNA in both stool and urine samples obtained from each infection group of rats and was also effective in S. stercoralis DNA amplification in patients´ stool samples with previously confirmed strongyloidiasis by parasitological and real-time PCR tests. Our Strong-LAMP assay is an useful molecular tool in research of a strongyloidiasis experimental infection model in both stool and urine samples. After further validation, the Strong-LAMP could also be potentially applied for effective diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in a clinical

  7. 40 CFR 98.364 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by reference see § 98.7). All gas composition monitors shall be...-90 (Reapproved 2006) Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.364 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements...

  8. 40 CFR 98.364 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by reference see § 98.7). All gas composition monitors shall be...-90 (Reapproved 2006) Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.364 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements...

  9. 40 CFR 98.164 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.164 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. The GHG emissions data for hydrogen production process units must be quality-assured as specified in... Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants (incorporated...

  10. Towards a method of rapid extraction of strontium-90 from urine: urine pretreatment and alkali metal removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.; Dietz, M.; Kaminski, M.

    2016-03-01

    A technical program to support the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention is being developed to provide an analytical method for rapid extraction of Sr-90 from urine, with the intent of assessing the general population’s exposure during an emergency response to a radiological terrorist event. Results are presented on the progress in urine sample preparation and chemical separation steps that provide an accurate and quantitative detection of Sr-90 based upon an automated column separation sequence and a liquid scintillation assay. Batch extractions were used to evaluate the urine pretreatment and the column separation efficiency and loading capacity based upon commercial,more » extractant-loaded resins. An efficient pretreatment process for decolorizing and removing organics from urine without measurable loss of radiostrontium from the sample was demonstrated. In addition, the Diphonix® resin shows promise for the removal of high concentrations of common strontium interferents in urine as a first separation step for Sr-90 analysis.« less

  11. Effect of urine creatinine level during pregnancy on dipstick test.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yosuke; Furuta, Itsuko; Zhai, Tianyue; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Yamada, Takahiro; Takahashi, Kayo; Matsubara, Shigeki; Minakami, Hisanori

    2017-06-01

    Dipstick results for proteinuria are affected by urine concentration, and thus urine creatinine concentration ([Cr]). This study was performed to determine whether spot urine [Cr] changes significantly during pregnancy, leading to a significantly different false-negative rate (FNR) on dipstick test between trimester. The [Cr] and protein concentrations ([P]) were analyzed in 631 spot urine samples with negative/equivocal dipstick from 425 pregnant women. False-negative dipstick was defined as [P] : [Cr] ratio (P/Cr) > 0.27 mg/mg. Median [Cr] was 117 mg/dL (range, 6.5-326 mg/dL), 72 mg/dL (range, 4.3-477 mg/dL), and 73 mg/dL (range, 8.4-396 mg/dL) in the first (n = 96), second (n = 344), and third (n = 191) trimester urine samples, respectively (P = 0.000, Kruskal-Wallis). Both [P] and P/Cr increased significantly with advancing gestation. FNR 9.4% (18/191) in the third trimester was significantly higher than that of 0.0% (0/96) in the second trimester and that of 0.5% (2/344) in the third trimester. In the 20 urine samples with false-negative dipstick, median [Cr] was 47.0 mg/dL (range, 11.0-358 mg/dL) and the proportion of samples with dilute urine, that is, [Cr] <47 mg/dL, was significantly higher than in the remaining 611 urine samples (50%, 10/20 vs 28%, 174/611, respectively, P = 0.046). Urine samples in the second and third trimesters were more likely to be diluted compared with the first trimester. This was associated with high FNR in third trimester urine samples. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Stability of Zika virus in urine: Specimen processing considerations and implications for the detection of RNA targets in urine.

    PubMed

    Tan, Susanna K; Sahoo, Malaya K; Milligan, Stephen B; Taylor, Nathaniel; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2017-10-01

    Detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA in urine is of increasing interest for the diagnosis of ZIKV infection. Pre-analytical variables can significantly impact the stability of RNA in urine. To determine optimal specimen processing protocols that would maximize detection of ZIKV RNA in urine by real-time, reverse transcriptase PCR, we investigated the effect of temperature, initial ZIKV concentration, use of nucleic acid stabilizers, and time on ZIKV RNA levels. Urine samples from healthy donors were spiked with ZIKV using the Exact Diagnostics ® ZIKV Verification Panel, a commercially available panel composed of heat-inactivated ZIKV, at concentrations of 5.0 log 10 copies/mL (ZIKV-high) and 4.0 log 10 copies/mL (ZIKV-low). Samples were stored at room temperature, 4°C, or -80°C and frozen aliquots were exposed to no stabilizer (urine), Buffer ATL (Qiagen, Germantown, MD), or DNA/RNA Shield (Zymo Research, Irvine, CA). ZIKV RNA levels in urine declined steadily at room temperature, though was not significant by 48h (ZIKV-high, p=0.09; ZIKV-low, p=0.20). ZIKV RNA titers were consistently higher when stored at 4°C, suggesting that storage at 4°C can slow the progression of RNA degradation. Freezing urine samples at -80°C resulted in a significant loss of detectable ZIKV RNA in the ZIKV-low group. ZIKV RNA was detected in 5/6 replicates at 3days, 1/6 replicates at 10days, and 1/3 replicates at 30days, with findings reproducible on repeat testing. Presence of either nucleic acid stabilizer in urine corrected this effect, and resulted in recovery of ZIKV RNA in all replicates. Use of a nucleic acid stabilizer in the ZIKV-high group did not add incremental benefit for the detection or quantitation of ZIKV RNA. ZIKV RNA is prone to degradation in urine with loss of detectable virus even when specimens are frozen at -80°C for 10days. Detection of ZIKV-positive urine samples, particularly those containing low ZIKV titers may be aided with the addition of a nucleic acid

  13. QC operator’s nonneutral posture against musculoskeletal disorder’s (MSDs) risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautsar, F.; Gustopo, D.; Achmadi, F.

    2018-04-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders refer to a gamut of inflammatory and degenerative disorders aggravated largely by the performance of work. It is the major cause of pain, disability, absenteeism and reduced productivity among workers worldwide. Although it is not fatal, MSDs have the potential to develop into serious injuries in the musculoskeletal system if ignored. QC operators work in nonneutral body posture. This cross-sectional study was condusted in order to investigate correlation between risk assessment results of QEC and body posture calculation of mannequin pro. Statistical analysis was condusted using SPSS version 16.0. Validity test, Reliability test and Regression analysis were conducted to compare the risk assessment output of applied method and nonneutral body posture simulation. All of QEC’s indicator classified as valid and reliable. The result of simple regression anlysis are back (0.326<4.32), shoulder/arm (8.489>4.32), wrist/hand (4.86 >4.32) and neck (1.298 <4.32). Result of this study shows that there is an influence between nonneutral body posture of the QC operator during work with risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders is in the shoulder/arm and wrist/hand of the QC operator, whereas the back and neck are not affected.

  14. 40 CFR 98.164 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.164 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. The GHG emissions data for hydrogen production process units must be quality-assured as specified in..., Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7). (xi...

  15. Genotyping for DQA1 and PM loci in urine using PCR-based amplification: effects of sample volume, storage temperature, preservatives, and aging on DNA extraction and typing.

    PubMed

    Vu, N T; Chaturvedi, A K; Canfield, D V

    1999-05-31

    Urine is often the sample of choice for drug screening in aviation/general forensic toxicology and in workplace drug testing. In some instances, the origin of the submitted samples may be challenged because of the medicolegal and socioeconomic consequences of a positive drug test. Methods for individualization of biological samples have reached a new boundary with the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in DNA profiling, but a successful characterization of the urine specimens depends on the quantity and quality of DNA present in the samples. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of storage conditions, sample volume, concentration modes, extraction procedures, and chemical preservations on the quantity of DNA recovered, as well as the success rate of PCR-based genotyping for DQA1 and PM loci in urine. Urine specimens from male and female volunteers were divided and stored at various temperatures for up to 30 days. The results suggested that sample purification by dialfiltration, using 3000-100,000 molecular weight cut-off filters, did not enhance DNA recovery and typing rate as compared with simple centrifugation procedures. Extraction of urinary DNA by the organic method and by the resin method gave comparable typing results. Larger sample volume yielded a higher amount of DNA, but the typing rates were not affected for sample volumes between 1 and 5 ml. The quantifiable amounts of DNA present were found to be greater in female (14-200 ng/ml) than in male (4-60 ng/ml) samples and decreased with the elapsed time under both room temperature (RT) and frozen storage. Typing of the male samples also demonstrated that RT storage samples produced significantly higher success rates than that of frozen samples, while there was only marginal difference in the DNA typing rates among the conditions tested using female samples. Successful assignment of DQA1 + PM genotype was achieved for all samples of fresh urine, independent of gender

  16. Solid-phase microextraction of methadone in urine samples by electrochemically co-deposited sol-gel/Cu nanocomposite fiber.

    PubMed

    Mohammadiazar, Sirwan; Hasanli, Fateme; Maham, Mehdi; Payami Samarin, Somayeh

    2017-08-01

    Electrochemically co-deposited sol-gel/Cu nanocomposites have been introduced as a novel, simple and single-step technique for preparation of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating to extract methadone (MDN) (a synthetic opioid) in urine samples. The porous surface structure of the sol-gel/Cu nanocomposite coating was revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Direct immersion SPME followed by HPLC-UV determination was employed. The factors influencing the SPME procedure, such as the salt content, desorption solvent type, pH and equilibration time, were optimized. The best conditions were obtained with no salt content, acetonitrile as desorption solvent type, pH 9 and 10 min equilibration time. The calibration graphs for urine samples showed good linearity. The detection limit was about 0.2 ng mL -1 . Also, the novel method for preparation of nanocomposite fiber was compared with previously reported techniques for MDN determination. The results show that the novel nanocomposite fiber has relatively high extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Comparative Study of Seven Commercial Kits for Human DNA Extraction from Urine Samples Suitable for DNA Biomarker-Based Public Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The present study compared seven commercial kits to select the most appropriate urinary human DNA extraction procedure for epidemiological studies. DNA yield has been determined using different quantification methods: two classical, i.e., NanoDrop and PicoGreen, and two species-specific real-time quantitative (q)PCR assays, as DNA extracted from urine contains, besides human, microbial DNA also, which largely contributes to the total DNA yield. In addition, the kits giving a good yield were also tested for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Further comparisons were performed regarding the sampling time and the storage conditions. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, an important gene related to smoking has been genotyped using the developed tools. We could select one well-performing kit for the human DNA extraction from urine suitable for molecular diagnostic real-time qPCR-based assays targeting genetic variations, applicable to large-scale studies. In addition, successful genotyping was possible using DNA extracted from urine stored at −20°C for several months, and an acceptable yield could also be obtained from urine collected at different moments during the day, which is particularly important for public health studies. PMID:25365790

  18. Evaluation of the results of Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test (MTD) and Mycobacterial culture in urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Asli Gamze; Kurultay, Nukhet; Afsar, Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a public health problem in Turkey. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays a key role in control of infection. In this article, the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) was evaluated for detection of M. tuberculosis in urine samples. The performance of the MTD was very good and appropriate for routine laboratory diagnosis. PMID:24031287

  19. Stability studies of amphetamine and ephedrine derivatives in urine.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, C; de la Torre, R; Ventura, M; Segura, J; Ventura, R

    2006-10-20

    Knowledge of the stability of drugs in biological specimens is a critical consideration for the interpretation of analytical results. Identification of proper storage conditions has been a matter of concern for most toxicology laboratories (both clinical and forensic), and the stability of drugs of abuse has been extensively studied. This concern should be extended to other areas of analytical chemistry like antidoping control. In this work, the stability of ephedrine derivatives (ephedrine, norephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine), and amphetamine derivatives (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)) in urine has been studied. Spiked urine samples were prepared for stability testing. Urine samples were quantified by GC/NPD or GC/MS. The homogeneity of each batch of sample was verified before starting the stability study. The stability of analytes was evaluated in sterilized and non-sterilized urine samples at different storage conditions. For long-term stability testing, analyte concentration in urine stored at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C was determined at different time intervals for 24 months for sterile urine samples, and for 6 months for non-sterile samples. For short-term stability testing, analyte concentration was evaluated in liquid urine stored at 37 degrees C for 7 days. The effect of repeated freezing (at -20 degrees C) and thawing (at room temperature) was also studied in sterile urine for up to three cycles. No significant loss of the analytes under study was observed at any of the investigated conditions. These results show the feasibility of preparing reference materials containing ephedrine and amphetamine derivatives to be used for quality control purposes.

  20. 40 CFR 98.84 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.84 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements..., shale, iron oxide, and alumina). Facilities that opt to use the default total organic carbon factor... quantity of each category of raw materials consumed by the facility (e.g., limestone, sand, shale, iron...

  1. 40 CFR 98.84 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.84 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements..., shale, iron oxide, and alumina). Facilities that opt to use the default total organic carbon factor... quantity of each category of raw materials consumed by the facility (e.g., limestone, sand, shale, iron...

  2. 40 CFR 98.84 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.84 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements..., shale, iron oxide, and alumina). Facilities that opt to use the default total organic carbon factor... quantity of each category of raw materials consumed by the facility (e.g., limestone, sand, shale, iron...

  3. 40 CFR 98.144 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.144 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) You must measure annual amounts of carbonate-based raw materials charged to each continuous glass... calibrated scales or weigh hoppers. Total annual mass charged to glass melting furnaces at the facility shall...

  4. 40 CFR 98.74 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relative Molecular Mass of Petroleum Oils from Viscosity Measurements (incorporated by reference, see § 98... Weight) of Hydrocarbons by Thermoelectric Measurement of Vapor Pressure (incorporated by reference, see... measurements according to the monitoring and QA/QC requirements for the Tier 3 methodology in § 98.34(b). (e...

  5. 40 CFR 98.364 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or operator shall document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of gas flow rate, gas... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.364 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements... fraction of total manure managed in each system component. (c) The CH4 concentration of gas from digesters...

  6. 40 CFR 98.364 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or operator shall document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of gas flow rate, gas... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.364 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements... fraction of total manure managed in each system component. (c) The CH4 concentration of gas from digesters...

  7. 40 CFR 98.364 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or operator shall document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of gas flow rate, gas... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.364 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements... fraction of total manure managed in each system component. (c) The CH4 concentration of gas from digesters...

  8. 40 CFR 98.414 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.414 Monitoring... or better. If the mass in paragraph (a) of this section is measured by weighing containers that...

  9. 40 CFR 98.394 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.394 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) Determination of quantity. (1) The quantity of petroleum products, natural gas liquids... product or natural gas liquid on any day of each calendar month of the reporting year in which the...

  10. Urine chemistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... rate 24-hour urine protein Acid loading test (pH) Adrenalin - urine test Amylase - urine Bilirubin - urine Calcium - urine Citric acid ... Urine dermatan sulfate Urine - hemoglobin Urine metanephrine Urine pH Urine specific gravity Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

  11. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts were measured by ELISA and hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS--Mean urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in samples from coke oven workers varied from 1.11 to 5.53 umol/mol creatinine and 0.14 umol/mol creatinine in the control group. Workers at the top side had the highest values of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts did not correlate with either 1-hydroxypyrene nor length of work at the coke oven plant. But antibody concentration in samples collected in January was predictive of the concentration in samples collected in June. A small non-significant increase in hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts was found in samples from coke oven workers relative to the control group when comparing smokers and nonsmokers separately. CONCLUSION--1-Hydroxypyrene correlates well with exposure groups based on job description. Antibodies to benzo(a)-pyrene DNA adducts was related to people and not exposure. Work at a coke oven plant might lead to increased hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts. PMID:8535495

  12. Determination of n-hexane metabolites by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2. Glucuronide-conjugated metabolites in untreated urine samples by electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Manini, P; Andreoli, R; Mutti, A; Bergamaschi, E; Niessen, W M

    1998-01-01

    A liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-LC/MS) system was evaluated for the identification and characterization of n-hexane conjugated metabolites (glucuronides) in untreated urine samples. Chromatography of glucuronides was obtained under ion-suppressed reversed-phase conditions, by using high-speed (3 cm, 3 microns) columns and formic acid (2 mM) as modifier in the mobile phase. The mass spectrometer was operated in negative ion (NI) mode. For the first time, four glucuronides were identified by ESI-LC/MS in untreated urine samples of rats exposed to n-hexane: 2-hexanol-glucuronide, 5-hydroxy-2-hexanone-glucuronide, 2,5-hexanediol-glucuronide and 4,5-dihydroxy-2-hexanone-glucuronide. Confirmation of the conjugated metabolites was obtained by LC/MS/MS experiments. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC/MS analyses were performed on the same samples. An integrated approach GC/MS-LC/MS for the semi-quantitative analysis of n-hexane glucuronides, whose standards are not commercially available, is discussed and proposed here. In order to understand the fate of the metabolites during sample pre-treatment, a study about the effects of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis on urine samples was conducted on glucuronides isolated by solid-phase extraction. Combined analyses by GC/MS and LC/MS enabled us to distinguish 'true' n-hexane metabolites from compounds resulting from sample treatment and handling (i.e. enzymatic and acid hydrolysis, extraction and GC injection).

  13. Multiresidue determination of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in human urine samples by use of solid-phase extraction and capillary LC-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Conrado, N; León-González, M E; Pérez-Arribas, L V; Polo-Díez, L M

    2008-01-01

    Chlorophenoxy acid herbicides are intensively applied to get rid of unwanted plants because of their low cost and selectivity. Due to their toxicity, which depends on their chemical form, the European Community has established legal directives to restrict their use and to control their maximum residue levels in several matrices. Determination of chlorophenoxy acids-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid (2,4-DP), 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP), 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB) and 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid (2,4,5-TP) in spiked human urine samples has been carried out by capillary LC, after solid-phase extraction on a column packed with silica C18 restricted-access material. Chromatographic analysis was performed in gradient-elution mode at 25 degrees C, with injection of 20 microL low-organic-solvent composition herbicide solutions for focusing purposes on the head of the capillary column, and diode array detection at 232 nm. Urine samples collected during 24 h from healthy and unexposed volunteers were spiked in the concentration range 25-150 microg L(-1); recoveries obtained were between 66 and 100% (n = 6 for each spiked level) and RSDs (relative standard deviations) were between 1 and 5%. Detection limits in the urine samples from volunteers were between 3.5 and 6.0 microg L(-1). The developed methodology has allowed the clean-up and preconcentration of low volumes of untreated human urine without previous treatment, showing the effectiveness of the employed SPE sorbent for extracting the target analytes and ultimately resulting in the reduction of the sample-preparation time.

  14. Investigations of the microbial transformation of cortisol to prednisolone in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Bredehöft, Michael; Baginski, Rainer; Parr, Maria-Kristina; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2012-03-01

    Doping control samples are normally collected under non-sterile conditions and sometimes, storage and transportation are influenced by parameters such as the temperature. Therefore, microbial contamination and subsequent alteration of a sample's composition are possible. Studies regarding sample collection in cattle breeding have already shown enzymatic transformation of endogenous testosterone to boldenone causing false-positive findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether positive doping cases with the synthetic corticosteroids prednisolone and prednisone may result from microbial transformation of the endogenous corticosteroids cortisol and cortisone, respectively. A method comprising parameters such as pH values and screening results for synthetic glucocorticosteroids as well as incubation experiments followed by liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis was employed to test for contaminating germs with Δ(1)-dehydrogenase activity. Over 700 urine samples comprising inpatient and doping control specimens were investigated. In none of them, 1,2-dehydrogenating activity was confirmed. These findings are in accordance with other studies. However, the problem of microbial alteration of doping control specimens with special respect to 1,2-dehydrogenation must not be underestimated. Article from a special issue on steroids and microorganisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of collection conditions on the metabolite content of human urine samples as analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roux, Aurélie; Thévenot, Etienne A; Seguin, François; Olivier, Marie-Françoise; Junot, Christophe

    There is a lack of comprehensive studies documenting the impact of sample collection conditions on metabolic composition of human urine. To address this issue, two experiments were performed at a 3-month interval, in which midstream urine samples from healthy individuals were collected, pooled, divided into several aliquots and kept under specific conditions (room temperature, 4 °C, with or without preservative) up to 72 h before storage at -80 °C. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry and bacterial contamination was monitored by turbidimetry. Multivariate analyses showed that urinary metabolic fingerprints were affected by the presence of preservatives and also by storage at room temperature from 24 to 72 h, whereas no change was observed for urine samples stored at 4 °C over a 72-h period. Investigations were then focused on 280 metabolites previously identified in urine: 19 of them were impacted by the kind of sample collection protocol in both experiments, including 12 metabolites affected by bacterial contamination and 7 exhibiting poor chemical stability. Finally, our results emphasize that the use of preservative prevents bacterial overgrowth, but does not avoid metabolite instability in solution, whereas storage at 4 °C inhibits bacterial overgrowth at least over a 72-h period and slows the chemical degradation process. Consequently, and for further LC/MS analyses, human urine samples should be kept at 4 °C if their collection is performed over 24 h.

  16. Urine phenobarbital drug screening: potential use for compliance assessment in neonates.

    PubMed

    Guillet, Ronnie; Kwon, Jennifer M; Chen, Sixaio; McDermott, Michael P

    2012-02-01

    This study was done to determine if urine phenobarbital measurements provide a reliable indicator of presence of the drug in neonates. Urine was collected from neonates treated with phenobarbital for clinical indications within 4 to 6 hours of clinically indicated collection of serum phenobarbital levels. Urine samples were also collected from control neonates not treated with phenobarbital. One aliquot was assayed fresh, another frozen at -30°C and assayed 1 to 3 months later. Phenobarbital was assayed using the ONLINE TDM Roche/Hitachi automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Serum and urine concentrations were compared as were fresh and frozen urine measurements. Serum phenobarbital ranged from 5.6 to 52.7 μg/mL. Matched urine samples were 56.6 ± 12.5% of the serum level. Frozen samples were 98.3 ± 8.0% of the fresh samples. Urine phenobarbital concentrations, either fresh or frozen, can be used in neonates as a noninvasive estimate of drug levels.

  17. Novel ELISAs for screening of the biogenic amines GABA, glycine, beta-phenylethylamine, agmatine, and taurine using one derivatization procedure of whole urine samples.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Han; Wynveen, Paul; Nichkova, Mikaela; Kellermann, Gottfried

    2010-08-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA, glycine and agmatine and neuromodulators beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) and taurine are important biogenic amines of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in the body. Abnormalities in the metabolism of these biomarkers have been implicated in a vast number of neurological diseases. Novel competitive immunoassays, using one unique whole urine derivatization procedure applicable for all five biomarkers, have been developed. The determination of these biomarkers was highly reproducible: the coefficient of variance of inter- and intra-assay variation is between 3.9% and 9.8% for all assays. The assays show a good linearity in urine samples within the range of 100-400 mg Cr/dL and specificity when urine samples are spiked with biogenic amines. The recoveries are between 76 and 154%. The correlation between HPLC and ELISA for glycine and taurine (n = 10) showed regression coefficients of 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. An in vivo study on the urinary clearance of beta-PEA, agmatine and taurine after oral intake by healthy individuals demonstrated the specificity and clinical significance of these new immunoassays. The immunoassays are useful for clinical and basic research where a fast and accurate assay for the screening of biogenic amines in urine is required, without preclearance of the sample.

  18. Creatinine as a normalization factor to estimate the representativeness of urine sample - Intra-subject and inter-subject variability studies.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Pramilla D; Kumar, Suja Arun; Wankhede, Sonal; Rao, D D

    2018-06-01

    In-vitro bioassay monitoring generally involves analysis of overnight urine samples (~12 h) collected from radiation workers to estimate the excretion rate of radionuclides from the body. The unknown duration of sample collection (10-16 h) adds to the overall uncertainty in computation of internal dose. In order to minimize this, IAEA recommends measurement of specific gravity or creatinine excretion rate in urine. Creatinine is excreted at a steady rate with normally functioning kidneys therefore, can be used as a normalization factor to infer the duration of collection and/or dilution of the sample, if any. The present study reports the chemical procedure standardized and its application for the estimation of creatinine as well as creatinine co-efficient in normal healthy individuals. Observations indicate higher inter-subject variability and lower constancy in daily excretion of creatinine for the same subject. Thus creatinine excretion rate may not be a useful indicator for extrapolating to 24 h sample collection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GC-MS and LC-MS analysis of nerve agents in body fluids: intra-laboratory verification test using spiked plasma and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Koller, Marianne; Becker, Christian; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to check the applicability of different analytical methods for the identification of unknown nerve agents in human body fluids. Plasma and urine samples were spiked with nerve agents (plasma) or with their metabolites (urine) or were left blank. Seven random samples (35% of all samples) were selected for the verification test. Plasma was worked up for unchanged nerve agents and for regenerated nerve agents after fluoride-induced reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase. Both extracts were analysed by GC-MS. Metabolites were extracted from plasma and urine, respectively, and were analysed by LC-MS. The urinary metabolites and two blank samples could be identified without further measurements, plasma metabolites and blanks were identified in six of seven samples. The analysis of unchanged nerve agent provided five agents/blanks and the sixth agent after further investigation. The determination of the regenerated agents also provided only five clear findings during the first screening because of a rather noisy baseline. Therefore, the sample preparation was extended by a size exclusion step performed before addition of fluoride which visibly reduced baseline noise and thus improved identification of the two missing agents. The test clearly showed that verification should be performed by analysing more than one biomarker to ensure identification of the agent(s). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 98.444 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.444 Monitoring... volume of contents in all containers if you receive CO2 in containers by following the most appropriate...

  1. 40 CFR 98.444 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.444 Monitoring... volume of contents in all containers if you receive CO2 in containers by following the most appropriate...

  2. 40 CFR 98.444 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.444 Monitoring... volume of contents in all containers if you receive CO2 in containers by following the most appropriate...

  3. 40 CFR 98.394 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.394 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) Determination of quantity. (1) The quantity of petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and... each petroleum product or natural gas liquid on any day of each calendar month of the reporting year in...

  4. 40 CFR 98.394 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.394 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) Determination of quantity. (1) The quantity of petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and... each petroleum product or natural gas liquid on any day of each calendar month of the reporting year in...

  5. 40 CFR 98.394 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.394 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) Determination of quantity. (1) The quantity of petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and... or natural gas liquid on any day of each calendar month of the reporting year in which the quantity...

  6. 40 CFR 98.394 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.394 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. (a) Determination of quantity. (1) The quantity of petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and... each petroleum product or natural gas liquid on any day of each calendar month of the reporting year in...

  7. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  8. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. A novel way to monitor urine concentration: fluorescent concentration matrices.

    PubMed

    Dubayova, Katarina; Luckova, Iveta; Sabo, Jan; Karabinos, Anton

    2015-01-01

    The amount of water found in urine is important diagnostic information; nevertheless it is not yet directly determined. Indirectly, the water content in urine is expressed by its density (specific gravity). However, without the diuresis value it is not possible to determine whether the increase in density of urine is due to a decrease in water secretion or an increase in the concentration of secreted substances. This problem can be solved by the use of fluorescent concentration 3D-matrices which characterise urine concentration through the pφ (or -logφ) value of the first fluorescence centre. The urine fluorescent concentration 3D-matrix was created by the alignment of the synchronous spectra of the dilution series of urine starting from undiluted (pφ = 0) to 1000-fold diluted urine (pφ = 3). Using the fluorescence concentration 3D-matrix analysis of the urine samples from healthy individuals, a reference range was established for the value pφ, determining the normal, concentrated or diluted type of urine. The diagnostic potential of this approach was tested on urine samples from two patients with a chronic glomerulonephritis. The pφ value of the urine fluorescence concentration 3D-matrix analysis determines whether the urine sample falls within the normal, concentrated or diluted type of urine. This parameter can be directly utilised in sportsmen's hydration state monitoring, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of serious diseases. An important advantage of this novel diagnostic approach is that a 12/24 h urine collection is not required, which predetermines it for use especially within paediatrics.

  10. 5C.07: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE 24-HOUR SODIUM EXCRETION THROUGH SPOT URINE SAMPLES AND ITS APPLICATION VALUE FOR TARGET-ORGAN DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Zhao, L; Xi, Y; Sun, N

    2015-06-01

    24-h urine sodium excretion is considered the most reliable method to evaluate the salt intakes. However, this method is cumbersome. So we want to develop formulas to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urinary samples in Chinese hypertensive population and explore the application value of this method in salt intake assessment and target organ damage. 1. We enrolled 510 cases of hospitalized patients with hypertension, 2/3 of them were arranged randomly to formula group to develop a new formula and the remainings were used to test the performance of the formula. All participants were instructed to collect a 24-h urine sample, a second morning voiding urine sample (SMU), and a post-meridiem urine sample in the late afternoon or early evening, prior to the evening meal (PMU). All samples were sent to measure sodium and creatinine concentration.2. We compared the differences of office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular stiffness and urine protein among groups of different sodium intake. 24hour sodium excretion formulas was obtained using SMU and PMU respectively, which have good cosistency. The difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium excretion is 12.66mmol/day (SMU) and 9.41mmol/day (PM), to be equal to 0.7 g (SMU) and 0.6 g (PM) salt intake. Comparing with Kawasaki and Tanaka method, the new formula shows the lower degree of deviation, and higher accuracy and precision. Blood pressure of high urinary sodium group is higher than that in low urinary sodium group (P < 0.05). Left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin/creatinine aggravated with the salt intake increase, this has eliminated the influence of other factors. All of morphologies of the relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness index, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness with quartiles of sodium intake resembled a J-shaped curve. In Chinese hypertensive population, the

  11. Strong-LAMP: A LAMP Assay for Strongyloides spp. Detection in Stool and Urine Samples. Towards the Diagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis Starting from a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Gandasegui, Javier; Bajo Santos, Cristina; López-Abán, Julio; Saugar, José María; Rodríguez, Esperanza; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis, the chief causative agent of human strongyloidiasis, is a nematode globally distributed but mainly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Chronic infection is often clinically asymptomatic but it can result in severe hyperinfection syndrome or disseminated strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients. There is a great diversity of techniques used in diagnosing the disease, but definitive diagnosis is accomplished by parasitological examination of stool samples for morphological identification of parasite. Until now, no molecular method has been tested in urine samples as an alternative to stool samples for diagnosing strongyloidiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a new molecular LAMP assay in a well-established Wistar rat experimental infection model using both stool and, for the first time, urine samples. The LAMP assay was also clinically evaluated in patients´ stool samples. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool and urine samples were obtained daily during a 28-day period from rats infected subcutaneously with different infective third-stage larvae doses of S. venezuelensis. The dynamics of parasite infection was determined by daily counting the number of eggs per gram of feces from day 1 to 28 post-infection. A set of primers for LAMP assay based on a DNA partial sequence in the 18S rRNA gene from S. venezuelensis was designed. The set up LAMP assay (namely, Strong-LAMP) allowed the sensitive detection of S. venezuelensis DNA in both stool and urine samples obtained from each infection group of rats and was also effective in S. stercoralis DNA amplification in patients´ stool samples with previously confirmed strongyloidiasis by parasitological and real-time PCR tests. Conclusions/Significance Our Strong-LAMP assay is an useful molecular tool in research of a strongyloidiasis experimental infection model in both stool and urine samples. After further validation, the Strong-LAMP could also be potentially

  12. Optimizing Urine Processing Protocols for Protein and Metabolite Detection.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nazema Y; DuBois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Will, Thompson J; Grenier, Carole; Burke, Emily; Fraser, Matthew O; Amundsen, Cindy L; Murphy, Susan K

    In urine, factors such as timing of voids, and duration at room temperature (RT) may affect the quality of recovered protein and metabolite data. Additives may aid with detection, but can add more complexity in sample collection or analysis. We aimed to identify the optimal urine processing protocol for clinically-obtained urine samples that allows for the highest protein and metabolite yields with minimal degradation. Healthy women provided multiple urine samples during the same day. Women collected their first morning (1 st AM) void and another "random void". Random voids were aliquotted with: 1) no additive; 2) boric acid (BA); 3) protease inhibitor (PI); or 4) both BA + PI. Of these aliquots, some were immediately stored at 4°C, and some were left at RT for 4 hours. Proteins and individual metabolites were quantified, normalized to creatinine concentrations, and compared across processing conditions. Sample pools corresponding to each processing condition were analyzed using mass spectrometry to assess protein degradation. Ten Caucasian women between 35-65 years of age provided paired 1 st morning and random voided urine samples. Normalized protein concentrations were slightly higher in 1 st AM compared to random "spot" voids. The addition of BA did not significantly change proteins, while PI significantly improved normalized protein concentrations, regardless of whether samples were immediately cooled or left at RT for 4 hours. In pooled samples, there were minimal differences in protein degradation under the various conditions we tested. In metabolite analyses, there were significant differences in individual amino acids based on the timing of the void. For comparative translational research using urine, information about void timing should be collected and standardized. For urine samples processed in the same day, BA does not appear to be necessary while the addition of PI enhances protein yields, regardless of 4°C or RT storage temperature.

  13. Building a QC Database of Meteorological Data from NASA KSC and the United States Air Force's Eastern Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenton, J. C.; Barbre, R. E.; Decker, R. K.; Orcutt, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (EV44) provides atmospheric databases and analysis in support of space vehicle design and day-of-launch operations for NASA and commercial launch vehicle programs launching from the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ER complex is one of the most heavily instrumented sites in the United States with over 31 towers measuring various atmospheric parameters on a continuous basis. An inherent challenge with large datasets consists of ensuring erroneous data are removed from databases, and thus excluded from launch vehicle design analyses. EV44 has put forth great effort in developing quality control (QC) procedures for individual meteorological instruments, however no standard QC procedures for all databases currently exists resulting in QC databases that have inconsistencies in variables, development methodologies, and periods of record. The goal of this activity is to use the previous efforts to develop a standardized set of QC procedures from which to build meteorological databases from KSC and the ER, while maintaining open communication with end users from the launch community to develop ways to improve, adapt and grow the QC database. Details of the QC procedures will be described. As the rate of launches increases with additional launch vehicle programs, It is becoming more important that weather databases are continually updated and checked for data quality before use in launch vehicle design and certification analyses.

  14. Performance of Copan WASP for Routine Urine Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Quiblier, Chantal; Jetter, Marion; Rominski, Mark; Mouttet, Forouhar; Böttger, Erik C.; Keller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a manual workup of urine clinical samples with fully automated WASPLab processing. As a first step, two different inocula (1 and 10 μl) and different streaking patterns were compared using WASP and InoqulA BT instrumentation. Significantly more single colonies were produced with the10-μl inoculum than with the 1-μl inoculum, and automated streaking yielded significantly more single colonies than manual streaking on whole plates (P < 0.001). In a second step, 379 clinical urine samples were evaluated using WASP and the manual workup. Average numbers of detected morphologies, recovered species, and CFUs per milliliter of all 379 urine samples showed excellent agreement between WASPLab and the manual workup. The percentage of urine samples clinically categorized as positive or negative did not differ between the automated and manual workflow, but within the positive samples, automated processing by WASPLab resulted in the detection of more potential pathogens. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (i) the streaking pattern, i.e., primarily the number of zigzags/length of streaking lines, is critical for optimizing the number of single colonies yielded from primary cultures of urine samples; (ii) automated streaking by the WASP instrument is superior to manual streaking regarding the number of single colonies yielded (for 32.2% of the samples); and (iii) automated streaking leads to higher numbers of detected morphologies (for 47.5% of the samples), species (for 17.4% of the samples), and pathogens (for 3.4% of the samples). The results of this study point to an improved quality of microbiological analyses and laboratory reports when using automated sample processing by WASP and WASPLab. PMID:26677255

  15. Coca tea consumption causes positive urine cocaine assay.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Suzan S; Mycyk, Mark B; Wills, Brandon K; Brace, Larry D; Gussow, Leon; Erickson, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    Coca tea, derived from the same plant that is used to synthesize cocaine, is commonly consumed in South America and easily obtained in the United States. To determine whether consumption of coca tea would result in a positive urine toxicology screen for cocaine metabolites. Five healthy adult volunteers consumed coca tea and underwent serial quantitative urine testing for cocaine metabolites by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The cutoff for a positive assay was chosen at 300 ng/ml, the National Institute on Drug Abuse standard. Each participant's urine cocaine assay was positive (level exceeding 300 ng/ml) by 2 h after ingestion. Three out of five participants' samples remained positive at 36 h. Mean urine benzoylecgonine concentrations in all postconsumption samples was 1777 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 1060-2495). Coca tea ingestion resulted in a positive urine assay for cocaine metabolite. Healthcare professionals should consider a history of coca tea ingestion when interpreting urine toxicology results.

  16. Urine and Urination

    MedlinePlus

    Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to ...

  17. Profiling a multiplex short tandem repeat loci from human urine with use of low cost on-site technology for verification of sample authenticity.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno M M; Tao Dong; Berntzen, Lasse; Lonningdal, Torill

    2017-07-01

    This work focuses on the development of a sophisticated technique via STR typing to unequivocally verify the authenticity of urine samples before sent to laboratories. STR profiling was conducted with the CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01 Multiplex System coupled with a smartphone-based detection method. The promising capability of the method to identify distinct STR profiles from urine of different persons opens the possibility to conduct sample authenticity tests. On-site STR profiling could be realized with a self-contained autonomous device with an integrated PCR microchip shown hereby.

  18. Oral fluid vs. Urine Analysis to Monitor Synthetic Cannabinoids and Classic Drugs Recent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Blandino, Vincent; Wetzel, Jillian; Kim, Jiyoung; Haxhi, Petrit; Curtis, Richard; Concheiro, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Background Urine is a common biological sample to monitor recent drug exposure, and oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. Limited data are available about oral fluid vs. urine drug disposition, especially for synthetic cannabinoids. Objective To compare urine and oral fluid as biological matrices to monitor recent drug exposure among HIV-infected homeless individuals. Methods Seventy matched urine and oral fluid samples were collected from 13 participants. Cannabis, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and opiates were analyzed in urine by the enzyme-multiplied-immunoassay-technique and in oral fluid by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS). Eleven synthetic cannabinoids were analyzed in urine and in oral fluid by LC-MSMS. Results Five oral fluid samples were positive for AB-FUBINACA. In urine, 4 samples tested positive for synthetic cannabinoids PB-22, 5-Fluoro-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and metabolites UR-144 5-pentanoic acid and UR-144 4-hydroxypentyl. In only one case, oral fluid and urine results matched, both specimens being AB-FUBINACA positive. For cannabis, 40 samples tested positive in urine and 30 in oral fluid (85.7% match). For cocaine, 37 urine and 52 oral fluid samples were positive (75.7% match). Twenty-four urine samples were positive for opiates, and 25 in oral fluid (81.4% match). For benzodiazepines, 23 samples were positive in urine and 25 in oral fluid (85.7% match). Conclusion/Discussion These results offer new information about drugs disposition between urine and oral fluid. Oral fluid is a good alternative matrix to urine for monitoring cannabis, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines recent use; however, synthetic cannabinoids showed mixed results. PMID:29173162

  19. Oral Fluid vs. Urine Analysis to Monitor Synthetic Cannabinoids and Classic Drugs Recent Exposure.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Vincent; Wetzel, Jillian; Kim, Jiyoung; Haxhi, Petrit; Curtis, Richard; Concheiro, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Urine is a common biological sample to monitor recent drug exposure, and oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. Limited data are available about oral fluid vs. urine drug disposition, especially for synthetic cannabinoids. To compare urine and oral fluid as biological matrices to monitor recent drug exposure among HIV-infected homeless individuals. Seventy matched urine and oral fluid samples were collected from 13 participants. Cannabis, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and opiates were analyzed in urine by the enzyme-multipliedimmunoassay- technique and in oral fluid by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Eleven synthetic cannabinoids were analyzed in urine and in oral fluid by LC-MSMS. Five oral fluid samples were positive for AB-FUBINACA. In urine, 4 samples tested positive for synthetic cannabinoids PB-22, 5-Fluoro-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and metabolites UR-144 5-pentanoic acid and UR-144 4-hydroxypentyl. In only one case, oral fluid and urine results matched, both specimens being AB-FUBINACA positive. For cannabis, 40 samples tested positive in urine and 30 in oral fluid (85.7% match). For cocaine, 37 urine and 52 oral fluid samples were positive (75.7% match). Twenty-four urine samples were positive for opiates, and 25 in oral fluid (81.4% match). For benzodiazepines, 23 samples were positive in urine and 25 in oral fluid (85.7% match). These results offer new information about drugs disposition between urine and oral fluid. Oral fluid is a good alternative matrix to urine for monitoring cannabis, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines recent use; however, synthetic cannabinoids showed mixed results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Catecholamines - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Dopamine - urine test; Epinephrine - urine test; Adrenalin - urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine - urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic ...

  1. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers☆

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mary K.; Caudill, Samuel P.; Koch, David D.; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H.; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W. Greg

    2017-01-01

    Background Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. Methods We added 125I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Results Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5–6 mg/l was <0.9%; and at 90 mg/l was <0.4%. Adsorption was generally less at pH 8 than pH 5 but only 3 cases had p <0.05. Adsorption from 11 unaltered urine samples with albumin 5–333 mg/l was <0.8%. Albumin adsorption for the material with greatest binding was extrapolated to the surface areas of 100 ml and 2 l collection containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2–28%) was larger than that from urine. Conclusions Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. PMID:24513540

  2. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg

    2014-04-20

    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was <0.9%; and at 90 mg/l was <0.4%. Adsorption was generally less at pH8 than pH5 but only 3 cases had p<0.05. Adsorption from 11 unaltered urine samples with albumin 5-333 mg/l was <0.8%. Albumin adsorption for the material with greatest binding was extrapolated to the surface areas of 100 ml and 2l collection containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of routine urinalysis and urine Gram stain for detection of bacteriuria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Way, Leilani Ireland; Sullivan, Lauren A; Johnson, Valerie; Morley, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    To determine the utility of performing urine Gram stain for detection of bacteriuria compared to routine urine sediment examination and bacterial aerobic urine culture. Prospective, observational study. University teaching hospital. Urine samples acquired via cystocentesis through convenience sampling from 103 dogs presenting to a tertiary referral institution. All samples underwent routine urinalysis, including sediment examination, as well as urine Gram stain and quantitative bacterial aerobic urine culture. The urine Gram stain demonstrated improved sensitivity (96% versus 76%), specificity (100% versus 77%), positive predictive value (100% versus 83%), and negative predictive value (93% versus 69%) when identifying bacteriuria, compared to routine urine sediment examination. The urine Gram stain is highly sensitive and specific when detecting the presence of bacteria in canine urine samples. Gram staining should be considered when bacteriuria is highly suspected and requires rapid identification while bacterial culture is pending. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  4. Urine metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wu, Xiuhong; Wang, Xijun

    2012-12-24

    Metabolomics is a powerful technique for the discovery of novel biomarkers and elucidation of biochemical pathways to improve diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. An advantage of this approach is its ability to assess global metabolic profiles to enhance pathologic characterization. Urine is an ideal bio-medium for disease study because it is readily available, easily obtained and less complex than other body fluids. Ease of collection allows for serial sampling to monitor disease and therapeutic response. Because of this potential, this paper will review urine metabolomic analysis, discuss its significance in the post-genomic era and highlight the specific roles of endogenous small molecule metabolites in this emerging field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kouji H.; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53–3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:26731104

  6. Analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine by full-capillary sample injection combined with a sweeping CE stacking method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2013-02-01

    This study describes an on-line stacking CE approach by sweeping with whole capillary sample filling for analyzing five anabolic androgenic steroids in urine samples. The five anabolic steroids for detection were androstenedione, testosterone, epitestosterone, boldenone, and clostebol. Anabolic androgenic steroids are abused in sport doping because they can promote muscle growth. Therefore, a sensitive detection method is imperatively required for monitoring the urine samples of athletes. In this research, an interesting and reliable stacking capillary electrophoresis method was established for analysis of anabolic steroids in urine. After liquid-liquid extraction by n-hexane, the supernatant was dried and reconstituted with 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 5.00) and loaded into the capillary by hydrodynamic injection (10 psi, 99.9 s). The stacking and separation were simultaneously accomplished at -20 kV in phosphate buffer (30 mM, pH 5.0) containing 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 40 % methanol. During the method validation, calibration curves were linear (r≥0.990) over a range of 50-1,000 ng/mL for the five analytes. In the evaluation of precision and accuracy for this method, the absolute values of the RSD and the RE in the intra-day (n=3) and inter-day (n=5) analyses were all less than 6.6 %. The limit of detection for the five analytes was 30 ng/mL (S/N=5, sampling 99.9 s at 10 psi). Compared with simple MECK, this stacking method possessed a 108- to 175-fold increase in sensitivity. This simple and sensitive stacking method could be used as a powerful tool for monitoring the illegal use of doping.

  7. Antibiotic Screening of Urine Culture for Internal Quality Audit at Amrita Hospital, Kochi.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Aswathy; Gopinathan, Anusha; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Kumar, Anil

    2017-07-01

    Urine antimicrobial activity is a seldom analysed laboratory test which greatly impacts the quantification of urine specimens. Presence of antimicrobial activity in the urine reduces the bacterial load in these specimens. Hence, the chances of erroneously reporting insignificant bacteriuria can be reduced on analysis of the antimicrobial activity in urine. The aim of the study was to measure the antimicrobial activity of urine samples obtained from patients in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 urine specimens were collected from the study group. Tests like wet mount, Gram staining and culture were performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on the bacteria isolated from each specimen. The urine specimens were reported as significant bacteriuria (>105 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/ml) and insignificant bacteriuria (<105 CFU/ml - clean catch midstream urine; <102 CFU/ml - catheterized urine sample) according to the CFU/ml. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC ® 25923 ™ and Escherichia coli ATCC ® 25922 ™ were used to identify the presence of antimicrobial activity in the urine sample by Urine Anti-Bacterial substance Assay (UABA). McNemar test was used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. On analysis of the antimicrobial activity of urine sample with the prior antibiotic history of the patients, 17 were true positives and 43 were true negatives. Twenty six of samples with UABA positivity were culture negative and 28 samples with UABA positivity were culture positive. Sensitivity and specificity of the test was 85% and 53.8% respectively. Accuracy of the test was 60%. The p-value of UABA was <0.001. Enterobacteriaceae was the most common bacterial family isolated from the urine specimens. A total of 85% patients responded to treatment. Presence of antimicrobial activity in urine has a great impact on the interpretation of urine culture reports. Identification of urine antimicrobial activity helps

  8. Long-Term Follow-up of HPV Infection Using Urine and Cervical Quantitative HPV DNA Testing.

    PubMed

    Vorsters, Alex; Van Keer, Severien; Biesmans, Samantha; Hens, Annick; De Coster, Ilse; Goossens, Herman; Ieven, Margareta; Van Damme, Pierre

    2016-05-17

    The link between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and cervical cancer has been clearly demonstrated. Virological end-points showing the absence of persistent HPV infection are now accepted as a way of monitoring the impact of prophylactic vaccination programs and therapeutic vaccine trials. This study investigated the use of urine samples, which can be collected by self-sampling at home, instead of cervical samples for follow-up of an HPV intervention trial. Eighteen initially HPV DNA-positive women participating in an HPV therapeutic vaccine trial were monitored during a three-year follow-up period. A total of 172 urine samples and 85 cervical samples were collected. We obtained a paired urine sample for each of the 85 cervical samples by recovering urine samples from six monthly gynaecological examinations. We performed a small pilot study in which the participating women used a urine collection device at home and returned their urine sample to the laboratory by mail. All samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time HPV DNA PCR. A good association (κ value of 0.65) was found between the presence of HPV DNA in urine and a subsequent cervical sample. Comparisons of the number of HPV DNA copies in urine and paired cervical samples revealed a significant Spearman rho of 0.676. This correlation was superior in women with severe lesions. The HPV DNA results of the small pilot study based on self-collected urine samples at home are consistent with previous and subsequent urine and/or cervical results. We demonstrated that urine sampling may be a valid alternative to cervical samples for the follow-up of HPV intervention trials or programs. The potential clinical value of urine viral load monitoring should be further investigated.

  9. Long-Term Follow-up of HPV Infection Using Urine and Cervical Quantitative HPV DNA Testing

    PubMed Central

    Vorsters, Alex; Van Keer, Severien; Biesmans, Samantha; Hens, Annick; De Coster, Ilse; Goossens, Herman; Ieven, Margareta; Van Damme, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The link between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and cervical cancer has been clearly demonstrated. Virological end-points showing the absence of persistent HPV infection are now accepted as a way of monitoring the impact of prophylactic vaccination programs and therapeutic vaccine trials. This study investigated the use of urine samples, which can be collected by self-sampling at home, instead of cervical samples for follow-up of an HPV intervention trial. Eighteen initially HPV DNA-positive women participating in an HPV therapeutic vaccine trial were monitored during a three-year follow-up period. A total of 172 urine samples and 85 cervical samples were collected. We obtained a paired urine sample for each of the 85 cervical samples by recovering urine samples from six monthly gynaecological examinations. We performed a small pilot study in which the participating women used a urine collection device at home and returned their urine sample to the laboratory by mail. All samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time HPV DNA PCR. A good association (κ value of 0.65) was found between the presence of HPV DNA in urine and a subsequent cervical sample. Comparisons of the number of HPV DNA copies in urine and paired cervical samples revealed a significant Spearman rho of 0.676. This correlation was superior in women with severe lesions. The HPV DNA results of the small pilot study based on self-collected urine samples at home are consistent with previous and subsequent urine and/or cervical results. We demonstrated that urine sampling may be a valid alternative to cervical samples for the follow-up of HPV intervention trials or programs. The potential clinical value of urine viral load monitoring should be further investigated. PMID:27196899

  10. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  11. Pathogens and pharmaceuticals in source-separated urine in eThekwini, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bischel, Heather N; Özel Duygan, Birge D; Strande, Linda; McArdell, Christa S; Udert, Kai M; Kohn, Tamar

    2015-11-15

    In eThekwini, South Africa, the production of agricultural fertilizers from human urine collected from urine-diverting dry toilets is being evaluated at a municipality scale as a way to help finance a decentralized, dry sanitation system. The present study aimed to assess a range of human and environmental health hazards in source-separated urine, which was presumed to be contaminated with feces, by evaluating the presence of human pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and an antibiotic resistance gene. Composite urine samples from households enrolled in a urine collection trial were obtained from urine storage tanks installed in three regions of eThekwini. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeted 9 viral and 10 bacterial human pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The most frequently detected viral pathogens were JC polyomavirus, rotavirus, and human adenovirus in 100%, 34% and 31% of samples, respectively. Aeromonas spp. and Shigella spp. were frequently detected gram negative bacteria, in 94% and 61% of samples, respectively. The gram positive bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, which is known to survive for extended times in urine, was found in 72% of samples. A screening of 41 trace organic compounds in the urine facilitated selection of 12 priority pharmaceuticals for further evaluation. The antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, which are frequently prescribed as prophylaxis for HIV-positive patients, were detected in 95% and 85% of samples, reaching maximum concentrations of 6800 μg/L and 1280 μg/L, respectively. The antiretroviral drug emtricitabine was also detected in 40% of urine samples. A sulfonamide antibiotic resistance gene (sul1) was detected in 100% of urine samples. By coupling analysis of pathogens and pharmaceuticals in geographically dispersed samples in eThekwini, this study reveals a range of human and environmental health hazards in urine intended for fertilizer production. Collection of urine offers the benefit of

  12. An analysis of workers' tritium concentration in urine samples as a function of time after intake at Korean pressurised heavy water reactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-12-01

    In general, internal exposure from tritium at pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) accounts for ∼20-40 % of the total radiation dose. Tritium usually reaches the equilibrium concentration after a few hours inside the body and is then excreted from the body with an effective half-life in the order of 10 d. In this study, tritium metabolism was reviewed using its excretion rate in urine samples of workers at Korean PHWRs. The tritium concentration in workers' urine samples was also measured as a function of time after intake. On the basis of the monitoring results, changes in the tritium concentration inside the body were then analysed.

  13. Optimization of HPV DNA detection in urine by improving collection, storage, and extraction.

    PubMed

    Vorsters, A; Van den Bergh, J; Micalessi, I; Biesmans, S; Bogers, J; Hens, A; De Coster, I; Ieven, M; Van Damme, P

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of using urine for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA have been evaluated in disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and screening for cervical cancers in specific subgroups. HPV DNA testing in urine is being considered for important purposes, notably the monitoring of HPV vaccination in adolescent girls and young women who do not wish to have a vaginal examination. The need to optimize and standardize sampling, storage, and processing has been reported.In this paper, we examined the impact of a DNA-conservation buffer, the extraction method, and urine sampling on the detection of HPV DNA and human DNA in urine provided by 44 women with a cytologically normal but HPV DNA-positive cervical sample. Ten women provided first-void and midstream urine samples. DNA analysis was performed using real-time PCR to allow quantification of HPV and human DNA.The results showed that an optimized method for HPV DNA detection in urine should (a) prevent DNA degradation during extraction and storage, (b) recover cell-free HPV DNA in addition to cell-associated DNA, (c) process a sufficient volume of urine, and (d) use a first-void sample.In addition, we found that detectable human DNA in urine may not be a good internal control for sample validity. HPV prevalence data that are based on urine samples collected, stored, and/or processed under suboptimal conditions may underestimate infection rates.

  14. Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids in urine.

    PubMed

    Fazil Marickar, Y M

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the relevance of electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) in early morning and random samples of urine of urinary stone patients; 2,000 urine samples were studied. The two parameters were correlated with the extent of various urinary concrements. The early morning urine (EMU) and random samples of the patients who attended the urinary stone clinic were analysed routinely. The pH, specific gravity, EC, TDS, redox potential, albumin, sugar and microscopic study of the urinary sediments including red blood cells (RBC), pus cells (PC), crystals, namely calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD), uric acid (UA), and phosphates and epithelial cells were assessed. The extent of RBC, PC, COM, COD, UA and phosphates was correlated with EC and TDS. The values of EC ranged from 1.1 to 33.9 mS, the mean value being 21.5 mS. TDS ranged from 3,028 to 18,480 ppm, the mean value being 7,012 ppm. The TDS levels corresponded with EC of urine. Both values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the EMU samples than the random samples. There was a statistically significant correlation between the level of abnormality in the urinary deposits (r = +0.27, P < 0.05). In samples, where the TDS were more than 12,000 ppm, there were more crystals than those samples containing TDS less than 12,000 ppm. However, there were certain urine samples, where the TDS were over 12,000, which did not contain any urinary crystals. It is concluded that the value of TDS has relevance in the process of stone formation.

  15. Development of concrete QC/QA specifications for highway construction in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-08-01

    There is a growing trend toward quality-based specifications in highway construction. A large number of quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) specifications shift the responsibility of day-to-day testing from the state DOH to the contractor. This...

  16. LoC-SERS toward clinical application: quantification of antibiotics in human urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidi, I. J.; Jahn, M.; Weber, K.; Pletz, M. W.; Bocklitz, T. W.; Cialla-May, D.; Popp, J.

    2017-02-01

    The determination of the concentration of xenobiotics in biological matrix followed by the change of the prescribing procedure plays a major role in the transition from general to personalized medicine. For this contribution, human urine samples collected from healthy volunteers and from patients having urinary tract infection were used as biological matrix to assess the potential and limitation of LoC-SERS to detected levofloxacin and nitroxoline. The determination of both antibiotics at clinically relevant concentrations, 1.38 mM +/- 0.68 mM for levofloxacin and 10-40 µM for nitroxoline, will be presented. For quantification purposes the standard addition method is combined with LoC-SERS.

  17. Construction of type-II QC-LDPC codes with fast encoding based on perfect cyclic difference sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling-xiang; Li, Hai-bing; Li, Ji-bi; Jiang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In view of the problems that the encoding complexity of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes is high and the minimum distance is not large enough which leads to the degradation of the error-correction performance, the new irregular type-II QC-LDPC codes based on perfect cyclic difference sets (CDSs) are constructed. The parity check matrices of these type-II QC-LDPC codes consist of the zero matrices with weight of 0, the circulant permutation matrices (CPMs) with weight of 1 and the circulant matrices with weight of 2 (W2CMs). The introduction of W2CMs in parity check matrices makes it possible to achieve the larger minimum distance which can improve the error- correction performance of the codes. The Tanner graphs of these codes have no girth-4, thus they have the excellent decoding convergence characteristics. In addition, because the parity check matrices have the quasi-dual diagonal structure, the fast encoding algorithm can reduce the encoding complexity effectively. Simulation results show that the new type-II QC-LDPC codes can achieve a more excellent error-correction performance and have no error floor phenomenon over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with sum-product algorithm (SPA) iterative decoding.

  18. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitablemore » sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.« less

  19. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of three different intramuscular doses of nandrolone decanoate: analysis of serum and urine samples in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Bagchus, Wilma M; Smeets, Jean M W; Verheul, Herman A M; De Jager-Van Der Veen, Suzanne M; Port, Andreas; Geurts, T B Paul

    2005-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nandrolone in serum and urine were investigated in healthy young men after a single im injection of 50 mg (n = 20), 100 mg (n = 17), or 150 mg (n = 17) nandrolone decanoate. Blood samples were collected before treatment and for up to 32 d after dosing. In addition, in the 50- and 150-mg groups, 24-h urine samples were collected before treatment and on d 1, 7, and 33 after treatment; in the 150-mg group, additional samples were collected after 3 and 6 months. Serum concentrations and the area under the curve of nandrolone increased proportionally with the dose administered. The peak serum concentration ranged from 2.14 ng/ml in the 50-mg group to 4.26 ng/ml in the 100-mg group and 5.16 ng/ml in the 150-mg group. The peak serum concentration was reached after 30 h (50 and 100 mg) and 72 h (150 mg), whereas the terminal half-life was 7-12 d. In urine, pretreatment concentrations of 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and/or 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) were detected in five of 37 subjects (14%). In the 50-mg group, 19-NA and/or 19-NE could be detected at least until 33 d after injection in 16 of 17 subjects (94%). In the 150-mg group, who were presumed to have not previously used nandrolone, nandrolone metabolites could be detected for up to 6 months in eight of 12 subjects (67%) for 19-NE and in 10 of 12 subjects (83%) for 19-NA.

  20. [Comparison of the Conventional Centrifuged and Filtrated Preparations in Urine Cytology].

    PubMed

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Shimosakai, Hirofumi; Nishikawa, Rika; Sato, Hiroaki; Kouno, Hiroyoshi; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The urine cytology test is one of the most important tools for the diagnosis of malignant urinary tract tumors. This test is also of great value for predicting malignancy. However, the sensitivity of this test is not high enough to screen for malignant cells. In our laboratory, we were able to attain a high sensitivity of urine cytology tests after changing the preparation method of urine samples. The differences in the cytodiagnosis between the two methods are discussed here. From January 2012 to June 2013, 2,031 urine samples were prepared using the conventional centrifuge method (C method) ; and from September 2013 to March 2015, 2,453 urine samples were prepared using the filtration method (F method) for the cytology test. When the samples included in category 4 or 5, were defined as cytological positive, the sensitivities of this test with samples prepared using the F method were significantly high compared with samples prepared using the C method (72% vs 28%, p<0.001). The number of cells on the glass slides prepared by the F method was significantly higher than that of the samples prepared by the C method (p<0.001). After introduction of the F method, the number of f alse negative cases was decreased in the urine cytology test because a larger number of cells was seen and easily detected as atypical or malignant epithelial cells. Therefore, this method has a higher sensitivity than the conventional C method as the sensitivity of urine cytology tests relies partially on the number of cells visualized in the prepared samples.

  1. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--METALS IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metals in Urine data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 6 metals in 176 urine samples over 176 households. Each sample was collected from the primary respondent within each household during Stage III of the NHEXAS study. The sample consists of the fir...

  2. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Schistosoma DNA in Small-Volume Urine Samples Reflects Focal Distribution of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Primary School Girls in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Pavitra; Taylor, Myra; Zulu, Siphosenkosi G.; Gundersen, Svein G.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Hoekstra, Pytsje; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Kjetland, Eyrun F.; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium eggs and Schistosoma DNA levels were measured in urine samples from 708 girls recruited from 18 randomly sampled primary schools in South Africa. Microscopic analysis of two 10-mL urine subsamples collected on three consecutive days confirmed high day-to-day variation; 103 (14.5%) girls had positive results at all six examinations, and at least one positive sample was seen in 225 (31.8%) girls. Schistosoma-specific DNA, which was measured in a 200-μL urine subsample by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, was detected in 180 (25.4%) cases, and levels of DNA corresponded significantly with average urine egg excretion. In concordance with microscopic results, polymerase chain reaction results were significantly associated with history of gynecologic symptoms and confirmed highly focal distribution of urogenital schistosomiasis. Parasite-specific DNA detection has a sensitivity comparable to single urine microscopy and could be used as a standardized high-throughput procedure to assess distribution of urogenital schistosomiasis in relatively large study populations by using small sample volumes. PMID:24470560

  3. Performance assessment of urine flow cytometry (UFC) to screen urines to reflex to culture in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Roscoe, Diane; Ranasinghe, Romali; Wong, Titus; Bryce, Elizabeth; Porter, Charlene; Lim, Adelina; Grant, Jennifer; Ng, Karen; Pudek, Morris

    2017-09-01

    Urine flow cytometry (UFC) is an automated method to quantify bacterial and white blood cell (WBC) counts. We aimed to determine whether a threshold for these parameters can be set to use UFC as a sensitive screen to predict which urine samples will subsequently grow in culture. Urines submitted to our microbiology laboratory at a tertiary care centre from 22 July 2015-17 February 2016 underwent UFC (Sysmex UF-1000i) analysis, regular urinalysis and urine culture. Positive urine cultures were defined as growth ≥104 c.f.u. ml-1 of organisms associated with urinary tract infections. The correlation of UFC bacterial and WBC counts with urine culture was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curves. The sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), negative predictive values (NPVs), positive predictive values (PPVs) and false negative rate (FNR) were calculated at various thresholds in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. A total of 15 046 urine specimens were submitted, of which 14 908 were analysable in the study. The average time to UFC result from receipt in the laboratory was 0.76 h (+/-1.04). The test performance at a set threshold of UFC bacteria ≥20 or WBC >5 was: SN=96.0 %, SP=39.2 %, PPV=47.0 %, NPV=94.5 % and FNR=4.0 %. This threshold eliminates 26 % of urine cultures. Immunosuppressed hosts had a lower sensitivity of 90.6 % and a higher FNR of 9.4 %. UFC is a rapid and sensitive method to screen out urine samples that will subsequently be negative and to reflex urines to culture that will subsequently grow. UFC results are available within 1 h from receipt and enable the elimination of culture when the set threshold is not met.

  4. Comparison of vacuum and non-vacuum urine tubes for urinary sediment analysis.

    PubMed

    Topcuoglu, Canan; Sezer, Sevilay; Kosem, Arzu; Ercan, Mujgan; Turhan, Turan

    2017-12-01

    Urine collection systems with aspiration system for vacuum tubes are becoming increasingly common for urinalysis, especially for microscopic examination of the urine. In this study, we aimed to examine whether vacuum aspiration of the urine sample has any adverse effect on sediment analysis by comparing results from vacuum and non-vacuum urine tubes. The study included totally 213 urine samples obtained from inpatients and outpatients in our hospital. Urine samples were collected to containers with aspiration system for vacuum tubes. Each sample was aliquoted to both vacuum and non-vacuum urine tubes. Urinary sediment analysis was performed using manual microscope. Results were evaluated using chi-square test. Comparison of the sediment analysis results from vacuum and non-vacuum urine tubes showed that results were highly concordant for erythrocyte, leukocyte and epithelial cells (gamma values 1, 0.997, and 0.994, respectively; p < .001). Results were also concordant for urinary casts, crystals and yeast (kappa values 0.815, 0.945 and 1, respectively; p < .001). The results show that in urinary sediment analysis, vacuum aspiration has no adverse effect on the cellular components except on casts.

  5. Detection and sequencing of West Nile virus RNA from human urine and serum samples during the 2014 seasonal period.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Anna; Bán, Enikő; Nagy, Orsolya; Ferenczi, Emőke; Farkas, Ágnes; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia; Takács, Mária

    2016-07-01

    West Nile virus, a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus, is responsible for numerous animal and human infections in Europe, Africa and the Americas. In Hungary, the average number of human infections falls between 10 and 20 cases each year. The severity of clinically manifesting infections varies widely from the milder form of West Nile fever to West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). In routine laboratory diagnosis of human West Nile virus infections, serological methods are mainly applied due to the limited duration of viremia. However, recent studies suggest that detection of West Nile virus RNA in urine samples may be useful as a molecular diagnostic test for these infections. The Hungarian National Reference Laboratory for Viral Zoonoses serologically confirmed eleven acute human infections during the 2014 seasonal period. In three patients with neurological symptoms, viral RNA was detected from both urine and serum specimens, albeit for a longer period and in higher copy numbers with urine. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS3 genomic region of three strains and the complete genome of one selected strain demonstrated that all three patients had lineage-2 West Nile virus infections. Our findings reaffirm the utility of viral RNA detection in urine as a molecular diagnostic procedure for diagnosis of West Nile virus infections.

  6. Building a QC Database of Meteorological Data From NASA KSC and the United States Air Force's Eastern Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenton, James C.; Barbre, Robert E.; Orcutt, John M.; Decker, Ryan K.

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (EV44) has provided atmospheric databases and analysis in support of space vehicle design and day-of-launch operations for NASA and commercial launch vehicle programs launching from the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ER is one of the most heavily instrumented sites in the United States measuring various atmospheric parameters on a continuous basis. An inherent challenge with the large databases that EV44 receives from the ER consists of ensuring erroneous data are removed from the databases, and thus excluded from launch vehicle design analyses. EV44 has put forth great effort in developing quality control (QC) procedures for individual meteorological instruments; however, no standard QC procedures for all databases currently exist resulting in QC databases that have inconsistencies in variables, methodologies, and periods of record. The goal of this activity is to use the previous efforts by EV44 to develop a standardized set of QC procedures from which to build flags within the meteorological databases from KSC and the ER, while maintaining open communication with end users from the launch community to develop ways to improve, adapt and grow the QC database. Details of the QC checks are described. The flagged data points will be plotted in a graphical user interface (GUI) as part of a manual confirmation that the flagged data do indeed need to be removed from the archive. As the rate of launches increases with additional launch vehicle programs, more emphasis is being placed to continually update and check weather databases for data quality before use in launch vehicle design and certification analyses.

  7. Prevalence of isolated non-albumin proteinuria in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and urine albumin: An unexpected discovery.

    PubMed

    Katayev, Alexander; Zebelman, Arthur M; Sharp, Thomas M; Samantha Flynn; Bernstein, Richard K

    2017-04-01

    Isolated non-albumin proteinuria (NAP) is a condition when urine total protein concentrations are elevated without elevation of urine albumin. The prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was assessed in this study. The database of a US nationwide laboratory network was queried for test results when random urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein and also when timed 24-hour urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein. The total prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was calculated for patient groups having normal and low-normal urine albumin (random and timed) with elevated and severely increased urine total protein (random and timed). Also, the prevalence of NAP was calculated for patients with normal urine albumin to assess the probability of missing proteinuria if only urine albumin is measured. The prevalence of NAP in the random samples group was 10.1% (15.2% for females and 4.7% for males). Among patients with normal random albumin, there were 20.0% (27.3% of females and 10.7% of males) patients with NAP. The prevalence of NAP in the timed samples group was 24.6% (29.8% for females and 18.5% for males). Among patients with normal timed urine albumin, there were 36.2% (40.0% of females and 30.8% of males) patients with NAP. There was a strong positive association with female gender and NAP in most patients groups. Testing for only urine (micro)albumin can miss up to 40% of females and 30.8% of males with gross proteinuria. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Solid phase extraction of 2,4-D from human urine.

    PubMed

    Thompson, T S; Treble, R G

    1996-10-01

    A method for determining urinary concentrations of 2,4-D in samples collected from non-occupationally, environmentally exposed individuals was developed. The 2,4-D was extracted from fortified human urine samples using octadecylsilane solid phase extraction cartridges. The average percent recovery for urine samples spiked at 2 and 20 ng/mL was 100% and 93%, respectively. The method detection limit was estimated to be 0.75 ng of 2,4-D per mL of urine based on a 10 mL sample size. The potential use of 2,4-dichlorophenylacetic acid as a surrogate standard was also investigated.

  9. Determination of 61 elements in urine samples collected from a non-occupationally exposed UK adult population.

    PubMed

    Morton, Jackie; Tan, Emma; Leese, Elizabeth; Cocker, John

    2014-12-01

    levels for 61 elements were established in urine samples collected from 132 occupationally unexposed UK adults. In this study all elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, but methods were 'tailored' to the elements; in total six analytical methods were undertaken. For the first time in a UK population 95th percentile values are reported for 19 elements for which there is no available comparison. Repeat urine samples were collected from some individuals and mixed effects modelling was carried out on the data to give an estimation of variation both between individuals and within the same individual. The mixed effects modelling was undertaken on 31 of the 61 elements for which there were more than two thirds of data above the LOQ and variations of between and within individuals are reported. The analysis found that creatinine adjustment of analyte concentrations was found to be beneficial for 22 of the 31 elements and that smokers were found to exhibit significantly higher cadmium but lower boron than non-smokers. For most elements, the data compare well with other published data but higher concentrations were observed in this study for urinary lead, chromium, vanadium and tungsten. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Potassium Clavulanate and Amoxicillin Trihydrate in Bulk, Pharmaceutical Formulations and in Human Urine Samples by UV Spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Rajinder Singh; Haque, Sk Manirul

    2010-01-01

    A simple and sensitive UV spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Potassium Clavulanate (PC) and Amoxicillin Trihydrate (AT) in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations and in human urine samples. The method was linear in the range of 0.2–8.5 μg/ml for PC and 6.4–33.6 μg/ml for AT. The absorbance was measured at 205 and 271 nm for PC and AT respectively. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, specificity, ruggedness, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. This method was used successfully for the quality assessment of four PC and AT drug products and in human urine samples with good precision and accuracy. This is found to be simple, specific, precise, accurate, reproducible and low cost UV Spectrophotometric method. PMID:23675211

  11. Characterization of ultrafiltration of undiluted and diluted stored urine.

    PubMed

    Ouma, J; Septien, S; Velkushanova, K; Pocock, J; Buckley, C

    2016-11-01

    Urine ultrafiltration (UF) was studied in terms of flux, permeability, resistance and fouling. Two types of samples were used: stored urine representing the feedstock obtained from urine diversion dry toilets; and diluted stored urine representing the feedstock obtained from urinals. Three different filtration experiment sets were adopted in this study. For the first case, pressure was set in an ascending order, i.e. from 10 to 60 kPa during filtration of stored urine. For the second case, pressure was set in a descending order, i.e. from 60 to 10 kPa for the same feed stream. The third case involved filtration of diluted urine with pressure in ascending order, i.e. from 10 to 60 kPa. The results indicated that diluted urine had higher flux than undiluted urine with maximum values of 43 and 26 L·m -2 ·h -1 respectively. Cake formation was the dominating fouling mechanism during urine filtration with a contribution of about 90% to the total hydraulic resistance. The contribution of chemically irreversible fouling was low (-2%), unless operating from high to low pressures. Indeed, irreversible fouling appeared to be greater during the experiments starting at higher pressure. Although undiluted urine had a higher fouling potential compared to diluted urine, the specific cake resistance was higher for diluted urine, probably due to a denser cake caused by lower particle sizes in that sample. The permeate obtained after urine filtration had much lower suspended solids content compared to the feedstock, with rejections up to 99%. The concentration of the ionic species remained unchanged, and 75% of the organic compounds and dissolved solids remained in the permeate. Urine UF could then be used as pre-treatment to remove suspended solids.

  12. Immunodetection and molecular determination of visceral and cutaneous Leishmania infection using patients' urine.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Asad; Ahmadipour, Fereshteh; Cannet, Arnaud; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal; Perrin, Pascale; Dorkeld, Franck; Sereno, Denis; Akhoundi, Mohammad

    2018-05-27

    The diagnosis of leishmaniasis relies mainly on the use of invasive processes, to collect the biological material for detecting Leishmania parasites. Body fluids, which can be collected by non-invasive process, would greatly facilitate the leishmaniasis diagnosis. In the present study, we investigated the potency of urine immunoblotting to diagnose cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis and we compared with routine molecular methods. A total of 80 samples, including 40 sera and their 40 corresponding urine samples were collected from 37 suspected patients with cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, and 3 healthy individuals (as control), in Ilam and Ardabil provinces of Iran. All sera and urine samples were analyzed, using immunoblotting. The confirmation of leishmaniasis infection was performed, using conventional and quantitative PCRs as well as by sequencing the amplicons. Among 37 suspected patients, 23 patients presented cutaneous lesions (CL) and 14 exhibited clinical symptoms reminiscent of visceral leishmaniasis (L. infantum). Among cutaneous patients, 15 were positive for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (L. major), and eight for anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (L. tropica). Molecular quantification of Leishmania parasites was performed on sera, urines and cutaneous biopsies of CL and VL patients, demonstrating that parasite load is lower in urines, compared to sera or biopsy. DNA can be detected in 20 out of 23 (86.9%) CL urine samples and in 13 out of 14 (92.8%) VL urine samples. Immunodetection analysis demonstrates that 22 out of 23 (95.6%) sera from CL patients and all patients suspected with VL are positive. For urine samples, 18 out of 23 (78.2%) urine of CL patients and 13 out of 14 (92.8%) urine of VL patients were positive, using Western blot. Therefore, immunodetection and molecular analysis using urine samples can be used as a diagnostic tool for surveying cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles as a novel magnetic solid phase extraction adsorbent for simultaneous extraction of methamphetamine and ephedrine from urine samples.

    PubMed

    Taghvimi, Arezou; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-01-15

    This paper develops a highly selective, specific and efficient method for simultaneous determination of ephedrine and methamphetamine by a new carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles (C/MNPs) as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent in biological urine medium. The characterization of synthesized magnetic nano adsorbent was completely carried out by various characterization techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Nine important parameters influencing extraction efficiency including amount of adsorbent, amounts of sample volume, pH, type and amount of extraction organic solvent, time of extraction and desorption, agitation rate and ionic strength of extraction medium, were studied and optimized. Under optimized extraction conditions, a good linearity was observed in the concentration range of 100-2000ng/mL for ephedrine and 100-2500ng/mL for methamphetamine. Analysis of positive urine samples was carried out by proposed method with the recovery of 98.71 and 97.87% for ephedrine and methamphetamine, respectively. The results indicated that carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles could be applied in clinical and forensic laboratories for simultaneous determination of abused drugs in urine media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiological investigation of the UGT2B17 polymorphism in doping control urine samples and its correlation to T/E ratios.

    PubMed

    Anielski, Patricia; Simmchen, Juliane; Wassill, Lars; Ganghofner, Dirk; Thieme, Detlef

    2011-10-01

    The deletion polymorphism of the enzyme UGT2B17 is known to correlate with the level of the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in urine specimen. Due to the importance of the T/E ratio to detect testosterone abuse in doping analysis, a PCR-ELISA system (Genotype® UGT test, AmplexDiagnostics) was established to identify the UGT2B17 phenotype in urine samples. Epidemiological investigations in a set of 674 routine doping controls (in- and out-of-competition) resulted in 22.8% homozygote gene-deleted and 74.5% UGT2B17-positive athletes. The validated test system has shown to be robust and sensitive: in only 18 cases (2.7%) isolation of cell material from urine failed. Following hydrolysis of glucuronidated conjugates, steroids were analyzed as bis-TMS derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for example, testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E). Additionally, isotope ration mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis and luteinizing hormone (LH) measurement were applied. Mean T/E ratios significantly correlated with the UGT2B17 phenotype (del: T/E 0.9; pos: 1.7), however the values did not differ as distinctive as reported in previous studies. Additionally, the T/E ratios in the gene-deleted group did not show a normal curve of distribution (median of T/E 0.5). Obviously, beside the UGT2B17 deletion further influences have to be taken into account, for example, polymorphisms or induction of other metabolizing enzymes. Our results indicate that the UGT2B17 polymorphism might be insufficient when utilized solely as a crucial parameter for individual interpretation of T/E in urine. Nevertheless, the detection of the UGT2B17-gene deletion in urine samples would provide additional information important for gathering evidence in analysis of steroids in doping control. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Urine analysis concerning xenon for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Piper, Thomas; Geyer, Hans; Schaefer, Maximilian S; Schneemann, Julia; Kienbaum, Peter; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-01-15

    On September 1(st) 2014, a modified Prohibited List as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) became effective featuring xenon as a banned substance categorized as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activator. Consequently, the analysis of xenon from commonly provided doping control specimens such as blood and urine is desirable, and first data on the determination of xenon from urine in the context of human sports drug testing, are presented. In accordance to earlier studies utilizing plasma as doping control matrix, urine was enriched to saturation with xenon, sequentially diluted, and the target analyte was detected as supported by the internal standard d6 -cyclohexanone by means of gas chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) using headspace injection. Three major xenon isotopes at m/z 128.9, 130.9 and 131.9 were targeted in (pseudo) selected reaction monitoring mode enabling the unambiguous identification of the prohibited substance. Assay characteristics including limit of detection (LOD), intraday/interday precision, and specificity as well as analyte recovery under different storage conditions were determined. Proof-of-concept data were generated by applying the established method to urine samples collected from five patients before, during and after (up to 48 h) xenon-based general anesthesia. Xenon was traceable in enriched human urine samples down to the detection limit of approximately 0.5 nmol/mL. The intraday and interday imprecision values of the method were found below 25%, and specificity was demonstrated by analyzing 20 different blank urine samples that corroborated the fitness-for-purpose of the analytical approach to unequivocally detect xenon at non-physiological concentrations in human urine. The patients' urine specimens returned 'xenon-positive' test results up to 40 h post-anesthesia, indicating the limits of the expected doping control detection window. Since xenon has been considered a prohibited substance

  16. Simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine and 6-acetyl morphine in human urine and blood samples using direct aqueous derivatisation: validation and application to real cases.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, S; Stefanelli, F; Iannella, V; Giusiani, M

    2014-02-15

    Opiates play a relevant role in forensic toxicology and their assay in urine or blood is usually performed for example in workplace drug-testing or toxicological investigation of drug impaired driving. The present work describes two new methods for detecting morphine, codeine and 6-monoacethyl morphine in human urine or blood using a single step derivatisation in aqueous phase. Propyl chloroformate is used as the dramatizing agent followed by liquid-liquid extraction and gas-chromatography-mass spectroscopy to detect the derivatives. The methods have been validated both for hydrolysed and unhydrolysed urine. For hydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 2.5ng/ml and 8.5ng/ml for codeine, and 5.2ng/ml and 15.1ng/ml for morphine, respectively. For unhydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 3.0ng/ml and 10.1ng/ml for codeine, 2.7ng/ml and 8.1ng/ml for morphine, 0.8ng/ml and 1.5ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. In blood, the LOD and LOQ were 0.44ng/ml and 1.46ng/ml for codeine, 0.29ng/ml and 0.98ng/ml for morphine, 0.15ng/ml and 0.51ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. The validated methods have been applied to 50 urine samples and 40 blood samples (both positive and negative) and they can be used in routine analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and validation of a ultra performance LC-ESI/MS method for analysis of metabolic phenotypes of healthy men in day and night urine samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Lv, Haitao; Zhang, Guangmei; Sun, Wenjun; Zhou, Dixin; Jiao, Guozheng; Yu, Yang

    2008-09-01

    Ultra-performance LC coupled to quadrupole TOF/MS (UPLC-QTOF/MS) in positive and negative ESI was developed and validated to analyze metabolite profiles for urine from healthy men during the day and at night. Data analysis using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed differences between metabolic phenotypes of urine in healthy men during the day and at night. Positive ions with mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 310.24 (5.35 min), 286.24 (4.74 min) and 310.24 (5.63 min) were elevated in the urine from healthy men at night compared to that during the day. Negative ions elevated in day urine samples of healthy men included m/z 167.02 (0.66 min), 263.12 (2.55 min) and 191.03 (0.73 min), whilst ions m/z 212.01 (4.77 min) were at a lower concentration in urine of healthy men during the day compared to that at night. The ions m/z 212.01 (4.77 min), 191.03 (0.73 min) and 310.24 (5.35 min) preliminarily correspond to indoxyl sulfate, citric acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid, providing further support for an involvement of phenotypic difference in urine of healthy men in day and night samples, which may be associated with notably different activities of gut microbiota, velocity of tricarboxylic acid cycle and activity of sialic acid biosynthesis in healthy men as regulated by circadian rhythm of the mammalian bioclock.

  18. Optimization of cw-QC lasers for Doppler and sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James F.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Richter, Dirk A.; Fried, Alan

    2002-09-01

    Inter-subband (Type I) quantum-cascade (QC) lasers have shown the potential to generate tunable mid-IR radiation with narrow intrinsic linewidths (< 160 KHz in 15 mSec sweeps) and excellent amplitude stability (< 3 ppm averaged over minutes). Our bench-scale efforts to develop the Type I distributed feedback (DFB)-QC lasers for fieldable atmospheric chemistry campaigns, where multipass (Herriot or White) cells are used to enhance path-length, have not yet realized performance to the low intrinsic noise levels seen in these devices. By comparison, many operational systems' levels of noise-equivalent-absorbance (NEA) using Pb-salt lasers can routinely achieve at least one-order of magnitude better cw-performance, and with much lower powers. We have found that instability effets from weak back-scattered laser light -primarily from the Herriot cell- results in feedback-implicated technical noise well above the thermal and shot-noise of standard IR detectors. Of more fundamental concern is the fact that planar-stripe DFB-QC lasers undergo beam steering and transverse spatial-mode competitions during current tuning. It is the development of fully automated sub-ppbV sensitive IR chem-sensors. It is possible to reach low-ppm levels of absorptance change-detection (ΔI/I0) over small wavelength regions with careful alignment to 100 M Herriott cells, but extreme care in spatial filtering is critical. However in the case of optical configurations which preclude significant optical feedback and need for stringent mode coupling alignments, the cw-DFB-QC lasers show great promise to do high resolution sub-Doppler spectroscopy. By serendipitous events, a varient of 'mode- or level-crossing' spectroscopy was probably rediscovered, which may allow very high resolution, sub-Doppler features and/or hyperfine alignments to be probed with 'uni-directional' topologies. We will primarily discuss the basic features of the 'uni-directional' sub-Doppler spectroscopy concept in this report

  19. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; Rizk, M. S.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL-1, using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ⩾0.995 (n = 6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ⩽1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  20. AmeriFlux CA-Qc2 Quebec - 1975 Harvested Black Spruce (HBS75)

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, Hank

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qc2 Quebec - 1975 Harvested Black Spruce (HBS75). Site Description - Quebec - Eastern Boreal; Black Spruce forest harvested in 1975.

  1. Magnetic nano graphene oxide as solid phase extraction adsorbent coupled with liquid chromatography to determine pseudoephedrine in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Taghvimi, Arezou; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud

    2016-01-15

    This paper reports on a method based on magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) for the determination of pseudoephedrine. Magnetic nanographene oxide (MNGO) was applied as a new adsorbent for the extraction of pseudoephedrine from urine samples. Synthesis of MNGO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The main factors influencing extraction efficiency, including the amounts of sample volume, amount of adsorbent, type and amount of extraction organic solvent, time of extraction and desorption, pH, ionic strength of extraction medium, and agitation rate, were investigated and optimized. Under optimized extraction conditions, a good linearity was observed in the range of 100-2000ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9908 (r(2)). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 25 and 82.7ng/mL, respectively. Inter-day and intra-day precision and accuracy were 6.01 and 0.34 (%), and 8.70 and 0.29 (%), respectively. The method was applied for the determination of pseudoephedrine in urine samples of volunteers receiving pseudoephedrine with the recovery of 96.42. It was concluded that the proposed method can be applied in diagnostic clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Collection and storage of urine specimens for measurement of urolithiasis risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Dong; Tiselius, Hans-Goran; Ou, Lili; Mai, Zanlin; Chen, Kang; Zhu, Hanliang; Xu, Shaohong; Zhao, Zhijian; Zeng, Guohua

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate how different methods for storage and preservation of urine samples affected the outcome of analysis of risk factors for stone formation. Spot urine samples were collected from 21 healthy volunteers. Each fresh urine sample was divided into ten 10-mL aliquots: 2 without preservative, 2 with thymol, 2 with toluene, 2 with hydrochloric acid (HCl), and 2 with sodium azide. One sample of each pair was stored at 4 °C and the other at room temperature. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphate, urate, oxalate, citrate, and pH in each urine sample were analyzed immediately after collection (0 hour) and after 24 and 48 hours. There were no significant differences in calcium, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, sodium, urate or pH (without acidification) between samples with different preservation methods (P >.05). Urinary citrate, however, was significantly lower in the urine collected with HCl than when other preservatives were used, both at room temperature and at 4 °C. Urine pH was significantly higher after 48 hours than after 24 hours, whether the samples were stored at room temperature or at 4 °C. Antibacterial preservatives (eg, thymol or toluene) can be recommended as preservatives for 24-hour urine collections. Ideally, the samples should be stored at 4 °C. When HCl is used as a preservative, it seems essential to neutralize the samples before analysis. This is particularly obvious with the chromatographic method used for analysis of citrate that was used in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Boo-Ali Hospital Tehran Iran: Urine analysis vs. urine culture.

    PubMed

    Etminan-Bakhsh, Mina; Tadi, Sima; Darabi, Roksana

    2017-11-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the common problems in pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with pyelonephritis, preterm labor and low birth weight infants. The physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy facilitate urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy. Several tests are available for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The urine culture is a gold standard diagnostic test for asymptomatic bacteriuria but it is expensive and time-consuming. Screening methods may be useful in detecting high-risk pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of the present study was to compare urine analysis as a rapid screening test to urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. A total of 123 pregnant women attending the obstetrics clinic of Boo-Ali hospital in Tehran, Iran from March 2013 to September 2014 were included in the present diagnostic cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty three mid-stream urine samples were inoculated into cultures and were processed by dipstick (nitrite test and leucocyte esterase test) and microscopic pus cell count. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of nitrite test, leucocyte esterase test and microscopic pus cell count were compared with urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria by using SPSS version 19. Of 123 urine samples, significant asymptomatic bacteriuria (≥10 4 cfu/Ml) was detected in 8 (6.5%) subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of nitrite test were 37% and 100% respectively. The sensitivity of pus cell count alone and leucocyte esterase test alone were 100% but the specificity of them were 64% and 65% respectively. We found high negative predictive value by Pus cell count and the leucocyte esterase test (100%) and low positive predictive value by them (16% and 17% respectively). Urine culture is the most useful test for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None of our screening tests had a sensitivity and

  4. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Boo-Ali Hospital Tehran Iran: Urine analysis vs. urine culture

    PubMed Central

    Etminan-Bakhsh, Mina; Tadi, Sima; Darabi, Roksana

    2017-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the common problems in pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with pyelonephritis, preterm labor and low birth weight infants. The physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy facilitate urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy. Several tests are available for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The urine culture is a gold standard diagnostic test for asymptomatic bacteriuria but it is expensive and time-consuming. Screening methods may be useful in detecting high-risk pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Objective The aim of the present study was to compare urine analysis as a rapid screening test to urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Methods A total of 123 pregnant women attending the obstetrics clinic of Boo-Ali hospital in Tehran, Iran from March 2013 to September 2014 were included in the present diagnostic cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty three mid-stream urine samples were inoculated into cultures and were processed by dipstick (nitrite test and leucocyte esterase test) and microscopic pus cell count. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of nitrite test, leucocyte esterase test and microscopic pus cell count were compared with urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria by using SPSS version 19. Results Of 123 urine samples, significant asymptomatic bacteriuria (≥104 cfu/Ml) was detected in 8 (6.5%) subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of nitrite test were 37% and 100% respectively. The sensitivity of pus cell count alone and leucocyte esterase test alone were 100% but the specificity of them were 64% and 65% respectively. We found high negative predictive value by Pus cell count and the leucocyte esterase test (100%) and low positive predictive value by them (16% and 17% respectively). Conclusion Urine culture is the most useful test for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None of

  5. The effects of urine concentration, and cushion centrifugation to remove urine, on the quality of cool-stored stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Voge, Jared; Varner, Dickson D; Blanchard, Terry L; Meschini, Marika; Turner, Carly; Teague, Sheila R; Brinsko, Steven P; Love, Charles C

    2016-09-15

    Urine-contaminated stallion semen is a clinical problem due to a variety of causes. The effect of the level of urine contamination on the longevity of sperm quality has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urine concentration level (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) and cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, on measures of sperm quality, immediately after semen collection (T0), after 1 hour of storage at room temperature (T1), and after 24 hours of cooled storage (T24). In general, most sperm quality measures declined with increasing urine concentration starting at T0. Cushioned centrifugation (CC), but not simple dilution, generally maintained sperm quality at T24 as compared with T1. At T24, total sperm motility was higher in all urine-contaminated CC samples compared with uncentrifuged samples (P < 0.05); sperm viability was lower in CC than uncentrifuged at a urine concentration of 20%, but higher at 30% and 40% (P < 0.05); and DNA quality was decreased (higher % cells outside the main population) in all urine concentrations (P < 0.05). Immediate extension in semen extender, followed by cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, provided the best option for preserving sperm quality of urospermic semen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. HPLC column-switching technique for sample preparation and fluorescence determination of propranolol in urine using fused-core columns in both dimensions.

    PubMed

    Satínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2013-08-01

    A new and fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column-switching method using fused-core columns in both dimensions for sample preconcentration and determination of propranolol in human urine has been developed. On-line sample pretreatment and propranolol preconcentration were performed on an Ascentis Express RP-C-18 guard column (5 × 4.6 mm), particle size, 2.7 μm, with mobile phase acetonitrile/water (5:95, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1) and at a temperature of 50 °C. Valve switch from pretreatment column to analytical column was set at 4.0 min in a back-flush mode. Separation of propranolol from other endogenous urine compounds was achieved on the fused-core column Ascentis Express RP-Amide (100 × 4.6 mm), particle size, 2.7 μm, with mobile phase acetonitrile/water solution of 0.5% triethylamine, pH adjusted to 4.5 by means of glacial acetic acid (25:75, v/v), at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and at a temperature of 50 °C. Fluorescence excitation/emission detection wavelengths were set at 229/338 nm. A volume of 1,500 μL of filtered urine sample solution was injected directly into the column-switching HPLC system. The total analysis time including on-line sample pretreatment was less than 8 min. The experimentally determined limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.015 ng mL(-1).

  7. Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis from Analysis of Urine Volatile Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung H.; Martino, Raymond; Anikst, Victoria; Xu, Zeyu; Mix, Samantha; Benjamin, Robert; Schub, Herbert; Eiden, Michael; Rhodes, Paul A.; Banaei, Niaz

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has called for simple, sensitive, and non-sputum diagnostics for tuberculosis. We report development of a urine tuberculosis test using a colorimetric sensor array (CSA). The sensor comprised of 73 different indicators captures high-dimensional, spatiotemporal signatures of volatile chemicals emitted by human urine samples. The sensor responses to 63 urine samples collected from 22 tuberculosis cases and 41 symptomatic controls were measured under five different urine test conditions. Basified testing condition yielded the best accuracy with 85.5% sensitivity and 79.5% specificity. The CSA urine assay offers desired features needed for tuberculosis diagnosis in endemic settings. PMID:29057329

  8. USE OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS TO COLLECT URINE IN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large studies of children's health as it relates to exposures to chemicals in the environment often require measurements of biomarkers of chemical exposures or effects in urine samples. But collection of urine samples from infants and toddlers is difficult. For large exposure s...

  9. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal value is less than 100 milligrams ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results may be due to: A ...

  10. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio.

    PubMed

    Herrington, William; Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-10-07

    Because there is substantial biologic intraindividual variation in albumin excretion, randomized trials of albuminuria-reducing therapies may need multiple urine samples to estimate daily urinary albumin excretion. Mailing spot urine samples could offer a convenient and cost-effective method to collect multiple samples, but urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio stability in samples stored at ambient temperatures for several days is unknown. Patients with kidney disease provided fresh urine samples in two tubes (with and without boric acid preservative). Reference aliquots from each participant were analyzed immediately, whereas remaining aliquots were subject to different handling/storage conditions before analysis, including delayed processing for up to 7 days at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 18°C, and 30°C), multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and long-term frozen storage at -80°C, -40°C, and -20°C. We calculated the mean percentage change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for each condition, and we considered samples stable if the 95% confidence interval was within a ±5% threshold. Ninety-three patients provided samples with detectable albuminuria in the reference aliquot. Median (interquartile range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 87 (20-499) mg/g. The inclusion of preservative had minimal effect on fresh urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio measurements but reduced the changes in albumin and creatinine in samples subject to processing delay and storage conditions. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was stable for 7 days in samples containing preservative at 4°C and 18°C and 2 days when stored at 30°C. It was also stable in samples with preservative after three freeze-thaw cycles and in frozen storage for 6 months at -80°C or -40°C but not at -20°C. Mailed urine samples collected with preservative and received within 7 days if ambient temperature is ≤18°C, or within 2 days if the temperature is higher but does not exceed 30°C, are

  11. Untargeted metabolomic on urine samples after α-lipoic acid and/or eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in healthy overweight/obese women.

    PubMed

    Romo-Hualde, Ana; Huerta, Ana E; González-Navarro, Carlos J; Ramos-López, Omar; Moreno-Aliaga, María J; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2018-05-09

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and α-lipoic acid (α-LA) have been investigated for their beneficial effects on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. In the current research, the goal was to evaluate metabolomic changes following the dietary supplementation of these two lipids, alone or combined in healthy overweight/obese sedentary women following an energy-restricted diet. For this purpose, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted on urine samples using liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). This is a short-term double blind placebo-controlled study with a parallel nutritional design that lasted 10 weeks. Participants were assigned to one of the 4 experimental groups [Control, EPA (1.3 g/d), α-LA (0.3 g/d) and EPA+α-LA (1.3 g/d + 0.3 g/d)]. All intervention groups followed an energy-restricted diet of 30% less than total energy expenditure. Clinically relevant biochemical measurements were analyzed. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and after 10 weeks. Untargeted metabolomic analysis on urine samples was carried out, and principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed for the pattern recognition and characteristic metabolites identification. Urine samples were scattered in the PCA scores plots in response to the supplementation with α-LA. Totally, 28 putative discriminant metabolites in positive ionization, and 6 in negative ionization were identified among groups clearly differentiated according to the α-LA administration. Remarkably is the presence of an ascorbate intermediate metabolite (one of the isomers of trihydroxy-dioxohexanoate, or dihydroxy-oxohexanedionate) in the groups supplemented with α-LA. This fact might be associated with antioxidant properties of both α-LA and ascorbic acid. Correlations between phenotypical parameters and putative metabolites of provided additional information on whether there is a

  12. The efficacy of semi-quantitative urine protein-to-creatinine (P/C) ratio for the detection of significant proteinuria in urine specimens in health screening settings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Su, Ming-Jang; Ho, Jung-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Tsai, Wei-Ting; Lee, Shu-Jene; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chu, Fang-Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Urine protein detection could be underestimated using the conventional dipstick method because of variations in urine aliquots. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the semi-quantitative urine protein-to-creatinine (P/C) ratio compared with other laboratory methods. Random urine samples were requested from patients undergoing chronic kidney disease screening. Significant proteinuria was determined by the quantitative P/C ratio of at least 150 mg protein/g creatinine. The semi-quantitative P/C ratio, dipstick protein and quantitative protein concentrations were compared and analyzed. In the 2932 urine aliquots, 156 (5.3 %) urine samples were considered as diluted and 60 (39.2 %) were found as significant proteinuria. The semi-quantitative P/C ratio testing had the best sensitivity (70.0 %) and specificity (95.9 %) as well as the lowest underestimation rate (0.37 %) when compared to other laboratory methods in the study. In the semi-quantitative P/C ratio test, 19 (12.2 %) had positive, 52 (33.3 %) had diluted, and 85 (54.5 %) had negative results. Of those with positive results, 7 (36.8 %) were positive detected by traditional dipstick urine protein test, and 9 (47.4 %) were positive detected by quantitative urine protein test. Additionally, of those with diluted results, 25 (48.1 %) had significant proteinuria, and all were assigned as no significant proteinuria by both tests. The semi-quantitative urine P/C ratio is clinically applicable based on its better sensitivity and screening ability for significant proteinuria than other laboratory methods, particularly in diluted urine samples. To establish an effective strategy for CKD prevention, urine protein screening with semi-quantitative P/C ratio could be considered.

  13. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang

    The human urinary proteome reflects systemic and inherent renal injury perturbations and can be analyzed to harness specific biomarkers for different kidney transplant injury states. 396 unique urine samples were collected contemporaneously with an allograft biopsy from 396 unique kidney transplant recipients. Centralized, blinded histology on the graft was used to classify matched urine samples into categories of acute rejection (AR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), BK virus nephritis (BKVN), and stable graft (STA). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics using iTRAQ based discovery (n=108) and global label-free LC-MS analyses of individual samples (n=137) for quantitative proteome assessment were used inmore » the discovery step. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was applied to identify and validate minimal urine protein/peptide biomarkers to accurately segregate organ injury causation and pathology on unique urine samples (n=151). A total of 958 proteins were initially quantified by iTRAQ, 87% of which were also identified among 1574 urine proteins detected in LC-MS validation. 103 urine proteins were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed in injury and enriched for humoral immunity, complement activation, and lymphocyte trafficking. A set of 131 peptides corresponding to 78 proteins were assessed by SRM for their significance in an independent sample cohort. A minimal set of 35 peptides mapping to 33 proteins, were modeled to segregate different injury groups (AUC =93% for AR, 99% for CAN, 83% for BKVN). Urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation identified urine protein fingerprints for non-invasive differentiation of kidney transplant injuries, thus opening the door for personalized immune risk assessment and therapy.« less

  14. Portland cement concrete pavement review of QC/QA data 2000 through 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-01

    This report analyzes the Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) data for Portland cement concrete pavement : (PCCP) awarded in the years 2000 through 2009. Analysis of the overall performance of the projects is accomplished by : reviewing the Calc...

  15. Diagnostic accuracy and applicability of a PCR system for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA in human urine samples from an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Enk, Martin Johannes; Oliveira e Silva, Guilherme; Rodrigues, Nilton Barnabé

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni, one of the most neglected human parasitoses in Latin America and Africa, is routinely confirmed by microscopic visualization of eggs in stool. The main limitation of this diagnostic approach is its lack of sensitivity in detecting individual low worm burdens and consequently data on infection rates in low transmission settings are little reliable. According to the scientific literature, PCR assays are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity in detecting parasite DNA in biological samples. A simple and cost effective extraction method for DNA of Schistosoma mansoni from urine samples in combination with a conventional PCR assay was developed and applied in an endemic area. This urine based PCR system was tested for diagnostic accuracy among a population of a small village in an endemic area, comparing it to a reference test composed of three different parasitological techniques. The diagnostic parameters revealed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 91.20%, positive and negative predictive values of 86.25% and 100%, respectively, and a test accuracy of 94.33%. Further statistical analysis showed a k index of 0.8806, indicating an excellent agreement between the reference test and the PCR system. Data obtained from the mouse model indicate the infection can be detected one week after cercariae penetration, opening a new perspective for early detection and patient management during this stage of the disease. The data indicate that this innovative PCR system provides a simple to handle and robust diagnostic tool for the detection of S. mansoni DNA from urine samples and a promising approach to overcome the diagnostic obstacles in low transmission settings. Furthermore the principals of this molecular technique, based on the examination of human urine samples may be useful for the diagnosis of other neglected tropical diseases that can be detected by trans-renal DNA.

  16. Pure human urine is a good fertiliser for cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Sjöblom, Annalena; Fabritius, Helena; Karinen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    Human urine obtained from separating toilets was tested as a fertiliser for cultivation of outdoor cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Nordic climate. The urine used contained high amounts of nitrogen with some phosphorus and potassium, but numbers of enteric microorganisms were low even though urine had not been preserved before sampling. The cucumber yield after urine fertilisation was similar or slightly better than the yield obtained from control rows fertilised with commercial mineral fertiliser. None of the cucumbers contained any enteric microorganisms (coliforms, enterococci, coliphages and clostridia). In the taste assessment, 11 out of 20 persons could recognise which cucumber of three cucumbers was different but they did not prefer one over the other cucumber samples, since all of them were assessed as equally good.

  17. Urine benzodiazepines screening of involuntarily drugged and robbed or raped patients.

    PubMed

    Boussairi, A; Dupeyron, J P; Hernandez, B; Delaitre, D; Beugnet, L; Espinoza, P; Diamant-Berger, O

    1996-01-01

    This study involved 35 patients who claimed to have been drugged before being robbed or raped, despite urine negative toxicologic screening by immunoenzymatic methods. The urines were frozen for further investigations, including enzymatic hydrolysis of urinary conjugates, liquid-solid extraction and, finally, immunoenzymatic screening of concentrated urine extract. Urine benzodiazepines were analyzed by immunoenzymatic assay before and after enzymatic hydrolysis combined with extraction. On direct immunoenzymatic screening, 17 of the 35 urine samples were benzodiazepine positive. Enrichment of preserved specimens improved the detection threshold from 200 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL and 10 of the 18 negative urines became positive. This method allowed us to demonstrate the benzodiazepines in half of previously negative urine samples. Benzodiazepine screening is particularly problematic because of low dosage, rapid elimination, failure to detect conjugated metabolites by immunoenzymatic reagents and high threshold of sensitivity for certain substances.

  18. Evaluation of the BinaxNOW® Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test on fresh, frozen and concentrated urine samples in elderly patients with and without community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Saukkoriipi, Annika; Pascal, Thierry; Palmu, Arto A

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the BinaxNOW® urine antigen test in elderly. For fresh un-concentrated urine samples, the sensitivity for pneumococcal pneumonia was 63% and specificity 97%. After freezing and concentration, the results comparable to positive control line in intensity at 60 min gave high sensitivity (81%) with no loss in specificity (96%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterizing concentrations of diethylene glycol and suspected metabolites in human serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples from the Panama DEG mass poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schier, J G; Hunt, D R; Perala, A; McMartin, K E; Bartels, M J; Lewis, L S; McGeehin, M A; Flanders, W D

    2013-12-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) mass poisoning is a persistent public health problem. Unfortunately, there are no human biological data on DEG and its suspected metabolites in poisoning. If present and associated with poisoning, the evidence for use of traditional therapies such as fomepizole and/or hemodialysis would be much stronger. To characterize DEG and its metabolites in stored serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens obtained from human DEG poisoning victims enrolled in a 2006 case-control study. In the 2006 study, biological samples from persons enrolled in a case-control study (42 cases with new-onset, unexplained AKI and 140 age-, sex-, and admission date-matched controls without AKI) were collected and shipped to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta for various analyses and were then frozen in storage. For this study, when sufficient volume of the original specimen remained, the following analytes were quantitatively measured in serum, urine, and CSF: DEG, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), diglycolic acid, ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. Analytes were measured using low resolution GC/MS, descriptive statistics calculated and case results compared with controls when appropriate. Specimens were de-identified so previously collected demographic, exposure, and health data were not available. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (with exact p-values) and bivariable exact logistic regression were used in SAS v9.2 for data analysis. The following samples were analyzed: serum, 20 case, and 20 controls; urine, 11 case and 22 controls; and CSF, 11 samples from 10 cases and no controls. Diglycolic acid was detected in all case serum samples (median, 40.7 mcg/mL; range, 22.6-75.2) and no controls, and in all case urine samples (median, 28.7 mcg/mL; range, 14-118.4) and only five (23%) controls (median, < Lower Limit of Quantitation (LLQ); range, < LLQ-43.3 mcg/mL). Significant differences and associations were identified

  20. Detection and quantification of rituximab in the human urine.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Roland; Langer-Jacobus, Thais; Duong, Michelle; Stahl, Klaus; Haller, Hermann; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-12-01

    B cell depletion by rituximab treatment might be inefficient in patients suffering from nephrotic syndrome. Due to the impaired glomerular filtration barrier a significant portion of the therapeutic antibody might be lost into the urinary space. In order to determine the amount of rituximab in the urine of such patients, CD20+ Daudi cells were stained with the patients' urine followed by a fluorochrome-labeled secondary antibody. Mean fluorescence intensity of that way labeled Daudi cells was determined by flow cytometry. Control samples with defined rituximab concentrations were used to create standard curves. The analyses revealed that all nephelometric IgG+ urine samples tested also manifested rituximab at concentrations between 100 and 46,707μg/L. The flow cytometry-based approach is an easy and reliable method to assess rituximab in patients' urine samples for monitoring individual rituximab treatment courses in all patients co-presenting impaired renal filtration. Presence of such antibodies in the urine could be considered as criteria to modify the formulation or modality of rituximab delivery in order to prevent the loss of the therapeutic antibodies and thereby ensuring efficacy of the therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in urine. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vorsters, A; Micalessi, I; Bilcke, J; Ieven, M; Bogers, J; Van Damme, P

    2012-05-01

    The detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urine, a specimen easily obtained by a non-invasive self-sampling method, has been the subject of a considerable number of studies. This review provides an overview of 41 published studies; assesses how different methods and settings may contribute to the sometimes contradictory outcomes; and discusses the potential relevance of using urine samples in vaccine trials, disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and specific settings of cervical cancer screening. Urine sampling, storage conditions, sample preparation, DNA extraction, and DNA amplification may all have an important impact on HPV DNA detection and the form of viral DNA that is detected. Possible trends in HPV DNA prevalence in urine could be inferred from the presence of risk factors or the diagnosis of cervical lesions. HPV DNA detection in urine is feasible and may become a useful tool but necessitates further improvement and standardization.

  2. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--METALS IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metals in Urine data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 3 metals in 376 urine samples over 80 households. Each sample was collected from the primary respondent within each household during the study and represented the first morning void of either Day ...

  3. Simultaneous determination of four synthesized metabolites of mequindox in urine samples using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Gao, Haixiang; Peng, Bing; Li, Yubo; Li, Songqing; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-15

    A novel pretreatment method termed ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UADLLME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) was applied for the detection of four synthesized metabolites of mequindox in pig urine samples. A total volume of 200 μL of methanol (dispersant) and 60 μL of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extract) were injected into 5.0 mL of urine sample and then emulsified by ultrasound treatment for 4 min to form a cloudy solution. The effect of several factors on the recovery of each metabolite was investigated by a fitting derivation method for the first time. Under optimum conditions, the method yields a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 0.5 to 500 μg/L and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.16-0.28 μg/L for target analytes. The recoveries ranged from 72.0% to 91.3% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 5.2%. The enrichment factors for the four compounds ranged from 75 to 95. Two pig urine samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND CREATININE ANALYSIS (F10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples for metal, pesticides, and creatinine analysis. Samples were collected on Days 2 and 8 of each Cycle. The Day 2 sample was analyzed for metals and creatinine. The Day 8...

  5. The effect of substrate composition and storage time on urine specific gravity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, E; Drobatz, K; Aronson, L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of substrate composition and storage time on urine specific gravity in dogs. A descriptive cohort study of 15 dogs. The urine specific gravity of free catch urine samples was analysed during a 5-hour time period using three separate storage methods; a closed syringe, a diaper pad and non-absorbable cat litter. The urine specific gravity increased over time in all three substrates. The syringe sample had the least change from baseline and the diaper sample had the greatest change from baseline. The urine specific gravity for the litter and diaper samples had a statistically significant increase from the 1-hour to the 5-hour time point. The urine specific gravity from canine urine stored either on a diaper or in a non-absorbable litter increased over time. Although the change was found to be statistically significant over the 5-hour study period it is unlikely to be clinically significant.

  6. Non-invasive diagnosis of acute rejection in renal transplant patients using mass spectrometry of urine samples - a multicentre phase 3 diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Zapf, Antonia; Gwinner, Wilfried; Karch, Annika; Metzger, Jochen; Haller, Hermann; Koch, Armin

    2015-09-15

    Reliable and timely detection of acute rejection in renal transplant patients is important to preserve the allograft function and to prevent premature allograft failure. The current gold standard for the rejection diagnosis is an allograft biopsy which is usually performed upon an unexplained decline in allograft function. Because of the invasiveness of the biopsy, non-invasive tests have been suggested to diagnose acute rejection including mass spectrometry analysis of urine samples. The aim of this study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of mass spectrometry analysis in urine for the diagnosis of acute rejections using the biopsy as gold-standard. The study is an ongoing prospective, single-arm, multicentre, phase 3 diagnostic accuracy study. It started in October 2011 and will be concluded in December 2015. Patient within the first year after transplantation who are scheduled for a biopsy to clarify unexplained impairment of the allograft are consecutively recruited into the study. The overall sample size (n = 600) was calculated to demonstrate a sensitivity of 83 % and a specificity of 70 % for a one-sided type one error of 2.5 % and a power of 80 % per hypothesis. Biopsy evaluation and mass spectrometry analysis of urine samples (obtained immediately before biopsy) are performed independently by different readers without knowledge from the respective other assessment. The follow-up observation period is 6 months. For the primary analysis, the lower limits of the two-sided 95 % Wald confidence intervals for sensitivity and specificity will be compared with the pre-specified thresholds (83 % for sensitivity and 70 % for specificity). In secondary analyses the predictive values, the diagnostic measures in subgroups, and the clinical course will be assessed. Previous phase 2 diagnostic accuracy studies (in small selected study populations) provided sufficient evidence to suggest mass spectrometry on urine samples as a promising approach to detect

  7. Diagnosis and effects of urine contamination in cooled-extended stallion semen.

    PubMed

    Ellerbrock, R; Canisso, I; Feijo, L; Lima, F; Shipley, C; Kline, K

    2016-04-15

    Urospermia is known to affect semen quality in many mammals, including stallions. Determinations of semen pH and creatinine and urea concentrations have been used to diagnose urine contamination in raw stallion semen. Unfortunately, practitioners suspecting urine contamination in cooled-shipped samples have no proven means to confirm the presence of urine. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effects of urine contamination on sperm motility of extended fresh and cooled-stored stallion semen, (2) to evaluate the usefulness of semen color, odor, pH, and creatinine and urea concentrations for urospermia diagnosis, and (3) to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial blood urea nitrogen test strip in diagnosing urine contamination in extended-cooled stallion semen. Thirty-seven ejaculates were obtained from 11 stallions with no history of urospermia before division into 5 mL aliquots, and contamination with stallion urine. Each resulting sample was assessed for sperm motility, color, odor, pH, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentration using both a semiquantitative test strip (Azostix), and a quantitative automated analyzer before and after cooling for 24 hour. Sperm motility parameters, pH, and creatinine and urea concentrations were analyzed using mixed models. Urine contamination decreased total and progressive motility in all samples before and after cooling (P < 0.05). Mean control total motility was 80% at 0 hour and 67% at 24 hours, whereas urine-contaminated samples ranged from 30% to 71% at 0 hour and 27% to 61% at 24 hours. Control mean urea (29 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.6 mg/dL) concentrations were significantly different (P < 0.05) from all urine-contaminated samples (158 mg/dL and 11.6 mg/dL, respectively) at 0 hour. Similarly, control mean urea (8 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.9 mg/dL) concentrations were significantly different than all urine-contaminated samples at 24 hours. Odor assessment presented moderate sensitivity (65

  8. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Rizk, M S; Mostafa, M

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL(-1), using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.995 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The cooperative effect of reduced graphene oxide and Triton X-114 on the electromembrane microextraction efficiency of Pramipexole as a model analyte in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Fashi, Armin; Khanban, Fatemeh; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Zamani, Abbasali

    2017-01-01

    A new design of electromembrane microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of Pramipexole as a model analyte in urine samples. The presence of reduced graphene oxide in the membrane and Triton X-114 in the donor phase augments the extraction efficiency of Pramipexole by the proposed method. Dispersed reduced graphene oxide in the organic solvent was held in the pores of the fiber wall by capillary forces and sonication. It is possible that the immobilized reduced graphene oxide acts as a sorbent, affording an additional pathway for analyte transportation. Besides, the presence of Triton X-114 in the donor phase promotes effective migration of ionic analytes across the membrane. The parameters influencing the extraction procedure, such as type and concentration of surfactant, type of organic solvent, amount of reduced graphene oxide, sonication time, applied voltage, extraction time, ionic strength, pH of the donor and acceptor solutions, and stirring rate were optimized. The linear working ranges of the method for preconcentration- determination of Pramipexole in water and urine samples were found to be 0.13-1000 and 0.47-1000ngmL -1 with corresponding detection limits of 0.04 and 0.14ngmL -1 , respectively. The proposed method allows achieving enrichment factors of 301 and 265 for preconcentration of the analyte in water and urine samples, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Pramipexole in the urine samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid determination of letrozole, citalopram and their metabolites by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection in urine: Method validation and application to real samples.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J; Castañeda, G; Muñoz, L

    2013-01-15

    This work reports the validation of a high precision and accuracy method for the simultaneous determination of letrozole, citalopram and their metabolites in urine by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Dilution (urine:mobile phase, 1:2, v/v) was the only sample preparation step. The separation was carried out in a Kromasil C(18) (150mm×4.6mm) column, and the mobile phase was phosphate buffer 80mM (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The analytes were detected at 295nm after excitation at 230nm. Linearity was observed in the range of 1.0-1000ng/mL for letrozole and its metabolite and 2.5-1000ng/mL for citalopram and their metabolites, with limits of detection and quantification between 0.09-1.0 and 0.27-1.65ng/mL, respectively. The precisions were satisfactory with RSDs between 0.17 and 5.71%. The accuracy was studied by spiking three urines from healthy female volunteers, and the recoveries were from 85 to 103%. The method was applied to urine samples from women under treatment for breast cancer and depression diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. From field notes to data portal - An operational QA/QC framework for tower networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, C.; Hackley, S.; Meehan, T.; Roberti, J. A.; Holling, G.; Bonarrigo, S.

    2016-12-01

    Quality assurance and control (QA/QC) is one of the most important yet challenging aspects of producing research-quality data. This is especially so for environmental sensor networks collecting numerous high-frequency measurement streams at distributed sites. Here, the quality issues are multi-faceted, including sensor malfunctions, unmet theoretical assumptions, and measurement interference from the natural environment. To complicate matters, there are often multiple personnel managing different sites or different steps in the data flow. For large, centrally managed sensor networks such as NEON, the separation of field and processing duties is in the extreme. Tower networks such as Ameriflux, ICOS, and NEON continue to grow in size and sophistication, yet tools for robust, efficient, scalable QA/QC have lagged. Quality control remains a largely manual process relying on visual inspection of the data. In addition, notes of observed measurement interference or visible problems are often recorded on paper without an explicit pathway to data flagging during processing. As such, an increase in network size requires a near-proportional increase in personnel devoted to QA/QC, quickly stressing the human resources available. There is a need for a scalable, operational QA/QC framework that combines the efficiency and standardization of automated tests with the power and flexibility of visual checks, and includes an efficient communication pathway from field personnel to data processors to end users. Here we propose such a framework and an accompanying set of tools in development, including a mobile application template for recording tower maintenance and an R/shiny application for efficiently monitoring and synthesizing data quality issues. This framework seeks to incorporate lessons learned from the Ameriflux community and provide tools to aid continued network advancements.

  12. Effectiveness of a Communication for Behavioral Impact (COMBI) Intervention to Reduce Salt Intake in a Vietnamese Province Based on Estimations From Spot Urine Samples.

    PubMed

    Do, Ha Thi Phuong; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Trieu, Kathy; Petersen, Kristina; Le, Mai Bach; Lai, Duc Truong; Bauman, Adrian; Webster, Jacqui

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Communication for Behavioral Impact (COMBI)-Eat Less Salt intervention conducted in Viet Tri, Vietnam. The behavior change intervention was implemented in four wards and four communes for one year, which included mass media communication, school interventions, community programs, and focus on high-risk groups. Mean sodium excretion was estimated from spot urine samples using different equations. A subsample provided 24-hour urine to validate estimates from spot urine. Information about salt-related knowledge and behaviors was also collected. There were 513 participants at both baseline and follow-up. Mean sodium excretion estimated from spot urines fell significantly from 8.48 g/d at baseline to 8.05 g/d at follow-up (P=.001). All spot equations demonstrated a significant reduction in sodium levels; however, the change was smaller than the measured 24-hour urine. Participants showed improved knowledge and behaviors following the intervention. The COMBI intervention was effective in lowering average population salt intake and improving knowledge and behaviors. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Maintaining High Quality Data and Consistency Across a Diverse Flux Network: The Ameriflux QA/QC Technical Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S.; Billesbach, D. P.; Hanson, C. V.; Biraud, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AmeriFlux quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) technical team conducts short term (<2 weeks) intercomparisons using a portable eddy covariance system (PECS) to maintain high quality data observations and data consistency across the AmeriFlux network (http://ameriflux.lbl.gov/). Site intercomparisons identify discrepancies between the in situ and portable measurements and calculated fluxes. Findings are jointly discussed by the site staff and the QA/QC team to improve in the situ observations. Despite the relatively short duration of an individual site intercomparison, the accumulated record of all site visits (numbering over 100 since 2002) is a unique dataset. The ability to deploy redundant sensors provides a rare opportunity to identify, quantify, and understand uncertainties in eddy covariance and ancillary measurements. We present a few specific case studies from QA/QC site visits to highlight and share new and relevant findings related to eddy covariance instrumentation and operation.

  14. Criterion values for urine-specific gravity and urine color representing adequate water intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Perrier, E T; Bottin, J H; Vecchio, M; Lemetais, G

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence suggests a distinction between water intake necessary for maintaining a euhydrated state, and water intake considered to be adequate from a perspective of long-term health. Previously, we have proposed that maintaining a 24-h urine osmolality (U Osm ) of ⩽500 mOsm/kg is a desirable target for urine concentration to ensure sufficient urinary output to reduce renal health risk and circulating vasopressin. In clinical practice and field monitoring, the measurement of U Osm is not practical. In this analysis, we calculate criterion values for urine-specific gravity (U SG ) and urine color (U Col ), two measures which have broad applicability in clinical and field settings. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed on 817 urine samples demonstrates that a U SG ⩾1.013 detects U Osm >500 mOsm/kg with very high accuracy (AUC 0.984), whereas a subject-assessed U Col ⩾4 offers high sensitivity and moderate specificity (AUC 0.831) for detecting U Osm >500 m Osm/kg.

  15. Measurement of daily sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease; special reference to the difference between the amount measured from 24 h collected urine sample and the estimated amount from a spot urine.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hoichi; Kobayashi, Seiji; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Yoshindo; Yokoo, Takashi

    2018-11-01

    It is important to grasp a patient's daily sodium intake in the management of chronic kidney disease, as sodium intake is widely recommended at 6 g/day or less. There are multiple equations widely known for estimating the daily sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these are aimed at healthy people. There are few reports that validate equations in patients with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the amount of measured daily sodium excretion from a sample collected for 24-h urine (24HU) is equal to that of using an equation from a spot urine sample (SU) in patients with chronic kidney disease. One hundred sixty-two patients with chronic kidney disease from Kanagawa Prefecture Shiomidai Hospital, Japan and the Jikei University Kashiwa Hospital, Japan participated in the study. Daily sodium excretion was measured from 24HU and compared with it from SU by using the formula according to Tanaka et al. Sodium excretion by 24HU was 2744 mg/day and estimating daily sodium excretion from SU was 3315 mg/day. The coefficient of determination was 0.17 (p < .001) in multivariate regression analysis. The coefficient of determination was extremely low. Thus, there is a considerable difference between the amount of sodium excretion calculated from a 24HU and that from a SU in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  16. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  18. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Because there is substantial biologic intraindividual variation in albumin excretion, randomized trials of albuminuria-reducing therapies may need multiple urine samples to estimate daily urinary albumin excretion. Mailing spot urine samples could offer a convenient and cost-effective method to collect multiple samples, but urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio stability in samples stored at ambient temperatures for several days is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Patients with kidney disease provided fresh urine samples in two tubes (with and without boric acid preservative). Reference aliquots from each participant were analyzed immediately, whereas remaining aliquots were subject to different handling/storage conditions before analysis, including delayed processing for up to 7 days at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 18°C, and 30°C), multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and long–term frozen storage at −80°C, −40°C, and −20°C. We calculated the mean percentage change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for each condition, and we considered samples stable if the 95% confidence interval was within a ±5% threshold. Results Ninety-three patients provided samples with detectable albuminuria in the reference aliquot. Median (interquartile range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 87 (20–499) mg/g. The inclusion of preservative had minimal effect on fresh urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio measurements but reduced the changes in albumin and creatinine in samples subject to processing delay and storage conditions. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was stable for 7 days in samples containing preservative at 4°C and 18°C and 2 days when stored at 30°C. It was also stable in samples with preservative after three freeze-thaw cycles and in frozen storage for 6 months at −80°C or −40°C but not at −20°C. Conclusions Mailed urine samples collected with preservative and received within 7 days if

  19. Derivatization coupled to headspace programmed-temperature vaporizer gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of amino acids: Application to urine samples.

    PubMed

    González Paredes, Rosa María; García Pinto, Carmelo; Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    A new method based on headspace programmed-temperature vaporizer gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the determination of amino acids (alanine, sarcosine, ethylglycine, valine, leucine, and proline) in human urine samples. Derivatization with ethyl chloroformate was employed successfully to determine the amino acids. The derivatization reaction conditions as well as the variables of the headspace sampling were optimized. The existence of a matrix effect was checked and the analytical characteristics of the method were determined. The limits of detection were 0.15-2.89 mg/L, and the limits of quantification were 0.46-8.67 mg/L. The instrumental repeatability was 1.6-11.5%. The quantification of the amino acids in six urine samples from healthy subjects was performed with the method developed with the one-point standard additions protocol, with norleucine as the internal standard. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rapid determination of anti-estrogens by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in urine: Method validation and application to real samples.

    PubMed

    Gerace, E; Salomone, A; Abbadessa, G; Racca, S; Vincenti, M

    2012-02-01

    A fast screening protocol was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine anti-estrogenic agents (aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, clomiphene, drostanolone, formestane, letrozole, mesterolone, tamoxifen, testolactone) plus five of their metabolites in human urine. After an enzymatic hydrolysis, these compounds can be extracted simultaneously from urine with a simple liquid-liquid extraction at alkaline conditions. The analytes were subsequently analyzed by fast-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (fast-GC/MS) after derivatization. The use of a short column, high-flow carrier gas velocity and fast temperature ramping produced an efficient separation of all analytes in about 4 min, allowing a processing rate of 10 samples/h. The present analytical method was validated according to UNI EN ISO/IEC 17025 guidelines for qualitative methods. The range of investigated parameters included the limit of detection, selectivity, linearity, repeatability, robustness and extraction efficiency. High MS-sampling rate, using a benchtop quadrupole mass analyzer, resulted in accurate peak shape definition under both scan and selected ion monitoring modes, and high sensitivity in the latter mode. Therefore, the performances of the method are comparable to the ones obtainable from traditional GC/MS analysis. The method was successfully tested on real samples arising from clinical treatments of hospitalized patients and could profitably be used for clinical studies on anti-estrogenic drug administration.

  1. Develop a Methodology to Evaluate the Effectiveness of QC/QA Specifications (Phase II)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-08-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has been implementing statistically based quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) specifications for hot mix asphalt concrete pavements since the early 1990s. These specifications have been continuousl...

  2. Validation study of the Tanaka and Kawasaki equations to estimate the daily sodium excretion by a spot urine sample.

    PubMed

    Mill, José Geraldo; Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann

    2015-12-01

    To validate Tanaka and Kawasaki's formulas to calculate the salt intake by the sodium/creatinine ratio in spot of urine. Two hundred and seventy two adults (20 - 69 years old; 52.6% women) with 24 h urine collection and two urinary spots collected on the same day (while fasting - spot 1 - or not fasting - spot 2). Anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood were measured on the same day. The analysis of agreement between salt consumption measured in the 24 h urine test and urinary spots were determined by the Pearson's correlation (r) and the Bland & Altman method. The mean salt consumption measured by the 24 h sodium excretion was 10.4 ± 5.3 g/day. The correlation between the measured 24 h sodium excretion and the estimation based on spots 1 and 2, respectively, was only moderated according to Tanaka (r = 0.51 and r = 0.55; p < 0.001) and to Kawasaki (r = 0.52 and r = 0.54; p < 0.001). We observed an increasing underestimation of salt consumption by Tanaka to increasing salt consumption and conversely, an overestimation of consumption by the Kawasaki formula. The estimation of salt consumption (difference between measured and calculated salt consumption lower than 1 g/day) was adequate only when the consumption was between 9 - 12 g/day (Tanaka) and 12 - 18 g/day (Kawasaki). Spot urine sampling is adequate to estimate salt consumption only among individuals with an actual consumption near the population mean.

  3. Myoglobin urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  4. Analyte variations in consecutive 24-hour urine collections in children.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Jonathan S; Hollingsworth, John M; Langman, Craig B; Asplin, John R; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Yan, Phyllis; Bierlein, Maggie; Barraza, Mark A; Defoor, William R; Figueroa, T Ernesto; Jackson, Elizabeth C; Jayanthi, Venkata R; Johnson, Emilie K; Joseph, David B; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic evaluation of children with nephrolithiasis begins with a 24-h urine collection. For adults, the diagnostic yield increases with consecutive collections; however, little is known regarding the variability of multiple 24-h studies in the pediatric population. We sought to evaluate the variability of consecutive 24-h urine collection in children through a multi-institutional study hypothesizing that compared with a single collection, consecutive 24-h urine collections would reveal a greater degree of clinically useful information in the evaluation of children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Including data from six institutions, we identified children less than 18 years of age considered at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis, undergoing metabolic evaluation. We evaluated a subset of patients performing two collections with urine creatinine varying by 10% or less during a 7-day period. Discordance between repeat collections based on normative urine chemistry values was evaluated. A total of 733 children met inclusion criteria, and in over a third both urine calcium and urine volume differed by 30% or more between samples. Urine oxalate demonstrated greater variation between collections in children <5 years than among older children (p = 0.030) while variation in other parameters did not differ by age. Discordance between repeat samples based on normative values was most common for urine oxalate (22.5%) and the derived relative supersaturation ratios for both calcium phosphate (25.1%) and calcium oxalate (20.5%). The proportion of discordant samples, based on normative thresholds, as well as variability greater ≥30% and 50%, respectively, are shown in the table. Our analysis indicates that stone risk in as many as one in four children may be misclassified if normative values of only a single 24-h urine are used. In light of these findings, repeat 24-h urine collections prior to targeted intervention to modify stone risk are advised to increase

  5. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--PESTICIDE METABOLITES IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Metabolites in Urine data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 9 pesticides in 345 urine samples over 79 households. Each sample was collected from the primary respondent within each household during the study and represented the first morning ...

  6. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--PESTICIDE METABOLITES IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Metabolites in Urine data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 4 pesticide metabolites in 176 urine samples over 176 households. Each sample was collected from the primary respondent within each household during Stage III of the NHEXAS study. ...

  7. Flow meter urine testing: a practical proposition in patients attending for urodynamics?

    PubMed

    Hashim, Hashim; Abrams, Paul

    2006-05-01

    To find a practical way of detecting urinary tract infection (UTI) before invasive urodynamic testing, as UTIs after urodynamics are well documented, but there are no standard guidelines about when urine should be analysed before urodynamics. Before urodynamics all patients are asked to provide a free urine flow; the patient is then catheterized to obtain a catheter-specimen of urine that is tested for infection by a urine dipstick. If the dipstick is found positive for nitrites and/or leukocytes, the test is abandoned and the sample sent for microscopy, culture and sensitivity. In the present study, patients were asked to provide a free urine flow into the flowmeter as usual. Between patients, the flowmeter was washed with soap and water and dried, so that there would be no cross-contamination between patients' urine results. Urine was collected as usual and tested using a dipstick, the patient was then catheterized and another dipstick test done on the catheter specimen of urine (CSU), to compare results. Pairs of urine samples, when positive for nitrite were 100% consistent, and 89% of pairs positive for leukocytes were the same before and after catheterization. The remaining 11% (all women) of the positive leukocyte group had leukocytosis on testing the flowmeter urine but not on the CSU, possibly due to contamination from the vagina. Testing urine by dipstick in the sample from the flowmeter is a feasible option, thus saving the patient an inappropriate catheterization, with the risk of bacteraemia during urodynamics, and allowing the flowrate to be measured.

  8. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for simultaneous determination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its main metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Nestić, Marina; Babić, Sandra; Pavlović, Dragana Mutavdžić; Sutlović, Davorka

    2013-09-10

    In presented paper analytical method based on solid-phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the confirmation of THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH in urine samples. Non-covalent molecularly imprinted polymers of THC-OH were prepared using different functional monomers (methacrylic acid, 4-vinylpyridine, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and 2,2'-azobis-isobutyronitrile as an initiator of radical polymerization. Analytes were extracted from urine samples using prepared polymer sorbent with highest binding selectivity and capability. Before extraction, urine samples were hydrolyzed with alkaline. Elution was performed with chloroform:ethyl acetate (60:40, v/v). Dry extracts were silylated with BSTFA+1% TMCS. Detection and quantification were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion recording mode. The developed method was linear over the range from LOQ to 150 ng mL(-1) for all three analytes. For THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH LOD was 2.5, 1 and 1 ng mL(-1), and LOQ was 3, 2 and 2 ng mL(-1), respectively. The precision, accuracy, recovery and matrix effect were investigated at 5, 25 and 50 ng mL(-1). In the investigated concentration range recoveries were 71.9% for THC, 78.6% for THC-OH and 75.2% for THC-COOH. Matrix effect was not significant (<10%) for all analytes in the concentration range from 5 ng mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1). Extraction recovery on non-imprinted polymer was relatively high indicating high non-specific binding. Optimized and validated method was applied to 15 post-mortem urine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostic performance of random urine samples using albumin concentration vs ratio of albumin to creatinine for microalbuminuria screening in patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Tu, Yu-Kang; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2014-07-01

    A random urine sample measuring the albumin concentration (UAC) without simultaneously measuring the urinary creatinine is less expensive than measuring the ratio of albumin to creatinine (ACR), but comparisons of their diagnostic performance for microalbuminuria screening among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been undertaken in previous meta-analyses. To compare the diagnostic performance of the UAC vs the ACR in random urine samples for microalbuminuria screening among patients with DM. Electronic literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus for English-language publications from the earliest available date of indexing through July 31, 2012. Clinical studies assessing the UAC or the ACR of random urine samples in detecting the presence of microalbuminuria among patients with DM using a urinary albumin excretion rate of 30 to 300 mg/d in 24-hour timed urine collections as the criterion standard. Bivariate random-effects models for analysis and pooling of the diagnostic performance measures across studies, as well as comparisons between different screening tests. The primary end point was the diagnostic performance measures of the UAC or the ACR in random urine samples, as well as comparisons between them. We identified 14 studies, with a total of 2078 patients; 9 studies reported on the UAC, and 12 studies reported on the ACR. Meta-analysis showed pooled sensitivities of 0.85 and 0.87 for the UAC and the ACR, respectively, and pooled specificities of 0.88 and 0.88, respectively. No differences in sensitivity (P = .70), specificity (P = .63), or diagnostic odds ratios (P = .59) between the UAC and the ACR were found. The time point of urine collection did not affect the diagnostic performance of either test. The UAC and the ACR yielded high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of microalbuminuria. Because the diagnostic performance of the UAC is comparable to that of the ACR, our findings indicate that the UAC of random

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization for selective solid-phase extraction of eight bisphenols from human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiajia; Li, Yun; Wang, Jincheng; Sun, Xiaoli; Cao, Rong; Sun, Hao; Huang, Chaonan; Chen, Jiping

    2015-05-04

    The bisphenol A (BPA) imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by simple Pickering emulsion polymerization. Compared to traditional bulk polymerization, both high yields of polymer and good control of particle sizes were achieved. The characterization results of scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements showed that the obtained molecularly imprinted polymer microsphere (MIPMS) particles possessed regular spherical shape, narrow diameter distribution (30-60 μm), a specific surface area (S(BET)) of 281.26 m(2) g(-1) and a total pore volume (V(t)) of 0.459 cm(3) g(-1). Good specific adsorption capacity for BPA was obtained in the sorption experiment and good class selectivity for BPA and its seven structural analogs (bisphenol F, bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol AF, bisphenol S, bisphenol AP and bisphenol Z) was demonstrated by the chromatographic evaluation experiment. The MIPMS as solid-phase extraction (SPE) packing material was then evaluated for extraction and clean-up of these bisphenols (BPs) from human urine samples. An accurate and sensitive analytical method based on the MIPMS-SPE coupled with HPLC-DAD has been successfully established for simultaneous determination of eight BPs from human urine samples with detection limits of 1.2-2.2 ng mL(-1). The recoveries of BPs for urine samples at two spiking levels (100 and 500 ng mL(-1) for each BP) were in the range of 81.3-106.7% with RSD values below 8.3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genital region cleansing wipes: Effects on urine culture contamination.

    PubMed

    Selek, Mehmet Burak; Bektöre, Bayhan; Sezer, Ogün; Kula Atik, Tuğba; Baylan, Orhan; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2017-01-30

    Urine culture is the gold standard test for revealing the microbial agent causing urinary tract infection (UTI). Culture results are affected by sampling techniques; improper sampling leads to contamination of urine and thus contamination of the culture with urogenital flora. We aimed to evaluate the effect of urogenital cleansing, performed with chlorhexidine-containing genital region cleansing wipes (GRCW) on contamination rates. A total of 2,665 patients with UTI-related complaints and with urine culture requests from various outpatient clinics were enrolled in the study. Of the patients, 1,609 in the experimental group used GRCW before sampling, while 1,046 in the control group did not use any wipes. The contamination rate in the experimental group patients was 7.7%, while it was 15.8% in the control group. Contamination rates were significantly higher in the control group than in the experimental group for both women and men. Contamination rates for children and adults were also significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. Our study, conducted in a large population, showed that the use of chlorhexidine-containing cleansing wipes significantly reduced urine culture contamination rates in both genders, in both child and adult age groups. Using GRCW, collection of urine after urogenital area cleansing will decrease the contamination problem.

  12. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  13. An aggregate urine analysis tool to detect acute dehydration.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert G; Waldréus, Nana

    2013-08-01

    Urine sampling has previously been evaluated for detecting dehydration in young male athletes. The present study investigated whether urine analysis can serve as a measure of dehydration in men and women of a wide age span. Urine sampling and body weight measurement were undertaken before and after recreational physical exercise (median time: 90 min) in 57 volunteers age 17-69 years (mean age: 42). Urine analysis included urine color, osmolality, specific gravity, and creatinine. The volunteers' body weight decreased 1.1% (mean) while they exercised. There were strong correlations between all 4 urinary markers of dehydration (r = .73-.84, p < .001). Researchers constructed a composite dehydration index graded from 1 to 6 based on these markers. This index changed from 2.70 before exercising to 3.55 after exercising, which corresponded to dehydration of 1.0% as given by a preliminary reference curve based on seven previous studies in athletes. Men were slightly dehydrated at baseline (mean: 1.9%) compared with women (mean: 0.7%; p < .001), though age had no influence on the results. A final reference curve that considered both the present results and the 7 previous studies was constructed in which exercise-induced weight loss (x) was predicted by the exponential equation x = 0.20 dehydration index1.86. Urine sampling can be used to estimate weight loss due to dehydration in adults up to age 70. A robust dehydration index based on four indicators reduces the influence of confounders.

  14. From Field Notes to Data Portal - A Scalable Data QA/QC Framework for Tower Networks: Progress and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, C.; Hackley, S.; Lee, R.; Holling, G.; Bonarrigo, S.

    2017-12-01

    Quality assurance and control (QA/QC) is one of the most important yet challenging aspects of producing research-quality data. Data quality issues are multi-faceted, including sensor malfunctions, unmet theoretical assumptions, and measurement interference from humans or the natural environment. Tower networks such as Ameriflux, ICOS, and NEON continue to grow in size and sophistication, yet tools for robust, efficient, scalable QA/QC have lagged. Quality control remains a largely manual process heavily relying on visual inspection of data. In addition, notes of measurement interference are often recorded on paper without an explicit pathway to data flagging. As such, an increase in network size requires a near-proportional increase in personnel devoted to QA/QC, quickly stressing the human resources available. We present a scalable QA/QC framework in development for NEON that combines the efficiency and standardization of automated checks with the power and flexibility of human review. This framework includes fast-response monitoring of sensor health, a mobile application for electronically recording maintenance activities, traditional point-based automated quality flagging, and continuous monitoring of quality outcomes and longer-term holistic evaluations. This framework maintains the traceability of quality information along the entirety of the data generation pipeline, and explicitly links field reports of measurement interference to quality flagging. Preliminary results show that data quality can be effectively monitored and managed for a multitude of sites with a small group of QA/QC staff. Several components of this framework are open-source, including a R-Shiny application for efficiently monitoring, synthesizing, and investigating data quality issues.

  15. Fluoride in drinking water and human urine in Southern Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupinder; Gaur, Shalini; Garg, V K

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fluoride content in drinking water and urine samples of adolescent males aged 11-16 years living in Southern Haryana, India. A total of 30 drinking water sources in the studied habitations were assessed for fluoride contamination. Fluoride was estimated in the urine of 400 male children randomly selected from these habitations. The fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine samples was determined using USEPA fluoride ion selective electrode method. The mean fluoride concentration in drinking water samples of Pataudi, Haily Mandi and Harsaru villages was 1.68+/-0.35, 3.22+/-1.18 and 1.78+/-0.12 mg/l, respectively. The mean urinary fluoride concentration was 2.26+/-0.024 mg/l at Pataudi, 2.48+/-0.77 mg/l at Haily Mandi and 2.43+/-0.84 mg/l at Harsaru village. The higher fluoride levels in the urine of children may be associated to higher fluoride levels in drinking water. The accuracy of measurements was assessed with known addition method in water and urine. Mean fluoride recovery was 98.0 and 99.1% in water and urine. The levels obtained were reproducible with in +/-3% error limit.

  16. Screening for urinary tract infection with the Sysmex UF-1000i urine flow cytometer.

    PubMed

    Broeren, Maarten A C; Bahçeci, Semiha; Vader, Huib L; Arents, Niek L A

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) by urine culture is time-consuming and can produce up to 60 to 80% negative results. Fast screening methods that can reduce the necessity for urine cultures will have a large impact on overall turnaround time and laboratory economics. We have evaluated the detection of bacteria and leukocytes by a new urine analyzer, the UF-1000i, to identify negative urine samples that can be excluded from urine culture. In total, 1,577 urine samples were analyzed and compared to urine culture. Urine culture showed growth of ≥10(3) CFU/ml in 939 samples (60%). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and ROC decision plots were been prepared at three different gold standard definitions of a negative urine culture: no growth, growth of bacteria at <10(4) CFU/ml, and growth of bacteria at <10(5) CFU/ml. Also, the reduction in urine cultures and the percentage of false negatives were calculated. At the most stringent gold standard definition of no growth, a chosen sensitivity of 95% resulted in a cutoff value of 26 bacteria/μl, a specificity of 43% and a reduction in urine cultures of only 20%, of which 14% were false negatives. However, at a gold standard definition of <10(5) CFU/ml and a sensitivity of 95%, the UF-1000i cutoff value was 230 bacteria/μl, the specificity was 80%, and the reduction in urine cultures was 52%, of which 0.3% were false negatives. The applicability of the UF-1000i to screen for negative urine samples strongly depends on population characteristics and the definition of a negative urine culture. In our setting, however, the low workload savings and the high percentage of false-negative results do not warrant the UF-1000i to be used as a screening analyzer.

  17. Mutagenicity of urine from individuals exposed to LPG combustion products.

    PubMed

    Yin, X J; Liu, J Z; Kong, X H; Chu, J H; Wang, H; Xiao, Z X

    1998-09-01

    The mutagenicity of urine from individuals exposed to the combustion products of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was detected with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and its newly developed derivatives YG1021 (nitroreductase overproducing) and YG1024 (O-acetyltransferase overproducing). The detection showed significantly increased mutagenicity for the two YG strains and increased positive rates for all three strains in the presence of both rat liver S9 and beta-glucuronidase. Further analysis demonstrated that urine samples taken from smoking and non-smoking exposed individuals exhibited significantly higher mutagenic potency (revertants/10 microliters urine concentrate) than their corresponding controls. These results indicate that the increased urine mutagenicity is caused by the exposure to LPG combustion products or smoking. The mutagenic potency of urine samples of all exposed individuals tested with YG1024 was found to be about 7 times higher than with TA98. The difference in mutagenic potency was smaller for the same samples when comparison was made between YG1021 and TA98. This suggests that the mutagenic compounds present in the urine samples contain mainly aromatic compounds as glucuronide conjugates. Our results demonstrate that YG1024 is more sensitive than TA98 in detecting the mutagenicity of these samples. In addition, no significant difference in the mutagenic potency between the 'pure' exposed (non-smokers') and the 'pure' smokers' (unexposed) samples was found in all three tester strains. This might mean that the exposure extent of mutagens/carcinogens in LPG combustion products for exposed individuals roughly corresponds to the smoking level of smokers who smoke 20-40 cigarettes per day. Furthermore, the results also suggest that synergism might exist in the mutagenic effects of exposure to LPG combustion products and cigarette smoking.

  18. Dual-cloud point extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace sulfonamide antimicrobials in urine and water samples.

    PubMed

    Nong, Chunyan; Niu, Zongliang; Li, Pengyao; Wang, Chunping; Li, Wanyu; Wen, Yingying

    2017-04-15

    Dual-cloud point extraction (dCPE) was successfully developed for simultaneous extraction of trace sulfonamides (SAs) including sulfamerazine (SMZ), sulfadoxin (SDX), sulfathiazole (STZ) in urine and water samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction were optimized, such as sample pH, concentration of Triton X-114, extraction temperature and time, centrifugation rate and time, back-extraction solution pH, back-extraction temperature and time, back-extraction centrifugation rate and time. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied for the SAs analysis. Under the optimum extraction and detection conditions, successful separation of the SAs was achieved within 9min, and excellent analytical performances were attained. Good linear relationships (R 2 ≥0.9990) between peak area and concentration for SMZ and STZ were optimized from 0.02 to 10μg/mL, for SDX from 0.01 to 10μg/mL. Detection limits of 3.0-6.2ng/mL were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 85 to 108% were determined with urine, lake and tap water spiked at 0.2, 0.5 and 1μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 1.5-7.7%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative tool to existing methods for analysing trace residues of SAs in urine and water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The consequence of delayed fixation on subsequent preservation of urine cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hussain G; Tom, Murtada Am

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative changes caused by delays in urine preservation contribute to false-negative and false-positive interpretation of urothelial disease in cytology. The aim of this study is to assess whether the delay of fixation of urine samples makes any significant difference to urine cytology and morphology, and the limit of acceptability of delay for routine use in the hospital laboratory. Three cell collection fluids were evaluated by analyzing the preservation and degeneration of cells in urine samples. In this study, 50 voided urine specimens were taken at random from females complaining of vaginal discharge. Each specimen was divided into three sterile containers. The first was immediately centrifugated and the deposit was smeared onto a cleaned micro slide and immediately fixed into 95% ethyl alcohol for 15 minutes. The remaining two were prepared in the same manner, however, the second after two hours of collection and the third after four hours of collection. The degree of degeneration and thus the preservation were assessed by a table of chosen criteria, then ranked and analyzed using Friedman's nonparametric test, at p=0.05. The results showed a significant difference between the preservation and the delay in urine fixation, p<0.0001. Any delay in fixation of urine specimen for cytology affects the preservation of cells, which may result in miss diagnosis. It is recommended that urine samples for cytology should be fixed immediately after collection.

  20. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  1. Cytotoxic drug residues in urine of dogs receiving anticancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, A; Mohring, S A I; Eberle, N; Nolte, I; Hamscher, G; Simon, D

    2010-01-01

    The presence of cytotoxic drug residues in urine of dogs may represent an exposure risk for pet owners and other people as well as a potential environmental contaminant. However, studies on cytotoxic drug residues in excretions of clinical patients are lacking in veterinary oncology. Variable concentrations of cytotoxic residues are present in urine samples, depending on sampling time and substance. Client-owned dogs with lymphoma or mast cell tumors treated with standard chemotherapy protocols. Urine samples were collected before, directly after, and on days after administration of chemotherapy. Measurement of vincristine, vinblastine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin residues in canine urine was performed by a quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. Median cyclophosphamide residue concentration was 398.2 microg/L directly after treatment (d0) and was below the level of detection on days 1-3 (d1, d2, d3). Median vincristine residue concentration was 53.8 microg/L directly after treatment and was 20.2, 11.4, and 6.6 microg/L on days 1, 2, and 3. Median vinblastine residues were 144.9 (d0), 70.8 (d1), 35.6 (d2), and 18.7 microg/L (d3) with low concentrations detectable for 7 days after treatment. Median urine doxorubicin concentrations were 354.0 (d0), 165.6 (d1), 156.9 (d2), and 158.2 microg/L (d3). Low concentrations of doxorubicin were measurable up to 21 days after administration. Variable concentrations of chemotherapeutics were measured in urine samples, depending on sampling time point and drug. Findings may inform current chemoprotection guidelines and help minimize exposure risks.

  2. Daily sodium and potassium excretion can be estimated by scheduled spot urine collections.

    PubMed

    Doenyas-Barak, Keren; Beberashvili, Ilia; Bar-Chaim, Adina; Averbukh, Zhan; Vogel, Ofir; Efrati, Shai

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of sodium and potassium intake is part of the optimal management of hypertension, metabolic syndrome, renal stones, and other conditions. To date, no convenient method for its evaluation exists, as the gold standard method of 24-hour urine collection is cumbersome and often incorrectly performed, and methods that use spot or shorter collections are not accurate enough to replace the gold standard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation and agreement between a new method that uses multiple-scheduled spot urine collection and the gold standard method of 24-hour urine collection. The urine sodium or potassium to creatinine ratios were determined for four scheduled spot urine samples. The mean ratios of the four spot samples and the ratios of each of the single spot samples were corrected for estimated creatinine excretion and compared to the gold standard. A significant linear correlation was demonstrated between the 24-hour urinary solute excretions and estimated excretion evaluated by any of the scheduled spot urine samples. The correlation of the mean of the four spots was better than for any of the single spots. Bland-Altman plots showed that the differences between these measurements were within the limits of agreement. Four scheduled spot urine samples can be used as a convenient method for estimation of 24-hour sodium or potassium excretion. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Improvement of the customer satisfaction through Quality Assurance Matrix and QC-Story methods: A case study from automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicoe, G. M.; Belu, N.; Rachieru, N.; Nicolae, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    Presently, in the automotive industry, the tendency is to adapt permanently to the changes and introduce the market tendency in the new products that leads of the customer satisfaction. Many quality techniques were adopted in this field to continuous improvement of product and process quality and advantages were also gained. The present paper has focused on possibilities that offers the use of Quality Assurance Matrix (QAM) and Quality Control Story (QC Story) to provide largest protection against nonconformities in the production process, throughout a case study in the automotive industry. There is a direct relationship from the QAM to a QC Story analysis. The failures identified using QAM are treated with QC Story methodology. Using this methods, will help to decrease the PPM values and will increase the quality performance and the customer satisfaction.

  4. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human serum and urine samples from a residentially exposed community.

    PubMed

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Moore, Susan McAfee; Tierney, Bruce C; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Campbell, Sean; Woudneh, Million B; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are considered chemicals of emerging concern, in part due to their environmental and biological persistence and the potential for widespread human exposure. In 2007, a PFAS manufacturer near Decatur, Alabama notified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) it had discharged PFAS into a wastewater treatment plant, resulting in environmental contamination and potential exposures to the local community. To characterize PFAS exposure over time, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) collected blood and urine samples from local residents. Eight PFAS were measured in serum in 2010 (n=153). Eleven PFAS were measured in serum, and five PFAS were measured in urine (n=45) from some of the same residents in 2016. Serum concentrations were compared to nationally representative data and change in serum concentration over time was evaluated. Biological half-lives were estimated for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. In 2010 and 2016, geometric mean PFOA and PFOS serum concentrations were elevated in participants compared to the general U.S. In 2016, the geometric mean PFHxS serum concentration was elevated compared to the general U.S. Geometric mean serum concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were significantly (p≤0.0001) lower (49%, 53%, and 58%, respectively) in 2016 compared to 2010. Half-lives for PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were estimated to be 3.9, 3.3, and 15.5years, respectively. Concentrations of PFOA in serum and urine were highly correlated (r=0.75) in males. Serum concentrations of some PFAS are decreasing in this residentially exposed community, but remain elevated compared to the U.S. general population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A Modified Protocol with Improved Detection Rate for Mis-Matched Donor HLA from Low Quantities of DNA in Urine Samples from Kidney Graft Recipients.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Janette; Choi, Leo C W; Ho, Jenny C Y; Chan, Gavin S W; Mok, Maggie M Y; Lam, Man-Fei; Chak, Wai-Leung; Cheuk, Au; Chau, Ka-Foon; Tong, Matthew; Chan, Kwok-Wah; Chan, Tak-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Urine from kidney transplant recipient has proven to be a viable source for donor DNA. However, an optimized protocol would be required to determine mis-matched donor HLA specificities in view of the scarcity of DNA obtained in some cases. In this study, fresh early morning urine specimens were obtained from 155 kidney transplant recipients with known donor HLA phenotype. DNA was extracted and typing of HLA-A, B and DRB1 loci by polymerase chain reaction-specific sequence primers was performed using tailor-made condition according to the concentration of extracted DNA. HLA typing of DNA extracted from urine revealed both recipient and donor HLA phenotypes, allowing the deduction of the unknown donor HLA and hence the degree of HLA mis-match. By adopting the modified procedures, mis-matched donor HLA phenotypes were successfully deduced in all of 35 tested urine samples at DNA quantities spanning the range of 620-24,000 ng. This urine-based method offers a promising and reliable non-invasive means for the identification of mis-matched donor HLA antigens in kidney transplant recipients with unknown donor HLA phenotype or otherwise inadequate donor information.

  6. Automated color classification of urine dipstick image in urine examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Royananda; Muchtar, M. A.; Taqiuddin, R.; Adnan, S.; Anugrahwaty, R.; Budiarto, R.

    2018-03-01

    Urine examination using urine dipstick has long been used to determine the health status of a person. The economical and convenient use of urine dipstick is one of the reasons urine dipstick is still used to check people health status. The real-life implementation of urine dipstick is done manually, in general, that is by comparing it with the reference color visually. This resulted perception differences in the color reading of the examination results. In this research, authors used a scanner to obtain the urine dipstick color image. The use of scanner can be one of the solutions in reading the result of urine dipstick because the light produced is consistent. A method is required to overcome the problems of urine dipstick color matching and the test reference color that have been conducted manually. The method proposed by authors is Euclidean Distance, Otsu along with RGB color feature extraction method to match the colors on the urine dipstick with the standard reference color of urine examination. The result shows that the proposed approach was able to classify the colors on a urine dipstick with an accuracy of 95.45%. The accuracy of color classification on urine dipstick against the standard reference color is influenced by the level of scanner resolution used, the higher the scanner resolution level, the higher the accuracy.

  7. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR SELECTED METALS AND PESTICIDES (UA-F-20.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to guide the collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples collected for the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP provides a brief description of sample, collection, preservation, storage, shipping, and custody procedures. This procedure was followed ...

  8. Microextraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS) and Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) as Sample Preparation Procedures for the Metabolomic Profiling of Urine

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Catarina; Cavaco, Carina; Perestrelo, Rosa; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S.

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, sample preparation was unrecognized as a critical issue in the analytical methodology, thus limiting the performance that could be achieved. However, the improvement of microextraction techniques, particularly microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), completely modified this scenario by introducing unprecedented control over this process. Urine is a biological fluid that is very interesting for metabolomics studies, allowing human health and disease characterization in a minimally invasive form. In this manuscript, we will critically review the most relevant and promising works in this field, highlighting how the metabolomic profiling of urine can be an extremely valuable tool for the early diagnosis of highly prevalent diseases, such as cardiovascular, oncologic and neurodegenerative ones. PMID:24958388

  9. Recommendations for provoked challenge urine testing.

    PubMed

    Ruha, Anne-Michelle

    2013-12-01

    "Urine mobilization test," "challenge test," and "provoked urine test" are all terms used to describe the administration of a chelating agent to a person prior to collection of their urine to test for metals. There is no standard, validated challenge test. Despite recommendations by professional and government organizations against the use of provoked urine testing, the tests are still commonly used and recommended by some practitioners. Challenge testing utilizes a variety of chelating agents, including dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The agents are given by a variety of routes of administration, doses used are inconsistent, and urine collection procedures vary. Additional problems with challenge tests include comparison of results to inappropriate reference ranges and creatinine correction of urine obtained within hours of chelator administration. Human volunteer studies demonstrate that mercury is detected in the urine of most people even in the absence of known exposure or chelator administration, and that urinary mercury excretion rises after administration of a chelator, regardless of exposure history and in an unpredictable fashion. Studies also demonstrate that challenge testing fails to reveal a "body burden" of mercury due to remote exposure. Chelating agents have been associated with adverse reactions. Current evidence does not support the use of DMPS, DMSA, or other chelation challenge tests for the diagnosis of metal toxicity. Since there are no established reference ranges for provoked urine samples in healthy subjects, no reliable evidence to support a diagnostic value for the tests, and potential harm, these tests should not be utilized.

  10. QC/QA differences between hot mix asphalt (HMA) and warm mix asphalt (WMA).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    WMA represents a group of technologies which allow a reduction in temperatures at which asphalt mixtures are produced and placed on the road. ODOT Materials Division has conducted preliminary inquiries into QC/QA testing for WMA. Some respondents ind...

  11. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    PubMed

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  12. Enantioselective extraction of (+)-(S)-citalopram and its main metabolites using a tailor-made stir bar chiral imprinted polymer for their LC-ESI-MS/MS quantitation in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Unceta, Nora; Gómez-Caballero, Alberto; García, Deiene; Díaz, Goretti; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletsky, Sergey; Goicolea, M Aránzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2013-11-15

    This paper reports the application of a chiral imprinted polymer (CIP)-coated stir bar for the selective extraction of (+)-(S)-citalopram (SCIT) and its main metabolites, (+)-(S)-desmethylcitalopram (SDCIT) and (+)-(S)-didesmethylcitalopram (SDDCIT), from urine samples. The developed device has been demonstrated to be capable of selectively extracting the three target analytes from urine samples without saturating the imprinted sites. A CIP-coated stir bar sorptive extraction procedure (CIP-SBSE) is proposed for the isolation of SCIT, SDCIT and SDDCIT followed by their subsequent analysis using liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ITMS). Deuterated SCIT-d6 was used as an internal standard. The method was validated using a standard procedure, which revealed that a quantification of 5 ng mL(-1) was obtained in urine samples and that the accuracy and precision were within the established values while no matrix effect was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Length of time domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) spend smelling urine of gonadectomised and intact conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Riach, Anna C; Asquith, Rachel; Fallon, Melissa L D

    2017-09-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use urine to communicate among themselves, however, it is unknown whether the gonadectomy (neutering or spaying) of a dog affects this communication in anyway. Urine samples from 10 intact and 10 gonadectomised, unfamiliar dogs were presented to 12 tester dogs to sniff under controlled conditions in a pilot study. The amount of time the tester dogs spent sniffing each sample was recorded. Overall, tester dogs were recorded smelling the urine of gonadectomised individuals for a longer time. In addition to the type of urine sample, the result is likely to have been influenced by the sex and status (gonadectomised or intact) of the tester dogs. The observed increase in the length of time spent sniffing urine from gonadectomised individuals could be explained by the tester dogs experiencing more difficulty in gaining information from the urine or facing more confusion while analysing the urine compared to the intact urine they have evolved to smell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolomics reveals dose effects of low-dose chronic exposure to uranium in rats: identification of candidate biomarkers in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Grison, Stéphane; Favé, Gaëlle; Maillot, Matthieu; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Blanchardon, Éric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bohand, Sandra; Martin, Jean-Charles; Souidi, Maâmar

    2016-01-01

    Data are sparse about the potential health risks of chronic low-dose contamination of humans by uranium (natural or anthropogenic) in drinking water. Previous studies report some molecular imbalances but no clinical signs due to uranium intake. In a proof-of-principle study, we reported that metabolomics is an appropriate method for addressing this chronic low-dose exposure in a rat model (uranium dose: 40 mg L -1 ; duration: 9 months, n = 10). In the present study, our aim was to investigate the dose-effect pattern and identify additional potential biomarkers in urine samples. Compared to our previous protocol, we doubled the number of rats per group (n = 20), added additional sampling time points (3 and 6 months) and included several lower doses of natural uranium (doses used: 40, 1.5, 0.15 and 0.015 mg L -1 ). LC-MS metabolomics was performed on urine samples and statistical analyses were made with SIMCA-P+ and R packages. The data confirmed our previous results and showed that discrimination was both dose and time related. Uranium exposure was revealed in rats contaminated for 9 months at a dose as low as 0.15 mg L -1 . Eleven features, including the confidently identified N1-methylnicotinamide, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and 4-hydroxyphenylacetylglycine, discriminated control from contaminated rats with a specificity and a sensitivity ranging from 83 to 96 %, when combined into a composite score. These findings show promise for the elucidation of underlying radiotoxicologic mechanisms and the design of a diagnostic test to assess exposure in urine, in a dose range experimentally estimated to be above a threshold between 0.015 and 0.15 mg L -1 .

  15. Quality assurance and quality control for thermal/optical analysis of aerosol samples for organic and elemental carbon.

    PubMed

    Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Robles, Jerome; Wang, Xiaoliang; Chen, L-W Antony; Trimble, Dana L; Kohl, Steven D; Tropp, Richard J; Fung, Kochy K

    2011-12-01

    Accurate, precise, and valid organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, respectively) measurements require more effort than the routine analysis of ambient aerosol and source samples. This paper documents the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures that should be implemented to ensure consistency of OC and EC measurements. Prior to field sampling, the appropriate filter substrate must be selected and tested for sampling effectiveness. Unexposed filters are pre-fired to remove contaminants and acceptance tested. After sampling, filters must be stored in the laboratory in clean, labeled containers under refrigeration (<4 °C) to minimize loss of semi-volatile OC. QA activities include participation in laboratory accreditation programs, external system audits, and interlaboratory comparisons. For thermal/optical carbon analyses, periodic QC tests include calibration of the flame ionization detector with different types of carbon standards, thermogram inspection, replicate analyses, quantification of trace oxygen concentrations (<100 ppmv) in the helium atmosphere, and calibration of the sample temperature sensor. These established QA/QC procedures are applicable to aerosol sampling and analysis for carbon and other chemical components.

  16. Hot mix asphalt voids acceptance review of QC/QA data 2000 through 2004.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-07-01

    This report analyzes the Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) data for hot mix asphalt using voids acceptance as : the testing criteria for the years 2000 through 2004. Analysis of the overall quality of the HMA is accomplished by : reviewing th...

  17. Hot mix asphalt voids acceptance review of QC/QA data 2000 through 2010.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    This report analyzes the quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) data for hot mix asphalt (HMA) using : voids acceptance as the testing criteria awarded in the years 2000 through 2010. Analysis of the overall : performance of the projects is accomp...

  18. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING URINE SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF HYDROXY POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND 2,4-D (SOP-5.21)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for extracting and preparing urine samples for analysis of hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol and 2,4-D is summarized in this SOP. It covers the extraction, concentration and methylation of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/...

  19. Ex vivo spontaneous generation of 19-norandrostenedione and nandrolone detected in equine plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; You, Youwen; Li, Xiaoqing; McDonnell, Sue

    2012-01-01

    19-Norandrostenedione (NAED) and nandrolone are anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Nandrolone was regarded solely as a synthetic AAS until the 1980s when trace concentrations of apparently endogenous nandrolone were detected in urine samples obtained from intact male horses (stallions). Since then, its endogenous origin has been reported in boars and bulls; endogenous NAED and nandrolone have been identified in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions. More recently, however, it was suggested that NAED and nandrolone detected in urine samples from stallions are primarily artifacts due to the analytical procedure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether NAED and nandrolone detected in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions are truly endogenous or artifacts from sample processing. To answer this question, fresh plasma and urine samples from ≥8 stallions were analyzed for the two AASs, soon after collection, by liquid chromatography hyphenated to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NAED and nandrolone were not detected in fresh plasma samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Concentrations of both AASs increased with storage time, and the increases were greater at a higher storage temperature (37°C versus 4°C, and ambient temperature versus 4°C). Although NAED was detected in some fresh stallion urine samples, its concentration (<407 pg/mL) was far lower (<0.4%) than that in the same samples post storage (at ambient temperature for 15 days). Nandrolone was not detected in most of fresh urine samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Based on these results, it is concluded that all NAED and nandrolone detected in stored plasma samples of stallions and most of them in the stored urine samples are not from endogenous origins but spontaneously generated during sample storage, most likely from spontaneous decarboxylation of androstenedione-19-oic acid and testosterone-19-oic acid. To our knowledge, it is

  20. Urine Color

    MedlinePlus

    ... during urinary tract infections caused by pseudomonas bacteria. Dark brown or cola-colored urine Brown urine can ... of fava beans, rhubarb or aloe can cause dark brown urine. Medications. A number of drugs can ...

  1. Rapid microbiological screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients on the first day of acute hospital admission by systematic testing of urine samples using Xpert MTB/RIF: a prospective cohort in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Stephen D; Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Burton, Rosie; Schutz, Charlotte; van Wyk, Gavin; Vogt, Monica; Pahlana, Pearl; Nicol, Mark P; Meintjes, Graeme

    2015-08-14

    Autopsy studies of HIV/AIDS-related hospital deaths in sub-Saharan Africa reveal frequent failure of pre-mortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), which is found in 34-64 % of adult cadavers. We determined the overall prevalence and predictors of TB among consecutive unselected HIV-positive adults requiring acute hospital admission and the comparative diagnostic yield obtained by screening urine and sputum samples obtained on day 1 of admission with Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). To determine overall TB prevalence accurately, comprehensive clinical sampling (sputum, urine, blood plus other relevant samples) was done and TB was defined by detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in any sample using Xpert and/or mycobacterial liquid culture. To evaluate a rapid screening strategy, we compared the diagnostic yield of Xpert testing sputum samples and urine samples obtained with assistance from a respiratory study nurse in the first 24 h of admission. Unselected HIV-positive acute adult new medical admissions (n = 427) who were not receiving TB treatment were enrolled irrespective of clinical presentation or symptom profile. From 2,391 cultures and Xpert tests done (mean, 5.6 tests/patient) on 1,745 samples (mean, 4.1 samples/patient), TB was diagnosed in 139 patients (median CD4 cell count, 80 cells/μL). TB prevalence was very high (32.6 %; 95 % CI, 28.1-37.2 %; 139/427). However, patient symptoms and risk factors were poorly predictive for TB. Overall, ≥1 non-respiratory sample(s) tested positive in 115/139 (83 %) of all TB cases, including positive blood cultures in 41/139 (29.5 %) of TB cases. In the first 24 h of admission, sputum (spot and/or induced samples) and urine were obtainable from 37.0 % and 99.5 % of patients, respectively (P <0.001). From these, the proportions of total TB cases (n = 139) that were diagnosed by Xpert testing sputum, urine or both sputum and urine combined within the first 24 h were 39/139 (28.1 %), 89/139 (64.0 %) and 108/139 (77.7 %) cases

  2. Highly efficient electrochemical determination of propylthiouracil in urine samples after selective electromembrane extraction by copper nanoparticles-decorated hollow fibers.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Zeinab; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar

    2018-05-09

    In this work, a novel, inexpensive and fast strategy was described for selective and effective extraction and determination of propylthiouracil (PTU) with a high polarity (log P = 1.2) based on electromembrane extraction (EME) followed by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). For this purpose, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)-decorated hollow fiber was used as the selective membrane for EME of PTU in urine samples. The influential parameters on extraction such as extraction solvent, pH, agitation speed, applied potential and extraction time were systematically investigated. In optimized conditions, acceptable linearity was attained between 0.05 and 5 µg mL -1 (R 2 value = 0.9994); moreover, superb enrichment factor (200) and repeatability (RSD%, n = 4, 5.7%) for 0.1 µg mL -1 of PTU solution were in desirable range. In addition, extraction recovery of 80.0% was achieved in this condition and the limit of detection (S/N ratio of 3:1) was 0.02 µg mL -1 . Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine PTU concentration in urine samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  4. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  5. Diagnostic value and cost utility analysis for urine Gram stain and urine microscopic examination as screening tests for urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Udomsantisuk, Nibhond; Boonchalermvichian, Chaiyaporn

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic properties of urine Gram stain and urine microscopic examination for screening for urinary tract infection (UTI), and to perform an additional cost utility analysis. This descriptive study was performed on 95 urine samples sent for urine culture to the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University. The first part of the study was to determine the diagnostic properties of two screening tests (urine Gram stain and urine microscopic examination). Urine culture was set as the gold standard and the results from both methods were compared to this. The second part of this study was to perform a cost utility analysis. The sensitivity of urine Gram stain was 96.2%, the specificity 93.0%, the positive predictive value 94.3% and the negative predictive value 95.2%. False positives occurred with a frequency of 7.0% and false negatives 3.8%. For the microscopic examination, the sensitivity was 65.4%, specificity 74.4%, positive predictive value 75.6% and negative predictive value 64.0%. False positives occurred with a frequency of 25.6% and false negatives 34.6%. Combining urine Gram stain and urine microscopic examination, the sensitivity was 98.1%, specificity 74.4%, positive predictive value 82.3% and negative predictive value 97.0%. False positives occurred with a frequency of 25.6% and false negatives 1.9%. However, the cost per utility of the combined method was higher than either urine microscopic examination or urine Gram stain alone. Urine Gram stain provided the lowest cost per utility. Economically, urine Gram stain is the proper screening tool for presumptive diagnosis of UTI.

  6. Rapid determination of anti-estrogens by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in urine: Method validation and application to real samples

    PubMed Central

    Gerace, E.; Salomone, A.; Abbadessa, G.; Racca, S.; Vincenti, M.

    2011-01-01

    A fast screening protocol was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine anti-estrogenic agents (aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, clomiphene, drostanolone, formestane, letrozole, mesterolone, tamoxifen, testolactone) plus five of their metabolites in human urine. After an enzymatic hydrolysis, these compounds can be extracted simultaneously from urine with a simple liquid–liquid extraction at alkaline conditions. The analytes were subsequently analyzed by fast-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (fast-GC/MS) after derivatization. The use of a short column, high-flow carrier gas velocity and fast temperature ramping produced an efficient separation of all analytes in about 4 min, allowing a processing rate of 10 samples/h. The present analytical method was validated according to UNI EN ISO/IEC 17025 guidelines for qualitative methods. The range of investigated parameters included the limit of detection, selectivity, linearity, repeatability, robustness and extraction efficiency. High MS-sampling rate, using a benchtop quadrupole mass analyzer, resulted in accurate peak shape definition under both scan and selected ion monitoring modes, and high sensitivity in the latter mode. Therefore, the performances of the method are comparable to the ones obtainable from traditional GC/MS analysis. The method was successfully tested on real samples arising from clinical treatments of hospitalized patients and could profitably be used for clinical studies on anti-estrogenic drug administration. PMID:29403714

  7. Determination of the absolute configuration of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid and 5-oxoproline in urine samples by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in the presence of chiral lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Bal, Dominika; Gradowska, Wanda; Gryff-Keller, Adam

    2002-06-15

    Determination of the absolute configuration of some metabolites in body fluids is important for the diagnosis of some inborn errors of metabolism. Presently available methods of such determinations are tedious and usually require highly specialized instrumentation. In this work, an alternative method, based on high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the presence of the chiral lanthanide shift reagent as an auxiliary additive, has been proposed (NMR/LSR). The method involves the lineshape analysis of a chosen multiplet of the one-dimensional 1H NMR spectrum or application of the two-dimensional 1H-13C correlation spectroscopy (HSQC). In order to confirm the resonance assignments and to boost the signal-noise ratio, the addition of an amount of racemic analyte to the urine sample is recommended. The entire procedure is simple in application and demands minimal or no preprocessing of urine samples. The effectiveness of the method has been confirmed by finding the expected forms of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid and 5-oxoproline in the urine samples of an independently diagnosed patient with 2-D-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and 5-L-oxoprolinuria, respectively.

  8. Development of SPME-LC-MS method for screening of eight beta-blockers and bronchodilators in plasma and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Goryński, Krzysztof; Kiedrowicz, Alicja; Bojko, Barbara

    2016-08-05

    The current work describes the development and validation of a simple, efficient, and fast method using solid phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-LC-MS/MS) for the concomitant measurement of eight beta-blockers and bronchodilators in plasma and urine. The presented assay enables quantitative determination of acebutolol, atenolol, fenoterol, nadolol, pindolol, procaterol, sotalol, and timolol. In this work, samples were prepared on a high-throughput platform using the 96-well plate format of the thin film solid phase microextraction (TFME) system, and a biocompatible extraction phase made of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance particles. Analytes were separated on a pentafluorophenyl column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm) by gradient elution using an UPLC Nexera coupled with an LCMS-8060 mass spectrometer. The mobile phase consisted of water-acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1). The linearity of the method was checked within therapeutic blood-plasma concentrations, and shown to adequately reflect typically expected concentrations of future study samples. Post-extraction addition experiments showed that the matrix effect ranged in plasma from 98% for procaterol to 115% for nadolol, and in urine, from 85% for nadolol and pindolol to 119% for atenolol. The method was successfully validated using Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, and met all acceptance criteria for bioanalytical assays at five concentration levels for all selected drugs. The final protocol can be successfully applied for monitoring concentrations of the selected drugs in both plasma and urine matrices obtained from patients or athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel fast method for aqueous derivatization of THC, OH-THC and THC-COOH in human whole blood and urine samples for routine forensic analyses.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Fabio; Pesci, Federica Giorgia; Giusiani, Mario; Chericoni, Silvio

    2018-04-01

    A novel aqueous in situ derivatization procedure with propyl chloroformate (PCF) for the simultaneous, quantitative analysis of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (OH-THC) and 11-nor-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in human blood and urine is proposed. Unlike current methods based on the silylating agent [N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide] added in an anhydrous environment, this new proposed method allows the addition of the derivatizing agent (propyl chloroformate, PCF) directly to the deproteinized blood and recovery of the derivatives by liquid-liquid extraction. This novel method can be also used for hydrolyzed urine samples. It is faster than the traditional method involving a derivatization with trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate. The analytes are separated, detected and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, capacity of identification, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), carryover, linearity, intra-assay precision, inter-assay precision and accuracy. The LOD and LOQ in hydrolyzed urine were 0.5 and 1.3 ng/mL for THC and 1.2 and 2.6 ng/mL for THC-COOH, respectively. In blood, the LOD and LOQ were 0.2 and 0.5 ng/mL for THC, 0.2 and 0.6 ng/mL for OH-THC, and 0.9 and 2.4 ng/mL for THC-COOH, respectively. This method was applied to 35 urine samples and 50 blood samples resulting to be equivalent to the previously used ones with the advantage of a simpler method and faster sample processing time. We believe that this method will be a more convenient option for the routine analysis of cannabinoids in toxicological and forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A pilot study to assess if urine specific gravity and urine colour charts are useful indicators of dehydration in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Rowat, Anne; Smith, Laura; Graham, Cat; Lyle, Dawn; Horsburgh, Dorothy; Dennis, Martin

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether urine specific gravity and urine colour could provide an early warning of dehydration in stroke patients compared with standard blood indicators of hydration status. Dehydration after stroke has been associated with increased blood viscosity, venous thrombo-embolism and stroke mortality at 3-months. Earlier identification of dehydration might allow us to intervene to prevent significant dehydration developing or reduce its duration to improve patient outcomes. We recruited 20 stroke patients in 2007 and measured their urine specific gravity with urine test strips, a refractometer, and urine colour of specimens taken daily on 10 consecutive days and compared with the routine blood urea:creatinine ratios over the same period to look for trends and relationships over time. The agreement between the refractometer, test strips and urine colour were expressed as a percentage with 95% confidence intervals. Nine (45%) of the 20 stroke patients had clinical signs of dehydration and had a significantly higher admission median urea:creatinine ratio (P = 0·02, Mann-Whitney U-test). There were no obvious relationships between urine specific gravity and urine colour with the urea:creatinine ratio. Of the 174 urine samples collected, the refractometer agreed with 70/174 (40%) urine test strip urine specific gravity and 117/174 (67%) urine colour measurements. Our results do not support the use of the urine test strip urine specific gravity as an early indicator of dehydration. Further research is required to develop a practical tool for the early detection of dehydration in stroke patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A magnetic bead-based method for concentrating DNA from human urine for downstream detection.

    PubMed

    Bordelon, Hali; Russ, Patricia K; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R

    2013-01-01

    Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ∼50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×10(3) to 5×10(8) copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×10(6), 14×10(6), and 8×10(6) copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR.

  12. A Magnetic Bead-Based Method for Concentrating DNA from Human Urine for Downstream Detection

    PubMed Central

    Bordelon, Hali; Russ, Patricia K.; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ∼50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×103 to 5×108 copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×106, 14×106, and 8×106 copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR. PMID:23861895

  13. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reischies, Frederike M J; Raggam, Reinhard B; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with hematological malignancies. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01576653.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Detection of Ciprofloxacin in Urine through Sensitized Lanthanide Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Subhankar; Ahn, Kyo Han

    2016-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is widely used for the treatment of bacterial infection in humans due to its broad antibacterial spectrum. An excessive use or overdose of ciprofloxacin on the other hand can cause several adverse effects not only to humans but also to microorganisms. Unabsorbed ciprofloxacin in the body is mostly excreted through urine and finally goes to the environment, providing a drug resistance pressure on bacteria. Hence a simple and efficient detection method of ciprofloxacin is necessary, which, for example, can be used to analyze ciprofloxacin content in urine. Although ciprofloxacin itself shows inherent fluorescence, direct fluorescent detection of ciprofloxacin in raw urine sample is difficult due to autofluorescence of urine by other components. Herein we report that a Tb(III) complex of DO3A (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) can be efficiently sensitized by ciprofloxacin to emit luminescence separately from the urine autofluorescence wavelength region. Tb-DO3A shows excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of three parts per billion in aqueous buffer solution. Further, Tb-DO3A is used to detect ciprofloxacin with high sensitivity and selectivity in a raw urine sample without any purification or separation procedures in the concentrations ranging from 1 µg·mL−1 to 50 µg·mL−1. The direct measurement of ciprofloxacin excreted in urine may be used to control overdose of the drug. PMID:27929396

  15. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol for the collection, processing and archiving of human blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul; Peakman, Tim C

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the UK to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. Extensive data and biological samples are being collected from 500,000 participants aged between 40 and 69 years. The biological samples that are collected and how they are processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. The aim of the UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol is to specify methods for the collection and storage of participant samples that give maximum scientific return within the available budget. Processing or storage methods that, as far as can be predicted, will preclude current or future assays have been avoided. The protocol was developed through a review of the literature on sample handling and processing, wide consultation within the academic community and peer review. Protocol development addressed which samples should be collected, how and when they should be processed and how the processed samples should be stored to ensure their long-term integrity. The recommended protocol was extensively tested in a series of validation studies. UK Biobank collects about 45 ml blood and 9 ml of urine with minimal local processing from each participant using the vacutainer system. A variety of preservatives, anti-coagulants and clot accelerators is used appropriate to the expected end use of the samples. Collection of other material (hair, nails, saliva and faeces) was also considered but rejected for the full cohort. Blood and urine samples from participants are transported overnight by commercial courier to a central laboratory where they are processed and aliquots of urine, plasma, serum, white cells and red cells stored in ultra-low temperature archives. Aliquots of whole blood are also stored for potential future production of immortalized cell lines. A standard panel of haematology assays is

  16. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--METALS IN URINE ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metals in Urine data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 7 metals in 86 urine samples over 86 households. Each sample was collected from the primary respondent within each household. The sample consists of the first morning void following the 24-hour d...

  17. Value of Routine Dengue Diagnostic Tests in Urine and Saliva Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Lorn Try, Patrich; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Serial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine. Conclusions Although the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible. PMID:26406240

  18. Selective extraction based on poly(MAA-VB-EGMDA) monolith followed by HPLC for determination of hordenine in plasma and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonggang; Meng, Junhua; Zou, Jili; An, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Hordenine is an active compound found in several foods, herbs and beer. In this work, a novel sorbent was fabricated for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of hordenine in biological samples. The organic polymer sorbent was synthesized in one step in the plastic barrel of a syringe by a pre-polymerization solution consisting of methacrylic acid (MAA), 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VB) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The conditions for preparation were optimized to generate a poly(MAA-VB-EGMDA) monolith with good permeability. The monolith exhibited good enrichment efficiency towards hordenine. By using tyramine as the internal standard, a poly(MAA-VB-EGMDA)-based SPE-HPLC method was established for analysis of hordenine. Conditions for SPE, including volume of eluting solvent, pH of sample solution, sampling rate and sample volume, were optimized. The proposed SPE-HPLC method presented good linearity (R(2)  = 0.9992) within 10-2000 ng/mL and the detection limits was 3 ng/mL, which is significantly more sensitive than reported methods. The method was also applied in plasma and urine samples; good capability of removing matrices was observed, while hordenine in low content was well extracted and enriched. The recoveries were from 90.6 to 94.7% and from 89.3 to 91.5% for the spiked plasma and urine samples, respectively, with the relative standard deviations <4.7%. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Fully automated methods for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J Y; Lin, C; Matuszewski, B K; Dobrinska, M R

    1994-12-01

    LC assays utilizing fully automated sample preparation procedures on Zymark PyTechnology Robot and BenchMate Workstation for the quantification of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in human plasma and urine have been developed. After aliquoting plasma and urine samples, and adding internal standard (IS) manually, the robot executed buffer and organic solvent addition, liquid-liquid extraction, solvent evaporation and on-line LC injection steps for plasma samples, whereas, BenchMate performed buffer and organic solvent addition, liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions, and on-line LC injection steps for urine samples. Chromatographic separations were carried out on Beckman Octyl Ultrasphere column using the mobile phase composed of 12% (v/v) acetonitrile and 88% of either an ion-pairing reagent (plasma) or 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (urine). The eluent from the column was monitored with UV detector (271 nm). Peak heights for HCTZ and IS were automatically processed using a PE-Nelson ACCESS*CHROM laboratory automation system. The assays have been validated in the concentration range of 2-100 ng ml-1 in plasma and 0.1-20 micrograms ml-1 in urine. Both plasma and urine assays have the sensitivity and specificity necessary to determine plasma and urine concentrations of HCTZ from low dose (6.25/12.5 mg) administration of HCTZ to human subjects in the presence or absence of losartan.

  20. Gene expression signature in urine for diagnosing and assessing aggressiveness of bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mengual, Lourdes; Burset, Moisès; Ribal, María José; Ars, Elisabet; Marín-Aguilera, Mercedes; Fernández, Manuel; Ingelmo-Torres, Mercedes; Villavicencio, Humberto; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    To develop an accurate and noninvasive method for bladder cancer diagnosis and prediction of disease aggressiveness based on the gene expression patterns of urine samples. Gene expression patterns of 341 urine samples from bladder urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) patients and 235 controls were analyzed via TaqMan Arrays. In a first phase of the study, three consecutive gene selection steps were done to identify a gene set expression signature to detect and stratify UCC in urine. Subsequently, those genes more informative for UCC diagnosis and prediction of tumor aggressiveness were combined to obtain a classification system of bladder cancer samples. In a second phase, the obtained gene set signature was evaluated in a routine clinical scenario analyzing only voided urine samples. We have identified a 12+2 gene expression signature for UCC diagnosis and prediction of tumor aggressiveness on urine samples. Overall, this gene set panel had 98% sensitivity (SN) and 99% specificity (SP) in discriminating between UCC and control samples and 79% SN and 92% SP in predicting tumor aggressiveness. The translation of the model to the clinically applicable format corroborates that the 12+2 gene set panel described maintains a high accuracy for UCC diagnosis (SN = 89% and SP = 95%) and tumor aggressiveness prediction (SN = 79% and SP = 91%) in voided urine samples. The 12+2 gene expression signature described in urine is able to identify patients suffering from UCC and predict tumor aggressiveness. We show that a panel of molecular markers may improve the schedule for diagnosis and follow-up in UCC patients. Copyright 2010 AACR.