Science.gov

Sample records for qcd auf dem

  1. Melker Meilensteine auf dem Weg in ein naturwissenschaftliches Zeitalter - Glanzlichter der Ausstellung zum Internationalen Astronomiejahr 2009 in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Paul G.; Zotti, Georg

    2009-06-01

    Das Mittelalter wird weithin als die dunkle Epoche in der Geschichte der Europäischen Wissenschaften betrachtet, und insbesondere das Leben in den Klöstern galt lange Zeit als frei von jeglichem Interesse für Naturwissenschaften abseits der Medizin. Im Mittelalter galt die Astronomie bloß als Mittel zum Zweck, um religiöse und zivile Kalender erstellen zu können. Durch den Bestand der Handschriftenkammer der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eröffnet sich uns eine neue Sichtweise auf das gegen Ende des Mittelalters wachsende Interesse an den Naturwissenschaften. Dies wurde durch die starke Aufwertung der Klosterbibliothek im Rahmen der 'Melker Reform' im 15. Jahrhundert noch weiter verstärkt. Diese Epoche fällt mit der Frühphase der Universität Wien und der 'ersten Wiener Schule der Astronomie' zusammen. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet ausgewählte astronomischen Werke in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek zwischen dem frühen 9 und dem 18. Jahrhundert. Einen Schwerpunkt stellt das Wirken der Wiener Schule der Astronomie dar, wobei wir u.a. die Melker Abschrift von Peuerbachs Gutachten über den Kometen von 1456 sowie die im Stift Melk durchgeführte Beobachtung der Mondfinsternis von 1457 durch Regiomontanus und Peuerbach beleuchten. Dieser Beitrag ist der einführende Übersichtsartikel zum Ausstellungsprojekt in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek im Rahmen des Internationalen Jahres der Astronomie 2009. The medieval period is commonly seen as a dark epoch for science in Europe. Especially monasteries were seen as institutions without interest in natural sciences except for medicine. Astronomy was allegedly only a tool to construct religious and civil calendars. The inventory of the medieval manuscript collection of the library of the Abbey of Melk allows a new view on the growing interest in the exact sciences towards the end of the medieval ages. This interest was intensified through the increased importance of the monastery library due to the monastery reform

  2. Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bornyakov, V.G.

    2005-06-01

    Possibilities that are provided by a lattice regularization of QCD for studying nonperturbative properties of QCD are discussed. A review of some recent results obtained from computer calculations in lattice QCD is given. In particular, the results for the QCD vacuum structure, the hadron mass spectrum, and the strong coupling constant are considered.

  3. Qualität auf dem Prüfstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Michael

    An einem Wochenende im Dezember 2009 beendete der chinesische Eisenbahn-Vizeminister Hu Yadong in Begleitung einer hochrangigen Delegation aus Experten des Department of Safety seines Ministeriums eine mehrtägige Europareise mit einem Besuch in der Konzernzentrale des weltweit führenden Herstellers von Bremssystemen für Schienen- und Nutzfahrzeuge in München. Schon in wenigen Jahren wird China über die weltweit größte Flotte an Hochgeschwindigkeitszügen verfügen und dabei sind Sicherheit und Qualität vorrangige Anforderungen. Knorr-Bremse liefert 100% der Bremsanlagen dieser Züge und hat vor kurzem mit rund 500 Millionen Euro den größten Auftrag in der Firmengeschichte erhalten. Das Unternehmen wird zusammen mit seinen chinesischen Partnern insgesamt 2.720 neue Wagen des chinesischen Hochgeschwindigkeitszuges CRH3 mit Brems- und Türsystemen ausrüsten.

  4. Sterblichkeit: der paradoxe Kunstgriff des Lebens - Eine Betrachtung vor dem Hintergrund der modernen Biologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeek, Bernhard

    Leben gibt es auf der Erde seit fast 4 Mio. Jahren, trotz allen Katastrophen. Die Idee des Lebens scheint unsterblich. Der Tod aber offenbar auch. Jedes Lebewesen ist davon bedroht, ja für Menschen und andere "höhere“ Lebewesen ist er im Lebensprogramm eingebaut - todsicher. Diese Tatsache ist alles andere als selbstverständlich. Ist sie überhaupt kompatibel mit dem Prinzip der Evolution, nach dem der am besten Angepasste überlebt?

  5. Entwicklungsperspektiven von Social Software und dem Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Alexander

    Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit dem derzeitigen und zukünftigen Einsatz von Social Software in Unternehmen. Nach dem großen Erfolg von Social Software im Web beginnen viele Unternehmen eigene Social Software-Initiativen zu entwickeln. Der Artikel zeigt die derzeit wahrgenommenen Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Social Software im Unternehmen auf, erörtert Erfolgsfaktoren für die Einführung und präsentiert mögliche Wege für die Zukunft. Nach der Diskussion des Spezialfalles Social Software in Unternehmen werden anschließend die globalen Trends und Zukunftsperspektiven des Web 2.0 in ihren technischen, wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Dimensionen dargestellt. Wie aus den besprochenen Haupttrends hervorgeht, wird die Masse an digital im Web verfügbaren Informationen stetig weiterwachsen. So stellt sich die Frage, wie es in Zukunft möglich sein wird, die Qualität der Informationssuche und der Wissensgenerierung zu verbessern. Mit dem Einsatz von semantischen Technologien im Web wird hier eine revolutionäre Möglichkeit geboten, Informationen zu filtern und intelligente, gewissermaßen verstehende" Anwendungen zu entwerfen. Auf dem Weg zu einem intelligenten Web werden sich das Semantic Web und Social Software annähern: Anwendungen wie Semantic Wikis, Semantic Weblogs, lightweight Semantic Web-Sprachen wie Microformats oder auch kommerzielle Angebote wie Freebase von Metaweb werden die ersten Vorzeichen einer dritten Generation des Webs sein.

  6. QCD phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Peter O.

    2006-09-25

    A review is presented on the contributions of Mexican Scientists to QCD phenomenology. These contributions range from Constituent Quark model's (CQM) with a fixed number of quarks (antiquarks) to those where the number of quarks is not conserved. Also glueball spectra were treated with phenomenological models. Several other approaches are mentioned.

  7. ASTER DEM performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisada, H.; Bailey, G.B.; Kelly, Glen G.; Hara, S.; Abrams, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra spacecraft has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its a near-infrared spectral band to acquire the stereo data. ASTER has two telescopes, one for nadir-viewing and another for backward-viewing, with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The spatial resolution is 15 m in the horizontal plane. Parameters such as the line-of-sight vectors and the pointing axis were adjusted during the initial operation period to generate Level-1 data products with a high-quality stereo system performance. The evaluation of the digital elevation model (DEM) data was carried out both by Japanese and U.S. science teams separately using different DEM generation software and reference databases. The vertical accuracy of the DEM data generated from the Level-1A data is 20 m with 95% confidence without ground control point (GCP) correction for individual scenes. Geolocation accuracy that is important for the DEM datasets is better than 50 m. This appears to be limited by the spacecraft position accuracy. In addition, a slight increase in accuracy is observed by using GCPs to generate the stereo data. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  8. TanDEM-X calibrated Raw DEM generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cristian; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Fernando; Fritz, Thomas; Yague-Martinez, Nestor; Eineder, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The TanDEM-X mission successfully started on June 21st 2010 with the launch of the German radar satellite TDX, placed in orbit in close formation with the TerraSAR-X (TSX) satellite, and establishing the first spaceborne bistatic interferometer. The processing of SAR raw data to the Raw DEM is performed by one single processor, the Integrated TanDEM-X Processor (ITP). The quality of the Raw DEM is a fundamental parameter for the mission planning. In this paper, a novel quality indicator is derived. It is based on the comparison of the interferometric measure, the unwrapped phase, and the stereo-radargrammetric measure, the geometrical shifts computed in the coregistration stage. By stating the accuracy of the unwrapped phase, it constitutes a useful parameter for the determination of problematic scenes, which will be resubmitted to the dual baseline phase unwrapping processing chain for the mitigation of phase unwrapping errors. The stereo-radargrammetric measure is also operationally used for the Raw DEM absolute calibration through an accurate estimation of the absolute phase offset. This paper examines the interferometric algorithms implemented for the operational TanDEM-X Raw DEM generation, focusing particularly on its quality assessment and its calibration.

  9. QCD structure of matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsuda, Tetsuo

    2012-11-12

    Dynamics of hadrons and nuclei are governed by the fundamental theory of strong interaction, the quantm chromodynamics (QCD). The current status of QCD and its applications to nuclear physics are reviewed.

  10. Perspectives in Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramashi, Yoshinobu

    2007-12-01

    Preface -- Fixed point actions, symmetries and symmetry transformations on the lattice / P. Hasenfratz -- Algorithms for dynamical fennions / A. D. Kennedy -- Applications of chiral perturbation theory to lattice QCD / Stephen R. Sharpe -- Lattice QCD with a chiral twist / S. Sint -- Non-perturbative QCD: renormalization, O(A) - Improvement and matching to Heavy Quark effective theory / Rainer Sommer.

  11. Hydrologic enforcement of lidar DEMs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Evans, Gayla A.; Heidemann, H. Karl

    2014-01-01

    Hydrologic-enforcement (hydro-enforcement) of light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) modifies the elevations of artificial impediments (such as road fills or railroad grades) to simulate how man-made drainage structures such as culverts or bridges allow continuous downslope flow. Lidar-derived DEMs contain an extremely high level of topographic detail; thus, hydro-enforced lidar-derived DEMs are essential to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for complex modeling of riverine flow. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) is integrating hydro-enforced lidar-derived DEMs (land elevation) and lidar-derived bathymetry (water depth) to enhance storm surge modeling in vulnerable coastal zones.

  12. QCD In Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    Introduction Symmetry and the Phenomena of QCD Apparent and Actual Symmetries Asymptotic Freedom Confinement Chiral Symmetry Breaking Chiral Anomalies and Instantons High Temperature QCD: Asymptotic Properties Significance of High Temperature QCD Numerical Indications for Quasi-Free Behavior Ideas About Quark-Gluon Plasma Screening Versus Confinement Models of Chiral Symmetry Breaking More Refined Numerical Experiments High-Temperature QCD: Phase Transitions Yoga of Phase Transitions and Order Parameters Application to Glue Theories Application to Chiral Transitions Close Up on Two Flavors A Genuine Critical Point! (?) High-Density QCD: Methods Hopes, Doubts, and Fruition Another Renormalization Group Pairing Theory Taming the Magnetic Singularity High-Density QCD: Color-Flavor Locking and Quark-Hadron Continuity Gauge Symmetry (Non)Breaking Symmetry Accounting Elementary Excitations A Modified Photon Quark-Hadron Continuity Remembrance of Things Past More Quarks Fewer Quarks and Reality

  13. Dark energy from QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Federico R.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2010-08-30

    We review two mechanisms rooted in the infrared sector of QCD which, by exploiting the properties of the QCD ghost, as introduced by Veneziano, provide new insight on the cosmological dark energy problem, first, in the form of a Casimir-like energy from quantising QCD in a box, and second, in the form of additional, time-dependent, vacuum energy density in an expanding universe. Based on [1, 2].

  14. QCD results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2005-01-01

    Recent QCD measurements from the CDF collaboration at the Tevatron are presented, together with future prospects as the luminosity increases. The measured inclusive jet cross section is compared to pQCD NLO predictions. Precise measurements on jet shapes and hadronic energy flows are compared to different phenomenological models that describe gluon emissions and the underlying event in hadron-hadron interactions.

  15. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  16. Neue Erkenntnisse auf dem Gebiete der Parasitologie und der parasitären Erkrankungen des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarski, G.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing interest in the parasites of man in the Federal Republic of Germany is connected with the unbounded keenness of German people to travel. They favor southern regions with warm climates which are usually infested with parasites. Thus the general practitioner is nowadays confronted in his daily routine with “imported” pathogenic organisms and diseases as yet unknown to him or with which he need not have reckoned in the past. Furthermore, new information now exists on the development of well-known parasites of our regions, which can be pathogenic to man. Fortunately, new reliable drugs have come on the market, rendering some parasitic diseases harmless.

  17. Resonances in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  18. The QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  19. QCD (&) event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  20. FOREWORD: Extreme QCD 2012 (xQCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Bazavov, Alexei; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2013-04-01

    The Extreme QCD 2012 conference, held at the George Washington University in August 2012, celebrated the 10th event in the series. It has been held annually since 2003 at different locations: San Carlos (2011), Bad Honnef (2010), Seoul (2009), Raleigh (2008), Rome (2007), Brookhaven (2006), Swansea (2005), Argonne (2004), and Nara (2003). As usual, it was a very productive and inspiring meeting that brought together experts in the field of finite-temperature QCD, both theoretical and experimental. On the experimental side, we heard about recent results from major experiments, such as PHENIX and STAR at Brookhaven National Laboratory, ALICE and CMS at CERN, and also about the constraints on the QCD phase diagram coming from astronomical observations of one of the largest laboratories one can imagine, neutron stars. The theoretical contributions covered a wide range of topics, including QCD thermodynamics at zero and finite chemical potential, new ideas to overcome the sign problem in the latter case, fluctuations of conserved charges and how they allow one to connect calculations in lattice QCD with experimentally measured quantities, finite-temperature behavior of theories with many flavors of fermions, properties and the fate of heavy quarkonium states in the quark-gluon plasma, and many others. The participants took the time to write up and revise their contributions and submit them for publication in these proceedings. Thanks to their efforts, we have now a good record of the ideas presented and discussed during the workshop. We hope that this will serve both as a reminder and as a reference for the participants and for other researchers interested in the physics of nuclear matter at high temperatures and density. To preserve the atmosphere of the event the contributions are ordered in the same way as the talks at the conference. We are honored to have helped organize the 10th meeting in this series, a milestone that reflects the lasting interest in this

  1. QCD physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.

    1992-05-01

    We present measurements of jet production and isolated prompt photon production in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV from the 1988--89 run of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). To test QCD with jets, the inclusive jet cross section (p{bar p} {yields} J + X) and two jet angular distributions (p{bar P} {yields} JJ + X) are compared to QCD predictions and are used to search for composite quarks. The ratio of the scaled jet cross sections at two Tevatron collision energies ({radical}s= 546 and 1800 GeV) is compared to QCD predictions for X{sub T} scaling violations. Also, we present the first evidence for QCD interference effects (color coherence) in third jet production (p{bar p} {yields} JJJ + X). To test QCD with photons, we present measurements of the transverse momentum spectrum of single isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} + X), double isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} + X), and the angular distribution of photon-jet events (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} J + X). We have also measured the isolated production ratio of {eta} and {pi}{sup 0} mesons (p{bar p} {yields} {eta} + X)/(p{bar p} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + X) = 1.02 {plus minus} .15(stat) {plus minus} .23(sys).

  2. QCD physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.; The CDF Collaboration

    1992-05-01

    We present measurements of jet production and isolated prompt photon production in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV from the 1988--89 run of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). To test QCD with jets, the inclusive jet cross section (p{bar p} {yields} J + X) and two jet angular distributions (p{bar P} {yields} JJ + X) are compared to QCD predictions and are used to search for composite quarks. The ratio of the scaled jet cross sections at two Tevatron collision energies ({radical}s= 546 and 1800 GeV) is compared to QCD predictions for X{sub T} scaling violations. Also, we present the first evidence for QCD interference effects (color coherence) in third jet production (p{bar p} {yields} JJJ + X). To test QCD with photons, we present measurements of the transverse momentum spectrum of single isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} + X), double isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} + X), and the angular distribution of photon-jet events (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} J + X). We have also measured the isolated production ratio of {eta} and {pi}{sup 0} mesons (p{bar p} {yields} {eta} + X)/(p{bar p} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + X) = 1.02 {plus_minus} .15(stat) {plus_minus} .23(sys).

  3. Wiederbeginn nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, Heinrich; Bassenge-Strecker, Rosemarie

    Dieses Kapitel schildert zunächst die Ausgangslage für die Statistik in Deutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg: Der statistische Dienst in den Besatzungszonen musste teilweise erst aufgebaut und der statistische Unterricht an den Hochschulen wieder in Gang gebracht werden. In dieser Lage ergriff der Präsident des Bayerischen Statistischen Landesamtes, Karl Wagner, tatkräftig unterstützt von Gerhard Fürst, dem späteren Präsidenten des Statistischen Bundesamtes, die Initiative zur Neugründung der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft (DStatG). Die Gründungsversammlung 1948 im München wurde zu einem Meilenstein in der Geschichte der DStatG. Ziel war es, alle Statistiker zur Zusammenarbeit anzuregen, ihre Qualifikation an das internationale Niveau heranzuführen und die Anwendung neuerer statistischer Methoden in der Praxis zu fördern. Es folgten 24 Jahre fruchtbarer Arbeit unter Karl Wagner (1948-1960) und Gerhard Fürst (1960-1972). Der Beitrag skizziert die Statistischen Wochen, die Tätigkeit der Ausschüsse und die Veröffentlichungen in dieser Zeit.

  4. The QCD running coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    Here, we review present knowledge onmore » $$\\alpha_{s}$$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $$\\alpha_s$$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled

  5. Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  6. Phase diagram of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Halasz, M.A.; Verbaarschot, J.J.; Jackson, A.D.; Shrock, R.E.; Stephanov, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    We analyze the phase diagram of QCD with two massless quark flavors in the space of temperature T and chemical potential of the baryon charge {mu} using available experimental knowledge of QCD, insights gained from various models, as well as general and model independent arguments including continuity, universality, and thermodynamic relations. A random matrix model is used to describe the chiral symmetry restoration phase transition at finite T and {mu}. In agreement with general arguments, this model predicts a tricritical point in the T{mu} plane. Certain critical properties at such a point are universal and can be relevant to heavy ion collision experiments. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Convolutional Neural Network Based dem Super Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zixuan; Wang, Xuewen; Xu, Zekai; Hou, Wenguang

    2016-06-01

    DEM super resolution is proposed in our previous publication to improve the resolution for a DEM on basis of some learning examples. Meanwhile, the nonlocal algorithm is introduced to deal with it and lots of experiments show that the strategy is feasible. In our publication, the learning examples are defined as the partial original DEM and their related high measurements due to this way can avoid the incompatibility between the data to be processed and the learning examples. To further extent the applications of this new strategy, the learning examples should be diverse and easy to obtain. Yet, it may cause the problem of incompatibility and unrobustness. To overcome it, we intend to investigate a convolutional neural network based method. The input of the convolutional neural network is a low resolution DEM and the output is expected to be its high resolution one. A three layers model will be adopted. The first layer is used to detect some features from the input, the second integrates the detected features to some compressed ones and the final step transforms the compressed features as a new DEM. According to this designed structure, some learning DEMs will be taken to train it. Specifically, the designed network will be optimized by minimizing the error of the output and its expected high resolution DEM. In practical applications, a testing DEM will be input to the convolutional neural network and a super resolution will be obtained. Many experiments show that the CNN based method can obtain better reconstructions than many classic interpolation methods.

  8. QCD results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, R.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    Results are presented for hadronic jet and direct photon production at {radical}{bar s} = 1800 GeV. The data are compared with next-to-leading QCD calculations. A new limit on the scale of possible composite structure of the quarks is also reported. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  9. QCD physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, T.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-10-01

    The CDF collaboration is engaged in a broad program of QCD measurements at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. I will discuss inclusive jet production at center-of-mass energies of 1800 GeV and 630 GeV, properties of events with very high total transverse energy and dijet angular distributions.

  10. QCD and Hadron Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  11. Jets and QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Stephen D.; Soper, Davison E.

    2013-06-01

    An essential element of the development of the strong interaction component of the Standard Model of particle physics, QCD, has been the evolving understanding of the "jets" of particles that appear in the final states of high energy particle collisions. In this chapter we provide a historical outline of those developments...

  12. Progress in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2002-09-30

    After reviewing some of the mathematical foundations and numerical difficulties facing lattice QCD, I review the status of several calculations relevant to experimental high-energy physics. The topics considered are moments of structure functions, which may prove relevant to search for new phenomena at the LHC, and several aspects of flavor physics, which are relevant to understanding CP and flavor violation.

  13. Baryons and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1997-03-01

    The author presents an idiosyncratic view of baryons which calls for a marriage between quark-based and hadronic models of QCD. He advocates a treatment based on valence quark plus glue dominance of hadron structure, with the sea of q pairs (in the form of virtual hadron pairs) as important corrections.

  14. QCD: Quantum Chromodynamics

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The strongest force in the universe is the strong nuclear force and it governs the behavior of quarks and gluons inside protons and neutrons. The name of the theory that governs this force is quantum chromodynamics, or QCD. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the intricacies of this dominant component of the Standard Model.

  15. Novel QCD Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2011-04-01

    I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom in hadron physics has been challenged. For example, hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation. Such "direct" higher-twist processes can explain the deviations from perturbative QCD predictions in measurements of inclusive hadron cross sections at fixed {xT} = 2{pT}/√ s , as well as the "baryon anomaly, the anomalously large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Initial-state and final-state interactions of the struck quark, soft-gluon rescattering associated with its Wilson line lead to Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing and antishadowing. The Gribov-Glauber theory predicts that antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is not universal, but instead depends on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark, thus explaining the anomalous nuclear dependence measured in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering. Since shadowing and antishadowing arise from the physics of leading-twist diffractive deep inelastic scattering, one cannot attribute such phenomena to the structure of the nucleus itself. It is thus important to distinguish "static" structure functions, the probability distributions computed from the square of the target light-front wavefunctions, versus "dynamical" structure functions which include the effects of the final-state rescattering of the struck quark. The importance of the J = 0 photon-quark QCD contact interaction in deeply virtual Compton scattering is also emphasized. The scheme-independent BLM method for setting the renormalization scale is discussed. The elimination of the renormalization scale ambiguity would greatly improve the precision of QCD predictions and increase the sensitivity of searches for new physics at the LHC. Other novel

  16. Novel QCD Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-08-12

    I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom in hadron physics has been challenged. For example, hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard higher-twist QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation. Such 'direct' processes can explain the deviations from perturbative QCD predictions in measurements of inclusive hadron cross sections at fixed x{sub T} = 2p{sub T}/{radical}s, as well as the 'baryon anomaly', the anomalously large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Initial-state and final-state interactions of the struck quark, the soft-gluon rescattering associated with its Wilson line, lead to Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing and antishadowing. The Gribov-Glauber theory predicts that antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is not universal, but instead depends on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark, thus explaining the anomalous nuclear dependence measured in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering. Since shadowing and antishadowing arise from the physics of leading-twist diffractive deep inelastic scattering, one cannot attribute such phenomena to the structure of the nucleus itself. It is thus important to distinguish 'static' structure functions, the probability distributions computed from the square of the target light-front wavefunctions, versus 'dynamical' structure functions which include the effects of the final-state rescattering of the struck quark. The importance of the J = 0 photon-quark QCD contact interaction in deeply virtual Compton scattering is also emphasized. The scheme-independent BLM method for setting the renormalization scale is discussed. Eliminating the renormalization scale ambiguity greatly improves the precision of QCD predictions and increases the sensitivity of searches for new physics at the LHC

  17. A Comparison of Elevation Between InSAR DEM and Reference DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ye; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Yan, Dapeng; Liang, Cunren; Wang, Qing; Zhou, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction (1) DEM generation Space borne SAR interferometry is one of the methods for the generation of digital elevation model (DEM). (2) Common methods to generate DEMs • Same antenna with two passes: e.g. ERS1/2 • Single-pass interferometry : e.g. SRTM • Geometry of stereopairs : e.g. SPOT and ASTER • Combination of air-photograph, satellite image, topographic map and field measurement : e.g. NGCC (National Geomatics Center of China, which has completed the establishment of 1:50000 topographic databases of China) (3) Purpose of this study Compare DEMs derived from ERS1/2 and common methods by comparison of tandem and reference DEMs which are SRTM DEM, ASTER GDEM and NGCC DEM. Some qualitative and quantitative assessments of the elevation were used to estimate the difference.

  18. TanDEM-X high resolution DEMs and their applications to flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Kelly M.

    Lava flow modeling can be a powerful tool in hazard assessments; however, the ability to produce accurate models is usually limited by a lack of high resolution, up-to-date Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). This is especially obvious in places such as Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii), where active lava flows frequently alter the terrain. In this study, we use a new technique to create high resolution DEMs on Kilauea using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from the TanDEM-X (TDX) satellite. We convert raw TDX SAR data into a geocoded DEM using GAMMA software [Werner et al., 2000]. This process can be completed in several hours and permits creation of updated DEMs as soon as new TDX data are available. To test the DEMs, we use the Harris and Rowland [2001] FLOWGO lava flow model combined with the Favalli et al. [2005] DOWNFLOW model to simulate the 3-15 August 2011 eruption on Kilauea's East Rift Zone. Results were compared with simulations using the older, lower resolution 2000 SRTM DEM of Hawaii. Effusion rates used in the model are derived from MODIS thermal infrared satellite imagery. FLOWGO simulations using the TDX DEM produced a single flow line that matched the August 2011 flow almost perfectly, but could not recreate the entire flow field due to the relatively high DEM noise level. The issues with short model flow lengths can be resolved by filtering noise from the DEM. Model simulations using the outdated SRTM DEM produced a flow field that followed a different trajectory to that observed. Numerous lava flows have been emplaced at Kilauea since the creation of the SRTM DEM, leading the model to project flow lines in areas that have since been covered by fresh lava flows. These results show that DEMs can quickly become outdated on active volcanoes, but our new technique offers the potential to produce accurate, updated DEMs for modeling lava flow hazards.

  19. Urban DEM generation, analysis and enhancements using TanDEM-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cristian; Gernhardt, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    This paper analyzes the potential of the TanDEM-X mission for the generation of urban Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The high resolution of the sensors and the absence of temporal decorrelation are exploited. The interferometric chain and the problems encountered for correct mapping of urban areas are analyzed first. The operational Integrated TanDEM-X Processor (ITP) algorithms are taken as reference. The ITP main product is called the raw DEM. Whereas the ITP coregistration stage is demonstrated to be robust enough, large improvements in the raw DEM such as fewer percentages of phase unwrapping errors, can be obtained by using adaptive fringe filters instead of the conventional ones in the interferogram generation stage. The shape of the raw DEM in the layover area is also shown and determined to be regular for buildings with vertical walls. Generally, in the presence of layover, the raw DEM exhibits a height ramp, resulting in a height underestimation for the affected structure. Examples provided confirm the theoretical background. The focus is centered on high resolution DEMs produced using spotlight acquisitions. In particular, a raw DEM over Berlin (Germany) with a 2.5 m raster is generated and validated. For this purpose, ITP is modified in its interferogram generation stage by adopting the Intensity Driven Adaptive Neighbourhood (IDAN) algorithm. The height Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the raw DEM and a reference is about 8 m for the two classes defining the urban DEM: structures and non-structures. The result can be further improved for the structure class using a DEM generated with Persistent Scatterer Interferometry. A DEM fusion is thus proposed and a drop of about 20% in the RMSE is reported.

  20. QCD tests at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, E.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    We present results for the inclusive jet cross section and the dijet mass distribution. The inclusive cross section and dijet mass both exhibit significant deviations from the predictions of NLO QCD for jets with E{sub T}>200 GeV, or dijet masses > 400 GeV/c{sup 2}. We show that it is possible, within a global QCD analysis that includes the CDF inclusive jet data, to modify the gluon distribution at high x. The resulting increase in the jet cross-section predictions is 25-35%. Owing to the presence of k{sub T} smearing effects, the direct photon data does not provide as strong a constraint on the gluon distribution as previously thought. A comparison of the CDF and UA2 jet data, which have a common range in x, is plagued by theoretical and experimental uncertainties, and cannot at present confirm the CDF excess or the modified gluon distribution.

  1. Hadron Resonances from QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Jozef J.

    2016-03-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  2. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbers $N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$ and $\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $J^{P}=1^{+}$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.

  3. Introduction to lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1998-12-31

    The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author`s charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations.

  4. QCD tests at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Giannetti, P. )

    1991-05-01

    Recent analysis of jet data taken at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}S = 1.8 Tev are presented. Inclusive jet, dijet, trijet and direct photon measurements are compared to QCD parton level calculations, at orders {alpha}{sub s}{sup 3} or {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}. The large total transverse energy events are well described by the Herwig shower Montecarlo. 19 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Pion observables and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) are a tower of coupled integral equations that relate the Green functions of QCD to one another. Solving these equations provides the solution of QCD. This tower of equations includes the equation for the quark self-energy, which is the analogue of the gap equation in superconductivity, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation, the solution of which is the quark-antiquark bound state amplitude in QCD. The application of this approach to solving Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories is reviewed. The nonperturbative DSE approach is being developed as both: (1) a computationally less intensive alternative and; (2) a complement to numerical simulations of the lattice action of QCD. In recent years, significant progress has been made with the DSE approach so that it is now possible to make sensible and direct comparisons between quantities calculated using this approach and the results of numerical simulations of Abelian gauge theories. Herein the application of the DSE approach to the calculation of pion observables is described: the {pi}-{pi} scattering lengths (a{sub 0}{sup 0}, a{sub 0}{sup 2}, A{sub 1}{sup 1}, a{sub 2}{sup 2}) and associated partial wave amplitudes; the {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} decay width; and the charged pion form factor, F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}). Since this approach provides a straightforward, microscopic description of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D{sub X}SB) and confinement, the calculation of pion observables is a simple and elegant illustrative example of its power and efficacy. The relevant DSEs are discussed in the calculation of pion observables and concluding remarks are presented.

  6. Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtl, Adam C.; Bulava, John; Morningstar, Colin; Edwards, Robert; Mathur, Nilmani; Richards, David; Fleming, George; Juge, K. Jimmy; Wallace, Stephen J.

    2007-10-26

    The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.

  7. Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    John Bulava; Robert Edwards; George Fleming; K. Jimmy Juge; Adam C. Lichtl; Nilmani Mathur; Colin Morningstar; David Richards; Stephen J. Wallace

    2007-06-16

    The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.

  8. Baryon Interactions from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Sinya

    2010-05-12

    We report on new attempt to investigate baryon interactions in lattice QCD. From the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) wave function, we have successfully extracted the nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials in quenched QCD simulations, which reproduce qualitative features of modern NN potentials. The method has been extended to obtain the tensor potential as well as the central potential and also applied to the hyperon-nucleon (YN) interactions, in both quenched and full QCD.

  9. Renormalization of Extended QCD2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukaya, Hidenori; Yamamura, Ryo

    2015-10-01

    Extended QCD (XQCD), proposed by Kaplan [D. B. Kaplan, arXiv:1306.5818], is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low-energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of 2D (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of a large number of colors N_c, to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low-energy region.

  10. Elektromagnetische Strahlung. Informationen aus dem Weltall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, H.

    Contents: Informationen aus dem Weltall. Neue und zukünftige Geräte. Wichtiges und Interessantes aus der Positionsastronomie. Die Helligkeit der Sterne und anderer astronomischer Objekte. Spektroskopie und Spektralanalyse. Beobachtungen außerhalb des optischen Bereiches.

  11. Nonlocal similarity based DEM super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zekai; Wang, Xuewen; Chen, Zixuan; Xiong, Dongping; Ding, Mingyue; Hou, Wenguang

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses a new topic, DEM super resolution, to improve the resolution of an original DEM based on its partial new measurements obtained with high resolution. A nonlocal algorithm is introduced to perform this task. The original DEM was first divided into overlapping patches, which were classified either as "test" or "learning" data depending on whether or not they are related to high resolution measurements. For each test patch, the similar patches in the learning dataset were identified via template matching. Finally, the high resolution DEM of the test patch was restored by the weighted sum of similar patches under the condition that the reconstruction weights were the same in different resolution cases. A key assumption of this strategy is that there are some repeated or similar modes in the original DEM, which is quite common. Experiments were done to demonstrate that we can restore a DEM by preserving the details without introducing artifacts. Statistic analysis was also conducted to show that this method can obtain higher accuracy than traditional interpolation methods.

  12. Introduction to QCD Sum Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2013-08-01

    A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.

  13. Cool QCD: Hadronic Physics and QCD in Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    QCD is the only strongly-coupled theory given to us by Nature, and it gives rise to a host of striking phenomena. Two examples in hadronic physics include the dynamic generation of mass and the confinement of quarks. Indeed, the vast majority of the mass of visible matter is due to the kinetic and potential energy of the massless gluons and the essentially massless quarks. QCD also gives rise to the force that binds protons and neutrons into nuclei, including subtle effects that have historically been difficult to understand. Describing these phenomena in terms of QCD has represented a daunting task, but remarkable progress has been achieved in both theory and experiment. Both CEBAF at Jefferson Lab and RHIC at Brookhaven National Lab have provided unprecedented experimental tools for investigating QCD, and upgrades at both facilities promise even greater opportunities in the future. Also important are programs at FermiLab as well as the LHC at CERN. Looking further ahead, an electron ion collider (EIC) has the potential to answer whole new sets of questions regarding the role of gluons in nuclear matter, an issue that lies at the heart of the generation of mass. On the theoretical side, rapid progress in supercomputers is enabling stunning progress in Lattice QCD calculations, and approximate forms of QCD are also providing deep new physical insight. In this talk I will describe both recent advances in Cool QCD as well as the exciting scientific opportunities that exist for the future.

  14. Quality Test Various Existing dem in Indonesia Toward 10 Meter National dem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amhar, Fahmi

    2016-06-01

    Indonesia has various DEM from many sources and various acquisition date spreaded in the past two decades. There are DEM from spaceborne system (Radarsat, TerraSAR-X, ALOS, ASTER-GDEM, SRTM), airborne system (IFSAR, Lidar, aerial photos) and also terrestrial one. The research objective is the quality test and how to extract best DEM in particular area. The method is using differential GPS levelling using geodetic GPS equipment on places which is ensured not changed during past 20 years. The result has shown that DEM from TerraSAR-X and SRTM30 have the best quality (rmse 3.1 m and 3.5 m respectively). Based on this research, it was inferred that these parameters are still positively correlated with the basic concept, namely that the lower and the higher the spatial resolution of a DEM data, the more imprecise the resulting vertical height.

  15. Massively Parallel QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Blumrich, M; Chen, D; Gara, A; Giampap, M; Heidelberger, P; Salapura, V; Sexton, J; Bhanot, G

    2007-04-11

    The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), can be numerically simulated from first principles on massively-parallel supercomputers using the method of Lattice Gauge Theory. We describe the special programming requirements of lattice QCD (LQCD) as well as the optimal supercomputer hardware architectures that it suggests. We demonstrate these methods on the BlueGene massively-parallel supercomputer and argue that LQCD and the BlueGene architecture are a natural match. This can be traced to the simple fact that LQCD is a regular lattice discretization of space into lattice sites while the BlueGene supercomputer is a discretization of space into compute nodes, and that both are constrained by requirements of locality. This simple relation is both technologically important and theoretically intriguing. The main result of this paper is the speedup of LQCD using up to 131,072 CPUs on the largest BlueGene/L supercomputer. The speedup is perfect with sustained performance of about 20% of peak. This corresponds to a maximum of 70.5 sustained TFlop/s. At these speeds LQCD and BlueGene are poised to produce the next generation of strong interaction physics theoretical results.

  16. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbersmore » $$N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$$ and $$\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $$J^{P}=1^{+}$$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.« less

  17. QCD for Postgraduates (1/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Modern QCD - Lecture 1 Starting from the QCD Lagrangian we will revisit some basic QCD concepts and derive fundamental properties like gauge invariance and isospin symmetry and will discuss the Feynman rules of the theory. We will then focus on the gauge group of QCD and derive the Casimirs CF and CA and some useful color identities.

  18. Skeletonizing a DEM into a drainage network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisels, Amnon; Raizman, Sonia; Karnieli, Arnon

    1995-02-01

    A new method for extracting drainage systems from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is presented. The main algorithm of the proposed method performs a skeletonization process of the set of elevations in the DEM and produces a skeleton of flow paths. An enumeration algorithm performs the removal of loops from the initial flow path. A preprocess for filling depressions is described as is the necessary postprocessing for determining the drainage network through depressions. The new method does not suffer from any of the maladies of former methods described in the literature, such as flow cutoffs, loops of flow, and basin flooding. The new method is tested on several real-world DEMs and produced connected, complete, and loopless networks.

  19. The Symmetries of QCD

    ScienceCinema

    Sekhar Chivukula

    2016-07-12

    The symmetries of a quantum field theory can be realized in a variety of ways. Symmetries can be realized explicitly, approximately, through spontaneous symmetry breaking or, via an anomaly, quantum effects can dynamically eliminate a symmetry of the theory that was present at the classical level.  Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the modern theory of the strong interactions, exemplify each of these possibilities. The interplay of these effects determine the spectrum of particles that we observe and, ultimately, account for 99% of the mass of ordinary matter. 

  20. QCD analogy for quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the possible emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure are also similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.

  1. PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDIES IN QCD RESUMMATION.

    SciTech Connect

    KULESZA,A.; STERMAN,G.; VOGELSANG,W.

    2002-09-01

    We study applications of QCD soft-gluon resummations to electroweak annihilation cross sections. We focus on a formalism that allows to resume logarithmic corrections arising near partonic threshold and at small transverse momentum simultaneously.

  2. Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-11-08

    The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.

  3. Statistic Tests Aided Multi-Source dem Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C. Y.; Tsay, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Since the land surface has been changing naturally or manually, DEMs have to be updated continually to satisfy applications using the latest DEM at present. However, the cost of wide-area DEM production is too high. DEMs, which cover the same area but have different quality, grid sizes, generation time or production methods, are called as multi-source DEMs. It provides a solution to fuse multi-source DEMs for low cost DEM updating. The coverage of DEM has to be classified according to slope and visibility in advance, because the precisions of DEM grid points in different areas with different slopes and visibilities are not the same. Next, difference DEM (dDEM) is computed by subtracting two DEMs. It is assumed that dDEM, which only contains random error, obeys normal distribution. Therefore, student test is implemented for blunder detection and three kinds of rejected grid points are generated. First kind of rejected grid points is blunder points and has to be eliminated. Another one is the ones in change areas, where the latest data are regarded as their fusion result. Moreover, the DEM grid points of type I error are correct data and have to be reserved for fusion. The experiment result shows that using DEMs with terrain classification can obtain better blunder detection result. A proper setting of significant levels (α) can detect real blunders without creating too many type I errors. Weighting averaging is chosen as DEM fusion algorithm. The priori precisions estimated by our national DEM production guideline are applied to define weights. Fisher's test is implemented to prove that the priori precisions correspond to the RMSEs of blunder detection result.

  4. DEM interpolation based on artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Limin; Liu, Yaolin

    2005-10-01

    This paper proposed a systemic resolution scheme of Digital Elevation model (DEM) interpolation based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In this paper, we employ BP network to fit terrain surface, and then detect and eliminate the samples with gross errors. This paper uses Self-organizing Feature Map (SOFM) to cluster elevation samples. The study area is divided into many more homogenous tiles after clustering. BP model is employed to interpolate DEM in each cluster. Because error samples are eliminated and clusters are built, interpolation result is better. The case study indicates that ANN interpolation scheme is feasible. It also shows that ANN can get a more accurate result by comparing ANN with polynomial and spline interpolation. ANN interpolation doesn't need to determine the interpolation function beforehand, so manmade influence is lessened. The ANN interpolation is more automatic and intelligent. At the end of the paper, we propose the idea of constructing ANN surface model. This model can be used in multi-scale DEM visualization, and DEM generalization, etc.

  5. Two Studies in QCD.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Joseph Philip

    Two investigations in quantum chromodynamics are presented. The first, entitled "Factorization at low x", is a study in perturbative QCD of high energy hadron-hadron collisions using the double log approximation to probe new, hitherto unstudied, kinematic regions. The reaction proceeds via a parton from hadron one (with a fraction of the hadron's momentum x_1, and probability of being in the hadron, F_1 ) colliding with a parton from hadron two (with momentum fraction x_2 and structure function F_2). The new regions of study are those in which one momentum fraction is much larger than the other (i.e. x_1 gg x_2, or x_2 gg x _1). New processes, involving soft gluons, are identified and an estimate for their contribution to the cross-section is given. Although involving soft gluons, it is seen these processes nevertheless preserve factorization as they can be incorporated into a redefinition of one of the structure functions (F_2 or F_1 respectively). The second study, "Gluons in the Chiral Bag", is a perturbative QCD calculation, using cavity quantum chromodynamics, of gluon exchange corrections to the cranking moment of inertia of the chiral bag model (CBM). Cranking (the introduction of a slowly rotating, quantized collective motion) is needed to construct the nucleon and delta states in the CBM. By fitting the empirical Delta - N mass splitting a value of the effective strong coupling is extracted. It is found that when the bag is small (R < 0.5 fm), the nucleon-delta mass splitting is adequately described without including any gluon corrections. For larger bag radii, (i.e. R = 1 fm) the size of the coupling constant (alpha _{c} = 0.6) thus extraced compares favorably with the MIT coupling (alpha_ {c} = 0.55), but represents no true improvement. Since a large fraction of the energy splitting between the nucleon and delta states in the CBM may be attributed to rotational energy of the meson cloud, this is unexpected.

  6. QCD measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Bandurin, Dmitry; /Florida State U.

    2011-12-01

    Selected quantum chromodynamics (QCD) measurements performed at the Fermilab Run II Tevatron p{bar p} collider running at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV by CDF and D0 Collaborations are presented. The inclusive jet, dijet production and three-jet cross section measurements are used to test perturbative QCD calculations, constrain parton distribution function (PDF) determinations, and extract a precise value of the strong coupling constant, {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1161{sub -0.0048}{sup +0.0041}. Inclusive photon production cross-section measurements reveal an inability of next-to-leading-order (NLO) perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations to describe low-energy photons arising directly in the hard scatter. The diphoton production cross-sections check the validity of the NLO pQCD predictions, soft-gluon resummation methods implemented in theoretical calculations, and contributions from the parton-to-photon fragmentation diagrams. Events with W/Z+jets productions are used to measure many kinematic distributions allowing extensive tests and tunes of predictions from pQCD NLO and Monte-Carlo (MC) event generators. The charged-particle transverse momenta (p{sub T}) and multiplicity distributions in the inclusive minimum bias events are used to tune non-perturbative QCD models, including those describing the multiple parton interactions (MPI). Events with inclusive production of {gamma} and 2 or 3 jets are used to study increasingly important MPI phenomenon at high p{sub T}, measure an effective interaction cross section, {sigma}{sub eff} = 16.4 {+-} 2.3 mb, and limit existing MPI models.

  7. Chiral limit of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1994-12-31

    This talk contains an analysis of quenched chiral perturbation theory and its consequences. The chiral behavior of a number of quantities such as the pion mass m{sub pi}{sup 2}, the Bernard-Golterman ratios R and {sub X}, the masses of nucleons, and the kaon B-parameter are examined to see if the singular terms induced by the additional Goldstone boson, {eta}{prime}, are visible in present data. The overall conclusion (different from that presented at the lattice meeting) of this analysis is that even though there are some caveats attached to the indications of the extra terms induced by {eta}{prime} loops, the standard expressions break down when extrapolating the quenched data with m{sub q} < m{sub s}/2 to physical light quarks. I then show that due to the single and double poles in the quenched {eta}{prime}, the axial charge of the proton cannot be calculated using the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly condition. I conclude with a review of the status of the calculation of light quark masses from lattice QCD.

  8. Multiquark evolution in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, C.R.

    1985-09-01

    We present a formalism for the evolution in Q/sub 2/ of multiquark systems as an application of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to asymptotic, exclusive nuclear amplitudes. To leading terms in log Q/sup 2/ our formalism is equivalent to solving the renormalization group equations for these amplitudes. Completely antisymmetric multiquark color-singlet represntations are constructed and their evolution is investigated from the one-gluon exchange kernel. We argue that the evolution equation, together with a cluster decomposition, demonstrates a transition from the traditional meson and nucleon degrees of freedom of nuclear physics to quark and gluon degrees of freedom with increasing Q/sup 2/, or at small internucleon separation. As an example, we derive an evolution equation for a completely antisymmetric six-quark distribution amplitude and solve the evolution equation for a deuteron S-wave amplitude. The leading anomalous dimension and the corresponding eigensolution are found for the deuteron in order to predict the asymptotic form of the deuteron distribution amplitude (i.e., light-cone wave function at short distances). The fact that the six-quark state is 80 percent hidden color at small transverse separation implies that the deuteron form factor cannot be described at large Q/sup 2/ by meson-nucleon degrees of freedom alone. Furthermore, since the N-N channel is very suppressed under these conditions, the effective nucleon-nucleon potential is naturally repulsive at short distances. 20 refs.

  9. QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Leganger, Lars E.; Strickland, Michael; Su, Nan

    2011-10-15

    In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T{sup 2} in two cases: N{sub f}=0 and N{sub f}=3. When using the canonical value of {mu}=2{pi}T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N{sub f}=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8T{sub c}, while treating the subtracted piece as an interaction term when including quarks (N{sub f}=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2T{sub c}. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

  10. An obituary of Christoph Scheiner from the year 1650. (German Title: Ein Nachruf auf Christoph Scheiner aus dem Jahr 1650)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daxecker, Franz; Schaffenrath, Florian

    An obituary of the astronomer and Jesuit Christoph Scheiner (1573-1650) was discovered in Cracow in the year 2001. This discovery makes it now possible to fix Scheiner's year of birth to 1573. Scheiner had a controversy with Galileo Galilei about the priority of the discovery of sunspots. Scheiner remained a supporter of the geocentric system until his death in 1650. The obituary gives new insights into Scheiner's personality and the last years of his life.

  11. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  12. Magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Sho; Itakura, Kazunori; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    The "QCD Kondo effect" stems from the color exchange interaction in QCD with non-Abelian property, and can be realized in a high-density quark matter containing heavy-quark impurities. We propose a novel type of the QCD Kondo effect induced by a strong magnetic field. In addition to the fact that the magnetic field does not affect the color degrees of freedom, two properties caused by the Landau quantization in a strong magnetic field are essential for the "magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect"; (1) dimensional reduction to 1 +1 -dimensions, and (2) finiteness of the density of states for lowest energy quarks. We demonstrate that, in a strong magnetic field B , the scattering amplitude of a massless quark off a heavy quark impurity indeed shows a characteristic behavior of the Kondo effect. The resulting Kondo scale is estimated as ΛK≃√{eqB }αs1 /3exp {-4 π /Ncαslog (4 π /αs)} where αs and Nc are the fine structure constant of strong interaction and the number of colors in QCD, and eq is the electric charge of light quarks.

  13. Kenneth Wilson and Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukawa, Akira

    2015-09-01

    We discuss the physics and computation of lattice QCD, a space-time lattice formulation of quantum chromodynamics, and Kenneth Wilson's seminal role in its development. We start with the fundamental issue of confinement of quarks in the theory of the strong interactions, and discuss how lattice QCD provides a framework for understanding this phenomenon. A conceptual issue with lattice QCD is a conflict of space-time lattice with chiral symmetry of quarks. We discuss how this problem is resolved. Since lattice QCD is a non-linear quantum dynamical system with infinite degrees of freedom, quantities which are analytically calculable are limited. On the other hand, it provides an ideal case of massively parallel numerical computations. We review the long and distinguished history of parallel-architecture supercomputers designed and built for lattice QCD. We discuss algorithmic developments, in particular the difficulties posed by the fermionic nature of quarks, and their resolution. The triad of efforts toward better understanding of physics, better algorithms, and more powerful supercomputers have produced major breakthroughs in our understanding of the strong interactions. We review the salient results of this effort in understanding the hadron spectrum, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements and CP violation, and quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures. We conclude with a brief summary and a future perspective.

  14. Recent QCD results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Pickarz, Henryk; CDF and DO collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Recent QCD results from the CDF and D0 detectors at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider are presented. An outlook for future QCD tests at the Tevatron collider is also breifly discussed. 27 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Incorporating DEM Uncertainty in Coastal Inundation Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Javier X.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal managers require reliable spatial data on the extent and timing of potential coastal inundation, particularly in a changing climate. Most sea level rise (SLR) vulnerability assessments are undertaken using the easily implemented bathtub approach, where areas adjacent to the sea and below a given elevation are mapped using a deterministic line dividing potentially inundated from dry areas. This method only requires elevation data usually in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). However, inherent errors in the DEM and spatial analysis of the bathtub model propagate into the inundation mapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of spatially variable and spatially correlated elevation errors in high-spatial resolution DEMs for mapping coastal inundation. Elevation errors were best modelled using regression-kriging. This geostatistical model takes the spatial correlation in elevation errors into account, which has a significant impact on analyses that include spatial interactions, such as inundation modelling. The spatial variability of elevation errors was partially explained by land cover and terrain variables. Elevation errors were simulated using sequential Gaussian simulation, a Monte Carlo probabilistic approach. 1,000 error simulations were added to the original DEM and reclassified using a hydrologically correct bathtub method. The probability of inundation to a scenario combining a 1 in 100 year storm event over a 1 m SLR was calculated by counting the proportion of times from the 1,000 simulations that a location was inundated. This probabilistic approach can be used in a risk-aversive decision making process by planning for scenarios with different probabilities of occurrence. For example, results showed that when considering a 1% probability exceedance, the inundated area was approximately 11% larger than mapped using the deterministic bathtub approach. The probabilistic approach provides visually intuitive maps that convey

  16. Spaceborne radar interferometry for coastal DEM construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hong, S.-H.; Lee, C.-W.; Won, J.-S.; Kwoun, Oh-Ig; Lu, Zhiming

    2005-01-01

    Topographic features in coastal regions including tidal flats change more significantly than landmass, and are characterized by extremely low slopes. High precision DEMs are required to monitor dynamic changes in coastal topography. It is difficult to obtain coherent interferometric SAR pairs especially over tidal flats mainly because of variation of tidal conditions. Here we focus on i) coherence of multi-pass ERS SAR interferometric pairs and ii) DEM construction from ERS-ENVISAT pairs. Coherences of multi-pass ERS interferograms were good enough to construct DEM under favorable tidal conditions. Coherence in sand dominant area was generally higher than that in muddy surface. The coarse grained coastal areas are favorable for multi-pass interferometry. Utilization of ERS-ENVISAT interferometric pairs is taken a growing interest. We carried out investigation using a cross-interferometric pair with a normal baseline of about 1.3 km, a 30 minutes temporal separation and the height sensitivity of about 6 meters. Preliminary results of ERS-ENVISAT interferometry were not successful due to baseline and unfavorable scattering conditions. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  17. Volcanic geomorphology using TanDEM-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Michael; Kubanek, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Topography is perhaps the most fundamental dataset for any volcano, yet is surprisingly difficult to collect, especially during the course of an eruption. For example, photogrammetry and lidar are time-intensive and often expensive, and they cannot be employed when the surface is obscured by clouds. Ground-based surveys can operate in poor weather but have poor spatial resolution and may expose personnel to hazardous conditions. Repeat passes of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data provide excellent spatial resolution, but topography in areas of surface change (from vegetation swaying in the wind to physical changes in the landscape) between radar passes cannot be imaged. The German Space Agency's TanDEM-X satellite system, however, solves this issue by simultaneously acquiring SAR data of the surface using a pair of orbiting satellites, thereby removing temporal change as a complicating factor in SAR-based topographic mapping. TanDEM-X measurements have demonstrated exceptional value in mapping the topography of volcanic environments in as-yet limited applications. The data provide excellent resolution (down to ~3-m pixel size) and are useful for updating topographic data at volcanoes where surface change has occurred since the most recent topographic dataset was collected. Such data can be used for applications ranging from correcting radar interferograms for topography, to modeling flow pathways in support of hazards mitigation. The most valuable contributions, however, relate to calculating volume changes related to eruptive activity. For example, limited datasets have provided critical measurements of lava dome growth and collapse at volcanoes including Merapi (Indonesia), Colima (Mexico), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), and of basaltic lava flow emplacement at Tolbachik (Kamchatka), Etna (Italy), and Kīlauea (Hawai`i). With topographic data spanning an eruption, it is possible to calculate eruption rates - information that might not otherwise be available

  18. The supercritical pomeron in QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    White, A. R.

    1998-06-29

    Deep-inelastic diffractive scaling violations have provided fundamental insight into the QCD pomeron, suggesting a single gluon inner structure rather than that of a perturbative two-gluon bound state. This talk outlines a derivation of a high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, confining solution of QCD. The pomeron, in first approximation, is a single reggeized gluon plus a ''wee parton'' component that compensates for the color and particle properties of the gluon. This solution corresponds to a super-critical phase of Reggeon Field Theory.

  19. The pressure of hot QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, York

    2016-05-01

    When heated and/or compressed, strongly interacting matter exhibits a rich phase structure. In this talk, I will concentrate on its behavior under variations of the temperature, which is most relevant for phenomenological applications such as in cosmology, heavy-ion collisions, and astrophysics. In particular, effective field theory methods can be used to combine lattice and continuum calculations, in order to obtain high-precision results for the relevant thermodynamic quantities such as the QCD pressure and equation of state. I will discuss the current status of this systematic approach to QCD thermodynamics, and point out the remaining (technical) problems.

  20. Renormalization in Coulomb gauge QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andrasi, A.; Taylor, John C.

    2011-04-15

    Research Highlights: > The Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge of QCD contains a non-linear Christ-Lee term. > We investigate the UV divergences from higher order graphs. > We find that they cannot be absorbed by renormalization of the Christ-Lee term. - Abstract: In the Coulomb gauge of QCD, the Hamiltonian contains a non-linear Christ-Lee term, which may alternatively be derived from a careful treatment of ambiguous Feynman integrals at 2-loop order. We investigate how and if UV divergences from higher order graphs can be consistently absorbed by renormalization of the Christ-Lee term. We find that they cannot.

  1. QCD inequalities for hadron interactions.

    PubMed

    Detmold, William

    2015-06-01

    We derive generalizations of the Weingarten-Witten QCD mass inequalities for particular multihadron systems. For systems of any number of identical pseudoscalar mesons of maximal isospin, these inequalities prove that near threshold interactions between the constituent mesons must be repulsive and that no bound states can form in these channels. Similar constraints in less symmetric systems are also extracted. These results are compatible with experimental results (where known) and recent lattice QCD calculations, and also lead to a more stringent bound on the nucleon mass than previously derived, m_{N}≥3/2m_{π}. PMID:26196617

  2. QCD corrections to triboson production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazopoulos, Achilleas; Melnikov, Kirill; Petriello, Frank

    2007-07-01

    We present a computation of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the production of three Z bosons at the Large Hadron Collider. We calculate these corrections using a completely numerical method that combines sector decomposition to extract infrared singularities with contour deformation of the Feynman parameter integrals to avoid internal loop thresholds. The NLO QCD corrections to pp→ZZZ are approximately 50% and are badly underestimated by the leading order scale dependence. However, the kinematic dependence of the corrections is minimal in phase space regions accessible at leading order.

  3. Valence QCD: Connecting QCD to the quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.F.; Dong, S.J.; Draper, T.; Sloan, J.; Leinweber, D.; Wilcox, W.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1999-06-01

    A valence QCD theory is developed to study the valence quark properties of hadrons. To keep only the valence degrees of freedom, the pair creation through the {ital Z} graphs is deleted in the connected insertions, whereas the sea quarks are eliminated in the disconnected insertions. This is achieved with a new {open_quotes}valence QCD{close_quotes} Lagrangian where the action in the time direction is modified so that the particle and antiparticle decouple. It is shown in this valence version of QCD that the ratios of isovector to isoscalar matrix elements (e.g., F{sub A}/D{sub A} and F{sub S}/D{sub S} ratios) in the nucleon reproduce the SU(6) quark model predictions in a lattice QCD calculation. We also consider how the hadron masses are affected on the lattice and discover new insights into the origin of dynamical mass generation. It is found that, within statistical errors, the nucleon and the {Delta} become degenerate for the quark masses we have studied (ranging from 1 to 4 times the strange mass). The {pi} and {rho} become nearly degenerate in this range. It is shown that valence QCD has the {ital C}, {ital P}, {ital T} symmetries. The lattice version is reflection positive. It also has the vector and axial symmetries. The latter leads to a modified partially conserved axial Ward identity. As a result, the theory has a U(2N{sub F}) symmetry in the particle-antiparticle space. Through lattice simulation, it appears that this is dynamically broken down to U{sub q}(N{sub F}){times}U{sub {bar q}}(N{sub F}). Furthermore, the lattice simulation reveals spin degeneracy in the hadron masses and various matrix elements. This leads to an approximate U{sub q}(2N{sub F}){times}U{sub {bar q}}(2N{sub F}) symmetry which is the basis for the valence quark model. In addition, we find that the masses of {ital N}, {Delta},{rho},{pi},a{sub 1}, and a{sub 0} all drop precipitously compared to their counterparts in the quenched QCD calculation. This is interpreted as due to the

  4. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculationsmore » of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.« less

  5. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  6. Experimenting with Langevin lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gavai, R.V.; Potvin, J.; Sanielevici, S.

    1987-05-01

    We report on the status of our investigations of the effects of systematic errors upon the practical merits of Langevin updating in full lattice QCD. We formulate some rules for the safe use of this updating procedure and some observations on problems which may be common to all approximate fermion algorithms.

  7. Spin physics through QCD instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yachao; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-11-01

    We review some aspects of spin physics where QCD instantons play an important role. In particular, their large contributions in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering and polarized proton on proton scattering. We also review their possible contribution in the P-odd pion azimuthal charge correlations in peripheral AA scattering at collider energies.

  8. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  9. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  10. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  11. QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.

    1999-03-20

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  12. Evaluation of DEM-assisted SAR coregistration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitti, D. O.; Hanssen, R. F.; Refice, A.; Bovenga, F.; Milillo, G.; Nutricato, R.

    2008-10-01

    Image alignment is without doubt the most crucial step in SAR Interferometry. Interferogram formation requires images to be coregistered with an accuracy of better than 1/8 pixel to avoid significant loss of phase coherence. Conventional interferometric precise coregistration methods for full-resolution SAR data (Single-Look Complex imagery, or SLC) are based on the cross-correlation of the SLC data, either in the original complex form or as squared amplitudes. Offset vectors in slant range and azimuth directions are computed on a large number of windows, according to the estimated correlation peaks. Then, a two-dimensional polynomial of a certain degree is usually chosen as warp function and the polynomial parameters are estimated through LMS fit from the shifts measured on the image windows. In case of rough topography and long baselines, the polynomial approximation for the warp function becomes inaccurate, leading to local misregistrations. Moreover, these effects increase with the spatial resolution and then with the sampling frequency of the sensor, as first results on TerraSAR-X interferometry confirm. An improved, DEM-assisted image coregistration procedure can be adopted for providing higher-order prediction of the offset vectors. Instead of estimating the shifts on a limited number of patches and using a polynomial approximation for the transformation, this approach computes pixel by pixel the correspondence between master and slave by using the orbital data and a reference DEM. This study assesses the performance of this approach with respect to the standard procedure. In particular, both analytical relationships and simulations will evaluate the impact of the finite vertical accuracy of the DEM on the final coregistration precision for different radar postings and relative positions of satellites. The two approaches are compared by processing real data at different carrier frequencies and using the interferometric coherence as quality figure.

  13. Ein statistisches Modell zum Einfluß der thermischen Bewegung auf NMR-Festkörperspektren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploss, W.; Freude, D.; Pfeifer, H.; Schmiedel, H.

    Es wird ein statistisches Modell zum Einfluß der thermischen Bewegung auf die NMR-Linienform vorgestellt, das die Verschmälerung von Festkörper-Spektren bei wachsender Temperatur beschreibt. Das Modell geht von der Annahme aus, daß nach einer Ortsveränderung eines Kerns infolge thermischer Bewegung jede beliebige Kernresonanzfrequenz mit der durch das Festkörperspektrum vorgegebenen Wahrscheinlichkeit angenommen werden kann. Am Beispiel der Festkörper-Gaußlinie wird der Unterschied zu dem bekannten Modell von ANDERSON und WEISS verdeutlicht.Translated AbstractA Statistical Model for the Influence of Thermal Motion on N. M. R. Spectra in SolidsA theory is proposed which allows to describe the narrowing of n. m. r.-line width in the presence of thermal motions of the spins. The model is based on the assumption, that the local resonance frequency of a given spin immediately after the jump is distributed according to the n. m. r.-line shape of the rigid lattice. The difference to the well-known ANDERSON-WEISS-model of spectral narrowing is demonstrated for a gaussian line shape.

  14. Continuous Advances in QCD 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloso, Marco M.

    2008-12-01

    1. High-order calculations in QCD and in general gauge theories. NLO evolution of color dipoles / I. Balitsky. Recent perturbative results on heavy quark decays / J. H. Piclum, M. Dowling, A. Pak. Leading and non-leading singularities in gauge theory hard scattering / G. Sterman. The space-cone gauge, Lorentz invariance and on-shell recursion for one-loop Yang-Mills amplitudes / D. Vaman, Y.-P. Yao -- 2. Heavy flavor physics. Exotic cc¯ mesons / E. Braaten. Search for new physics in B[symbol]-mixing / A. J. Lenz. Implications of D[symbol]-D[symbol] mixing for new physics / A. A. Petrov. Precise determinations of the charm quark mass / M. Steinhauser -- 3. Quark-gluon dynamics at high density and/or high temperature. Crystalline condensate in the chiral Gross-Neveu model / G. V. Dunne, G. Basar. The strong coupling constant at low and high energies / J. H. Kühn. Quarkyonic matter and the phase diagram of QCD / L. McLerran. Statistical QCD with non-positive measure / J. C. Osborn, K. Splittorff, J. J. M. Verbaarschot. From equilibrium to transport properties of strongly correlated fermi liquids / T. Schäfer. Lessons from random matrix theory for QCD at finite density / K. Splittorff, J. J. M. Verbaarschot -- 4. Methods and models of holographic correspondence. Soft-wall dynamics in AdS/QCD / B. Batell. Holographic QCD / N. Evans, E. Threlfall. QCD glueball sum rules and vacuum topology / H. Forkel. The pion form factor in AdS/QCD / H. J. Kwee, R. F. Lebed. The fast life of holographic mesons / R. C. Myers, A. Sinha. Properties of Baryons from D-branes and instantons / S. Sugimoto. The master space of N = 1 quiver gauge theories: counting BPS operators / A. Zaffaroni. Topological field congurations. Skyrmions in theories with massless adjoint quarks / R. Auzzi. Domain walls, localization and confinement: what binds strings inside walls / S. Bolognesi. Static interactions of non-abelian vortices / M. Eto. Vortices which do not abelianize dynamically: semi

  15. Physikalische Bilder - Besinnung auf eine fachdidaktische Aufgabe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Are

    Physiker arbeiten an Darstellungen der Natur, d.h. sie suchen mit physikalischen Mitteln Bilder zu schaffen, die ihnen Naturzusammenhänge klarer und eindringlicher vor Augen führen. Schulunterricht soll jedem die Möglichkeit eröffnen, Physik in solchem Sinne - wenn auch in bescheidenem Rahmen - selbst zu treiben. Allzuoft bleibt diese Wissenschaft jedoch den Schülern ein kahles Gerüst und führt sie nicht zu inhaltsreichen Bildern. Es wird vorgeschlagen, Schulphysik mehr unter dem Gesichtspunkt einer Kunst zu sehen, die wirklich zu betreiben aber Muße erfordert.Translated AbstractPictures in Physics - Contemplation on a Teaching TaskPhysicists work on representations, i.e. they create mental pictures which help them to see and understand the intricate web of connections in nature. On a humble scale, school education should enable students to practice physics in this same sense. But far too often the results are unsatisfactory. It is suggested that one should try alternative viewpoints: looking at physics as an art and convince students that doing physics requires leisure.

  16. anQCD: Fortran programs for couplings at complex momenta in various analytic QCD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, César; Cvetič, Gorazd

    2016-02-01

    We provide three Fortran programs which evaluate the QCD analytic (holomorphic) couplings Aν(Q2) for complex or real squared momenta Q2. These couplings are holomorphic analogs of the powers a(Q2)ν of the underlying perturbative QCD (pQCD) coupling a(Q2) ≡αs(Q2) / π, in three analytic QCD models (anQCD): Fractional Analytic Perturbation Theory (FAPT), Two-delta analytic QCD (2 δanQCD), and Massive Perturbation Theory (MPT). The index ν can be noninteger. The provided programs do basically the same job as the Mathematica package anQCD.m published by us previously (Ayala and Cvetič, 2015), but are now written in Fortran.

  17. DEM time series of an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineux, Nathalie; Lisein, Jonathan; Swerts, Gilles; Degré, Aurore

    2014-05-01

    In agricultural landscape soil surface evolves notably due to erosion and deposition phenomenon. Even if most of the field data come from plot scale studies, the watershed scale seems to be more appropriate to understand them. Currently, small unmanned aircraft systems and images treatments are improving. In this way, 3D models are built from multiple covering shots. When techniques for large areas would be to expensive for a watershed level study or techniques for small areas would be too time consumer, the unmanned aerial system seems to be a promising solution to quantify the erosion and deposition patterns. The increasing technical improvements in this growth field allow us to obtain a really good quality of data and a very high spatial resolution with a high Z accuracy. In the center of Belgium, we equipped an agricultural watershed of 124 ha. For three years (2011-2013), we have been monitoring weather (including rainfall erosivity using a spectropluviograph), discharge at three different locations, sediment in runoff water, and watershed microtopography through unmanned airborne imagery (Gatewing X100). We also collected all available historical data to try to capture the "long-term" changes in watershed morphology during the last decades: old topography maps, soil historical descriptions, etc. An erosion model (LANDSOIL) is also used to assess the evolution of the relief. Short-term evolution of the surface are now observed through flights done at 200m height. The pictures are taken with a side overlap equal to 80%. To precisely georeference the DEM produced, ground control points are placed on the study site and surveyed using a Leica GPS1200 (accuracy of 1cm for x and y coordinates and 1.5cm for the z coordinate). Flights are done each year in December to have an as bare as possible ground surface. Specific treatments are developed to counteract vegetation effect because it is know as key sources of error in the DEM produced by small unmanned aircraft

  18. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMIDT, C.

    2006-07-23

    I discuss different approaches to finite density lattice QCD. In particular, I focus on the structure of the phase diagram and discuss attempts to determine the location of the critical end-point. Recent results on the transition line as function of the chemical potential (T{sub c}({mu}{sub q})) are reviewed. Along the transition line, hadronic fluctuations have been calculated; which can be used to characterize properties of the Quark Gluon plasma and eventually can also help to identify the location of the critical end-point in the QCD phase diagram on the lattice and in heavy ion experiments. Furthermore, I comment on the structure of the phase diagram at large {mu}{sub q}.

  19. Nuclear forces from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Noriyoshi

    2011-05-06

    Lattice QCD construction of nuclear forces is reviewed. In this method, the nuclear potentials are constructed by solving the Schroedinger equation, where equal-time Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions are regarded as quantum mechanical wave functions. Since the long distance behavior of equal-time NBS wave functions is controlled by the scattering phase, which is in exactly the same way as scattering wave functions in quantum mechanics, the resulting potentials are faithful to the NN scattering data. The derivative expansion of this potential leads to the central and the tensor potentials at the leading order. Some of numerical results of these two potentials are shown based on the quenched QCD.

  20. QCD with rooted staggered fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltermann, M.

    In this talk, I will give an overview of the theoretical status of staggered Lattice QCD with the “fourth-root trick.” In this regularization of QCD, a separate staggered quark field is used for each physical flavor, and the inherent four-fold multiplicity that comes with the use of staggered fermions is removed by taking the fourth root of the staggered determinant for each flavor. At nonzero lattice spacing, the resulting theory is nonlocal and not unitary, but there are now strong arguments that this disease is cured in the continuum limit. In addition, the approach to the continuum limit can be understood in detail in the framework of effective field theories such as staggered chiral perturbation theory.

  1. Form factors from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dru Renner

    2012-04-01

    Precision computation of hadronic physics with lattice QCD is becoming feasible. The last decade has seen precent-level calculations of many simple properties of mesons, and the last few years have seen calculations of baryon masses, including the nucleon mass, accurate to a few percent. As computational power increases and algorithms advance, the precise calculation of a variety of more demanding hadronic properties will become realistic. With this in mind, I discuss the current lattice QCD calculations of generalized parton distributions with an emphasis on the prospects for well-controlled calculations for these observables as well. I will do this by way of several examples: the pion and nucleon form factors and moments of the nucleon parton and generalized-parton distributions.

  2. Recent QCD results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Huston, J. |; CDF Collaboration

    1994-01-01

    CDF has recently concluded a very successful 1992--93 data run in which an integrated luminosity of 21.3 pb {sup {minus}1} was written to tape. The large data sample allows for a greater discovery potential for new phenomena and for better statistical and systematic precision in analysis of conventional physics. This paper summarizes some of the new results from QCD analyses for this run.

  3. Berry Phase in Lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-07-29

    We propose the lattice QCD calculation of the Berry phase, which is defined by the ground state of a single fermion. We perform the ground-state projection of a single-fermion propagator, construct the Berry link variable on a momentum-space lattice, and calculate the Berry phase. As the first application, the first Chern number of the (2+1)-dimensional Wilson fermion is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27517766

  4. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrand, T.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.

  5. The status of perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.K.

    1988-10-01

    The advances in perturbative QCD are reviewed. The status of determinations of the coupling constant ..cap alpha../sub S/ and the parton distribution functions is presented. New theoretical results on the spin dependent structure functions of the proton are also reviewed. The theoretical description of the production of vector bosons, jets and heavy quarks is outlined with special emphasis on new results. Expected rates for top quark production at hadronic colliders are presented. 111 refs., 8 figs.

  6. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  7. Light-Front Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    The relation between the hadronic short-distance constituent quark and gluon particle limit and the long-range confining domain is yet one of the most challenging aspects of particle physics due to the strong coupling nature of Quantum Chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. The central question is how one can compute hadronic properties from first principles; i.e., directly from the QCD Lagrangian. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time. Lattice numerical results follow from computation of frame-dependent moments of distributions in Euclidean space and dynamical observables in Minkowski spacetime, such as the time-like hadronic form factors, are not amenable to Euclidean lattice computations. The Dyson-Schwinger methods have led to many important insights, such as the infrared fixed point behavior of the strong coupling constant, but in practice, the analyses are limited to ladder approximation in Landau gauge. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. New theoretical tools are thus of primary interest for the interpretation of the results expected at the new mass scale and kinematic regions accessible to the JLab 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gravity or string theory on a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and conformal field theories in physical space-time has led to a semiclassical approximation for strongly-coupled QCD, which provides physical insights into its nonperturbative dynamics. The correspondence is holographic in the sense that it determines a duality between theories in different number of space-time dimensions. This geometric approach leads in fact to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light

  8. FermiQCD: A tool kit for parallel lattice QCD applications

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pierro, M.

    2002-03-01

    We present here the most recent version of FermiQCD, a collection of C++ classes, functions and parallel algorithms for lattice QCD, based on Matrix Distributed Processing. FermiQCD allows fast development of parallel lattice applications and includes some SSE2 optimizations for clusters of Pentium 4 PCs.

  9. Robust methods for assessing the accuracy of linear interpolated DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Shi, Wenzhong; Liu, Eryong

    2015-02-01

    Methods for assessing the accuracy of a digital elevation model (DEM) with emphasis on robust methods have been studied in this paper. Based on the squared DEM residual population generated by the bi-linear interpolation method, three average-error statistics including (a) mean, (b) median, and (c) M-estimator are thoroughly investigated for measuring the interpolated DEM accuracy. Correspondingly, their confidence intervals are also constructed for each average error statistic to further evaluate the DEM quality. The first method mainly utilizes the student distribution while the second and third are derived from the robust theories. These innovative robust methods possess the capability of counteracting the outlier effects or even the skew distributed residuals in DEM accuracy assessment. Experimental studies using Monte Carlo simulation have commendably investigated the asymptotic convergence behavior of confidence intervals constructed by these three methods with the increase of sample size. It is demonstrated that the robust methods can produce more reliable DEM accuracy assessment results compared with those by the classical t-distribution-based method. Consequently, these proposed robust methods are strongly recommended for assessing DEM accuracy, particularly for those cases where the DEM residual population is evidently non-normal or heavily contaminated with outliers.

  10. QCD for Postgraduates (2/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Modern QCD - Lecture 2 We will start discussing the matter content of the theory and revisit the experimental measurements that led to the discovery of quarks. We will then consider a classic QCD observable, the R-ratio, and use it to illustrate the appearance of UV divergences and the need to renormalize the coupling constant of QCD. We will then discuss asymptotic freedom and confinement. Finally, we will examine a case where soft and collinear infrared divergences appear, will discuss the soft approximation in QCD and will introduce the concept of infrared safe jets.

  11. Aspects of dem Generation from Uas Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiwe, A.; Gehrke, R.; Spreckels, V.; Schlienkamp, A.

    2013-08-01

    Since a few years, micro UAS (unmanned aerial systems) with vertical take off and landing capabilities like quadro- or octocopter are used as sensor platform for Aerophotogrammetry. Since the restricted payload of micro UAS with a total weight up of 5 kg (payload only up to 1.5 kg), these systems are often equipped with small format cameras. These cameras can be classified as amateur cameras and it is often the case, that these systems do not meet the requirements of a geometric stable camera for photogrammetric measurement purposes. However, once equipped with a suitable camera system, an UAS is an interesting alternative to expensive manned flights for small areas. The operating flight height of the above described UAS is about 50 up to 150 meters above ground level. This low flight height lead on the one hand to a very high spatial resolution of the aerial imagery. Depending on the cameras focal length and the sensor's pixel size, the ground sampling distance (GSD) is usually about 1 up to 5 cm. This high resolution is useful especially for the automatic generation of homologous tie-points, which are a precondition for the image alignment (bundle block adjustment). On the other hand, the image scale depends on the object's height and the UAV operating height. Objects like mine heaps or construction sites show high variations of the object's height. As a result, operating the UAS with a constant flying height will lead to high variations in the image scale. For some processing approaches this will lead to problems e.g. the automatic tie-point generation in stereo image pairs. As precondition to all DEM generating approaches, first of all a geometric stable camera, sharp images are essentially. Well known calibration parameters are necessary for the bundle adjustment, to control the exterior orientations. It can be shown, that a simultaneous on site camera calibration may lead to misaligned aerial images. Also, the success rate of an automatic tie-point generation

  12. On the stability of AuFe alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Velasco, V; Pohl, D; Surrey, A; Bonatto-Minella, A; Hernando, A; Crespo, P; Rellinghaus, B

    2014-05-30

    AuFe nanoparticles with mean diameters d p  = 13.2 nm have been prepared by inert-gas condensation. Conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy investigations show that the particles are mostly icosahedra. Scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy-loss spectroscopy show that the as-grown particles exhibit a core-shell structure. The shell is mainly composed of an amorphous FeO layer. Although Fe and Au are immiscible in the bulk, the particle cores are found to be homogeneously mixed at the atomic level with a local composition of around Au84Fe16 (at.%). AuFe nanoparticles exhibit a complex magnetic structure in which the core behaves as a spin glass with a freezing temperature of 35 K, whereas the amorphous FeO shell behaves as a ferro-ferrimagnetic system. On annealing above 300 °C, the AuFe icosahedra phases separate into their elemental constituents. Hence the as-grown AuFe icosahedra are metastable, thereby implying that the bulk phase diagram also applies for nanoscopic materials.

  13. Evaluation of on-line DEMs for flood inundation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Brett F.

    2007-08-01

    Recent and highly accurate topographic data should be used for flood inundation modeling, but this is not always feasible given time and budget constraints so the utility of several on-line digital elevation models (DEMs) is examined with a set of steady and unsteady test problems. DEMs are used to parameterize a 2D hydrodynamic flood simulation algorithm and predictions are compared with published flood maps and observed flood conditions. DEMs based on airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) are preferred because of horizontal resolution, vertical accuracy (˜0.1 m) and the ability to separate bare-earth from built structures and vegetation. DEMs based on airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) have good horizontal resolution but gridded elevations reflect built structures and vegetation and therefore further processing may be required to permit flood modeling. IfSAR and shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) DEMs suffer from radar speckle, or noise, so flood plains may appear with non-physical relief and predicted flood zones may include non-physical pools. DEMs based on national elevation data (NED) are remarkably smooth in comparison to IfSAR and SRTM but using NED, flood predictions overestimate flood extent in comparison to all other DEMs including LiDAR, the most accurate. This study highlights utility in SRTM as a global source of terrain data for flood modeling.

  14. Solving QCD via multi-Regge theory.

    SciTech Connect

    White, A. R.

    1998-11-04

    A high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, solution of QCD is outlined. Regge pole and single gluon properties of the pomeron are directly related to the confinement and chiral symmetry breaking properties of the hadron spectrum. This solution, which corresponds to a supercritical phase of Reggeon Field Theory, may only be applicable to QCD with a very special quark content.

  15. Solvable models and hidden symmetries in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Yepez-Martinez, Tochtli; Hess, P. O.; Civitarese, O.; Lerma H., S.

    2010-12-23

    We show that QCD Hamiltonians at low energy exhibit an SU(2) structure, when only few orbital levels are considered. In case many orbital levels are taken into account we also find a semi-analytic solution for the energy levels of the dominant part of the QCD Hamiltonian. The findings are important to propose the structure of phenomenological models.

  16. The Excited State Spectrum of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2010-08-01

    The determination of the highly excited state spectrum of baryons within QCD is a major theoretical and experimental challenge. I will present recent results from lattice QCD that give some indications on the structure of these highly excited states, and outline on-going and future work needed for a full determination of the spectrum, including strong decays.

  17. Recent results on lattice QCD thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratti, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    I review recent results on QCD thermodynamics from lattice simulations. In particular, I will focus on the QCD equation of state at zero and finite chemical potential, the curvature of the phase diagram and fluctuations of conserved charges. The latter are compared to experimental data, to the purpose of extracting the chemical freeze-out temperature and chemical potential from first principles.

  18. QCD tests in electron-positron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, T.

    1995-11-01

    Recent results on QCD tests at the Z{sup o} resonance are described. Measurements of Color factor ratios, and studies of final state photon radiation are performed by the LEP experiments. QCD tests using a longitudinally polarized beam are reported by the SLD experiment.

  19. Kenneth Wilson — Renormalization and QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Franz J.

    2014-07-01

    Kenneth Wilson had an enormous impact on field theory, in particular on the renormalization group and critical phenomena, and on QCD. I had the great pleasure to work in three fields to which he contributed essentially: Critical phenomena, gauge-invariance in duality and QCD, and flow equations and similarity renormalization.

  20. Exclusive, Hard Diffraction in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Andreas

    1999-03-01

    In the first chapter we give an introduction to hard diffractive scattering in QCD to introduce basic concepts and terminology. In the second chapter we make predictions for the evolution of skewed parton distributions in a proton in the LLA. We calculate the DGLAP-type evolution kernels in the LLA and solve the skewed GLAP evolution equations with a modified version of the CTEQ-package. In the third chapter, we discuss the algorithms used in the LO evolution program for skewed parton distributions in the DGLAP region, discuss the stability of the code and reproduce the LO diagonal evolution within less than 0.5% of the original CTEQ-code. In chapter 4, we show that factorization holds for the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude in QCD, up to power suppressed terms, to all orders in perturbation theory. In chapter 5, we demonstrate that perturbative QCD allows one to calculate the absolute cross section of diffractive, exclusive production of photons (DVCS) at large Q^2 at HERA, while the aligned jet model allows one to estimate the cross section for intermediate Q^2 ˜ 2 GeV^2. We find a significant DVCS counting rate for the current generation of experiments at HERA and a large azimuthal angle asymmetry for HERA kinematics. In the last chapter, we propose a new methodology of gaining shape fits to skewed parton distributions and, for the first time, to determine the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the DIS amplitude. We do this by using several recent fits to F_2(x,Q^2) to compute the asymmetry A for the combined DVCS and Bethe-Heitler cross section. In the appendix, we give an application of distributional methods as discussed abstractly in chapter 4.

  1. Consistent Perturbative Fixed Point Calculations in QCD and Supersymmetric QCD.

    PubMed

    Ryttov, Thomas A

    2016-08-12

    We suggest how to consistently calculate the anomalous dimension γ_{*} of the ψ[over ¯]ψ operator in finite order perturbation theory at an infrared fixed point for asymptotically free theories. If the n+1 loop beta function and n loop anomalous dimension are known, then γ_{*} can be calculated exactly and fully scheme independently in a Banks-Zaks expansion through O(Δ_{f}^{n}), where Δ_{f}=N[over ¯]_{f}-N_{f}, N_{f} is the number of flavors, and N[over ¯]_{f} is the number of flavors above which asymptotic freedom is lost. For a supersymmetric theory, the calculation preserves supersymmetry order by order in Δ_{f}. We then compute γ_{*} through O(Δ_{f}^{2}) for supersymmetric QCD in the dimensional reduction scheme and find that it matches the exact known result. We find that γ_{*} is astonishingly well described in perturbation theory already at the few loops level throughout the entire conformal window. We finally compute γ_{*} through O(Δ_{f}^{3}) for QCD and a variety of other nonsupersymmetric fermionic gauge theories. Small values of γ_{*} are observed for a large range of flavors. PMID:27563948

  2. Consistent Perturbative Fixed Point Calculations in QCD and Supersymmetric QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryttov, Thomas A.

    2016-08-01

    We suggest how to consistently calculate the anomalous dimension γ* of the ψ ¯ ψ operator in finite order perturbation theory at an infrared fixed point for asymptotically free theories. If the n +1 loop beta function and n loop anomalous dimension are known, then γ* can be calculated exactly and fully scheme independently in a Banks-Zaks expansion through O (Δfn) , where Δf=N¯ f-Nf , Nf is the number of flavors, and N¯f is the number of flavors above which asymptotic freedom is lost. For a supersymmetric theory, the calculation preserves supersymmetry order by order in Δf. We then compute γ* through O (Δf2) for supersymmetric QCD in the dimensional reduction scheme and find that it matches the exact known result. We find that γ* is astonishingly well described in perturbation theory already at the few loops level throughout the entire conformal window. We finally compute γ* through O (Δf3) for QCD and a variety of other nonsupersymmetric fermionic gauge theories. Small values of γ* are observed for a large range of flavors.

  3. "Quantum Field Theory and QCD"

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2006-02-25

    This grant partially funded a meeting, "QFT & QCD: Past, Present and Future" held at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA on March 18-19, 2005. The participants ranged from senior scientists (including at least 9 Nobel Prize winners, and 1 Fields medalist) to graduate students and undergraduates. There were several hundred persons in attendance at each lecture. The lectures ranged from superlative reviews of past progress, lists of important, unsolved questions, to provocative hypotheses for future discovery. The project generated a great deal of interest on the internet, raising awareness and interest in the open questions of theoretical physics.

  4. Kaon Condensation with Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Detmold, Will; Detmold, William; Detmold, Will; Detmold, William; Savage, Martin; Walker-Loud, Andre; Orginos, Konstantinos; Torok, Aaron

    2008-09-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.78.054514
    Kaon condensation may play an important role in the structure of hadronic matter at densities greater than that of nuclear matter, as exist in the interior of neutron stars. We present the results of the first lattice QCD calculation of kaon condensation obtained by studying systems containing up to twelve charged kaons. Surprisingly, the equation of state of the condensate is remarkably well reproduced by leading order chiral perturbation theory. We determine the three-kaon interaction from the multi-kaon systems and update our results for pion condensates.

  5. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  6. Single transverse-spin asymmetry in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    So far large single transverse-spin asymmetries (SSA) have been observed in many high-energy processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and proton-proton collisions. Since the conventional parton model and perturbative QCD can not accomodate such large SSAs, the framework for QCD hard processes had to be extended to understand the mechanism of SSA. In this extended frameworks of QCD, intrinsic transverse momentum of partons and the multi-parton (quark-gluon and pure-gluonic) correlations in the hadrons, which were absent in the conventional framework, play a crucial role to cause SSAs, and well-defined formulation of these effects has been a big challenge for QCD theorists. Study on these effects has greatly promoted our understanding on QCD dynamics and hadron structure. In this talk, I will present an overview on these theoretical activity, emphasizing the important role of the Drell-Yan process.

  7. QCD studies in ep collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures describe QCD physics studies over the period 1992--1996 from data taken with collisions of 27 GeV electrons and positrons with 820 GeV protons at the HERA collider at DESY by the two general-purpose detectors H1 and ZEUS. The focus of these lectures is on structure functions and jet production in deep inelastic scattering, photoproduction, and diffraction. The topics covered start with a general introduction to HERA and ep scattering. Structure functions are discussed. This includes the parton model, scaling violation, and the extraction of F{sub 2}, which is used to determine the gluon momentum distribution. Both low and high Q{sup 2} regimes are discussed. The low Q{sup 2} transition from perturbative QCD to soft hadronic physics is examined. Jet production in deep inelastic scattering to measure {alpha}{sub s}, and in photoproduction to study resolved and direct photoproduction, is also presented. This is followed by a discussion of diffraction that begins with a general introduction to diffraction in hadronic collisions and its relation to ep collisions, and moves on to deep inelastic scattering, where the structure of diffractive exchange is studied, and in photoproduction, where dijet production provides insights into the structure of the Pomeron. 95 refs., 39 figs.

  8. Nuclear Physics and Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas

    2003-11-01

    Impressive progress is currently being made in computing properties and interac- tions of the low-lying hadrons using lattice QCD. However, cost limitations will, for the foreseeable future, necessitate the use of quark masses, Mq, that are signif- icantly larger than those of nature, lattice spacings, a, that are not significantly smaller than the physical scale of interest, and lattice sizes, L, that are not sig- nificantly larger than the physical scale of interest. Extrapolations in the quark masses, lattice spacing and lattice volume are therefore required. The hierarchy of mass scales is: L 1 j Mq j â ºC j a 1 . The appropriate EFT for incorporating the light quark masses, the finite lattice spacing and the lattice size into hadronic observables is C-PT, which provides systematic expansions in the small parame- ters e m L, 1/ Lâ ºC, p/â ºC, Mq/â ºC and aâ ºC . The lattice introduces other unphysical scales as well. Lattice QCD quarks will increasingly be artificially separated

  9. EMDataBank unified data resource for 3DEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.; Patwardhan, Ardan; Baker, Matthew L.; Hryc, Corey; Garcia, Eduardo Sanz; Hudson, Brian P.; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Ludtke, Steven J.; Pintilie, Grigore; Sala, Raul; Westbrook, John D.; Berman, Helen M.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Chiu, Wah

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy (3DEM) has become a key experimental method in structural biology for a broad spectrum of biological specimens from molecules to cells. The EMDataBank project provides a unified portal for deposition, retrieval and analysis of 3DEM density maps, atomic models and associated metadata (emdatabank.org). We provide here an overview of the rapidly growing 3DEM structural data archives, which include maps in EM Data Bank and map-derived models in the Protein Data Bank. In addition, we describe progress and approaches toward development of validation protocols and methods, working with the scientific community, in order to create a validation pipeline for 3DEM data. PMID:26578576

  10. DEM simulation of granular flow in a Couette device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyapati, Vidyapati; Kheripour Langrudi, M.; Tardos, Gabriel; Sun, Jin; Sundaresan, Sankaran; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2009-11-01

    We study the shear motion of granular material in an annular shear cell operated in batch and continuous modes. In order to quantitatively simulate shear behavior of granular material composed of spherical shaped grains, a 3D discrete element method (DEM) is used. The ultimate goal of the present work is to compare DEM results for the normal and shear stresses in stationary and moving granular beds confined in Couette device with experimental results. The DEM captures the experimental observation of transition behavior from quasi-- static (in batch mode operation) to rapid flow (in continuous mode operation) regime of granular flows. Although there are quantitative differences between DEM model predictions and experiments, the qualitative features are nicely reproduced. It is observed (both in experiments and in simulations) that the intermediate regime is broad enough to require a critical assessment of continuum models for granular flows.

  11. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be

  12. QCD and the BlueGene

    SciTech Connect

    Vranas, P

    2007-06-18

    Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

  13. The QCD vacuum, hadrons and superdense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Shuryak, E.

    1986-01-01

    This is probably the only textbook available that gathers QCD, many-body theory and phase transitions in one volume. The presentation is pedagogical and readable. Contents: The QCD Vacuum: Introduction; QCD on the Lattice Topological Effects in Gauges Theories. Correlation Functions and Microscopic Excitations: Introduction; Operator Product Expansion; The Sum Rules beyond OPE; Nonpower Contributions to Correlators and Instantons; Hadronic Spectroscopy on the Lattice. Dense Matter: Hadronic Matter; Asymptotically Dense Quark-Gluon Plasma; Instantons in Matter; Lattice Calculations at Finite Temperature; Phase Transitions; Macroscopic Excitations and Experiments: General Properties of High Energy Collisions; ''Barometers'', ''Thermometers'', Interferometric ''Microscope''; Experimental Perspectives.

  14. Shape of mesons in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Torabian, Mahdi; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2009-10-15

    Based on the expectation that the constituent quark model may capture the right physics in the large N limit, we point out that the orbital angular momentum of the quark-antiquark pair inside light mesons of low spins in the constituent quark model may provide a clue for the holographic dual string model of large N QCD. Our discussion, relying on a few suggestive assumptions, leads to a necessity of world-sheet fermions in the bulk of dual strings that can incorporate intrinsic spins of fundamental QCD degrees of freedom. We also comment on the interesting issue of the size of mesons in holographic QCD.

  15. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F.

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  16. Excited light isoscalar mesons from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Thomas

    2011-07-01

    I report a recent lattice QCD calculation of an excited spectrum of light isoscalar mesons, something that has up to now proved challenging for lattice QCD. With novel techniques we extract an extensive spectrum with high statistical precision, including spin-four states and, for the first time, light isoscalars with exotic quantum numbers. In addition, the hidden flavour content of these mesons is determined, providing a window on annihilation dynamics in QCD. I comment on future prospects including applications to the study of resonances.

  17. The TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model and the Terrestrial Impact Crater Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, M.; Fritz, T.; Breit, H.; Schättler, B.; Harris, A.

    2016-08-01

    The German TanDEM-X mission provides a new high-quality DEM of the Earth's surface. We present the current status of this DEM, show how it compares with existing DEMs from spaceborne sensors and illustrate results of our global mapping project.

  18. Modeling QCD for Hadron Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Tandy, P. C.

    2011-10-24

    We review the approach to modeling soft hadron physics observables based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations of QCD. The focus is on light quark mesons and in particular the pseudoscalar and vector ground states, their decays and electromagnetic couplings. We detail the wide variety of observables that can be correlated by a ladder-rainbow kernel with one infrared parameter fixed to the chiral quark condensate. A recently proposed novel perspective in which the quark condensate is contained within hadrons and not the vacuum is mentioned. The valence quark parton distributions, in the pion and kaon, as measured in the Drell Yan process, are investigated with the same ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  19. QCD tests with polarized beams

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Takashi; SLD Collaboration

    1996-09-01

    The authors present three QCD studies performed by the SLD experiment at SLAC, utilizing the highly polarized SLC electron beam. They examined particle production differences in light quark and antiquark hemispheres, and observed more high momentum baryons and K{sup {minus}}`s than antibaryons and K{sup +}`s in quark hemispheres, consistent with the leading particle hypothesis. They performed a search for jet handedness in light q- and {anti q}-jets. Assuming Standard Model values of quark polarization in Z{sup 0} decays, they have set an improved upper limit on the analyzing power of the handedness method. They studied the correlation between the Z{sup 0} spin and the event-plane orientation in polarized Z{sup 0} decays into three jets.

  20. Gluonic transversity from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detmold, W.; Shanahan, P. E.

    2016-07-01

    We present an exploratory study of the gluonic structure of the ϕ meson using lattice QCD (LQCD). This includes the first investigation of gluonic transversity via the leading moment of the twist-2 double-helicity-flip gluonic structure function Δ (x ,Q2). This structure function only exists for targets of spin J ≥1 and does not mix with quark distributions at leading twist, thereby providing a particularly clean probe of gluonic degrees of freedom. We also explore the gluonic analogue of the Soffer bound which relates the helicity flip and nonflip gluonic distributions, finding it to be saturated at the level of 80%. This work sets the stage for more complex LQCD studies of gluonic structure in the nucleon and in light nuclei where Δ (x ,Q2) is an "exotic glue" observable probing gluons in a nucleus not associated with individual nucleons.

  1. Modeling QCD for Hadron Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandy, P. C.

    2011-10-01

    We review the approach to modeling soft hadron physics observables based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations of QCD. The focus is on light quark mesons and in particular the pseudoscalar and vector ground states, their decays and electromagnetic couplings. We detail the wide variety of observables that can be correlated by a ladder-rainbow kernel with one infrared parameter fixed to the chiral quark condensate. A recently proposed novel perspective in which the quark condensate is contained within hadrons and not the vacuum is mentioned. The valence quark parton distributions, in the pion and kaon, as measured in the Drell Yan process, are investigated with the same ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  2. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  3. QCD for Postgraduates (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Modern QCD - Lecture 4 We will consider some processes of interest at the LHC and will discuss the main elements of their cross-section calculations. We will also summarize the current status of higher order calculations.

  4. Heavy Quarks, QCD, and Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen

    2012-10-09

    The research supported by this OJI award is in the area of heavy quark and quarkonium production, especially the application Soft-Collinear E ective Theory (SCET) to the hadronic production of quarkonia. SCET is an e ffective theory which allows one to derive factorization theorems and perform all order resummations for QCD processes. Factorization theorems allow one to separate the various scales entering a QCD process, and in particular, separate perturbative scales from nonperturbative scales. The perturbative physics can then be calculated using QCD perturbation theory. Universal functions with precise fi eld theoretic de nitions describe the nonperturbative physics. In addition, higher order perturbative QCD corrections that are enhanced by large logarithms can be resummed using the renormalization group equations of SCET. The applies SCET to the physics of heavy quarks, heavy quarkonium, and similar particles.

  5. Simplifying Multi-Jet QCD Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    These lectures give a pedagogical discussion of the computation of QCD tree amplitudes for collider physics. The tools reviewed are spinor products, color ordering, MHV amplitudes, and the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion formula.

  6. Excited light meson spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Thomas, Hadron Spectrum Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    I report on recent progress in calculating excited meson spectra using lattice QCD, emphasizing results and phenomenology. With novel techniques we can now extract extensive spectra of excited mesons with high statistical precision, including spin-four states and those with exotic quantum numbers. As well as isovector meson spectra, I will present new calculations of the spectrum of excited light isoscalar mesons, something that has up to now been a challenge for lattice QCD. I show determinations of the flavor content of these mesons, including the eta-eta' mixing angle, providing a window on annihilation dynamics in QCD. I will also discuss recent work on using lattice QCD to map out the energy-dependent phase shift in pi-pi scattering and future applications of the methodology to the study of resonances and decays.

  7. Novel QCD effects in nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    Heavy ion collisions can provide a novel environment for testing fundamental dynamical processes in QCD, including minijet formation and interactions, formation zone phenomena, color filtering, coherent co-mover interactions, and new higher twist mechanisms which could account for the observed excess production and anomalous nuclear target dependence of heavy flavor production. The possibility of using light-cone thermodynamics and a corresponding covariant temperature to describe the QCD phases of the nuclear fragmentation region is also briefly discussed.

  8. Lattice QCD and the Jefferson Laboratory Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek, Robert Edwards, David Richards, Konstantinos Orginos

    2011-06-01

    Lattice gauge theory provides our only means of performing \\textit{ab initio} calculations in the non-perturbative regime. It has thus become an increasing important component of the Jefferson Laboratory physics program. In this paper, we describe the contributions of lattice QCD to our understanding of hadronic and nuclear physics, focusing on the structure of hadrons, the calculation of the spectrum and properties of resonances, and finally on deriving an understanding of the QCD origin of nuclear forces.

  9. QCD and hard diffraction at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, Michael G.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    As an introduction to QCD at the LHC the author gives an overview of QCD at the Tevatron, emphasizing the high Q{sup 2} frontier which will be taken over by the LHC. After describing briefly the LHC detectors the author discusses high mass diffraction, in particular central exclusive production of Higgs and vector boson pairs. The author introduces the FP420 project to measure the scattered protons 420m downstream of ATLAS and CMS.

  10. Recent QCD Studies at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Group, Robert Craig

    2008-04-01

    Since the beginning of Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron the QCD physics groups of the CDF and D0 experiments have worked to reach unprecedented levels of precision for many QCD observables. Thanks to the large dataset--over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity recorded by each experiment--important new measurements have recently been made public and will be summarized in this paper.

  11. Random walk through recent CDF QCD results

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mesropian

    2003-04-09

    We present recent results on jet fragmentation, jet evolution in jet and minimum bias events, and underlying event studies. The results presented in this talk address significant questions relevant to QCD and, in particular, to jet studies. One topic discussed is jet fragmentation and the possibility of describing it down to very small momentum scales in terms of pQCD. Another topic is the studies of underlying event energy originating from fragmentation of partons not associated with the hard scattering.

  12. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-10-13

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  13. Some new/old approaches to QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, D.J.

    1992-11-01

    In this lecture I shall discuss some recent attempts to revive some old ideas to address the problem of solving QCD. I believe that it is timely to return to this problem which has been woefully neglected for the last decade. QCD is a permanent part of the theoretical landscape and eventually we will have to develop analytic tools for dealing with the theory in the infra-red. Lattice techniques are useful but they have not yet lived up to their promise. Even if one manages to derive the hadronic spectrum numerically, to an accuracy of 10% or even 1%, we will not be truly satisfied unless we have some analytic understanding of the results. Also, lattice Monte-Carlo methods can only be used to answer a small set of questions. Many issues of great conceptual and practical interest-in particular the calculation of scattering amplitudes, are thus far beyond lattice control. Any progress in controlling QCD in an explicit analytic, fashion would be of great conceptual value. It would also be of great practical aid to experimentalists, who must use rather ad-hoc and primitive models of QCD scattering amplitudes to estimate the backgrounds to interesting new physics. I will discuss an attempt to derive a string representation of QCD and a revival of the large N approach to QCD. Both of these ideas have a long history, many theorist-years have been devoted to their pursuit-so far with little success. I believe that it is time to try again. In part this is because of the progress in the last few years in string theory. Our increased understanding of string theory should make the attempt to discover a stringy representation of QCD easier, and the methods explored in matrix models might be employed to study the large N limit of QCD.

  14. The structure of gluon radiation in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, S.; Mangano, M.

    1989-08-01

    For massless QCD the hard scattering amplitudes are naturally written in terms of the dual color expansion. here I present this expansion for purely gluonic processes and processes involving quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. The properties of the sub-amplitudes as well as explicit algebraic expressions are given for a number of these processes. Also, I demonstrate how to recover massless QED amplitudes from the dual expansion of massless QCD. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Some New/Old Approaches to QCD

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Gross, D. J.

    1992-11-01

    In this lecture I shall discuss some recent attempts to revive some old ideas to address the problem of solving QCD. I believe that it is timely to return to this problem which has been woefully neglected for the last decade. QCD is a permanent part of the theoretical landscape and eventually we will have to develop analytic tools for dealing with the theory in the infra-red. Lattice techniques are useful but they have not yet lived up to their promise. Even if one manages to derive the hadronic spectrum numerically, to an accuracy of 10% or even 1%, we will not be truly satisfied unless we have some analytic understanding of the results. Also, lattice Monte-Carlo methods can only be used to answer a small set of questions. Many issues of great conceptual and practical interest-in particular the calculation of scattering amplitudes, are thus far beyond lattice control. Any progress in controlling QCD in an explicit analytic, fashion would be of great conceptual value. It would also be of great practical aid to experimentalists, who must use rather ad-hoc and primitive models of QCD scattering amplitudes to estimate the backgrounds to interesting new physics. I will discuss an attempt to derive a string representation of QCD and a revival of the large N approach to QCD. Both of these ideas have a long history, many theorist-years have been devoted to their pursuit-so far with little success. I believe that it is time to try again. In part this is because of the progress in the last few years in string theory. Our increased understanding of string theory should make the attempt to discover a stringy representation of QCD easier, and the methods explored in matrix models might be employed to study the large N limit of QCD.

  16. Shading-based DEM refinement under a comprehensive imaging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jianwei; Zhang, Yi; Shan, Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces an approach to refine coarse digital elevation models (DEMs) based on the shape-from-shading (SfS) technique using a single image. Different from previous studies, this approach is designed for heterogeneous terrain and derived from a comprehensive (extended) imaging model accounting for the combined effect of atmosphere, reflectance, and shading. To solve this intrinsic ill-posed problem, the least squares method and a subsequent optimization procedure are applied in this approach to estimate the shading component, from which the terrain gradient is recovered with a modified optimization method. Integrating the resultant gradients then yields a refined DEM at the same resolution as the input image. The proposed SfS method is evaluated using 30 m Landsat-8 OLI multispectral images and 30 m SRTM DEMs. As demonstrated in this paper, the proposed approach is able to reproduce terrain structures with a higher fidelity; and at medium to large up-scale ratios, can achieve elevation accuracy 20-30% better than the conventional interpolation methods. Further, this property is shown to be stable and independent of topographic complexity. With the ever-increasing public availability of satellite images and DEMs, the developed technique is meaningful for global or local DEM product refinement.

  17. Generating DEM from LIDAR data - comparison of available software tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzeniowska, K.; Lacka, M.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years many software tools and applications have appeared that offer procedures, scripts and algorithms to process and visualize ALS data. This variety of software tools and of "point cloud" processing methods contributed to the aim of this study: to assess algorithms available in various software tools that are used to classify LIDAR "point cloud" data, through a careful examination of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) generated from LIDAR data on a base of these algorithms. The works focused on the most important available software tools: both commercial and open source ones. Two sites in a mountain area were selected for the study. The area of each site is 0.645 sq km. DEMs generated with analysed software tools ware compared with a reference dataset, generated using manual methods to eliminate non ground points. Surfaces were analysed using raster analysis. Minimum, maximum and mean differences between reference DEM and DEMs generated with analysed software tools were calculated, together with Root Mean Square Error. Differences between DEMs were also examined visually using transects along the grid axes in the test sites.

  18. Exclusive, hard diffraction in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Andreas

    In the first chapter we give an introduction to hard diffractive scattering in QCD to introduce basic concepts and terminology, thus setting the stage for the following chapters. In the second chapter we make predictions for nondiagonal parton distributions in a proton in the LLA. We calculate the DGLAP-type evolution kernels in the LLA, solve the nondiagonal GLAP evolution equations with a modified version of the CTEQ-package and comment on the range of applicability of the LLA in the asymmetric regime. We show that the nondiagonal gluon distribution g(x1,x2,t,μ2) can be well approximated at small x by the conventional gluon density xG(x,μ2). In the third chapter, we discuss the algorithms used in the LO evolution program for nondiagonal parton distributions in the DGLAP region and discuss the stability of the code. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can reproduce the case of the LO diagonal evolution within less than 0.5% of the original code as developed by the CTEQ-collaboration. In chapter 4, we show that factorization holds for the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude in QCD, up to power suppressed terms, to all orders in perturbation theory. Furthermore, we show that the virtuality of the produced photon does not influence the general theorem. In chapter 5, we demonstrate that perturbative QCD allows one to calculate the absolute cross section of diffractive exclusive production of photons at large Q2 at HERA, while the aligned jet model allows one to estimate the cross section for intermediate Q2~2GeV2. Furthermore, we find that the imaginary part of the amplitude for the production of real photons is larger than the imaginary part of the corresponding DIS amplitude, leading to predictions of a significant counting rate for the current generation of experiments at HERA. We also find a large azimuthal angle asymmetry in ep scattering for HERA kinematics which allows one to directly measure the real part of the DVCS amplitude and hence the

  19. Evaluating the Accuracy of dem Generation Algorithms from Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, J. J.; Diaz-Mas, L.; Perez, F.; Viguria, A.

    2013-08-01

    In this work we evaluated how the use of different positioning systems affects the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) generated from aerial imagery obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In this domain, state-of-the-art DEM generation algorithms suffer from typical errors obtained by GPS/INS devices in the position measurements associated with each picture obtained. The deviations from these measurements to real world positions are about meters. The experiments have been carried out using a small quadrotor in the indoor testbed at the Center for Advanced Aerospace Technologies (CATEC). This testbed houses a system that is able to track small markers mounted on the UAV and along the scenario with millimeter precision. This provides very precise position measurements, to which we can add random noise to simulate errors in different GPS receivers. The results showed that final DEM accuracy clearly depends on the positioning information.

  20. The effects of wavelet compression on Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oimoen, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of lossy compression on floating-point digital elevation models using the discrete wavelet transform. The compression of elevation data poses a different set of problems and concerns than does the compression of images. Most notably, the usefulness of DEMs depends largely in the quality of their derivatives, such as slope and aspect. Three areas extracted from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Elevation Dataset were transformed to the wavelet domain using the third order filters of the Daubechies family (DAUB6), and were made sparse by setting 95 percent of the smallest wavelet coefficients to zero. The resulting raster is compressible to a corresponding degree. The effects of the nulled coefficients on the reconstructed DEM are noted as residuals in elevation, derived slope and aspect, and delineation of drainage basins and streamlines. A simple masking technique also is presented, that maintains the integrity and flatness of water bodies in the reconstructed DEM.

  1. Standard model group, QCD subgroup - dynamics isolating and testing the elementary QCD subprocess

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    QCD to an experimentalist is the theory of interactions of quarks and gluons. Experimentalists like QCD because QCD is analogous to QED. Thus, following Drell and others who have for many years studied the validity of QED, one has a ready-made menu for tests of QCD. There are the static and long distance tests. These topics are covered by Peter LePage in the static properties group. In this report, dynamic and short distance tests of QCD will be discussed, primarily via reactions with large transverse momenta. This report is an introduction and overview of the subject, to serve as a framework for other reports from the subgroup. In the last two sections, the author has taken the opportunity to discuss his own ideas and opinions.

  2. Extract relevant features from DEM for groundwater potential mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Yan, H.; Zhai, L.

    2015-06-01

    Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method has been applied much in groundwater potential mapping researches. But when to data scarce areas, it will encounter lots of problems due to limited data. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the digital representations of the topography, and has many applications in various fields. Former researches had been approved that much information concerned to groundwater potential mapping (such as geological features, terrain features, hydrology features, etc.) can be extracted from DEM data. This made using DEM data for groundwater potential mapping is feasible. In this research, one of the most widely used and also easy to access data in GIS, DEM data was used to extract information for groundwater potential mapping in batter river basin in Alberta, Canada. First five determining factors for potential ground water mapping were put forward based on previous studies (lineaments and lineament density, drainage networks and its density, topographic wetness index (TWI), relief and convergence Index (CI)). Extraction methods of the five determining factors from DEM were put forward and thematic maps were produced accordingly. Cumulative effects matrix was used for weight assignment, a multi-criteria evaluation process was carried out by ArcGIS software to delineate the potential groundwater map. The final groundwater potential map was divided into five categories, viz., non-potential, poor, moderate, good, and excellent zones. Eventually, the success rate curve was drawn and the area under curve (AUC) was figured out for validation. Validation result showed that the success rate of the model was 79% and approved the method's feasibility. The method afforded a new way for researches on groundwater management in areas suffers from data scarcity, and also broaden the application area of DEM data.

  3. QCD as a topologically ordered system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2013-09-15

    We argue that QCD belongs to a topologically ordered phase similar to many well-known condensed matter systems with a gap such as topological insulators or superconductors. Our arguments are based on an analysis of the so-called “deformed QCD” which is a weakly coupled gauge theory, but nevertheless preserves all the crucial elements of strongly interacting QCD, including confinement, nontrivial θ dependence, degeneracy of the topological sectors, etc. Specifically, we construct the so-called topological “BF” action which reproduces the well known infrared features of the theory such as non-dispersive contribution to the topological susceptibility which cannot be associated with any propagating degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we interpret the well known resolution of the celebrated U(1){sub A} problem where the would be η{sup ′} Goldstone boson generates its mass as a result of mixing of the Goldstone field with a topological auxiliary field characterizing the system. We then identify the non-propagating auxiliary topological field of the BF formulation in deformed QCD with the Veneziano ghost (which plays the crucial role in resolution of the U(1){sub A} problem). Finally, we elaborate on relation between “string-net” condensation in topologically ordered condensed matter systems and long range coherent configurations, the “skeletons”, studied in QCD lattice simulations. -- Highlights: •QCD may belong to a topologically ordered phase similar to condensed matter (CM) systems. •We identify the non-propagating topological field in deformed QCD with the Veneziano ghost. •Relation between “string-net” condensates in CM systems and the “skeletons” in QCD lattice simulations is studied.

  4. Hadronic and nuclear interactions in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Despite the evidence that QCD - or something close to it - gives a correct description of the structure of hadrons and their interactions, it seems paradoxical that the theory has thus far had very little impact in nuclear physics. One reason for this is that the application of QCD to distances larger than 1 fm involves coherent, non-perturbative dynamics which is beyond present calculational techniques. For example, in QCD the nuclear force can evidently be ascribed to quark interchange and gluon exchange processes. These, however, are as complicated to analyze from a fundamental point of view as is the analogous covalent bond in molecular physics. Since a detailed description of quark-quark interactions and the structure of hadronic wavefunctions is not yet well-understood in QCD, it is evident that a quantitative first-principle description of the nuclear force will require a great deal of theoretical effort. Another reason for the limited impact of QCD in nuclear physics has been the conventional assumption that nuclear interactions can for the most part be analyzed in terms of an effective meson-nucleon field theory or potential model in isolation from the details of short distance quark and gluon structure of hadrons. These lectures, argue that this view is untenable: in fact, there is no correspondence principle which yields traditional nuclear physics as a rigorous large-distance or non-relativistic limit of QCD dynamics. On the other hand, the distinctions between standard nuclear physics dynamics and QCD at nuclear dimensions are extremely interesting and illuminating for both particle and nuclear physics.

  5. Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.

  6. Jet quenching from QCD evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Emerman, Alexander; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Ovanesyan, Grigory; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluons have led to the development of a new method that gives a unified description of inclusive hadron production in reactions with nucleons and heavy nuclei. We show how this approach, based on the generalization of the DGLAP evolution equations to include final-state medium-induced parton shower corrections for large Q2 processes, can be combined with initial-state effects for applications to jet quenching phenomenology. We demonstrate that the traditional parton energy loss calculations can be regarded as a special soft-gluon emission limit of the general QCD evolution framework. We present phenomenological comparison of the SCETG -based results on the suppression of inclusive charged hadron and neutral pion production in √{sNN }=2.76 TeV lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider to experimental data. We also show theoretical predictions for the upcoming √{sNN }≃5.1 TeV Pb +Pb run at the LHC.

  7. R evolution: Improving perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Jain, Ambar; Stewart, Iain W.; Scimemi, Ignazio

    2010-07-01

    Perturbative QCD results in the MS scheme can be dramatically improved by switching to a scheme that accounts for the dominant power law dependence on the factorization scale in the operator product expansion. We introduce the ''MSR scheme'' which achieves this in a Lorentz and gauge invariant way and has a very simple relation to MS. Results in MSR depend on a cutoff parameter R, in addition to the {mu} of MS. R variations can be used to independently estimate (i.) the size of power corrections, and (ii.) higher-order perturbative corrections (much like {mu} in MS). We give two examples at three-loop order, the ratio of mass splittings in the B*-B and D*-D systems, and the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule as a function of momentum transfer Q in deep inelastic scattering. Comparing to data, the perturbative MSR results work well even for Q{approx}1 GeV, and power corrections are reduced compared to MS.

  8. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  9. QCD tests in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Huth, John E.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.

    1993-02-01

    We review the status of QCD tests in high energy p-pbar collisions. Contents: i) Introduction ii) QCD in Hadronic Collisions iii) Jet Production iv) Heavy Flavour Production v) W and Z Production vi) Direct Photons.

  10. QCD at nonzero chemical potential: Recent progress on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarts, Gert; Attanasio, Felipe; Jäger, Benjamin; Seiler, Erhard; Sexty, Dénes; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2016-01-01

    We summarise recent progress in simulating QCD at nonzero baryon density using complex Langevin dynamics. After a brief outline of the main idea, we discuss gauge cooling as a means to control the evolution. Subsequently we present a status report for heavy dense QCD and its phase structure, full QCD with staggered quarks, and full QCD with Wilson quarks, both directly and using the hopping parameter expansion to all orders.

  11. Spatial Characterization of Landscapes through Multifractal Analysis of DEM

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, P. L.; Del Monte, J. P.; Moratiel, R.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape evolution is driven by abiotic, biotic, and anthropic factors. The interactions among these factors and their influence at different scales create a complex dynamic. Landscapes have been shown to exhibit numerous scaling laws, from Horton's laws to more sophisticated scaling of heights in topography and river network topology. This scaling and multiscaling analysis has the potential to characterise the landscape in terms of the statistical signature of the measure selected. The study zone is a matrix obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM) (map 10 × 10 m, and height 1 m) that corresponds to homogeneous region with respect to soil characteristics and climatology known as “Monte El Pardo” although the water level of a reservoir and the topography play a main role on its organization and evolution. We have investigated whether the multifractal analysis of a DEM shows common features that can be used to reveal the underlying patterns and information associated with the landscape of the DEM mapping and studied the influence of the water level of the reservoir on the applied analysis. The results show that the use of the multifractal approach with mean absolute gradient data is a useful tool for analysing the topography represented by the DEM. PMID:25177728

  12. SAR interferometry for DEM generation: wide-area error assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Daniel; Broquetas, Antoni; Pena, Ramon; Arbiol, Roman; Castillo, Manuel; Pala, Vincenc

    1998-11-01

    The present work consists on the generation of a DEM using ERS satellites interferometric data over a wide area (50 X 50 Km) with an error study using a high accuracy reference DEM, focusing on the atmosphere induced errors. The area is heterogeneous with flat and rough topography ranging from sea level up to 1200 m in the inland ranges. The ERS image has a 100 X 100 Km2 area and has been divided in four quarters to ease the processing. The phase unwrapping algorithm, which is a combination of region growing and least squares techniques, worked out successfully the rough topography areas. One quarter of the full scene was geocoded over a local datum ellipsoid to a UTM grid. The resulting DEM was compared to a reference one provided by the Institut Cartografic de Catalunya. Two types of atmospheric error or artifacts were found: a set of very localized spots, up to one phase cycle, which generated ghost hills up to 100, and a slow trend effect which added up to 50 m to some areas in the image. Besides of the atmospheric errors, the quality of the DEM was assessed. The quantitative error study was carried out locally at several areas with different topography.

  13. DEMS - a second generation diabetes electronic management system.

    PubMed

    Gorman, C A; Zimmerman, B R; Smith, S A; Dinneen, S F; Knudsen, J B; Holm, D; Jorgensen, B; Bjornsen, S; Planet, K; Hanson, P; Rizza, R A

    2000-06-01

    Diabetes electronic management system (DEMS) is a component-based client/server application, written in Visual C++ and Visual Basic, with the database server running Sybase System 11. DEMS is built entirely with a combination of dynamic link libraries (DLLs) and ActiveX components - the only exception is the DEMS.exe. DEMS is a chronic disease management system for patients with diabetes. It is used at the point of care by all members of the diabetes team including physicians, nurses, dieticians, clinical assistants and educators. The system is designed for maximum clinical efficiency and facilitates appropriately supervised delegation of care. Dispersed clinical sites may be supervised from a central location. The system is designed for ease of navigation; immediate provision of many types of automatically generated reports; quality audits; aids to compliance with good care guidelines; and alerts, advisories, prompts, and warnings that guide the care provider. The system now contains data on over 34000 patients and is in daily use at multiple sites.

  14. New View of the QCD Phase Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2009-07-09

    Quarkyonic matter is confining but can have densities much larger than 3QCD. Its existence isargued in the large Nc limit of QCD and implies that there are at least three phases of QCD with greatly different bulk properties. These are a Confined Phase of hadrons, a Deconfined Phase ofquarks and gluons, and the Quarkyonic Phase. In the Quarkyonic Phase, the baryon density isaccounted for by a quasi-free gas of quarks, and the the antiquarks and gluons are confined intomesons, glueballs. Quarks near the Fermi surface also are treated as baryons. (In addition tothese phases, there is a color superconducting phase that has vastly different transport properties than the above, but with bulk properties, such as pressure and energy density, that are not greatlydifferent than that of Quarkyonic Matter.)

  15. Lepton asymmetry and the cosmic QCD transition

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Dominik J.; Stuke, Maik E-mail: mstuke@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2009-11-01

    We study the influence of lepton asymmetries on the evolution of the early Universe. The lepton asymmetry l is poorly constrained by observations and might be orders of magnitudes larger than the observed baryon asymmetry b ≅ 10{sup −10}, |l|/b ≤ 2 × 10{sup 8}. We find that lepton asymmetries that are large compared to the tiny baryon asymmetry, can influence the dynamics of the QCD phase transition significantly. The cosmic trajectory in the μ{sub B}−T phase diagram of strongly interacting matter becomes a function of lepton (flavour) asymmetry. For tiny or vanishing baryon and lepton asymmetries lattice QCD simulations show that the cosmic QCD transition is a rapid crossover. However, for large lepton asymmetry, the order of the cosmic transition remains unknown.

  16. Tagging the pion quark structure in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhailov, S.V.; Stefanis, N.G.

    2006-03-01

    We combine the constraints on the pion quark structure available from perturbative QCD, nonperturbative QCD (nonlocal QCD sum rules and light-cone sum rules) with the analysis of current data on F{sub {pi}}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}{sub *}(Q{sup 2}), including recent high-precision lattice calculations of the second moment of the pion's distribution amplitude. We supplement these constraints with those extracted from the renormalon approach by means of the twist-four contributions to the pion distribution amplitude in order to further increase stability with respect to related theoretical uncertainties. We show which regions in the space of the first two nontrivial Gegenbauer coefficients a{sub 2} and a{sub 4} of all these constraints overlap, tagging this way the pion structure to the highest degree possible at present.

  17. Quarkonium states in an anisotropic QCD plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Adrian; Guo Yun; Mocsy, Agnes; Strickland, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We consider quarkonium in a hot quantum chromodynamics (QCD) plasma which, due to expansion and nonzero viscosity, exhibits a local anisotropy in momentum space. At short distances the heavy-quark potential is known at tree level from the hard-thermal loop resummed gluon propagator in anisotropic perturbative QCD. The potential at long distances is modeled as a QCD string which is screened at the same scale as the Coulomb field. At asymptotic separation the potential energy is nonzero and inversely proportional to the temperature. We obtain numerical solutions of the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for this potential. We find that quarkonium binding is stronger at nonvanishing viscosity and expansion rate, and that the anisotropy leads to polarization of the P-wave states.

  18. QCD sign problem for small chemical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2007-06-01

    The expectation value of the complex phase factor of the fermion determinant is computed in the microscopic domain of QCD at nonzero chemical potential. We find that the average phase factor is nonvanishing below a critical value of the chemical potential equal to half the pion mass and vanishes exponentially in the volume for larger values of the chemical potential. This holds for QCD with dynamical quarks as well as for quenched and phase quenched QCD. The average phase factor has an essential singularity for zero chemical potential and cannot be obtained by analytic continuation from imaginary chemical potential or by means of a Taylor expansion. The leading order correction in the p-expansion of the chiral Lagrangian is calculated as well.

  19. Precision QCD measurements in DIS at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britzger, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    New and recent results on QCD measurements from the H1 and ZEUS experiments at the HERA ep collider are reviewed. The final results on the combined deep-inelastic neutral and charged current cross-sections are presented and their role in the extractions of parton distribution functions (PDFs) is studied. The PDF fits give insight into the compatibility of QCD evolution and heavy flavor schemes with the data as a function of kinematic variables such as the scale Q2. Measurements of jet production cross-sections in ep collisions provide direct proves of QCD and extractions of the strong coupling constants are performed. Charm and beauty cross-section measurements are used for the determination of the heavy quark masses. Their role in PDF fits is investigated. In the regime of diffractive DIS and photoproduction, dijet and prompt photon production cross-sections provide insights into the process of factorization and the nature of the diffractive exchange.

  20. Kaluza-Klein Approach to QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Jorge; Andrianov, Alexander; Labraña, Pedro

    2004-07-01

    We study an extended QCD model in (1+1) dimensions obtained from QCD in 4D by compactifying two spatial dimensions and projecting onto the zero-mode subspace. We work out this model in the large Nc limit and using light cone gauge but keeping the equal-time quantization. This system is found to induce a dynamical mass for transverse gluons — adjoint scalars in QCD2, and to undergo a chiral symmetry breaking with the full quark propagators yielding non-tachyonic, dynamical quark masses, even in the chiral limit. We study quark-antiquark bound states which can be classified in this model by their properties under Lorentz transformations inherited from 4D. The scalar and pseudoscalar sectors of the theory are examined and in the chiral limit a massless ground state for pseudoscalars is revealed with a wave function generalizing the so called 't Hooft pion solution.

  1. Phase diagram of chirally imbalanced QCD matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chernodub, M. N.; Nedelin, A. S.

    2011-05-15

    We compute the QCD phase diagram in the plane of the chiral chemical potential and temperature using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop. The chiral chemical potential accounts for effects of imbalanced chirality due to QCD sphaleron transitions which may emerge in heavy-ion collisions. We found three effects caused by the chiral chemical potential: the imbalanced chirality (i) tightens the link between deconfinement and chiral phase transitions; (ii) lowers the common critical temperature; (iii) strengthens the order of the phase transition by converting the crossover into the strong first order phase transition passing via the second order end point. Since the fermionic determinant with the chiral chemical potential has no sign problem, the chirally imbalanced QCD matter can be studied in numerical lattice simulations.

  2. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero

    2012-08-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  3. Equation of State from Lattice QCD Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rajan

    2011-01-01

    We provide a status report on the calculation of the Equation of State (EoS) of QCD at finite temperature using lattice QCD. Most of the discussion will focus on comparison of recent results obtained by the HotQCD and Wuppertal-Budapest collaborations. We will show that very significant progress has been made towards obtaining high precision results over the temperature range of T = 150-700 MeV. The various sources of systematic uncertainties will be discussed and the differences between the two calculations highlighted. Our final conclusion is that these lattice results of EoS are precise enough to be used in the phenomenological analysis of heavy ion experiments at RHIC and LHC.

  4. QCD flux tubes and anomaly inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chi

    2013-07-01

    We apply the Callan-Harvey anomaly-inflow mechanism to the study of QCD (chromoelectric) flux tubes, quark (pair) creation, and the chiral magnetic effect, using new variables from the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition of the gauge potential. A phenomenological description of chromoelectric flux tubes is obtained by studying a gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective Lagrangian, derived from the original QCD Lagrangian. At the quantum level, quark condensates in the QCD vacuum may form a vortexlike structure in a chromoelectric flux tube. Quark zero modes trapped in the vortex are chiral and lead to a two-dimensional gauge anomaly. To cancel it, an effective Chern-Simons coupling is needed and, hence, a topological charge density term naturally appears.

  5. The HotQCD Equation of State

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R A

    2009-08-13

    We present results from recent calculations of the QCD equation of state by the HotQCD Collaboration and review the implications for hydrodynamic modeling. The equation of state of QCD at zero baryon density was calculated on a lattice of dimensions 32{sup 3} x 8 with m{sub l} = 0.1 m{sub s} (corresponding to a pion mass of {approx}220 MeV) using two improved staggered fermion actions, p4 and asqtad. Calculations were performed along lines of constant physics using more than 100M cpu-hours on BG/L supercomputers at LLNL, NYBlue, and SDSC. We present parameterizations of the equation of state suitable for input into hydrodynamics models of heavy ion collisions.

  6. Exploring hyperons and hypernuclei with lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, S.R.; Bedaque, P.F.; Parreno, A.; Savage, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we outline a program for lattice QCD that wouldprovide a first step toward understanding the strong and weakinteractions of strange baryons. The study of hypernuclear physics hasprovided a significant amount of information regarding the structure andweak decays of light nuclei containing one or two Lambda's, and Sigma's.From a theoretical standpoint, little is known about the hyperon-nucleoninteraction, which is required input for systematic calculations ofhypernuclear structure. Furthermore, the long-standing discrepancies inthe P-wave amplitudes for nonleptonic hyperon decays remain to beunderstood, and their resolution is central to a better understanding ofthe weak decays of hypernuclei. We present a framework that utilizesLuscher's finite-volume techniques in lattice QCD to extract thescattering length and effective range for Lambda-N scattering in both QCDand partially-quenched QCD. The effective theory describing thenonleptonic decays of hyperons using isospin symmetry alone, appropriatefor lattice calculations, is constructed.

  7. PAR-CLIP analysis uncovers AUF1 impact on target RNA fate and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Je-Hyun; De, Supriyo; Srikantan, Subramanya; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Noh, Ji Heon; White, Elizabeth J.F.; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Kang, Min-Ju; Wood, William H.; Hooten, Nicole Noren; Evans, Michele K.; Becker, Kevin G.; Tripathi, Vidisha; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Wilson, Gerald M.; Tuschl, Thomas; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Hafner, Markus; Gorospe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation is robustly regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we describe the collection of RNAs regulated by AUF1 (AU-binding factor 1), an RBP linked to cancer, inflammation and aging. Photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) analysis reveals that AUF1 primarily recognizes U-/GU-rich sequences in mRNAs and noncoding RNAs and influences target transcript fate in three main directions. First, AUF1 lowers the steady-state levels of numerous target RNAs, including long noncoding RNA NEAT1, in turn affecting the organization of nuclear paraspeckles. Second, AUF1 does not change the abundance of many target RNAs, but ribosome profiling reveals that AUF1 promotes the translation of numerous mRNAs in this group. Third, AUF1 unexpectedly enhances the steady-state levels of several target mRNAs encoding DNA-maintenance proteins. Through its actions on target RNAs, AUF1 preserves genomic integrity, in agreement with the AUF1-elicited prevention of premature cellular senescence. PMID:25366541

  8. Involvement of RNA binding proteins AUF1 in mammary gland differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Kentaro . E-mail: akenaga@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Sakai, Senkiti

    2007-08-01

    The expression of many genes, such as {beta}-casein, c-myc, and cyclin D1, is altered by lactogenic hormone stimulation during mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that post-transcriptional regulation plays an important role to establish gene expression required to initiate milk production as well as transcriptional control. AUF1 protein, a member of the AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein family, plays a role in ARE-mRNA turnover by regulating mRNA stability and/or translational control. Cytoplasmic localization of AUF1 protein is critically linked to function. We show that as the mammary gland differentiates, AUF1 protein moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, in mammary gland epithelial cells (HC11), stimulation by lactogenic hormone decreased cytoplasmic and increased nuclear AUF1 levels. Direct binding of AUF1 protein was observed on c-myc mRNA, but not {beta}-casein or cyclin D1 mRNA. AUF1 downregulation in HC11 cells increased the expression of {beta}-casein mRNA and decreased the expression of c-myc mRNA by lactogenic hormone. Conversely, overexpression of AUF1 inhibited these effects of lactogenic hormone stimulation in HC11 cells. These results suggest that AUF1 participates in mammary gland differentiation processes under the control of lactogenic hormone signals.

  9. QCD and Light-Front Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins /Costa Rica U.

    2011-01-10

    AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a dilaton-modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. Higher Fock states with extra quark-anti quark pairs also arise. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the nonperturbative effective coupling and its {beta}-function. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method to systematically include QCD interaction terms. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.

  10. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene; Lublinsky, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun's Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a "black disk limit" as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.

  11. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2005-12-14

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency.

  12. Cascade Baryon Spectrum from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Nilmani; Bulava, John; Edwards, Robert; Engelson, Eric; Joo, Balint; Lichtl, Adam; Lin, Huey-Wen; Morningstar, Colin; Richards, David; Wallace, Stephen

    2008-12-01

    A comprehensive study of the cascade baryon spectrum using lattice QCD affords the prospect of predicting the masses of states not yet discovered experimentally, and determining the spin and parity of those states for which the quantum numbers are not yet known. The study of the cascades, containing two strange quarks, is particularly attractive for lattice QCD in that the chiral effects are reduced compared to states composed only of u/d quarks, and the states are typically narrow. We report preliminary results for the cascade spectrum obtained by using anisotropic Nf = 2 Wilson lattices with temporal lattice spacing 5.56 GeV?1.

  13. String breaking in four dimensional lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.; Eichten, E.; Thacker, H.

    2001-06-01

    Virtual quark pair screening leads to breaking of the string between fundamental representation quarks in QCD. For unquenched four dimensional lattice QCD, this (so far elusive) phenomenon is studied using the recently developed truncated determinant algorithm (TDA). The dynamical configurations were generated on a 650 MHz PC. Quark eigenmodes up to 420 MeV are included exactly in these TDA studies performed at low quark mass on large coarse [but O(a{sup 2}) improved] lattices. A study of Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge extracted from an ensemble of 1000 two-flavor dynamical configurations reveals evidence for flattening of the string tension at distances R{approx}>1 fm.

  14. QCD subgroup on diffractive and forward physics

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.G.; Baker, W.; Bhatti, A.

    1997-09-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a resurgence of interest in small-x or diffractive physics. This has been due to the realization that perturbative QCD techniques may be applicable to what was previously thought of as a non-perturbative problem and to the opening up of new energy regimes at HERA and the Tevatron collider. The goal is to understand the pomeron, and hence the behavior of total cross sections, elastic scattering and diffractive excitation, in terms of the underlying theory, QCD. This paper is divided into experiments of hadron-hadron colliders and electron-proton colliders.

  15. Is fractional electric charge problematic for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Slansky, R.

    1982-01-01

    A model of broken QCD is described here; SU/sub 3//sup c/ is broken to SO/sub 3//sup g/ (g for glow) such that color triplets become glow triplets. With this breaking pattern, there should exist low-mass, fractionally-charged diquark states that are not strongly bound to nuclei, but are rarely produced at present accelerator facilities. The breaking of QCD can be done with a 27/sup c/, in which case, this strong interaction theory is easily embedded in unified models such as those based on SU/sub 5/, SO/sub 10/, or E/sub 6/.

  16. Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Jozef J.

    2016-05-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel π >K, ηK scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  17. Exclusive hadronic and nuclear processes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-12-01

    Hadronic and nuclear processes are covered, in which all final particles are measured at large invariant masses compared with each other, i.e., large momentum transfer exclusive reactions. Hadronic wave functions in QCD and QCD sum rule constraints on hadron wave functions are discussed. The question of the range of applicability of the factorization formula and perturbation theory for exclusive processes is considered. Some consequences of quark and gluon degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed which are outside the usual domain of traditional nuclear physics. 44 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

  18. Perturbative QCD at Finite Temperature and Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niégawa, A.

    This is a comprehensive review on the perturbative hot QCD including the recent developments. The main body of the review is concentrated upon dealing with physical quantities like reaction rates. Contents: S1. Introduction, S2. Perturbative thermal field theory: Feynman rules, S3. Reaction-rate formula, S4. Hard-thermal-loop resummation scheme in hot QCD, S5. Effective action, S6. Hard modes with |P2| ≤ O (g2 T2), S7. Application to the computation of physical quantities, S8. Beyond the hard-thermal-loop resummation scheme, S9. Conclusions.

  19. Hadron interaction at high energies in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryskin, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction radius for the processes with all the momenta qti ≥ Q0 is calculated in the LLA of the perturbative QCD. The slope of the elastic cross section, B, increases with the energy as B = R2/2 ˜ √ αsln s/ Q02. The role of absorption corrections and the difference between nonenhanced (eikonal) and semienhanced (fan) screening corrections are discussed. In the last section the high Et jet production is considered in the diffraction dissociation processes. The predictions of QCD LLA agree well with the data of UA-8 experiment.

  20. The odderon intercept in perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauron, P.; Lipatov, L. N.; Nicolescu, B.

    1994-06-01

    We construct, in the framework of QCD, the conformally invariant functional whose maximal value gives the J-plane location of the leading singularity of the t-channel partial waves in LLA for diagrams with n reggeized gluons. In the case of the odderon the wave function in the impact-parameter space depends on only one anharmonic ratio and the corresponding functional is significantly simplified. By using a variational method with conformal techniques we show that the odderon J-plane singularity in the LLA approximation of QCD lies above 1.

  1. Collimation of average multiplicity in QCD jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arleo, François; Pérez Ramos, Redamy

    2009-11-01

    The collimation of average multiplicity inside quark and gluon jets is investigated in perturbative QCD in the modified leading logarithmic approximation (MLLA). The role of higher order corrections accounting for energy conservation and the running of the coupling constant leads to smaller multiplicity collimation as compared to leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) results. The collimation of jets produced in heavy-ion collisions has also been explored by using medium-modified splitting functions enhanced in the infrared sector. As compared to elementary collisions, the angular distribution of the jet multiplicity is found to broaden in QCD media at all energy scales.

  2. Conformal properties of the odderon in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauron, Pierre; Lipatov, Lev; Nicolescu, Basarab

    1991-05-01

    We construct, in the framework of QCD, the conformally invariant functional whose maximal value gives the J-plane location of the leading singularity of the t-channel partial waves in LLA for diagrams with n reggeized gluons. In the case of the odderon the wave function in impact-parameter space depends on only one anharmonic ratio and the corresponding functional is significantly simplified. We discuss in the variational approach the relation between the odderon and the pomeron in QCD. A semiquantitative argument is given that the intercept of the odderon in LLA is probably bigger than 1.

  3. Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions from QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Low-energy neutron-Sigma- interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase shifts for this system are obtained from Lattice QCD calculations, performed at a pion mass of 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes and at one lattice spacing, and are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The interactions determined from QCD are consistent with those extracted from hyperon-nucleon experimental data within uncertainties.

  4. The instanton liquid model of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Blotz, A.

    1998-12-31

    Within a microscopic model for the non-perturbative vacuum of QCD, hadronic correlation functions are calculated. In the model the vacuum is a statistical, interacting ensemble of instantons and anti-instantons at the scale of {Lambda}{sub QCD}. Hadronic two-point as well as three-point correlation functions are evaluated and compared with phenomenological information about the spectra, couplings and form factors. Especially the electro magnetic form factor of the pion is obtained and new predictions for the charm contribution to DIS structure functions are made.

  5. Experimental Study of Nucleon Structure and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2012-03-01

    Overview of Experimental Study of Nucleon Structure and QCD, with focus on the spin structure. Nucleon (spin) Structure provides valuable information on QCD dynamics. A decade of experiments from JLab yields these exciting results: (1) valence spin structure, duality; (2) spin sum rules and polarizabilities; (3) precision measurements of g{sub 2} - high-twist; and (4) first neutron transverse spin results - Collins/Sivers/A{sub LT}. There is a bright future as the 12 GeV Upgrade will greatly enhance our capability: (1) Precision determination of the valence quark spin structure flavor separation; and (2) Precision extraction of transversity/tensor charge/TMDs.

  6. Recent QCD Results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Vellidis, Costas

    2015-10-10

    Four years after the shutdown of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider, the two Tevatron experiments, CDF and DZero, continue producing important results that test the theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The experiments exploit the advantages of the data sample acquired during the Tevatron Run II, stemming from the unique pp initial state, the clean environment at the relatively low Tevatron instantaneous luminosities, and the good understanding of the data sample after many years of calibrations and optimizations. A summary of results using the full integrated luminosity is presented, focusing on measurements of prompt photon production, weak boson production associated with jets, and non-perturbative QCD processes.

  7. Finite volume QCD at fixed topological charge

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Sinya; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2007-09-01

    In finite volume the partition function of QCD with a given {theta} is a sum of different topological sectors with a weight primarily determined by the topological susceptibility. If a physical observable is evaluated only in a fixed topological sector, the result deviates from the true expectation value by an amount proportional to the inverse space-time volume 1/V. Using the saddle point expansion, we derive formulas to express the correction due to the fixed topological charge in terms of a 1/V expansion. Applying this formula, we propose a class of methods to determine the topological susceptibility in QCD from various correlation functions calculated in a fixed topological sector.

  8. Chiral logarithms in quenched QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; S. J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F. X. Lee; K. F. Liu; N. Mathur; and J. B. Zhang

    2004-08-01

    The quenched chiral logarithms are examined on a 163x28 lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant fpi is used to set the lattice spacing, a = 0.200(3) fm. With pion mass as low as {approx}180 MeV, we see the quenched chiral logarithms clearly in mpi2/m and fP, the pseudoscalar decay constant. The authors analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) to apply. With the constrained curve-fitting method, they are able to extract the quenched chiral logarithmic parameter delta together with other low-energy parameters. Only for mpi<=300 MeV do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant delta which they determine to be 0.24(3)(4) (at the chiral scale Lambdachi = 0.8 GeV). By comparing to the 123x28 lattice, they estimate the finite volume effect to be about 2.7% for the smallest pion mass. They also fitted the pion mass to the form for the re-summed cactus diagrams and found that its applicable region is extended farther than the range for the one-loop formula, perhaps up to mpi {approx}500-600 MeV. The scale independent delta is determined to be 0.20(3) in this case. The authors study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon mass and find that the coefficient C1/2 in the nucleon mass is consistent with the prediction of one-loop chiPT. They also obtain the low energy constant L5 from fpi. They conclude from this study that it is imperative to cover only the range of data with the pion mass less than {approx}300 MeV in order to examine the chiral behavior of the hadron masses and decay constants in quenched QCD and match them with quenched one-loop chiPT.

  9. The search for QCD exotica

    SciTech Connect

    Dzierba, A.R.

    1995-10-01

    One of the open questions in non-perturbative QCD has to do with the existence of meson states predicted by the theory other than qq states. These include four-quark states (q{sup 2}q{sup 2} or molecules like KK), states of pure glue (glueballs: gg or ggg) and mixed or hybrid states (qqg). The prima facie candidate for a non-qq state would be one possessing exotic quantum numbers, J{sup PC}, not consistent with a qq combination. Examples include J{sup PC}=0{sup +-},{sup 0--},{sup -+},{hor_ellipsis} Remarkably, states with exotic quantum numbers have not been found despite intensive searches. The case for a possible sighting of an exotic J{sup Jc}= 1{sup -+} state decaying into {eta}{pi}{sup O}, made a few years ago, seems to be dissolving. Yet, the evidence for non-qq states is clearly present. Conventional qq nonets are over-subscribed, states have been found with decay modes or production characteristics peculiar for qq. The experimental lesson we have learned is that information from a number of complementary processes must be brought together in order to understand the meson spectrum. Information has come from e{sup +}e{sup -},{gamma}{gamma}, {gamma}{gamma}, and pp collisions, from vector meson decays and from peripheral and central hadroproduction. This talk will review the status of the experimental search. I will especially point out how new technology is being brought to bear on the re-visit of the light quark sector. New instrumentation allows for sophisticated and selective triggers. The recent explosion in computing power allows us to analyze data with unprecedented statistics. Preliminary results from a recently completed, ultra-high statistics experiment using the Multiparticle Spectrometer at Brookhaven Lab will be presented. I will also describe the extension of the search to CEBAF, where an approved experiment there will study the sub-structure of scalar mesons via the radiative decays of the ER meson.

  10. The Chroma Software System for Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards; Balint Joo

    2004-06-01

    We describe aspects of the Chroma software system for lattice QCD calculations. Chroma is an open source C++ based software system developed using the software infrastructure of the US SciDAC initiative. Chroma interfaces with output from the BAGEL assembly generator for optimized lattice fermion kernels on some architectures. It can be run on workstations, clusters and the QCDOC supercomputer.

  11. QCD results from D-Zero

    SciTech Connect

    Varelas, N.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-10-01

    We present recent results on jet production, dijet angular distributions, W+ Jets, and color coherence from p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider using the D0 detector. The data are compared to perturbative QCD calculations or to predictions of parton shower based Monte Carlo models.

  12. QCD in hadron-hadron collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.

    1997-03-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics provides a good description of many aspects of high energy hadron-hadron collisions, and this will be described, along with some aspects that are not yet understood in QCD. Topics include high E{sub T} jet production, direct photon, W, Z and heavy flavor production, rapidity gaps and hard diffraction.

  13. Heavy quark masses from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, Andrew T.

    2016-07-01

    Progress in quark mass determinations from lattice QCD is reviewed, focusing on results for charm and bottom mass. These are of particular interest for precision Higgs studies. Recent determinations have achieved percent-level uncertainties with controlled systematics. Future prospects for these calculations are also discussed.

  14. Exploring Hyperons and Hypernuclei with Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Beane; P.F. Bedaque; A. Parreno; M.J. Savage

    2005-01-01

    In this work we outline a program for lattice QCD that would provide a first step toward understanding the strong and weak interactions of strange baryons. The study of hypernuclear physics has provided a significant amount of information regarding the structure and weak decays of light nuclei containing one or two Lambda's, and Sigma's. From a theoretical standpoint, little is known about the hyperon-nucleon interaction, which is required input for systematic calculations of hypernuclear structure. Furthermore, the long-standing discrepancies in the P-wave amplitudes for nonleptonic hyperon decays remain to be understood, and their resolution is central to a better understanding of the weak decays of hypernuclei. We present a framework that utilizes Luscher's finite-volume techniques in lattice QCD to extract the scattering length and effective range for Lambda-N scattering in both QCD and partially-quenched QCD. The effective theory describing the nonleptonic decays of hyperons using isospin symmetry alone, appropriate for lattice calculations, is constructed.

  15. THE TOP QUARK, QCD, AND NEW PHYSICS.

    SciTech Connect

    DAWSON,S.

    2002-06-01

    The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup +}e{sup -} + t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup +}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.

  16. Kaon Decays from AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Schvellinger, Martin

    2008-07-28

    We briefly review one of the current applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence known as AdS/QCD and discuss about the calculation of four-point quark-flavour current correlation functions and their applications to the calculation of observables related to neutral kaon decays and neutral kaon mixing processes.

  17. From continuum QCD to hadron observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binosi, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    We show that the form of the renormalization group invariant quark-gluon interaction predicted by a refined nonperturbative analysis of the QCD gauge sector is in quantitative agreement with the one required for describing a wide range of hadron observables using sophisticated truncation schemes of the Schwinger-Dyson equations relevant in the matter sector.

  18. The CKM Matrix from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, Paul B.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Lattice QCD plays an essential role in testing and determining the parameters of the CKM theory of flavor mixing and CP violation. Very high precisions are required for lattice calculations analyzing CKM data; I discuss the prospects for achieving them. Lattice calculations will also play a role in investigating flavor mixing and CP violation beyond the Standard Model.

  19. On-Shell Methods in Perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.

    2007-04-25

    We review on-shell methods for computing multi-parton scattering amplitudes in perturbative QCD, utilizing their unitarity and factorization properties. We focus on aspects which are useful for the construction of one-loop amplitudes needed for phenomenological studies at the Large Hadron Collider.

  20. QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS-VOLUME 15.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAFER,T.

    1998-11-04

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some. efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  1. Visualization Tools for Lattice QCD - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Massimo Di Pierro

    2012-03-15

    Our research project is about the development of visualization tools for Lattice QCD. We developed various tools by extending existing libraries, adding new algorithms, exposing new APIs, and creating web interfaces (including the new NERSC gauge connection web site). Our tools cover the full stack of operations from automating download of data, to generating VTK files (topological charge, plaquette, Polyakov lines, quark and meson propagators, currents), to turning the VTK files into images, movies, and web pages. Some of the tools have their own web interfaces. Some Lattice QCD visualization have been created in the past but, to our knowledge, our tools are the only ones of their kind since they are general purpose, customizable, and relatively easy to use. We believe they will be valuable to physicists working in the field. They can be used to better teach Lattice QCD concepts to new graduate students; they can be used to observe the changes in topological charge density and detect possible sources of bias in computations; they can be used to observe the convergence of the algorithms at a local level and determine possible problems; they can be used to probe heavy-light mesons with currents and determine their spatial distribution; they can be used to detect corrupted gauge configurations. There are some indirect results of this grant that will benefit a broader audience than Lattice QCD physicists.

  2. QCD parton model at collider energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.K.

    1984-09-01

    Using the example of vector boson production, the application of the QCD improved parton model at collider energies is reviewed. The reliability of the extrapolation to SSC energies is assessed. Predictions at ..sqrt..S = 0.54 TeV are compared with data. 21 references.

  3. Nonperturbative QCD corrections to electroweak observables

    SciTech Connect

    Dru B Renner, Xu Feng, Karl Jansen, Marcus Petschlies

    2011-12-01

    Nonperturbative QCD corrections are important to many low-energy electroweak observables, for example the muon magnetic moment. However, hadronic corrections also play a significant role at much higher energies due to their impact on the running of standard model parameters, such as the electromagnetic coupling. Currently, these hadronic contributions are accounted for by a combination of experimental measurements and phenomenological modeling but ideally should be calculated from first principles. Recent developments indicate that many of the most important hadronic corrections may be feasibly calculated using lattice QCD methods. To illustrate this, we will examine the lattice computation of the leading-order QCD corrections to the muon magnetic moment, paying particular attention to a recently developed method but also reviewing the results from other calculations. We will then continue with several examples that demonstrate the potential impact of the new approach: the leading-order corrections to the electron and tau magnetic moments, the running of the electromagnetic coupling, and a class of the next-to-leading-order corrections for the muon magnetic moment. Along the way, we will mention applications to the Adler function, the determination of the strong coupling constant and QCD corrections to muonic-hydrogen.

  4. Lattice QCD on a Beowulf Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kima, Seyong

    Using commodity component personal computers based on Alpha processor and commodity network devices and a switch, we built an 8-node parallel computer. GNU/Linux is chosen as an operating system and message passing libraries such as PVM, LAM, and MPICH have been tested as a parallel programming environment. We discuss our lattice QCD project for a heavy quark system on this computer.

  5. Pluto results on jets and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Pluto collaboration

    1981-02-01

    Results obtained with the PLUTO detector at PETRA are presented. Multihadron final states have been analysed with respect to clustering, energy-energy correlations and transverse momenta in jets. QCD predictions for hard gluon emission and soft gluon-quark cascades are discussed. Results on ..cap alpha../sub s/ and the gluon spin are given.

  6. QCD Evolution of Helicity and Transversity TMDs

    SciTech Connect

    Prokudin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    We examine the QCD evolution of the helicity and transversity parton distribution functions when including also their dependence on transverse momentum. Using an appropriate definition of these polarized transverse momentum distributions (TMDs), we describe their dependence on the factorization scale and rapidity cutoff, which is essential for phenomenological applications.

  7. Quark screening lengths in finite temperature QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gocksch, A. California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA . Inst. for Theoretical Physics)

    1990-11-01

    We have computed Landau gauge quark propagators in both the confined and deconfined phase of QCD. I discuss the magnitude of the resulting screening lengths as well as aspects of chiral symmetry relevant to the quark propagator. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. QCD for Postgraduates (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Modern QCD - Lecture 3 We will introduce processes with initial-state hadrons and discuss parton distributions, sum rules, as well as the need for a factorization scale once radiative corrections are taken into account. We will then discuss the DGLAP equation, the evolution of parton densities, as well as ways in which parton densities are extracted from data.

  9. Gauged Axions and their QCD Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Coriano, Claudio; Mariano, Antonio; Guzzi, Marco

    2010-12-22

    We present a brief overview of axion models associated to anomalous abelian (gauge) symmetries, discussing their main phenomenological features. Among these, the mechanism of vacuum misalignment introduced at the QCD and at the electroweak phase transitions, with the appearance of periodic potentials, responsible for the generation of a mass for these types of axions.

  10. Dual condensate and QCD phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Bo; Bruckmann, Falk; Fodor, Zoltan; Szabo, Kalman K.; Gattringer, Christof

    2011-05-23

    The dual condensate is a new QCD phase transition order parameter, which connnects confinement and chiral symmetry breaking as different mass limits. We discuss the relation between the fermion spectrum at general boundary conditions and the dual condensate and show numerical results for the latter from unquenched SU(3) lattice configurations.

  11. Marking up lattice QCD configurations and ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    P.Coddington; B.Joo; C.M.Maynard; D.Pleiter; T.Yoshie

    2007-10-01

    QCDml is an XML-based markup language designed for sharing QCD configurations and ensembles world-wide via the International Lattice Data Grid (ILDG). Based on the latest release, we present key ingredients of the QCDml in order to provide some starting points for colleagues in this community to markup valuable configurations and submit them to the ILDG.

  12. The hadron spectrum from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Peardon, Mike

    2010-08-05

    Lattice spectroscopy is becoming increasingly sophisticated. This review will introduce the methodology and describe progress made recently probing the spectrum of excitations of QCD. The focus will be on describing new developments that enable excited states, exotic quantum numbers and resonances to be explored.

  13. The Top Quark, QCD, And New Physics.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dawson, S.

    2002-06-01

    The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup+}e{sup -}+ t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup+}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.

  14. QCD subgroup on diffractive and forward physics

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.G.; Baker, W.; Bhatti, A.

    1996-10-01

    The goal is to understand the pomeron, and hence the behavior of total cross sections, elastic scattering and diffractive excitation, in terms of the underlying theory, QCD. A description of the basic ideas and phenomenology is followed by a discussion of hadron-hadron and electron-proton experiments. An appendix lists recommended diffractive-physics terms and definitions. 44 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Big bang nucleosynthesis and ΛQCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.

    2003-11-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) has increasingly become the tool of choice for investigating the permitted variation of fundamental constants during the earliest epochs of the Universe. Here we present a BBN calculation that has been modified to permit changes in the QCD scale, ΛQCD. The primary effects of changing the QCD scale upon BBN are through the deuteron binding energy BD and the neutron-proton mass difference δmnp, which both play crucial roles in determining the primordial abundances. In this paper we show how a simplified BBN calculation allows us to restrict the nuclear data we need to just BD and δmnp yet still gives useful results so that any variation in ΛQCD may be constrained via the corresponding shifts in BD and δmnp by using the current estimates of the primordial deuterium abundance and helium mass fraction. The simplification predicts the helium-4 and deuterium abundances to within 1% and 50%, respectively, when compared with the results of a standard BBN code. But ΛQCD also affects much of the remaining required nuclear input so this method introduces a systematic error into the calculation and we find a degeneracy between BD and δmnp. We show how increased understanding of the relationship of the pion mass and/or BD to other nuclear parameters, such as the binding energy of tritium and the cross section of T+D→4He+n, would yield constraints upon any change in BD and δmnp at the 10% level.

  16. Light-cone quantization and QCD phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Robertson, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    In principle, quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of their elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. A crucial tool in analyzing such phenomena is the use of relativistic light-cone quantum mechanics and Fock state methods to provide tractable and consistent treatments of relativistic many-body systems. In this article we present an overview of this formalism applied to QCD, focusing in particular on applications to the final states in deep inelastic lepton scattering that will be relevant for the proposed European Laboratory for Electrons (ELFE), HERMES, HERA, SLAC, and CEBAF. We begin with a brief introduction to light-cone field theory, stressing how it many allow the derivation of a constituent picture, analogous to the constituent quark model, from QCD. We then discuss several applications of the light-cone Fock state formalism to QCD phenomenology. The Fock state representation includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including far off-shell configurations such as intrinsic charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. In some applications, such as exclusive processes at large momentum transfer, one can make first-principle predictions using factorization theorems which separate the hard perturbative dynamics from the nonpertubative physics associated with hadron binding. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer.

  17. Development of parallel DEM for the open source code MFIX

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Tafti, Danesh

    2013-02-01

    The paper presents the development of a parallel Discrete Element Method (DEM) solver for the open source code, Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) based on the domain decomposition method. The performance of the code was evaluated by simulating a bubbling fluidized bed with 2.5 million particles. The DEM solver shows strong scalability up to 256 processors with an efficiency of 81%. Further, to analyze weak scaling, the static height of the fluidized bed was increased to hold 5 and 10 million particles. The results show that global communication cost increases with problem size while the computational cost remains constant. Further, the effects of static bed height on the bubble hydrodynamics and mixing characteristics are analyzed.

  18. DEM interpolation weight calculation modulus based on maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian-wei; Yang, Xia

    2015-12-01

    There is negative-weight in traditional interpolation of gridding DEM, in the article, the principle of Maximum Entropy is utilized to analyze the model system which depends on modulus of space weight. Negative-weight problem of the DEM interpolation is researched via building Maximum Entropy model, and adding nonnegative, first and second order's Moment constraints, the negative-weight problem is solved. The correctness and accuracy of the method was validated with genetic algorithm in matlab program. The method is compared with the method of Yang Chizhong interpolation and quadratic program. Comparison shows that the volume and scaling of Maximum Entropy's weight is fit to relations of space and the accuracy is superior to the latter two.

  19. A description of rotations for DEM models of particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campello, Eduardo M. B.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we show how a vector parameterization of rotations can be adopted to describe the rotational motion of particles within the framework of the discrete element method (DEM). It is based on the use of a special rotation vector, called Rodrigues rotation vector, and accounts for finite rotations in a fully exact manner. The use of fictitious entities such as quaternions or complicated structures such as Euler angles is thereby circumvented. As an additional advantage, stick-slip friction models with inter-particle rolling motion are made possible in a consistent and elegant way. A few examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of the scheme. We believe that simple vector descriptions of rotations are very useful for DEM models of particle systems.

  20. Effect of DEM mesh size on AnnAGNPS simulation and slope correction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Lin, Q

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the impact of the mesh size of the digital elevation model (DEM) on terrain attributes within an Annualized AGricultural NonPoint Source pollution (AnnAGNPS) Model simulation at watershed scale and provide a correction of slope gradient for low resolution DEMs. The effect of different grid sizes of DEMs on terrain attributes was examined by comparing eight DEMs (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 m). The accuracy of the AnnAGNPS stimulation on runoff, sediments, and nutrient loads is evaluated. The results are as follows: (1) Rnoff does not vary much with decrease of DEM resolution whereas soil erosion and total nitrogen (TN) load change prominently. There is little effect on runoff simulation of AnnAGNPS modeling by the amended slope using an adjusted 50 m DEM. (2) A decrease of sediment yield and TN load is observed with an increase of DEM mesh size from 30 to 60 m; a slight decrease of sediment and TN load with the DEM mesh size bigger than 60 m. There is similar trend for total phosphorus (TP) variation, but with less range of variation, the simulation of sediment, TN, and TP increase, in which sediment increase up to 1.75 times compared to the model using unadjusted 50 m DEM. In all, the amended simulation still has a large difference relative to the results using 30 m DEM. AnnAGNPS is less reliable for sediment loading prediction in a small hilly watershed. (3) Resolution of DEM has significant impact on slope gradient. The average, minimum, maximum of slope from the various DEMs reduced obviously with the decrease of DEM precision. For the grade of 0∼15°, the slopes at lower resolution DEM are generally bigger than those at higher resolution DEM. But for the grade bigger than 15°, the slopes at lower resolution DEM are generally smaller than those at higher resolution DEM. So it is necessary to adjust the slope with a fitting equation. A cubic model is used for correction of slope gradient from lower resolution to

  1. Separability of soils in a tallgrass prairie using SPOT and DEM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Haiping; Ransom, Michel D.; Yang, Shie-Shien; Kanemasu, Edward T.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation is conducted which uses a canonical transformation technique to reduce the features from SPOT and DEM data and evaluates the statistical separability of several prairie soils from the canonically transformed variables. Both SPOT and DEM data was gathered for a tallgrass prairie near Manhattan, Kansas, and high resolution SPOT satellite images were integrated with DEM data. Two canonical variables derived from training samples were selected and it is suggested that canonically transformed data were superior to combined SPOT and DEM data. High resolution SPOT images and DEM data can be used to aid second-order soil surveys in grasslands.

  2. BOREAS Regional DEM in Raster Format and AEAC Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Verdin, Kristine; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set is based on the GTOPO30 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) produced by the United States Geological Survey EROS Data Center (USGS EDC). The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) region (1,000 km x 1000 km) was extracted from the GTOPO30 data and reprojected by BOREAS staff into the Albers Equal-Area Conic (AEAC) projection. The pixel size of these data is 1 km. The data are stored in binary, image format files.

  3. Mapping debris-flow hazard in Honolulu using a DEM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellen, Stephen D.; Mark, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    A method for mapping hazard posed by debris flows has been developed and applied to an area near Honolulu, Hawaii. The method uses studies of past debris flows to characterize sites of initiation, volume at initiation, and volume-change behavior during flow. Digital simulations of debris flows based on these characteristics are then routed through a digital elevation model (DEM) to estimate degree of hazard over the area.

  4. Development of a 'bare-earth' SRTM DEM product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Paiva, Rodrigo; Durand, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Bates, Paul

    2015-04-01

    We present the methodology and results from the development of a near-global 'bare-earth' Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. Digital Elevation Models are the most important input for hydraulic modelling, as the DEM quality governs the accuracy of the model outputs. While SRTM is currently the best near-globally [60N to 60S] available DEM, it requires adjustments to reduce the vegetation contamination and make it useful for hydrodynamic modelling over heavily vegetated areas (e.g. tropical wetlands). Unlike previous methods of accounting for vegetation contamination, which concentrated on correcting relatively small areas and usually applied a static adjustment, we account for vegetation contamination globally and apply a spatial varying correction, based on information about canopy height and density. In creating the final 'bare-earth' SRTM DEM dataset, we produced three different 'bare-earth' SRTM products. The first applies global parameters, while the second and third products apply parameters that are regionalised based on either climatic zones or vegetation types, respectively. We also tested two different canopy density proxies of different spatial resolution. Using ground elevations obtained from the ICESat GLA14 satellite altimeter, we calculate the residual errors for the raw SRTM and the three 'bare-earth' SRTM products and compare performances. The three 'bare-earth' products all show large improvements over the raw SRTM in vegetated areas with the overall mean bias reduced by between 75 and 92% from 4.94 m to 0.40 m. The overall standard deviation is reduced by between 29 and 33 % from 7.12 m to 4.80 m. As expected, improvements are higher in areas with denser vegetation. The final 'bare-earth' SRTM dataset is available at 3 arc-second with lower vertical height errors and less noise than the original SRTM product.

  5. Efficient parallel CFD-DEM simulations using OpenMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amritkar, Amit; Deb, Surya; Tafti, Danesh

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes parallelization strategies for the Discrete Element Method (DEM) used for simulating dense particulate systems coupled to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). While the field equations of CFD are best parallelized by spatial domain decomposition techniques, the N-body particulate phase is best parallelized over the number of particles. When the two are coupled together, both modes are needed for efficient parallelization. It is shown that under these requirements, OpenMP thread based parallelization has advantages over MPI processes. Two representative examples, fairly typical of dense fluid-particulate systems are investigated, including the validation of the DEM-CFD and thermal-DEM implementation with experiments. Fluidized bed calculations are performed on beds with uniform particle loading, parallelized with MPI and OpenMP. It is shown that as the number of processing cores and the number of particles increase, the communication overhead of building ghost particle lists at processor boundaries dominates time to solution, and OpenMP which does not require this step is about twice as fast as MPI. In rotary kiln heat transfer calculations, which are characterized by spatially non-uniform particle distributions, the low overhead of switching the parallelization mode in OpenMP eliminates the load imbalances, but introduces increased overheads in fetching non-local data. In spite of this, it is shown that OpenMP is between 50-90% faster than MPI.

  6. Validation of DEM prediction for granular avalanches on irregular terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Stuart R.; Cleary, Paul W.

    2015-09-01

    Accurate numerical simulation can provide crucial information useful for a greater understanding of destructive granular mass movements such as rock avalanches, landslides, and pyroclastic flows. It enables more informed and relatively low cost investigation of significant risk factors, mitigation strategy effectiveness, and sensitivity to initial conditions, material, or soil properties. In this paper, a granular avalanche experiment from the literature is reanalyzed and used as a basis to assess the accuracy of discrete element method (DEM) predictions of avalanche flow. Discrete granular approaches such as DEM simulate the motion and collisions of individual particles and are useful for identifying and investigating the controlling processes within an avalanche. Using a superquadric shape representation, DEM simulations were found to accurately reproduce transient and static features of the avalanche. The effect of material properties on the shape of the avalanche deposit was investigated. The simulated avalanche deposits were found to be sensitive to particle shape and friction, with the particle shape causing the sensitivity to friction to vary. The importance of particle shape, coupled with effect on the sensitivity to friction, highlights the importance of quantifying and including particle shape effects in numerical modeling of granular avalanches.

  7. DEM processing for the analysis of hydraulic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresen, M.

    2003-04-01

    The digital analysis of hydrological processes and hydraulic hazards requires high data accuracy especially for topographic data that can not be insured by standard digital elevation models (DEMs). For this reason the terrain analysis and the analysis of topographical factors are highly significant for the modelling of hydrological processes. Most of the common GIS do not fulfill these requirements and do not allow detailed process oriented analysis. As a result, the estimation of hazard potential as well as the derivation of possible effects of catastrophic events are not possible. Due to this the improvement of DEM creation and expansion of placeable methods and functionalities have high priority in hydraulic hazard assessment. We can demonstrate that the quality of DEMs can be clearly improved with the help of different extensions and adaptations. The comparison of different flood events in Europe reveal the better accuracy of topographical factors and the derived hydrological parameters. In this way the simulation of hydrological processes and hydraulic hazards can be improved.

  8. Interpolation and elevation errors: the impact of the DEM resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilleos, Georgios A.

    2015-06-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are developing and evolving at a fast pace, given the progress of computer science and technology. This development though, is not accompanied by an advancement of knowledge on the quality of the models and their indigenous inaccuracy. The user on most occasions is not aware of this quality thus in not aware of the correlating product uncertainty. Extensive research has been conducted - and still is - towards this direction. In the research presented in this paper there is an analysis of elevation errors behavior which are recorded in a DEM. The behavior of these elevation errors, is caused by altering the DEM resolution upon the application of the algorithm interpolation. Contour lines are used as entry data from a topographical map. Elevation errors are calculated in the positions of the initial entry data and wherever the elevation is known. The elevation errors that are recorded, are analyzed, in order to reach conclusions about their distribution and the way in which they occur.

  9. Understanding QCD at high density from a Z3 -symmetric QCD-like theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouno, Hiroaki; Kashiwa, Kouji; Takahashi, Junichi; Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2016-03-01

    We investigate QCD at large μ /T by using Z3-symmetric S U (3 ) gauge theory, where μ is the quark-number chemical potential and T is temperature. We impose the flavor-dependent twist boundary condition on quarks in QCD. This QCD-like theory has the twist angle θ as a parameter, and agrees with QCD when θ =0 and becomes symmetric when θ =2 π /3 . For both QCD and the Z3-symmetric S U (3 ) gauge theory, the phase diagram is drawn in μ -T plane with the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the Z3-symmetric S U (3 ) gauge theory, the Polyakov loop φ is zero in the confined phase appearing at T ≲200 MeV and μ ≲300 MeV . The perfectly confined phase never coexists with the color superconducting (CSC) phase, since finite diquark condensate in the CSC phase breaks Z3 symmetry and then makes φ finite. When μ ≳300 MeV , the CSC phase is more stable than the perfectly confined phase at T ≲100 MeV . Meanwhile, the chiral symmetry can be broken in the perfectly confined phase, since the chiral condensate is Z3 invariant. Consequently, the perfectly confined phase is divided into the perfectly confined phase without chiral symmetry restoration in a region of μ ≲300 MeV and T ≲200 MeV and the perfectly confined phase with chiral symmetry restoration in a region of μ ≳300 MeV and 100 ≲T ≲200 MeV . At low temperature, the basic phase structure of Z3-symmetric QCD-like theory remains in QCD. Properties of the sign problem in Z3-symmetric theory are also discussed. We discuss a numerical framework to evaluate observables at θ =0 from those at θ =2 π /3 .

  10. A NEW INSAR DERIVED DEM OF BLACK RAPIDS GLACIER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugar, D. H.; Rabus, B.; Clague, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We have constructed a new digital elevation model representing the 1995 surface of surge-type Black Rapids Glacier and the surrounding central Alaska Range, using ERS-1/2 repeat-pass interferometry. First, we isolated the topographic phase from three interferograms with contrasting perpendicular baselines. Next we attempted to automatically unwrap this topographic phase but encountered numerous errors due to the terrain containing areas of poor coherence from fringe aliasing, radar layover or shadow. We then consistently corrected these persistent phase-unwrapping errors in all three interferograms using an iterative semi-automated approach that capitalizes on the multi-baseline nature of the data set. Over the surface of Black Rapids Glacier, the accuracy of the new DEM is estimated at better than +/- 12 m. Ground-surveyed spot elevations from 1995 corroborate this accuracy estimate. Comparison of the new DEM with a 1951 U.S. Geological Survey topographic map, and with ground survey data from other years, shows the gradual return of Black Rapids Glacier to pre-surge conditions. In the 44-year period between 1951 and 1995 the observed average steepening of the longitudinal profile is ~0.6°. The maximum elevation changes in the ablation and accumulation zones are -256 m and +75 m, respectively, suggesting corresponding average rates of elevation change of about -5.8 m/yr and +1.7 m/yr. These rates are 1.5-2 times higher than those indicated by the ground survey spot elevation measurements over the period 1975 to 2005. Considering the significant overlap of the two periods of measurement, the inferred average rates for 1951-1975 would have to be very large (-7.5 m/yr and +2.3 m/yr, respectively) for these two findings to be consistent. A second comparison with the recently released ASTER G-DEM (data from 2001) led to no glaciologically usable results due to major artifacts in the ASTER G-DEM. We therefore conclude that the 1951 U.S. Geological Survey map and the

  11. Exploring Three Nucleon Forces in Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Takumi

    2011-10-21

    We study the three nucleon force in N{sub f} = 2 dynamical clover fermion lattice QCD, utilizing the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter wave function of the three nucleon system. Since parity-odd two nucleon potentials are not available in lattice QCD at this moment, we develop a new formulation to extract the genuine three nucleon force which requires only the information of parity-even two nucleon potentials. In order to handle the extremely expensive calculation cost, we consider a specific three-dimensional coordinate configuration for the three nucleons. We find that the linear setup is advantageous, where nucleons are aligned linearly with equal spacings. The lattice calculation is performed with 16{sup 3}x32 configurations at {beta} = 1.95, m{sub {pi}} = 1.13 GeV generated by CP-PACS Collaboration, and the result of the three nucleon force in triton channel is presented.

  12. CHARMONIUM EXCITED STATES FROM LATTICE QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; Nilmani Mathur; David Richards

    2007-11-20

    We apply the variational method with a large basis of interpolating operators to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting multiple excited states in charmonium from lattice QCD. The calculation is performed in the quenched approximation to QCD, using the clover fermion action on an anisotropic lattice. A crucial element of our approach is a knowledge of the continuum limit of the interpolating operators, providing important additional information on the spin assignment of the states, even at a single value of the lattice spacing. Though we find excited-state masses that are systematically high with respect to the quark potential model, and the experimental masses where known, we attribute this as most likely an artifact of the quenched approximation.

  13. The {Lambda}(1405) in Full QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Menadue, Benjamin J.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Mahbub, M. Selim

    2011-12-14

    At 1405.1 MeV, the lowest-lying negative-parity state of the {Lambda} baryon lies surprising low. Indeed, this is lower than the lowest negative-parity state of the nucleon, even though the {Lambda}(1405) possesses a valence strange quark. However, previous Lattice QCD studies have been unable to identify such a low-lying state. Using the PACS-CS (2+1)-flavour full-QCD ensembles, available through the ILDG, we utilise a variational analysis with source and sink smearing to isolate this elusive state. We find three low-lying odd-parity states, and for the first time reproduce the correct level ordering with respect to the nearby scattering thresholds.

  14. Nucleon Structure from Dynamical Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Huey-Wen Lin

    2007-06-01

    We present lattice QCD numerical calculations of hadronic structure functions and form factors from full-QCD lattices, with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for the sea and valence quarks. The lattice spacing is about 0.12 fm with physical volume approximately (2 fm)3 for RBC 2-flavor ensembles and (3 fm)3 for RBC/UKQCD 2+1-flavor dynamical ones. The lightest sea quark mass is about 1/2 the strange quark mass for the former ensembles and 1/4 for the latter ones. Our calculations include: isovector vector- and axial-charge form factors and the first few moments of the polarized and unpolarized structure functions of the nucleon. Nonperturbative renormalization in RI/MOM scheme is applied.

  15. Nucleon Structure from Dynamical Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.-W.

    2007-06-13

    We present lattice QCD numerical calculations of hadronic structure functions and form factors from full-QCD lattices, with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for the sea and valence quarks. The lattice spacing is about 0.12 fm with physical volume approximately (2 fm)3 for RBC 2-flavor ensembles and (3 fm)3 for RBC/UKQCD 2+1-flavor dynamical ones. The lightest sea quark mass is about 1/2 the strange quark mass for the former ensembles and 1/4 for the latter ones. Our calculations include: isovector vector- and axial-charge form factors and the first few moments of the polarized and unpolarized structure functions of the nucleon. Nonperturbative renormalization in RI/MOM scheme is applied.

  16. Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Daniel R.; Briceño, Raúl A.; Wilson, David J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a determination of the isovector, P-wave ππ scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using mπ = 236 MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of Lüscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at mπ = 140 MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to agree with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a ρ-resonance pole at Eρ = [ 755 (2) (1) (02) -i/2 129 (3) (1) (7 1) ] MeV. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities.

  17. MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tevzadze, Alexander G.; Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-11-01

    We study the evolution of QCD phase transition-generated magnetic fields (MFs) in freely decaying MHD turbulence of the expanding universe. We consider an MF generation model that starts from basic non-perturbative QCD theory and predicts stochastic MFs with an amplitude of the order of 0.02 {mu}G and small magnetic helicity. We employ direct numerical simulations to model the MHD turbulence decay and identify two different regimes: a 'weakly helical' turbulence regime, when magnetic helicity increases during decay, and 'fully helical' turbulence, when maximal magnetic helicity is reached and an inverse cascade develops. The results of our analysis show that in the most optimistic scenario the magnetic correlation length in the comoving frame can reach 10 kpc with the amplitude of the effective MF being 0.007 nG. We demonstrate that the considered model of magnetogenesis can provide the seed MF for galaxies and clusters.

  18. eta and eta' Mesons from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, N.H.; Izubuchi, T.; Dawson, C.; Jung, C.; Liu, Q.; Mawhinney, R.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Soni, A.; Zhou, R.

    2010-12-08

    The large mass of the ninth pseudoscalar meson, the {eta}{prime}, is believed to arise from the combined effects of the axial anomaly and the gauge field topology present in QCD. We report a realistic, 2+1-flavor, lattice QCD calculation of the {eta} and {eta}{prime} masses and mixing which confirms this picture. The physical eigenstates show small octet-singlet mixing with a mixing angle of {theta} = -14.1(2.8){sup o}. Extrapolation to the physical light quark mass gives, with statistical errors only, m{sub {eta}} = 573(6) MeV and m{sub {eta}} = 947(142) MeV, consistent with the experimental values of 548 and 958 MeV.

  19. Pomeron intercept and slope: A QCD connection

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2009-12-01

    The ratio r of intercept to slope of the Pomeron trajectory is derived in a QCD inspired parton model approach to diffraction based on a (re)normalization of the pp/pp single-diffractive cross section designed to enforce unitarity constraints by eliminating overlapping rapidity gaps. As the collision energy increases, the renormalized single-diffractive cross section tends to a constant which depends on the ratio r. Identifying the constant as the {sigma}{sub o} of the total cross section, {sigma}={sigma}{sub o}{center_dot}s{sup {epsilon}}, yields the ratio r in terms of measured parameters that can be phenomenologically expressed in terms of the pion mass and QCD color factors. The result agrees with the measured value of r.

  20. Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Daniel R.; Briceño, Raúl A.; Wilson, David J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a determination of the isovector, P-wave ππ scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using mπ = 236 MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of Lüscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at mπ = 140 MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to agree with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a ρ-resonance pole at Eρ = [ 755 (2) (1) (20 02) -i/2 129 (3) (1) (7 1) ] MeV. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities.

  1. Phase transitions in QCD and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campell, Bruce A.; Ellis, John; Kalara, S.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Olive, Keith A.

    1991-02-01

    We develop a unified effective field theory approach to the high-temperature phase transitions in QCD and string theory, incorporating winding modes (time-like Polyakov loops, vortices) as well as low-mass states (pseudoscalar mesons and glueballs, matter and dilaton supermultiplets). Anomalous scale invariance and the Z3 structure of the centre of SU(3) decree a first-order phase transition with simultaneous deconfinement and Polyakov loop condensation in QCD, whereas string vortex condensation is a second-order phase transition breaking a Z2 symmetry. We argue that vortex condensation is accompanied by a dilaton phase transition to a strong coupling regime, and comment on the possible role of soliton degrees of freedom in the high-temperature string phase. On leave of absence from the School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

  2. Solving QCD using multi-regge theory.

    SciTech Connect

    White, A. R.

    1998-07-13

    This talk outlines the derivation of a high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, solution of QCD in which the Regge pole and ''single gluon'' properties of the pomeron are directly related to the confinement and chiral symmetry breaking properties of the hadron spectrum. In first approximation, the pomeron is a single reggeized gluon plus a ''wee parton'' component that compensates for the color and particle properties of the gluon. This solution corresponds to a supercritical phase of Reggeon Field Theory.

  3. Diffraction theory in QCD and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.

    1987-12-11

    A study of the Pomeron in QCD is briefly outlined. Implications for the production of W/sup +/W/sup -/ and Z/sup 0/Z/sup 0/ pairs are described and the possibility that the electroweak scale is a major strong-interaction threshold discussed. The application of Pomeron phase-transition theory to SU(5) dynamical symmetry breaking is suggested and the related ''strong-interaction'' properties of the photon briefly mentioned.

  4. Excited charmonium physics from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek

    2009-12-01

    Properties of excited mesons are studied using a lattice QCD simulation of a system comparable to charmonium. We extract a spectrum of states, including those with manifestly exotic quantum numbers. Radiative transition form-factors are also computed, in particular the transition from exotic ·c1 to J /È ³ which is found to be large on the usual scale of magnetic dipole transitions.

  5. Ab initio Hadron structure from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Bratt; R.G. Edwards; M. Engelhardt; G.T. Fleming; Ph. Hägler; B. Musch; J.W. Negele; K. Orginos; A.V. Pochinsky; D.B. Renner; D.G. Richards; W. Schroers

    2007-06-01

    Early scattering experiments revealed that the proton was not a point particle but a bound state of many quarks and gluons. Deep inelastic scattering (DIS) experiments have accurately determined the probability of struck quarks carrying a fraction of the proton's momentum. The current generation of experiments and Lattice QCD calculations will provide detailed multi-dimensional pictures of the distributions of quarks and gluons inside the proton.

  6. QCD equation of state from the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Borsanyi, Sz.; Jakovac, A.; Ratti, C.; Szabo, K. K.; Endro''di, G.; Katz, S. D.; Fodor, Z.; Krieg, S.

    2011-05-23

    We calculate the QCD equation of state with 2+1 staggered lattice flavors and a physical pion mass. We present precision data on the trace anomaly and pressure based on simulations at N{sub t} = 6,8 and 10. These results are confirmed by N{sub t} = 12 simulations at three temperatures. Detailed results can be found in [arXiv:1007.2580v2].

  7. BB Potentials in Quenched Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold; Kostas Orginos; Martin J. Savage

    2007-12-01

    The potentials between two B-mesons are computed in the heavy-quark limit using quenched lattice QCD at $m_\\pi\\sim 400~{\\rm MeV}$. Non-zero central potentials are clearly evident in all four spin-isospin channels, (I,s_l) = (0,0) , (0,1) , (1,0) , (1,1), where s_l is the total spin of the light degrees of freedom. At short distance, we find repulsion in the $I\

  8. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear QCD dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2004-09-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon cross sections are computed taking into account different phenomenological implementations of the nonlinear QCD dynamics. Based on the color dipole framework, the results for the saturation model supplemented by the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution as well as for the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) formalism in the geometric scaling regime are presented. They are contrasted with recent calculations using next-to-leading order DGLAP and unified BFKL-DGLAP formalisms.

  9. Fluctuations and the QCD phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.-J.

    2012-06-15

    In this contribution the role of quantum fluctuations for the QCD phase diagram is discussed. This concerns in particular the importance of the matter back-reaction to the gluonic sector. The impact of these fluctuations on the location of the confinement/deconfinement and the chiral transition lines as well as their interrelation are investigated. Consequences of our findings for the size of a possible quarkyonic phase and location of a critical endpoint in the phase diagram are drawn.

  10. Neutrino-Nucleon Interactions and Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Richard; Kronfeld, Andreas; Meyer, Aaron

    2016-03-01

    We address techniques to make the theoretical underpinning of neutrino-nucleon scattering more robust. We see this foundation as a necessary step to disentangle fundamental physics (such as neutrino oscillation parameters) from nuclear effects. We address a reanalysis of old experiments with elementary targets, model-independent parametrizations of nucleon form factors based on analyticity, and lattice QCD calculations of the form factors. speaker.

  11. The role of the Roper in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Beane; U. van Kolck

    2005-06-01

    We show that existing data suggest a simple scenario in which the nucleon and the Delta and Roper resonances act as chiral partners in a reducible representation of the full QCD chiral symmetry group. We discuss the peculiar interpretation of this scenario using spin-flavour symmetries of the naive constituent quark model, as well as the consistency of the scenario with large-Nc expectations.

  12. B and D mesons in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2000-10-17

    Computational and theoretical developments in lattice QCD calculations of B and D mesons are surveyed. Several topical examples are given: new ideas for calculating the HQET parameters {bar {Lambda}} and {lambda}{sub 1}; form factors needed to determine {vert_bar}V{sub cb}{vert_bar} and {vert_bar}V{sub ub}{vert_bar}; bag parameters for the mass differences of the B mesons; and decay constants. Prospects for removing the quenched approximation are discussed.

  13. Assessment of Reference Height Models on Quality of Tandem-X dem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEMs) in producing high-resolution topography model using TanDEM-X (TDX) Coregistered Single Look Slant Range Complex (CoSSC) images. We selected an image acquired on Jun 12th, 2012 over Doroud region in Lorestan, west of Iran and used 4 external digital elevation models in our processing including DLR/ASI X-SAR DEM (SRTM-X, 30m resolution), ASTER GDEM Version 2 (ASTER-GDEMV2, 30m resolution), NASA SRTM Version 4 (SRTM-V4, 90m resolution), and a local photogrammetry-based DEM prepared by National Cartographic Center (NCC DEM, 10m resolution) of Iran. InSAR procedure for DEM generation was repeated four times with each of the four external height references. The quality of each external DEM was initially assessed using ICESat filtered points. Then, the quality of, each TDX-based DEM was assessed using the more precise external DEM selected in the previous step. Results showed that both local (NCC) DEM and SRTM X-band performed the best (RMSE< 9m) for TDX-DEM generation. In contrast, ASTER GDEM v2 and SRTM C-band v4 showed poorer quality.

  14. Electromagnetic polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in background fields

    SciTech Connect

    W. Detmold, B.C. Tiburzi, A. Walker-Loud

    2012-04-01

    Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study the quark mass dependence of observables with lattice QCD, the lattice will provide a crucial test of our understanding of low-energy QCD, which will be timely in light of ongoing experiments, such as at COMPASS and HI gamma S.

  15. QCD, Tevatron results and LHC prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Elvira, V.Daniel; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    We present a summary of the most recent measurements relevant to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) delivered by the D0 and CDF Tevatron experiments by May 2008. CDF and D0 are moving toward precision measurements of QCD based on data samples in excess of 1 fb-1. The inclusive jet cross sections have been extended to forward rapidity regions and measured with unprecedented precision following improvements in the jet energy calibration. Results on dijet mass distributions, bbbar dijet production using tracker based triggers, underlying event in dijet and Drell-Yan samples, inclusive photon and diphoton cross sections complete the list of measurements included in this paper. Good agreement with pQCD within errors is observed for jet production measurements. An improved and consistent theoretical description is needed for photon+jets processes. Collisions at the LHC are scheduled for early fall 2008, opening an era of discoveries at the new energy frontier, 5-7 times higher than that of the Tevatron.

  16. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  17. Full CKM matrix with lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Masataka; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The authors show that it is now possible to fully determine the CKM matrix, for the first time, using lattice QCD. |V{sub cd}|, |V{sub cs}|, |V{sub ub}|, |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub us}| are, respectively, directly determined with the lattice results for form factors of semileptonic D {yields} {pi}lv, D {yields} Klv, B {yields} {pi}lv, B {yields} Dlv and K {yields} {pi}lv decays. The error from the quenched approximation is removed by using the MILC unquenced lattice gauge configurations, where the effect of u, d and s quarks is included. The error from the ''chiral'' extrapolation (m{sub l} {yields} m{sub ud}) is greatly reduced by using improved staggered quarks. The accuracy is comparable to that of the Particle Data Group averages. In addition, |V{sub ud}|, |V{sub ts}|, |V{sub ts}| and |V{sub td}| are determined by using unitarity of the CKM matrix and the experimental result for sin (2{beta}). In this way, they obtain all 9 CKM matrix elements, where the only theoretical input is lattice QCD. They also obtain all the Wolfenstein parameters, for the first time, using lattice QCD.

  18. Lattice QCD thermodynamics on the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mościcki, Jakub T.; Woś, Maciej; Lamanna, Massimo; de Forcrand, Philippe; Philipsen, Owe

    2010-10-01

    We describe how we have used simultaneously O(10) nodes of the EGEE Grid, accumulating ca. 300 CPU-years in 2-3 months, to determine an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics. We explain how Grid resources were exploited efficiently and with ease, using user-level overlay based on Ganga and DIANE tools above standard Grid software stack. Application-specific scheduling and resource selection based on simple but powerful heuristics allowed to improve efficiency of the processing to obtain desired scientific results by a specified deadline. This is also a demonstration of combined use of supercomputers, to calculate the initial state of the QCD system, and Grids, to perform the subsequent massively distributed simulations. The QCD simulation was performed on a 16×4 lattice. Keeping the strange quark mass at its physical value, we reduced the masses of the up and down quarks until, under an increase of temperature, the system underwent a second-order phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. Then we measured the response of this system to an increase in the quark density. We find that the transition is smoothened rather than sharpened. If confirmed on a finer lattice, this finding makes it unlikely for ongoing experimental searches to find a QCD critical point at small chemical potential.

  19. Confined magnetic monopoles in dense QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, A.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.

    2011-04-15

    Non-Abelian strings exist in the color-flavor locked phase of dense QCD. We show that kinks appearing in the world-sheet theory on these strings, in the form of the kink-antikink bound pairs, are the magnetic monopoles-descendants of the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles surviving in such a special form in dense QCD. Our consideration is heavily based on analogies and inspiration coming from certain supersymmetric non-Abelian theories. This is the first ever analytic demonstration that objects unambiguously identifiable as the magnetic monopoles are native to non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories (albeit our analysis extends only to the phase of the monopole confinement and has nothing to say about their condensation). Technically, our demonstration becomes possible due to the fact that low-energy dynamics of the non-Abelian strings in dense QCD is that of the orientational zero modes. It is described by an effective two-dimensional CP(2) model on the string world sheet. The kinks in this model representing confined magnetic monopoles are in a highly quantum regime.

  20. Theoretical overview: Hot and dense QCD in equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsuda, Tetsuo.

    1991-11-01

    Static and dynamical properties of QCD at finite temperature and density are reviewed. Non-perturbative aspects of the QCD plasma and modification of the hadron properties associated with the chiral transition are discussed on the basis of lattice data, effective theories and QCD sum rules. Special emphasis is laid on the importance of the finite baryon density to see the effects of the restoration of chiral symmetry in experiment.

  1. Summary of low-energy aspects of QCD and medium-energy hadron parallel sessions

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Two sessions were organized dealing with low energy aspects of QCD. The first dealt with the issue of QCD dibaryons. The second session centered on mostly low-energy tests of QCD. This report discusses experiments dealing with these sessions.

  2. 3D DEM analyses of the 1963 Vajont rock slide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Chia Weng; Houlsby, Guy; Utili, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The 1963 Vajont rock slide has been modelled using the distinct element method (DEM). The open-source DEM code, YADE (Kozicki & Donzé, 2008), was used together with the contact detection algorithm proposed by Boon et al. (2012). The critical sliding friction angle at the slide surface was sought using a strength reduction approach. A shear-softening contact model was used to model the shear resistance of the clayey layer at the slide surface. The results suggest that the critical sliding friction angle can be conservative if stability analyses are calculated based on the peak friction angles. The water table was assumed to be horizontal and the pore pressure at the clay layer was assumed to be hydrostatic. The influence of reservoir filling was marginal, increasing the sliding friction angle by only 1.6˚. The results of the DEM calculations were found to be sensitive to the orientations of the bedding planes and cross-joints. Finally, the failure mechanism was investigated and arching was found to be present at the bend of the chair-shaped slope. References Boon C.W., Houlsby G.T., Utili S. (2012). A new algorithm for contact detection between convex polygonal and polyhedral particles in the discrete element method. Computers and Geotechnics, vol 44, 73-82, doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2012.03.012. Kozicki, J., & Donzé, F. V. (2008). A new open-source software developed for numerical simulations using discrete modeling methods. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 197(49-50), 4429-4443.

  3. Non-perturbative aspects of hadron structure in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Anthony W.

    2012-09-26

    We review recent developments in the understanding of hadron structure in the context of QCD. These developments build on the success of lattice QCD and discoveries in chiral perturbation theory. We focus particularly on tests of QCD through the strangeness content of the nucleon, the investigation of excited states of the nucleon, where lattice QCD, experiment and phenomenology meet. Lastly, we discuss the implications of these developments in hadron structure for our understanding of nuclear structure and the equation of state of dense matter.

  4. Nucleon QCD sum rules in the instanton medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskin, M. G.; Drukarev, E. G. Sadovnikova, V. A.

    2015-09-15

    We try to find grounds for the standard nucleon QCD sum rules, based on a more detailed description of the QCD vacuum. We calculate the polarization operator of the nucleon current in the instanton medium. The medium (QCD vacuum) is assumed to be a composition of the small-size instantons and some long-wave gluon fluctuations. We solve the corresponding QCD sum rule equations and demonstrate that there is a solution with the value of the nucleon mass close to the physical one if the fraction of the small-size instantons contribution is w{sub s} ≈ 2/3.

  5. A global database of volcano edifice morphometry using SRTM DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, P.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Petrinovic, I. A.; Euillades, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    The morphometry of volcanic edifices reflects the aggradational and degradational processes that interact during their evolution. In association with VOGRIPA, a global risk identification project, we are currently constructing a database on the morphometry of volcanic edifices using digital elevation models (DEMs) from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Our aim is to compile and make available a global database of morphometric parameters that characterize the shape and size of volcanic edifices. The 90-meter SRTM DEM is presently the best public-access DEM dataset for this task because of its near-global coverage and spatial resolution that is high enough for the analysis of composite volcanic edifices. The Smithsonian Institution database lists 1536 active/potentially active volcanoes worldwide. Of these, ~900 volcano edifices can be analyzed with the SRTM DEMs, discarding volcanoes not covered by the dataset above latitudes 60°N and 56°S, submarine volcanoes, volcanoes with mostly negative topographies (i.e. calderas, maars) and monogenetic cones and domes, which are too small to accurately study with the 90-meter resolution. Morphometric parameters are acquired using an expressly written IDL-language code named MORVOLC. Edifice outline is determined via a semi-automated algorithm that identifies slope-breaks between user-estimated maximum and minimum outlines. Thus, volcanic edifices as topographic entities are considered, excluding aprons or ring plains and other far-reaching volcanic products. Several morphometric parameters are computed which characterize edifice size and shape. Size parameters are height (from base to summit), volume, base and summit areas and widths (average, minimum, maximum). Plan shape is summarized using two independent dimensionless indexes that describe the shape of the elevation contours, ellipticity (quantifies the elongation of each contour) and irregularity (quantifies the irregularity or complexity of each contour

  6. Processing, validating, and comparing DEMs for geomorphic application on the Puna de Atacama Plateau, northwest Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purinton, Benjamin; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzes multiple topographic datasets derived from various remote-sensing methods from the Pocitos Basin of the central Puna Plateau in northwest Argentina at the border to Chile. Here, the arid climate and clear atmospheric conditions and lack of vegetation provide ideal conditions for remote sensing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) comparison. We compare the following freely available DEMs: SRTM-X (spatial resolution of ~30 m), SRTM-C v4.1 (90 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (30 m). Additional DEMs for comparison are generated from optical and radar datasets acquired freely (ASTER Level 1B stereo pairs and Sentinal-1A radar), through research agreements (RapidEye Level 1B scenes, ALOS radar, and ENVISAT radar), and through commercial sources (TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X radar). DEMs from ASTER (spatial resolution of 15 m) and RapidEye (~5-10 m) optical datasets are produced by standard photogrammetric techniques and have been post-processed for validation and alignment purposes. Because RapidEye scenes are captured at a low incidence angle (<20°) and stereo pairs are unavailable, merging and averaging methods of two to four overlapping scenes is explored for effective DEM generation. Sentinal-1A, TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X, ALOS, and ENVISAT radar data is processed through interferometry resulting in DEMs with spatial resolutions ranging from 5 to 30 meters. The SRTM-X dataset serves as a control in the creation of further DEMs, as it is widely used in the geosciences and represents the highest-quality DEM currently available. All DEMs are validated against over 400,000 differential GPS (dGPS) measurements gathered during four field campaigns in 2012 and 2014 to 2016. Of these points, more than 250,000 lie within the Pocitos Basin with average vertical and horizontal accuracies of 0.95 m and 0.69 m, respectively. Dataset accuracy is judged by the lowest standard deviations of elevation compared with the dGPS data and with the SRTM-X control DEM. Of particular interest in

  7. QCD and Light-Front Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2010-10-27

    The soft-wall AdS/QCD model, modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The model predicts a zero-mass pion for zero-mass quarks and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum L of hadrons and the radial quantum number N. Light-Front Holography maps the amplitudes which are functions of the fifth dimension variable z of anti-de Sitter space to a corresponding hadron theory quantized on the light front. The resulting Lorentz-invariant relativistic light-front wave equations are functions of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. The result is to a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states, which in turn predict the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors. The theory implements chiral symmetry in a novel way: the effects of chiral symmetry breaking increase as one goes toward large interquark separation, consistent with spectroscopic data, and the the hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub g1} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method in order to systematically include the QCD interaction terms. A new perspective on quark and gluon condensates is also reviewed.

  8. Echtzeit-Ultraschallsimulation auf Grafik-Prozessoren mit CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    Trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung jüngerer bildgebender Verfahren bleibt medizinischer Ultraschall (US) weiterhin ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel bei chirurgischen Eingriffen und der klinischen Diagnose. Viele US-gestützte medizinische Prozeduren erfordern allerdings ausgiebiges Training, so dass es wünschenswert ist, eine realistische Simulation von US-Bildern zur Verfügung zu stellen. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Ansätzen simulieren wir solche Bilder auf der "Graphics Processing Unit“. Wir erweitern hierzu eine Methode, die von Wein et al. für die Abschätzung von US-Reflexionen aus Daten der Computertomographie (CT) vorgeschlagen wurde, zu einer leichter zu berechnenden Form. Zusätzlich schätzen wir die US-Absorption aus den CT-Daten ab. Mit Hilfe von NVIDIAs "Compute Unified Device Architecture“ (CUDA) simulieren wir Reflexion, Verschattung, Rauschen und radiale Unschärfe, ausgehend von unbearbeiteten CT-Daten in Echtzeit und ohne Vorausberechnung.

  9. The Importance of Precise Digital Elevation Models (DEM) in Modelling Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Gokben; Akyurek, Zuhal

    2016-04-01

    Digital elevation Models (DEM) are important inputs for topography for the accurate modelling of floodplain hydrodynamics. Floodplains have a key role as natural retarding pools which attenuate flood waves and suppress flood peaks. GPS, LIDAR and bathymetric surveys are well known surveying methods to acquire topographic data. It is not only time consuming and expensive to obtain topographic data through surveying but also sometimes impossible for remote areas. In this study it is aimed to present the importance of accurate modelling of topography for flood modelling. The flood modelling for Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is done. One of the DEM is obtained from the point observations retrieved from 1/5000 scaled orthophotos and 1/1000 scaled point elevation data from field surveys at x-sections. The river banks are corrected by using the orthophotos and elevation values. This DEM is named as scaled DEM. The other DEM is obtained from bathymetric surveys. 296 538 number of points and the left/right bank slopes were used to construct the DEM having 1 m spatial resolution and this DEM is named as base DEM. Two DEMs were compared by using 27 x-sections. The maximum difference at thalweg of the river bed is 2m and the minimum difference is 20 cm between two DEMs. The channel conveyance capacity in base DEM is larger than the one in scaled DEM and floodplain is modelled in detail in base DEM. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2- dimensional shallow water flow modelling. The model by using two DEMs were calibrated for a flood event (July 9, 2012). The roughness is considered as the calibration parameter. From comparison of input hydrograph at the upstream of the river and output hydrograph at the downstream of the river, the attenuation is obtained as 91% and 84% for the base DEM and scaled DEM, respectively. The time lag in hydrographs does not show any difference for two DEMs and it is obtained as 3 hours. Maximum flood extents differ for the two DEMs

  10. Pre-Conditioning Optmization Methods and Display for Mega-Pixel DEM Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sette, A. L.; DeLuca, E. E.; Weber, M. A.; Golub, L.

    2004-05-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) for the Solar Dynamics Observatory will provide an unprecedented rate of mega-pixel solar corona data. This hastens the need for faster differential emission measure (DEM) reconstruction methods, as well as scientifically useful ways of displaying this information for mega-pixel datasets. We investigate pre-conditioning methods, which optimize DEM reconstruction by making an informed initial DEM guess that takes advantage of the sharing of DEM information among the pixels in an image. In addition, we evaluate the effectiveness of different DEM image display options, including single temperature emission maps and time-progression DEM movies. This work is supported under contract SP02D4301R to the Lockheed Martin Corp.

  11. A photogrammetric DEM of Greenland based on 1978-1987 aerial photos: validation and integration with laser altimetry and satellite-derived DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjaer, K. H.; Nuth, C.; Khan, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a DEM of Greenland covering all ice-free terrain and the margins of the GrIS and local glaciers and ice caps. The DEM is based on the 3534 photos used in the aero-triangulation which were recorded by the Danish Geodata Agency (then the Geodetic Institute) in survey campaigns spanning the period 1978-1987. The GrIS is covered tens of kilometers into the interior due to the large footprints of the photos (30 x 30 km) and control provided by the aero-triangulation. Thus, the data are ideal for providing information for analysis of ice marginal elevation change and also control for satellite-derived DEMs.The results of the validation, error assessments and predicted uncertainties are presented. We test the DEM using Airborne Topographic Mapper (IceBridge ATM) as reference data; evaluate the a posteriori covariance matrix from the aero-triangulation; and co-register DEM blocks of 50 x 50 km to ICESat laser altimetry in order to evaluate the coherency.We complement the aero-photogrammetric DEM with modern laser altimetry and DEMs derived from stereoscopic satellite imagery (AST14DMO) to examine the mass variability of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Our analysis suggests that dynamically-induced mass loss started around 2003 and continued throughout 2014.

  12. Numerical Simulation of High Velocity Impact Phenomenon by the Distinct Element Method (dem)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukahara, Y.; Matsuo, A.; Tanaka, K.

    2007-12-01

    Continuous-DEM (Distinct Element Method) for impact analysis is proposed in this paper. Continuous-DEM is based on DEM (Distinct Element Method) and the idea of the continuum theory. Numerical simulations of impacts between SUS 304 projectile and concrete target has been performed using the proposed method. The results agreed quantitatively with the impedance matching method. Experimental elastic-plastic behavior with compression and rarefaction wave under plate impact was also qualitatively reproduced, matching the result by AUTODYN®.

  13. DEM modeling of flexible structures against granular material avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Stéphane; Albaba, Adel; Nicot, François; Chareyre, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    This article presents the numerical modeling of flexible structures intended to contain avalanches of granular and coarse material (e.g. rock slide, a debris slide). The numerical model is based on a discrete element method (YADE-Dem). The DEM modeling of both the flowing granular material and the flexible structure are detailed before presenting some results. The flowing material consists of a dry polydisperse granular material accounting for the non-sphericity of real materials. The flexible structure consists in a metallic net hanged on main cables, connected to the ground via anchors, on both sides of the channel, including dissipators. All these components were modeled as flexible beams or wires, with mechanical parameters defined from literature data. The simulation results are presented with the aim of investigating the variability of the structure response depending on different parameters related to the structure (inclination of the fence, with/without brakes, mesh size opening), but also to the channel (inclination). Results are then compared with existing recommendations in similar fields.

  14. DEM, tide and velocity over sulzberger ice shelf, West Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baek, S.; Shum, C.K.; Lee, H.; Yi, Y.; Kwoun, Oh-Ig; Lu, Zhiming; Braun, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets preserve more than 77% of the global fresh water and could raise global sea level by several meters if completely melted. Ocean tides near and under ice shelves shifts the grounding line position significantly and are one of current limitations to study glacier dynamics and mass balance. The Sulzberger ice shelf is an area of ice mass flux change in West Antarctica and has not yet been well studied. In this study, we use repeat-pass synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry data from the ERS-1 and ERS-2 tandem missions for generation of a high-resolution (60-m) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) including tidal deformation detection and ice stream velocity of the Sulzberger Ice Shelf. Other satellite data such as laser altimeter measurements with fine foot-prints (70-m) from NASA's ICESat are used for validation and analyses. The resulting DEM has an accuracy of-0.57??5.88 m and is demonstrated to be useful for grounding line detection and ice mass balance studies. The deformation observed by InSAR is found to be primarily due to ocean tides and atmospheric pressure. The 2-D ice stream velocities computed agree qualitatively with previous methods on part of the Ice Shelf from passive microwave remote-sensing data (i.e., LANDSAT). ?? 2005 IEEE.

  15. a Near-Global Bare-Earth dem from Srtm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, J. C.; Read, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The near-global elevation product from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) has been widely used since its release in 2005 at 3 arcsecond resolution and the release of the 1 arcsecond version in late 2014 means that the full potential of the SRTM DEM can now be realised. However the routine use of SRTM for analytical purposes such as catchment hydrology, flood inundation, habitat mapping and soil mapping is still seriously impeded by the presence of artefacts in the data, primarily the offsets due to tree cover and the random noise. This paper describes the algorithms being developed to remove those offsets, based on the methods developed to produce the Australian national elevation model from SRTM data. The offsets due to trees are estimated using the GlobeLand30 (National Geomatics Center of China) and Global Forest Change (University of Maryland) products derived from Landsat, along with the ALOS PALSAR radar image data (JAXA) and the global forest canopy height map (NASA). The offsets are estimated using several processes and combined to produce a single continuous tree offset layer that is subtracted from the SRTM data. The DEM products will be made freely available on completion of the first draft product, and the assessment of that product is expected to drive further improvements to the methods.

  16. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  17. A New DEM Generalization Method Based on Watershed and Tree Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonggang; Ma, Tianwu; Chen, Xiaoyin; Chen, Zhende; Yang, Chunju; Lin, Chenzhi; Shan, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    The DEM generalization is the basis of multi-dimensional observation, the basis of expressing and analyzing the terrain. DEM is also the core of building the Multi-Scale Geographic Database. Thus, many researchers have studied both the theory and the method of DEM generalization. This paper proposed a new method of generalizing terrain, which extracts feature points based on the tree model construction which considering the nested relationship of watershed characteristics. The paper used the 5 m resolution DEM of the Jiuyuan gully watersheds in the Loess Plateau as the original data and extracted the feature points in every single watershed to reconstruct the DEM. The paper has achieved generalization from 1:10000 DEM to 1:50000 DEM by computing the best threshold. The best threshold is 0.06. In the last part of the paper, the height accuracy of the generalized DEM is analyzed by comparing it with some other classic methods, such as aggregation, resample, and VIP based on the original 1:50000 DEM. The outcome shows that the method performed well. The method can choose the best threshold according to the target generalization scale to decide the density of the feature points in the watershed. Meanwhile, this method can reserve the skeleton of the terrain, which can meet the needs of different levels of generalization. Additionally, through overlapped contour contrast, elevation statistical parameters and slope and aspect analysis, we found out that the W8D algorithm performed well and effectively in terrain representation. PMID:27517296

  18. A New DEM Generalization Method Based on Watershed and Tree Structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonggang; Ma, Tianwu; Chen, Xiaoyin; Chen, Zhende; Yang, Chunju; Lin, Chenzhi; Shan, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    The DEM generalization is the basis of multi-dimensional observation, the basis of expressing and analyzing the terrain. DEM is also the core of building the Multi-Scale Geographic Database. Thus, many researchers have studied both the theory and the method of DEM generalization. This paper proposed a new method of generalizing terrain, which extracts feature points based on the tree model construction which considering the nested relationship of watershed characteristics. The paper used the 5 m resolution DEM of the Jiuyuan gully watersheds in the Loess Plateau as the original data and extracted the feature points in every single watershed to reconstruct the DEM. The paper has achieved generalization from 1:10000 DEM to 1:50000 DEM by computing the best threshold. The best threshold is 0.06. In the last part of the paper, the height accuracy of the generalized DEM is analyzed by comparing it with some other classic methods, such as aggregation, resample, and VIP based on the original 1:50000 DEM. The outcome shows that the method performed well. The method can choose the best threshold according to the target generalization scale to decide the density of the feature points in the watershed. Meanwhile, this method can reserve the skeleton of the terrain, which can meet the needs of different levels of generalization. Additionally, through overlapped contour contrast, elevation statistical parameters and slope and aspect analysis, we found out that the W8D algorithm performed well and effectively in terrain representation. PMID:27517296

  19. Monte Carlo Markov chain DEM reconstruction of isothermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.; Reale, F.; Testa, P.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent studies carried out with SOHO and Hinode high-resolution spectrometers have shown that the plasma in the off-disk solar corona is close to isothermal. If confirmed, these findings may have significant consequences for theoretical models of coronal heating. However, these studies have been carried out with diagnostic techniques whose ability to reconstruct the plasma distribution with temperature has not been thoroughly tested. Aims: In this paper, we carry out tests on the Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) technique with the aim of determining: 1) its ability to retrieve isothermal plasmas from a set of spectral line intensities, with and without random noise; 2) to what extent can it discriminate between an isothermal solution and a narrow multithermal distribution; and 3) how well it can detect multiple isothermal components along the line of sight. We also test the effects of 4) atomic data uncertainties on the results, and 5) the number of ions whose lines are available for the DEM reconstruction. Methods: We first use the CHIANTI database to calculate synthetic spectra from different thermal distributions: single isothermal plasmas, multithermal plasmas made of multiple isothermal components, and multithermal plasmas with a Gaussian DEM distribution with variable width. We then apply the MCMC technique on each of these synthetic spectra, so that the ability of the MCMC technique at reconstructing the original thermal distribution can be evaluated. Next, we add a random noise to the synthetic spectra, and repeat the exercise, in order to determine the effects of random errors on the results. We also we repeat the exercise using a different set of atomic data from those used to calculate synthetic line intensities, to understand the robustness of the results against atomic physics uncertainties. The size of the temperature bin of the MCMC reconstruction is varied in all cases, in order to determine the optimal width. Results: We find that the MCMC

  20. Advances in Light-Front QCD and New Perspectives for QCD from AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2005-10-26

    The light-front quantization of gauge theories in light-cone gauge provides a frame-independent wavefunction representation of relativistic bound states, simple forms for current matrix elements, explicit unitarity, and a Fock space built on a trivial vacuum. The AdS/CFT correspondence has led to important insights into the properties of quantum chromodynamics even though QCD is a broken conformal theory. We have recently shown how a model based on a truncated AdS space can be used to obtain the hadronic spectrum of q{bar q}, qqq and gg bound states, as well as their respective light-front wavefunctions. Specific hadrons are identified by the correspondence of string modes with the dimension of the interpolating operator of the hadron's valence Fock state, including orbital angular momentum excitations. The predicted mass spectrum is linear M {proportional_to} L at high orbital angular momentum, in contrast to the quadratic dependence M{sup 2}/L found in the description of spinning strings. Since only one parameter, the QCD scale {Lambda}{sub QCD}, is introduced, the agreement with the pattern of physical states is remarkable. In particular, the ratio of {Delta} to nucleon trajectories is determined by the ratio of zeros of Bessel functions. As a specific application of QCD dynamics from AdS/CFT duality, we describe a computation of the proton magnetic form factor in both the space-like and time-like regions. The extended AdS/CFT space-time theory also provides an analytic model for hadronic light-front wavefunctions, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level. The model wavefunctions display confinement at large inter-quark separation and conformal symmetry at short distances. In particular, the scaling and conformal properties of the LFWFs at high relative momenta agree with perturbative QCD. These AdS/CFT model wavefunctions could be used as an initial ansatz for a variational treatment of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian.

  1. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUM,T.; CREUTZ,M.; PETRECZKY,P.

    2004-02-24

    With the operation of the RHIC heavy ion program, the theoretical understanding of QCD at finite temperature and density has become increasingly important. Though QCD at finite temperature has been extensively studied using lattice Monte-Carlo simulations over the past twenty years, most physical questions relevant for RHIC (and future) heavy ion experiments remain open. In lattice QCD at finite temperature and density there have been at least two major advances in recent years. First, for the first time calculations of real time quantities, like meson spectral functions have become available. Second, the lattice study of the QCD phase diagram and equation of state have been extended to finite baryon density by several groups. Both issues were extensively discussed in the course of the workshop. A real highlight was the study of the QCD phase diagram in (T, {mu})-plane by Z. Fodor and S. Katz and the determination of the critical end-point for the physical value of the pion mass. This was the first time such lattice calculations at, the physical pion mass have been performed. Results by Z Fodor and S. Katz were obtained using a multi-parameter re-weighting method. Other determinations of the critical end point were also presented, in particular using a Taylor expansion around {mu} = 0 (Bielefeld group, Ejiri et al.) and using analytic continuation from imaginary chemical potential (Ph. de Forcrand and O. Philipsen). The result based on Taylor expansion agrees within errors with the new prediction of Z. Fodor and S. Katz, while methods based on analytic continuation still predict a higher value for the critical baryon density. Most of the thermodynamics studies in full QCD (including those presented at this workshop) have been performed using quite coarse lattices, a = 0.2-0.3 fm. Therefore one may worry about cutoff effects in different thermodynamic quantities, like the transition temperature T{sub tr}. At the workshop U. Heller presented a study of the transition

  2. Higher-order Lipatov kernels and the QCD Pomeron

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.

    1994-08-12

    Three closely related topics are covered. The derivation of O(g{sup 4}) Lipatov kernels in pure glue QCD. The significance of quarks for the physical Pomeron in QCD. The possible inter-relation of Pomeron dynamics with Electroweak symmetry breaking.

  3. QCD and Top-Quark Results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, Marek; /Rochester U.

    2006-10-01

    Selected recent QCD and top-quark results from the Tevatron are reviewed, aiming to illustrate progression from basic studies of QCD processes to verification of perturbative calculations and Monte Carlo simulation tools, and to their applications in more novel and complex cases, like top-quark studies and searches for new physics.

  4. The static force from lattice QCD with two dynamical quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Leder, B.; Knechtli, F.

    2011-05-23

    We report on the measurement of the static force from HYP-smeared Wilson loops in two flavour QCD. We analyse the quark mass dependence of the force at three lattice spacings. The QCD static force around distance r{sub 0} is compared with the force obtained from pure gauge theory, potential models and perturbation theory.

  5. QCD Phase Diagram Using Dyson-Schwinger Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yuxin; Qin Sixue; Chang Lei; Roberts, Craig D.

    2011-05-24

    We describe briefly the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach of QCD and the study of the QCD phase diagram in this approach. The phase diagram in terms of the temperature and chemical potential, and that in the space of coupling strength and current-quark mass are given.

  6. Renormalization group analysis in nonrelativistic QCD for colored scalars

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    The velocity nonrelativistic QCD Lagrangian for colored heavy scalar fields in the fundamental representation of QCD and the renormalization group analysis of the corresponding operators are presented. The results are an important ingredient for renormalization group improved computations of scalar-antiscalar bound state energies and production rates at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic (NNLL) order.

  7. Continuing Progress on a Lattice QCD Software Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Balint

    2008-11-01

    We report on the progress of the software effort in the QCD Application Area of SciDAC. In particular, we discuss how the software developed under SciDAC enabled the aggressive exploitation of leadership computers, and we report on progress in the area of QCD software for multi-core architectures.

  8. Dual Ginzburg-Landau Theory of QCD and Hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yoshimi

    Dual Ginzburg-Landau(DGL) theory is constructed assuming abelian dominance and monopole condensation in abelian projected QCD which are supported by Monte Carlo simulations in lattice QCD. The applications of DGL theory to static meson, baryon, meson-meson and finte temperature systems are discussed.

  9. The QCD evolution of TMD in the covariant approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, A. V.; Teryaev, O. V.; Zavada, P.

    2016-02-01

    The procedure for calculation of the QCD evolution of transverse momentum dependent distributions within the covariant approach is suggested. The standard collinear QCD evolution together with the requirements of relativistic invariance and rotational symmetry of the nucleon in its rest frame represent the basic ingredients of our approach. The obtained results are compared with the predictions of some other approaches.

  10. Transversity from First Principles in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2012-02-16

    Transversity observables, such as the T-odd Sivers single-spin asymmetry measured in deep inelastic lepton scattering on polarized protons and the distributions which are measured in deeply virtual Compton scattering, provide important constraints on the fundamental quark and gluon structure of the proton. In this talk I discuss the challenge of computing these observables from first principles; i.e.; quantum chromodynamics, itself. A key step is the determination of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions (LFWFs) of hadrons - the QCD eigensolutions which are analogs of the Schroedinger wavefunctions of atomic physics. The lensing effects of initial-state and final-state interactions, acting on LFWFs with different orbital angular momentum, lead to T-odd transversity observables such as the Sivers, Collins, and Boer-Mulders distributions. The lensing effect also leads to leading-twist phenomena which break leading-twist factorization such as the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions. A similar rescattering mechanism also leads to diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing. It is thus important to distinguish 'static' structure functions, the probability distributions computed the target hadron's light-front wavefunctions, versus 'dynamical' structure functions which include the effects of initial- and final-state rescattering. I also discuss related effects such as the J = 0 fixed pole contribution which appears in the real part of the virtual Compton amplitude. AdS/QCD, together with 'Light-Front Holography', provides a simple Lorentz-invariant color-confining approximation to QCD which is successful in accounting for light-quark meson and baryon spectroscopy as well as hadronic LFWFs.

  11. The Emergence of Hadrons from QCD Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Will

    2013-10-01

    The propagation of colored quarks through strongly interacting systems, and their subsequent evolution into color-singlet hadrons, are phenomena that showcase unique facets of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Medium-stimulated gluon bremsstrahlung, a fundamental QCD process, induces broadening of the transverse momentum of the parton, and creates partonic energy loss manifesting itself in experimental observables that are accessible in high energy interactions in hot and cold systems. The formation of hadrons, which is the dynamical enforcement of the QCD confinement principle, is very poorly understood on the basis of fundamental theory, although detailed models such as the Lund string model or cluster hadronization models can generally be tuned to capture the main features of hadronic final states. With the advent of the technical capability to study hadronic final states with good particle identification and at high luminosity, a new opportunity has appeared. Study of the characteristics of parton propagation and hadron formation as they unfold within atomic nuclei are now being used to understand the coherence and spatial features of these processes and to refine new experimental tools that will be used in future experiments. Fixed-target data on nuclei with lepton and hadron beams, and collider experiments involving nuclei, all make essential contact with these topics and they elucidate different aspects of these same themes. In this talk, a survey of the most relevant recent data and its potential interpretation will be followed by descriptions of feasible experiments at an electron-ion collider, in the context of existing measurements as well as the experiments performed following the upgrade of Jefferson Lab to 12 GeV.

  12. Solving QCD via multi-Regge theory.

    SciTech Connect

    White, A. R.

    1998-11-04

    To solve QCD at high-energy the authors must simultaneously find the hadronic states and the exchanged pomeron (IP) giving UNITARY scattering amplitudes. Experimentally, the IP {approximately} a Regge pole at small Q{sup 2} and a single gluon at larger Q{sup 2}. (F{sub 2}{sup D}-H1, dijets-ZEUS). In the solution which the author describes, these non-perturbative properties of the IP are directly related to the non-perturbative confinement and chiral symmetry breaking properties of hadrons.

  13. Baryon Properties from Continuum-QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Cloet, I. C.; Roberts, C. D.; Wilson, D. J.

    2011-10-21

    We provide an inkling of recent progress in hadron physics made using QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations, reviewing: the notion of in-hadron condensates and a putative solution of a gross problem with the cosmological constant; a symmetry-preserving computation that simultaneously correlates the masses of meson and baryon ground- and excited-states, and contributes to a resolution of the conundrum of the Roper resonance; and a prediction for the Q{sup 2}-dependence of u-and d-quark Dirac and Pauli form factors in the proton, which exposes the critical role played by diquark correlations within the nucleon.

  14. Study of hadron deformation in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Koutsou, Giannis

    2008-11-01

    We develop the formalism for the evaluation of density-density correlators in lattice QCD that includes techniques for the computation of the all-to-all propagators involved. A novel technique in this context is the implementation of the one-end trick in the meson sector. Density-density correlators provide a gauge invariant definition for the hadron wave function and yield information on hadron deformation. We evaluate density-density correlators using two degenerate flavors of dynamical Wilson fermions for the pion, the rho meson, the nucleon, and the {delta}. Using the one-end trick we obtain results that clearly show deformation of the rho meson.

  15. QCD for Postgraduates (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Modern QCD - Lecture 5 We will introduce and discuss in some detail the two main classes of jets: cone type and sequential-recombination type. We will discuss their basic properties, as well as more advanced concepts such as jet substructure, jet filtering, ways of optimizing the jet radius, ways of defining the areas of jets, and of establishing the quality measure of the jet-algorithm in terms of discriminating power in specific searches. Finally we will discuss applications for Higgs searches involving boosted particles.

  16. Lattice QCD calculation using VPP500

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seyong; Ohta, Shigemi

    1995-02-01

    A new vector parallel supercomputer, Fujitsu VPP500, was installed at RIKEN earlier this year. It consists of 30 vector computers, each with 1.6 GFLOPS peak speed and 256 MB memory, connected by a crossbar switch with 400 MB/s peak data transfer rate each way between any pair of nodes. The authors developed a Fortran lattice QCD simulation code for it. It runs at about 1.1 GFLOPS sustained per node for Metropolis pure-gauge update, and about 0.8 GFLOPS sustained per node for conjugate gradient inversion of staggered fermion matrix.

  17. Bottomonium above Deconfinement in Lattice Nonrelativistic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aarts, G.; Kim, S.; Lombardo, M. P.; Oktay, M. B.; Ryan, S. M.; Sinclair, D. K.; Skullerud, J.-I.

    2011-02-11

    We study the temperature dependence of bottomonium for temperatures in the range 0.4T{sub c}QCD simulations for N{sub f}=2 light flavors on a highly anisotropic lattice. We find that the {Upsilon} is insensitive to the temperature in this range, while the {chi}{sub b} propagators show a crossover from the exponential decay characterizing the hadronic phase to a power-law behavior consistent with nearly free dynamics at T{approx_equal}2T{sub c}.

  18. Numerical approach to Coulomb gauge QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Bowman, Patrick O.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate the ghost two-point function in Coulomb gauge QCD with a simple model vacuum gluon wave function using Monte Carlo integration. This approach extends the previous analytic studies of the ghost propagator with this ansatz, where a ladder-rainbow expansion was unavoidable for calculating the path integral over gluon field configurations. The new approach allows us to study the possible critical behavior of the coupling constant, as well as the Coulomb potential derived from the ghost dressing function. We demonstrate that IR enhancement of the ghost correlator or Coulomb form factor fails to quantitatively reproduce confinement using Gaussian vacuum wave functional.

  19. The Feynman-Schwinger representation in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Yu. A. Simonov; J.A. Tjon

    2002-05-01

    The proper time path integral representation is derived explicitly for Green's functions in QCD. After an introductory analysis of perturbative properties, the total gluonic field is separated in a rigorous way into a nonperturbative background and valence gluon part. For nonperturbative contributions the background perturbation theory is used systematically, yielding two types of expansions,illustrated by direct physical applications. As an application, we discuss the collinear singularities in the Feynman-Schwinger representation formalism. Moreover, the generalization to nonzero temperature is made and expressions for partition functions in perturbation theory and nonperturbative background are explicitly written down.

  20. QCD, unification and the road to asymptopia

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    Attempts to describe interactions at extremely high energies are addressed. Previous beliefs that asymptopia - the theoretically promised land where all asymptotic theorems come true - was reached have always proven false. Present estimates of asymptopia range from 10/sup 5/ GeV to 10/sup 16/ GeV. In the author's opinion it is premature to believe that the universe is described by a hierarchy of nested gauge groups. The establishment of QCD as the nonabelian gauge group describing strong interactions has not yet been accomplished. 2 figures. (RWR)

  1. Global QCD Analysis of Polarized Parton Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, Marco

    2009-08-04

    We focus on some highlights of a recent, first global Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of the helicity parton distributions of the nucleon, mainly the evidence for a rather small gluon polarization over a limited region of momentum fraction and for interesting flavor patterns in the polarized sea. It is examined how the various sets of data obtained in inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and polarized proton-proton collisions help to constrain different aspects of the quark, antiquark, and gluon helicity distributions. Uncertainty estimates are performed using both the robust Lagrange multiplier technique and the standard Hessian approach.

  2. QCD SPIN PHYSICS IN HADRONIC INTERACTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOGELSANG,W.

    2007-06-19

    We discuss spin phenomena in high-energy hadronic scattering, with a particular emphasis on the spin physics program now underway at the first polarized proton-proton collider, RHIC. Experiments at RHIC unravel the spin structure of the nucleon in new ways. Prime goals are to determine the contribution of gluon spins to the proton spin, to elucidate the flavor structure of quark and antiquark polarizations in the nucleon, and to help clarify the origin of transverse-spin phenomena in QCD. These lectures describe some aspects of this program and of the associated physics.

  3. Isoscalar meson spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek, Robert Edwards, David Richards, Christopher Thomas, Balint Joo, Michael Peardon

    2011-06-01

    We extract to high statistical precision an excited spectrum of single-particle isoscalar mesons using lattice QCD, including states of high spin and, for the first time, light exotic JPC isoscalars. The use of a novel quark field construction has enabled us to overcome the long-standing challenge of efficiently including quark-annihilation contributions. Hidden-flavor mixing angles are extracted and while most states are found to be close to ideally flavor mixed, there are examples of large mixing in the pseudoscalar and axial sectors in line with experiment. The exotic JPC isoscalar states appear at a mass scale comparable to the exotic isovector states.

  4. Extracting Electric Polarizabilities from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Will Detmold, William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-05-01

    Charged and neutral, pion and kaon electric polarizabilities are extracted from lattice QCD using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions. We utilize classical background fields to access the polarizabilities from two-point correlation functions. Uniform background fields are achieved by quantizing the electric field strength with the proper treatment of boundary flux. These external fields, however, are implemented only in the valence quark sector. A novel method to extract charge particle polarizabilities is successfully demonstrated for the first time.

  5. Local QCD action at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Patrick; Zwanziger, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we obtain a local, Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin-invariant action for QCD at finite temperature, altered from Faddeev-Popov theory due to the presence of Gribov copies. We carefully derive the horizon condition at finite temperature. Only the zero Matsubara mode is affected, and this result is consistent with the suitably modified Maggiore-Schaden shift, which takes into account temporal periodicity. The large-N limit and other calculational schemes for the magnetic mass and gluon condensates and their relation to the Gribov mass are also discussed.

  6. QCD challenges in radiative B decays

    SciTech Connect

    Misiak, M.

    2010-12-22

    Radiative decays of the B meson are known to provide important constraints on the MSSM and many other realistic new physics models in the sub-TeV range. The inclusive branching ratio B(B-bar{yields}X{sub s{gamma}}) being the key observable is currently measured to about {+-}7% accuracy. Reaching a better precision on the theory side is a challenge both for the perturbative QCD calculations and for analyses of non-perturbative hadronic effects. The current situation is briefly summarized here.

  7. QCD on the connection machine: beyond LISP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickner, Ralph G.; Baillie, Clive F.; Johnsson, S. Lennart

    1991-04-01

    We report on the status of code development for a simulation of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with dynamical Wilson fermions on the Connection Machine model CM-2. Our original code, written in Lisp, gave performance in the near-GFLOPS range. We have rewritten the most time-consuming parts of the code in the low-level programming systems CMIS, including the matrix multiply and the communication. Current versions of the code run at approximately 3.6 GFLOPS for the fermion matrix inversion, and we expect the next version to reach or exceed 5 GFLOPS.

  8. Exploring dense and cold QCD in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, E. J.; de la Incera, V.

    2016-08-01

    Strong magnetic fields are commonly generated in off-central relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab and in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and have been used to probe the topological configurations of the QCD vacua. A strong magnetic field can affect the character and location of the QCD critical point, influence the QCD phases, and lead to anomalous transport of charge. To take advantage of the magnetic field as a probe of QCD at higher baryon densities, we are going to need experiments capable to scan the lower energy region. In this context, the nuclotron-based ion collider facility (NICA) at JINR offers a unique opportunity to explore such a region and complement alternative programs at RHIC and other facilities. In this paper we discuss some relevant problems of the interplay between QCD and magnetic fields and the important role the experiments at NICA can play in tackling them.

  9. Visualization of semileptonic form factors from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, C.; Laiho, J.; DeTar, C.; Levkova, L.; Oktay, M. B.; Di Pierro, M.; El-Khadra, A. X.; Evans, R. T.; Gamiz, E.; Freeland, E. D.; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U. M.; Hetrick, J. E.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Mackenzie, P. B.; Okamoto, M.; Simone, J. N.; Sugar, R.; Toussaint, D.; Van de Water, R. S.

    2009-08-01

    Comparisons of lattice-QCD calculations of semileptonic form factors with experimental measurements often display two sets of points, one each for lattice QCD and experiment. Here we propose to display the output of a lattice-QCD analysis as a curve and error band. This is justified, because lattice-QCD results rely in part on fitting, both for the chiral extrapolation and to extend lattice-QCD data over the full physically allowed kinematic domain. To display an error band, correlations in the fit parameters must be taken into account. For the statistical error, the correlation comes from the fit. To illustrate how to address correlations in the systematic errors, we use the Becirevic-Kaidalov parametrization of the D{yields}{pi}l{nu} and D{yields}Kl{nu} form factors, and an analyticity-based fit for the B{yields}{pi}l{nu} form factor f{sub +}.

  10. High-precise DEM Generation Using Envisat/ERS-2 Cross-interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Jung, H.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2010-12-01

    Cross-interferometric synthetic aperture radar (CInSAR) technique from ERS-2 and Envisat images is capable of generating submeter-accuracy digital elevation model (DEM). However, it is very difficult to produce high-quality CInSAR-derived DEM due to the difference in the azimuth and range pixel size between ERS-2 and Envisat images as well as the small height ambiguity of CInSAR interferogram. In this study, we have proposed an efficient method to overcome the problems, produced a high-quality DEM over northern Alaska, and assessed the accuracy of the CInSAR-derived DEM with an airborne InSAR-derived DEM, which has the spatial resolution of 5 meters, from U.S. Geological Survey. In the proposed method, azimuth common band filtering in the radar raw data processing and DEM-assisted SAR coregistration are applied to mitigate the mis-registration due to the difference in the azimuth and range pixel size and large baseline, and differential SAR interferogram (DInSAR) created by using the low-quality DEM is used for reducing the unwrapping error occurred by the high fringe rate of CInSAR interferogram. From accuracy assessment, in flat area, the precision of CInSAR-derived DEM was approximately 4.2 m and 70cm in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, and the ground resolution estimated by the wave number analysis was about 15m. However, most errors occurred in around water area (like lake). And generating time is different between Airborne DEM (July, 2002) and CInSAR DEM(January, 2008). Focus on land area (not around water), vertical accuracy is highly improved about submeter unit. Our results indicate that high-precise DEM of submeter-accuracy can be generated by the proposed method.

  11. Shuttle radar DEM hydrological correction for erosion modelling in small catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarihani, Ben; Sidle, Roy; Bartley, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that accurately replicate both landscape form and processes are critical to support modelling of environmental processes. Catchment and hillslope scale runoff and sediment processes (i.e., patterns of overland flow, infiltration, subsurface stormflow and erosion) are all topographically mediated. In remote and data-scarce regions, high resolution DEMs (LiDAR) are often not available, and moderate to course resolution digital elevation models (e.g., SRTM) have difficulty replicating detailed hydrological patterns, especially in relatively flat landscapes. Several surface reconditioning algorithms (e.g., Smoothing) and "Stream burning" techniques (e.g., Agree or ANUDEM), in conjunction with representation of the known stream networks, have been used to improve DEM performance in replicating known hydrology. Detailed stream network data are not available at regional and national scales, but can be derived at local scales from remotely-sensed data. This research explores the implication of high resolution stream network data derived from Google Earth images for DEM hydrological correction, instead of using course resolution stream networks derived from topographic maps. The accuracy of implemented method in producing hydrological-efficient DEMs were assessed by comparing the hydrological parameters derived from modified DEMs and limited high-resolution airborne LiDAR DEMs. The degree of modification is dominated by the method used and availability of the stream network data. Although stream burning techniques improve DEMs hydrologically, these techniques alter DEM characteristics that may affect catchment boundaries, stream position and length, as well as secondary terrain derivatives (e.g., slope, aspect). Modification of a DEM to better reflect known hydrology can be useful, however, knowledge of the magnitude and spatial pattern of the changes are required before using a DEM for subsequent analyses.

  12. Near-automatic generation of lava dome DEMs from photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Varley, N.

    2012-04-01

    Acquiring accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) of growing lava domes is critical for hazard assessment. However, most techniques require expertise and time (e.g. photogrammetry) or expensive equipment (e.g. laser scanning and radar-based techniques). Here, we use a photo-based approach developed within the computer vision community that offers the potential for near-automatic DEM construction using a consumer-grade digital camera and freely available software. The technique is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS) and can generate dense 3D point clouds (millions of points) from multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/. Such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software (http://www.lancs.ac.uk/ staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm) has been developed to permit scaling or full georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or knowledge of scale within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Here we demonstrate the results of using the technique for deriving 3D models of the Volcán de Colima lava dome. 5 image sets have been collected by different people over a period of 12 months during overflights in a light aircraft. Although the resulting imagery is of variable quality for 3D reconstruction, useful data can be extracted from each set. Scaling and georeferencing is carried out using a combination of ortho-imagery (downloaded from Bing) and a few GPS points. Overall precisions are ~1 m and DEM qualities

  13. Extraction of Hydrological Proximity Measures from DEMs using Parallel Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Tarboton, David G.; Watson, Daniel W.; Schreuders, Kimberly A.; Baker, Matthew M.; Wallace, Robert M.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface topography is one of the most important terrain properties which impact hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological processes active on a landscape. In our previous efforts to develop a soil depth model based upon topographic and land cover variables, we extracted a set of hydrological proximity measures (HPMs) from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as potential explanatory variables for soil depth. These HPMs may also have other, more general modeling applicability in hydrology, geomorphology and ecology, and so are described here from a general perspective. The HPMs we derived are variations of the distance up to ridge points (cells with no incoming flow) and variations of the distance down to stream points (cells with a contributing area greater than a threshold), following the flow path. These HPMs were computed using the D-infinity flow model that apportions flow between adjacent neighbors based on the direction of steepest downward slope on the eight triangular facets constructed in a 3 x 3 grid cell window using the center cell and each pair of adjacent neighboring grid cells in turn. The D-infinity model typically results in multiple flow paths between 2 points on the topography, with the result that distances may be computed as the minimum, maximum or average of the individual flow paths. In addition, each of the HPMs, are calculated vertically, horizontally, and along the land surface. Previously, these HPMs were calculated using recursive serial algorithms which suffered from stack overflow problems when used to process large datasets, limiting the size of DEMs that could be analyzed using that method to approximately 7000 x 7000 cells. To overcome this limitation, we developed a message passing interface (MPI) parallel approach for calculating these HPMs. The parallel algorithms of the HPMs spatially partition the input grid into stripes which are each assigned to separate processes for computation. Each of those processes then uses a

  14. Ganymede crater dimensions from Galileo-based DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, V. J.; Schenk, P.; Melosh, H. J.; McEwen, A. S.; Morgan, J. V.; Collins, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Images returned from the Voyager mission have allowed the analysis of crater morphology on the icy satellites and the construction of both diameter and depth-related scaling laws. Higher resolution Galileo data has since been used to update the diameter-related scaling trends, and also crater depths on the basis of shadow measurements. Our work adds to this wealth of data with new depth and slope information extracted from digital elevation models (DEMs) created from Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) images, with the use of the stereo scene-recognition algorithm developed by Schenk et al. (2004), and from photoclinometry incorporating the combined lunar-Lambert photometric function as defined by McEwen et al. (1991). We profiled ~80 craters, ranging from 4 km to 100 km in diameter. Once each DEM of a crater was obtained, spurious patterns or shape distortions created by radiation noise or data compression artifacts were removed through the use of standard image noise filters, and manually by visual inspection of the DEM and original image(s). Terrain type was noted during profile collection so that any differences in crater trends on bright and dark terrains could be documented. Up to 16 cross-sectional profiles were taken across each crater so that the natural variation of crater dimensions with azimuth could be included in the measurement error. This already incorporates a systematic error on depth measurements of ~ 5%, an improvement from Voyager depth uncertainties of 10-30%. The crater diameter, depth, wall slope, rim height, central uplift height, diameter and slope, and central pit depth, diameter and slope were measured from each profile. Our measurements of feature diameters and of crater depth are consistent with already published results based on measurement from images and shadow lengths. We will present example topographic profiles and scaling trends, specifically highlighting the new depth and slope information for different crater types on Ganymede

  15. Influence of dem in Watershed Management as Flood Zonation Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Khan, Mudasir; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Despite of valuable efforts from working groups and research organizations towards flood hazard reduction through its program, still minimal diminution from these hazards has been realized. This is mainly due to the fact that with rapid increase in population and urbanization coupled with climate change, flood hazards are becoming increasingly catastrophic. Therefore there is a need to understand and access flood hazards and develop means to deal with it through proper preparations, and preventive measures. To achieve this aim, Geographical Information System (GIS), geospatial and hydrological models were used as tools to tackle with influence of flash floods in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia due to existence of large valleys (Wadis) which is a matter of great concern. In this research paper, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of different resolution (30m, 20m,10m and 5m) have been used, which have proven to be valuable tool for the topographic parameterization of hydrological models which are the basis for any flood modelling process. The DEM was used as input for performing spatial analysis and obtaining derivative products and delineate watershed characteristics of the study area using ArcGIS desktop and its Arc Hydro extension tools to check comparability of different elevation models for flood Zonation mapping. The derived drainage patterns have been overlaid over aerial imagery of study area, to check influence of greater amount of precipitation which can turn into massive destructions. The flow accumulation maps derived provide zones of highest accumulation and possible flow directions. This approach provide simplified means of predicting extent of inundation during flood events for emergency action especially for large areas because of large coverage area of the remotely sensed data.

  16. Evaluating Error of LIDAR Derived dem Interpolation for Vegetation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Z.; Khanan, M. F. Abdul; Omar, F. Z.; Rahman, M. Z. Abdul; Mohd Salleh, M. R.

    2016-09-01

    Light Detection and Ranging or LiDAR data is a data source for deriving digital terrain model while Digital Elevation Model or DEM is usable within Geographical Information System or GIS. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of LiDAR derived DEM generated based on different interpolation methods and slope classes. Initially, the study area is divided into three slope classes: (a) slope class one (0° - 5°), (b) slope class two (6° - 10°) and (c) slope class three (11° - 15°). Secondly, each slope class is tested using three distinctive interpolation methods: (a) Kriging, (b) Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and (c) Spline. Next, accuracy assessment is done based on field survey tachymetry data. The finding reveals that the overall Root Mean Square Error or RMSE for Kriging provided the lowest value of 0.727 m for both 0.5 m and 1 m spatial resolutions of oil palm area, followed by Spline with values of 0.734 m for 0.5 m spatial resolution and 0.747 m for spatial resolution of 1 m. Concurrently, IDW provided the highest RMSE value of 0.784 m for both spatial resolutions of 0.5 and 1 m. For rubber area, Spline provided the lowest RMSE value of 0.746 m for 0.5 m spatial resolution and 0.760 m for 1 m spatial resolution. The highest value of RMSE for rubber area is IDW with the value of 1.061 m for both spatial resolutions. Finally, Kriging gave the RMSE value of 0.790m for both spatial resolutions.

  17. Nontrivial center dominance in high temperature QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, K.-I.; Iwasaki, Y.; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, T.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the properties of quarks and gluons above the chiral phase transition temperature Tc, using the renormalization group (RG) improved gauge action and the Wilson quark action with two degenerate quarks mainly on a 323 × 16 lattice. In the one-loop perturbation theory, the thermal ensemble is dominated by the gauge configurations with effectively Z(3) center twisted boundary conditions, making the thermal expectation value of the spatial Polyakov loop take a nontrivial Z(3) center. This is in agreement with our lattice simulation of high temperature quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We further observe that the temporal propagator of massless quarks at extremely high temperature β = 100.0(T ≃ 1058T c) remarkably agrees with the temporal propagator of free quarks with the Z(3) twisted boundary condition for t/Lt ≥ 0.2, but differs from that with the Z(3) trivial boundary condition. As we increase the mass of quarks mq, we find that the thermal ensemble continues to be dominated by the Z(3) twisted gauge field configurations as long as mq ≤ 3.0T and above that the Z(3) trivial configurations come in. The transition is similar to what we found in the departure from the conformal region in the zero-temperature many-flavor conformal QCD on a finite lattice by increasing the mass of quarks.

  18. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; David Richards

    2006-01-17

    Radiative transitions between charmonium states offer an insight into the internal structure of heavy-quark bound states within QCD. We compute, for the first time within lattice QCD, the transition form-factors of various multipolarities between the lightest few charmonium states. In addition, we compute the experimentally unobservable, but physically interesting vector form-factors of the {eta}{sub c}, J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c0}. To this end we apply an ambitious combination of lattice techniques, computing three-point functions with heavy domain wall fermions on an anisotropic lattice within the quenched approximation. With an anisotropy {xi} = 3 at a{sub s} {approx} 0.1 fm we find a reasonable gross spectrum and a hyperfine splitting {approx}90 MeV, which compares favorably with other improved actions. In general, after extrapolation of lattice data at non-zero Q{sup 2} to the photopoint, our results agree within errors with all well measured experimental values. Furthermore, results are compared with the expectations of simple quark models where we find that many features are in agreement; beyond this we propose the possibility of constraining such models using our extracted values of physically unobservable quantities such as the J/{psi} quadrupole moment. We conclude that our methods are successful and propose to apply them to the problem of radiative transitions involving hybrid mesons, with the eventual goal of predicting hybrid meson photoproduction rates at the GlueX experiment.

  19. A Semiclassical Derivation of the QCD Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelor, David

    2009-01-01

    The measured value of the QCD coupling alpha(sub s) at the energy M(sub Zo), the variation of alpha(sub s) as a function of energy in QCD, and classical relativistic dynamics are used to investigate virtual pairs of quarks and antiquarks in vacuum fluctuations. For virtual pairs of bottom quarks and antiquarks, the pair lifetime in the classical model agrees with the lifetime from quantum mechanics to good approximation, and the action integral in the classical model agrees as well with the action that follows from the Uncertainty Principle. This suggests that the particles might have small de Broglie wavelengths and behave with well-localized pointlike dynamics. It also permits alpha(sub s) at the mass energy twice the bottom quark mass to be expressed as a simple fraction: 3/16. This is accurate to approximately 10%. The model in this paper predicts the measured value of alpha(sub s)(M(sub Zo)) to be 0.121, which is in agreement with recent measurements within statistical uncertainties.

  20. Meson Electro-/Photo-Production from QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Raúl A.

    2016-07-01

    Recent results of meson photo-production at the existing electron machines with polarized real photon beams and the measurement of polarization observables of the final state baryons have provided high precision data that led to the discovery of new excited nucleon and Δ states using multi-channel partial wave analyses procedures. The internal structure of several prominent excited states has been revealed employing meson electroproduction processes. On the theoretical front, lattice QCD is now predicting the baryon spectrum with very similar characteristics as the constituent quark model, and continuum QCD, such as is represented in the Dyson-Schwinger equations approach and in light front relativistic quark models, describes the non-perturbative behavior of resonance excitations at photon virtuality of Q^2 > 1.5 GeV^2 . In this talk I discuss the need to continue a vigorous program of nucleon spectroscopy and the study of the internal structure of excited states as a way to reveal the effective degrees of freedom underlying the excited states and their dependence on the distance scale probed.

  1. QCD EVOLUTION AND TMD/SPIN EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2012-12-01

    Transverse Spin and Transverse Momemtum Dependent (TMD) distribution study has been one of the main focuses of hadron physics in recent years. The initial exploratory Semi-Incluisve Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (SIDIS) experiments with transversely polarized proton and deuteron from HERMES and COMPASS attracted great attention and lead to very active efforts in both experiments and theory. QCD factorization has been carefully studied. A SIDIS experiment on the neutron with a polarized 3He target was performed at JLab. Recently published results will be shown. Precision TMD experiments are planned at JLab after the 12 GeV energy upgrade. The approved experiments with a new SoLID spectrometer on both the proton and neutron will be presented. Proper QCD evolution treatments beyond collinear cases become crucial for the precision study of the TMDs. Experimentally, Q2 evolution and higher-twist effects are often closely related. The experience of study higher-twist effects in the cases of moments of the spin structure functions will be discussed.

  2. Searching for X (3872) using lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Song-Haeng; Detar, Carleton; MILC / Fermilab Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    For decades, many excited charmonium states have been discovered that cannot be explained within the conventional quark model. Among the those mesons, the narrow charmonium-like state X (3872) has been examined using various phenomenological models, however, the question for its constituent still remains open. One of the strong candidates is a DD* molecular state because its mass is within 1MeV of the DD* threshold, however, such a molecular state can't be directly studied by perturbative QCD in such a low energy regime where the interaction of the colored quarks and gluons is very strong. Numerical simulation with lattice QCD provides a nonperturbative, ab initio method for studying this mysterious meson state. In this talk, I present preliminary simulation results for this charmonium-like states with quantum numbers JPC =1++ in both the isospin 0 and 1 channels. We use interpolating operators including both the conventional excited P-wave charmonium state (χc 1) and the DD* open charm state for the isospin 0 channel, but only DD* for the isospin 1 channel. We extract large negative S-wave scattering length and find an X (3872) candidate 13 +/- 6 MeV below the DD* threshold in the isospin 0 channel.

  3. Lattice QCD studies of pentaquarks and exotics

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Lasscock; John Hedditch; Waseem Kamleh; Derek Leinweber; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anthony Thomas; Anthony Williams; Ross Young; James Zanotti

    2005-09-14

    The possible discovery of the {Theta}{sup +} pentaquark has motivated a number of studies into its nature using lattice QCD. Initial studies focused on spin-1/2 states and more recently also spin-3/2 states. Here we report the results of the first exploratory study in quenched lattice QCD of pentaquarks with both spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 using the FLIC fermion action. We do not find any evidence for the standard lattice resonance signature of attraction (i.e. binding at quark masses near the physical regime) in the spin-1/2 channels or in the J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -} channel. Some evidence of binding is inferred in the isoscalar 3/2{sup +} channel. We also present the results of our study into exotic meson states using hybrid meson interpolators with explicit gluonic degrees of freedom. We find a candidate for the J{sup PC} = 1{sup {-+}} exotic meson which has a mass consistent with the {pi}{sub 1}(1600) experimental candidate.

  4. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physicalmore » pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.« less

  5. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physical pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.

  6. The Emergence of Hadrons from QCD Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, William; Color Dynamics in Cold Matter (CDCM) Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The formation of hadrons from energetic quarks, the dynamical enforcement of QCD confinement, is not well understood at a fundamental level. In Deep Inelastic Scattering, modifications of the distributions of identified hadrons emerging from nuclei of different sizes reveal a rich variety of spatial and temporal characteristics of the hadronization process, including its dependence on spin, flavor, energy, and hadron mass and structure. The EIC will feature a wide range of kinematics, allowing a complete investigation of medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung by the propagating quarks, leading to partonic energy loss. This fundamental process, which is also at the heart of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions, can be studied for light and heavy quarks at the EIC through observables quantifying hadron ``attenuation'' for a variety of hadron species. Transverse momentum broadening of hadrons, which is sensitive to the nuclear gluonic field, will also be accessible, and can be used to test our understanding from pQCD of how this quantity evolves with pathlength, as well as its connection to partonic energy loss. The evolution of the forming hadrons in the medium will shed new light on the dynamical origins of the forces between hadrons, and thus ultimately on the nuclear force. Supported by the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) of Chile.

  7. Goldstone bosons and fermions in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Zwanziger, Daniel

    2010-06-15

    We consider the version of QCD in Euclidean Landau gauge in which the restriction to the Gribov region is implemented by a local, renormalizable action. This action depends on the Gribov parameter {gamma}, with dimensions of (mass){sup 4}, whose value is fixed in terms of {Lambda}{sub QCD}, by the gap equation, known as the horizon condition, ({partial_derivative}{Gamma}/{partial_derivative}{gamma})=0, where {Gamma} is the quantum effective action. The restriction to the Gribov region suppresses gluons in the infrared, which nicely explains why gluons are not in the physical spectrum, but this only makes more mysterious the origin of the long-range force between quarks. In the present article we exhibit the symmetries of {Gamma}, and show that the solution to the gap equation, which defines the classical vacuum, spontaneously breaks some of the symmetries of {Gamma}. This implies the existence of massless Goldstone bosons and fermions that do not appear in the physical spectrum. Some of the Goldstone bosons may be exchanged between quarks, and are candidates for a long-range confining force. As an exact result we also find that in the infrared limit the gluon propagator vanishes like k{sup 2}.

  8. Digital elevation model (DEM) of Cascadia, latitude 39N-53N, longitude 116W-133W

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugerud, Ralph A.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a 250-meter digital elevation model (DEM) for Cascadia (latitude 39N - 53N, longitude 116W - 133W), a region that encompasses the Cascade volcanic arc, the Cascadia subduction zone, and the Juan de Fuca Ridge system. The DEM is distributed as file cascdem.tar.gz (39 MB; 78MB uncompressed).

  9. Direct binding of specific AUF1 isoforms to tandem zinc finger domains of tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins.

    PubMed

    Kedar, Vishram P; Zucconi, Beth E; Wilson, Gerald M; Blackshear, Perry J

    2012-02-17

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the prototype of a family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins that can bind to AU-rich elements in mRNAs and promote their decay. TTP binds to mRNA through its central tandem zinc finger domain; it then promotes mRNA deadenylation, considered to be the rate-limiting step in eukaryotic mRNA decay. We found that TTP and its related family members could bind to certain isoforms of another AU-rich element-binding protein, HNRNPD/AUF1, as well as a related protein, laAUF1. The interaction domain within AUF1p45 appeared to be a C-terminal "GY" region, and the interaction domain within TTP was the tandem zinc finger domain. Surprisingly, binding of AUF1p45 to TTP occurred even with TTP mutants that lacked RNA binding activity. In cell extracts, binding of AUF1p45 to TTP potentiated TTP binding to ARE-containing RNA probes, as determined by RNA gel shift assays; AUF1p45 did not bind to the RNA probes under these conditions. Using purified, recombinant proteins and a synthetic RNA target in FRET assays, we demonstrated that AUF1p45, but not AUF1p37, increased TTP binding affinity for RNA ∼5-fold. These data suggest that certain isoforms of AUF1 can serve as "co-activators" of TTP family protein binding to RNA. The results raise interesting questions about the ability of AUF1 isoforms to regulate the mRNA binding and decay-promoting activities of TTP and its family members as well as the ability of AUF1 proteins to serve as possible physical links between TTP and other mRNA decay proteins and structures.

  10. Icesat Validation of Tandem-X I-Dems Over the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, L.; Muller, J.-P.

    2016-06-01

    From the latest TanDEM-X mission (bistatic X-Band interferometric SAR), globally consistent Digital Elevation Model (DEM) will be available from 2017, but their accuracy has not yet been fully characterised. This paper presents the methods and implementation of statistical procedures for the validation of the vertical accuracy of TanDEM-X iDEMs at grid-spacing of approximately 12.5 m, 30 m and 90 m based on processed ICESat data over the UK in order to assess their potential extrapolation across the globe. The accuracy of the TanDEM-X iDEM in UK was obtained as follows: against ICESat GLA14 elevation data, TanDEM-X iDEM has -0.028±3.654 m over England and Wales and 0.316 ± 5.286 m over Scotland for 12 m, -0.073 ± 6.575 m for 30 m, and 0.0225 ± 9.251 m at 90 m. Moreover, 90 % of all results at the three resolutions of TanDEM-X iDEM data (with a linear error at 90 % confidence level) are below 16.2 m. These validation results also indicate that derivative topographic parameters (slope, aspect and relief) have a strong effect on the vertical accuracy of the TanDEM-X iDEMs. In high-relief and large slope terrain, large errors and data voids are frequent, and their location is strongly influenced by topography, whilst in the low- to medium-relief and low slope sites, errors are smaller. ICESat derived elevations are heavily influenced by surface slope within the 70 m footprint as well as there being slope dependent errors in the TanDEM-X iDEMs.

  11. Evaluating SRTM and ASTER DEM accuracy for the broader area of Sparti, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Zervakou, Alexandra

    2007-10-01

    One of the major projects of the Institute of Geology & Mineral Exploration (IGME) is called "Urban Geology". In the frame of that project there is need for a high accuracy DEM covering the whole country. The DEM should be used for the orthorectification of high resolution images and other applications such as slope map creation, environmental planning et.c. ASTER and SRTM are two possible sources for DEM covering the whole country. According to the specifications the ASTER vertical accuracy of DEM is about 20m with 95% confidence while the horizontal geolocation accuracy appears to be better than 50 m. More recent studies have shown that the use of GCP's resulted in a plannimetric accuracy of 15 m and in a near pixel size vertical accuracy. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), used an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth's land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. An SRTM 3-arc-second product (90m resolution) is available for the entire world. In this paper we examine the accuracy of SRTM and ASTER DEMs in comparison to the accuracy of the 1/5.000 topographic maps. The area of study is the broader area of Sparti, Greece. After a first control for random or systematic errors a statistical analysis was done. A DEM derived from digitized contours of the 1:5.000 topographic maps was created and compared with ASTER and SRTM derived DEMs. Fifty-five points of known elevation have been used to estimate the accuracy of these three DEMs. Slope and aspect maps were created and compared. The elevation difference between the three DEMs was calculated. 2D RMSE, correlation and the percentile value were also computed. The three DEMs were used for the orthorectification of very high resolution data and the final orthophotos were compared.

  12. Open-Source Digital Elevation Model (DEMs) Evaluation with GPS and LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, N. F.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, K. M.; Khanan, M. F. A.; Omar, A. H.; Hamid, A. I. A.; Pa'suya, M. F.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010) are freely available Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets for environmental modeling and studies. The quality of spatial resolution and vertical accuracy of the DEM data source has a great influence particularly on the accuracy specifically for inundation mapping. Most of the coastal inundation risk studies used the publicly available DEM to estimated the coastal inundation and associated damaged especially to human population based on the increment of sea level. In this study, the comparison between ground truth data from Global Positioning System (GPS) observation and DEM is done to evaluate the accuracy of each DEM. The vertical accuracy of SRTM shows better result against ASTER and GMTED10 with an RMSE of 6.054 m. On top of the accuracy, the correlation of DEM is identified with the high determination of coefficient of 0.912 for SRTM. For coastal zone area, DEMs based on airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) dataset was used as ground truth data relating to terrain height. In this case, the LiDAR DEM is compared against the new SRTM DEM after applying the scale factor. From the findings, the accuracy of the new DEM model from SRTM can be improved by applying scale factor. The result clearly shows that the value of RMSE exhibit slightly different when it reached 0.503 m. Hence, this new model is the most suitable and meets the accuracy requirement for coastal inundation risk assessment using open source data. The suitability of these datasets for further analysis on coastal management studies is vital to assess the potentially vulnerable areas caused by coastal inundation.

  13. Nonperturbative QCD and elastic processes at CEBAF energies

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, A.V. |

    1994-04-01

    The author outlines how one can approach nonperturbative aspects of the QCD dynamics studying elastic processes at energies accessible at upgraded CEBAF. The author`s point is that, in the absence of a complete theory of the nonperturbative effects, a possible way out is based on a systematic use of the QCD factorization procedure which separates theoretically understood ({open_quotes}known{close_quotes}) short-distance effects and nonperturbative ({open_quotes}unknown{close_quotes}) long-distance ones. The latter include hadronic distribution amplitudes, soft components of hadronic form factors etc. Incorporating the QCD sum rule version of the QCD factorization approach, one can relate these nonperturbative functions to more fundamental objects, vacuum condensates, which accumulate information about the nonperturbative structure of the QCD vacuum. The emerging QCD sum rule picture of hadronic form factors is characterized by a dominant role of essentially nonperturbative effects in the few GeV region, with perturbative mechanisms starting to show up for momentum transfers Q{sup 2} closer to 10 GeV{sup 2} and higher. Thus, increasing CEBAF energy provides a unique opportunity for a precision study of interplay between the perturbative and nonperturbative phenomena in the QCD description of elastic processes.

  14. a Variational Approach to the QCD Wavefunctional:. Calculation of the QCD β-FUNCTION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, William E.; Kogan, Ian I.

    The β-function is calculated for an SU(N) Yang-Mills theory from an ansatz for the vacuum wavefunctional. Direct comparison is made with the results of calculations of the β-function of QCD. In both cases the theories are asymptotically free, the only difference being in the numerical coefficient of the β-function, which is found to be -4 from the ansatz and -4 +(1)/(3) from other QCD calculations. This is because, due to the constraint of Gauss' law applied to the wavefunctional, some interactions between gluons (which contribute the (1)/(3)) are omitted. The renormalisation procedure is understood in terms of "tadpole" and "horseshoe" Feynman diagrams which must be interpreted with a nonlocal propagator.

  15. AdS/QCD and Light Front Holography: A New Approximation to QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy

    2010-02-15

    The combination of Anti-de Sitter space (AdS) methods with light-front holography leads to a semi-classical first approximation to the spectrum and wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states. Starting from the bound-state Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD, we derive relativistic light-front wave equations in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. These equations of motion in physical space-time are equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. Its eigenvalues give the hadronic spectrum, and its eigenmodes represent the probability distribution of the hadronic constituents at a given scale. Applications to the light meson and baryon spectra are presented. The predicted meson spectrum has a string-theory Regge form M{sup 2} = 4{kappa}{sup 2}(n+L+S/2); i.e., the square of the eigenmass is linear in both L and n, where n counts the number of nodes of the wavefunction in the radial variable {zeta}. The space-like pion form factor is also well reproduced. One thus obtains a remarkable connection between the description of hadronic modes in AdS space and the Hamiltonian formulation of QCD in physical space-time quantized on the light-front at fixed light-front time {tau}. The model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method in order to systematically include the QCD interaction terms.

  16. Vortical susceptibility of finite-density QCD matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristova, A.; Frenklakh, D.; Gorsky, A.; Kharzeev, D.

    2016-10-01

    The susceptibility of finite-density QCD matter to vorticity is introduced, as an analog of magnetic susceptibility. It describes the spin polarization of quarks and antiquarks in finite-density QCD matter induced by rotation. We estimate this quantity in the chirally broken phase using the mixed gauge-gravity anomaly at finite baryon density. It is proposed that the vortical susceptibility of QCD matter is responsible for the polarization of Λ and overline{Λ} hyperons observed recently in heavy ion collisions at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

  17. Heavy-baryon quark model picture from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijande, J.; Valcarce, A.; Garcilazo, H.

    2014-11-01

    The ground state and excited spectra of baryons containing three identical heavy quarks, b or c , have been recently calculated in nonperturbative lattice QCD. The energy of positive and negative parity excitations has been determined with high precision. Lattice results constitute a unique opportunity to learn about the quark-confinement mechanism as well as elucidating our knowledge about the nature of the strong force. We analyze the nonperturbative lattice QCD results by means of heavy-quark static potentials derived using SU(3) lattice QCD. We make use of different numerical techniques for the three-body problem.

  18. Status of Average-x from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dru Renner

    2011-09-01

    As algorithms and computing power have advanced, lattice QCD has become a precision technique for many QCD observables. However, the calculation of nucleon matrix elements remains an open challenge. I summarize the status of the lattice effort by examining one observable that has come to represent this challenge, average-x: the fraction of the nucleon's momentum carried by its quark constituents. Recent results confirm a long standing tendency to overshoot the experimentally measured value. Understanding this puzzle is essential to not only the lattice calculation of nucleon properties but also the broader effort to determine hadron structure from QCD.

  19. Introductory lectures on lattice QCD at nonzero baryon number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarts, Gert

    2016-04-01

    These lecture notes contain an elementary introduction to lattice QCD at nonzero chemical potential. Topics discussed include chemical potential in the continuum and on the lattice; the sign, overlap and Silver Blaze problems; the phase boundary at small chemical potential; imaginary chemical potential; and complex Langevin dynamics. An incomplete overview of other approaches is presented as well. These lectures are meant for postgraduate students and postdocs with an interest in extreme QCD. A basic knowledge of lattice QCD is assumed but not essential. Some exercises are included at the end.

  20. Impacts of DEM uncertainties on critical source areas identification for non-point source pollution control based on SWAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fei; Dong, Guangxia; Wang, Qingrui; Liu, Lumeng; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of different digital elevation model (DEM) resolutions, sources and resampling techniques on nutrient simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivities of DEM resolutions (from 30 m to 1000 m), sources (ASTER GDEM2, SRTM and Topo-DEM) and resampling techniques (nearest neighbor, bilinear interpolation, cubic convolution and majority) to identification of non-point source (NPS) critical source area (CSA) based on nutrient loads using the SWAT model. The Xiangxi River, one of the main tributaries of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. The following findings were obtained: (1) Elevation and slope extracted from the DEMs were more sensitive to DEM resolution changes. Compared with the results of the 30 m DEM, 1000 m DEM underestimated the elevation and slope by 104 m and 41.57°, respectively; (2) The numbers of subwatersheds and hydrologic response units (HRUs) were considerably influenced by DEM resolutions, but the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads of each subwatershed showed higher correlations with different DEM sources; (3) DEM resolutions and sources had larger effects on CSAs identifications, while TN and TP CSAs showed different response to DEM uncertainties. TN CSAs were more sensitive to resolution changes, exhibiting six distribution patterns at all DEM resolutions. TP CSAs were sensitive to source and resampling technique changes, exhibiting three distribution patterns for DEM sources and two distribution patterns for DEM resampling techniques. DEM resolutions and sources are the two most sensitive SWAT model DEM parameters that must be considered when nutrient CSAs are identified.

  1. Multi-meson systems in lattice QCD / Many-body QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Detmold, William

    2013-08-31

    Nuclear physics entails the study of the properties and interactions of hadrons, such as the proton and neutron, and atomic nuclei and it is central to our understanding of our world at the smallest scales. The underlying basis for nuclear physics is provided by the Standard Model of particle physics which describes how matter interacts through the strong, electromagnetic and weak (electroweak) forces. This theory was developed in the 1970s and provides an extremely successful description of our world at the most fundamental level to which it has been probed. The Standard Model has been, and continues to be, subject to stringent tests at particle accelerators around the world, so far passing without blemish. However, at the relatively low energies that are relevant for nuclear physics, calculations involving the strong interaction, governed by the equations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), are enormously challenging, and to date, the only systematic way to perform them is numerically, using a framework known as lattice QCD (LQCD). In this approach, one discretizes space-time and numerically solves the equations of QCD on a space-time lattice; for realistic calculations, this requires highly optimized algorithms and cutting-edge high performance computing (HPC) resources. Progress over the project period is discussed in detail in the following subsections

  2. Arginine methylation enhances the RNA chaperone activity of the West Nile virus host factor AUF1 p45.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Susann; Schmidt, Tobias; Schierhorn, Angelika; Lilie, Hauke; Szczepankiewicz, Grit; Bergs, Sandra; Liebert, Uwe G; Golbik, Ralph P; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2016-10-01

    A prerequisite for the intracellular replication process of the Flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) is the cyclization of the viral RNA genome, which enables the viral replicase to initiate RNA synthesis. Our earlier studies indicated that the p45 isoform of the cellular AU-rich element binding protein 1 (AUF1) has an RNA chaperone activity, which supports RNA cyclization and viral RNA synthesis by destabilizing a stem structure at the WNV RNA's 3'-end. Here we show that in mammalian cells, AUF1 p45 is consistently modified by arginine methylation of its C terminus. By a combination of different experimental approaches, we can demonstrate that the methyltransferase PRMT1 is necessary and sufficient for AUF1 p45 methylation and that PRMT1 is required for efficient WNV replication. Interestingly, in comparison to the nonmethylated AUF1 p45, the methylated AUF1 p45(aDMA) exhibits a significantly increased affinity to the WNV RNA termini. Further data also revealed that the RNA chaperone activity of AUF1 p45(aDMA) is improved and the methylated protein stimulates viral RNA synthesis considerably more efficiently than the nonmethylated AUF1 p45. In addition to its destabilizing RNA chaperone activity, we identified an RNA annealing activity of AUF1 p45, which is not affected by methylation. Arginine methylation of AUF1 p45 thus represents a specific determinant of its RNA chaperone activity while functioning as a WNV host factor. Our data suggest that the methylation modifies the conformation of AUF1 p45 and in this way affects its RNA binding and restructuring activities.

  3. Evolution of fluctuations near QCD critical point

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanov, M. A.

    2010-03-01

    We propose to describe the time evolution of quasistationary fluctuations near QCD critical point by a system of stochastic Boltzmann-Langevin-Vlasov-type equations. We derive the equations and study the system analytically in the linearized regime. Known results for equilibrium stationary fluctuations as well as the critical scaling of diffusion coefficient are reproduced. We apply the approach to the long-standing question of the fate of the critical point fluctuations during the hadronic rescattering stage of the heavy-ion collision after chemical freeze-out. We find that if conserved particle number fluctuations survive the rescattering, so do, under a certain additional condition, the fluctuations of nonconserved quantities, such as mean transverse momentum. We derive a simple analytical formula for the magnitude of this memory effect.

  4. Correlated fluctuations near the QCD critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijia; Li, Pengfei; Song, Huichao

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we introduce a freeze-out scheme for the dynamical models near the QCD critical point through coupling the decoupled classical particles with the order parameter field. With a modified distribution function that satisfies specific static fluctuations, we calculate the correlated fluctuations of net protons on the hydrodynamic freeze-out surface. A comparison with recent STAR data shows that our model calculations could roughly reproduce energy-dependent cumulant C4 and κ σ2 of net protons through tuning the related parameters. However, the calculated C2 and C3 with both Poisson and binomial baselines are always above the experimental data due to the positive contributions from the static critical fluctuations. To qualitatively and quantitatively describe all the related experimental data, the dynamical critical fluctuations and more realistic noncritical fluctuation baselines should be investigated in the near future.

  5. Spectroscopy of charmed baryons from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanath, M.; Edwards, Robert G.; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present the ground and excited state spectra of singly, doubly and triply charmed baryons by using dynamical lattice QCD. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice and are obtained after subduction from their continuum analogues are utilized. Using novel computational techniques correlation functions of these operators are generated and the variational method is exploited to extract excited states. The lattice spectra that we obtain have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7/2 and the low lying states remarkably resemble the expectations of quantum numbers from SU(6) x O(3) symmetry. Various energy splittings between the extracted states, including splittings due to hyperfine as well as spin-orbit coupling, are considered and those are also compared against similar energy splittings at other quark masses.

  6. The lightest hybrid meson supermultiplet in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J

    2011-10-01

    We interpret the spectrum of meson states recently obtained in non-perturbative lattice QCD calculations in terms of constituent quark-antiquark bound states and states, called 'hybrids', in which the q{bar q} pair is supplemented by an excitation of the gluonic field. We identify a lightest supermultiplet of hybrid mesons with J{sup PC} = (0,1,2){sup {-+}}, 1{sup -} built from a gluonic excitation of chromomagnetic character coupled to q{bar q} in an S-wave. The next lightest hybrids are suggested to be quark orbital excitations with the same gluonic excitation, while the next distinct gluonic excitation is significantly heavier. Existing models of gluonic excitations are compared to these findings and possible phenomenological consequences explored.

  7. Electroweak and QCD Results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Junjie

    2011-09-01

    The Tevatron collider has been remarkably successful and has so far delivered more than 11 fb{sup -1} of data to both the CDF and D0 experiments. Though the LHC has replaced the Tevatron as the world's most powerful collider, years of detector calibration, the huge size of the dataset and the nature of pp collisions will keep the Tevatron competitive in many selected topics in the near future. More than 10 fb{sup -1} of data has been collected by each experiment. Good understanding of the detector performance has been demonstrated by the high precision W boson mass ({Delta}M{sub W} = 31 MeV) and top quark mass ({Delta}M{sub t} = 1.06 GeV) measurements. We report the latest electroweak and QCD results from both experiments. Most analyses presented here used 4-6 fb{sup -1} of data.

  8. QCD spectrum with three quark flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Claude; Burch, Tom; Orginos, Kostas; Toussaint, Doug; DeGrand, Thomas A.; DeTar, Carleton; Datta, Saumen; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Sugar, Robert

    2001-09-01

    We present results from a lattice hadron spectrum calculation using three flavors of dynamical quarks -- two light and one strange -- and quenched simulations for comparison. These simulations were done using a one-loop Symanzik improved gauge action and an improved Kogut-Susskind quark action. The lattice spacings, and hence also the physical volumes, were tuned to be the same in all the runs to better expose differences due to flavor number. Lattice spacings were tuned using the static quark potential, so as a by-product we obtain updated results for the effect of sea quarks on the static quark potential. We find indications that the full QCD meson spectrum is in better agreement with experiment than the quenched spectrum. For the 0{sup ++} (a{sub 0}) meson we see a coupling to two pseudoscalar mesons, or a meson decay on the lattice.

  9. The lightest hybrid meson supermultiplet in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J.

    2011-10-01

    We interpret the spectrum of meson states recently obtained in nonperturbative lattice QCD calculations in terms of constituent quark-antiquark bound states and states, called ''hybrids'', in which the qq pair is supplemented by an excitation of the gluonic field. We identify a lightest supermultiplet of hybrid mesons with J{sup PC}=(0,1,2){sup -+},1{sup --} built from a gluonic excitation of chromomagnetic character coupled to qq in an S-wave. The next lightest hybrids are suggested to be quark orbital excitations with the same gluonic excitation, while the next distinct gluonic excitation is significantly heavier. Existing models of gluonic excitations are compared to these findings and possible phenomenological consequences explored.

  10. Wilson Dslash Kernel From Lattice QCD Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Balint; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Kalamkar, Dhiraj D.; Vaidyanathan, Karthikeyan

    2015-07-01

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) is a numerical technique used for calculations in Theoretical Nuclear and High Energy Physics. LQCD is traditionally one of the first applications ported to many new high performance computing architectures and indeed LQCD practitioners have been known to design and build custom LQCD computers. Lattice QCD kernels are frequently used as benchmarks (e.g. 168.wupwise in the SPEC suite) and are generally well understood, and as such are ideal to illustrate several optimization techniques. In this chapter we will detail our work in optimizing the Wilson-Dslash kernels for Intel Xeon Phi, however, as we will show the technique gives excellent performance on regular Xeon Architecture as well.

  11. Marginal breaking of conformal SUSY QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin F.; Terning, John

    2016-07-01

    We provide an example of a 4D theory that exhibits the Contino-Pomarol-Rattazzi mechanism, where breaking conformal symmetry by an almost marginal operator leads to a light pseudo-Goldstone boson, the dilaton, and a parametrically suppressed contribution to vacuum energy. We consider SUSY QCD at the edge of the conformal window and break conformal symmetry by weakly gauging a subgroup of the flavor symmetry. Using Seiberg duality we show that for a range of parameters the singlet meson in the dual theory reaches the unitarity bound, however, this theory does not have a stable vacuum. We stabilize the vacuum with soft breaking terms, compute the mass of the dilaton, and determine the range of parameters where the leading contribution to the dilaton mass is from the almost marginal coupling.

  12. Threefold Complementary Approach to Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter

    2013-12-27

    A complementary approach, derived from (a) higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, (b) light-front quantization and (c) the invariance properties of the full conformal group in one dimension leads to a nonperturbative relativistic light-front wave equation which incorporates essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics. The fundamental conformal symmetry of the classical QCD Lagrangian in the limit of massless quarks is encoded in the resulting effective theory. The mass scale for confinement emerges from the isomorphism between the conformal group andSO(2,1). This scale appears in the light-front Hamiltonian by mapping to the evolution operator in the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan, which retains the conformal invariance of the action. Remarkably, the specific form of the confinement interaction and the corresponding modification of AdS space are uniquely determined in this procedure.

  13. Multi-hadron systems in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Will Detmold

    2009-07-01

    Lattice QCD is currently entering the stage when it can usefully be applied to systems of multiple hadrons. I briefly review the status of recent calculations of scattering parameters in the two hadron sector and discuss recent calculations of systems composed of many mesons or baryons. In the mesonic case, the NPLQCD collaboration has continued its study of systems of up to twelve pions or kaons and have computed the effect of such a hadronic medium on the static quark potential. High statistics calculations on anisotropic lattices have allowed for precision extraction of the energies and scattering phase shifts of various two baryon systems and, for the first time, the energies of certain three baryon systems have been computed.

  14. Subcritical string and large N QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Charles B.

    2008-10-15

    We pursue the possibility of using subcritical string theory in 4 spacetime dimensions to establish a string dual for large N QCD. In particular we study the even G-parity sector of the 4 dimensional Neveu-Schwarz dual resonance model as the natural candidate for this string theory. Our point of view is that the open string dynamics given by this model will determine the appropriate subcritical closed string theory, a tree level background of which should describe the sum of planar multiloop open string diagrams. We examine the one-loop open string diagram, which contains information about the closed string spectrum at weak coupling. Higher loop open string diagrams will be needed to determine closed string interactions. We also analyze the field theory limit of the one-loop open string diagram and recover the correct running coupling behavior of the limiting gauge theory.

  15. Electroproduction of tensor mesons in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V. M.; Kivel, N.; Strohmaier, M.; Vladimirov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Due to multiple possible polarizations hard exclusive production of tensor mesons by virtual photons or in heavy meson decays offers interesting possibilities to study the helicity structure of the underlying short-distance process. Motivated by the first measurement of the transition form factor γ∗γ → f 2(1270) at large momentum transfers by the BELLE collaboration we present an improved QCD analysis of this reaction in the framework of collinear factorization including contributions of twist-three quark-antiquark-gluon operators and an estimate of soft end-point corrections using light-cone sum rules. The results appear to be in good agreement with the data, in particular the predicted scaling behavior is reproduced in all cases.

  16. Cut-constructible part of QCD amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2006-05-15

    Unitarity cuts are widely used in analytic computation of loop amplitudes in gauge theories such as QCD. We expand upon the technique introduced in hep-ph/0503132 to carry out any finite unitarity cut integral. This technique naturally separates the contributions of bubble, triangle and box integrals in one-loop amplitudes and is not constrained to any particular helicity configurations. Loop momentum integration is reduced to a sequence of algebraic operations. We discuss the extraction of the residues at higher-order poles. Additionally, we offer concise algebraic formulas for expressing coefficients of three-mass triangle integrals. As an application, we compute all remaining coefficients of bubble and triangle integrals for nonsupersymmetric six-gluon amplitudes.

  17. Tests of QCD with polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, T.J.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present three measurements that exploit the highly-polarized incident electrons of the SLC facility to probe QCD and the hadronization process. We observe preliminary evidence for leading particle production in hadronic decays of the Zo to light-quark pairs. In a high-purity sample of quark jets, the momentum spectra of p, A0, and K(-) are harder than those of p(bar), A(bar)0, and K(+), supporting the hypothesis that faster particles in jets are more likely to carry the primary quark or antiquark of the jet. Second, we present an improved limit on jet handedness, which seeks to measure the transport of quark spin through the hadronization process. Finally, we search for a correlation of the three jet event orientation with the Zo spin direction, which would indicate new physics beyond the Standard model.

  18. Dynamics for QCD on an Infinite Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundling, Hendrik; Rudolph, Gerd

    2016-08-01

    We prove the existence of the dynamics automorphism group for Hamiltonian QCD on an infinite lattice in R^3, and this is done in a C*-algebraic context. The existence of ground states is also obtained. Starting with the finite lattice model for Hamiltonian QCD developed by Kijowski, Rudolph (cf. J Math Phys 43:1796-1808 [15], J Math Phys 46:032303 [16]), we state its field algebra and a natural representation. We then generalize this representation to the infinite lattice, and construct a Hilbert space which has represented on it all the local algebras (i.e., kinematics algebras associated with finite connected sublattices) equipped with the correct graded commutation relations. On a suitably large C*-algebra acting on this Hilbert space, and containing all the local algebras, we prove that there is a one parameter automorphism group, which is the pointwise norm limit of the local time evolutions along a sequence of finite sublattices, increasing to the full lattice. This is our global time evolution. We then take as our field algebra the C*-algebra generated by all the orbits of the local algebras w.r.t. the global time evolution. Thus the time evolution creates the field algebra. The time evolution is strongly continuous on this choice of field algebra, though not on the original larger C*-algebra. We define the gauge transformations, explain how to enforce the Gauss law constraint, show that the dynamics automorphism group descends to the algebra of physical observables and prove that gauge invariant ground states exist.

  19. Comparative Influence of Terrain Slope and Canopy Closure on Lidar DEM Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinkham, W.; Smith, A. M.; Hudak, A. T.; Gessler, P.; Swanson, M.

    2009-12-01

    The use of Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) technology is becoming one of the most effective and reliable means of collecting a variety of terrain and vegetation data. Most Lidar based estimates come from the creation of digital elevation models (DEM). As a result of the DEM’s importance in using Lidar data as a management tool, it is necessary to understand the variables that influence the DEM accuracy. Two of these variables, terrain slope and percent canopy closure, were investigated in a mixed conifer forest and woodland area in central Idaho. Following the creation of a DEM from the last return Lidar points, a series of 54 fixed radius plots were stratified by 3 slope classes from 0% to 45% and 3 canopy closures classes from 0% to 95% and surveyed using a laser total station and differential GPS for DEM accuracy analysis. Within each tenth acre plot a grid consisting of 80 ground points was collected along with a point for each tree and each 1,000 hour fuel, further data was collected to classify the canopy and the fuel loading. Each plot was processed to create a DEM for comparison to the Lidar derived DEM. These results will have implications in the development and use of high-resolution DEM models derived from Lidar data for natural resource managers.

  20. Improving Cartosat-1 DEM accuracy using synthetic stereo pair and triplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giribabu, D.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2013-03-01

    Cartosat-1 is the first Indian Remote Sensing Satellite capable of providing along-track stereo images. Cartosat-1 provides forward stereo images with look angles +26° and -5° with respect to nadir for generating Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), Orthoimages and value added products for various applications. A pitch bias of -21° to the satellite resulted in giving reverse tilt mode stereo pair with look angles of +5° and -26° with respect to nadir. This paper compares DEMs generated using forward, reverse and other possible synthetic stereo pairs for two different types of topographies. Stereo triplet was used to generate DEM for Himalayan mountain topography to overcome the problem of occlusions. For flat to undulating topography it was shown that using Cartosat-1 synthetic stereo pair with look angles of -26° and +26° will produce improved version of DEM. Planimetric and height accuracy (Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)) of less than 2.5 m and 2.95 m respectively were obtained and qualitative analysis shows finer details in comparison with other DEMs. For rugged terrain and steep slopes of Himalayan mountain topography simple stereo pairs may not provide reliable accuracies in DEMs due to occlusions and shadows. Stereo triplet from Cartosat-1 was used to generate DEM for mountainous topography. This DEM shows better reconstruction of elevation model even at occluded region when compared with simple stereo pair based DEM. Planimetric and height accuracy (RMSE) of nearly 3 m were obtained and qualitative analysis shows reduction of outliers at occluded region.

  1. Assessment of Uncertainty Propagation from DEM's on Small Scale Typologically-Differentiated Landslide Susceptibility in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmin Sandric, Ionut; Chitu, Zenaida; Jurchescu, Marta; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Micu, Mihai

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of free and open access global digital elevation models has become available in the past 15 years and these DEMs have been widely used for the assessment of landslide susceptibility at medium and small scales. Even though the global vertical and horizontal accuracies of each DEM are known, what it is still unknown is the uncertainty that propagates from the first and second derivatives of DEMs, like slope gradient, into the final landslide susceptibility map For the present study we focused on the assessment of the uncertainty propagation from the following digital elevation models: SRTM 90m spatial resolution, ASTERDEM 30m spatial resolution, EUDEM 30m spatial resolution and the latest release SRTM 30m spatial resolution. From each DEM dataset the slope gradient was generated and used in the landslide susceptibility analysis. A restricted number of spatial predictors are used for landslide susceptibility assessment, represented by lithology, land-cover and slope, were the slope is the only predictor that changes with each DEM. The study makes use of the first national landslide inventory (Micu et al, 2014) obtained from compiling literature data, personal or institutional landslide inventories. The landslide inventory contains more than 27,900 cases classified in three main categories: slides flows and falls The results present landslide susceptibility maps obtained from each DEM and from the combinations of DEM datasets. Maps with uncertainty propagation at country level and differentiated by topographic regions from Romania and by landslide typology (slides, flows and falls) are obtained for each DEM dataset and for the combinations of these. An objective evaluation of each DEM dataset and a final map of landslide susceptibility and the associated uncertainty are provided

  2. Incorporating the effect of DEM resolution and accuracy for improved flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Siddharth; Merwade, Venkatesh

    2015-11-01

    Topography plays a major role in determining the accuracy of flood inundation areas. However, many areas in the United States and around the world do not have access to high quality topographic data in the form of Digital Elevation Models (DEM). For such areas, an improved understanding of the effects of DEM properties such as horizontal resolution and vertical accuracy on flood inundation maps may eventually lead to improved flood inundation modeling and mapping. This study attempts to relate the errors arising from DEM properties such as spatial resolution and vertical accuracy to flood inundation maps, and then use this relationship to create improved flood inundation maps from coarser resolution DEMs with low accuracy. The results from the five stream reaches used in this study show that water surface elevations (WSE) along the stream and the flood inundation area have a linear relationship with both DEM resolution and accuracy. This linear relationship is then used to extrapolate the water surface elevations from coarser resolution DEMs to get water surface elevations corresponding to a finer resolution DEM. Application of this approach show that improved results can be obtained from flood modeling by using coarser and less accurate DEMs, including public domain datasets such as the National Elevation Dataset and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs. The improvement in the WSE and its application to obtain better flood inundation maps is dependent on the study reach characteristics such as land use, valley shape, reach length and width. Application of the approach presented in this study on more reaches may lead to development of guidelines for flood inundation mapping using coarser resolution and less accurate topographic datasets.

  3. The renormalization scale problem and novel perspectives for QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-11-01

    I discuss a number of novel tests of QCD, measurements which can illuminate fundamental features of hadron physics. These include the origin of the “ridge” in proton-proton collisions; the production of the Higgs at high xF; the role of digluon-initiated processes for quarkonium production; flavor-dependent anti-shadowing; the effect of nuclear shadowing on QCD sum rules; direct production of hadrons at high transverse momentum; and leading-twist lensing corrections; and the breakdown of perturbative QCD factorization. I also review the “Principle of Maximum Conformalit” (PMC) which systematically sets the renormalization scale order-by-order in pQCD, independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, thus eliminating an unnecessary theoretical uncertainty.

  4. QCD on the Massively Parallel Computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; Fujisaki, M.; Okuda, M.; Tago, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.; Takaishi, T.; Nakamura, A.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Hege, C.; Stamatescu, I. O.

    We present the QCD-TARO program of calculations which uses the parallel computer AP1000 of Fujitsu. We discuss the results on scaling, correlation times and hadronic spectrum, some aspects of the implementation and the future prospects.

  5. Tevatron-for-LHC Report of the QCD Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, Michael G.; Begel, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Campanelli, M.; Chlebana, F.; De Roeck, A.; Dittmann, J.R.; Ellis, S.D.; Field, B.; Field, R.; Gallinaro, M.; /Fermilab /Rochester U. /Florida U. /Geneva U. /CERN /Baylor U. /Washington U., Seattle /Florida State U. /Rockefeller U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Michigan State U.

    2006-10-01

    The experiments at Run 2 of the Tevatron have each accumulated over 1 fb{sup -1} of high-transverse momentum data. Such a dataset allows for the first precision (i.e. comparisons between theory and experiment at the few percent level) tests of QCD at a hadron collider. While the Large Hadron Collider has been designed as a discovery machine, basic QCD analyses will still need to be performed to understand the working environment. The Tevatron-for-LHC workshop was conceived as a communication link to pass on the expertise of the Tevatron and to test new analysis ideas coming from the LHC community. The TeV4LHC QCD Working Group focused on important aspects of QCD at hadron colliders: jet definitions, extraction and use of Parton Distribution Functions, the underlying event, Monte Carlo tunes, and diffractive physics. This report summarizes some of the results achieved during this workshop.

  6. Novel QCD Phenomena at the LHeC

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-06-22

    The proposed electron-proton/ion collider at CERN, the LHeC, can test fundamental and novel aspects of QCD and electroweak interactions as well as explore physics beyond the standard model over an exceptionally large kinematic range.

  7. Early Run 2 Hard QCD Results from the ATLAS Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We provide an overview of hard QCD results based on data collected with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collision at √s = 13 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. The production of high transverse momentum jets, photons and photon-pairs were studied; the inclusive jet cross section is found to agree well with the prediction of perturbative QCD calculations performed at next-to-leading accuracy. The production cross sections for W and Z bosons in their e and μ decays was measured; in general, agreement is found with the expectation of next-to-next-to leading order QCD calculations and interesting sensitivities to the proton structure functions are already observed. The top production cross sections were measured in different top decay channels and found to agree with the state of the art QCD predictions.

  8. Strange quark condensate from QCD sum rules to five loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Cesareo A.; Nasrallah, Nasrallah F.; Schilcher, Karl

    2008-02-01

    It is argued that it is valid to use QCD sum rules to determine the scalar and pseudoscalar two-point functions at zero momentum, which in turn determine the ratio of the strange to non-strange quark condensates Rsu = langlebar ssrangle/langlebar qqrangle with (q = u, d). This is done in the framework of a new set of QCD Finite Energy Sum Rules (FESR) that involve as integration kernel a second degree polynomial, tuned to reduce considerably the systematic uncertainties in the hadronic spectral functions. As a result, the parameters limiting the precision of this determination are ΛQCD, and to a major extent the strange quark mass. From the positivity of Rsu there follows an upper bound on the latter: \\overline{ms}(2 GeV) <= 121 (105) MeV, for ΛQCD = 330 (420) MeV.

  9. QCD in one dimension at nonzero chemical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ravagli, L.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2007-09-01

    Using an integration formula recently derived by Conrey, Farmer, and Zirnbauer, we calculate the expectation value of the phase factor of the fermion determinant for the staggered lattice QCD action in one dimension. We show that the chemical potential can be absorbed into the quark masses; the theory is in the same chiral symmetry class as QCD in three dimensions at zero chemical potential. In the limit of a large number of colors and fixed number of lattice points, chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously, and our results are in agreement with expressions based on a chiral Lagrangian. In this limit, the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator are correlated according to random matrix theory for QCD in three dimensions. The discontinuity of the chiral condensate is due to an alternative to the Banks-Casher formula recently discovered for QCD in four dimensions at nonzero chemical potential. The effect of temperature on the average phase factor is discussed in a schematic random matrix model.

  10. QCD critical point sweep during black hole formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, A.; Ueda, H.; Nakano, T. Z.; Ruggieri, M.; Sumiyoshi, K.

    2012-11-12

    We discuss the possibility to probe the QCD critical point during the prompt black hole formation. In black hole formation processes, temperature and baryon chemical potential become as high as T{approx} 90MeV and {mu}{sub B}{approx} 1300MeV. This high baryon chemical potential would allow nuclear matter to experience the QCD phase transition, and the temperature may be higher than the QCD critical point temperature. We compare the phase boundary in chiral effective models and the thermal environment obtained in the {nu} radiation hydrodynamical calculation of the gravitational collapse of a 40M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} star leading to the black hole formation. This comparison suggests that quark matter is likely to be formed, and the QCD critical point may be swept.

  11. QCD-like behavior of high-temperature confining strings.

    PubMed

    Diamantini, M C; Trugenberger, C A

    2002-06-24

    We show that, contrary to previous string models, the high-temperature behavior of the recently proposed confining strings reproduces exactly the correct large- N QCD result, a necessary condition for any string model of confinement.

  12. Strong decays of excited baryons in Large Nc QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Goity, J. L.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2007-02-12

    We present the analysis of the strong decays widths of excited baryons in the framework of the 1/Nc expansion of QCD. These studies are performed up to order 1/Nc and include both positive and negative parity excited baryons.

  13. Strong decays of excited baryons in Large Nc QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Goity, Jose; Scoccola, Norberto

    2007-02-01

    We present the analysis of the strong decays widths of excited baryons in the framework of the 1/Nc expansion of QCD. These studies are performed up to order 1/Nc and include both positive and negative parity excited baryons.

  14. Pion form factor in the NLC QCD SR approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bakulev, A. P. Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2010-06-15

    We present results of a calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor within the framework of QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates and using a perturbative spectral density which includes O({alpha}{sub s}) contributions.

  15. Recent progress in lattice QCD at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Petreczky,P.

    2009-02-01

    I review recent progress in finite temperature lattice calculations,including the study of the nature of the deconfinement transition in QCD, equation of state, screening of static quarks and meson spectral functions.

  16. Scheme Variations of the QCD Coupling and Hadronic τ Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boito, Diogo; Jamin, Matthias; Miravitllas, Ramon

    2016-10-01

    The quantum chromodynamics (QCD) coupling αs is not a physical observable of the theory, since it depends on conventions related to the renormalization procedure. We introduce a definition of the QCD coupling, denoted by α^s, whose running is explicitly renormalization scheme invariant. The scheme dependence of the new coupling α^s is parametrized by a single parameter C , related to transformations of the QCD scale Λ . It is demonstrated that appropriate choices of C can lead to substantial improvements in the perturbative prediction of physical observables. As phenomenological applications, we study e+e- scattering and decays of the τ lepton into hadrons, both being governed by the QCD Adler function.

  17. Evaluation of DEM generation accuracy from UAS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santise, M.; Fornari, M.; Forlani, G.; Roncella, R.

    2014-06-01

    The growing use of UAS platform for aerial photogrammetry comes with a new family of Computer Vision highly automated processing software expressly built to manage the peculiar characteristics of these blocks of images. It is of interest to photogrammetrist and professionals, therefore, to find out whether the image orientation and DSM generation methods implemented in such software are reliable and the DSMs and orthophotos are accurate. On a more general basis, it is interesting to figure out whether it is still worth applying the standard rules of aerial photogrammetry to the case of drones, achieving the same inner strength and the same accuracies as well. With such goals in mind, a test area has been set up at the University Campus in Parma. A large number of ground points has been measured on natural as well as signalized points, to provide a comprehensive test field, to check the accuracy performance of different UAS systems. In the test area, points both at ground-level and features on the buildings roofs were measured, in order to obtain a distributed support also altimetrically. Control points were set on different types of surfaces (buildings, asphalt, target, fields of grass and bumps); break lines, were also employed. The paper presents the results of a comparison between two different surveys for DEM (Digital Elevation Model) generation, performed at 70 m and 140 m flying height, using a Falcon 8 UAS.

  18. Investigation of the Critical State in Soil Mechanics Using DEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, Andres A.; Garcia-Rojo, Ramon; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2009-06-18

    The existence and uniqueness of the so-called critical state in soil mechanics is validated in our DEM simulations of irregular polygonal particles. For different particle shape characteristics, the critical state is independent of the initial stress and density conditions. We retain low stress levels, since we do not take into account the crushing of particles. In biaxial test simulations isotropic particles evolve toward a limiting state in which the system reaches a critical void ratio and deforms with constant volume, deviatoric stress, fabric anisotropy, and mechanical coordination number. The last one has been found to be the first variable to attain a critical value making possible for the rest of micro-and-macro-mechanical variables the convergence to the critical state. In periodic shear cell tests, for large shear deformations samples with anisotropic particles reach at the macro-mechanical level the same critical value for both shear force and void ratio. At the micro-mechanical level the components of the stress tensor, the fabric tensor and the inertia tensor of the particles also reach the same stationary state. By varying the aspect ratio of the particles we stated the strong influence of particle shape anisotropy on the parameters that the granular packing attained at the critical state.

  19. SRTM DEM levels over papyrus swamp vegetation - a correction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G.; Lebed, I.; Fohrer, N.

    2009-08-01

    The SRTM DEM, a digital elevation model based on the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of February 2000 is a source of elevation data with nearly worldwide coverage. It has proven its usefulness in various regions but problems persist for densely vegetated areas where, caused by the organic matter and water content of the vegetation, the radar signal is reflected at some level between the vegetation canopy and the ground level. This level varies with different types and densities of vegetation cover and has so far not been assessed for papyrus areas. The paper describes the approach and establishment of a correction factor for a pilot area in the Sudd swamps of southern Sudan based on comparison of SRTM reference levels and ground control points collected during field surveys between 2004 and 2006. Results show a correction factor between the sensed and the real surface of 4.66 m and a average penetration depth of the radar signal into the dense papyrus vegetation of 0.34 m.

  20. Penetration strength of coarse granular materials from DEM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Saussine, Gilles; Breul, Pierre; Radjai, Farhang

    2013-06-01

    Field tests are widely used for soil characterization in geotechnical applications in spite of implementation difficulties. The light penetrometer test is a well-known testing tool for fine soils, but the physical interpretation of the output data in the case of coarse granular materials is far less evident. In fact, the data are considerably more sensitive to various parameters such as fabric structure, particles shape or the applied impact energy. In order to achieve a better understanding of the underlying phenomena, we performed a numerical study by means contact dynamics DEM simulations. We consider the penetration of a moving tip into a sample composed of irregular grain shapes and we analyze the influence of the driving velocity and applied energy on the penetration strength. We find that the latter grows with both the penetration rate and energy. Force fluctuations on the tip involve a jamming-unjamming process. The typology of contact network and inter-granular friction play a major role in the fluctuations and measured values of the cone penetration strength.

  1. DEM Simulation of Particle Clogging in Fiber Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ran; Yang, Mengmeng; Li, Shuiqing

    2015-11-01

    The formation of porous particle deposits plays a crucial role in determining the efficiency of filtration process. In this work, an adhesive discrete element method (DEM), in combination with CFD, is developed to dynamically describe these porous deposit structures and the changed flow field between two parallel fibers under the periodic boundary conditions. For the first time, it is clarified that the structures of clogged particles are dependent on both the adhesion parameter (defined as the ratio of interparticle adhesion to particle inertia) and the Stokes number (as an index of impaction efficiency). The relationship between the pressure-drop gradient and the coordination number along the filtration time is explored, which can be used to quantitatively classify the different filtration regimes, i.e., clean filter stage, clogging stage and cake filtration stage. Finally, we investigate the influence of the fiber separation distance on the particle clogging behavior, which affects the collecting efficiency of the fibers significantly. The results suggest that changing the arrangement of fibers can improve the filter performance. This work has been funded by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2013CB228506).

  2. SPH-DEM simulations of grain dispersion by liquid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Martin; Luding, Stefan; Ramaioli, Marco

    2013-06-01

    We study the dispersion of an initially packed, static granular bed by the injection of a liquid jet. This is a relevant system for many industrial applications, including paint dispersion or food powder dissolution. Both decompaction and dispersion of the powder are not fully understood, leading to inefficiencies in these processes. Here we consider a model problem where the liquid jet is injected below a granular bed contained in a cylindrical cell. Two different initial conditions are considered: a two-phase case where the bed is initially fully immersed in the liquid and a three-phase case where the bed and cell are completely dry preceding the injection of the liquid. The focus of this contribution is the simulation of these model problems using a two-way coupled SPH-DEM granularliquid method [M. Robinson, M. Ramaioli, and S. Luding, submitted (2013) and http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.0752 (2013)]. This is a purely particle-based method without any prescribed mesh, well suited for this and other problems involving a free (liquidgas) surface and a partly immersed particle phase. Our simulations show the effect of process parameters such as injection flow rate and injection diameter on the dispersion pattern, namely whether the granular bed is impregnated bottom-up or a jet is formed and compare well with experiments.

  3. Scenario-Based Validation of Moderate Resolution DEMs Freely Available for Complex Himalayan Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar; Gupta, R. D.; Snehmani; Bhardwaj, Anshuman; Ganju, Ashwagosha

    2016-02-01

    Accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) affects the accuracy of various geoscience and environmental modelling results. This study evaluates accuracies of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global DEM Version-2 (GDEM V2), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) X-band DEM and the NRSC Cartosat-1 DEM V1 (CartoDEM). A high resolution (1 m) photogrammetric DEM (ADS80 DEM), having a high absolute accuracy [1.60 m linear error at 90 % confidence (LE90)], resampled at 30 m cell size was used as reference. The overall root mean square error (RMSE) in vertical accuracy was 23, 73, and 166 m and the LE90 was 36, 75, and 256 m for ASTER GDEM V2, SRTM X-band DEM and CartoDEM, respectively. A detailed error analysis was performed for individual as well as combinations of different classes of aspect, slope, land-cover and elevation zones for the study area. For the ASTER GDEM V2, forest areas with North facing slopes (0°-5°) in the 4th elevation zone (3773-4369 m) showed minimum LE90 of 0.99 m, and barren with East facing slopes (>60°) falling under the 2nd elevation zone (2581-3177 m) showed maximum LE90 of 166 m. For the SRTM DEM, pixels with South-East facing slopes of 0°-5° in the 4th elevation zone covered with forest showed least LE90 of 0.33 m and maximum LE90 of 521 m was observed in the barren area with North-East facing slope (>60°) in the 4th elevation zone. In case of the CartoDEM, the snow pixels in the 2nd elevation zone with South-East facing slopes of 5°-15° showed least LE90 of 0.71 m and maximum LE90 of 1266 m was observed for the snow pixels in the 3rd elevation zone (3177-3773 m) within the South facing slope of 45°-60°. These results can be highly useful for the researchers using DEM products in various modelling exercises.

  4. Untersuchung der Störwirkung von LTE auf SRD Anwendungen bei 868 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welpot, M.; Wunderlich, S.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    Moderne Hausautomatisierungssysteme, Alarmanlagen oder auch Funk-Zugangssysteme in Haus und Automobil setzen auf frei nutzbare Frequenzen in ISM/SRD-Bändern. Die rasante Zunahme an privaten und kommerziell genutzten Applikationen im SRD-Band bei 868 MHz und der Ausbau der LTE-Mobilfunknetze im Frequenzbereich unterhalb von 1 GHz ("Digital Dividend") wirft zunehmend die Frage nach der Funkverträglichkeit dieser Systeme untereinander auf. Während die SRD-Funkmodule auf eine geringe Sendeleistung von ~ +14 dBm beschränkt sind (Ralf and Thomas, 2009), beträgt die maximale LTE-Sendeleistung im Uplink nach (ETSI-Norm, 2011) +23 dBm. Zusammen mit der Einführung von LTE im Frequenzbereich unterhalb 1 GHz als DSL-Ersatz vor allem in ländlichen Gebieten, ergibt sich damit als mögliches Störszenario, dass durch die Aussendung des LTE-Endgerätes im Bereich von ca. 850 MHz die SRD-Funkverbindungen bei 868 MHz insbesondere dann gestört werden, wenn die Antennen beider Funksysteme räumlich nahe zueinander angeordnet sind und folglich nur eine geringe zusätzliche Entkopplung der Systeme bieten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das LTE-Störpotential auf SRD-Empfänger praxisnah untersucht.

  5. Exploring the Spectrum of QCD Using the Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Bulava, John; Dudek, Jozef; Edwards, Robert; Engelson, Eric; Foley, Justin; Joo, Balint; Juge, Jimmy; Lin, Huey-Wen; Mathur, Nilmani; Morningstar, Colin; Peardon, Mike; Richards, David; Ryan, Sinead; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Anthony; Wallace, Stephen

    2009-08-01

    The calculation of the spectrum of QCD is key to an understanding of the strong interactions, and vital if we are to capitalize on the experimental study of the spectrum. In this paper, we describe progress towards understanding the spectrum of resonances of both mesons and baryons from lattice QCD, focusing in particular on the resonances of the $I=1/2$ nucleon states, and of charmonium mesons composed of the heavy charmed quarks.

  6. Wong's equations and the small x effective action in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju

    2000-07-13

    We propose a new form for the small x effective action in QCD. This form of the effective action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at small x.

  7. Strong Coupling Limit/Region of Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, A.; Kawamoto, N.; Miura, K.; Tsubakihara, K.; Maekawa, H.

    We study the phase diagram of quark matter and nuclear propertiesbased on the strong coupling expansion of lattice QCD. Both of baryon and finite coupling correction are found to have effects to extend the hadron phase to a larger μ direction relative to T_c. In a chiral RMF model with logarithmic sigma potential derived in the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD, we can avoid the chiral collapse and normal and hypernuclei properties are well described.

  8. High q^2 QCD physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Convery, Mary E.; /Rockefeller U.

    2006-05-01

    Results in QCD physics at the Tevatron from the D0 and CDF collaborations are presented, including results in jet production, photon production, W/Z bosons plus jets, and heavy-flavor jets. The importance of these topics in tuning Monte-Carlo simulations, constraining the parton distribution functions, and measuring cross sections of QCD processes which contribute significant backgrounds to searches for new and important physics is discussed.

  9. Summary: Working Group on QCD and Strong Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Edmond L. Berger et al.

    2002-12-23

    In this summary of the considerations of the QCD working group at Snowmass 2001, the roles of quantum chromodynamics in the Standard Model and in the search for new physics are reviewed, with empahsis on frontier areas in the field. We discuss the importance of, and prospects for, precision QCD in perturbative and lattice calculations. We describe new ideas in the analysis of parton distribution functions and jet structure, and review progress in small-x and in polarization experiments.

  10. Dynamical QCD+QED simulation with staggered quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ran; Gottlieb, Steven

    2014-11-15

    Electromagnetic effects play an important role in many phenomena such as isospin-symmetry breaking in the hadron spectrum and the hadronic contributions to g-2. We have generalized the MILC QCD code to include the electromagnetic field. In this work, we focus on simulations including charged sea quarks using the RHMC algorithm. We show details of the dynamical QCD+QED simulation algorithm with compact QED. We analyze the code performance and results for hadron-spectrum observables.

  11. Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Bracco, M. E.; Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr.

    2013-03-25

    We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.

  12. Even parity excitations of the nucleon in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    B. G. Lasscock; J. N. Hedditch; W. Kamleh; D. B. Leinweber; W. Melnitchouk; A. G. Williams; J. M. Zanotti

    2007-09-01

    We study the spectrum of the even parity excitations of the nucleon in quenched lattice QCD. We extend our earlier analysis by including an expanded basis of nucleon interpolating fields, increasing the physical size of the lattice, including more configurations to enhance statistics and probing closer to the chiral limit. With a review of world lattice data, we conclude that there is little evidence of the Roper resonance in quenched lattice QCD.

  13. Highly excited and exotic meson spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Thomas

    2011-05-01

    I will discuss recent progress in extracting highly excited and exotic meson spectra using lattice QCD. New results in the light meson sector will be presented, where a combination of techniques have enabled us to confidently identify the spin of extracted states. Highlights include many states with exotic quantum numbers and, for the first time in a lattice QCD calculation, spin-four states. I will conclude with comments on future prospects.

  14. Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles: one-pot synthesis, biofunctionalization and toxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariti, A.; Desai, P.; Maddirala, S. K. Y.; Ercal, N.; Katti, K. V.; Liang, X.; Nath, M.

    2014-09-01

    Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles have been synthesized using a single step hot-injection precipitation method. The synthesis involved using Fe(CO)5 as iron precursor and HAuCl4 as gold precursor in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid. Oleylamine helps in reducing Au3+ to Au0 seeds which simultaneously oxidizes Fe(0) to form Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles. Triton® X-100 was employed as a highly viscous solvent to prevent agglomeration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Detailed characterization of these nanoparticles was performed by using x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Mössbauer and magnetometry studies. To evaluate these nanoparticles’ applicability in biomedical applications, L-cysteine was attached to the Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was tested using CHO cells by employing MTS assay. L-cysteine modified Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were qualitatively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy; and quantitatively using acid ninhydrin assay. Investigations reveal that that this approach yields Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles with an average particle size of 80 nm. Mössbauer studies indicated the presence of Fe in Fe3+ in A and B sites (tetrahedral and octahedral, respectively) and Fe2+ in B sites (octahedral). Magnetic measurements also indicated that these nanoparticles were superparamagnetic in nature due to Fe3O4 region. The saturation magnetization for the bifunctional nanoparticles was observed to be ˜74 emu g-1, which is significantly higher than the previously reported Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Mössbauer studies indicated that there was no significant Fe(0) impurity that could be responsible for the superparamagnetic nature of these nanoparticles. None of the investigations showed any presence of other impurities such as Fe2O3 and FeOOH. These Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional

  15. AUF1 contributes to Cryptochrome1 mRNA degradation and rhythmic translation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Wanil; Lee, Hwa-Rim; Jung, Youngseob; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Hong, Ka Young; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the mouse core clock gene cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) at the post-transcriptional level, particularly its translational regulation. Interestingly, the 3′UTR of Cry1 mRNA decreased its mRNA levels but increased protein amounts. The 3′UTR is widely known to function as a cis-acting element of mRNA degradation. The 3′UTR also provides a binding site for microRNA and mainly suppresses translation of target mRNAs. We found that AU-rich element RNA binding protein 1 (AUF1) directly binds to the Cry1 3′UTR and regulates translation of Cry1 mRNA. AUF1 interacted with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit B and also directly associated with ribosomal protein S3 or ribosomal protein S14, resulting in translation of Cry1 mRNA in a 3′UTR-dependent manner. Expression of cytoplasmic AUF1 and binding of AUF1 to the Cry1 3′UTR were parallel to the circadian CRY1 protein profile. Our results suggest that the 3′UTR of Cry1 is important for its rhythmic translation, and AUF1 bound to the 3′UTR facilitates interaction with the 5′ end of mRNA by interacting with translation initiation factors and recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit to initiate translation of Cry1 mRNA. PMID:24423872

  16. TecDEM: A MATLAB based toolbox for tectonic geomorphology, Part 1: Drainage network preprocessing and stream profile analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Faisal; Gloaguen, Richard

    2011-02-01

    We present TecDEM, a software shell implemented in MATLAB that applies tectonic geomorphologic tasks to digital elevation models (DEMs). The first part of this paper series describes drainage partitioning schemes and stream profile analysis. The graphical user interface of TecDEM provides several options: determining flow directions, stream vectorization, watershed delineation, Strahler order labeling, stream profile generation, knickpoints selection, Concavity, Steepness and Hack indices calculations. The knickpoints along selected streams as well as stream profile analysis, and Hack index per stream profile are computed using a semi-automatic method. TecDEM was used to extract and investigate the stream profiles in the Kaghan Valley (Northern Pakistan). Our interpretations of the TecDEM results correlate well with previous tectonic evolution models for this region. TecDEM is designed to assist geoscientists in applying complex tectonic geomorphology tasks to global DEM data.

  17. What is the effect of LiDAR-derived DEM resolution on large-scale watershed model results?

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Yang; Daniel B. Ames; Andre Fonseca; Danny Anderson; Rupesh Shrestha; Nancy F. Glenn; Yang Cao

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines the effect of raster cell size on hydrographic feature extraction and hydrological modeling using LiDAR derived DEMs. LiDAR datasets for three experimental watersheds were converted to DEMs at various cell sizes. Watershed boundaries and stream networks were delineated from each DEM and were compared to reference data. Hydrological simulations were conducted and the outputs were compared. Smaller cell size DEMs consistently resulted in less difference between DEM-delineated features and reference data. However, minor differences been found between streamflow simulations resulted for a lumped watershed model run at daily simulations aggregated at an annual average. These findings indicate that while higher resolution DEM grids may result in more accurate representation of terrain characteristics, such variations do not necessarily improve watershed scale simulation modeling. Hence the additional expense of generating high resolution DEM's for the purpose of watershed modeling at daily or longer time steps may not be warranted.

  18. Automated sinkhole detection using a DEM subsetting technique and fill tools at Mammoth Cave National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, J.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Levine, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    An automated workflow for sinkhole detection is developed using Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data from Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). While the park is known to sit within a karst formation, the generally dense canopy cover and the size of the park (~53,000 acres) creates issues for sinkhole inventorying. Lidar provides a useful remote sensing technology for peering beneath the canopy in hard to reach areas of the park. In order to detect sinkholes, a subsetting technique is used to interpolate a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) thereby reducing edge effects. For each subset, standard GIS fill tools are used to fill depressions within the DEM. The initial DEM is then subtracted from the filled DEM resulting in detected depressions or sinkholes. Resulting depressions are then described in terms of size and geospatial trend.

  19. Glacier Volume Change Estimation Using Time Series of Improved Aster Dems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, Luc; Nuth, Christopher; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter seems not to be

  20. Hydrologic validation of a structure-from-motion DEM derived from low-altitude UAV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The increasing ease of use of current Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and 3D image processing software has spurred the number of applications relying on high-resolution topographic datasets. Of particular significance in this field is "structure from motion" (SfM), a photogrammetric technique used to generate low-cost digital elevation models (DEMs) for erosion budgeting, measuring of glaciers/lava-flows, archaeological applications and others. It was originally designed to generate 3D-models of buildings, based on unordered collections of images and has become increasingly common in geoscience applications during the last few years. Several studies on the accuracy of this technique already exist, in which the SfM data is mostly compared with Lidar-generated terrain data. The results are mainly positive, indicating that the technique is suitable for such applications. This work aims at validating very high resolution SfM DEMs with a different approach: Not the original elevation data is validated, but data on terrain-related hydrological and geomorphometric parameters derived from the DEM. The study site chosen for this analysis is an abandoned agricultural field near the city of Taroudant, in the semi-arid southern part of Morocco. The site is characterized by aggressive rill and gully erosion and is - apart from sparsely scattered shrub cover - mainly featureless. An area of 5.7 ha, equipped with 30 high-precision ground control points (GCPs), was covered with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in two different heights (85 and 170 m). A selection of 160 images was used to generate several high-resolution DEMs (2 and 5 cm resolution) of the area using the fully automated SfM software AGISOFT Photoscan. For comparison purposes, a conventional photogrammetry-based workflow using the Leica Photogrammetry Suite was used to generate a DEM with a resolution of 5 cm (LPS DEM). The evaluation is done by comparison of the SfM DEM with the derived orthoimages and the LPS DEM

  1. The topographic grain concept in DEM-based geomorphometric mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józsa, Edina

    2016-04-01

    A common drawback of geomorphological analyses based on digital elevation datasets is the definition of search window size for the derivation of morphometric variables. The fixed-size neighbourhood determines the scale of the analysis and mapping, which can lead to the generalization of smaller surface details or the elimination of larger landform elements. The methods of DEM-based geomorphometric mapping are constantly developing into the direction of multi-scale landform delineation, but the optimal threshold for search window size is still a limiting factor. A possible way to determine the suitable value for the parameter is to consider the topographic grain principle (Wood, W. F. - Snell, J. B. 1960, Pike, R. J. et al. 1989). The calculation is implemented as a bash shell script for GRASS GIS to determine the optimal threshold for the r.geomorphon module. The approach relies on the potential of the topographic grain to detect the characteristic local ridgeline-to-channel spacing. By calculating the relative relief values with nested neighbourhood matrices it is possible to define a break-point where the increase rate of local relief encountered by the sample is significantly reducing. The geomorphons approach (Jasiewicz, J. - Stepinski, T. F. 2013) is a cell-based DEM classification method for the identification of landform elements at a broad range of scales by using line-of-sight technique. The landforms larger than the maximum lookup distance are broken down to smaller elements therefore the threshold needs to be set for a relatively large value. On the contrary, the computational requirements and the size of the study sites determine the upper limit for the value. Therefore the aim was to create a tool that would help to determine the optimal parameter for r.geomorphon tool. As a result it would be possible to produce more objective and consistent maps with achieving the full efficiency of this mapping technique. For the thorough analysis on the

  2. HELI-DEM portal for geo-processing services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Antonovic, Milan; Molinari, Monia

    2014-05-01

    HELI-DEM (Helvetia-Italy Digital Elevation Model) is a project developed in the framework of Italy/Switzerland Operational Programme for Trans-frontier Cooperation 2007-2013 whose major aim is to create a unified digital terrain model that includes the alpine and sub-alpine areas between Italy and Switzerland. The partners of the project are: Lombardy Region, Piedmont Region, Polytechnic of Milan, Polytechnic of Turin and Fondazione Politecnico from Italy; Institute of Earth Sciences (SUPSI) from Switzerland. The digital terrain model has been produced by integrating and validating the different elevation data available for the areas of interest, characterized by different reference frame, resolutions and accuracies: DHM at 25 m resolution from Swisstopo, DTM at 20 m resolution from Lombardy Region, DTM at 5 m resolution from Piedmont Region and DTM LiDAR PST-A at about 1 m resolution, that covers the main river bed areas and is produced by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Further results of the project are: the generation of a unique Italian Swiss geoid with an accuracy of few centimeters (Gilardoni et al. 2012); the establishment of a GNSS permanent network, prototype of a transnational positioning service; the development of a geo-portal, entirely based on open source technologies and open standards, which provides the cross-border DTM and offers some capabilities of analysis and processing through the Internet. With this talk, the authors want to present the main steps of the project with a focus on the HELI-DEM geo-portal development carried out by the Institute of Earth Sciences, which is the access point to the DTM outputted from the project. The portal, accessible at http://geoservice.ist.supsi.ch/helidem, is a demonstration of open source technologies combined for providing access to geospatial functionalities to wide non GIS expert public. In fact, the system is entirely developed using only Open Standards and Free and Open Source Software (FOSS

  3. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2015-10-01

    In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. Now, at the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There's no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the dark matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10(-(6-3)) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. However, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. This article is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Not all techniques and experiments

  4. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2015-10-01

    In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. Now, at the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There's no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the dark matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10(-(6-3)) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. However, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. This article is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Not all techniques and experiments

  5. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2015-01-01

    In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. Now, at the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There’s no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the dark matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10−(6–3) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. However, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. This article is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Not all techniques and

  6. QCDNUM: Fast QCD evolution and convolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botje, M.

    2011-02-01

    The QCDNUM program numerically solves the evolution equations for parton densities and fragmentation functions in perturbative QCD. Un-polarised parton densities can be evolved up to next-to-next-to-leading order in powers of the strong coupling constant, while polarised densities or fragmentation functions can be evolved up to next-to-leading order. Other types of evolution can be accessed by feeding alternative sets of evolution kernels into the program. A versatile convolution engine provides tools to compute parton luminosities, cross-sections in hadron-hadron scattering, and deep inelastic structure functions in the zero-mass scheme or in generalised mass schemes. Input to these calculations are either the QCDNUM evolved densities, or those read in from an external parton density repository. Included in the software distribution are packages to calculate zero-mass structure functions in un-polarised deep inelastic scattering, and heavy flavour contributions to these structure functions in the fixed flavour number scheme. Program summaryProgram title: QCDNUM version: 17.00 Catalogue identifier: AEHV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Public Licence No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 736 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 911 569 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran-77 Computer: All Operating system: All RAM: Typically 3 Mbytes Classification: 11.5 Nature of problem: Evolution of the strong coupling constant and parton densities, up to next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. Computation of observable quantities by Mellin convolution of the evolved densities with partonic cross-sections. Solution method: Parametrisation of the parton densities as linear or quadratic splines on a discrete grid, and evolution of the spline

  7. An improved method to represent DEM uncertainty in glacial lake outburst flood propagation using stochastic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Cameron S.; Carrivick, Jonathan; Quincey, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    Modelling glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) or 'jökulhlaups', necessarily involves the propagation of large and often stochastic uncertainties throughout the source to impact process chain. Since flood routing is primarily a function of underlying topography, communication of digital elevation model (DEM) uncertainty should accompany such modelling efforts. Here, a new stochastic first-pass assessment technique was evaluated against an existing GIS-based model and an existing 1D hydrodynamic model, using three DEMs with different spatial resolution. The analysis revealed the effect of DEM uncertainty and model choice on several flood parameters and on the prediction of socio-economic impacts. Our new model, which we call MC-LCP (Monte Carlo Least Cost Path) and which is distributed in the supplementary information, demonstrated enhanced 'stability' when compared to the two existing methods, and this 'stability' was independent of DEM choice. The MC-LCP model outputs an uncertainty continuum within its extent, from which relative socio-economic risk can be evaluated. In a comparison of all DEM and model combinations, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM exhibited fewer artefacts compared to those with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM), and were comparable to those with a finer resolution Advanced Land Observing Satellite Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (ALOS PRISM) derived DEM. Overall, we contend that the variability we find between flood routing model results suggests that consideration of DEM uncertainty and pre-processing methods is important when assessing flow routing and when evaluating potential socio-economic implications of a GLOF event. Incorporation of a stochastic variable provides an illustration of uncertainty that is important when modelling and communicating assessments of an inherently complex process.

  8. 2D DEM model of sand transport with wind interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oger, L.; Valance, A.

    2013-06-01

    The advance of the dunes in the desert is a threat to the life of the local people. The dunes invade houses, agricultural land and perturb the circulation on the roads. It is therefore very important to understand the mechanism of sand transport in order to fight against desertification. Saltation in which sand grains are propelled by the wind along the surface in short hops, is the primary mode of blown sand movement [1]. The saltating grains are very energetic and when impact a sand surface, they rebound and consequently eject other particles from the sand bed. The ejected grains, called reptating grains, contribute to the augmentation of the sand flux. Some of them can be promoted to the saltation motion. We use a mechanical model based on the Discrete Element Method to study successive collisions of incident energetic beads with granular packing in the context of Aeolian saltation transport. We investigate the collision process for the case where the incident bead and those from the packing have identical mechanical properties. We analyze the features of the consecutive collision processes made by the transport of the saltating disks by a wind in which its profile is obtained from the counter-interaction between air flow and grain flows. We used a molecular dynamics method known as DEM (soft Discrete Element Method) with a initial static packing of 20000 2D particles. The dilation of the upper surface due to the consecutive collisions is responsible for maintaining the flow at a given energy input due to the wind.

  9. Monitoring lava dome changes by means of differential DEMs from TanDEM-X interferometry: Examples from Merapi, Indonesia and Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubanek, J.; Westerhaus, M.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating the amount of erupted material during a volcanic crisis is one of the major challenges in volcano research. One way to do this and to discriminate between juvenile and non-juvenile fraction is to assess topographic changes before and after an eruption while using area-wide 3D data. LiDAR or other airborne systems may be a good source, but the recording fails when clouds due to volcanic activity obstruct the sight. In addition, costs as well as logistics are high for local observatories. When dealing with dome-building volcanoes, acquiring the data gets further complicated. As the volcano dome can change rapidly in active phases, it is nearly impossible to collect data at the right time. However, when dealing with gross volume change estimates, at least two data sets - taken directly before and after the eruption - are essential. The innovative German Earth observation mission TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is of great importance to overcome some of these problems. The two almost identical radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X fly in a close formation, thus recording images of the same place on the Earth surface at the same time (bistatic mode). As the radar signal penetrates clouds, digital elevation models (DEMs) of the area of investigation can be generated without problems even with cloud cover. A time series analysis of the differential DEMs therefore opens the possibility to assess volume changes at active lava domes. We choose Merapi in Indonesia and Volcán de Colima in Mexico as test sites. Both volcanoes reside in a state of long term effusive eruption, interrupted every few years by phases of dome destruction, generation of pyroclastic flows and deposition of volcanic material. The availability of extensive ground truth data for both test sites further enables to validate the spaceborne data and results. Here, we analyze lava dome changes due to the hazardous Merapi 2010 eruption. We show a series of DEMs

  10. Comparison and Co-Registration of Dems Generated from HiRISE and Ctx Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiran; Wu, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Images from two sensors, the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and the Context Camera (CTX), both on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), were used to generate high-quality DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) of the Martian surface. However, there were discrepancies between the DEMs generated from the images acquired by these two sensors due to various reasons, such as variations in boresight alignment between the two sensors during the flight in the complex environment. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the discrepancies between the DEMs generated from the HiRISE and CTX images. A combined adjustment algorithm is presented for the co-registration of HiRISE and CTX DEMs. Experimental analysis was carried out using the HiRISE and CTX images collected at the Mars Rover landing site and several other typical regions. The results indicated that there were systematic offsets between the HiRISE and CTX DEMs in the longitude and latitude directions. However, the offset in the altitude was less obvious. After combined adjustment, the offsets were eliminated and the HiRISE and CTX DEMs were co-registered to each other. The presented research is of significance for the synergistic use of HiRISE and CTX images for precision Mars topographic mapping.

  11. ArcGeomorphometry: A toolbox for geomorphometric characterisation of DEMs in the ArcGIS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigol-Sanchez, Juan P.; Stuart, Neil; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    A software tool is described for the extraction of geomorphometric land surface variables and features from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The ArcGeomorphometry Toolbox consists of a series of Python/Numpy processing functions, presented through an easy-to-use graphical menu for the widely used ArcGIS package. Although many GIS provide some operations for analysing DEMs, the methods are often only partially implemented and can be difficult to find and used effectively. Since the results of automated characterisation of landscapes from DEMs are influenced by the extent being considered, the resolution of the source DEM and the size of the kernel (analysis window) used for processing, we have developed a tool to allow GIS users to flexibly apply several multi-scale analysis methods to parameterise and classify a DEM into discrete land surface units. Users can control the threshold values for land surface classifications. The size of the processing kernel can be used to identify land surface features across a range of landscape scales. The pattern of land surface units from each attempt at classification is displayed immediately and can then be processed in the GIS alongside additional data that can assist with a visual assessment and comparison of a series of results. The functionality of the ArcGeomorphometry toolbox is described using an example DEM.

  12. Assembly of Functional Ribonucleoprotein Complexes by AU-rich Element RNA-binding Protein 1 (AUF1) Requires Base-dependent and -independent RNA Contacts*

    PubMed Central

    Zucconi, Beth E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1) regulates the stability and/or translational efficiency of diverse mRNA targets, including many encoding products controlling the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation by associating with AU-rich elements residing in their 3′-untranslated regions. Previous biochemical studies showed that optimal AUF1 binding requires 33–34 nucleotides with a strong preference for U-rich RNA despite observations that few AUF1-associated cellular mRNAs contain such extended U-rich domains. Using the smallest AUF1 isoform (p37AUF1) as a model, we employed fluorescence anisotropy-based approaches to define thermodynamic parameters describing AUF1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex formation across a panel of RNA substrates. These data demonstrated that 15 nucleotides of AU-rich sequence were sufficient to nucleate high affinity p37AUF1 RNP complexes within a larger RNA context. In particular, p37AUF1 binding to short AU-rich RNA targets was significantly stabilized by interactions with a 3′-purine residue and largely base-independent but non-ionic contacts 5′ of the AU-rich site. RNP stabilization by the upstream RNA domain was associated with an enhanced negative change in heat capacity consistent with conformational changes in protein and/or RNA components, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assays demonstrated that these contacts were required for p37AUF1 to remodel local RNA structure. Finally, reporter mRNAs containing minimal high affinity p37AUF1 target sequences associated with AUF1 and were destabilized in a p37AUF1-dependent manner in cells. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the diverse population of AUF1 target mRNAs but also suggest how AUF1 binding could regulate protein and/or microRNA binding events at adjacent sites. PMID:23940053

  13. Resonance photo and electoproduction as a probe of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Analogies have been drawn between QCD where quarks build up hadrons, which in turn build up nuclei, and QED where electrons build up atoms, which in turn build up molecules. There has been a lot of talk about creating a quark theory of the nucleus in QCD by analogy with the way electrons build up molecules in QED. However, this seems to me to be a case of trying to run before you can walk, in that in QED the first step has been achieved, namely understanding atoms in terms of their electronic structure, but understanding molecules in QED is only understood in rather simple cases. In QCD the situation is even worse, in that we haven't even achieved the first step, namely in understanding how hadrons are built from quarks. We all believe that quarks are in the hadrons, and that at high momentum transfer we can apply perturbative QCD(pQCD). But to build the hadrons, we need pQCD and also non-perturbative QCD, which, at present, means building models to simulate the effects of the confinement. Insofar as any successful model of the nucleus will have it looking to a very good approximation as if it is made of nucleons, then I believe that first we have to understand the dynamics of quarks building the individual nucleons. Throughout this talk, I wanted to show how low-energy electron beams may help us deepen that understanding, and hopefully lead us towards the correct dynamical picture of the nucleon. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Kaon distribution amplitude from QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Khodjamirian, A.; Mannel, Th.; Melcher, M.

    2004-11-01

    We present a new calculation of the first Gegenbauer moment a{sub 1}{sup K} of the kaon light cone distribution amplitude. This moment is determined by the difference between the average momenta of strange and nonstrange valence quarks in the kaon. To calculate a{sub 1}{sup K}, QCD sum rule for the diagonal correlation function of local and nonlocal axial-vector currents is used. Contributions of condensates up to dimension six are taken into account, including O({alpha}{sub s})-corrections to the quark-condensate term. We obtain a{sub 1}{sup K}=0.05{+-}0.02, differing by the sign and magnitude from the recent sum rule estimate from the nondiagonal correlation function of pseudoscalar and axial-vector currents. We argue that the nondiagonal sum rule is numerically not reliable. Furthermore, an independent indication for a positive a{sub 1}{sup K} is given, based on the matching of two different light cone sum rules for the K{yields}{pi} form factor. With the new interval of a{sub 1}{sup K}, we update our previous numerical predictions for SU(3)-violating effects in B{sub (s)}{yields}K form factors and charmless B decays.

  15. Heavy-Baryon Spectroscopy from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Huey-Wen Lin, Saul D. Cohen, Liuming Liu, Nilmani Mathur, Konstantinos Orginos, Andre Walker-Loud

    2011-01-01

    We use a four-dimensional lattice calculation of the full-QCD (quantum chromodynamics, the non-abliean gauge theory of the strong interactions of quarks and gluons) path integrals needed to determine the masses of the charmed and bottom baryons. In the charm sector, our results are in good agreement with experiment within our systematics, except for the spin-1/2 $\\Xi_{cc}$, for which we found the isospin-averaged mass to be $\\Xi_{cc}$ to be $3665\\pm17\\pm14^{+0}_{-78}$ MeV. We predict the mass of the (isospin-averaged) spin-1/2 $\\Omega_{cc}$ to be $3763\\pm19\\pm26^{+13}_{-79}$ {MeV}. In the bottom sector, our results are also in agreement with experimental observations and other lattice calculations within our statistical and systematic errors. In particular, we find the mass of the $\\Omega_b$ to be consistent with the recent CDF measurement. We also predict the mass for the as yet unobserved $\\Xi^\\prime_b$ to be 5955(27) MeV.

  16. Nonperturbative comparison of QCD effective charges

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-10-15

    We study the nonperturbative behavior of two versions of the QCD effective charge, one obtained from the pinch technique gluon self-energy, and one from the ghost-gluon vertex. Despite their distinct theoretical origin, due to a fundamental identity relating various ingredients appearing in their respective definitions, the two effective charges are almost identical in the entire range of physical momenta, and coincide exactly in the deep infrared, where they freeze at a common finite value. Specifically, the dressing function of the ghost propagator is related to the two form factors in the Lorentz decomposition of a certain Green's function, appearing in a variety of field-theoretic contexts. The central identity, which is valid only in the Landau gauge, is derived from the Schwinger-Dyson equations governing the dynamics of the aforementioned quantities. The renormalization procedure that preserves the validity of the identity is carried out, and various relevant kinematic limits and physically motivated approximations are studied in detail. A crucial ingredient in this analysis is the infrared finiteness of the gluon propagator, which is inextricably connected with the aforementioned freezing of the effective charges. Some important issues related to the consistent definition of the effective charge in the presence of such a gluon propagator are resolved. We finally present a detailed numerical study of a special set of Schwinger-Dyson equations, whose solutions determine the nonperturbative dynamics of the quantities composing the two effective charges.

  17. Hyperon-nucleon force from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemura, Hidekatsu; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Aoki, Sinya; Hatsuda, Tetsuo

    2009-03-01

    We calculate potentials between a proton and a Ξ0 (hyperon with strangeness -2) through the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function, employing quenched lattice QCD simulations with the plaquette gauge action and the Wilson quark action on (4.5 fm)4 lattice at the lattice spacing a ≃ 0.14 fm. The ud quark mass in our study corresponds to mπ ≃ 0.37 and 0.51 GeV, while the s quark mass corresponds to the physical value of mK. The central pΞ0 potential has a strong (weak) repulsive core in the S10 (S31) channel for r ≲ 0.6 fm, while the potential has attractive well at medium and long distances (0.6 fm ≲ r ≲ 1.2 fm) in both channels. The sign of the pΞ0 scattering length and its quark mass dependence indicate a net attraction in both channels at low energies.

  18. Domain wall QCD with physical quark masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, T.; Boyle, P. A.; Christ, N. H.; Frison, J.; Garron, N.; Hudspith, R. J.; Izubuchi, T.; Janowski, T.; Jung, C.; Jüttner, A.; Kelly, C.; Kenway, R. D.; Lehner, C.; Marinkovic, M.; Mawhinney, R. D.; McGlynn, G.; Murphy, D. J.; Ohta, S.; Portelli, A.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Soni, A.; Rbc; Ukqcd Collaborations

    2016-04-01

    We present results for several light hadronic quantities (fπ , fK, BK, mu d, ms, t01 /2, w0) obtained from simulations of 2 +1 flavor domain wall lattice QCD with large physical volumes and nearly physical pion masses at two lattice spacings. We perform a short, O (3 )%, extrapolation in pion mass to the physical values by combining our new data in a simultaneous chiral/continuum "global fit" with a number of other ensembles with heavier pion masses. We use the physical values of mπ, mK and mΩ to determine the two quark masses and the scale—all other quantities are outputs from our simulations. We obtain results with subpercent statistical errors and negligible chiral and finite-volume systematics for these light hadronic quantities, including fπ=130.2 (9 ) MeV ; fK=155.5 (8 ) MeV ; the average up/down quark mass and strange quark mass in the MS ¯ scheme at 3 GeV, 2.997(49) and 81.64(1.17) MeV respectively; and the neutral kaon mixing parameter, BK, in the renormalization group invariant scheme, 0.750(15) and the MS ¯ scheme at 3 GeV, 0.530(11).

  19. QCD thermodynamics using five-dimensional gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megías, E.; Pirner, H. J.; Veschgini, K.

    2011-03-01

    We calculate the critical temperature and free energy of the gluon plasma using the dilaton potential [B. Galow, E. Megias, J. Nian, and H. J. Pirner, Nucl. Phys.NUPBBO0550-3213 B834, 330 (2010).10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2010.03.022] in the gravity theory of anti-de Sitter/QCD. The finite temperature observables are calculated in two ways: first, from the Page-Hawking computation of the free energy, and secondly using the Bekenstein-Hawking proportionality of the entropy with the area of the horizon. Renormalization is well defined, because the T=0 theory has asymptotic freedom. We further investigate the change of the critical temperature with the number of flavors induced by the change of the running coupling constant in the quenched theory. The finite temperature behavior of the speed of sound, spatial string tension and vacuum expectation value of the Polyakov loop follow from the corresponding string theory in AdS5.

  20. Transverse structure of the QCD string

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Harvey B.

    2010-11-15

    The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length {beta} defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2{pi}{sigma})log({beta}/4r{sub 0}) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2{pi}{sigma})log(r/r{sub 0}). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.

  1. QCD Tests with SLD and Polarized Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Breidenbach, Marty

    2003-08-14

    The authors present a measurement of the strong coupling a{sub s} derived from multijet rates using data collected by the SLD experiment at SLAC and find that a{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2}) = 0.118 {+-} 0.002(stat.) {+-} 0.003(syst.) {+-} 0.010(theory). The authors present tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions via preliminary measurements of the ratios a{sub s}(b)/a{sub s}(udse) and a{sub s}(uds)/a{sub s}(bc). In addition, the authors have measured the difference in charged particle multiplicity between Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} and Z{sup 0} {yields} u{bar u}, d{bar d}, s{bar s} events, and find that it supports the prediction of perturbative QCD that the multiplicity difference be independent of center-of-mass energy. Finally, they have made a preliminary study of jet polarization using the jet handedness technique.

  2. QCD Phase Transition in Dgp Brane Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atazadeh, K.; Ghezelbash, A. M.; Sepangi, H. R.

    2012-08-01

    In the standard picture of cosmology it is predicted that a phase transition, associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, has occurred at approximately 10μ seconds after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons. We consider the quark-hadron phase transition in a Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) brane world scenario within an effective model of QCD. We study the evolution of the physical quantities useful for the study of the early universe, namely, the energy density, temperature and the scale factor before, during and after the phase transition. Also, due to the high energy density in the early universe, we consider the quadratic energy density term that appears in the Friedmann equation. In DGP brane models such a term corresponds to the negative branch (ɛ = -1) of the Friedmann equation when the Hubble radius is much smaller than the crossover length in 4D and 5D regimes. We show that for different values of the cosmological constant on a brane, λ, phase transition occurs and results in decreasing the effective temperature of the quark-gluon plasma and of the hadronic fluid. We then consider the quark-hadron transition in the smooth crossover regime at high and low temperatures and show that such a transition occurs along with decreasing the effective temperature of the quark-gluon plasma during the process of the phase transition.

  3. Shape and Albedo from Shading (SAfS) for Pixel-Level dem Generation from Monocular Images Constrained by Low-Resolution dem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Chung Liu, Wai; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Lunar topographic information, e.g., lunar DEM (Digital Elevation Model), is very important for lunar exploration missions and scientific research. Lunar DEMs are typically generated from photogrammetric image processing or laser altimetry, of which photogrammetric methods require multiple stereo images of an area. DEMs generated from these methods are usually achieved by various interpolation techniques, leading to interpolation artifacts in the resulting DEM. On the other hand, photometric shape reconstruction, e.g., SfS (Shape from Shading), extensively studied in the field of Computer Vision has been introduced to pixel-level resolution DEM refinement. SfS methods have the ability to reconstruct pixel-wise terrain details that explain a given image of the terrain. If the terrain and its corresponding pixel-wise albedo were to be estimated simultaneously, this is a SAfS (Shape and Albedo from Shading) problem and it will be under-determined without additional information. Previous works show strong statistical regularities in albedo of natural objects, and this is even more logically valid in the case of lunar surface due to its lower surface albedo complexity than the Earth. In this paper we suggest a method that refines a lower-resolution DEM to pixel-level resolution given a monocular image of the coverage with known light source, at the same time we also estimate the corresponding pixel-wise albedo map. We regulate the behaviour of albedo and shape such that the optimized terrain and albedo are the likely solutions that explain the corresponding image. The parameters in the approach are optimized through a kernel-based relaxation framework to gain computational advantages. In this research we experimentally employ the Lunar-Lambertian model for reflectance modelling; the framework of the algorithm is expected to be independent of a specific reflectance model. Experiments are carried out using the monocular images from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO

  4. ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results

  5. Bathymetric survey of water reservoirs in north-eastern Brazil based on TanDEM-X satellite data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Foerster, Saskia; Medeiros, Pedro; de Araújo, José Carlos; Motagh, Mahdi; Waske, Bjoern

    2016-11-15

    Water scarcity in the dry season is a vital problem in dryland regions such as northeastern Brazil. Water supplies in these areas often come from numerous reservoirs of various sizes. However, inventory data for these reservoirs is often limited due to the expense and time required for their acquisition via field surveys, particularly in remote areas. Remote sensing techniques provide a valuable alternative to conventional reservoir bathymetric surveys for water resource management. In this study single pass TanDEM-X data acquired in bistatic mode were used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) in the Madalena catchment, northeastern Brazil. Validation with differential global positioning system (DGPS) data from field measurements indicated an absolute elevation accuracy of approximately 1m for the TanDEM-X derived DEMs (TDX DEMs). The DEMs derived from TanDEM-X data acquired at low water levels show significant advantages over bathymetric maps derived from field survey, particularly with regard to coverage, evenly distributed measurements and replication of reservoir shape. Furthermore, by mapping the dry reservoir bottoms with TanDEM-X data, TDX DEMs are free of emergent and submerged macrophytes, independent of water depth (e.g. >10m), water quality and even weather conditions. Thus, the method is superior to other existing bathymetric mapping approaches, particularly for inland water bodies. The proposed approach relies on (nearly) dry reservoir conditions at times of image acquisition and is thus restricted to areas that show considerable water levels variations. However, comparisons between TDX DEM and the bathymetric map derived from field surveys show that the amount of water retained during the dry phase has only marginal impact on the total water volume derivation from TDX DEM. Overall, DEMs generated from bistatic TanDEM-X data acquired in low water periods constitute a useful and efficient data source for deriving reservoir bathymetry and show

  6. Doubly heavy baryon spectra guided by lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.; Vijande, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper provides results for the ground state and excited spectra of three-flavored doubly heavy baryons, b c n and b c s . We take advantage of the spin-independent interaction recently obtained to reconcile the lattice SU(3) QCD static potential and the results of nonperturbative lattice QCD for the triply heavy baryon spectra. We show that the spin-dependent potential might be constrained on the basis of nonperturbative lattice QCD results for the spin splittings of three-flavored doubly heavy baryons. Our results may also represent a challenge for future lattice QCD work, because a smaller lattice error could help in distinguishing between different prescriptions for the spin-dependent part of the interaction. Thus, by comparing with the reported baryon spectra obtained with parameters estimated from lattice QCD, one can challenge the precision of lattice calculations. The present work supports a coherent description of singly, doubly and triply heavy baryons with the same Cornell-like interacting potential. The possible experimental measurement of these states at LHCb is an incentive for this study.

  7. Hadron Physics and Confinement Physics in Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, H.; Amemiya, K.; Ichie, H.; Ishii, N.; Matsufuru, H.; Nakajima, N.; Nemoto, Y.; Oka, M.; Takahashi, T. T.

    2001-10-01

    We are aiming to construct Quark Hadron Physics and Confinement Physics based on QCD. Using SU(3)c lattice QCD, we are investigating the three-quark potential at T=0 and T≠=0, mass spectra of positive and negative-parity baryons in the octet and the decuplet representations of the SU(3) flavor, glueball properties at T=0 and T≠0. We study also Confinement Physics using lattice QCD. In the maximally abelian (MA) gauge, the off-diagonal gluon amplitude is strongly suppressed, and then the off-diagonal gluon phase shows strong randomness, which leads to a large effective off-diagonal gluon mass, Moff≃1.2 GeV. Due to the large off-diagonal gluon mass in the MA gauge, infrared QCD is abelianized like nonabelian Higgs theories. In the MA gauge, there appears a macroscopic network of the monopole world-line covering the whole system. From the monopole current, we extract the dual gluon field Bμ, and examine the longitudinal magnetic screening. We obtain mB≃0.5 GeV in the infrared region, which indicates the dual Higgs mechanism by monopole condensation. From infrared abelian dominance and infrared monopole condensation, low-energy QCD in the MA gauge is described with the dual Ginzburg-Landau (DGL) theory.

  8. Recent Release of the ASTER Global DEM Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Hall, A.; Meyer, D.; Sohre, T.; Doescher, C.

    2009-12-01

    On June 29th, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) release was announced to the public and to a very eager audience. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) is an imaging instrument flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). ASTER is a cooperative effort between NASA, Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and Japan's Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC). On June 21, NASA Headquarters along with colleagues in Japan (METI) signed a plan for distribution of this product. The global digital elevation model of Earth is available online to users everywhere at no cost from NASA's Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at Sioux Falls, SD. The DAAC is a joint project of NASA and the USGS and is a key component of NASA's EOSDIS. The new ASTER GDEM was created from nearly 1.3 million individual stereo-pair images acquired by the Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (Aster) instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite. The ASTER elevation model was jointly developed by NASA and METI under contract to Sensor Information Laboratory Corp., Tsukuba, Japan. On June 29, the NASA press release was picked up quickly by numerous news organizations and online sites. Response to the product was incredible! The news of the release of the product was carried on websites across the globe, this fueled a tremendous response from users. Here are a few interesting metrics about the release: - over 41,000 unique visitors to website in first week following release - top countries in order were: US (approx. 20%), Germany, U.K., Brazil, Austria, Canada, Spain, Switzerland, Japan - approximately 29,000 visitors came to the news page in the first week and about 11,000 of these users downloaded the actual press release - by the end of August, over 2 Million ASTER GDEM files had been downloaded from the Land

  9. CFD-DEM simulations of current-induced dune formation and morphological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of sediment transport, particularly those during the formation and evolution of bedforms, is of critical scientific importance and has engineering relevance. Traditional approaches of sediment transport simulations heavily rely on empirical models, which are not able to capture the physics-rich, regime-dependent behaviors of the process. With the increase of available computational resources in the past decade, CFD-DEM (computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method) has emerged as a viable high-fidelity method for the study of sediment transport. However, a comprehensive, quantitative study of the generation and migration of different sediment bed patterns using CFD-DEM is still lacking. In this work, current-induced sediment transport problems in a wide range of regimes are simulated, including 'flat bed in motion', 'small dune', 'vortex dune' and suspended transport. Simulations are performed by using SediFoam, an open-source, massively parallel CFD-DEM solver developed by the authors. This is a general-purpose solver for particle-laden flows tailed for particle transport problems. Validation tests are performed to demonstrate the capability of CFD-DEM in the full range of sediment transport regimes. Comparison of simulation results with experimental and numerical benchmark data demonstrates the merits of CFD-DEM approach. In addition, the improvements of the present simulations over existing studies using CFD-DEM are presented. The present solver gives more accurate prediction of sediment transport rate by properly accounting for the influence of particle volume fraction on the fluid flow. In summary, this work demonstrates that CFD-DEM is a promising particle-resolving approach for probing the physics of current-induced sediment transport.

  10. Error modeling of DEMs from topographic surveys of rivers using fuzzy inference systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, Sara; Hensleigh, James; McHugh, Peter; Wheaton, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) have become common place in the earth sciences as a tool to characterize surface topography and set modeling boundary conditions. All DEMs have a degree of inherent error that is propagated to subsequent models and analyses. While previous research has shown that DEM error is spatially variable it is often represented as spatially uniform for analytical simplicity. Fuzzy inference systems (FIS) offer a tractable approach for modeling spatially variable DEM error, including flexibility in the number of inputs and calibration of outputs based on survey technique and modeling environment. We compare three FIS error models for DEMs derived from TS surveys of wadeable streams and test them at 34 sites in the Columbia River basin. The models differ in complexity regarding the number/type of inputs and degree of site-specific parameterization. A 2-input FIS uses inputs derived from the topographic point cloud (slope, point density). A 4-input FIS adds interpolation error and 3-D point quality. The 5-input FIS adds bed-surface roughness estimates. Both the 4 and 5-input FIS model output were parameterized to site-specific values. In the wetted channel we found (i) the 5-input FIS resulted in lower mean δz due to including roughness, and (ii) the 4 and 5-input FIS resulted in a higher standard deviation and maximum δz due to the inclusion of site-specific bank heights. All three FIS gave plausible estimates of DEM error, with the two more complicated models offering an improvement in the ability to detect spatially localized areas of DEM uncertainty.

  11. Perspective - synthetic DEMs: A vital underpinning for the quantitative future of landform analysis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, J. K.; Sofia, G.; Conway, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Physical processes, including anthropogenic feedbacks, sculpt planetary surfaces (e.g. Earth's). A fundamental tenet of geomorphology is that the shapes created, when combined with other measurements, can be used to understand those processes. Artificial or synthetic digital elevation models (DEMs) might be vital in progressing further with this endeavour in two ways. First, synthetic DEMs can be built (e.g. by directly using governing equations) to encapsulate the processes, making predictions from theory. A second, arguably underutilised, role is to perform checks on accuracy and robustness that we dub "synthetic tests". Specifically, synthetic DEMs can contain a priori known, idealised morphologies that numerical landscape evolution models, DEM-analysis algorithms, and even manual mapping can be assessed against. Some such tests, for instance examining inaccuracies caused by noise, are moderately commonly employed, whilst others are much less so. Derived morphological properties, including metrics and mapping (manual and automated), are required to establish whether or not conceptual models represent reality well, but at present their quality is typically weakly constrained (e.g. by mapper inter-comparison). Relatively rare examples illustrate how synthetic tests can make strong "absolute" statements about landform detection and quantification; for example, 84 % of valley heads in the real landscape are identified correctly. From our perspective, it is vital to verify such statistics quantifying the properties of landscapes as ultimately this is the link between physics-driven models of processes and morphological observations that allows quantitative hypotheses to be tested. As such the additional rigour possible with this second usage of synthetic DEMs feeds directly into a problem central to the validity of much of geomorphology. Thus, this note introduces synthetic tests and DEMs and then outlines a typology of synthetic DEMs along with their benefits

  12. Constructing QCD one-loop amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Forde, Darren; /SLAC /UCLA

    2008-02-22

    In the context of constructing one-loop amplitudes using a unitarity bootstrap approach we discuss a general systematic procedure for obtaining the coefficients of the scalar bubble and triangle integral functions of one-loop amplitudes. Coefficients are extracted after examining the behavior of the cut integrand as the unconstrained parameters of a specifically chosen parameterization of the cut loop momentum approach infinity. Measurements of new physics at the forthcoming experimental program at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a precise understanding of processes at next-to-leading order (NLO). This places increased demands for the computation of new one-loop amplitudes. This in turn has spurred recent developments towards improved calculational techniques. Direct calculations using Feynman diagrams are in general inefficient. Developments of more efficient techniques have usually centered around unitarity techniques [1], where tree amplitudes are effectively 'glued' together to form loops. The most straightforward application of this method, in which the cut loop momentum is in D = 4, allows for the computation of 'cut-constructible' terms only, i.e. (poly)logarithmic containing terms and any related constants. QCD amplitudes contain, in addition to such terms, rational pieces which cannot be derived using such cuts. These 'missing' rational parts can be extracted using cut loop momenta in D = 4-2 {var_epsilon}. The greater difficulty of such calculations has restricted the application of this approach, although recent developments [3, 4] have provided new promise for this technique. Recently the application of on-shell recursion relations [5] to obtaining the 'missing' rational parts of one-loop processes [6] has provided an alternative very promising solution to this problem. In combination with unitarity methods an 'on-shell bootstrap' approach provides an efficient technique for computing complete one-loop QCD amplitudes [7]. Additionally

  13. A "liaison dangereuse" between AUF1/hnRNPD and the oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK.

    PubMed

    Fawal, Mohamad; Armstrong, Florence; Ollier, Severine; Dupont, Henri; Touriol, Christian; Monsarrat, Bernard; Delsol, Georges; Payrastre, Bernard; Morello, Dominique

    2006-10-15

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is a chimeric protein expressed in a subset of cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) for which constitutive expression represents a key oncogenic event. The ALK signaling pathway is complex and probably involves functional redundancy between various signaling substrates of ALK. Despite numerous studies on signaling mediators, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the distinct oncogenic features of NPM-ALK remain incompletely understood. The search for additional interacting partners of NPM-ALK led to the discovery of AUF1/hnRNPD, a protein implicated in AU-rich element (ARE)-directed mRNA decay. AUF1 was immunoprecipitated with ALK both in ALCL-derived cells and in NIH3T3 cells stably expressing NPM-ALK or other X-ALK fusion proteins. AUF1 and NPM-ALK were found concentrated in the same cytoplasmic foci, whose formation required NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase activity. AUF1 was phosphorylated by ALK in vitro and was hyperphosphorylated in NPM-ALK-expressing cells. Its hyperphosphorylation was correlated with increased stability of several AUF1 target mRNAs encoding key regulators of cell proliferation and with increased cell survival after transcriptional arrest. Thus, AUF1 could function in a novel pathway mediating the oncogenic effects of NPM-ALK. Our data establish an important link between oncogenic kinases and mRNA turnover, which could constitute a critical aspect of tumorigenesis.

  14. Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Wei, Chao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Sim, Stanley Siong Wei; Liu, Linbo; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-10-01

    Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT.Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05459a

  15. Windows on the axion. [quantum chromodynamics (QCD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the theta vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10(-12)eV is approx. less than m(a) which is approx. less than 10(6)eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Laboratory experiments have excluded masses greater than 10(4)eV, leaving unprobed some 16 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producting detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10(-6)eV is approx. less than m(a) is approx. less than 10(-3)eV and 1eV is approx. less than m(a) is approx. less than 5eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve heavenly axions, are being planned or are underway.

  16. Flavoured aspects of the QCD thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, O.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in lattice QCD studies on various aspects involving strange and heavy quarks. Appropriate combinations of conserved net strange and net charm fluctuations and their correlations with other conserved charges provide evidence that in the hadronic phase so far unobserved hadrons contribute to the thermodynamics and need to be included in hadron resonance gas models. In the strange sector this leads to significant reductions of the chemical freeze-out temperature of strange hadrons. We have found that a description of the thermodynamics of open strange and open charm degrees of freedom in terms of an uncorrelated hadron gas is valid only up to temperatures close to the chiral crossover temperature. This suggests that in addition to light and strange hadrons also open charm hadrons start to dissolve already close to the chiral crossover. Further indications that open charm mesons start to melt in the vicinity of Tc is obtained from an analysis of screening masses, while in the charmonium sector these screening masses show a behavior compatible with a sequential melting pattern. In the last section we discuss resent progress in extracting a transport coefficient, the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient, based on continuum extrapolated color-electric field correlation functions and estimate the time scale associated with the kinetic equilibration of heavy quarks. Close to Tc this suggests that charm quark kinetic equilibration appears almost as fast as that of light partons in agreement with qualitative discoveries at RHIC and LHC that charm quarks appear to flow about as effectively as light quarks.

  17. An innovative glucose biosensor using antibiofouling Au-F127 nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chong; Wangi, Xiaobo; Zhou, Min; Ni, Yalong; Mao, Chun; Huang, Xiaohua; Shenl, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Quantification of the blood glucose concentration in the whole blood was not easy to achieve because the detection process was affected by many factors, such as glucose metabolism and biofouling. In this paper, we established an amperometric glucose biosensor applied in whole blood directly, which was based on the direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped onto the Au-F127 nanospheres. Here, the Au-F127 nanospheres could provide a blood compatible surface with antifouling property for determination of glucose in whole blood. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that GOx immobilized on the Au-F127 nanospheres exhibited direct electron transfer reaction, and the cyclic voltammogram (CV) displayed a pair of well-defined and nearly symmetric redox peaks with a formal potential of 93 mV. The biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward glucose with a low detection limit 3.15 pM. The glucose biosensor did not respond to ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) at their high concentration encountered in blood. In this method, the biosensor was used for quantification of the concentration of glucose in whole blood samples. The data obtained from the biosensor showed good agreement with those from a biochemical analyzer in hospital.

  18. A plasma protein corona enhances the biocompatibility of Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Lisa; Christner, Carolin; Storck, Wiebke; Schick, Isabel; Krumbein, Ines; Dähring, Heidi; Haedicke, Katja; Heinz-Herrmann, Karl; Teichgräber, Ulf; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tenzer, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles (JPs) are heteroparticles with discrete domains defined by different materials. Their tunable composition and morphology confer multimodal and versatile capabilities for use as contrast agents and drug carriers in future medicine. Au@Fe3O4 JPs have colloidal properties and surface characteristics leading to interactions with proteins in biological fluids. The resulting protein adsorption layer ("protein corona") critically affects their interaction with living matter. Although Au@Fe3O4 JPs displayed good biocompatibility in a standardized in vitro situation, an in-depth characterization of the protein corona is of prime importance to unravel underlying mechanisms affecting their pathophysiology and biodistribution in vitro and in vivo. Here, we comparatively analyzed the human plasma corona of Au-thiol@Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG JPs (NH2-functionalized and non-functionalized) and spherical magnetite (Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG) particles and investigated its effects on colloidal stability, biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Label-free quantitative proteomic analyses revealed that complex coronas including almost 180 different proteins were formed within only one minute. Remarkably, in contrast to spherical magnetite particles with surface NH2 groups, the Janus structure prevented aggregation and the adhesion of opsonins. This resulted in an enhanced biocompatibility of corona sheathed JPs compared to spherical magnetite particles and corona-free JPs.

  19. Moving Forward to Constrain the Shear Viscosity of QCD Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denicol, Gabriel; Monnai, Akihiko; Schenke, Björn

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that measurements of rapidity differential anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions can constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η /s of QCD matter. Comparing results from hydrodynamic calculations with experimental data from the RHIC, we find evidence for a small η /s ≈0.04 in the QCD crossover region and a strong temperature dependence in the hadronic phase. A temperature independent η /s is disfavored by the data. We further show that measurements of the event-by-event flow as a function of rapidity can be used to independently constrain the initial state fluctuations in three dimensions and the temperature dependent transport properties of QCD matter.

  20. Moving Forward to Constrain the Shear Viscosity of QCD Matter.

    PubMed

    Denicol, Gabriel; Monnai, Akihiko; Schenke, Björn

    2016-05-27

    We demonstrate that measurements of rapidity differential anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions can constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s of QCD matter. Comparing results from hydrodynamic calculations with experimental data from the RHIC, we find evidence for a small η/s≈0.04 in the QCD crossover region and a strong temperature dependence in the hadronic phase. A temperature independent η/s is disfavored by the data. We further show that measurements of the event-by-event flow as a function of rapidity can be used to independently constrain the initial state fluctuations in three dimensions and the temperature dependent transport properties of QCD matter. PMID:27284652

  1. Search for the pentaquark resonance signature in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    B. G. Lasscock; J. Hedditch; D. B. Leinweber; W. Melnitchouk; A. W. Thomas; A. G. Williams; R. D. Young; J. M. Zanotti

    2005-03-01

    Claims concerning the possible discovery of the $\\Theta^+$ pentaquark, with minimal quark content $uudd\\bar{s}$, have motivated our comprehensive study into possible pentaquark states using lattice QCD. We review various pentaquark interpolating fields in the literature and create a new candidate ideal for lattice QCD simulations. Using these interpolating fields we attempt to isolate a signal for a five-quark resonance. Calculations are performed using improved actions on a large $20^{3} \\times 40$ lattice in the quenched approximation. The standard lattice resonance signal of increasing attraction between baryon constituents for increasing quark mass is not observed for spin-1/2 pentaquark states. We conclude that evidence supporting the existence of a spin-1/2 pentaquark resonance does not exist in quenched QCD.

  2. Low-Energy Dynamics in Ultradegenerate QCD Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Thomas; Schwenzer, Kai

    2006-09-01

    We study the low-energy behavior of QCD Green functions in the limit that the baryon chemical potential is much larger than the QCD scale parameter {lambda}{sub QCD}. We show that there is a systematic low-energy expansion in powers of ({omega}/m){sup 1/3}, where {omega} is the energy and m is the screening scale. This expansion is valid even if the effective quark-gluon coupling g is not small. The expansion is purely perturbative in the magnetic regime vertical bar k(vector sign) vertical bar >>k{sub 0}. If the external momenta and energies satisfy vertical bar k(vector sign) vertical bar ={approx}k{sub 0}, planar, Abelian ladder diagrams involving the full quark propagator have to be resummed but the corresponding Dyson-Schwinger equations are closed.

  3. QCD THERMODYNAMICS AT ZERO AND NON-ZERO DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMIDT, C.

    2007-07-03

    We present recent results on thermodynamics of QCD with almost physical light quark masses and a physical strange quark mass value. These calculations have been performed with an improved staggered action especially designed for finite temperature lattice QCD. In detail we present a calculation of the transition temperature, using a combined chiral and continuum extrapolation. Furthermore we present preliminary results on the interaction measure and energy density at almost realistic quark masses. Finally we discuss the response of the pressure to a finite quark chemical potential. Within the Taylor expansion formalism we calculate quark number susceptibilities and leading order corrections to finite chemical potential. This is particularly useful for mapping out the critical region in the QCD phase diagram.

  4. High energy asymptotics of scattering processes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Enberg, R.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Munier, S.

    2005-10-01

    High energy scattering in the QCD parton model was recently shown to be a reaction-diffusion process and, thus, to lie in the universality class of the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. We recall that the latter appears naturally in the context of the parton model. We provide a thorough numerical analysis of the mean-field approximation, given in QCD by the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. In the framework of a simple stochastic toy model that captures the relevant features of QCD, we discuss and illustrate the universal properties of such stochastic models. We investigate, in particular, the validity of the mean-field approximation and how it is broken by fluctuations. We find that the mean-field approximation is a good approximation in the initial stages of the evolution in rapidity.

  5. 't Hooft vertices, partial quenching, and rooted staggered QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Claude; Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the properties of 't Hooft vertices in partially quenched and rooted versions of QCD in the continuum. These theories have a physical subspace, equivalent to ordinary QCD, that is contained within a larger space that includes many unphysical correlation functions. We find that the 't Hooft vertices in the physical subspace have the expected form, despite the presence of unphysical 't Hooft vertices appearing in correlation functions that have an excess of valence quarks (or ghost quarks). We also show that, due to the singular behavior of unphysical correlation functions as the massless limit is approached, order parameters for nonanomalous symmetries can be nonvanishing in finite volume if these symmetries act outside of the physical subspace. Using these results, we demonstrate that arguments recently given by Creutz - claiming to disprove the validity of rooted staggered QCD - are incorrect. In particular, the unphysical 't Hooft vertices do not present an obstacle to the recovery of taste symmetry in the continuum limit.

  6. Hadron interactions and exotic hadrons from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yoichi

    2014-09-01

    One of the interesting subjects in hadron physics is to look for the multiquark configurations. One of candidates is the H-dibaryon (udsuds), and the possibility of the bound H-dibaryon has been recently studied from lattice QCD. We also extend the HAL QCD method to define potentials on the lattice between baryons to meson-meson systems including charm quarks to search for the bound tetraquark Tcc (ud c c) and Tcs (ud c s). In the presentation, after reviewing the HAL QCD method, we report the results on the H-dibaryon, the tetraquark Tcc (ud c c) and Tcs (ud c s), where we have employed the relativistic heavy quark action to treat the charm quark dynamics with pion masses, mπ = 410, 570, 700 MeV.

  7. Search for the pentaquark resonance signature in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    B. G. Lasscock; J. Hedditch; Derek Leinweber; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anthony Thomas; A. G. Williams; R. D. Young; James Zanotti

    2005-02-01

    Claims concerning the possible discovery of the {Theta}{sup +} pentaquark, with minimal quark content uudd{bar s}, have motivated our comprehensive study into possible pentaquark states using lattice QCD. We review various pentaquark interpolating fields in the literature and create a new candidate ideal for lattice QCD simulations. Using these interpolating fields we attempt to isolate a signal for a five-quark resonance. Calculations are performed using improved actions on a large 20{sup 3} x 40 lattice in the quenched approximation. The standard lattice resonance signal of increasing attraction between baryon constituents for increasing quark mass is not observed for spin-1/2 pentaquark states. We conclude that evidence supporting the existence of a spin-1/2 pentaquark resonance does not exist in quenched QCD.

  8. Nearly Conformal QCD and AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2005-08-08

    The AdS/CFT correspondence is a powerful tool to study the properties of conformal QCD at strong coupling in terms of a higher dimensional dual gravity theory. The power-law falloff of scattering amplitudes in the non-perturbative regime and calculable hadron spectra follow from holographic models dual to QCD with conformal behavior at short distances and confinement at large distances. String modes and fluctuations about the AdS background are identified with QCD degrees of freedom and orbital excitations at the AdS boundary limit. A description of form factors in space and time-like regions and the behavior of light-front wave functions can also be understood in terms of a dual gravity description in the interior of AdS.

  9. The High Energy Asymptotics of Scattering Processes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Enberg, Rikard; Golec-Biernat, K.; Munier, S.

    2005-05-12

    High energy scattering in the QCD parton model was recently shown to be a reaction-diffusion process, and thus to lie in the universality class of the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. We recall that the latter appears naturally in the context of the parton model. We provide a thorough numerical analysis of the mean field approximation, given in QCD by the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. In the framework of a simple stochastic toy model that captures the relevant features of QCD, we discuss and illustrate the universal properties of such stochastic models. We investigate in particular the validity of the mean field approximation and how it is broken by fluctuations. We find that the mean field approximation is a good approximation in the initial stages of the evolution in rapidity.

  10. Light-Front Holography: A First Approximation to QCD

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2008-10-03

    Starting from the Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD, we identify an invariant light-front coordinate {zeta} which allows the separation of the dynamics of quark and gluon binding from the kinematics of constituent spin and internal orbital angular momentum. The result is a single variable light-front Schroedinger equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. This light-front wave equation is equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes on anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. This allows us to establish formally a gauge/gravity correspondence between an effective gravity theory defined on AdS5 and light front QCD.

  11. New Perspectives for QCD Physics at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Stanford U. /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-02-07

    I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom relevant to hadron physics at the LHC has been challenged. For example, the initial-state and final-state interactions of the quarks and gluons entering perturbative QCD hard-scattering subprocesses lead to the breakdown of traditional concepts of factorization and universality for transverse-momentum-dependent observables at leading twist. These soft-gluon rescattering effect produce single-spin asymmetries, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as diffractive deep inelastic scattering, The antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is predicted to depend on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark. Isolated hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard higher-twist QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation, even at the LHC. Such 'direct' processes can explain the observed deviations from pQCD predictions of the power-law fall-off of inclusive hadron cross sections as well as the 'baryon anomaly' seen in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. The intrinsic charm contribution to the proton structure function at high x can explain the large rate for high p{sub T} photon plus charm-jet events observed at the Tevatron and imply a large production rate for charm and bottom jets at high p{sub T} at the LHC, as well as a novel mechanism for Higgs and Z{sup 0} production at high x{sub F}. The light-front wavefunctions derived in AdS/QCD can be used to calculate jet hadronization at the amplitude level. The elimination of the renormalization scale ambiguity for the QCD coupling using the scheme-independent BLM method will increase the sensitivity of searches for new physics at the LHC. The implications of 'in-hadron condensates' for the QCD contribution to the cosmological constant are also discussed.

  12. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of DEM, a chemical agent simulant: Diethyl malonate. [Diethyl malonate

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the following chemical simulant studies is to assess the potential acute environmental effects and persistence of diethyl malonate (DEM). Deposition velocities for DEM to soil surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 cm/sec. For foliar surfaces, deposition velocities ranged from 0.0002 cm/sec at low air concentrations to 0.05 cm/sec for high dose levels. The residence times or half-lives of DEM deposited to soils was 2 h for the fast component and 5 to 16 h for the residual material. DEM deposited to foliar surfaces also exhibited biphasic depuration. The half-life of the short residence time component ranged from 1 to 3 h, while the longer time component had half-times of 16 to 242 h. Volatilization and other depuration mechanisms reduce surface contaminant levels in both soils and foliage to less than 1% of initial dose within 96 h. DEM is not phytotoxic at foliar mass loading levels of less than 10 {mu}m/cm{sup 2}. However, severe damage is evident at mass loading levels in excess of 17 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Tall fescue and sagebrush were more affected than was short-needle pine, however, mass loading levels were markedly different. Regrowth of tall fescue indicated that the effects of DEM are residual, and growth rates are affected only at higher mass loadings through the second harvest. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not negatively impact soil microbial activity. Short-term effects of DEM were more profound on soil dehydrogenase activity than on soil phosphatase activity. No enzyme inhibition or enhancement was observed after 28 days in incubation. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicate survival to be 86 and 66% at soil doses of 107 and 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At higher dose level, activity or mobility was judged to be affected in over 50% of the individuals. 21 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Optimizing grid computing configuration and scheduling for geospatial analysis: An example with interpolating DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qunying; Yang, Chaowei

    2011-02-01

    Many geographic analyses are very time-consuming and do not scale well when large datasets are involved. For example, the interpolation of DEMs (digital evaluation model) for large geographic areas could become a problem in practical application, especially for web applications such as terrain visualization, where a fast response is required and computational demands exceed the capacity of a traditional single processing unit conducting serial processing. Therefore, high performance and parallel computing approaches, such as grid computing, were investigated to speed up the geographic analysis algorithms, such as DEM interpolation. The key for grid computing is to configure an optimized grid computing platform for the geospatial analysis and optimally schedule the geospatial tasks within a grid platform. However, there is no research focused on this. Using DEM interoperation as an example, we report our systematic research on configuring and scheduling a high performance grid computing platform to improve the performance of geographic analyses through a systematic study on how the number of cores, processors, grid nodes, different network connections and concurrent request impact the speedup of geospatial analyses. Condor, a grid middleware, is used to schedule the DEM interpolation tasks for different grid configurations. A Kansas raster-based DEM is used for a case study and an inverse distance weighting (IDW) algorithm is used in interpolation experiments.

  14. TecDEM: A MATLAB Based Toolbox for understanding Tectonics from Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, F.; Mahmood, S. A.; Gloaguen, R.

    2009-04-01

    TecDEM is a MATLAB based tool box for understanding the tectonics from digital elevation models (DEMs) of any area. These DEMs can be derived from data of any spatial resolution (Low, medium and High). In the first step we extract drainage network from the DEMs using flow grid approach. Drainage network is a group of streams having elevation and catchment area information as a function of spatial locations. We implement an array of stream structure to study this drainage network. Knickpoints can be identified on each stream of the drainage network by a graphical user interface and are helpful for understanding stream morphology. Stream profile analysis in steady state condition is applied on all streams to calculate geomorphic parameters and regional uplift rates. Hack index is calculated for all the profiles at a certain interval and over the change of knickpoints. Reports menu of this tool box generates detailed statistics report, complete tabulated report, graphical output of each analyzed stream profile and Hack index profile. All the calculated values are part of stream structure and is saved as .mat file for later use with this tool box. The spatial distribution of geomorphic parameters, uplift rates and knickpoints are exported as a shape files for visualization in professional GIS software. We test this tool box on DEMs from different tectonic settings worldwide and received verifiable results with other studies.

  15. DEM Extraction from High-Resolution Stereoscopic Worldview 1 & 2 Imagery of Polar Outlet Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.; Howat, I. M.; Niebuhr, S.; Smith, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    There are few reliable digital elevation models (DEMs) in polar regions and most are of low resolution (on the order of 100's of meters to km) or of poor quality. Polar environments are changing rapidly and accurate DEMs are critical for correcting imagery, measuring glacier thickness changes and modeling ice flow and surface melt water drainage. Using in-track stereoscopic images from Worldview-1 and Worldview-2, we derived high-resolution DEMs for outlet glaciers and other areas of interest in Antarctica and the Arctic. We used ERDAS Imagine's LPS eATE (enhanced automated terrain extraction) algorithm to derive a dense point cloud of matches. The resulting point cloud is comparable in density to that obtained by LiDAR flown at 10,000 feet. Preliminary comparisons of our results to ground control points collected by field teams and airborne and satellite laser altimeters show 0.5 - 10 meter vertical error over glaciers and 2 - 10 meter error over ice-free terrain. The error is primarily due to approximations in the sensor model and is consistent across the DEM. Our results indicate that refinements in the sensor model and point matching algorithm will improve accuracy. Given the increasing interest in glacier change detection around the globe, DEMs extracted from frequent satellite stereo pairs can be used to monitor and quantify changes in both movement and volume.

  16. Perspective - synthetic DEMs: a vital underpinning for the quantitative future of landform analysis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, J. K.; Sofia, G.; Conway, S. J.

    2015-07-01

    Physical processes, including anthropogenic feedbacks, sculpt planetary surfaces (e.g., Earth's). A fundamental tenet of Geomorphology is that the shapes created, when combined with other measurements, can be used to understand those processes. Artificial or synthetic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) might be vital in progressing further with this endeavour. Morphological data, including metrics and mapping (manual and automated) are a key resource, but at present their quality is typically weakly constrained (e.g., by mapper inter-comparison). In addition to examining inaccuracies caused by noise, relatively rare examples illustrate how synthetic DEMs containing a priori known, idealised morphologies can be used perform "synthetic tests" to make strong "absolute" statements about landform detection and quantification; e.g., 84 % of valley heads in the real landscape are identified correctly. From our perspective, it is vital to verify such statistics as ultimately they link physics-driven models of processes to morphological observations, allowing quantitative hypotheses to be formulated and tested. Synthetic DEMs built by directly using governing equations that encapsulate processes are another key part of forming this link. Thus, this note introduces synthetic tests and DEMs, then it outlines a typology of synthetic DEMs along with their benefits, challenges and future potential to provide constraints and insights. The aim is to discuss how we best proceed with uncertainty-aware landscape analysis to examine physical processes.

  17. Geomorphic change detection using historic maps and DEM differencing: The temporal dimension of geospatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, L. Allan; Hodgson, Michael E.; Ghoshal, Subhajit; Latiolais, Mary Megison

    2012-01-01

    The ability to develop spatially distributed models of topographic change is presenting new capabilities in geomorphic research. High resolution maps of elevation change indicate locations, processes, and rates of geomorphic change, and provide a means of calibrating temporal simulation models. Methods of geomorphic change detection (GCD), based on gridded models, may be applied to a wide range of time periods by utilizing cartometric, remote sensing, or ground-based topographic survey data to measure volumetric change. Advantages and limitations of historical DEM reconstruction methods are reviewed with a focus on coupling them with subsequent DEMs to construct DEMs of difference (DoD), which can be created by subtracting one elevation model from another, to map erosion, deposition, and volumetric change. The period of DoD analysis can be extended to several decades if accurate historical DEMs can be generated by extracting topographic data from historical data and selecting areas where geomorphic change has been substantial. The challenge is to recognize and minimize uncertainties in data that are particularly elusive with early topographic data. This paper reviews potential sources of error in digitized topographic maps and DEMs. Although the paper is primarily a review of methods, three brief examples are presented at the end to demonstrate GCD using DoDs constructed from data extending over periods ranging from 70 to 90 years.

  18. QCD aspects of W/Z production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmo, G.; CDF and D0 Collaborations

    1997-07-01

    Hadron colliders are providing valuable opportunities for studying the influence of the strong force on electroweak interactions in both the perturbative and non-perturbative regions. At the Fermilab Tevatron, analysis by CDF and D0 of p{anti p} {yields} W/Z + X events at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV have been used to test a variety of leading order and next-to-leading order QCD predictions. Among the many promising benefits are improvements of parton distribution functions at high Q{sup 2} , demonstration of soft gluon radiation patterns which survive hadronization, and tests of perturbative QCD and resummation calculations.

  19. New Perspectives for QCD Physics at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, S. J.

    2011-04-01

    I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom relevant to hadron physics at the LHC has been challenged. For example, the initial-state and final-state interactions of the quarks and gluons entering perturbative QCD hard-scattering subprocesses lead to the breakdown of traditional concepts of factorization and universality for transverse-momentum-dependent observables at leading twist. The soft-gluon rescattering effects, which are associated with the Wilson line of the propagating partons, also lead to Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung leading-twist relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing. The Gribov-Glauber theory applied to the antishadowing domain predicts that nuclear structure functions depend on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark, thus explaining the anomalous nuclear dependence recently observed in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering. Surprisingly, isolated hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard higher-twist QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation. The rate is predicted to be significant, even at the LHC. Such "direct" processes can explain the observed deviations from perturbative QCD predictions in measurements of inclusive hadron cross sections at fixed xT = 2pT/√s , as well as the "baryon anomaly", the anomalously large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. The intrinsic charm contribution to the proton structure function at high x can explain the large rate for high pT photon plus charm-jet events observed by D0 at the Tevatron. Intrinsic charm and bottom distributions also imply anomalously large production of charm and bottom jets at high pT at the LHC, as well as a novel mechanism for Higgs and Z0 production at high xF. Other novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates and

  20. QCD dynamics in mesons at soft and hard scales

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.; Souchlas, N. A.; Tandy, P. C.

    2010-07-27

    Using a ladder-rainbow kernel previously established for the soft scale of light quark hadrons, we explore, within a Dyson-Schwinger approach, phenomena that mix soft and hard scales of QCD. The difference between vector and axial vector current correlators is examined to estimate the four quark chiral condensate and the leading distance scale for the onset of non-perturbative phenomena in QCD. The valence quark distributions, in the pion and kaon, defined in deep inelastic scattering, and measured in the Drell Yan process, are investigated with the same ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  1. Electroweak absorptive parts in the matching conditions of nonrelativistic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Reisser, Christoph J.

    2005-04-01

    Electroweak corrections associated with the instability of the top quark to the next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) total top pair threshold cross section in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation are determined. Our method is based on absorptive parts in electroweak matching conditions of the operators of nonrelativistic QCD and the optical theorem. The corrections lead to ultraviolet phase space divergences that have to be renormalized and lead to NLL mixing effects. Numerically, the corrections can amount to several percent and are comparable to the known NNLL QCD corrections.

  2. Probing QCD in low energy anti pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1986-06-01

    A number of exclusive and inclusive antiproton reactions are discussed which could provide useful constraints or test novel features of quantum chromodynamics in the intermediate momentum transfer domain involving both perturbative and non-perturbative dynamics. High momentum transfer reactions are briefly reviewed. Inclusive antiproton reactions and the QCD critical length, QCD predictions for proton-antiproton exclusive processes, and studies of the Compton amplitude in proton-antiproton annihilation are covered. Testing hadron helicity conservation in heavy quark resonance is discussed. Also covered are heavy hadron pair production in proton-antiproton exclusive interactions, exclusive nuclear reactions, and quasi-exclusive nuclear processes. (LEW)

  3. Calculation of hadronic matrix elements using lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1993-08-01

    The author gives a brief introduction to the scope of lattice QCD calculations in his effort to extract the fundamental parameters of the standard model. This goal is illustrated by two examples. First the author discusses the extraction of CKM matrix elements from measurements of form factors for semileptonic decays of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons such as D {yields} Ke{nu}. Second, he presents the status of results for the kaon B parameter relevant to CP violation. He concludes the talk with a short outline of his experiences with optimizing QCD codes on the CM5.

  4. Lattice QCD computations: Recent progress with modern Krylov subspace methods

    SciTech Connect

    Frommer, A.

    1996-12-31

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory of the strong interaction of matter. In order to compare the theory with results from experimental physics, the theory has to be reformulated as a discrete problem of lattice gauge theory using stochastic simulations. The computational challenge consists in solving several hundreds of very large linear systems with several right hand sides. A considerable part of the world`s supercomputer time is spent in such QCD calculations. This paper presents results on solving systems for the Wilson fermions. Recent progress is reviewed on algorithms obtained in cooperation with partners from theoretical physics.

  5. Non-perturbative QCD amplitudes in quenched and eikonal approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, H. M.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.

    2014-05-01

    Even though approximated, strong coupling non-perturbative QCD amplitudes remain very difficult to obtain. In this article, in eikonal and quenched approximations at least, physical insights are presented that rely on the newly-discovered property of effective locality. The present article also provides a more rigorous mathematical basis for the crude approximations used in the previous derivation of the binding potential of quarks and nucleons. Furthermore, the techniques of Random Matrix calculus along with Meijer G-functions are applied to analyze the generic structure of fermionic amplitudes in QCD.

  6. Two-loop off-shell QCD amplitudes in FDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Ben; Pittau, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    We link the FDR treatment of ultraviolet (UV) divergences to dimensional regularization up to two loops in QCD. This allows us to derive the one-loop and two-loop coupling constant and quark mass shifts necessary to translate infrared finite quantities computed in FDR to the overline{MS} renormalization scheme. As a by-product of our analysis, we solve a problem analogous to the historical difficulties of the Four Dimensional Helicity (FDH) method beyond one loop. An alternative formulation of FDH is then presented that preserves the renormalizability properties of QCD without introducing evanescent quantities.

  7. NLO QCD corrections to tri-boson production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binoth, T.; Ossola, G.; Papadopoulos, C. G.; Pittau, R.

    2008-06-01

    We present a calculation of the NLO QCD corrections for the production of three vector bosons at the LHC, namely ZZZ, W+W-Z, W+ZZ, and W+W-W+ production. The virtual corrections are computed using the recently proposed method of reduction at the integrand level (OPP reduction). Concerning the contributions coming from real emission we used the dipole subtraction to treat the soft and collinear divergences. We find that the QCD corrections for these electroweak processes are in the range between 70 and 100 percent. As such they have to be considered in experimental studies of triple vector boson production at the LHC.

  8. Merging weak and QCD showers with matrix elements

    DOE PAGES

    Christiansen, Jesper Roy; Prestel, Stefan

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we present a consistent way of combining associated weak boson radiation in hard dijet events with hard QCD radiation in Drell–Yan-like scatterings. This integrates multiple tree-level calculations with vastly different cross sections, QCD- and electroweak parton-shower resummation into a single framework. The new merging strategy is implemented in the P ythia event generator and predictions are confronted with LHC data. Improvements over the previous strategy are observed. Results of the new electroweak-improved merging at a future 100 TeV proton collider are also investigated.

  9. Uncertainty quantification in lattice QCD calculations for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R.; Detmold, William; Orginos, Kostas; Savage, Martin J.

    2015-02-05

    The numerical technique of Lattice QCD holds the promise of connecting the nuclear forces, nuclei, the spectrum and structure of hadrons, and the properties of matter under extreme conditions with the underlying theory of the strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics. A distinguishing, and thus far unique, feature of this formulation is that all of the associated uncertainties, both statistical and systematic can, in principle, be systematically reduced to any desired precision with sufficient computational and human resources. As a result, we review the sources of uncertainty inherent in Lattice QCD calculations for nuclear physics, and discuss how each is quantified in current efforts.

  10. Non-perturbative effects in quantum field theory: QCD, supersymmetric QCD and axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weitao

    In the study of non-perturbative effects in four dimenstional non-Abelian gauge theories, instantons have played an important conceptual role. However, their role in the quantitative understanding these theories has remained obscure. In the first part of this thesis, we revisit the question of whether or not one can perform reliable semiclassical QCD computation at zero temperature. We study correlation functions with no perturbative contributions, and organize the problem by means of the operator product expansion, establishing a precise criterion for the validity of semiclassical calculation. For N f > Nc, a systematic computation is possible; for Nf < Nc, it is not. Nf = Nc is a borderline case. As an application, we describe a test of QCD lattice gauge theory computations in the chiral limit. Supersymmetry has provided a tool with which to obtain a range of exact results in field theory and string theory. Arguably the first inkling that one could obtain such results was the work of Novikov, Shifman, Vainshtein, and Zakharov (NSVZ). They argued for two exact results in gauge theories using instanton computation. First, that one could compute certain correlation functions exactly at weak coupling, and extend the results to strong coupling; second, that one could obtain exact expressions for beta-functions. However, each of these results raised questions. As methods exploiting systematic weak coupling expansions and holomorphy were developed, it became clear that the strong coupling instanton computation was incorrect. This in turn called the exact beta-function into question. In the second part of this thesis, we will provide resolutions to both of these questions. First, we explain why the instanton computation in the pure supersymmetric gauge theory is not reliable, even at short distances. The semiclassical expansion about the instanton is purely formal; if infrared divergences appear, they spoil arguments based on holomorphy. For the question of the NSVZbeta

  11. Progress in vacuum susceptibilities and their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhu-Fang; Hou, Feng-Yao; Shi, Yuan-Mei; Wang, Yong-Long; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-07-15

    The QCD vacuum condensates and various vacuum susceptibilities are all important parameters which characterize the nonperturbative properties of the QCD vacuum. In the QCD sum rules external field formula, various QCD vacuum susceptibilities play important roles in determining the properties of hadrons. In this paper, we review the recent progress in studies of vacuum susceptibilities together with their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD. The results of the tensor, the vector, the axial–vector, the scalar, and the pseudo-scalar vacuum susceptibilities are shown in detail in the framework of Dyson–Schwinger equations.

  12. QCD on the Lattice: The Central Role of Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khadra, Aida X.

    Nonperturbative QCD effects are ubiquitous and affect not just processes studied in particle and nuclear physics, but also in astrophysics and cosmology. Lattice field theory is a general quantitative tool for the study of nonperturbative phenomena and has provided us with much insight into nonperturbative QCD effects. In these lectures I present an introduction to lattice QCD with emphasis on the methods used for calculations relevant to quark flavor physics. In lattice QCD, quantitative control over systematic errors is made possible with the use of effective field theories. I briefly review how the effective field theories arise and their relation to the sources of systematic error in lattice QCD.

  13. A simple FEM-DEM technique for fracture prediction in materials and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate, Francisco; Oñate, Eugenio

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new computational technique for predicting the onset and evolution of fracture in a continuum in a simple manner combining the finite element method (FEM) and the discrete element method (DEM). Onset of cracking at a point is governed by a simple damage model. Once a crack is detected at an element side in the FE mesh, discrete elements are generated at the nodes sharing the side and a simple DEM mechanism is considered to follow the evolution of the crack. The combination of the DEM with simple 3-noded linear triangular elements correctly captures the onset of fracture and its evolution, as shown in several examples of application in two and three dimensions.

  14. A Detailed Observation of a LMC SNR, DEM L241, with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Aya; Ueno, Masaru; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Koyama, Katsuji

    We report on an XMM-Newton observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) DEM L241 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. In the soft band image, the emission shows an elongated structure, like a killifish (Head and Tail), with a central point source, named as XMMU J053559.3-673509 (Eye). The Eye's spectrum is well reproduced with a power-law model. The source has neither significant coherent pulsations nor time variabilities. Its luminosity and spectrum remind us that the source might be a pulsar and/or pulsar wind nebula in DEM L241. The spectra of Head and Tail are well reproduced by a non-equilibrium ionization plasma model with over-abundant Ne and under-abundant Fe, suggesting that the progenitor of DEM L241 is a very massive star.

  15. GPS-Based Precision Baseline Reconstruction for the TanDEM-X SAR-Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montenbruck, O.; vanBarneveld, P. W. L.; Yoon, Y.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    The TanDEM-X formation employs two separate spacecraft to collect interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements over baselines of about 1 km. These will allow the generation ofa global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with an relative vertical accuracy of 2-4 m and a 10 m ground resolution. As part of the ground processing, the separation of the SAR antennas at the time of each data take must be reconstructed with a 1 mm accuracy using measurements from two geodetic grade GPS receivers. The paper discusses the TanDEM-X mission as well as the methods employed for determining the interferometric baseline with utmost precision. Measurements collected during the close fly-by of the two GRACE satellites serve as a reference case to illustrate the processing concept, expected accuracy and quality control strategies.

  16. Lattice QCD Thermodynamics First 5000 Trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Gupta, R

    2007-03-15

    These results represent the first LQCD analysis for approximately 5000 trajectories with each of the p4rhmc and milc codes, with some of the lower temperature runs having fewer. Both runs were for lattice dimensions of 32{sup 3}x8. Some 32{sup 4} T=0 jobs were also run for p4rhmc. The p4 calculation was performed with v2.0 QMP{_}MPI.X (semi-optimized p4 code using qmp over mpi) and milc version of the su3 rhmc susc eos executable dated Mar 1, 2007 on ubgl in the /usr/gapps/hip/qcd/milc/bin subdirectory (svn revision 28). As with previous runs, calculations were performed along lines of constant physics, with the light quark masses 2-3 times their physics values and the strange quark mass set by m{sub ud} = 0.1m{sub s}. Job submissions were performed using a new subSet.pl job submission script that locates current jobs and submits additional jobs with the same beta value as pending. Note that after reaching a limit of about 35 jobs subsequent submissions are delayed and will not be submitted directly from that state. The job submission script was used to submit revised versions of the milc and p4rhmc csh scripts. Initial thermalized lattices for each code were also for milc (taken from the firstPhys runs), but the p4rhmc runs include thermalization. The only modifications for running on BG/L were to the directory names and the mT parameter which determines job durations (24 hrs on BG/L vs. 4 hrs on ubgl). All finite temperature jobs were submitted to the 512 node partitions, and all T=0 runs were submitted to 2048 node partitions. The set of runs was plagued by filesystem errors on lscratch1 and lscratcH{sub 2}. Many jobs had to be reset (deleting the most recent output file for milc and/or lattice for p4) and resubmitted. The analysis was performed with a new set of scripts that produced a more condensed output for scanning. All scans were verified with checksums, which have been retained in the output along with the line numbers. All lattices, log files, and job

  17. The Effect of DEM Quality on Sea Level Rise Exposure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, S. A.; Strauss, B.

    2015-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) caused by climate change could cause significant disruptions in coastal communities across the world. Current projections estimate that we may see in the vicinity of 1 meter of SLR by the end of the century, and due to collapsing ice sheets in West Antarctica, more than 3 meters of global SLR appear very likely in the long run. It is therefore crucial that we begin to accurately understand both the short- and long-term effects this level of flooding could have on each country's land area and population. However, while we have high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) publicly available for some parts of the world, such as the coastal lidar datasets distributed by NOAA for the US, most of the rest of the world is only covered by much poorer-quality data, such as data from SRTM (3 arcsec, or roughly 90m, horizontal resolution). In this work, we perform SLR analysis using both NOAA lidar- and SRTM-derived DEMs in the United States, in order to understand how using low-quality DEMs affect the final analysis results. We find that in many states, the computed population exposure at 1 meter SLR is over 2x higher when using the Lidar DEM, compared to the results computed from SRTM. In addition to the clear differences in horizontal resolution, this very large difference in computed exposure could likely be explained by the fact that SRTM is based on surface elevation, while the Lidar DEM is based on bare earth elevation. We therefore conclude that any worldwide SLR analysis using SRTM would produce exposure estimates that are far too low, and higher-quality global DEMs are necessary in order to generate exposure analysis of reasonable accuracy.

  18. Sediment Transport Simulations Coupling DEM with RANS Fluid Solver in Multi- dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calantoni, J.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Hsu, T.

    2008-12-01

    Multiphase simulations of the sediment-water interface in a wave bottom boundary layer are accomplished by using a Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) fluid solver for water motions coupled to the discrete element method (DEM) for modeling the motions of individual sediment grains. Turbulence closure in the ensemble-averaged fluid-phase equations uses balance equations for fluid turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. Both 1DV and 2DV implementations of the RANS fluid solver have been coupled to the DEM. In both cases, the DEM is fully three-dimensional where sediment particles have spherical shape and point contacts are assumed with normal and tangential forces at the contact point between particle pairs modeled with springs and friction, respectively. Coupling between sediment-water phases varies from simple one-way coupling where fluid drives sediment motions with no feedback from the sediment, up to fully coupled continuity equations and turbulence closure as well as in the fluid momentum equations where Newton's Third Law is strictly enforced at every fluid time step. Fluid-particle interaction forces include drag, added mass, pressure gradient forces, and turbulent suspension implemented through an eddy-particle interaction model based on a random walk. The 1DV DEM-RANS coupled model was used to simulate sheet flow transport conditions under oscillatory flows. The 2DV DEM-RANS coupled model was used to simulate suspension and transport over small-scale sand ripples. For all cases, the DEM used coarse to fine (0.4 mm - 0.2 mm diameter) sized sediments where grain-grain interactions model viscous dissipation through an effective coefficient of restitution as a function of the collisional Stokes number estimated from published laboratory measurements of particle-particle and particle-wall collisions. Initial comparisons were made with laboratory U-tube measurements for bulk transport rates and time-dependent concentration profiles for sheet flow

  19. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical

  20. Stochastic Discrete Equation Method (sDEM) for two-phase flows

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, R.; Congedo, P.M.; Geraci, G.; Rodio, M.G.

    2015-10-15

    A new scheme for the numerical approximation of a five-equation model taking into account Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is presented. In particular, the Discrete Equation Method (DEM) for the discretization of the five-equation model is modified for including a formulation based on the adaptive Semi-Intrusive (aSI) scheme, thus yielding a new intrusive scheme (sDEM) for simulating stochastic two-phase flows. Some reference test-cases are performed in order to demonstrate the convergence properties and the efficiency of the overall scheme. The propagation of initial conditions uncertainties is evaluated in terms of mean and variance of several thermodynamic properties of the two phases.