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Sample records for qcd evolution equations

  1. Soft-gluon resolution scale in QCD evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Lelek, A.; Radescu, V.; Žlebčík, R.

    2017-09-01

    QCD evolution equations can be recast in terms of parton branching processes. We present a new numerical solution of the equations. We show that this parton-branching solution can be applied to analyze infrared contributions to evolution, order-by-order in the strong coupling αs, as a function of the soft-gluon resolution scale parameter. We examine the cases of transverse-momentum ordering and angular ordering. We illustrate that this approach can be used to treat distributions which depend both on longitudinal and on transverse momenta.

  2. Integrability of Three-Particle Evolution Equations in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V. M.; Derkachov, S. É.; Manashov, A. N.

    1998-09-01

    We show that Brodsky-Lepage evolution equation for the spin-3/2 baryon distribution amplitude is completely integrable and reduces to the three-particle XXXs = -1 Heisenberg spin chain. Trajectories of the anomalous dimensions are identified and calculated using the 1/N expansion. Extending this result, we prove integrability of the evolution equations for twist-3 quark-gluon operators in the large Nc limit.

  3. Can a Chaotic Solution in the QCD Evolution Equation Restrain High-Energy Collider Physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Shen, Zhen-Qi; Ruan, Jian-Hong

    2008-10-01

    We indicate that the random aperiodic oscillation of the gluon distributions in a modified Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) equation has positive Lyapunov exponents. This first example of chaos in QCD evolution equations raises the sudden disappearance of the gluon distributions at a critical small value of the Bjorken variable x and may stop the increase of the new particle events in an ultra high energy hadron collider.

  4. Decoupling the NLO-coupled QED⊗QCD, DGLAP evolution equations, using Laplace transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Eslami, Parvin; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    We analytically solved the QED⊗QCD-coupled DGLAP evolution equations at leading order (LO) quantum electrodynamics (QED) and next-to-leading order (NLO) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) approximations, using the Laplace transform method and then computed the proton structure function in terms of the unpolarized parton distribution functions. Our analytical solutions for parton densities are in good agreement with those from CT14QED (1.2952 < Q2 < 1010) (Ref. 6) global parametrizations and APFEL (A PDF Evolution Library) (2 < Q2 < 108) (Ref. 4). We also compared the proton structure function, F2p(x,Q2), with the experimental data released by the ZEUS and H1 collaborations at HERA. There is a nice agreement between them in the range of low and high x and Q2.

  5. Markovian Monte Carlo program EvolFMC v.2 for solving QCD evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadach, S.; Płaczek, W.; Skrzypek, M.; Stokłosa, P.

    2010-02-01

    We present the program EvolFMC v.2 that solves the evolution equations in QCD for the parton momentum distributions by means of the Monte Carlo technique based on the Markovian process. The program solves the DGLAP-type evolution as well as modified-DGLAP ones. In both cases the evolution can be performed in the LO or NLO approximation. The quarks are treated as massless. The overall technical precision of the code has been established at 5×10. This way, for the first time ever, we demonstrate that with the Monte Carlo method one can solve the evolution equations with precision comparable to the other numerical methods. New version program summaryProgram title: EvolFMC v.2 Catalogue identifier: AEFN_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including binary test data, etc.: 66 456 (7407 lines of C++ code) No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 412 752 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, Mac OS X RAM: Less than 256 MB Classification: 11.5 External routines: ROOT ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: Solution of the QCD evolution equations for the parton momentum distributions of the DGLAP- and modified-DGLAP-type in the LO and NLO approximations. Solution method: Monte Carlo simulation of the Markovian process of a multiple emission of partons. Restrictions:Limited to the case of massless partons. Implemented in the LO and NLO approximations only. Weighted events only. Unusual features: Modified-DGLAP evolutions included up to the NLO level. Additional comments: Technical precision established at 5×10. Running time: For the 10 6 events at 100 GeV: DGLAP NLO: 27s; C-type modified DGLAP NLO: 150s (MacBook Pro with Mac OS X v.10

  6. QCD Evolution 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The QCD Evolution 2016 workshop was held at the National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef) in Amsterdam, May 30 - June 3, 2016. The workshop is a continuation of a series of workshops held during five consecutive years, in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2015 at Jefferson Lab, and in 2014 in Santa Fe, NM. With the rapid developments in our understanding of the evolution of parton distributions including low-x, TMDs, GPDs, higher-twist correlation functions, and the associated progress in perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective field theory techniques, we look forward to yet another exciting meeting in 2016. The program of QCD Evolution 2016 will pay special attention to the topics of importance for ongoing experiments, in the full range from Jefferson Lab energies to LHC energies or future experiments such as a future Electron Ion Collider, recently recommended as a highest priority in U.S. Department of Energy's 2015 Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science.

  7. QCD Evolution 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    These are the proceedings of the QCD Evolution 2015 Workshop which was held 26-30 May, 2015 at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, USA. The workshop is a continuation of a series of workshops held during four consecutive years 2011, 2012, 2013 at Jefferson Lab, and in 2014 in Santa Fe, NM. With the rapid developments in our understanding of the evolution of parton distributions including low-x, TMDs, GPDs, higher-twist correlation functions, and the associated progress in perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective field theory techniques we look forward with great enthusiasm to the 2015 meeting. A special attention was also paid to participation of experimentalists as the topics discussed are of immediate importance for the JLab 12 experimental program and a future Electron Ion Collider.

  8. Archeology and evolution of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rújula, A.

    2017-03-01

    These are excerpts from the closing talk at the "XIIth Conference on Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum", which took place last Summer in Thessaloniki -an excellent place to enjoy an interest in archeology. A more complete personal view of the early days of QCD and the rest of the Standard Model is given in [1]. Here I discuss a few of the points which -to my judgement- illustrate well the QCD evolution (in time), both from a scientific and a sociological point of view.

  9. QCD Evolution in Dense Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay Ducati, M. B.

    The dynamics of the partonic distribution is a main concern in high energy physics, once it provides the initial condition for the Heavy Ion colliders. The determination of the evolution equation which drives the partonic behavior is subject of great interest since is connected to the observables. This lecture aims to present a brief review of the evolution equations that describe the partonic dynamics at high energies. First the linear evolution equations (DGLAP and BFKL) are presented. Then, the formulations developed to deal with the high density effects, which originate the non-linear evolution equations (GLR, AGL, BK, JIMWLK) are discussed, as well as an example of related phenomenology.

  10. Equation of State from Lattice QCD Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rajan

    2011-01-01

    We provide a status report on the calculation of the Equation of State (EoS) of QCD at finite temperature using lattice QCD. Most of the discussion will focus on comparison of recent results obtained by the HotQCD and Wuppertal-Budapest collaborations. We will show that very significant progress has been made towards obtaining high precision results over the temperature range of T = 150-700 MeV. The various sources of systematic uncertainties will be discussed and the differences between the two calculations highlighted. Our final conclusion is that these lattice results of EoS are precise enough to be used in the phenomenological analysis of heavy ion experiments at RHIC and LHC.

  11. Dyson-Schwinger equations : density, temperature and continuum strong QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.; Physics

    2000-01-01

    Continuum strong QCD is the application of models and continuum quantum field theory to the study of phenomena in hadronic physics, which includes; e.g., the spectrum of QCD bound states and their interactions; and the transition to, and properties of, a quark gluon plasma. We provide a contemporary perspective, couched primarily in terms of the Dyson-Schwinger equations but also making comparisons with other approaches and models. Our discourse provides a practitioners' guide to features of the Dyson-Schwinger equations [such as confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking] and canvasses phenomenological applications to light meson and baryon properties in cold, sparse QCD. These provide the foundation for an extension to hot, dense QCD, which is probed via the introduction of the intensive thermodynamic variables: chemical potential and temperature. We describe order parameters whose evolution signals deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration, and chronicle their use in demarcating the quark gluon plasma phase boundary and characterizing the plasma's properties. Hadron traits change in an equilibrated plasma. We exemplify this and discuss putative signals of the effects. Finally, since plasma formation is not an equilibrium process, we discuss recent developments in kinetic theory and its application to describing the evolution from a relativistic heavy ion collision to an equilibrated quark gluon plasma.

  12. QCDNUM: Fast QCD evolution and convolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botje, M.

    2011-02-01

    The QCDNUM program numerically solves the evolution equations for parton densities and fragmentation functions in perturbative QCD. Un-polarised parton densities can be evolved up to next-to-next-to-leading order in powers of the strong coupling constant, while polarised densities or fragmentation functions can be evolved up to next-to-leading order. Other types of evolution can be accessed by feeding alternative sets of evolution kernels into the program. A versatile convolution engine provides tools to compute parton luminosities, cross-sections in hadron-hadron scattering, and deep inelastic structure functions in the zero-mass scheme or in generalised mass schemes. Input to these calculations are either the QCDNUM evolved densities, or those read in from an external parton density repository. Included in the software distribution are packages to calculate zero-mass structure functions in un-polarised deep inelastic scattering, and heavy flavour contributions to these structure functions in the fixed flavour number scheme. Program summaryProgram title: QCDNUM version: 17.00 Catalogue identifier: AEHV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Public Licence No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 736 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 911 569 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran-77 Computer: All Operating system: All RAM: Typically 3 Mbytes Classification: 11.5 Nature of problem: Evolution of the strong coupling constant and parton densities, up to next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. Computation of observable quantities by Mellin convolution of the evolved densities with partonic cross-sections. Solution method: Parametrisation of the parton densities as linear or quadratic splines on a discrete grid, and evolution of the spline

  13. QCD Evolution of Helicity and Transversity TMDs

    SciTech Connect

    Prokudin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    We examine the QCD evolution of the helicity and transversity parton distribution functions when including also their dependence on transverse momentum. Using an appropriate definition of these polarized transverse momentum distributions (TMDs), we describe their dependence on the factorization scale and rapidity cutoff, which is essential for phenomenological applications.

  14. R evolution: Improving perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Jain, Ambar; Stewart, Iain W.; Scimemi, Ignazio

    2010-07-01

    Perturbative QCD results in the MS scheme can be dramatically improved by switching to a scheme that accounts for the dominant power law dependence on the factorization scale in the operator product expansion. We introduce the ''MSR scheme'' which achieves this in a Lorentz and gauge invariant way and has a very simple relation to MS. Results in MSR depend on a cutoff parameter R, in addition to the {mu} of MS. R variations can be used to independently estimate (i.) the size of power corrections, and (ii.) higher-order perturbative corrections (much like {mu} in MS). We give two examples at three-loop order, the ratio of mass splittings in the B*-B and D*-D systems, and the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule as a function of momentum transfer Q in deep inelastic scattering. Comparing to data, the perturbative MSR results work well even for Q{approx}1 GeV, and power corrections are reduced compared to MS.

  15. Wong's equations and the small x effective action in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju

    2000-07-13

    We propose a new form for the small x effective action in QCD. This form of the effective action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at small x.

  16. QCD EVOLUTION AND TMD/SPIN EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2012-12-01

    Transverse Spin and Transverse Momemtum Dependent (TMD) distribution study has been one of the main focuses of hadron physics in recent years. The initial exploratory Semi-Incluisve Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (SIDIS) experiments with transversely polarized proton and deuteron from HERMES and COMPASS attracted great attention and lead to very active efforts in both experiments and theory. QCD factorization has been carefully studied. A SIDIS experiment on the neutron with a polarized 3He target was performed at JLab. Recently published results will be shown. Precision TMD experiments are planned at JLab after the 12 GeV energy upgrade. The approved experiments with a new SoLID spectrometer on both the proton and neutron will be presented. Proper QCD evolution treatments beyond collinear cases become crucial for the precision study of the TMDs. Experimentally, Q2 evolution and higher-twist effects are often closely related. The experience of study higher-twist effects in the cases of moments of the spin structure functions will be discussed.

  17. Resumming double logarithms in the QCD evolution of color dipoles

    DOE PAGES

    Iancu, E.; Madrigal, J. D.; Mueller, A. H.; ...

    2015-05-01

    The higher-order perturbative corrections, beyond leading logarithmic accuracy, to the BFKL evolution in QCD at high energy are well known to suffer from a severe lack-of-convergence problem, due to radiative corrections enhanced by double collinear logarithms. Via an explicit calculation of Feynman graphs in light cone (time-ordered) perturbation theory, we show that the corrections enhanced by double logarithms (either energy-collinear, or double collinear) are associated with soft gluon emissions which are strictly ordered in lifetime. These corrections can be resummed to all orders by solving an evolution equation which is non-local in rapidity. This equation can be equivalently rewritten inmore » local form, but with modified kernel and initial conditions, which resum double collinear logs to all orders. We extend this resummation to the next-to-leading order BFKL and BK equations. The first numerical studies of the collinearly-improved BK equation demonstrate the essential role of the resummation in both stabilizing and slowing down the evolution.« less

  18. Phenomenological QCD equations of state for neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojo, Toru; Powell, Philip D.; Song, Yifan; Baym, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    We delineate the properties of QCD matter at baryon density nB = 1 - 10n0 (n0: nuclear saturation density), through the construction of neutron star equations of state that satisfy the neutron star mass-radius constraints as well as physical conditions on the speed of sound. The QCD matter is described in the 3-window modeling: at nB ≲ 2n0 purely nuclear matter; at nB ≳ 5n0 percolated quark matter; and at 2n0 ≲nB ≲ 5n0 matter intermediate between these two which are constructed by interpolation. Using a schematic quark model with effective interactions inspired from hadron and nuclear physics, we analyze the strength of interactions necessary to describe observed neutron star properties. Our finding is that the interactions should remain as strong as in the QCD vacuum, indicating that gluons at nB = 1 - 10n0 remain non-perturbative even after quark matter formation.

  19. Vertex Sensitivity in the Schwinger-Dyson Equations of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Wilson, Michael R. Pennington

    2012-01-01

    The nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge QCD are obtained using the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach. The propagator equations are solved in Euclidean space using Landau gauge with a range of vertex inputs. Initially we solve for the ghost alone, using a model gluon input, which leads us to favour a finite ghost dressing in the nonperturbative region. In order to then solve the gluon and ghost equations simultaneously, we find that non-trivial vertices are required, particularly for the gluon propagator in the small momentum limit. We focus on the properties of a number vertices and how these differences influence the final solutions. The self-consistent solutions we obtain are all qualitatively similar and contain a mass-like term in the gluon propagator dressing in agreement with related studies, supporting the long-held proposal of Cornwall.

  20. Hot QCD equations of state and relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Vinod; Kumar, Ravindra; Ravishankar, V.

    2007-11-01

    We study two recently proposed equations of state obtained from high-temperature QCD and show how they can be adapted to use them for making predictions for relativistic heavy ion collisions. The method involves extracting equilibrium distribution functions for quarks and gluons from the equation of state (EOS), which in turn will allow a determination of the transport and other bulk properties of the quark gluon-plasma. Simultaneously, the method also yields a quasiparticle description of interacting quarks and gluons. The first EOS is perturbative in the QCD coupling constant and has contributions of O(g5). The second EOS is an improvement over the first, with contributions up to O[g6ln(1/g)]; it incorporates the nonperturbative hard thermal contributions. The interaction effects are shown to be captured entirely by the effective chemical potentials for the gluons and the quarks, in both cases. The chemical potential is seen to be highly sensitive to the EOS. As an application, we determine the screening lengths, which are, indeed, the most important diagnostics for QGP. The screening lengths are seen to behave drastically differently depending on the EOS considered and therefore yield a way to distinguish the two equations of state in heavy ion collisions.

  1. Equation of state for cold and dense heavy QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesaaen, Jonas; Neuman, Mathias; Philipsen, Owe

    2016-03-01

    A previously derived three-dimensional effective lattice theory describing the thermodynamics of QCD with heavy quarks in the cold and dense region is extended through order ˜ u 5 κ 8 in the combined character and hopping expansion of the original four-dimensional Wilson action. The systematics of the effective theory is investigated to determine its range of validity in parameter space. We demonstrate the severe cut-off effects due to lattice saturation, which afflict any lattice results at finite baryon density independent of the sign problem or the quality of effective theories, and which have to be removed by continuum extrapolation. We then show how the effective theory can be solved analytically by means of a linked cluster expansion, which is completely unaffected by the sign problem, in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations. As an application, we compute the cold nuclear equation of state of heavy QCD. Our continuum extrapolated result is consistent with a polytropic equation of state for non-relativistic fermions.

  2. The QCD equation of state with charm quarks from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Michael

    Recently, there have been several calculations of the QCD equation of state (EoS) on the lattice. These calculations take into account the two light quarks and the strange quark, but have ignored the effects of the charm quark, assuming that the charm mass (mc ≈ 1300 MeV) is exponentially suppressed at the temperatures which are explored. However, future heavy ion collisions, such as those planned at the LHC, may well probe temperature regimes where the charm quarks play an important role in the dynamics of the QGP. We present a calculation of the charm quark contribution to the QCD EoS using p4-improved staggered fermions at Nt = 4, 6, 8. This calculation is done with a quenched charm quark, i.e. the relevant operators are measured using a valence charm quark mass on a 2+1 flavor gauge field background. The charm quark masses are determined by calculating charmonium masses (metac and mJ/Psi) and fixing these mesons to their physical masses. The interaction measure, pressure, energy density, and entropy density are calculated. We find that the charm contribution makes a significant contribution, even down to temperatures as low as the pseudo-critical temperature, Tc. However, there are significant scaling corrections at the lattice spacings that we use, preventing a reliable continuum extrapolation.

  3. Hydrodynamical Evolution near the QCD Critical End Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Chiho; Asakawa, Masayuki

    2003-10-01

    Recently, the possibility of the existence of a critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram has attracted a lot of attention and several experimental signatures have been proposed for it^1. Berdnikov and Rajagopal discussed the growth of the correlation length near the critical end point in heavy-ion collision from the schematic argument^2. However, there has seen, so far, no quantitative study on the hydrodynamic evolution near CEP. Here we quantitatively evaluate the effect of the critical end point on the observables using the hydrodynamical model. First, we construct an equation of state (EOS) that includes critical behavior of CEP. Here we assume that the singular part of EOS near CEP belongs to the same universality class as the 3-d Ising model. Then we match the singular part of EOS with known QGP and hadronic EOS. We found the strong focusing effect near the critical end point in n_B/s trajectories in T-μ plane. This behavior is very different from an EOS of Bag model which is used in usual hydrodynamical models. This suggests that the effect of CEP appears strongly in the time evolution of system and the experimental observables. Next we investigate the time evolution and the behavior of correlation length near CEP along n_B/s trajectories. In addition, we also discuss the consequences of CEP in experimental results such as fluctuations and the kinetic freeze-out temperature. ^1M. Stephanov, K. Rajagopal, and E. Shuryak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998) 4816. ^2B. Berdnikov and K. Rajagopal, Phys. Rev. D61 (2000) 105017.

  4. QCD equation of state to O (μB6) from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazavov, A.; Ding, H.-T.; Hegde, P.; Kaczmarek, O.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Maezawa, Y.; Mukherjee, Swagato; Ohno, H.; Petreczky, P.; Sandmeyer, H.; Steinbrecher, P.; Schmidt, C.; Sharma, S.; Soeldner, W.; Wagner, M.

    2017-03-01

    We calculated the QCD equation of state using Taylor expansions that include contributions from up to sixth order in the baryon, strangeness and electric charge chemical potentials. Calculations have been performed with the Highly Improved Staggered Quark action in the temperature range T ∈[135 MeV ,330 MeV ] using up to four different sets of lattice cutoffs corresponding to lattices of size Nσ3×Nτ with aspect ratio Nσ/Nτ=4 and Nτ=6 - 16 . The strange quark mass is tuned to its physical value, and we use two strange to light quark mass ratios ms/ml=20 and 27, which in the continuum limit correspond to a pion mass of about 160 and 140 MeV, respectively. Sixth-order results for Taylor expansion coefficients are used to estimate truncation errors of the fourth-order expansion. We show that truncation errors are small for baryon chemical potentials less then twice the temperature (μB≤2 T ). The fourth-order equation of state thus is suitable for the modeling of dense matter created in heavy ion collisions with center-of-mass energies down to √{sN N}˜12 GeV . We provide a parametrization of basic thermodynamic quantities that can be readily used in hydrodynamic simulation codes. The results on up to sixth-order expansion coefficients of bulk thermodynamics are used for the calculation of lines of constant pressure, energy and entropy densities in the T -μB plane and are compared with the crossover line for the QCD chiral transition as well as with experimental results on freeze-out parameters in heavy ion collisions. These coefficients also provide estimates for the location of a possible critical point. We argue that results on sixth-order expansion coefficients disfavor the existence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for μB/T ≤2 and T /Tc(μB=0 )>0.9 .

  5. QCD equation of state to O(μB6) from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Bazavov, A.; Ding, H. -T.; Hegde, P.; ...

    2017-03-07

    We calculated the QCD equation of state using Taylor expansions that include contributions from up to sixth order in the baryon, strangeness and electric charge chemical potentials. Calculations have been performed with the Highly Improved Staggered Quark action in the temperature range T ϵ [135 MeV , 330 MeV] using up to four different sets of lattice cutoffs corresponding to lattices of size Nmore » $$3\\atop{σ}$$ × Nτ with aspect ratio Nσ/Nτ = 4 and Nτ = 6-16 . The strange quark mass is tuned to its physical value, and we use two strange to light quark mass ratios ms/ml = 20 and 27, which in the continuum limit correspond to a pion mass of about 160 and 140 MeV, respectively. Sixth-order results for Taylor expansion coefficients are used to estimate truncation errors of the fourth-order expansion. We show that truncation errors are small for baryon chemical potentials less then twice the temperature (μB ≤ 2T). The fourth-order equation of state thus is suitable for the modeling of dense matter created in heavy ion collisions with center-of-mass energies down to √sNN ~ 12 GeV . We provide a parametrization of basic thermodynamic quantities that can be readily used in hydrodynamic simulation codes. The results on up to sixth-order expansion coefficients of bulk thermodynamics are used for the calculation of lines of constant pressure, energy and entropy densities in the T - μB plane and are compared with the crossover line for the QCD chiral transition as well as with experimental results on freeze-out parameters in heavy ion collisions. These coefficients also provide estimates for the location of a possible critical point. We argue that results on sixth-order expansion coefficients disfavor the existence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for μB/T≤2 and T/Tc (μB = 0) > 0.9 .« less

  6. Supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, K.; Liu, Q. P.

    2010-03-08

    This paper considers supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations. Within the framework of symmetry approach, we give a list containing six equations, which are (potentially) integrable systems. Among these equations, the most interesting ones include a supersymmetric Sawada-Kotera equation and a novel supersymmetric fifth order KdV equation. For the latter, we supply some properties such as a Hamiltonian structures and a possible recursion operator.

  7. Mode decomposition evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  8. Mode decomposition evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2012-03-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  9. The Light-Front Schrödinger Equation and the Determination of the Perturbative QCD Scale from Color Confinement: A First Approximation to QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Deur, Alexandre; Dosch, Hans Günter

    2015-09-01

    The valence Fock-state wavefunctions of the light-front (LF) QCD Hamiltonian satisfy a relativistic equation of motion, analogous to the nonrelativistic radial Schrödinger equation, with an effective confining potential U which systematically incorporates the effects of higher quark and gluon Fock states. If one requires that the effective action which underlies the QCD Lagrangian remains conformally invariant and extends the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan to LF Hamiltonian theory, the potential U has a unique form of a harmonic oscillator potential, and a mass gap arises. The result is a nonperturbative relativistic LF quantum mechanical wave equation which incorporates color confinement and other essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics, including a massless pion for zero quark mass and linear Regge trajectories with the same slope in the radial quantum number n and orbital angular momentum L. Only one mass parameter κ appears. The corresponding LF Dirac equation provides a dynamical and spectroscopic model of nucleons. The same LF equations arise from the holographic mapping of the soft-wall model modification of AdS5 space with a unique dilaton profile to QCD (3+1) at fixed LF time. LF holography thus provides a precise relation between the bound-state amplitudes in the fifth dimension of Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and the boost-invariant LFWFs describing the internal structure of hadrons in physical space-time. We also show how the mass scale underlying confinement and the masses of light-quark hadrons determines the scale controlling the evolution of the perturbative QCD coupling. The relation between scales is obtained by matching the nonperturbative dynamics, as described by an effective conformal theory mapped to the LF and its embedding in AdS space, to the perturbative QCD regime computed to four-loop order. The data for the effective coupling defined from the Bjorken sum rule are remarkably consistent with the

  10. BFKL equation with running QCD coupling and HERA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Eugene; Potashnikova, Irina

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we developed approach based on the BFKL evolution in ln( Q 2). We show that the simplest diffusion approximation with running QCD coupling is able to describe the HERA experimental data on the deep inelastic structure function with good χ2 /d .o .f . ≈ 1 .3. From our description of the experimental data we learned several lessons; (i) the non-perturbative physics at long distances started to show up at Q 2 = 0 .25 GeV2; (ii) the scattering amplitude at Q 2 = 0 .25 GeV2 cannot be written as sum of soft Pomeron and the secondary Reggeon but the Pomeron interactions should be taken into account; (iii) the Pomeron interactions can be reduced to the enhanced diagrams and, therefore, we do not see any needs for the shadowing corrections at HERA energies; and (iv) we demonstrated that the shadowing correction could be sizable at higher than HERA energies without any contradiction with our initial conditions.

  11. Nonlinear Evolution Equations in Banach Spaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    relationship to the evolution equation is studied. The results obtained extend several known existence theorems and provide generalized solutions of the evolution equation in more general cases. (Author)

  12. Effects of QCD equation of state on the stochastic gravitational wave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sampurn; Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2017-03-01

    Cosmological phase transitions can be a source of Stochastic Gravitational Wave (SGW) background. Apart from the dynamics of the phase transition, the characteristic frequency and the fractional energy density Ωgw of the SGW depends upon the temperature of the transition. In this article, we compute the SGW spectrum in the light of QCD equation of state provided by the lattice results. We find that the inclusion of trace anomaly from lattice QCD, enhances the SGW signal generated during QCD phase transition by ~ 50% and the peak frequency of the QCD era SGW are shifted higher by ~ 25% as compared to the earlier estimates without trace anomaly. This result is extremely significant for testing the phase transition dynamics near QCD epoch.

  13. Real time evolution of non-Gaussian cumulants in the QCD critical regime

    DOE PAGES

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2015-09-23

    In this study, we derive a coupled set of equations that describe the nonequilibrium evolution of cumulants of critical fluctuations for spacetime trajectories on the crossover side of the QCD phase diagram. In particular, novel expressions are obtained for the nonequilibrium evolution of non-Gaussian skewness and kurtosis cumulants. UBy utilizing a simple model of the spacetime evolution of a heavy-ion collision, we demonstrate that, depending on the relaxation rate of critical fluctuations, skewness and kurtosis can differ significantly in magnitude as well as in sign from equilibrium expectations. Memory effects are important and shown to persist even for trajectories thatmore » skirt the edge of the critical regime. We use phenomenologically motivated parametrizations of freeze-out curves and of the beam-energy dependence of the net baryon chemical potential to explore the implications of our model study for the critical-point search in heavy-ion collisions.« less

  14. Real time evolution of non-Gaussian cumulants in the QCD critical regime

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2015-09-23

    In this study, we derive a coupled set of equations that describe the nonequilibrium evolution of cumulants of critical fluctuations for spacetime trajectories on the crossover side of the QCD phase diagram. In particular, novel expressions are obtained for the nonequilibrium evolution of non-Gaussian skewness and kurtosis cumulants. UBy utilizing a simple model of the spacetime evolution of a heavy-ion collision, we demonstrate that, depending on the relaxation rate of critical fluctuations, skewness and kurtosis can differ significantly in magnitude as well as in sign from equilibrium expectations. Memory effects are important and shown to persist even for trajectories that skirt the edge of the critical regime. We use phenomenologically motivated parametrizations of freeze-out curves and of the beam-energy dependence of the net baryon chemical potential to explore the implications of our model study for the critical-point search in heavy-ion collisions.

  15. Conformal symmetry of the Lange-Neubert evolution equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V. M.; Manashov, A. N.

    2014-04-01

    The Lange-Neubert evolution equation describes the scale dependence of the wave function of a meson built of an infinitely heavy quark and light antiquark at light-like separations, which is the hydrogen atom problem of QCD. It has numerous applications to the studies of B-meson decays. We show that the kernel of this equation can be written in a remarkably compact form, as a logarithm of the generator of special conformal transformation in the light-ray direction. This representation allows one to study solutions of this equation in a very simple and mathematically consistent manner. Generalizing this result, we show that all heavy-light evolution kernels that appear in the renormalization of higher-twist B-meson distribution amplitudes can be written in the same form.

  16. The Light-Front Schrödinger Equation and Determination of the Perturbative QCD Scale from Color Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Deur, Alexandre P.; Dosch, Hans G.

    2015-09-01

    The valence Fock-state wavefunctions of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian satisfy a relativistic equation of motion with an effective confining potential U which systematically incorporates the effects of higher quark and gluon Fock states. If one requires that the effective action which underlies the QCD Lagrangian remains conformally invariant and extends the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan to light front Hamiltonian theory, the potential U has a unique form of a harmonic oscillator potential, and a mass gap arises. The result is a nonperturbative relativistic light-front quantum mechanical wave equation which incorporates color confinement and other essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics, including a massless pion for zero quark mass and linear Regge trajectories with the same slope in the radial quantum number n and orbital angular momentum L. Only one mass parameter κ appears. Light-front holography thus provides a precise relation between the bound-state amplitudes in the fifth dimension of AdS space and the boost-invariant light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons in physical space-time. We also show how the mass scale κ underlying confinement and hadron masses determines the scale Λ{ovr MS} controlling the evolution of the perturbative QCD coupling. The relation between scales is obtained by matching the nonperturbative dynamics, as described by an effective conformal theory mapped to the light-front and its embedding in AdS space, to the perturbative QCD regime computed to four-loop order. The result is an effective coupling defined at all momenta. The predicted value Λ{ovr MS}=0.328±0.034 GeV is in agreement with the world average 0.339±0.010 GeV. The analysis applies to any renormalization scheme.

  17. Euler-Lagrange Equations for the Gribov Reggeon Calculus in QCD and in Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, L. N.

    The theory of the high energy scattering in QCD and gravity is based on the reggeization of gluons and gravitons, respectively. We discuss the corresponding effective actions for reggeized particle interactions. The Euler-Lagrange equations in these theories are constructed with a variational approach for the effective actions and by using their invariance under the gauge and general coordinate transformations.

  18. Euler-Lagrange equations for the Gribov reggeon calculus in QCD and in gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, L. N.

    2016-10-01

    The theory of the high energy scattering in QCD and gravity is based on the reggeization of gluons and gravitons, respectively. We discuss the corresponding effective actions for reggeized particle interactions. The Euler-Lagrange equations in these theories are constructed with a variational approach for the effective actions and by using their invariance under the gauge and general coordinate transformations.

  19. Evolution equation for quantum coherence

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the decoherence process of an open quantum system is of both theoretical significance and experimental appealing. Practically, the decoherence can be easily estimated if the coherence evolution satisfies some simple relations. We introduce a framework for studying evolution equation of coherence. Based on this framework, we prove a simple factorization relation (FR) for the l1 norm of coherence, and identified the sets of quantum channels for which this FR holds. By using this FR, we further determine condition on the transformation matrix of the quantum channel which can support permanently freezing of the l1 norm of coherence. We finally reveal the universality of this FR by showing that it holds for many other related coherence and quantum correlation measures. PMID:27382933

  20. The IR sector of QCD: lattice versus Schwinger-Dyson equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binosi, Daniele

    2010-12-01

    Important information about the infrared dynamics of QCD is encoded in the behavior of its (of-shell) Green's functions, most notably the gluon and the ghost propagators. Due to recent improvements in the quality of lattice data and the truncation schemes employed for the Schwinger-Dyson equations we have now reached a point where the interplay between these two non-perturbative tools can be most fruitful. In this talk several of the above points will be reviewed, with particular emphasis on the implications for the ghost sector, the non-perturbative effective charge of QCD, and the Kugo-Ojima function.

  1. Stochastic Evolution Equations Driven by Fractional Noises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-28

    Stochastic Evolution Equations Driven by Fractional Noises We have introduced a modification of the classical Euler numerical scheme for stochastic...of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Stochastic Evolution Equations Driven by Fractional Noises Report Title We have introduced...case the evolution form of the equation will involve a Stratonovich integral (or path-wise Young integral). The product can also be interpreted as a

  2. QCD constraints on the equation of state for compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, E. S.; Kurkela, A.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Vuorinen, A.

    2016-01-22

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount - or even presence - of quark matter inside the stars. In this framework, we also present a simple effective equation of state for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an equation of state that is equally straightforward to use.

  3. QCD constraints on the equation of state for compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, E. S.; Kurkela, A.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Vuorinen, A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount - or even presence - of quark matter inside the stars. In this framework, we also present a simple effective equation of state for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an equation of state that is equally straightforward to use.

  4. QCD constraints on the equation of state for compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, E. S.; Kurkela, A.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Vuorinen, A.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount - or even presence - of quark matter inside the stars. In this framework, we also present a simple effective equation of state for cold quark matter that consistently incorporates the effects of interactions and furthermore includes a built-in estimate of the inherent systematic uncertainties. This goes beyond the MIT bag model description in a crucial way, yet leads to an equation of state that is equally straightforward to use.

  5. Master integrals for splitting functions from differential equations in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gituliar, Oleksandr

    2016-02-01

    A method for calculating phase-space master integrals for the decay process 1 → n masslesspartonsinQCDusingintegration-by-partsanddifferentialequationstechniques is discussed. The method is based on the appropriate choice of the basis for master integrals which leads to significant simplification of differential equations. We describe an algorithm how to construct the desirable basis, so that the resulting system of differential equations can be recursively solved in terms of (G) HPLs as a series in the dimensional regulator ɛ to any order. We demonstrate its power by calculating master integrals for the NLO time-like splitting functions and discuss future applications of the proposed method at the NNLO precision.

  6. Rapidity gaps and color evolution in QCD hard scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oderda, Gianluca

    1999-03-01

    We discuss rapidity-gap events between two jets produced at high momentum transfer in ρ ρ¯ scattering, from the point of view of the soft energy flow into the interjet region. We define a gap cross section and, in perturbative QCD (pQCD), resum all the leading logarithms in the soft intermediate energy. We show that the numerical result from our cross section reproduces the shape of the DO and CDF [1-3] experimental data.

  7. QCD chiral transition temperature in a Dyson-Schwinger-equation context

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, M.; Krassnigg, A.

    2010-08-01

    We analyze the chiral phase transition with the help of the QCD gap equation. Various models for the effective interaction in rainbow truncation are contrasted with regard to the resulting chiral transition temperatures. In particular, we investigate possible systematic relations of the details of the effective interaction and the value of T{sub c}. In addition, we quantify changes to the transition temperature beyond the rainbow truncation.

  8. Quark Matter Equation of State from Perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2017-03-01

    In this proceedings contribution, we discuss recent developments in the perturbative determination of the Equation of State of dense quark matter, relevant for the microscopic description of neutron star cores. First, we introduce the current state of the art in the problem, both at zero and small temperatures, and then present results from two recent perturbative studies that pave the way towards extending the EoS to higher orders in perturbation theory.

  9. Global Properties of Rotating Neutron Stars with QCD Equations of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorda, Tyler

    2016-11-01

    We numerically investigate global properties of rotating neutron stars (NSs) using the allowed band of QCD equations of state derived by Kurkela et al. This band is constrained by chiral effective theory at low densities and perturbative QCD at high densities, and is thus, in essence, a controlled constraint from first-principles physics. Previously, this band of equations of state was used to investigate non-rotating NSs only; in this work, we extend these results to any rotation frequency below the mass-shedding limit. We investigate mass–radius curves, allowed mass–frequency regions, radius–frequency curves for a typical 1.4{M}ȯ star, and the values of the moment of inertia of the double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A, a pulsar for which the moment of inertia may be constrained observationally in a few years. We present limits on observational data coming from these constraints, and identify values of observationally relevant parameters that would further constrain the allowed region for the QCD equation of state. We also discuss how much this region would be constrained by a measurement of the moment of inertia of the double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A.

  10. The equation of state of QCD under hard-dense-loop approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weimin; Jiang, Yu; Zong, Hongshi

    2009-10-01

    Based on the method proposed by Zong et al., we calculate the equation of state (EOS) of QCD at zero temperature and finite quark chemical potential under the hard-dense-loop (HDL) approximation. A comparison between the EOS under HDL approximation and the cold, perturbative EOS of QCD proposed by Fraga, Pisarski and Schaffner-Bielich is made. It is found that when µ is less than 4.7 GeV, the pressure density calculated using HDL approximation is much larger than that calculated using perturbation theory. This enhancement of the obtained pressure density with respect to that of perturbation theory can be regarded as a possible explanation for the strong coupled QGP. It is also expected that the obtained EOS can be applied in the study of neutron stars.

  11. Optimal Control for Stochastic Delay Evolution Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qingxin; Shen, Yang

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, we investigate a class of infinite-dimensional optimal control problems, where the state equation is given by a stochastic delay evolution equation with random coefficients, and the corresponding adjoint equation is given by an anticipated backward stochastic evolution equation. We first prove the continuous dependence theorems for stochastic delay evolution equations and anticipated backward stochastic evolution equations, and show the existence and uniqueness of solutions to anticipated backward stochastic evolution equations. Then we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality of the control problem in the form of Pontryagin’s maximum principles. To illustrate the theoretical results, we apply stochastic maximum principles to study two examples, an infinite-dimensional linear-quadratic control problem with delay and an optimal control of a Dirichlet problem for a stochastic partial differential equation with delay. Further applications of the two examples to a Cauchy problem for a controlled linear stochastic partial differential equation and an optimal harvesting problem are also considered.

  12. Energy evolution of the moments of the hadron distribution in QCD jets including NNLL resummation and NLO running-coupling corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ramos, Redamy; d'Enterria, David

    2014-08-01

    The moments of the single inclusive momentum distribution of hadrons in QCD jets, are studied in the next-to-modified-leading-log approximation (NMLLA) including next-to-leading-order (NLO) corrections to the αs strong coupling. The evolution equations are solved using a distorted Gaussian parametrisation, which successfully reproduces the spectrum of charged hadrons of jets measured in e + e - collisions. The energy dependencies of the maximum peak, multiplicity, width, kurtosis and skewness of the jet hadron distribution are computed analytically. Comparisons of all the existing jet data measured in e + e - collisions in the range GeV to the NMLLA + NLO* predictions allow one to extract a value of the QCD parameter ΛQCD , and associated two-loop coupling constant at the Z resonance α s(m{Z/2}) = 0.1195 ± 0.0022, in excellent numerical agreement with the current world average obtained using other methods.

  13. Equation of state for two flavor QCD at N{sub t}=6

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, C.; Blum, T.; DeTar, C.; Gottlieb, S.; Rummukainen, K.; Heller, U.M.; Hetrick, J.E.; Toussaint, D.; Kaerkkaeinen, L.; Sugar, R.L.; Wingate, M.

    1997-06-01

    We calculate the two flavor equation of state for QCD on lattices with lattice spacing a=(6T){sup {minus}1} and find that cutoff effects are substantially reduced compared to an earlier study using a=(4T){sup {minus}1}. However, it is likely that significant cutoff effects remain. We fit the lattice data to expected forms of the free energy density for a second order phase transition at zero-quark mass, which allows us to extrapolate the equation of state to m{sub q}=0 and to extract the speed of sound. We find that the equation of state depends weakly on the quark mass for small quark mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. The QCD equation of state at finite density from analytical continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Jana; Bellwied, Rene; Borsanyi, Szabolcs; Fodor, Zoltan; Katz, Sandor D.; Pasztor, Attila; Ratti, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    An effcient way to study the QCD phase diagram at small finite density is to extrapolate thermodynamical observables from imaginary chemical potential. In this talk we present results on several observables for the equation of state to order (μB/T)6. The observables are calculated along the isentropic trajectories in the (T, μB) plane corresponding to the RHIC Beam Energy Scan collision energies. The simulations are performed at the physical mass for the light and strange quarks. μs was tuned in a way to enforce strangeness neutrality to match the experimental conditions; the results are continuum extrapolated using lattices of up to Nt = 16 temporal resolution.

  15. Euler-Lagrange equations for effective actions in QCD and gravity at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, L. N.

    2017-03-01

    Gluons in QCD and gravitons in quantum gravity lie on the Regge trajectories, which allows to formulate the high-energy scattering in these models in the framework of the reggeon field theory. In particular, the BFKL Pomeron is a composite state of reggeized gluons. In N = 4 SUSY the Pomeron is dual to the reggeized graviton living in the 10-dimensional anti-de-Sitter space. The effective actions for reggeized gluon and graviton interactions are formulated locally in the particle rapidities. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are derived and their simple solutions are constructed.

  16. Linearizability for third order evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basarab-Horwath, P.; Güngör, F.

    2017-08-01

    The problem of linearization for third order evolution equations is considered. Criteria for testing equations for linearity are presented. A class of linearizable equations depending on arbitrary functions is obtained by requiring presence of an infinite-dimensional symmetry group. Linearizing transformations for this class are found using symmetry structure and local conservation laws. A number of special cases as examples are discussed. Their transformation to equations within the same class by differential substitutions and connection with KdV and mKdV equations is also reviewed in this framework.

  17. COLLINEAR SPLITTING, PARTON EVOLUTION AND THE STRANGE-QUARK ASYMMETRY OF THE NUCLEON IN NNLO QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    RODRIGO,G.CATANI,S.DE FLORIAN, D.VOGELSANG,W.

    2004-04-25

    We consider the collinear limit of QCD amplitudes at one-loop order, and their factorization properties directly in color space. These results apply to the multiple collinear limit of an arbitrary number of QCD partons, and are a basic ingredient in many higher-order computations. In particular, we discuss the triple collinear limit and its relation to flavor asymmetries in the QCD evolution of parton densities at three loops. As a phenomenological consequence of this new effect, and of the fact that the nucleon has non-vanishing quark valence densities, we study the perturbative generation of a strange-antistrange asymmetry s(x)-{bar s}(x) in the nucleon's sea.

  18. Modeling the QCD Equation of State in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions on BlueGene/L

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Grady, J; Hartouni, E P; Gupta, R; Vitev, I; Mottola, E; Petreczky, P; Karsch, F; Christ, N; Mawhinney, R; Bass, S; Mueller, B; Vranas, P; Levkova, L; Molnar, D; Teaney, D; De Tar, C; Toussaint, D; Sugar, R

    2006-04-10

    On 9,10 Feb 2006 a workshop was held at LLNL to discuss how a 10% allocation of the ASC BG/L supercomputer performing a finite temperature Lattice QCD (LQCD) calculation of the equation of state and non-equilibrium properties of the quark-gluon state of matter could lead to a breakthrough in our understanding of recent data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Lab. From this meeting and subsequent discussions we present a detailed plan for this calculation, including mechanisms for working in a secure computing environment and inserting the resulting equation of state into hydrodynamic transport models that will be compared directly to the RHIC data. We discuss expected benefits for DOE Office of Science research programs within the context of the NNSA mission.

  19. Remembrance of things past: non-equilibrium effects and the evolution of critical fluctuations near the QCD critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2016-12-01

    We report on recent progress in the study of the evolution of non-Gaussian cumulants of critical fluctuations. We explore the implications of non-equilibrium effects on the search for the QCD critical point.

  20. Exact Pressure Evolution Equation for Incompressible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, M.; Ellero, M.; Aslan, N.; Mond, M.; Nicolini, P.

    2008-12-01

    An important aspect of computational fluid dynamics is related to the determination of the fluid pressure in isothermal incompressible fluids. In particular this concerns the construction of an exact evolution equation for the fluid pressure which replaces the Poisson equation and yields an algorithm which is a Poisson solver, i.e., it permits to time-advance exactly the same fluid pressure without solving the Poisson equation. In fact, the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations represent a mixture of hyperbolic and elliptic pde's, which are extremely hard to study both analytically and numerically. This amounts to transform an elliptic type fluid equation into a suitable hyperbolic equation, a result which usually is reached only by means of an asymptotic formulation. Besides being a still unsolved mathematical problem, the issue is relevant for at least two reasons: a) the proliferation of numerical algorithms in computational fluid dynamics which reproduce the behavior of incompressible fluids only in an asymptotic sense (see below); b) the possible verification of conjectures involving the validity of appropriate equations of state for the fluid pressure. Another possible motivation is, of course, the ongoing quest for efficient numerical solution methods to be applied for the construction of the fluid fields {ρ,V,p}, solutions of the initial and boundary-value problem associated to the incompressible N-S equations (INSE). In this paper we intend to show that an exact solution to this problem can be achieved adopting the approach based on inverse kinetic theory (IKT) recently developed for incompressible fluids by Tessarotto et al. [7, 6, 7, 8, 9]. In particular we intend to prove that the evolution of the fluid fields can be achieved by means of a suitable dynamical system, to be identified with the so-called Navier-Stokes (N-S) dynamical system. As a consequence it is found that the fluid pressure obeys a well-defined evolution equation. The result appears

  1. Interface effect in QCD phase transitions via Dyson-Schwinger equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2016-11-01

    With the chiral susceptibility criterion, we obtain the phase diagram of strong-interaction matter in terms of temperature and chemical potential in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations of QCD. After calculating the pressure and some other thermodynamic properties of the matter in the Dyson-Schwinger method, we get the phase diagram in terms of temperature and baryon number density. We also obtain the interface tension and the interface entropy density to describe the inhomogeneity of the two phases in the coexistence region of the first-order phase transition. After including the interface effect, we find that the total entropy density of the system increases in both the deconfinement (dynamical chiral symmetry restoration) and the hadronization (dynamical chiral symmetry breaking) processes of the first-order phase transitions and thus solve the entropy puzzle in the hadronization process.

  2. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V.; Tandogan Kunkel, Asli

    2014-03-01

    We describe a method of analytic evolution of distribution amplitudes (DA) that have singularities, such as non-zero values at the end-points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a flat (constant) DA, anti-symmetric at DA and then use it for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials, which requires infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points, and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. The latter produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration, while in our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve, with only one or two iterations needed afterwards in order to get rather precise results.

  3. Equation of state for nucleonic matter and its quark mass dependence from the nuclear force in lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Yoichi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji

    2013-09-13

    Quark mass dependence of the equation of state (EOS) for nucleonic matter is investigated, on the basis of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with the nucleon-nucleon interaction extracted from lattice QCD simulations. We observe saturation of nuclear matter at the lightest available quark mass corresponding to the pseudoscalar meson mass ≃469  MeV. Mass-radius relation of the neutron stars is also studied with the EOS for neutron-star matter from the same nuclear force in lattice QCD. We observe that the EOS becomes stiffer and thus the maximum mass of neutron star increases as the quark mass decreases toward the physical point.

  4. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Tandogan Kunkel, Asli

    2014-08-01

    Distribution amplitudes (DAs) are the basic functions that contain information about the quark momentum. DAs are necessary to describe hard exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics. We describe a method of analytic evolution of DAs that have singularities such as nonzero values at the end points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a at (constant) DA, antisymmetric at DA, and then use the method for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach to DA evolution has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials [1, 2] and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. Expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials requires an infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points. Straightforward iteration of an initial distribution produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration. In our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve. Afterwards, in order to get precise results, only one or two iterations are needed.

  5. Solution Methods for Certain Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Guzman, Jose Manuel

    Solution methods for certain linear and nonlinear evolution equations are presented in this dissertation. Emphasis is placed mainly on the analytical treatment of nonautonomous differential equations, which are challenging to solve despite the existent numerical and symbolic computational software programs available. Ideas from the transformation theory are adopted allowing one to solve the problems under consideration from a non-traditional perspective. First, the Cauchy initial value problem is considered for a class of nonautonomous and inhomogeneous linear diffusion-type equation on the entire real line. Explicit transformations are used to reduce the equations under study to their corresponding standard forms emphasizing on natural relations with certain Riccati(and/or Ermakov)-type systems. These relations give solvability results for the Cauchy problem of the parabolic equation considered. The superposition principle allows to solve formally this problem from an unconventional point of view. An eigenfunction expansion approach is also considered for this general evolution equation. Examples considered to corroborate the efficacy of the proposed solution methods include the Fokker-Planck equation, the Black-Scholes model and the one-factor Gaussian Hull-White model. The results obtained in the first part are used to solve the Cauchy initial value problem for certain inhomogeneous Burgers-type equation. The connection between linear (the Diffusion-type) and nonlinear (Burgers-type) parabolic equations is stress in order to establish a strong commutative relation. Traveling wave solutions of a nonautonomous Burgers equation are also investigated. Finally, it is constructed explicitly the minimum-uncertainty squeezed states for quantum harmonic oscillators. They are derived by the action of corresponding maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard ground state solution. It is shown that the product of the variances attains the required minimum value

  6. Evolution equation for entanglement of assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zongguo; Liu, W. M.; Zhao Mingjing; Fei Shaoming

    2010-04-15

    We investigate the time evolution of the entanglement of assistance when one subsystem undergoes the action of local noisy channels. A general factorization law is presented for the evolution equation of entanglement of assistance. Our results demonstrate that the dynamics of the entanglement of assistance is determined by the action of a noisy channel on the pure maximally entangled state, in which the entanglement reduction turns out to be universal for all quantum states entering the channel. This single quantity will make it easy to characterize the entanglement dynamics of entanglement of assistance under unknown channels in the experimental process of producing entangled states by assisted entanglement.

  7. Kinematical and dynamical aspects of higher-spin bound-state equations in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we derive holographic wave equations for hadrons with arbitrary spin starting from an effective action in a higher-dimensional space asymptotic to anti–de Sitter (AdS) space. Our procedure takes advantage of the local tangent frame, and it applies to all spins, including half-integer spins. An essential element is the mapping of the higher-dimensional equations of motion to the light-front Hamiltonian, thus allowing a clear distinction between the kinematical and dynamical aspects of the holographic approach to hadron physics. Accordingly, the nontrivial geometry of pure AdS space encodes the kinematics, and the additional deformations of AdS space encode the dynamics, including confinement. It thus becomes possible to identify the features of holographic QCD, which are independent of the specific mechanisms of conformal symmetry breaking. In particular, we account for some aspects of the striking similarities and differences observed in the systematics of the meson and baryon spectra.

  8. QCD phase transitions via a refined truncation of Dyson-Schwinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2016-10-01

    We investigate both the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions of QCD matter in a refined scheme of Dyson-Schwinger equations, which have been shown to be successful in giving the meson mass spectrum and matching the interaction with the results from ab initio computation. We verify the equivalence of the chiral susceptibility criterion with different definitions for the susceptibility and confirm that the chiral susceptibility criterion is efficient to fix not only the chiral phase boundary but also the critical end point (CEP), especially when one could not have the effective thermodynamical potential. We propose a generalized Schwinger function criterion for the confinement. We give the phase diagram of both phase transitions and show that in the refined scheme the position of the CEP shifts to lower chemical potential and higher temperature. Based on our calculation and previous results of the chemical freeze-out conditions, we propose that the CEP is located in the states of the matter generated by the Au-Au collisions with √{sN N }=9 - 15 GeV .

  9. Evolution equation for geometric quantum correlation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng

    2015-05-01

    A simple relation is established for the evolution equation of quantum-information-processing protocols such as quantum teleportation, remote state preparation, Bell-inequality violation, and particularly the dynamics of geometric quantum correlation measures. This relation shows that when the system traverses the local quantum channel, various figures of merit of the quantum correlations for different protocols demonstrate a factorization decay behavior for dynamics. We identified the family of quantum states for different kinds of quantum channels under the action of which the relation holds. This relation simplifies the assessment of many quantum tasks.

  10. Implicit Degenerate Evolution Equations and Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    implicit evolution equations divides historically into three cases. The first and certainly the easiest is where 9 0 A - is Lipschitz or monotone in...on all V, and its Yoshida pproximation A - )’I(I - J,), a monotone Lipschitz function defined on all V. For u e V we have AA(u) e A(JA(u)). We denote...a) (u (t) + (v (t)) + BAlu t)) - f(t) dt (3.2.b) vXlt) e AluAlt) t e (0,T] Since (I + A) - 1 and BX are both Lipschitz continuous from V to V, (3.2

  11. Analytical solutions of the QCD⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations based on the Mellin transform technique in NLO approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh; Eslami, Parvin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present a new and efficient analytical solutions for evolving the QCD⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations in Mellin space and obtain the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in perturbative QCD including the QED corrections. The validity of our analytical solutions, which have done in the next to leading order QCD and the leading order QED approximations, are checked with the initial parton distributions from newly released CT14QED global analysis code (Schmidt et al., 2016 [9]). The evolved parton distribution functions are in good agreement with CT14QED PDFs set and also with those from APFEL (Bertone et al., 2014 [7]) program. Finally, we derived the impact of the NLO QED corrections to the QCD⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations.

  12. Some new solutions of nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdi, Jasvinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    We construct the traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) with variable coefficients arising in physics. Some interesting nonlinear evolution equations are investigated by traveling wave solutions which are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and rational functions. The applied method will be used in further works to establish more entirely new solutions for other kinds of such nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients arising in physics.

  13. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop entitled Hydrodynamics in Heavy Ion Collisions and QCD Equation of State (Volume 88)

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch,F.; Kharzeev, D.; Molnar, K.; Petreczky, P.; Teaney, D.

    2008-04-21

    The interpretation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies with thermal concepts is largely based on the relative success of ideal (nondissipative) hydrodynamics. This approach can describe basic observables at RHIC, such as particle spectra and momentum anisotropies, fairly well. On the other hand, recent theoretical efforts indicate that dissipation can play a significant role. Ideally viscous hydrodynamic simulations would extract, if not only the equation of state, but also transport coefficients from RHIC data. There has been a lot of progress with solving relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. There are already large uncertainties in ideal hydrodynamics calculations, e.g., uncertainties associated with initial conditions, freezeout, and the simplified equations of state typically utilized. One of the most sensitive observables to the equation of state is the baryon momentum anisotropy, which is also affected by freezeout assumptions. Up-to-date results from lattice quantum chromodynamics on the transition temperature and equation of state with realistic quark masses are currently available. However, these have not yet been incorporated into the hydrodynamic calculations. Therefore, the RBRC workshop 'Hydrodynamics in Heavy Ion Collisions and QCD Equation of State' aimed at getting a better understanding of the theoretical frameworks for dissipation and near-equilibrium dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. The topics discussed during the workshop included techniques to solve the dynamical equations and examine the role of initial conditions and decoupling, as well as the role of the equation of state and transport coefficients in current simulations.

  14. Mass Gap Equation in 1+1 Dimensional QCD Interpolating between the Instant and Front Forms of Relativistic Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bailing; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Due to the simplicity and the inherent characteristics of confinement, the 1+1 dimensional QCD known as 't Hooft model has attracted a lot of interest for many yers. In the large Nc limit, the contribution from non-planar diagrams are negligible, hence an iterative equation can be simplified and solved numerically for the quark propagator dressed by gluons. While 't Hooft model was originally solved using the Light Front Dynamics (LFD), people have also done similar work afterwards in the Instant Form Dynamics (IFD). We attempt to interpolate the 1+1 dimensional QCD between IFD and LFD by introducing an angle called the interpolation angle. Using this interpolation method, we analyze the formulation of the single quark mass gap equation in dynamical forms between IFD and LFD. Examining that our interpolating results reproduce the IFD and LFD results previously obtained by others, we discuss the fate of the vacuum condensation, the chiral angle, and the effective mass in the limit to the IFD and the LFD. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER41260).

  15. An Evolution Operator Solution for a Nonlinear Beam Equation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    uniqueness for the parabolic problem Ug + (-A) m u+ I I- u = f (14) on RN X (0, 1). Again, certain restrictions apply. The Schr ~ dinger equation , [68:pg 823...evolution equation because of the time dependence in the definition of the operator A. He identifies conditions for the existence of a unique solution. In...The arguments for the adjoint and dissipativity are not repeated. Because of the explicit time dependence , (71) is called an evolution equation . For

  16. QCD for Postgraduates (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Modern QCD - Lecture 3 We will introduce processes with initial-state hadrons and discuss parton distributions, sum rules, as well as the need for a factorization scale once radiative corrections are taken into account. We will then discuss the DGLAP equation, the evolution of parton densities, as well as ways in which parton densities are extracted from data.

  17. Fast wavelet based algorithms for linear evolution equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engquist, Bjorn; Osher, Stanley; Zhong, Sifen

    1992-01-01

    A class was devised of fast wavelet based algorithms for linear evolution equations whose coefficients are time independent. The method draws on the work of Beylkin, Coifman, and Rokhlin which they applied to general Calderon-Zygmund type integral operators. A modification of their idea is applied to linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations, with spatially varying coefficients. A significant speedup over standard methods is obtained when applied to hyperbolic equations in one space dimension and parabolic equations in multidimensions.

  18. NLO Hierarchy of Wilson Lines Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The high-energy behavior of QCD amplitudes can be described in terms of the rapidity evolution of Wilson lines. I present the hierarchy of evolution equations for Wilson lines in the next-to-leading order.

  19. Exact traveling wave solutions for system of nonlinear evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali; Arnous, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    In this work, recently deduced generalized Kudryashov method is applied to the variant Boussinesq equations, and the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton equations. As a result a range of qualitative explicit exact traveling wave solutions are deduced for these equations, which motivates us to develop, in the near future, a new approach to obtain unsteady solutions of autonomous nonlinear evolution equations those arise in mathematical physics and engineering fields. It is uncomplicated to extend this method to higher-order nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. And it should be possible to apply the same method to nonlinear evolution equations having more general forms of nonlinearities by utilizing the traveling wave hypothesis.

  20. Prolongation structures of nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlquist, H. D.; Estabrook, F. B.

    1975-01-01

    A technique is developed for systematically deriving a 'prolongation structure' - a set of interrelated potentials and pseudopotentials - for nonlinear partial differential equations in two independent variables. When this is applied to the Korteweg-de Vries equation, a new infinite set of conserved quantities is obtained. Known solution techniques are shown to result from the discovery of such a structure: related partial differential equations for the potential functions, linear 'inverse scattering' equations for auxiliary functions, Backlund transformations. Generalizations of these techniques will result from the use of irreducible matrix representations of the prolongation structure.

  1. Invariant tori for a class of nonlinear evolution equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, A Yu; Rozov, N Kh

    2013-06-30

    The paper looks at quite a wide class of nonlinear evolution equations in a Banach space, including the typical boundary value problems for the main wave equations in mathematical physics (the telegraph equation, the equation of a vibrating beam, various equations from the elastic stability and so on). For this class of equations a unified approach to the bifurcation of invariant tori of arbitrary finite dimension is put forward. Namely, the problem of the birth of such tori from the zero equilibrium is investigated under the assumption that in the stability problem for this equilibrium the situation arises close to an infinite-dimensional degeneracy. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  2. Variable-coefficient extended mapping method for nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng; Xia, Tiecheng

    2008-03-01

    In this Letter, a variable-coefficient extended mapping method is proposed to seek new and more general exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the mKdV equation with variable coefficients and ( 2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equations. As a result, many new and more general exact solutions are obtained including Jacobi elliptic function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions and trigonometric function solutions. It is shown that the proposed method provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving a great many nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  3. Crossover Equation of State Compared to Lattice QCD and to Baryon Fluctuations in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapusta, Joseph; Albright, Michael; Young, Clint

    2015-10-01

    We match hadronic equations of state at low energy densities to a perturbatively computed equation of state of quarks and gluons at high energy densities. The hadronic equations of state include all known hadrons; repulsive interactions are taken into account via two versions of the excluded volume approximation. A switching function is employed to make the crossover transition from one phase to another without introducing a thermodynamic phase transition. A fit to accurate lattice calculations of the pressure and trace anomaly, with temperature 100 < T < 1000 MeV and μ = 0 , determines the parameters. These parameters quantify the behavior of the QCD running gauge coupling and the hard core radius of the nucleon. With no new parameters, the pressure and trace anomaly from lattice calculations for μ = 400 MeV are equally well reproduced, as is the speed of sound. We then compute the skewness and kurtosis and compare to measurements of the fluctuations of the proton number distribution in central Au-Au collisions as measured by the STAR collaboration in a beam energy scan at RHIC. The crossover equations of state can reproduce the data if the fluctuations are frozen at a temperature significantly lower than the average chemical freeze-out. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-87ER40328.

  4. The effects of QCD equation of state on the relic density of WIMP dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, Manuel; Hajkarim, Fazlollah; Schmitz, Ernany Rossi

    2015-06-12

    Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) are the most widely studied candidate particles forming the cold dark matter (CDM) whose existence can be inferred from a wealth of astrophysical and cosmological observations. In the framework of the minimal cosmological model detailed measurements on the cosmic microwave background by the PLANCK collaboration fix the scaled CDM relic density to Ω{sub c}h{sup 2}=0.1193±0.0014, with an error of less than 1.5%. In order to fully exploit this observational precision, theoretical calculations should have a comparable or smaller error. In this paper we use recent lattice QCD calculations to improve the description of the thermal plasma. This affects the predicted relic density of “thermal WIMPs”, which once were in chemical equilibrium with Standard Model particles. For WIMP masses between 3 and 15 GeV, where QCD effects are most important, our predictions differ from earlier results by up to 9% (12%) for pure S-wave (P-wave) annihilation. We use these results to compute the thermally averaged WIMP annihilation cross section that reproduces the correct CDM relic density, for WIMP masses between 0.1 GeV and 10 TeV.

  5. The effects of QCD equation of state on the relic density of WIMP dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, Manuel; Hajkarim, Fazlollah; Schmitz, Ernany Rossi E-mail: hajkarim@th.physik.uni-bonn.de

    2015-06-01

    Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) are the most widely studied candidate particles forming the cold dark matter (CDM) whose existence can be inferred from a wealth of astrophysical and cosmological observations. In the framework of the minimal cosmological model detailed measurements on the cosmic microwave background by the PLANCK collaboration fix the scaled CDM relic density to Ω{sub c}h{sup 2}=0.1193±0.0014, with an error of less than 1.5%. In order to fully exploit this observational precision, theoretical calculations should have a comparable or smaller error. In this paper we use recent lattice QCD calculations to improve the description of the thermal plasma. This affects the predicted relic density of ''thermal WIMPs'', which once were in chemical equilibrium with Standard Model particles. For WIMP masses between 3 and 15 GeV, where QCD effects are most important, our predictions differ from earlier results by up to 9% (12%) for pure S-wave (P-wave) annihilation. We use these results to compute the thermally averaged WIMP annihilation cross section that reproduces the correct CDM relic density, for WIMP masses between 0.1 GeV and 10 TeV.

  6. Cusp Formation for a Nonlocal Evolution Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Vu; Radosz, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Córdoba et al. (Ann Math 162(3):1377-1389, 2005) introduced a nonlocal active scalar equation as a one-dimensional analogue of the surface-quasigeostrophic equation. It has been conjectured, based on numerical evidence, that the solution forms a cusp-like singularity in finite time. Up until now, no active scalar with nonlocal flux is known for which cusp formation has been rigorously shown. In this paper, we introduce and study a nonlocal active scalar, inspired by the Córdoba-Córdoba-Fontelos equation, and prove that either a cusp- or needle-like singularity forms in finite time.

  7. Coupled evolution equations for axially inhomogeneous optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, E.; Parker, D. F.

    1992-01-01

    At monomode' frequencies, a uniform axisymmetric optical fibre can support left- and right-handed circularly polarized modes having the same dispersion relation. Nonlinearity introduces cubic terms into the evolution equations, which are coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations (Newboult, Parker, and Faulkner, 1989). This paper analyses signal propagation in axisymmetric fibres for which the distribution of dielectric properties varies gradually, but significantly, along the fibre. At each cross-section, left- and right-handed modal fields are defined, but their axial variations introduce changes into the coupled evolution equations. Two regimes are identified. When axial variations occur on length scales comparable with nonlinear evolution effects, the governing equations are determined as coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations with variable coefficients. On the other hand, for more rapid axial variations it is found that the evolution equations have constant coefficients, defined as appropriate averages of those associated with each cross-section. Situations in which the variable coefficient equations may be transformed into constant coefficient equations are investigated. It is found that the only possibilities are natural generalizations of thosefound by Grimshaw (1979) for a single nonlinear Schrodinger equation. In such cases, suitable sech-envelope pulses will propagate without radiation. Numerical evidence is presented that, in some other cases with periodically varying coefficients, a sech-envelope pulse loses little amplitude even after propagating through 40 periods of axial inhomogeneity of significant amplitude.

  8. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1977-01-01

    The general-relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. Also, a general-relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented.

  9. Evolution equations for magnetic islands in a reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund Po-Ning

    We derive a coupled set of equations, consisting of a partial differential equation (PDE) and several ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which govern the phase evolution of a nonlinear magnetic island chain in a reversed field pinch (RFP), subject to the braking torque due to eddy currents excited in a resistive vacuum vessel and the locking torque due to an external resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). We first use our phase evolution equations to examine the locking behavior of the island chain; such a study is of interest because tearing modes and their associated magnetic islands generate a toroidally localized magnetic structure (slinky mode) which, if locked to a static RMP, can seriously degrade plasma confinement. A key component of our analysis is the reduction of the original PDE/ODE description of phase evolution to a much simpler and physically transparent (coupled) set of first order ODEs, which possess the novel feature that the radial extent of the region of plasma which co-rotates with the island chain is determined self-consistently, by viscosity. Using these equations, we develop a comprehensive theory of the influence of a resistive vacuum vessel on error-field locking and unlocking thresholds. Our ODE description of phase evolution is limited in that it cannot account for island width evolution, or time-variation in the RMP. Our final step, then, is to develop an extension of our simple phase evolution equations which, when coupled with a (Rutherford-like) island width evolution equation, can completely describe the island chain dynamics in the presence of a rotating RMP with programmable amplitude and frequency waveforms. Consequently, we can use these island evolution equations to model magnetic feedback experiments.

  10. Exact null controllability of degenerate evolution equations with scalar control

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Vladimir E; Shklyar, Benzion

    2012-12-31

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for the exact null controllability of a degenerate linear evolution equation with scalar control are obtained. These general results are used to examine the exact null controllability of the Dzektser equation in the theory of seepage. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  11. QCD equations of state and the quark-gluon plasma liquid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2003-03-01

    Recent advances in the study of equations of state of thermal lattice quantum chromodynamics obtained at nonzero baryon density allow validation of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) liquid model equations of state (EOS). We study here the properties of the QGP-EOS near to the phase transformation boundary at finite baryon density and show a close agreement with the lattice results.

  12. Mimicking the QCD equation of state with a dual black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.; Nellore, Abhinav

    2008-10-15

    We present numerical and analytical studies of the equation of state of translationally invariant black hole solutions to five-dimensional gravity coupled to a single scalar. As an application, we construct a family of black holes that closely mimics the equation of state of quantum chromodynamics at zero chemical potential.

  13. An interpolation between the wave and diffusion equations through the fractional evolution equations Dirac like

    SciTech Connect

    Pierantozzi, T.; Vazquez, L.

    2005-11-01

    Through fractional calculus and following the method used by Dirac to obtain his well-known equation from the Klein-Gordon equation, we analyze a possible interpolation between the Dirac and the diffusion equations in one space dimension. We study the transition between the hyperbolic and parabolic behaviors by means of the generalization of the D'Alembert formula for the classical wave equation and the invariance under space and time inversions of the interpolating fractional evolution equations Dirac like. Such invariance depends on the values of the fractional index and is related to the nonlocal property of the time fractional differential operator. For this system of fractional evolution equations, we also find an associated conserved quantity analogous to the Hamiltonian for the classical Dirac case.

  14. Second order evolution equations which describe pseudospherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano Ferraioli, D.; de Oliveira Silva, L. A.

    2016-06-01

    Second order evolution differential equations that describe pseudospherical surfaces are considered. These equations are equivalent to the structure equations of a metric with Gaussian curvature K = - 1, and can be seen as the compatibility condition of an associated sl (2 , R) -valued linear problem, also referred to as a zero curvature representation. Under the assumption that the linear problem is defined by 1-forms ωi =fi1 dx +fi2 dt, i = 1 , 2 , 3, with fij depending on (x , t , z ,z1 ,z2) and such that f21 = η, η ∈ R, we give a complete and explicit classification of equations of the form zt = A (x , t , z) z2 + B (x , t , z ,z1) . According to the classification, these equations are subdivided in three main classes (referred to as Types I-III) together with the corresponding linear problems. Explicit examples of differential equations of each type are determined by choosing certain arbitrary differentiable functions. Svinolupov-Sokolov equations admitting higher weakly nonlinear symmetries, Boltzmann equation and reaction-diffusion equations like Murray equation are some known examples of such equations. Other explicit examples are presented, as well.

  15. Convergence of Galerkin approximations for operator Riccati equations: A nonlinear evolution equation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.

    1988-01-01

    An approximation and convergence theory was developed for Galerkin approximations to infinite dimensional operator Riccati differential equations formulated in the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators on a separable Hilbert space. The Riccati equation was treated as a nonlinear evolution equation with dynamics described by a nonlinear monotone perturbation of a strongly coercive linear operator. A generic approximation result was proven for quasi-autonomous nonlinear evolution system involving accretive operators which was then used to demonstrate the Hilbert-Schmidt norm convergence of Galerkin approximations to the solution of the Riccati equation. The application of the results was illustrated in the context of a linear quadratic optimal control problem for a one dimensional heat equation.

  16. Selection by consequences, behavioral evolution, and the price equation.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2017-05-01

    Price's equation describes evolution across time in simple mathematical terms. Although it is not a theory, but a derived identity, it is useful as an analytical tool. It affords lucid descriptions of genetic evolution, cultural evolution, and behavioral evolution (often called "selection by consequences") at different levels (e.g., individual vs. group) and at different time scales (local and extended). The importance of the Price equation for behavior analysis lies in its ability to precisely restate selection by consequences, thereby restating, or even replacing, the law of effect. Beyond this, the equation may be useful whenever one regards ontogenetic behavioral change as evolutionary change, because it describes evolutionary change in abstract, general terms. As an analytical tool, the behavioral Price equation is an excellent aid in understanding how behavior changes within organisms' lifetimes. For example, it illuminates evolution of response rate, analyses of choice in concurrent schedules, negative contingencies, and dilemmas of self-control. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1975-01-01

    The general relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. A general relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented. It is argued that in work on spherical systems, general relativity theorists have identified the wrong quantity as total mass-energy inside radius r.

  18. On pathwise uniqueness of stochastic evolution equations in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bin

    2008-08-01

    The pathwise uniqueness of stochastic evolution equations driven by Q-Wiener processes is mainly investigated in this article. We focus on the case that the modulus of the continuity of the coefficients is not controlled by a linear function. Additionally, we show that the corresponding diffusion process is Feller.

  19. The quark propagator in QCD and G2 QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Romain; Huber, Markus Q.

    2017-03-01

    QCD-like theories provide testing grounds for truncations of functional equations at non-zero density, since comparisons with lattice results are possible due to the absence of the sign problem. As a first step towards such a comparison, we determine for QCD and G2 QCD the chiral and confinement/deconfinement transitions from the quark propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation at zero chemical potential by calculating the chiral and dual chiral condensates, respectively.

  20. Schaefer type theorem and periodic solutions of evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yicheng; Li, Zhixiang

    2006-04-01

    Two fixed point theorems for the sum of contractive and compact operators are obtained in this paper, which generalize and improve the corresponding results in [H. Schaefer, Uber die methode der a priori-Schranken, Math. Ann. 129 (1955) 415-416; T.A. Burton, Integral equations, implicit functions and fixed points, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 124 (1996) 2383-2390; V.I. Istratescu, Fixed Point Theory, an Introduction, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1981; T.A. Burton, K. Colleen, A fixed point theorem of Krasnoselskii-Schaefer type, Math. Nachr. 189 (1998) 23-31; D.R. Smart, Fixed Point Theorems, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1980]. As the applications for the results, we obtain the existence of periodic solutions for some evolution equations with delay, which extend the corresponding results in [T.A. Burton, B. Zhang, Periodic solutions of abstract differential equations with infinite delay, J. Differential Equations 90 (1991) 357-396].

  1. An evolution equation modeling inversion of tulip flames

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Joulin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The authors attempt to reduce the number of physical ingredients needed to model the phenomenon of tulip-flame inversion to a bare minimum. This is achieved by synthesizing the nonlinear, first-order Michelson-Sivashinsky (MS) equation with the second order linear dispersion relation of Landau and Darrieus, which adds only one extra term to the MS equation without changing any of its stationary behavior and without changing its dynamics in the limit of small density change when the MS equation is asymptotically valid. However, as demonstrated by spectral numerical solutions, the resulting second-order nonlinear evolution equation is found to describe the inversion of tulip flames in good qualitative agreement with classical experiments on the phenomenon. This shows that the combined influences of front curvature, geometric nonlinearity and hydrodynamic instability (including its second-order, or inertial effects, which are an essential result of vorticity production at the flame front) are sufficient to reproduce the inversion process.

  2. On the solutions of fractional order of evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Delgado, V. F.; Taneco-Hernández, M. A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a discussion of generalized Cauchy problems in a diffusion wave process, we consider bi-fractional-order evolution equations in the Riemann-Liouville, Liouville-Caputo, and Caputo-Fabrizio sense. Through Fourier transforms and Laplace transform we derive closed-form solutions to the Cauchy problems mentioned above. Similarly, we establish fundamental solutions. Finally, we give an application of the above results to the determination of decompositions of Dirac type for bi-fractional-order equations and write a formula for the moments for the fractional vibration of a beam equation. This type of decomposition allows us to speak of internal degrees of freedom in the vibration of a beam equation.

  3. Non-perturbative scale evolution of four-fermion operators in two-flavour QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdoiza, Gregorio

    2006-12-01

    We apply finite-size recursion techniques based on the Schrödinger functional formalism to de- termine the renormalization group running of four-fermion operators which appear in the S = 2 effective weak Hamiltonian of the Standard Model. Our calculations are done using O(a) im- proved Wilson fermions with Nf = 2 dynamical flavours. Preliminary results are presented for the four-fermion operator which determines the BK -parameter in tmQCD.

  4. Equation of state for hot quark-gluon plasma transitions to hadrons with full QCD potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami-Sabzevari, Bijan

    2002-05-01

    A practical method based on Mayer's cluster expansion to calculate critical values for a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase transition to hadrons is represented. It can be applied to a high-temperature QGP for clustering of quarks to mesons and baryons. The potential used is the Cornell potential, i.e., a potential containing both confining and gluon exchange terms. Debye screening effects are included. An equation of state (EOS) for hadron production is found by analytical methods, which is valid near the critical point. The example of the formation of J/ψ and Υ is recalculated. It is shown that in the range of temperatures available by today's accelerators, the latter particles are suppressed. This is further confirmation for heavy quarkonia suppression and, hence, for a signature of a QGP. The EOS presented here also shows that in future colliders there will be no heavy quarkonia production by the mechanism of phase transition. Hence, if there will be heavy quarkonia production, it must be based on some other mechanisms, perhaps on the basis of some recently suggested possibilities.

  5. Langevin Equation for the Morphological Evolution of Strained Epitaxial Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vvedensky, Dimitri; Haselwandter, Christoph

    2006-03-01

    A stochastic partial differential equation for the morphological evolution of strained epitaxial films is derived from an atomistic master equation. The transition rules in this master equation are based on previous kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of a model that incorporates the effects of strain through local environment-dependent energy barriers to adatom detachment from step edges. The morphological consequences of these rules are seen in the transition from layer-by-layer growth to the appearance of three-dimensional islands with increasing strain. The regularization of the exact Langevin description of these rules yields a continuum equation whose lowest-order terms provide a coarse-grained theory of this model. The coefficients in this equation are expressed in terms of the parameters of the original lattice model, so a direct comparison between the morphologies produced by KMC simulations and this Langevin equation are meaningful. Comparisons with previous approaches are made to provide an atomistic interpretation of a similar equation derived by Golovin et al. based on classical elasticity.

  6. Inverse Problem of Variational Calculus for Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sk. Golam; Talukdar, B.; Das, U.

    2007-06-01

    We couple a nonlinear evolution equation with an associated one and derive the action principle. This allows us to write the Lagrangian density of the system in terms of the original field variables rather than Casimir potentials. We find that the corresponding Hamiltonian density provides a natural basis to recast the pair of equations in the canonical form. Amongst the case studies presented the KdV and modified KdV pairs exhibit bi-Hamiltonian structure and allow one to realize the associated fields in physical terms.

  7. Second-order neutral impulsive stochastic evolution equations with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yong; Sun, Dandan

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we study the second-order neutral stochastic evolution equations with impulsive effect and delay (SNSEEIDs). We establish the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions to SNSEEIDs under non-Lipschitz condition with Lipschitz condition being considered as a special case by the successive approximation. Furthermore, we give the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial data by means of corollary of the Bihari inequality. An application to the stochastic nonlinear wave equation with impulsive effect and delay is given to illustrate the theory.

  8. Numerical solution of Q evolution equations for fragmentation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, M.; Kumano, S.

    2012-04-01

    Semi-inclusive hadron-production processes are becoming important in high-energy hadron reactions. They are used for investigating properties of quark-hadron matters in heavy-ion collisions, for finding the origin of nucleon spin in polarized lepton-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon reactions, and possibly for finding exotic hadrons. In describing the hadron-production cross sections in high-energy reactions, fragmentation functions are essential quantities. A fragmentation function indicates the probability of producing a hadron from a parton in the leading order of the running coupling constant αs. Its Q dependence is described by the standard DGLAP (Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi) evolution equations, which are often used in theoretical and experimental analyses of the fragmentation functions and in calculating semi-inclusive cross sections. The DGLAP equations are complicated integro-differential equations, which cannot be solved in an analytical method. In this work, a simple method is employed for solving the evolution equations by using Gauss-Legendre quadrature for evaluating integrals, and a useful code is provided for calculating the Q evolution of the fragmentation functions in the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) of αs. The renormalization scheme is MSbar in the NLO evolution. Our evolution code is explained for using it in one's studies on the fragmentation functions. Catalogue identifier: AELJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 191 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran77 Computer: Tested on an HP DL360G5-DC-X5160 Operating system: Linux 2.6.9-42.ELsmp RAM: 130 M

  9. Solutions of evolution equations associated to infinite-dimensional Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerdiane, Habib

    2016-05-01

    We study an evolution equation associated with the integer power of the Gross Laplacian ΔGp and a potential function V on an infinite-dimensional space. The initial condition is a generalized function. The main technique we use is the representation of the Gross Laplacian as a convolution operator. This representation enables us to apply the convolution calculus on a suitable distribution space to obtain the explicit solution of the perturbed evolution equation. Our results generalize those previously obtained by Hochberg [K. J. Hochberg, Ann. Probab. 6 (1978) 433.] in the one-dimensional case with V=0, as well as by Barhoumi-Kuo-Ouerdiane for the case p=1 (See Ref. [A. Barhoumi, H. H. Kuo and H. Ouerdiane, Soochow J. Math. 32 (2006) 113.]).

  10. On an evolution equation in a cell motility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuhara, Matthew S.; Berlyand, Leonid; Rybalko, Volodymyr; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the evolution equation of a curve obtained as the sharp interface limit of a non-linear system of two reaction-diffusion PDEs. This system was introduced as a phase-field model of (crawling) motion of eukaryotic cells on a substrate. The key issue is the evolution of the cell membrane (interface curve) which involves shape change and net motion. This issue can be addressed both qualitatively and quantitatively by studying the evolution equation of the sharp interface limit for this system. However, this equation is non-linear and non-local and existence of solutions presents a significant analytical challenge. We establish existence of solutions for a wide class of initial data in the so-called subcritical regime. Existence is proved in a two step procedure. First, for smooth (H2) initial data we use a regularization technique. Second, we consider non-smooth initial data that are more relevant from the application point of view. Here, uniform estimates on the time when solutions exist rely on a maximum principle type argument. We also explore the long time behavior of the model using both analytical and numerical tools. We prove the nonexistence of traveling wave solutions with nonzero velocity. Numerical experiments show that presence of non-linearity and asymmetry of the initial curve results in a net motion which distinguishes it from classical volume preserving curvature motion. This is done by developing an algorithm for efficient numerical resolution of the non-local term in the evolution equation.

  11. Evolution equations for connected and disconnected sea parton distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    2017-08-01

    It has been revealed from the path-integral formulation of the hadronic tensor that there are connected sea and disconnected sea partons. The former is responsible for the Gottfried sum rule violation primarily and evolves the same way as the valence. Therefore, the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations can be extended to accommodate them separately. We discuss its consequences and implications vis-á-vis lattice calculations.

  12. Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bornyakov, V.G.

    2005-06-01

    Possibilities that are provided by a lattice regularization of QCD for studying nonperturbative properties of QCD are discussed. A review of some recent results obtained from computer calculations in lattice QCD is given. In particular, the results for the QCD vacuum structure, the hadron mass spectrum, and the strong coupling constant are considered.

  13. Evolution equation for non-linear cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Brustein, Ram; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@cern.ch

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel approach, based entirely on the gravitational potential, for studying the evolution of non-linear cosmological matter perturbations. Starting from the perturbed Einstein equations, we integrate out the non-relativistic degrees of freedom of the cosmic fluid and obtain a single closed equation for the gravitational potential. We then verify the validity of the new equation by comparing its approximate solutions to known results in the theory of non-linear cosmological perturbations. First, we show explicitly that the perturbative solution of our equation matches the standard perturbative solutions. Next, using the mean field approximation to the equation, we show that its solution reproduces in a simple way the exponential suppression of the non-linear propagator on small scales due to the velocity dispersion. Our approach can therefore reproduce the main features of the renormalized perturbation theory and (time)-renormalization group approaches to the study of non-linear cosmological perturbations, with some possibly important differences. We conclude by a preliminary discussion of the nature of the full solutions of the equation and their significance.

  14. Wei-Norman equations for a unitary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charzyński, Szymon; Kuś, Marek

    2013-07-01

    The Wei-Norman technique allows one to express the solution of a system of linear non-autonomous differential equations in terms of product of exponentials with time-dependent exponents being solutions of a system of nonlinear differential equations. We show that in the unitary case, i.e. when the solution of the linear system is given by a unitary evolution operator, the nonlinear system, by an appropriate choice of ordering, can be reduced to a hierarchy of matrix Riccati equations. To this end, we consider a general linear non-autonomous dynamical system on the special linear group SL(N, {C}). The unitary case, of particular significance for quantum optimal control problems, is then obtained by restriction to anti-Hermitian generators. We also point to the connections of the obtained results with the theory of the so-called Lie systems.

  15. Final Technical Report for Year 5 Early Career Research Project "Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter"

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Denes

    2016-05-25

    The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the fifth (last) year of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Unlike the first four years of the project, the last year was not funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The ECRP advanced two main areas: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time); and ii) application of relativistic hydrodynamics, via development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles. In Year 5 we finalized thermalization studies with radiative gg ↔ ggg transport (Sec. 1.1.1) and used nonlinear covariant transport to assess the accuracy of fluid-to-particle conversion models (Sec. 1.1.2), calculated observables with self-consistent fluid-to-particle conversion from realistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution (Secs. 1.2.1 and 1.2.2), extended the covariant energy loss formulation to heavy quarks (Sec. 1.4.1) and studied energy loss in small systems (Sec. 1.4.2), and also investigated how much of the elliptic flow could have non-hydrodynamic origin (Sec 1.3). Years 1-4 of the ECRP were ARRA-funded and, therefore, they have their own report document ’Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter”’ (same award number DE-SC0004035). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Top- ical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).

  16. Observables, Evolution Equation, and Stationary States Equation in the Joint Probability Representation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    Symplectic and optical joint probability representations of quantum mechanics are considered, in which the functions describing the states are the probability distributions with all random arguments (except the argument of time). The general formalism of quantizers and dequantizers determining the star product quantization scheme in these representations is given. Taking the Gaussian functions as the distributions of the tomographic parameters the correspondence rules for most interesting physical operators are found and the expressions of the dual symbols of operators in the form of singular and regular generalized functions are derived. Evolution equations and stationary states equations for symplectic and optical joint probability distributions are obtained.

  17. Observables, Evolution Equation, and Stationary States Equation in the Joint Probability Representation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    Symplectic and optical joint probability representations of quantum mechanics are considered, in which the functions describing the states are the probability distributions with all random arguments (except the argument of time). The general formalism of quantizers and dequantizers determining the star product quantization scheme in these representations is given. Taking the Gaussian functions as the distributions of the tomographic parameters the correspondence rules for most interesting physical operators are found and the expressions of the dual symbols of operators in the form of singular and regular generalized functions are derived. Evolution equations and stationary states equations for symplectic and optical joint probability distributions are obtained.

  18. Parameterization and Monte Carlo solutions to PDF evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, Nicolae; Schüler, Lennart; Attinger, Sabine; Knabner, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of the chemical species concentrations transported in random environments is governed by unclosed evolution equations. The PDF is transported in the physical space by drift and diffusion processes described by coefficients derived by standard upscaling procedures. Its transport in the concentration space is described by a drift determined by reaction rates, in a closed form, as well as a term accounting for the sub-grid mixing process due to molecular diffusion and local scale hydrodynamic dispersion. Sub-grid mixing processes are usually described by models of the conditionally averaged diffusion flux or models of the conditional dissipation rate. We show that in certain situations mixing terms can also be derived, in the form of an Itô process, from simulated or measured concentration time series. Monte Carlo solutions to PDF evolution equations are usually constructed with systems of computational particles, which are well suited for highly dimensional advection-dominated problems. Such solutions require the fulfillment of specific consistency conditions relating the statistics of the random concentration field, function of both space and time, to that of the time random function describing an Itô process in physical and concentration spaces which governs the evolution of the system of particles. We show that the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for the concentration-position PDF of the Itô process coincides with the solution of the PDF equation only for constant density flows in spatially statistically homogeneous systems. We also find that the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is still equivalent to the solution of the PDF equation weighted by the variable density or by other conserved scalars. We illustrate the parameterization of the sub-grid mixing by time series and the Monte Carlo solution for a problem of contaminant transport in groundwater. The evolution of the system of computational particles whose

  19. The gluon density of the proton at low x from a QCD analysis of F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Bán, J.; Ban, Y.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Barschke, R.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bispham, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burton, M.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Droutskoi, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herynek, I.; Hess, M. F.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Huet, Ph.; Hütte, M.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J. H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lebedev, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Link, J.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lomas, J.; Lopez, G. C.; Lubimov, V.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Maraček, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, T.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Migliori, A.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, G.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oakden, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Rick, H.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, H. E.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Rylko, R.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Schiek, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Sefkow, F.; Seidel, M.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Spiekermann, J.; Spielman, S.; Spitzer, H.; Starosta, R.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stiewe, J.; Stösslein, U.; Stolze, K.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Uelkes, P.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wagener, A.; Wagener, M.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wittek, C.; Wright, A. E.; Wünsch, E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Zarbock, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.; Zuber, K.; H1 Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    We present a QCD analysis of the proton structure function F2 measured by the H1 experiment at HERA, combined with data from previous fixed target experiments. The gluon density is extracted from the scaling violations of F2 in the range 2 · 10 -4 < x < 3 · 10 -2 and compared with an approximate solution of the QCD evolution equations. The gluon density is found to rise steeply with decreasing x.

  20. The phase structure of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christian; Sharma, Sayantan

    2017-10-01

    We review recent results on the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and bulk QCD thermodynamics. In particular, we discuss how universal critical scaling related to spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry manifests itself in recent lattice QCD simulations and how the knowledge on non-universal scaling parameters can be utilized in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram. We also show how various (generalized) susceptibilities can be employed to characterize properties of QCD matter at low and high temperatures, related to deconfining aspects of the QCD transition. Finally, we highlight the recent efforts towards understanding how lattice QCD calculation can provide input for our understanding of the matter created in heavy ion collisions and in particular on the freeze-out conditions met in the hydrodynamic evolution of this matter.

  1. Decoupling of the DGLAP evolution equations at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) at low- x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroun, G. R.; Rezaei, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present a set of formulas to extract two second-order independent differential equations for the gluon and singlet distribution functions. Our results extend from the LO up to NNLO DGLAP evolution equations with respect to the hard-Pomeron behavior at low- x. In this approach, both singlet quarks and gluons have the same high-energy behavior at low- x. We solve the independent DGLAP evolution equations for the functions F2s(x,Q2) and G( x, Q 2) as a function of their initial parameterization at the starting scale Q02. The results not only give striking support to the hard-Pomeron description of the low- x behavior, but give a rather clean test of perturbative QCD showing an increase of the gluon distribution and singlet structure functions as x decreases. We compared our numerical results with the published BDM (Block et al. Phys. Rev. D 77:094003 (2008)) gluon and singlet distributions, starting from their initial values at Q02=1 GeV2.

  2. On stochastic evolution equations for chaos and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hazime

    2005-06-01

    The chaotic orbits of dynamical systems have positive Liapunov exponents, and become stochastic and random on long timescales due to the orbital instability, leading to various remarkable phenomena, such as the loss of memory with respect to the initial states, the dissipation of the kinetic energy into random fluctuations, turbulent transport phenomena (e.g., turbulent viscosity, turbulent thermal diffusivity). In order to obtain a statistical-mechanical approach to these phenomena, we have formulated the randomization of chaotic orbits by deriving a non-Markovian stochastic evolution equation in terms of a nonlinear fluctuating force and a memory function. In the following, we outline its derivation and its application to the Boussinesq equations of turbulent Bénard convection. Then we find that turbulence produces an interference between the velocity flux and the heat flux which is similar to the interference between the electric current and the heat flux in the thermoelectric phenomena of metals.

  3. Evolution equation for the B-meson distribution amplitude in the heavy-quark effective theory in coordinate space

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    The B-meson distribution amplitude (DA) is defined as the matrix element of a quark-antiquark bilocal light-cone operator in the heavy-quark effective theory, corresponding to a long-distance component in the factorization formula for exclusive B-meson decays. The evolution equation for the B-meson DA is governed by the cusp anomalous dimension as well as the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi-type anomalous dimension, and these anomalous dimensions give the ''quasilocal'' kernel in the coordinate-space representation. We show that this evolution equation can be solved analytically in the coordinate space, accomplishing the relevant Sudakov resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The quasilocal nature leads to a quite simple form of our solution which determines the B-meson DA with a quark-antiquark light-cone separation t in terms of the DA at a lower renormalization scale {mu} with smaller interquark separations zt (z{<=}1). This formula allows us to present rigorous calculation of the B-meson DA at the factorization scale {approx}{radical}(m{sub b{Lambda}QCD}) for t less than {approx}1 GeV{sup -1}, using the recently obtained operator product expansion of the DA as the input at {mu}{approx}1 GeV. We also derive the master formula, which reexpresses the integrals of the DA at {mu}{approx}{radical}(m{sub b{Lambda}QCD}) for the factorization formula by the compact integrals of the DA at {mu}{approx}1 GeV.

  4. Stochastic Evolution Equations Driven by Nuclear Space Valued Martingales.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    11TILEI- d cutic eolufctin equations dIriven by nucle ar space valued mart in ial s 12. PER50NAL AUTHOR(S) Kallianpiir, G. and Perez-Ahreu, V. 13a. TYPE...space D where the driving force is a ’-valued martingale. We do this in Section 2 where we obtain an "evolution" or "mild solution" in the form of a...2 nuclear space) such that the restriction A(t) of A(t) on D is a continuous linear operator on (. Thus one is led to the question of

  5. Evolution equation for soft physics at high energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogueira, P.; Dias de Deus, J.

    2010-07-01

    Based on the nonlinear logistic equation we study, in a qualitative and semi-quantitative way, the evolution with energy and saturation of the elastic differential cross-section in pp(\\bar{p}p) collisions at high energy. Geometrical scaling occurs at the black disc limit, and scaling develops first for small values of the scaling variable |t|σtot.. Our prediction for dσ/dt at LHC, with two zeros and a minimum at large |t| differs, as far as we know, from all existing ones.

  6. Structure scalars and evolution equations in f( G) cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, H. Ismat

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of self-gravitating fluid using structure scalars for spherical geometry in the context of f( G) cosmology. We construct structure scalars through orthogonal splitting of the Riemann tensor and deduce a complete set of equations governing the evolution of dissipative anisotropic fluid in terms of these scalars. We explore different causes of density inhomogeneity which turns out to be a necessary condition for viable models. It is explicitly shown that anisotropic inhomogeneous static spherically symmetric solutions can be expressed in terms of these scalar functions.

  7. High energy asymptotics of scattering processes in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enberg, R.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Munier, S.

    2005-10-01

    High energy scattering in the QCD parton model was recently shown to be a reaction-diffusion process and, thus, to lie in the universality class of the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. We recall that the latter appears naturally in the context of the parton model. We provide a thorough numerical analysis of the mean-field approximation, given in QCD by the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. In the framework of a simple stochastic toy model that captures the relevant features of QCD, we discuss and illustrate the universal properties of such stochastic models. We investigate, in particular, the validity of the mean-field approximation and how it is broken by fluctuations. We find that the mean-field approximation is a good approximation in the initial stages of the evolution in rapidity.

  8. Multivalued perturbations of subdifferential type evolution equations in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravvaritis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S.

    In this paper we study the multivalued evolution equation - ẋ(t) ɛ∂ϑ(x(t)) + F(t, x(t)), x(0) = x 0, where ϑ: X → R¯ is a proper, convex, lower semicontinuous (l.s.c.) function, F(·, ·) is a multivalued perturbation, and X is an infinite dimensional, separable Hilbert space. We have an existence result for F(·, ·) being nonconvex valued, and another for F(·, ·) being convex valued but not closed valued. When ϑ = δK = indicator function of a compact, convex set K, we obtain some extensions of earlier results by Moreau and Henry. Then using the Kuratowski-Mosco convergence of sets and the τ-convergence of functions, we prove a well posedness result for the evolution inclusion we are studying. Also we consider a random version of it and prove the existence of a random solution. Finally we present applications to problems in partial differential equations.

  9. Soliton solutions to a few fractional nonlinear evolution equations in shallow water wave dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzazadeh, Mohammad; Ekici, Mehmet; Sonmezoglu, Abdullah; Ortakaya, Sami; Eslami, Mostafa; Biswas, Anjan

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies a few nonlinear evolution equations that appear with fractional temporal evolution and fractional spatial derivatives. These are Benjamin-Bona-Mahoney equation, dispersive long wave equation and Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation. The extended Jacobi's elliptic function expansion method is implemented to obtain soliton and other periodic singular solutions to these equations. In the limiting case, when the modulus of ellipticity approaches zero or unity, these doubly periodic functions approach solitary waves or shock waves or periodic singular solutions emerge.

  10. Multiple scales analysis and travelling wave solutions for KdV type nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, Burcu; Ozer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution equations are the mathematical models of problems that arise in many field of science. These equations has become an important field of study in applied mathematics in recent years. We apply exact solution methods and multiple scale method which is known as a perturbation method to nonlinear evolution equations. Using exact solution methods we get travelling wave solutions expressed by hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and rational functions. Also we derive Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations from Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type nonlinear evolution equations and we get approximate solutions for KdV type equations using multiple scale method. The proposed methods are direct and effective and can be used for many nonlinear evolution equations. It is shown that these methods provide a powerful mathematical tool to solve nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  11. LATTICE QCD THERMODYNAMICS WITH WILSON QUARKS.

    SciTech Connect

    EJIRI,S.

    2007-11-20

    We review studies of QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with dynamical Wilson quarks. After explaining the basic properties of QCD with Wilson quarks at finite temperature including the phase structure and the scaling properties around the chiral phase transition, we discuss the critical temperature, the equation of state and heavy-quark free energies.

  12. Light-Front Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    -front QCD Hamiltonian 'Light-Front Holography'. Light-Front Holography is in fact one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The Hamiltonian equation of motion in the light-front (LF) is frame independent and has a structure similar to eigenmode equations in AdS space. This makes a direct connection of QCD with AdS/CFT methods possible. Remarkably, the AdS equations correspond to the kinetic energy terms of the partons inside a hadron, whereas the interaction terms build confinement and correspond to the truncation of AdS space in an effective dual gravity approximation. One can also study the gauge/gravity duality starting from the bound-state structure of hadrons in QCD quantized in the light-front. The LF Lorentz-invariant Hamiltonian equation for the relativistic bound-state system is P{sub {mu}}P{sup {mu}}|{psi}(P)> = (P{sup +}P{sup -} - P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2})|{psi}(P)> = M{sup 2}|{psi}(P)>, P{sup {+-}} = P{sup 0} {+-} P{sup 3}, where the LF time evolution operator P{sup -} is determined canonically from the QCD Lagrangian. To a first semiclassical approximation, where quantum loops and quark masses are not included, this leads to a LF Hamiltonian equation which describes the bound-state dynamics of light hadrons in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the partons within the hadron at equal light-front time {tau} = x{sup 0} + x{sup 3}. This allows us to identify the holographic variable z in AdS space with an impact variable {zeta}. The resulting Lorentz-invariant Schroedinger equation for general spin incorporates color confinement and is systematically improvable. Light-front holographic methods were originally introduced by matching the electromagnetic current matrix elements in AdS space with the corresponding expression using LF theory in physical space time. It was also shown that one obtains identical holographic mapping using the matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor by perturbing

  13. Loss of Energy Concentration in Nonlinear Evolution Beam Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrione, Maurizio; Gazzola, Filippo

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by the oscillations that were seen at the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, we introduce the notion of solutions with a prevailing mode for the nonlinear evolution beam equation u_{tt} + u_{xxxx} + f(u)= g(x, t) in bounded space-time intervals. We give a new definition of instability for these particular solutions, based on the loss of energy concentration on their prevailing mode. We distinguish between two different forms of energy transfer, one physiological (unavoidable and depending on the nonlinearity) and one due to the insurgence of instability. We then prove a theoretical result allowing to reduce the study of this kind of infinite-dimensional stability to that of a finite-dimensional approximation. With this background, we study the occurrence of instability for three different kinds of nonlinearities f and for some forcing terms g, highlighting some of their structural properties and performing some numerical simulations.

  14. Rogue waves of a (3 + 1) -dimensional nonlinear evolution equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu-bin; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    General high-order rogue waves of a (3 + 1) -dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equation ((3+1)-d NEE) are obtained by the Hirota bilinear method, which are given in terms of determinants, whose matrix elements possess plain algebraic expressions. It is shown that the simplest (fundamental) rogue waves are line rogue waves which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. Two subclass of nonfundamental rogue waves are analyzed in details. By proper means of the regulations of free parameters, the dynamics of multi-rogue waves and high-order rogue waves have been illustrated in (x,t) plane and (y,z) plane by three dimensional figures.

  15. Central equation of state in spherical characteristic evolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, W.; Castillo, L.; Barrios, E.

    2009-10-15

    We study the evolution of a perfect-fluid sphere coupled to a scalar radiation field. By ensuring a Ricci invariant regularity as a conformally flat spacetime at the central world line we find that the fluid coupled to the scalar field satisfies the equation of state {rho}{sub c}+3p{sub c}=const at the center of the sphere, where the energy {rho}{sub c} density and the pressure p{sub c} do not necessarily contain the scalar field contribution. The fluid can be interpreted as anisotropic and radiant because of the scalar field, but it becomes perfect and nonradiative at the center of the sphere. These results are currently being considered to build up a numerical relativistic hydrodynamic solver.

  16. Entropy production and the geometry of dissipative evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reina, Celia; Zimmer, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Purely dissipative evolution equations are often cast as gradient flow structures, z ˙=K (z ) D S (z ) , where the variable z of interest evolves towards the maximum of a functional S according to a metric defined by an operator K . While the functional often follows immediately from physical considerations (e.g., the thermodynamic entropy), the operator K and the associated geometry does not necessarily do so (e.g., Wasserstein geometry for diffusion). In this paper, we present a variational statement in the sense of maximum entropy production that directly delivers a relationship between the operator K and the constraints of the system. In particular, the Wasserstein metric naturally arises here from the conservation of mass or energy, and depends on the Onsager resistivity tensor, which, itself, may be understood as another metric, as in the steepest entropy ascent formalism. This variational principle is exemplified here for the simultaneous evolution of conserved and nonconserved quantities in open systems. It thus extends the classical Onsager flux-force relationships and the associated variational statement to variables that do not have a flux associated to them. We further show that the metric structure K is intimately linked to the celebrated Freidlin-Wentzell theory of stochastically perturbed gradient flows, and that the proposed variational principle encloses an infinite-dimensional fluctuation-dissipation statement.

  17. A note on improved F-expansion method combined with Riccati equation applied to nonlinear evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M. Ali; Mastroberardino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an analytical method, namely the improved F-expansion method combined with the Riccati equation, for finding exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The present method is capable of calculating all branches of solutions simultaneously, even if multiple solutions are very close and thus difficult to distinguish with numerical techniques. To verify the computational efficiency, we consider the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. Our results reveal that the method is a very effective and straightforward way of formulating the exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear wave equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering. PMID:26064530

  18. Extraction of quark transversity distribution and Collins fragmentation functions with QCD evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei; Sun, Peng; Yuan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We study the transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) evolution of the Collins azimuthal asymmetries in e+e- annihilations and semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering processes. All the relevant coefficients are calculated up to the next-to-leading-logarithmic-order accuracy. By applying the TMD evolution at the approximate next-to-leading-logarithmic order in the Collins-Soper-Sterman formalism, we extract transversity distributions for u and d quarks and Collins fragmentation functions from current experimental data by a global analysis of the Collins asymmetries in back-to-back dihadron productions in e+e- annihilations measured by BELLE and BABAR collaborations and semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering data from HERMES, COMPASS, and JLab HALL A experiments. The impact of the evolution effects and the relevant theoretical uncertainties are discussed. We further discuss the TMD interpretation for our results and illustrate the unpolarized quark distribution, transversity distribution, unpolarized quark fragmentation, and Collins fragmentation functions depending on the transverse momentum and the hard momentum scale. We make detailed predictions for future experiments and discuss their impact.

  19. Extraction of quark transversity distribution and Collins fragmentation functions with QCD evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei; Sun, Peng; Yuan, Feng

    2016-01-13

    In this paper, we study the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution of the Collins azimuthal asymmetries in e+e- annihilations and semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes. All the relevant coefficients are calculated up to the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order accuracy. By applying the TMD evolution at the approximate NLL order in the Collins- Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism, we extract transversity distributions for u and d quarks and Collins fragmentation functions from current experimental data by a global analysis of the Collins asymmetries in back-to-back di-hadron productions in e+e- annihilations measured by BELLE and BABAR Collaborations and SIDIS data from HERMES, COMPASS, and JLab HALL A experiments. The impact of the evolution effects and the relevant theoretical uncertainties are discussed. We further discuss the TMD interpretation for our results, and illustrate the unpolarized quark distribution, transversity distribution, unpolarized quark fragmentation and Collins fragmentation functions depending on the transverse momentum and the hard momentum scale. Finally, we give predictions and discuss impact of future experiments.

  20. Extraction of quark transversity distribution and Collins fragmentation functions with QCD evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei; Sun, Peng; ...

    2016-01-13

    In this paper, we study the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution of the Collins azimuthal asymmetries in e+e- annihilations and semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes. All the relevant coefficients are calculated up to the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order accuracy. By applying the TMD evolution at the approximate NLL order in the Collins- Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism, we extract transversity distributions for u and d quarks and Collins fragmentation functions from current experimental data by a global analysis of the Collins asymmetries in back-to-back di-hadron productions in e+e- annihilations measured by BELLE and BABAR Collaborations and SIDIS datamore » from HERMES, COMPASS, and JLab HALL A experiments. The impact of the evolution effects and the relevant theoretical uncertainties are discussed. We further discuss the TMD interpretation for our results, and illustrate the unpolarized quark distribution, transversity distribution, unpolarized quark fragmentation and Collins fragmentation functions depending on the transverse momentum and the hard momentum scale. Finally, we give predictions and discuss impact of future experiments.« less

  1. The QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    dynamics, and it gives a remarkable connection between the perturbative QCD scale Λ and hadron masses. One can also identify a specific scale Q0 which demarcates the division between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. We also review other important methods for computing the QCD coupling, including lattice QCD, the Schwinger-Dyson equations and the Gribov-Zwanziger analysis. After describing these approaches and enumerating their conflicting predictions, we discuss the origin of these discrepancies and how to remedy them. Our aim is not only to review the advances in this difficult area, but also to suggest what could be an optimal definition of αs(Q2) in order to bring better unity to the subject.

  2. QCD evolution of (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs and the Higgs q T -distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Miguel G.; Kasemets, Tomas; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    We provide the proper definition of all the leading-twist (un)polarized gluon transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDPDFs), by considering the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution in hadron-hadron collisions and deriving the factorization theorem in terms of them. We show that the evolution of all the (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs is driven by a universal evolution kernel, which can be resummed up to next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy. Considering the proper definition of gluon TMDPDFs, we perform an explicit next-to-leading-order calculation of the unpolarized ( f {1/ g }), linearly polarized ( h {1/⊥ g }) and helicity ( g {1/L g }) gluon TMDPDFs, and show that, as expected, they are free from rapidity divergences. As a byproduct, we obtain the Wilson coefficients of the refactorization of these TMDPDFs at large transverse momentum. In particular, the coefficient of g {1/L g }, which has never been calculated before, constitutes a new and necessary ingredient for a reliable phenomenological extraction of this quantity, for instance at RHIC or the future AFTER@LHC or Electron-Ion Collider. The coefficients of f {1/ g } and h {1/⊥ g } have never been calculated in the present formalism, although they could be obtained by carefully collecting and recasting previous results in the new TMD formalism. We apply these results to analyze the contribution of linearly polarized gluons at different scales, relevant, for instance, for the inclusive production of the Higgs boson and the C-even pseudoscalar bottomonium state η b . Applying our resummation scheme we finally provide predictions for the Higgs boson q T -distribution at the LHC.

  3. Renormalization of the unitary evolution equation for coined quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan; Portugal, Renato

    2017-03-01

    We consider discrete-time evolution equations in which the stochastic operator of a classical random walk is replaced by a unitary operator. Such a problem has gained much attention as a framework for coined quantum walks that are essential for attaining the Grover limit for quantum search algorithms in physically realizable, low-dimensional geometries. In particular, we analyze the exact real-space renormalization group (RG) procedure recently introduced to study the scaling of quantum walks on fractal networks. While this procedure, when implemented numerically, was able to provide some deep insights into the relation between classical and quantum walks, its analytic basis has remained obscure. Our discussion here is laying the groundwork for a rigorous implementation of the RG for this important class of transport and algorithmic problems, although some instances remain unresolved. Specifically, we find that the RG fixed-point analysis of the classical walk, which typically focuses on the dominant Jacobian eigenvalue {λ1} , with walk dimension dw\\text{RW}={{log}2}{λ1} , needs to be extended to include the subdominant eigenvalue {λ2} , such that the dimension of the quantum walk obtains dw\\text{QW}={{log}2}\\sqrt{{λ1}{λ2}} . With that extension, we obtain analytically previously conjectured results for dw\\text{QW} of Grover walks on all but one of the fractal networks that have been considered.

  4. Hadronic laws from QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, R. T.

    1992-06-01

    A review is given of progress in deriving the effective action for hadronic physics, S[π, ϱ, ω,.., overlineN, N,..] , from the fundamental defining action of QCD, S[ overlineq, q, A μa] . This is a problem in quantum field theory and the most success so far has been achieved using functional integral calculus (FIC) techniques. This formulates the problem as an exercise in changing the variables of integration in the functional integrals, from those of the quark and gluon fields to those of the (bare) meson and baryon fields. The appropriate variables are determined by the dynamics of QCD, and the final hadronic variables (essentially the 'normal modes' of QCD) are local fields describing the 'centre-of-mass' motion of extended bound states of quarks. The quarks are extensively dressed by the gluons, and the detailed aspects of the hidden chiral symmetry emerge naturally from the formalism. Particular attention is given to covariant integral equations which determine bare nucleon structure (i.e. in the quenched approximation). These equations, which arise from the closed double-helix diagrams of the FIC analysis, describe the baryons in terms of quark-diquark structure, in the form of Faddeev equations. This hadronisation of QCD also generates the dressing of these baryons by the pions, and the non-local πNN coupling.

  5. On numerical solutions to the QCD ’t Hooft equation in the limit of large quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Zubov, Roman; Prokhvatilov, Evgeni

    2016-01-22

    First we give a short informal introduction to the theory behind the ’t Hooft equation. Then we consider numerical solutions to this equation in the limit of large fermion masses. It turns out that the spectrum of eigenvalues coincides with that of the Airy differential equation. Moreover when we take the Fourier transform of eigenfunctions, they look like the corresponding Airy functions with appropriate symmetry. It is known that these functions correspond to solutions of a one dimensional Schrodinger equation for a particle in a triangular potential well. So we find the analogy between this problem and the ’t Hooft equation. We also present a simple intuition behind these results.

  6. Updates of the nuclear equation of state for core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars: effects of 3-body forces, QCD, and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, G. J.; Meixner, M.; Olson, J. P.; Suh, I.-S.; Kajino, T.; Maruyama, T.; Hidaka, J.; Ryu, C.-Y.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Lan, N. Q.

    2013-07-01

    We summarize several new developments in the nuclear equation of state for supernova simulations and neutron stars. We discuss an updated and improved Notre-Dame-Livermore Equation of State (NDL EoS) for use in supernovae simulations. This Eos contains many updates. Among them are the effects of 3- body nuclear forces at high densities and the possible transition to a QCD chiral and/or super-conducting color phase at densities. We also consider the neutron star equation of state and neutrino transport in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We study a new quantum hadrodynamic (QHD) equation of state for neutron stars (with and without hyperons) in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The parameters are constrained by deduced masses and radii. The calculated adiabatic index for these magnetized neutron stars exhibit rapid changes with density. This may provide a mechanism for star-quakes and flares in magnetars. We also investigate the strong magnetic field effects on the moments of inertia and spin down of neutron stars. The change of the moment of inertia associated with emitted magnetic flares is shown to match well with observed glitches in some magnetars. We also discuss a perturbative calculation of neutrino scattering and absorption in hot and dense hyperonic neutron-star matter in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The absorption cross-sections show a remarkable angular dependence in that the neutrino absorption strength is reduced in a direction parallel to the magnetic field and enhanced in the opposite direction. The pulsar kick velocities associated with this asymmetry comparable to observed pulsar velocities and may affect the early spin down rate of proto-neutron star magnetars with a toroidal field configuration.

  7. On a hierarchy of nonlinearly dispersive generalized Korteweg - de Vries evolution equations

    DOE PAGES

    Christov, Ivan C.

    2015-08-20

    We propose a hierarchy of nonlinearly dispersive generalized Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) evolution equations based on a modification of the Lagrangian density whose induced action functional the KdV equation extremizes. Two recent nonlinear evolution equations describing wave propagation in certain generalized continua with an inherent material length scale are members of the proposed hierarchy. Like KdV, the equations from the proposed hierarchy possess Hamiltonian structure. Unlike KdV, the solutions to these equations can be compact (i.e., they vanish outside of some open interval) and, in addition, peaked. Implicit solutions for these peaked, compact traveling waves (“peakompactons”) are presented.

  8. Equation of state in the pion condensation phase in asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Hiroki; Harada, Masayasu

    2014-12-01

    We study the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model by introducing a baryonic charge in the infrared boundary. We first show that, in the normal hadron phase, the predicted values of the symmetry energy and its slope parameter are comparable with the empirical values. We find that the phase transition from the normal phase to the pion condensation phase is delayed compared with the pure mesonic matter: the critical chemical potential is larger than the pion mass which is obtained for the pure mesonic matter. We also show that, in the pion condensation phase, the pion contribution to the isospin number density increases with the chemical potential, while the baryonic contribution is almost constant. Furthermore, the value of chiral condensation implies that the enhancement of the chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the asymmetric nuclear matter as in the pure mesonic matter. We also give a discussion on how to understand the delay in terms of the four-dimensional chiral Lagrangian including the rho and omega mesons based on the hidden local symmetry.

  9. Equations of State: Gateway to Planetary Origin and Evolution (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    Research over the past decades has shown that collisions between solid bodies govern many crucial phases of planetary origin and evolution. The accretion of the terrestrial planets was punctuated by planetary-scale impacts that generated deep magma oceans, ejected primary atmospheres and probably created the moons of Earth and Pluto. Several extrasolar planetary systems are filled with silicate vapor and condensed 'tektites', probably attesting to recent giant collisions. Even now, long after the solar system settled down from its violent birth, a large asteroid impact wiped out the dinosaurs, while other impacts may have played a role in the origin of life on Earth and perhaps Mars, while maintaining a steady exchange of small meteorites between the terrestrial planets and our moon. Most of these events are beyond the scale at which experiments are possible, so that our main research tool is computer simulation, constrained by the laws of physics and the behavior of materials during high-speed impact. Typical solar system impact velocities range from a few km/s in the outer solar system to 10s of km/s in the inner system. Extrasolar planetary systems expand that range to 100s of km/sec typical of the tightly clustered planetary systems now observed. Although computer codes themselves are currently reaching a high degree of sophistication, we still rely on experimental studies to determine the Equations of State (EoS) of materials critical for the correct simulation of impact processes. The recent expansion of the range of pressures available for study, from a few 100 GPa accessible with light gas guns up to a few TPa from current high energy accelerators now opens experimental access to the full velocity range of interest in our solar system. The results are a surprise: several groups in both the USA and Japan have found that silicates and even iron melt and vaporize much more easily in an impact than previously anticipated. The importance of these findings is

  10. Efficient Numerical Methods for Evolution Partial Differential Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    public lease; distribution mlim ed.-.... 13. ABSTRACT (Maxmum 200 woard Generalized Korteweg - de Vries equation (GKdV). This equation is written as...McKinney. On Optimal high-order in time approxiniations.for the Korteweg -de Vries equation ..To appear in Math. Comp.. 3. J.L. Bona, V.A. Dougalis...O.Karakashian and W. Mckinney, Conservative high-order schemes for the Generalized Korteweg -de Vries equation . In preparation. 4. G. D. Akrivis, V.A

  11. Phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnai, Akihiko; Mukherjee, Swagato; Yin, Yi

    2017-03-01

    In the proximity of the QCD critical point the bulk viscosity of quark-gluon matter is expected to be proportional to nearly the third power of the critical correlation length, and become significantly enhanced. This work is the first attempt to study the phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point. For this purpose, we implement the expected critical behavior of the bulk viscosity within a non-boost-invariant, longitudinally expanding 1 +1 dimensional causal relativistic hydrodynamical evolution at nonzero baryon density. We demonstrate that the critically enhanced bulk viscosity induces a substantial nonequilibrium pressure, effectively softening the equation of state, and leads to sizable effects in the flow velocity and single-particle distributions at the freeze-out. The observable effects that may arise due to the enhanced bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the QCD critical point can be used as complementary information to facilitate searches for the QCD critical point.

  12. Constraining supermassive black hole evolution through the continuity equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, Marco; Volonteri, Marta

    2017-03-01

    The population of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is split between those that are quiescent, such as those seen in local galaxies including the Milky Way, and those that are active, resulting in quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGN). Outside our neighborhood, all the information we have on SMBHs is derived from quasars and AGN, giving us a partial view. We study the evolution of the SMBH population, total and active, by the continuity equation, backwards in time from z = 0 to z = 4. Type-1 and type-2 AGN are differentiated in our model on the basis of their respective Eddington ratio distributions, chosen on the basis of observational estimates. The duty cycle is obtained by matching the luminosity function of quasars, and the average radiative efficiency is the only free parameter in the model. For higher radiative efficiencies (≳ 0.07), a large fraction of the SMBH population, most of them quiescent, must already be in place by z = 4. For lower radiative efficiencies ( 0.05), the duty cycle increases with the redshift and the SMBH population evolves dramatically from z = 4 onwards. The mass function of active SMBHs does not depend on the choice of the radiative efficiency or of the local SMBH mass function, but it is mainly determined by the quasar luminosity function once the Eddington ratio distribution is fixed. Only direct measurement of the total black-hole mass function at redshifts z ≳ 2 could break these degeneracies, offering important constraints on the average radiative efficiency. Focusing on type-1 AGN, for which observational estimates of the mass function and Eddington ratio distribution exist at various redshifts, models with lower radiative efficiencies better reproduce the high-mass end of the mass function at high z, but tend to over-predict it at low z, and vice-versa for models with higher radiative efficiencies.

  13. Generation of Nonlinear Evolution Equations by Reductions of the Self-Dual Yang—Mills Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Hon-Wah, Tam

    2014-02-01

    With the help of some reductions of the self-dual Yang Mills (briefly written as sdYM) equations, we introduce a Lax pair whose compatibility condition leads to a set of (2 + 1)-dimensional equations. Its first reduction gives rise to a generalized variable-coefficient Burgers equation with a forced term. Furthermore, the Burgers equation again reduces to a forced Burgers equation with constant coefficients, the standard Burgers equation, the heat equation, the Fisher equation, and the Huxley equation, respectively. The second reduction generates a few new (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear integrable systems, in particular, obtains a kind of (2 + 1)-dimensional integrable couplings of a new (2 + 1)-dimensional integrable nonlinear equation.

  14. Evolution of basic equations for nearshore wave field

    PubMed Central

    ISOBE, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic, overall view of theories for periodic waves of permanent form, such as Stokes and cnoidal waves, is described first with their validity ranges. To deal with random waves, a method for estimating directional spectra is given. Then, various wave equations are introduced according to the assumptions included in their derivations. The mild-slope equation is derived for combined refraction and diffraction of linear periodic waves. Various parabolic approximations and time-dependent forms are proposed to include randomness and nonlinearity of waves as well as to simplify numerical calculation. Boussinesq equations are the equations developed for calculating nonlinear wave transformations in shallow water. Nonlinear mild-slope equations are derived as a set of wave equations to predict transformation of nonlinear random waves in the nearshore region. Finally, wave equations are classified systematically for a clear theoretical understanding and appropriate selection for specific applications. PMID:23318680

  15. A bivariate Chebyshev spectral collocation quasilinearization method for nonlinear evolution parabolic equations.

    PubMed

    Motsa, S S; Magagula, V M; Sibanda, P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for solving higher order nonlinear evolution partial differential equations (NPDEs). The method combines quasilinearisation, the Chebyshev spectral collocation method, and bivariate Lagrange interpolation. In this paper, we use the method to solve several nonlinear evolution equations, such as the modified KdV-Burgers equation, highly nonlinear modified KdV equation, Fisher's equation, Burgers-Fisher equation, Burgers-Huxley equation, and the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation. The results are compared with known exact analytical solutions from literature to confirm accuracy, convergence, and effectiveness of the method. There is congruence between the numerical results and the exact solutions to a high order of accuracy. Tables were generated to present the order of accuracy of the method; convergence graphs to verify convergence of the method and error graphs are presented to show the excellent agreement between the results from this study and the known results from literature.

  16. A Bivariate Chebyshev Spectral Collocation Quasilinearization Method for Nonlinear Evolution Parabolic Equations

    PubMed Central

    Motsa, S. S.; Magagula, V. M.; Sibanda, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for solving higher order nonlinear evolution partial differential equations (NPDEs). The method combines quasilinearisation, the Chebyshev spectral collocation method, and bivariate Lagrange interpolation. In this paper, we use the method to solve several nonlinear evolution equations, such as the modified KdV-Burgers equation, highly nonlinear modified KdV equation, Fisher's equation, Burgers-Fisher equation, Burgers-Huxley equation, and the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation. The results are compared with known exact analytical solutions from literature to confirm accuracy, convergence, and effectiveness of the method. There is congruence between the numerical results and the exact solutions to a high order of accuracy. Tables were generated to present the order of accuracy of the method; convergence graphs to verify convergence of the method and error graphs are presented to show the excellent agreement between the results from this study and the known results from literature. PMID:25254252

  17. Exact Travelling Wave Solutions of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations by Auxiliary Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Melike; Akbulut, Arzu; Bekir, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    The auxiliary equation method presents wide applicability to handling nonlinear wave equations. In this article, we establish new exact travelling wave solutions of the nonlinear Zoomeron equation, coupled Higgs equation, and equal width wave equation. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions, and rational functions. It is shown that the proposed method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear wave equations in mathematical physics and engineering. Throughout the article, all calculations are made with the aid of the Maple packet program.

  18. Moments of solutions of evolution equations and suboptimal programmed controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrychev, D. A.

    2007-08-01

    Moments of solutions of non-linear differential equations subjected to random perturbations satisfy infinite systems of equations that do not contain finite closed subsystems. One of the methods for approximate solution of such infinite systems consists in replacing them by finite systems obtained from the original one as a result of equating to zero all the moments of sufficiently high order. It is shown that the moments of solutions of a wide class of ordinary differential equations, as well as of certain classes of partial differential equations, are approximated by solutions of those finite systems. The results obtained are used for constructing suboptimal programmed controls of dynamical systems with random parameters. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  19. Angular Structure of the In-Medium QCD Cascade.

    PubMed

    Blaizot, J-P; Mehtar-Tani, Y; Torres, M A C

    2015-06-05

    We study the angular broadening of a medium-induced QCD cascade. We derive the equation that governs the evolution of the average transverse momentum squared of the gluons in the cascade as a function of the medium length, and we solve this equation analytically. Two regimes are identified. For a medium of a not too large size, and for not too soft gluons, the transverse momentum grows with the size of the medium according to standard momentum broadening. The other regime, visible for a medium of a sufficiently large size and very soft gluons, is a regime dominated by multiple branchings: there, the average transverse momentum saturates to a value that is independent of the size of the medium. This structure of the in-medium QCD cascade is, at least qualitatively, compatible with the recent LHC data on dijet asymmetry.

  20. Bounded solutions of a second order evolution equation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, Hugo

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we study the following abstract second order differential equation with dissipation in a Hilbert space H: u″+cu'+dA u+kG(u)=P(t), u∈H, t∈R, where c, d and k are positive constants, G:H→H is a Lipschitzian function and P:R→H is a continuous and bounded function. A:D(A)⊂H→H is an unbounded linear operator which is self-adjoint, positive definite and has compact resolvent. Under these conditions we prove that for some values of d, c and k this system has a bounded solution which is exponentially asymptotically stable. Moreover; if P(t) is almost periodic, then this bounded solution is also almost periodic. These results are applied to a very well known second order system partial differential equations; such as the sine-Gordon equation, The suspension bridge equation proposed by Lazer and McKenna, etc.

  1. The QCD running coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    regime and its prediction for the analytic form of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$. The AdS/QCD light-front holographic analysis predicts the color confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and dynamics, and it gives a remarkable connection between the perturbative QCD scale $$\\Lambda$$ and hadron masses. One can also identify a specific scale $$Q_0$$ which demarcates the division between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. We also review other important methods for computing the QCD coupling, including Lattice QCD, Schwinger-Dyson equations and the Gribov-Zwanziger analysis. After describing these approaches and enumerating conflicting results, we provide a partial discussion on the origin of these discrepancies and how to remedy them. Our aim is not only to review the advances on this difficult subject, but also to suggest what could be the best definition of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in order to bring better unity to the subject.« less

  2. The QCD running coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    for the analytic form of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$. The AdS/QCD light-front holographic analysis predicts the color confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and dynamics, and it gives a remarkable connection between the perturbative QCD scale $\\Lambda$ and hadron masses. One can also identify a specific scale $Q_0$ which demarcates the division between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. We also review other important methods for computing the QCD coupling, including Lattice QCD, Schwinger-Dyson equations and the Gribov-Zwanziger analysis. After describing these approaches and enumerating conflicting results, we provide a partial discussion on the origin of these discrepancies and how to remedy them. Our aim is not only to review the advances on this difficult subject, but also to suggest what could be the best definition of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ in order to bring better unity to the subject.

  3. The QCD running coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    for the analytic form of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$. The AdS/QCD light-front holographic analysis predicts the color confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and dynamics, and it gives a remarkable connection between the perturbative QCD scale $\\Lambda$ and hadron masses. One can also identify a specific scale $Q_0$ which demarcates the division between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. We also review other important methods for computing the QCD coupling, including Lattice QCD, Schwinger-Dyson equations and the Gribov-Zwanziger analysis. After describing these approaches and enumerating conflicting results, we provide a partial discussion on the origin of these discrepancies and how to remedy them. Our aim is not only to review the advances on this difficult subject, but also to suggest what could be the best definition of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ in order to bring better unity to the subject.

  4. Integrable nonlinear evolution partial differential equations in 4 + 2 and 3 + 1 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Fokas, A S

    2006-05-19

    The derivation and solution of integrable nonlinear evolution partial differential equations in three spatial dimensions has been the holy grail in the field of integrability since the late 1970s. The celebrated Korteweg-de Vries and nonlinear Schrödinger equations, as well as the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) and Davey-Stewartson (DS) equations, are prototypical examples of integrable evolution equations in one and two spatial dimensions, respectively. Do there exist integrable analogs of these equations in three spatial dimensions? In what follows, I present a positive answer to this question. In particular, I first present integrable generalizations of the KP and DS equations, which are formulated in four spatial dimensions and which have the novelty that they involve complex time. I then impose the requirement of real time, which implies a reduction to three spatial dimensions. I also present a method of solution.

  5. Transport equations for a general class of evolution equations with random perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Maozheng; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    1999-10-01

    We derive transport equations from a general class of equations of form iut=H(X,D)u+V(X,D)u where H(X,D) and V(X,D) are pseudodifferential operators (Weyl operator) with symbols H(x,k) and V(x,k), where H(x,k) being polynomial in k and smooth in x,V(x,k) is a mean zero random function and is stationary in space variable. We also consider system of equations in the above form. Such equations cover many of the equations that arise in wave propagations, such as those considered in a paper by Ryzhik, Papanicolaou, and Keller [Wave Motion 24, 327-370 (1996)]. Our results generalize those by Ryzhik, Papanicolau, and Keller.

  6. New Traveling Wave Solutions for a Class of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Cheng-Jie; Zhao, Hong; Xu, Heng-Ying; Zhang, Xia

    The deformation mapping method is extended to solve a class of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). Many types of explicit and exact traveling wave solutions, which contain solitary wave solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and Jacobian elliptic function solutions, are obtained by a simple algebraic transformation relation between the solutions of the NLEEs and those of the cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon (NKG) equation.

  7. Real-space renormalization-group approach to field evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Degenhard, Andreas; Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier

    2002-03-01

    An operator formalism for the reduction of degrees of freedom in the evolution of discrete partial differential equations (PDE) via real-space renormalization group is introduced, in which cell overlapping is the key concept. Applications to (1+1)-dimensional PDEs are presented for linear and quadratic equations that are first order in time.

  8. Solving nonlinear evolution equation system using two different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet N.

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with constructing more general exact solutions of the coupled Higgs equation by using the (G0/G, 1/G)-expansion and (1/G0)-expansion methods. The obtained solutions are expressed by three types of functions: hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions with free parameters. It has been shown that the suggested methods are productive and will be used to solve nonlinear partial differential equations in applied mathematics and engineering. Throughout the paper, all the calculations are made with the aid of the Maple software.

  9. Burgers' equation and the evolution of nonlinear second sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidowitz, Hananel; L'vov, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor

    A systematic, experimental and numerical search for subharmonic generation and/or amplification was conducted at intermediate times and moderate Reynolds numbers in nonlinear second sound near the superfluid transition. We found that the nonlinear acoustic waves are dynamically monotonic in the sense that only energy cascades to smaller and smaller scales (until the dissipation scale) exist. There is no indication of a decay of monochromatic waves to waves of lower wave numbers. This precludes the existence of a decay instability in Burgers' equation as has been discussed in the literature. We thus extend the theoretical proof of Sinai concerning the absence of subharmonics in the solutions of Burger's equation to intermediate times.

  10. Derivation of a Differential Equation Exhibiting Replicative Time-Evolution Patterns by Inverse Ultra-Discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Asumi; Nishiyama, Akinobu; Tokihiro, Tetsuji

    2009-03-01

    A differential equation exhibiting replicative time-evolution patterns is derived by inverse ultradiscretizatrion of Fredkin’s game, which is one of the simplest replicative cellular automaton (CA) in two dimensions. This is achieved by employing a certain filter and a clock function in the equation. These techniques are applicable to the inverse ultra-discretization (IUD) of other CA and stabilize the time-evolution of the obtained differential equation. Application to the game of life, another CA in two dimensions, is also presented.

  11. Approximation and Numerical Analysis of Nonlinear Equations of Evolution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-31

    les Espaces d’ Interpolation; Dualitg", Math. Scand., 9, 1961, pp. 147-177. 9. __ "Equations Diff~rentielles Op ~ rationnelles dan les Espaces de Hilbert...relaxation," Revue Francaise d’automatique, informatique, recherche operationnelle, R3, 1973, p. 5-32. Ill DOUGLAS, J. and GALLIE, T.MI. "On the Numerical

  12. Group theoretical approach to nonlinear evolution equations of lax type III. The Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, D.; Olshanetsky, M. A.; Perelomov, A. M.; Ragnisco, O.

    1980-06-01

    Within the group theoretical framework recently proposed by Berezin and Perelomov, we are able to derive an abstract (operator) generalization of the classical Boussinesq equation, which possesses an infinite sequence of conserved quantities.

  13. Baryons in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru

    2007-04-01

    We study baryons in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8¯ multi-D-brane system. In holographic QCD, the baryon appears as a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in a four-dimensional effective theory of mesons. We call this topological soliton brane-induced Skyrmion. Some review of D4/D8/D8¯ holographic QCD is presented from the viewpoints of recent hadron physics and QCD phenomenologies. A four-dimensional effective theory with pions and ρ mesons is uniquely derived from the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of D8 brane with D4 supergravity background at the leading order of large Nc, without small amplitude expansion of meson fields to discuss chiral solitons. For the hedgehog configuration of pion and ρ-meson fields, we derive the energy functional and the Euler-Lagrange equation of brane-induced Skyrmion from the meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. Performing the numerical calculation, we obtain the soliton solution and figure out the pion profile F(r) and the ρ-meson profile G˜(r) of the brane-induced Skyrmion with its total energy, energy density distribution, and root-mean-square radius. These results are compared with the experimental quantities of baryons and also with the profiles of standard Skyrmion without ρ mesons. We analyze interaction terms of pions and ρ mesons in brane-induced Skyrmion, and find a significant ρ-meson component appearing in the core region of a baryon.

  14. Baryons in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru

    2007-04-15

    We study baryons in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D-brane system. In holographic QCD, the baryon appears as a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in a four-dimensional effective theory of mesons. We call this topological soliton brane-induced Skyrmion. Some review of D4/D8/D8 holographic QCD is presented from the viewpoints of recent hadron physics and QCD phenomenologies. A four-dimensional effective theory with pions and {rho} mesons is uniquely derived from the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of D8 brane with D4 supergravity background at the leading order of large N{sub c}, without small amplitude expansion of meson fields to discuss chiral solitons. For the hedgehog configuration of pion and {rho}-meson fields, we derive the energy functional and the Euler-Lagrange equation of brane-induced Skyrmion from the meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. Performing the numerical calculation, we obtain the soliton solution and figure out the pion profile F(r) and the {rho}-meson profile G-tilde(r) of the brane-induced Skyrmion with its total energy, energy density distribution, and root-mean-square radius. These results are compared with the experimental quantities of baryons and also with the profiles of standard Skyrmion without {rho} mesons. We analyze interaction terms of pions and {rho} mesons in brane-induced Skyrmion, and find a significant {rho}-meson component appearing in the core region of a baryon.

  15. Dromion interactions of (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations

    PubMed

    Ruan; Chen

    2000-10-01

    Starting from two line solitons, the solution of integrable (2+1)-dimensional mKdV system and KdV system in bilinear form yields a dromion solution or a "Solitoff" solution. Such a dromion solution is localized in all directions and the Solitoff solution decays exponentially in all directions except a preferred one for the physical field or a suitable potential. The interactions between two dromions and between the dromion and Solitoff are studied by the method of figure analysis for a (2+1)-dimensional modified KdV equation and a (2+1)-dimensional KdV type equation. Our analysis shows that the interactions between two dromions may be elastic or inelastic for different forms of solutions.

  16. An almost symmetric Strang splitting scheme for nonlinear evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Ostermann, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we consider splitting methods for the time integration of parabolic and certain classes of hyperbolic partial differential equations, where one partial flow cannot be computed exactly. Instead, we use a numerical approximation based on the linearization of the vector field. This is of interest in applications as it allows us to apply splitting methods to a wider class of problems from the sciences. However, in the situation described, the classic Strang splitting scheme, while still being a method of second order, is not longer symmetric. This, in turn, implies that the construction of higher order methods by composition is limited to order three only. To remedy this situation, based on previous work in the context of ordinary differential equations, we construct a class of Strang splitting schemes that are symmetric up to a desired order. We show rigorously that, under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, these methods are of second order and can then be used to construct higher order methods by composition. In addition, we illustrate the theoretical results by conducting numerical experiments for the Brusselator system and the KdV equation.

  17. Particle swarms in gases: the velocity-average evolution equations from Newton's law.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Leonardo

    2003-08-01

    The evolution equation for a generic average quantity relevant to a swarm of particles homogeneously dispersed in a uniform gas, is obtained directly from the Newton's law, without having recourse to the (intermediary) Boltzmann equation. The procedure makes use of appropriate averages of the term resulting from the impulsive force (due to collisions) in the Newton's law. When the background gas is assumed to be in thermal equilibrium, the obtained evolution equation is shown to agree with the corresponding one following from the Boltzmann equation. But the new procedure also allows to treat physical situations in which the Boltzmann equation is not valid, as it happens when some correlation exists (or is assumed) between the velocities of swarm and gas particles.

  18. Algebraic Structure of Discrete Zero Curvature Equations and Master Symmetries of Discrete Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, based on a discrete spectral problem and the corresponding zero curvature representation, the isospectral and nonisospectral lattice hierarchies are proposed. An algebraic structure of discrete zero curvature equations is then established for such integrable systems. the commutation relations of Lax operators corresponding to the isospectral and non-isospectral lattice flows are worked out, the master symmetries of each lattice equation in the isospectral hierarchyand are generated, thus a τ-symmetry algebra for the lattice integrable systems is engendered from this theory. Supported by the National Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371244 and the Applied Mathematical Subject of SSPU under Grant No. XXKPY1604

  19. QCD at nonzero chemical potential: Recent progress on the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Aarts, Gert; Jäger, Benjamin; Attanasio, Felipe; Seiler, Erhard; Sexty, Dénes; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2016-01-22

    We summarise recent progress in simulating QCD at nonzero baryon density using complex Langevin dynamics. After a brief outline of the main idea, we discuss gauge cooling as a means to control the evolution. Subsequently we present a status report for heavy dense QCD and its phase structure, full QCD with staggered quarks, and full QCD with Wilson quarks, both directly and using the hopping parameter expansion to all orders.

  20. Evolution of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneman, A. A.; Boer, Daniël; Mulders, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading order in a 1/ Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of known twist two and twist three operators. We present the evolution in the large Nc limit, restricting to non-singlet for the chiral-even functions.

  1. Finitely approximable random sets and their evolution via differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananyev, B. I.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, random closed sets (RCS) in Euclidean space are considered along with their distributions and approximation. Distributions of RCS may be used for the calculation of expectation and other characteristics. Reachable sets on initial data and some ways of their approximate evolutionary description are investigated for stochastic differential equations (SDE) with initial state in some RCS. Markov property of random reachable sets is proved in the space of closed sets. For approximate calculus, the initial RCS is replaced by a finite set on the integer multidimensional grid and the multistage Markov chain is substituted for SDE. The Markov chain is constructed by methods of SDE numerical integration. Some examples are also given.

  2. Orthonormal quaternion frames, Lagrangian evolution equations, and the three-dimensional Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbon, John

    2007-06-01

    More than 160 years after their invention by Hamilton, quaternions are now widely used in the aerospace and computer animation industries to track the orientation and paths of moving objects undergoing three-axis rotations. Here it is shown that they provide a natural way of selecting an appropriate orthonormal frame—designated the quaternion-frame—for a particle in a Lagrangian flow, and of obtaining the equations for its dynamics. How these ideas can be applied to the three-dimensional Euler fluid equations is then considered. This work has some bearing on the issue of whether the Euler equations develop a singularity in a finite time. Some of the literature on this topic is reviewed, which includes both the Beale-Kato-Majda theorem and associated work on the direction of vorticity by Constantin, Fefferman, and Majda and by Deng, Hou, and Yu. It is then shown how the quaternion formalism provides an alternative formulation in terms of the Hessian of the pressure.

  3. Advantages of formulating an evolution equation directly for elastic distortional deformation in finite deformation plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, M. B.; Cardiff, P.

    2017-06-01

    Simo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 66:199-219, 1988) proposed an evolution equation for elastic deformation together with a constitutive equation for inelastic deformation rate in plasticity. The numerical algorithm (Simo in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 68:1-31, 1988) for determining elastic distortional deformation was simple. However, the proposed inelastic deformation rate caused plastic compaction. The corrected formulation (Simo in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 99:61-112, 1992) preserves isochoric plasticity but the numerical integration algorithm is complicated and needs special methods for calculation of the exponential map of a tensor. Alternatively, an evolution equation for elastic distortional deformation can be proposed directly with a simplified constitutive equation for inelastic distortional deformation rate. This has the advantage that the physics of inelastic distortional deformation is separated from that of dilatation. The example of finite deformation J2 plasticity with linear isotropic hardening is used to demonstrate the simplicity of the numerical algorithm.

  4. Toward a gauge theory for evolution equations on vector-valued spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cardanobile, Stefano; Mugnolo, Delio

    2009-10-15

    We investigate symmetry properties of vector-valued diffusion and Schroedinger equations. For a separable Hilbert space H we characterize the subspaces of L{sup 2}(R{sup 3};H) that are local (i.e., defined pointwise) and discuss the issue of their invariance under the time evolution of the differential equation. In this context, the possibility of a connection between our results and the theory of gauge symmetries in mathematical physics is explored.

  5. Evolution of the equations of dynamics of the Universe: From Friedmann to the present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, V. O.

    2017-05-01

    Celebrating the centenary of general relativity theory, we must recall that Friedmann's discovery of the equations of evolution of the Universe became the strongest prediction of this theory. These equations currently remain the foundation of modern cosmology. Nevertheless, data from new observations stimulate a search for modified theories of gravitation. We discuss cosmological aspects of theories with two dynamical metrics and theories of massive gravity, one of which was developed by Logunov and his coworkers.

  6. Wavy film flows down an inclined plane: perturbation theory and general evolution equation for the film thickness.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, A L; Indireshkumar, K

    1999-10-01

    Wavy film flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid down an inclined plane is considered. The question is posed as to the parametric conditions under which the description of evolution can be approximately reduced for all time to a single evolution equation for the film thickness. An unconventional perturbation approach yields the most general evolution equation and least restrictive conditions on its validity. The advantages of this equation for analytical and numerical studies of three-dimensional waves in inclined films are pointed out.

  7. Bethe ansatz for QCD pomeron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchemsky, G. P.

    1995-02-01

    The equivalence is found between high-energy QCD in the generalized leading logarithmic approximation and the one-dimensional Heisenberg magnet. According to Regge theory, the high-energy asymptotics of hadronic scattering amplitudes are related to singularities of partial waves in the complex angular momentum plane. In QCD, the partial waves are determined by nontrivial two-dimensional dynamics of the transverse gluonic degrees of freedom. The "bare" gluons interact with each other to form a collective excitation, the Reggeon. The partial waves of the scattering amplitude satisfy the Bethe-Salpeter equation whose solutions describe the color singlet compound states of Reggeons - Pomeron, Odderon and higher Reggeon states. We show that the QCD Hamiltonian for reggeized gluons coincides in the multi-color limit with the Hamiltonian of XXX Heisenberg magnet for spin s = 0 and spin operators being the generators of the conformal SL(2,C) group. As a result, the Schrödinger equation for the compound states of Reggeons has a sufficient number of conservation laws to be completely integrable. A generalized Bethe ansatz is developed for the diagonalization of the QCD Hamiltonian and for the calculation of hadron-hadron scattering. Using the Bethe Ansatz solution of high-energy QCD we investigate the properties of the Reggeon compound states which govern the Regge behavior of the total hadron-hadron cross sections and the small-x behavior of the structure functions deep inelastic scattering.

  8. Soliton evolution and radiation loss for the Korteweg--de Vries equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kath, W.L.; Smyth, N.F. Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH93JZ, Scotland )

    1995-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of solutions of the Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation for nonsoliton initial conditions is considered. While the exact solution of the KdV equation can in principle be obtained using the inverse scattering transform, in practice it can be extremely difficult to obtain information about a solution's transient evolution by this method. As an alternative, we present here an approximate method for investigating this transient evolution which is based upon the conservation laws associated with the KdV equation. Initial conditions which form one or two solitons are considered, and the resulting approximate evolution is found to be in good agreement with the numerical solution of the KdV equation. Justification for the approximations employed is also given by way of the linearized inverse scattering solution of the KdV equation. In addition, the final soliton state determined from the approximate equations agrees very well with the final state determined from the exact inverse scattering transform solution.

  9. QCD as a Theory of Hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narison, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    About Stephan Narison; Outline of the book; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. General Introduction: 1. A short flash on particle physics; 2. The pre-QCD era; 3. The QCD story; 4. Field theory ingredients; Part II. QCD Gauge Theory: 5. Lagrangian and gauge invariance; 6. Quantization using path integral; 7. QCD and its global invariance; Part III. MS scheme for QCD and QED: Introduction; 8. Dimensional regularization; 9. The MS renormalization scheme; 10. Renormalization of operators using the background field method; 11. The renormalization group; 12. Other renormalization schemes; 13. MS scheme for QED; 14. High-precision low-energy QED tests; Part IV. Deep Inelastic Scattering at Hadron Colliders: 15. OPE for deep inelastic scattering; 16. Unpolarized lepton-hadron scattering; 17. The Altarelli-Parisi equation; 18. More on unpolarized deep inelastic scatterings; 19. Polarized deep-inelastic processes; 20. Drell-Yan process; 21. One 'prompt photon' inclusive production; Part V. Hard Processes in e+e- Collisions: Introduction; 22. One hadron inclusive production; 23. gg scatterings and the 'spin' of the photon; 24. QCD jets; 25. Total inclusive hadron productions; Part VI. Summary of QCD Tests and as Measurements; Part VII. Power Corrections in QCD: 26. Introduction; 27. The SVZ expansion; 28. Technologies for evaluating Wilson coefficients; 29. Renormalons; 30. Beyond the SVZ expansion; Part VIII. QCD Two-Point Functions: 31. References guide to original works; 32. (Pseudo)scalar correlators; 33. (Axial-)vector two-point functions; 34. Tensor-quark correlator; 35. Baryonic correlators; 36. Four-quark correlators; 37. Gluonia correlators; 38. Hybrid correlators; 39. Correlators in x-space; Part IX. QCD Non-Perturbative Methods: 40. Introduction; 41. Lattice gauge theory; 42. Chiral perturbation theory; 43. Models of the QCD effective action; 44. Heavy quark effective theory; 45. Potential approaches to quarkonia; 46. On monopole and confinement; Part X. QCD

  10. QCD as a Theory of Hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narison, Stephan

    2004-05-01

    About Stephan Narison; Outline of the book; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. General Introduction: 1. A short flash on particle physics; 2. The pre-QCD era; 3. The QCD story; 4. Field theory ingredients; Part II. QCD Gauge Theory: 5. Lagrangian and gauge invariance; 6. Quantization using path integral; 7. QCD and its global invariance; Part III. MS scheme for QCD and QED: Introduction; 8. Dimensional regularization; 9. The MS renormalization scheme; 10. Renormalization of operators using the background field method; 11. The renormalization group; 12. Other renormalization schemes; 13. MS scheme for QED; 14. High-precision low-energy QED tests; Part IV. Deep Inelastic Scattering at Hadron Colliders: 15. OPE for deep inelastic scattering; 16. Unpolarized lepton-hadron scattering; 17. The Altarelli-Parisi equation; 18. More on unpolarized deep inelastic scatterings; 19. Polarized deep-inelastic processes; 20. Drell-Yan process; 21. One 'prompt photon' inclusive production; Part V. Hard Processes in e+e- Collisions: Introduction; 22. One hadron inclusive production; 23. gg scatterings and the 'spin' of the photon; 24. QCD jets; 25. Total inclusive hadron productions; Part VI. Summary of QCD Tests and as Measurements; Part VII. Power Corrections in QCD: 26. Introduction; 27. The SVZ expansion; 28. Technologies for evaluating Wilson coefficients; 29. Renormalons; 30. Beyond the SVZ expansion; Part VIII. QCD Two-Point Functions: 31. References guide to original works; 32. (Pseudo)scalar correlators; 33. (Axial-)vector two-point functions; 34. Tensor-quark correlator; 35. Baryonic correlators; 36. Four-quark correlators; 37. Gluonia correlators; 38. Hybrid correlators; 39. Correlators in x-space; Part IX. QCD Non-Perturbative Methods: 40. Introduction; 41. Lattice gauge theory; 42. Chiral perturbation theory; 43. Models of the QCD effective action; 44. Heavy quark effective theory; 45. Potential approaches to quarkonia; 46. On monopole and confinement; Part X. QCD

  11. Stochastic Evolution Equations with Values on the Dual of a Countably Hilbert Nuclear Space.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Banach space, as e.g., in the Example 4.1 or the works by Dawson and Gorostiza (1985), Kato (1976) and Tanabe (1975). In such cases the problem of...Hill. Dawson D.A. and L.G. Gorostiza (1985) "Solution of evolution equations in Hilbert space", preprint. Hitsuda M. and I. Mitoma (1985) "Tightness

  12. The evolution of galaxies in the mirror of the coagulation equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontorovich, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Smoluchowski equation and its generalizations, describing the merger of the particles, allow us to understand the main stages of the formation of galaxy mass functions, established as a result of mergers, and their evolution and thus provides an explanation for the results of long-term observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and large ground-based telescopes.

  13. Neutron star structure from QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Eduardo S.; Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.

  14. The Pathwise Numerical Approximation of Stationary Solutions of Semilinear Stochastic Evolution Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Caraballo, T. Kloeden, P.E.

    2006-11-15

    Under a one-sided dissipative Lipschitz condition on its drift, a stochastic evolution equation with additive noise of the reaction-diffusion type is shown to have a unique stochastic stationary solution which pathwise attracts all other solutions. A similar situation holds for each Galerkin approximation and each implicit Euler scheme applied to these Galerkin approximations. Moreover, the stationary solution of the Euler scheme converges pathwise to that of the Galerkin system as the stepsize tends to zero and the stationary solutions of the Galerkin systems converge pathwise to that of the evolution equation as the dimension increases. The analysis is carried out on random partial and ordinary differential equations obtained from their stochastic counterparts by subtraction of appropriate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stationary solutions.

  15. Evolution Equation for a Joint Tomographic Probability Distribution of Spin-1 Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    The nine-component positive vector optical tomographic probability portrait of quantum state of spin-1 particles containing full spatial and spin information about the state without redundancy is constructed. Also the suggested approach is expanded to symplectic tomography representation and to representations with quasidistributions like Wigner function, Husimi Q-function, and Glauber-Sudarshan P-function. The evolution equations for constructed vector optical and symplectic tomograms and vector quasidistributions for arbitrary Hamiltonian are found. The evolution equations are also obtained in special case of the quantum system of charged spin-1 particle in arbitrary electro-magnetic field, which are analogs of non-relativistic Proca equation in appropriate representations. The generalization of proposed approach to the cases of arbitrary spin is discussed. The possibility of formulation of quantum mechanics of the systems with spins in terms of joint probability distributions without the use of wave functions or density matrices is explicitly demonstrated.

  16. Threefold Complementary Approach to Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter

    2013-12-27

    A complementary approach, derived from (a) higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, (b) light-front quantization and (c) the invariance properties of the full conformal group in one dimension leads to a nonperturbative relativistic light-front wave equation which incorporates essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics. The fundamental conformal symmetry of the classical QCD Lagrangian in the limit of massless quarks is encoded in the resulting effective theory. The mass scale for confinement emerges from the isomorphism between the conformal group andSO(2,1). This scale appears in the light-front Hamiltonian by mapping to the evolution operator in the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan, which retains the conformal invariance of the action. Remarkably, the specific form of the confinement interaction and the corresponding modification of AdS space are uniquely determined in this procedure.

  17. Boundary Conditions for Constrained Systems of Evolution Equations in Numerical Relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvinka, Tomas

    2011-09-14

    In numerical relativity, to study astrophysical events such as black-hole collisions, the Einstein equations for geometry of spacetime are solved as system of partial differential equations. Current simulations are usually based on so-called BSSN system of 3+1 constrained hyperbolic evolution equations for tensorial fields of various ranks. The boundary conditions for evolved fields are given by the fact that the simulated events happen in an empty space and that far from the center the waves should propagate outwards. We analyze the usual outgoing radiation boundary conditions for the BSSN variables using potentials. Introduction of these potentials simplifies the linearized BSSN system into a set of wave equations. We also devise modifications of boundary conditions which prevent creation of constraint violations at boundary due to the conversion of outgoing constrained waves into ingoing unconstrained ones.

  18. Tetraquarks in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2017-08-01

    Using a soft-wall AdS/QCD approach we derive the Schrödinger-type equation of motion for the tetraquark wave function, which is dual to the dimension-4 AdS bulk profile. The latter coincides with the number of constituents in the leading Fock state of the tetraquark. The obtained equation of motion is solved analytically, providing predictions for both the tetraquark wave function and its mass. A low mass limit for possible tetraquark states is given by M ≥2 κ =1 GeV , where κ =0.5 GeV is the typical value of the scale parameter in soft-wall AdS/QCD. We confirm results of the COMPASS Collaboration recently reported on the discovery of the a1(1414 ) state, interpreted as a tetraquark state composed of light quarks and having JP C=1++. Our prediction for the mass of this state, Ma1=√{2 } GeV ≃1.414 GeV , is in good agreement with the COMPASS result Ma1=1.41 4-0.013+0.015 GeV . Next we included finite quark mass effects, which are essential for the tetraquark states involving heavy quarks.

  19. Analysis of transcription-factor binding-site evolution by using the Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man

    2016-12-01

    We investigate a quasi-species mutation-selection model of transcription-factor binding-site evolution. By considering the mesa and the crater fitness landscapes designed to describe these binding sites and point mutations, we derive an evolution equation for the population distribution of binding sequences. In the long-length limit, the evolution equation is replaced by a Hamilton-Jacobi equation which we solve for the stationary state solution. From the stationary solution, we derive the population distributions and find that an error threshold, separating populations in which the binding site does or does not evolve, only exists for certain values of the fitness parameters. A phase diagram in this parameter space is derived and shows a critical line below which no error threshold exists. We also investigate the evolution of multiple binding sites for the same transcription factor. For two binding sites, we perform an analysis similar to that for a single site and determine a phase diagram showing different phases with both, one, or no binding sites selected. In the phase diagram, the phase boundary between the one-or-two selected site phases is qualitatively different for the mesa and the crater fitness landscapes. As fitness benefits for a second bound transcription factor tend to zero, the minimum mutation rate at which the two-site phase occurs diverges in the mesa landscape whereas the mutation rate at the phase boundary tends to a finite value for the crater landscape.

  20. Approximated Lax pairs for the reduced order integration of nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric; Lombardi, Damiano

    2014-05-01

    A reduced-order model algorithm, called ALP, is proposed to solve nonlinear evolution partial differential equations. It is based on approximations of generalized Lax pairs. Contrary to other reduced-order methods, like Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, the basis on which the solution is searched for evolves in time according to a dynamics specific to the problem. It is therefore well-suited to solving problems with progressive front or wave propagation. Another difference with other reduced-order methods is that it is not based on an off-line/on-line strategy. Numerical examples are shown for the linear advection, KdV and FKPP equations, in one and two dimensions.

  1. A well-posed Cauchy problem for an evolution equation with coefficients of low regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicognani, Massimo; Colombini, Ferruccio

    In the hyperbolic Cauchy problem, the well-posedness in Sobolev spaces is strictly related to the modulus of continuity of the coefficients. This holds true for p-evolution equations with real characteristics (p=1 hyperbolic equations, p=2 vibrating plate and Schrödinger type models, …). We show that, for p⩾2, a lack of regularity in t can be balanced by a damping of the too fast oscillations as the space variable x→∞. This cannot happen in the hyperbolic case p=1 because of the finite speed of propagation.

  2. Hyperboloidal Evolution and Global Dynamics for the Focusing Cubic Wave Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, Annegret Y.; Donninger, Roland

    2017-07-01

    The focusing cubic wave equation in three spatial dimensions has the explicit solution {√{2}/t}. We study the stability of the blowup described by this solution as {t \\to 0} without symmetry restrictions on the data. Via the conformal invariance of the equation we obtain a companion result for the stability of slow decay in the framework of a hyperboloidal initial value formulation. More precisely, we identify a codimension-1 Lipschitz manifold of initial data leading to solutions that converge to Lorentz boosts of {√{2}/t} as {t\\to∞}. These global solutions thus exhibit a slow nondispersive decay, in contrast to small data evolutions.

  3. On the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2016-04-04

    The QCD running coupling αs(Q2) sets the strength of the interactions of quarks and gluons as a function of the momentum transfer Q . The Q2 dependence of the coupling is required to describe hadronic interactions at both large and short distances. In this article we adopt the light-front holographic approach to strongly-coupled QCD, a formalism which incorporates confinement, predicts the spectroscopy of hadrons composed of light quarks, and describes the low- Q2 analytic behavior of the strong coupling αs(Q2) . The high- Q2 dependence of the coupling αs(Q2) is specified by perturbative QCD and its renormalization group equation. Themore » matching of the high and low Q2 regimes of αs(Q2) then determines the scale Q0 which sets the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The value of Q0 can be used to set the factorization scale for DGLAP evolution of hadronic structure functions and the ERBL evolution of distribution amplitudes. We discuss the scheme-dependence of the value of Q0 and the infrared fixed-point of the QCD coupling. Our analysis is carried out for the MS¯, g1, MOM and V renormalization schemes. Our results show that the discrepancies on the value of αs at large distance seen in the literature can be explained by different choices of renormalization schemes. Furthermore, we also provide the formulae to compute αs(Q2) over the entire range of space-like momentum transfer for the different renormalization schemes discussed in this article.« less

  4. On the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-06-01

    The QCD running coupling αs (Q2) sets the strength of the interactions of quarks and gluons as a function of the momentum transfer Q. The Q2 dependence of the coupling is required to describe hadronic interactions at both large and short distances. In this article we adopt the light-front holographic approach to strongly-coupled QCD, a formalism which incorporates confinement, predicts the spectroscopy of hadrons composed of light quarks, and describes the low-Q2 analytic behavior of the strong coupling αs (Q2). The high-Q2 dependence of the coupling αs (Q2) is specified by perturbative QCD and its renormalization group equation. The matching of the high and low Q2 regimes of αs (Q2) then determines the scale Q0 which sets the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The value of Q0 can be used to set the factorization scale for DGLAP evolution of hadronic structure functions and the ERBL evolution of distribution amplitudes. We discuss the scheme-dependence of the value of Q0 and the infrared fixed-point of the QCD coupling. Our analysis is carried out for the MS ‾, g1, MOM and V renormalization schemes. Our results show that the discrepancies on the value of αs at large distance seen in the literature can be explained by different choices of renormalization schemes. We also provide the formulae to compute αs (Q2) over the entire range of space-like momentum transfer for the different renormalization schemes discussed in this article.

  5. On the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-06-01

    The QCD running coupling αs(Q2) sets the strength of the interactions of quarks and gluons as a function of the momentum transfer Q . The Q2 dependence of the coupling is required to describe hadronic interactions at both large and short distances. In this article we adopt the light-front holographic approach to strongly-coupled QCD, a formalism which incorporates confinement, predicts the spectroscopy of hadrons composed of light quarks, and describes the low-Q2 analytic behavior of the strong coupling αs(Q2). The high-Q2 dependence of the coupling αs(Q2) is specified by perturbative QCD and its renormalization group equation. The matching of the high and low Q2 regimes of αs(Q2) then determines the scale Q0 which sets the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The value of Q0 can be used to set the factorization scale for DGLAP evolution of hadronic structure functions and the ERBL evolution of distribution amplitudes. We discuss the scheme-dependence of the value of Q0 and the infrared fixed-point of the QCD coupling. Our analysis is carried out for the View the MathML source, g1, MOM and V renormalization schemes. Our results show that the discrepancies on the value of αs at large distance seen in the literature can be explained by different choices of renormalization schemes. We also provide the formulae to compute αs(Q2) over the entire range of space-like momentum transfer for the different renormalization schemes discussed in this article.

  6. QCD thermodynamics and missing hadron states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreczky, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Equation of State and fluctuations of conserved charges in hot strongly interacting matter are being calculated with increasing accuracy in lattice QCD, and continuum results at physical quark masses become available. At sufficiently low temperature the thermodynamic quantities can be understood in terms of hadron resonance gas model that includes known hadrons and hadronic resonances from Particle Data Book. However, for some quantities it is necessary to include undiscovered hadronic resonances (missing states) that are, however, predicted by quark model and lattice QCD study of hadron spectrum. Thus, QCD thermodynamics can provide indications for the existence of yet undiscovered hadron states.

  7. Atmospheric neutrinos, ν e- ν s oscillations and a novel neutrino evolution equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Evgeny

    2016-08-01

    If a sterile neutrino ν s with an eV-scale mass and a sizeable mixing to the electron neutrino exists, as indicated by the reactor and gallium neutrino anomalies, a strong resonance enhancement of ν e -ν s oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos should occur in the TeV energy range. At these energies neutrino flavour transitions in the 3+1 scheme depend on just one neutrino mass squared difference and are fully described within a 3-flavour oscillation framework. We demonstrate that the flavour transitions of atmospheric ν e can actually be very accurately described in a 2-flavour framework, with neutrino flavour evolution governed by an inhomogeneous Schrödinger-like equation. Evolution equations of this type have not been previously considered in the theory of neutrino oscillations.

  8. Recent progress on the understanding of the medium-induced jet evolution and energy loss in pQCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolinário, Liliana

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the striking modifications of jets observed both at RHIC and the LHC, significant progress towards the understanding of jet dynamics within QGP has occurred over the last few years. In this talk, I review the recent theoretical developments in the study of medium-induced jet evolution and energy loss within a perturbative framework. The main mechanisms of energy loss and broadening will be firstly addressed with focus on leading particle calculations beyond the eikonal approximation. Then, I will provide an overview of the modifications of the interference pattern between the different parton emitters that build up the parton shower when propagating through an extended coloured medium. I will show that the interplay between color coherence/decoherence that arises from such effects is the main mechanism for the modification of the jet core angular structure. Finally, I discuss the possibility of a probabilistic picture of the parton shower evolution in the limit of a very dense or infinite medium.

  9. Implicit Euler approximation of stochastic evolution equations with fractional Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamrani, Minoo; Jamshidi, Nahid

    2017-03-01

    This work was intended as an attempt to motivate the approximation of quasi linear evolution equations driven by infinite-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H >1/2 . The spatial approximation method is based on Galerkin and the temporal approximation is based on implicit Euler scheme. An error bound and the convergence of the numerical method are given. The numerical results show usefulness and accuracy of the method.

  10. Random walk through recent CDF QCD results

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mesropian

    2003-04-09

    We present recent results on jet fragmentation, jet evolution in jet and minimum bias events, and underlying event studies. The results presented in this talk address significant questions relevant to QCD and, in particular, to jet studies. One topic discussed is jet fragmentation and the possibility of describing it down to very small momentum scales in terms of pQCD. Another topic is the studies of underlying event energy originating from fragmentation of partons not associated with the hard scattering.

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics induced by competing instabilities in two asymmetrically coupled nonlinear evolution equations.

    PubMed

    Schüler, D; Alonso, S; Torcini, A; Bär, M

    2014-12-01

    Pattern formation often occurs in spatially extended physical, biological, and chemical systems due to an instability of the homogeneous steady state. The type of the instability usually prescribes the resulting spatio-temporal patterns and their characteristic length scales. However, patterns resulting from the simultaneous occurrence of instabilities cannot be expected to be simple superposition of the patterns associated with the considered instabilities. To address this issue, we design two simple models composed by two asymmetrically coupled equations of non-conserved (Swift-Hohenberg equations) or conserved (Cahn-Hilliard equations) order parameters with different characteristic wave lengths. The patterns arising in these systems range from coexisting static patterns of different wavelengths to traveling waves. A linear stability analysis allows to derive a two parameter phase diagram for the studied models, in particular, revealing for the Swift-Hohenberg equations, a co-dimension two bifurcation point of Turing and wave instability and a region of coexistence of stationary and traveling patterns. The nonlinear dynamics of the coupled evolution equations is investigated by performing accurate numerical simulations. These reveal more complex patterns, ranging from traveling waves with embedded Turing patterns domains to spatio-temporal chaos, and a wide hysteretic region, where waves or Turing patterns coexist. For the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equations the presence of a weak coupling is sufficient to arrest the coarsening process and to lead to the emergence of purely periodic patterns. The final states are characterized by domains with a characteristic length, which diverges logarithmically with the coupling amplitude.

  12. Spatio-temporal dynamics induced by competing instabilities in two asymmetrically coupled nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, D.; Alonso, S.; Torcini, A.; Bär, M.

    2014-12-01

    Pattern formation often occurs in spatially extended physical, biological, and chemical systems due to an instability of the homogeneous steady state. The type of the instability usually prescribes the resulting spatio-temporal patterns and their characteristic length scales. However, patterns resulting from the simultaneous occurrence of instabilities cannot be expected to be simple superposition of the patterns associated with the considered instabilities. To address this issue, we design two simple models composed by two asymmetrically coupled equations of non-conserved (Swift-Hohenberg equations) or conserved (Cahn-Hilliard equations) order parameters with different characteristic wave lengths. The patterns arising in these systems range from coexisting static patterns of different wavelengths to traveling waves. A linear stability analysis allows to derive a two parameter phase diagram for the studied models, in particular, revealing for the Swift-Hohenberg equations, a co-dimension two bifurcation point of Turing and wave instability and a region of coexistence of stationary and traveling patterns. The nonlinear dynamics of the coupled evolution equations is investigated by performing accurate numerical simulations. These reveal more complex patterns, ranging from traveling waves with embedded Turing patterns domains to spatio-temporal chaos, and a wide hysteretic region, where waves or Turing patterns coexist. For the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equations the presence of a weak coupling is sufficient to arrest the coarsening process and to lead to the emergence of purely periodic patterns. The final states are characterized by domains with a characteristic length, which diverges logarithmically with the coupling amplitude.

  13. Spatio-temporal dynamics induced by competing instabilities in two asymmetrically coupled nonlinear evolution equations

    SciTech Connect

    Schüler, D.; Alonso, S.; Bär, M.; Torcini, A.

    2014-12-15

    Pattern formation often occurs in spatially extended physical, biological, and chemical systems due to an instability of the homogeneous steady state. The type of the instability usually prescribes the resulting spatio-temporal patterns and their characteristic length scales. However, patterns resulting from the simultaneous occurrence of instabilities cannot be expected to be simple superposition of the patterns associated with the considered instabilities. To address this issue, we design two simple models composed by two asymmetrically coupled equations of non-conserved (Swift-Hohenberg equations) or conserved (Cahn-Hilliard equations) order parameters with different characteristic wave lengths. The patterns arising in these systems range from coexisting static patterns of different wavelengths to traveling waves. A linear stability analysis allows to derive a two parameter phase diagram for the studied models, in particular, revealing for the Swift-Hohenberg equations, a co-dimension two bifurcation point of Turing and wave instability and a region of coexistence of stationary and traveling patterns. The nonlinear dynamics of the coupled evolution equations is investigated by performing accurate numerical simulations. These reveal more complex patterns, ranging from traveling waves with embedded Turing patterns domains to spatio-temporal chaos, and a wide hysteretic region, where waves or Turing patterns coexist. For the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equations the presence of a weak coupling is sufficient to arrest the coarsening process and to lead to the emergence of purely periodic patterns. The final states are characterized by domains with a characteristic length, which diverges logarithmically with the coupling amplitude.

  14. Restoration of the evolution of a plume, Numerical assessment of the compressible adjoint equations in geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghelichkhan, S.; Bunge, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic tomography has seen continuous improvements over the last decades, to the point that some recent studies have reached the resolution necessary to image mantle plumes. Seismic tomography, however, can only give us a snapshot of mantle convection. In order to understand the dynamics of mantle plumes and their role in global mantle convection, one needs to study their evolution in time.Unfortunately, there is a fundamental lack of knowledge about the past history of mantle convection in general. It is possible, however, to restore past mantle states by recasting mantle convection as an inverse problem. An elegant and efficient method to solve this geodynamic inverse problem is given by the adjoint method, which allows to restore the mantle state at some arbitrary time in the past. This result is achieved through the solution of the equations that govern mantle convection, together with an auxiliary set of equations, called adjoint equations.The adjoint equations in geodynamics have already been derived under the assumption of incompressible (Boussinesq) flow, but the applicability to the real Earth of this approximation is limited, as density increases by almost a factor of two from the surface to the core-mantle boundary. Here we introduce the compressible adjoint equations for the conservation equations in the anelastic-liquid approximation and use them in a synthetic test based on the twin experiment method, reconstructing the past evolution of a plume rising from the lower boundary layer.We focus on three simulations. A first, termed Compressible, assumes the compressible forward and adjoint equations, and represents the consistent means of including compressibility effects. A second, termed Mixed, applies the compressible forward equation, but ignores compressibility effects in the adjoint equations. A third simulation, termed Incompressible, neglects compressibility effects entirely in the forward and adjoint equations relative to the reference twin. The

  15. An equation for the evolution of solar and stellar flare loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    1990-01-01

    An ordinary differential equation describing the evolution of a coronal loop subjected to a spatially uniform but time-varying heating rate is discussed. It is assumed that the duration of heating is long compared to the sound transit time through the loop, which is assumed to have uniform cross section area. The form of the equation changes as the loop evolves through three states: 'strong evaporation', 'scaling law behavior', and 'strong condensation'. Solutions to the equation may be used to compute the time dependence of the average coronal temperature and emission measure for an assumed temporal variation of the flare heating rate. The results computed from the model agree reasonably well with recent published numerical simulations and may be obtained with far less computational effort. The model is then used to study the May 21, 1980, solar flare observed by SMM and the giant April 12, 1985, flare observed on the star AD Leo.

  16. Exponentially Stable Stationary Solutions for Stochastic Evolution Equations and Their Perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Caraballo, Tomas Kloeden, Peter E. Schmalfuss, Bjoern

    2004-10-15

    We consider the exponential stability of stochastic evolution equations with Lipschitz continuous non-linearities when zero is not a solution for these equations. We prove the existence of anon-trivial stationary solution which is exponentially stable, where the stationary solution is generated by the composition of a random variable and the Wiener shift. We also construct stationary solutions with the stronger property of attracting bounded sets uniformly. The existence of these stationary solutions follows from the theory of random dynamical systems and their attractors. In addition, we prove some perturbation results and formulate conditions for the existence of stationary solutions for semilinear stochastic partial differential equations with Lipschitz continuous non-linearities.

  17. Birth and death master equation for the evolution of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Martínez, R.; Cocho, G.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Martínez-Mekler, G.

    2014-05-01

    Master equations for the evolution of complex networks with positive (birth) and negative (death) transition probabilities per unit time are analyzed. Explicit equations for the time evolution of the total number of nodes and for the relative node frequencies are given. It is shown that, in the continuous limit, the master equation reduces to a Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). The basic dynamical function for its stationary solution is the ratio between its drift and diffusion coefficients. When this ratio is approximated by partial fractions (Padé's approximants), a hierarchy of stationary solutions of the FPE is obtained analytically, which are expressed as an exponential times the product of powers of monomials and binomials. It is also shown that if the difference between birth and death transition probabilities goes asymptotically to zero, the exponential factor in the solution is absent. Fits to real complex network probability distribution functions are shown. Comparison with rank-ordered data shows that, in general, the value of this exponential factor is close to unity, evidencing crossovers among power-law scale invariant regimes which might be associated to an underlying criticality and are related to a generalization of the beta distribution. The time dependent solution is also obtained analytically in terms of hyper-geometric functions. It is also shown that the FPE has similarity solutions. The limitations of the approach here presented are also discussed.

  18. QCD and Supernovas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, T.

    2005-12-01

    In this contribution we briefly summarize aspects of the physics of QCD which are relevant to the supernova problem. The topic of greatest importance is the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear and strongly-interacting matter, which is required to describe the physics of the proto-neutron star (PNS) and the neutron star remnant (NSR) formed during a supernova event. Evaluation of the EOS in the regime of relevance for these systems, especially the NSR, requires detailed knowledge of the spectrum and strong interactions of hadrons of the accessible hadronic species, as well as other possible phases of strongly interacting matter, such as the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The forces between pairs of baryons (both nonstrange and strange) are especially important in determining the EOS at NSR densities. Predictions for these forces are unfortunately rather model dependent where not constrained by data, and there are several suggestions for the QCD mechanism underlying these short-range hadronic interactions. The models most often employed for determining these strong interactions are broadly of two types, 1) meson exchange models (usually assumed in the existing neutron star and supernova literature), and 2) quark-gluon models (mainly encountered in the hadron, nuclear and heavy-ion literature). Here we will discuss the assumptions made in these models, and discuss how they are applied to the determination of hadronic forces that are relevant to the supernova problem.

  19. A stochastic version of the Price equation reveals the interplay of deterministic and stochastic processes in evolution.

    PubMed

    Rice, Sean H

    2008-09-25

    Evolution involves both deterministic and random processes, both of which are known to contribute to directional evolutionary change. A number of studies have shown that when fitness is treated as a random variable, meaning that each individual has a distribution of possible fitness values, then both the mean and variance of individual fitness distributions contribute to directional evolution. Unfortunately the most general mathematical description of evolution that we have, the Price equation, is derived under the assumption that both fitness and offspring phenotype are fixed values that are known exactly. The Price equation is thus poorly equipped to study an important class of evolutionary processes. I present a general equation for directional evolutionary change that incorporates both deterministic and stochastic processes and applies to any evolving system. This is essentially a stochastic version of the Price equation, but it is derived independently and contains terms with no analog in Price's formulation. This equation shows that the effects of selection are actually amplified by random variation in fitness. It also generalizes the known tendency of populations to be pulled towards phenotypes with minimum variance in fitness, and shows that this is matched by a tendency to be pulled towards phenotypes with maximum positive asymmetry in fitness. This equation also contains a term, having no analog in the Price equation, that captures cases in which the fitness of parents has a direct effect on the phenotype of their offspring. Directional evolution is influenced by the entire distribution of individual fitness, not just the mean and variance. Though all moments of individuals' fitness distributions contribute to evolutionary change, the ways that they do so follow some general rules. These rules are invisible to the Price equation because it describes evolution retrospectively. An equally general prospective evolution equation compliments the Price equation

  20. Evolution families of conformal mappings with fixed points and the Löwner-Kufarev equation

    SciTech Connect

    Goryainov, V V

    2015-01-31

    The paper is concerned with evolution families of conformal mappings of the unit disc to itself that fix an interior point and a boundary point. Conditions are obtained for the evolution families to be differentiable, and an existence and uniqueness theorem for an evolution equation is proved. A convergence theorem is established which describes the topology of locally uniform convergence of evolution families in terms of infinitesimal generating functions. The main result in this paper is the embedding theorem which shows that any conformal mapping of the unit disc to itself with two fixed points can be embedded into a differentiable evolution family of such mappings. This result extends the range of the parametric method in the theory of univalent functions. In this way the problem of the mutual change of the derivative at an interior point and the angular derivative at a fixed point on the boundary is solved for a class of mappings of the unit disc to itself. In particular, the rotation theorem is established for this class of mappings. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  1. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculationsmore » of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.« less

  2. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  3. Effective classical Liouville-like evolution equation for the quantum phase-space dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, O.

    2010-09-01

    A model for the evolution of a quantum particle in the phase plane is derived. The quasi-distribution function is decomposed into a suitable over-complete basis of coherent states. In this approach, a coarse grain length scale is introduced by using the spread of the coherent states. The obtained evolution system is completely equivalent to the Wigner formulation of the quantum mechanics. It shows some analogy with the von Neumann approach and the particle in the cell method in classical plasma physics. Differing from the usual formulation of the quantum phase space, given in terms of infinite-order partial differential equations, in this model, the evolution equations of the second differential order are expressed by a hierarchy of coupled functions (the first term being the Husimi function). The resulting formulation reveals itself to be particularly close to the classical description of the particles motion. This formal analogy is useful to gain new physical insights and to profit from numerical methods developed for classical systems.

  4. Lattice QCD input for axion cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Evan; Buchoff, Michael I.; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    One intriguing beyond-the-Standard-Model particle is the QCD axion, which could simultaneously provide a solution to the Strong C P Problem and account for some, if not all, of the dark matter density in the Universe. This particle is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of the conjectured Peccei-Quinn symmetry of the Standard Model. Its mass and interactions are suppressed by a heavy symmetry-breaking scale, fa, the value of which is roughly greater than 109 GeV (or, conversely, the axion mass, ma, is roughly less than 104 μ eV ). The density of axions in the Universe, which cannot exceed the relic dark matter density and is a quantity of great interest in axion experiments like ADMX, is a result of the early Universe interplay between cosmological evolution and the axion mass as a function of temperature. The latter quantity is proportional to the second derivative of the temperature-dependent QCD free energy with respect to the C P -violating phase, θ . However, this quantity is generically nonperturbative, and previous calculations have only employed instanton models at the high temperatures of interest (roughly 1 GeV). In this and future works, we aim to calculate the temperature-dependent axion mass at small θ from first-principle lattice calculations, with controlled statistical and systematic errors. Once calculated, this temperature-dependent axion mass is input for the classical evolution equations of the axion density of the Universe, which is required to be less than or equal to the dark matter density. Due to a variety of lattice systematic effects at the very high temperatures required, we perform a calculation of the leading small-θ cumulant of the theta vacua on large volume lattices for SU(3) Yang-Mills with high statistics as a first proof of concept, before attempting a full QCD calculation in the future. From these pure glue results, the misalignment mechanism yields the axion mass bound ma≥(14.6 ±0.1 ) μ eV when Peccei-Quinn breaking occurs

  5. Heavy Quarks, QCD, and Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen

    2012-10-09

    The research supported by this OJI award is in the area of heavy quark and quarkonium production, especially the application Soft-Collinear E ective Theory (SCET) to the hadronic production of quarkonia. SCET is an e ffective theory which allows one to derive factorization theorems and perform all order resummations for QCD processes. Factorization theorems allow one to separate the various scales entering a QCD process, and in particular, separate perturbative scales from nonperturbative scales. The perturbative physics can then be calculated using QCD perturbation theory. Universal functions with precise fi eld theoretic de nitions describe the nonperturbative physics. In addition, higher order perturbative QCD corrections that are enhanced by large logarithms can be resummed using the renormalization group equations of SCET. The applies SCET to the physics of heavy quarks, heavy quarkonium, and similar particles.

  6. Towards a theoretical description of dense QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipsen, Owe

    2017-03-01

    The properties of matter at finite baryon densities play an important role for the astrophysics of compact stars as well as for heavy ion collisions or the description of nuclear matter. Because of the sign problem of the quark determinant, lattice QCD cannot be simulated by standard Monte Carlo at finite baryon densities. I review alternative attempts to treat dense QCD with an effective lattice theory derived by analytic strong coupling and hopping expansions, which close to the continuum is valid for heavy quarks only, but shows all qualitative features of nuclear physics emerging from QCD. In particular, the nuclear liquid gas transition and an equation of state for baryons can be calculated directly from QCD. A second effective theory based on strong coupling methods permits studies of the phase diagram in the chiral limit on coarse lattices.

  7. An Inverse Problem for a Class of Conditional Probability Measure-Dependent Evolution Equations.

    PubMed

    Mirzaev, Inom; Byrne, Erin C; Bortz, David M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the inverse problem of identifying a conditional probability measure in measure-dependent evolution equations arising in size-structured population modeling. We formulate the inverse problem as a least squares problem for the probability measure estimation. Using the Prohorov metric framework, we prove existence and consistency of the least squares estimates and outline a discretization scheme for approximating a conditional probability measure. For this scheme, we prove general method stability. The work is motivated by Partial Differential Equation (PDE) models of flocculation for which the shape of the post-fragmentation conditional probability measure greatly impacts the solution dynamics. To illustrate our methodology, we apply the theory to a particular PDE model that arises in the study of population dynamics for flocculating bacterial aggregates in suspension, and provide numerical evidence for the utility of the approach.

  8. An inverse problem for a class of conditional probability measure-dependent evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaev, Inom; Byrne, Erin C.; Bortz, David M.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the inverse problem of identifying a conditional probability measure in measure-dependent evolution equations arising in size-structured population modeling. We formulate the inverse problem as a least squares problem for the probability measure estimation. Using the Prohorov metric framework, we prove existence and consistency of the least squares estimates and outline a discretization scheme for approximating a conditional probability measure. For this scheme, we prove general method stability. The work is motivated by partial differential equation models of flocculation for which the shape of the post-fragmentation conditional probability measure greatly impacts the solution dynamics. To illustrate our methodology, we apply the theory to a particular PDE model that arises in the study of population dynamics for flocculating bacterial aggregates in suspension, and provide numerical evidence for the utility of the approach.

  9. Phenomenological evolution equations for heat-induced shrinkage of a collagenous tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, S S; Wright, N T; Humphrey, J D

    1998-10-01

    Optimization of clinical heat treatments for various pathologies requires accurate numerical modeling of the heat transfer, evolution of thermal damage, and associated changes in the material properties of the tissues. This paper presents two phenomenological equations that quantify time-dependent thermal damage in a uniaxial collagenous tissue. Specifically, an empirical rule-of-mixtures model is shown to describe well heat-induced axial shrinkage (a measure of underlying denaturation) in chordae tendineae which results from a spectrum of thermomechanical loading histories. Likewise an exponential decay model is shown to describe well the partial recovery (e.g., renaturation) of chordae when it is returned to body temperature following heating. Together these models provide the first quantitative descriptors of the evolution of heat-induced damage and subsequent recovery in collagen. Such descriptors are fundamental to numerical analyses of many heat treatments because of the prevalence of collagen in many tissues and organs.

  10. Evolution of superoscillations for Schrödinger equation in a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, F.; Gantner, J.; Struppa, D. C.

    2017-09-01

    Aharonov-Berry superoscillations are band-limited functions that oscillate faster than their fastest Fourier component. Superoscillations appear in several fields of science and technology, such as Aharonov's weak measurement in quantum mechanics, in optics, and in signal processing. An important issue is the study of the evolution of superoscillations using the Schrödinger equation when the initial datum is a weak value. Some superoscillatory functions are not square integrable, but they are real analytic functions that can be extended to entire holomorphic functions. This fact leads to the study of the continuity of a class of convolution operators acting on suitable spaces of entire functions with growth conditions. In this paper, we study the evolution of a superoscillatory initial datum in a uniform magnetic field. Moreover, we collect some results on convolution operators that appear in the theory of superoscillatory functions using a direct approach that allows the convolution operators to have non-constant coefficients of polynomial type.

  11. Mechanisms of chiral symmetry breaking in QCD: A lattice perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    I briefly review two recent studies on chiral symmetry breaking in QCD: (a) a computation of the spectral density of the Dirac operator in QCD Lite, (b) a precise determination of the topological charge distribution in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory as defined by evolving the fundamental gauge field with the Yang-Mills gradient flow equation.

  12. Pressure evolution equation for the particulate phase in inhomogeneous compressible disperse multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.; Sridharan, P.; Jackson, T. L.

    2017-02-01

    An analytical expression describing the unsteady pressure evolution of the dispersed phase driven by variations in the carrier phase is presented. In this article, the term "dispersed phase" represents rigid particles, droplets, or bubbles. Letting both the dispersed and continuous phases be inhomogeneous, unsteady, and compressible, the developed pressure equation describes the particle response and its eventual equilibration with that of the carrier fluid. The study involves impingement of a plane traveling wave of a given frequency and subsequent volume-averaged particle pressure calculation due to a single wave. The ambient or continuous fluid's pressure and density-weighted normal velocity are identified as the source terms governing the particle pressure. Analogous to the generalized Faxén theorem, which is applicable to the particle equation of motion, the pressure expression is also written in terms of the surface average of time-varying incoming flow properties. The surface average allows the current formulation to be generalized for any complex incident flow, including situations where the particle size is comparable to that of the incoming flow. Further, the particle pressure is also found to depend on the dispersed-to-continuous fluid density ratio and speed of sound ratio in addition to dynamic viscosities of both fluids. The model is applied to predict the unsteady pressure variation inside an aluminum particle subjected to normal shock waves. The results are compared against numerical simulations and found to be in good agreement. Furthermore, it is shown that, although the analysis is conducted in the limit of negligible flow Reynolds and Mach numbers, it can be used to compute the density and volume of the dispersed phase to reasonable accuracy. Finally, analogous to the pressure evolution expression, an equation describing the time-dependent particle radius is deduced and is shown to reduce to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation in the linear limit.

  13. Transformations from traveling wave (TW) solutions to non-TW solutions of evolution equations via a direct method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burde, Georgy I.

    2017-07-01

    Studying properties of evolution equations arising in different physical contexts commonly starts from assuming the traveling wave (TW) solution form which reduces the problem to an ordinary differential equation (ODE). A variety of direct methods for finding such solutions have been designed but usually there is no algorithmic way to proceed further from this stage. In the present study, a method, which allows constructing non-traveling wave solutions of an evolution equation from known traveling wave solutions, is developed and applied to some types of equations. The transformations yielded by the method can be naturally used for finding new solutions of a given equation. Having the TW solutions (for example, solitary wave solutions) defined in an explicit form, more general non-TW solutions can be also explicitly determined. The transformations can also give insight into some general properties of the equations.

  14. Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Martínez, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented.

  15. Nucleon QCD sum rules in the instanton medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskin, M. G.; Drukarev, E. G. Sadovnikova, V. A.

    2015-09-15

    We try to find grounds for the standard nucleon QCD sum rules, based on a more detailed description of the QCD vacuum. We calculate the polarization operator of the nucleon current in the instanton medium. The medium (QCD vacuum) is assumed to be a composition of the small-size instantons and some long-wave gluon fluctuations. We solve the corresponding QCD sum rule equations and demonstrate that there is a solution with the value of the nucleon mass close to the physical one if the fraction of the small-size instantons contribution is w{sub s} ≈ 2/3.

  16. Green's function-stochastic methods framework for probing nonlinear evolution problems: Burger's equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger's equation, and hydrodynamic organization of near-molecular-scale vorticity

    SciTech Connect

    Keanini, R.G.

    2011-04-15

    Research Highlights: > Systematic approach for physically probing nonlinear and random evolution problems. > Evolution of vortex sheets corresponds to evolution of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. > Organization of near-molecular scale vorticity mediated by hydrodynamic modes. > Framework allows calculation of vorticity evolution within random strain fields. - Abstract: A framework which combines Green's function (GF) methods and techniques from the theory of stochastic processes is proposed for tackling nonlinear evolution problems. The framework, established by a series of easy-to-derive equivalences between Green's function and stochastic representative solutions of linear drift-diffusion problems, provides a flexible structure within which nonlinear evolution problems can be analyzed and physically probed. As a preliminary test bed, two canonical, nonlinear evolution problems - Burgers' equation and the nonlinear Schroedinger's equation - are first treated. In the first case, the framework provides a rigorous, probabilistic derivation of the well known Cole-Hopf ansatz. Likewise, in the second, the machinery allows systematic recovery of a known soliton solution. The framework is then applied to a fairly extensive exploration of physical features underlying evolution of randomly stretched and advected Burger's vortex sheets. Here, the governing vorticity equation corresponds to the Fokker-Planck equation of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a correspondence that motivates an investigation of sub-sheet vorticity evolution and organization. Under the assumption that weak hydrodynamic fluctuations organize disordered, near-molecular-scale, sub-sheet vorticity, it is shown that these modes consist of two weakly damped counter-propagating cross-sheet acoustic modes, a diffusive cross-sheet shear mode, and a diffusive cross-sheet entropy mode. Once a consistent picture of in-sheet vorticity evolution is established, a number of analytical results, describing the motion

  17. The Minimum-Mass Surface Density of the Solar Nebula using the Disk Evolution Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.

    2005-01-01

    The Hayashi minimum-mass power law representation of the pre-solar nebula (Hayashi 1981, Prog. Theo. Phys.70,35) is revisited using analytic solutions of the disk evolution equation. A new cumulative-planetary-mass-model (an integrated form of the surface density) is shown to predict a smoother surface density compared with methods based on direct estimates of surface density from planetary data. First, a best-fit transcendental function is applied directly to the cumulative planetary mass data with the surface density obtained by direct differentiation. Next a solution to the time-dependent disk evolution equation is parametrically adapted to the planetary data. The latter model indicates a decay rate of r -1/2 in the inner disk followed by a rapid decay which results in a sharper outer boundary than predicted by the minimum mass model. The model is shown to be a good approximation to the finite-size early Solar Nebula and by extension to extra solar protoplanetary disks.

  18. Nuclear forces from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Noriyoshi

    2011-05-06

    Lattice QCD construction of nuclear forces is reviewed. In this method, the nuclear potentials are constructed by solving the Schroedinger equation, where equal-time Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions are regarded as quantum mechanical wave functions. Since the long distance behavior of equal-time NBS wave functions is controlled by the scattering phase, which is in exactly the same way as scattering wave functions in quantum mechanics, the resulting potentials are faithful to the NN scattering data. The derivative expansion of this potential leads to the central and the tensor potentials at the leading order. Some of numerical results of these two potentials are shown based on the quenched QCD.

  19. On the classification of scalar evolution equations with non-constant separant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hümeyra Bilge, Ayşe; Mizrahi, Eti

    2017-01-01

    The ‘separant’ of the evolution equation u t   =  F, where F is some differentiable function of the derivatives of u up to order m, is the partial derivative \\partial F/\\partial {{u}m}, where {{u}m}={{\\partial}m}u/\\partial {{x}m} . As an integrability test, we use the formal symmetry method of Mikhailov-Shabat-Sokolov, which is based on the existence of a recursion operator as a formal series. The solvability of its coefficients in the class of local functions gives a sequence of conservation laws, called the ‘conserved densities’ {ρ(i)}, i=-1,1,2,3,\\ldots . We apply this method to the classification of scalar evolution equations of orders 3≤slant m≤slant 15 , for which {ρ(-1)}={≤ft[\\partial F/\\partial {{u}m}\\right]}-1/m} and {{ρ(1)} are non-trivial, i.e. they are not total derivatives and {ρ(-1)} is not linear in its highest order derivative. We obtain the ‘top level’ parts of these equations and their ‘top dependencies’ with respect to the ‘level grading’, that we defined in a previous paper, as a grading on the algebra of polynomials generated by the derivatives u b+i , over the ring of {{C}∞} functions of u,{{u}1},\\ldots,{{u}b} . In this setting b and i are called ‘base’ and ‘level’, respectively. We solve the conserved density conditions to show that if {ρ(-1)} depends on u,{{u}1},\\ldots,{{u}b}, then, these equations are level homogeneous polynomials in {{u}b+i},\\ldots,{{u}m} , i≥slant 1 . Furthermore, we prove that if {ρ(3)} is non-trivial, then {ρ(-1)}={≤ft(α ub2+β {{u}b}+γ \\right)}1/2} , with b≤slant 3 while if {{ρ(3)} is trivial, then {ρ(-1)}={≤ft(λ {{u}b}+μ \\right)}1/3} , where b≤slant 5 and α, β, γ, λ and μ are functions of u,\\ldots,{{u}b-1} . We show that the equations that we obtain form commuting flows and we construct their recursion operators that are respectively of orders 2 and 6 for non-trivial and trivial {{ρ(3)} respectively. Omitting lower order

  20. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  1. Chiral magnetic wave in an expanding QCD fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi, Seyed Farid; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-02-01

    As a consequence of the chiral anomaly, the hydrodynamics of hot quantum chromodynamics (QCD) matter coupled to quantum electrodynamics allows for a long-wavelength mode of chiral charge density, the chiral magnetic wave (CMW), that provides for a mechanism of electric charge separation along the direction of an external magnetic field. Here, we investigate the efficiency of this mechanism for values of the time-dependent magnetic field and of the energy density attained in the hot QCD matter of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. To this end, we derive the CMW equations of motion for expanding systems by treating the CMW as a charge perturbation on top of an expanding Bjorken-type background field in the limit μ /T ≪1 . Both, approximate analytical and full numerical solutions to these equations of motion, indicate that for the lifetime and thermodynamic conditions of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the efficiency of CMW-induced electric charge separation decreases with increasing center-of-mass energy and that the effect is numerically very small. We note, however, that if sizable oriented asymmetries in the axial charge distribution (that are not induced by the CMW) are present in the early fluid dynamic evolution, then the mechanism of CMW-induced electric charge separation can be much more efficient.

  2. Phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point

    DOE PAGES

    Monnai, Akihiko; Mukherjee, Swagato; Yin, Yi

    2017-03-06

    In the proximity of the QCD critical point the bulk viscosity of quark-gluon matter is expected to be proportional to nearly the third power of the critical correlation length, and become significantly enhanced. Here, this work is the first attempt to study the phenomenological consequences of enhanced bulk viscosity near the QCD critical point. For this purpose, we implement the expected critical behavior of the bulk viscosity within a non-boost-invariant, longitudinally expanding 1 + 1 dimensional causal relativistic hydrodynamical evolution at nonzero baryon density. We demonstrate that the critically enhanced bulk viscosity induces a substantial nonequilibrium pressure, effectively softening themore » equation of state, and leads to sizable effects in the flow velocity and single-particle distributions at the freeze-out. In conclusion, the observable effects that may arise due to the enhanced bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the QCD critical point can be used as complementary information to facilitate searches for the QCD critical point.« less

  3. A 0-D flame wrinkling equation to describe the turbulent flame surface evolution in SI engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stéphane; Veynante, Denis

    2015-03-01

    The current development of reciprocating engines relies increasingly on system simulation for both design activities and conception of algorithms for engine control. These numerical simulation tools require high computational efficiencies, as calculations have to be performed in times close to real-time. Then, they are today mainly based on simple empirical laws to describe the combustion processes in the cylinders. However, with the rapid evolution of emission regulations and fuel formulation, more and more physics is expected in combustion models. A solution consists in reducing 3-D combustion models to build 0-dimensional models that are both CPU-efficient and based on physical quantities. This approach has been used in a previous work to reduce the 3-D ECFM (Extended Coherent Flame Model), leading to the so-called CFM1D. A key feature of the latter is to be based on a 0-D equation for the flame wrinkling derived from the 3-D equation for the flame surface density. The objective of this paper is to present in details the theoretical derivation of the wrinkling equation and the underlying modeling assumptions as well. Academic validations are performed against experimental data for several turbulence intensities and fuels. Finally, the proposed model is applied to engine simulations for a wide range of operating conditions. Comparisons are successfully conducted between in-cylinder measurements and the model predictions, highlighting the interest of reducing 3-D CFD models for calculations performed in the context of system simulation.

  4. Cauchy Problem for Evolution Equations of Schrödinger Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, Rossella

    2002-03-01

    In (R. Agliardi, 1995, Internat. J. Math.6, 791-804) we proved the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem in H∞ for some p-evolution equations (p⩾1) with real characteristic roots. For this purpose some assumptions on the lower order terms are needed, which, in the special case p=1, recapture well-known results for hyperbolic operators. In (R. Agliardi, 1995, Internat. J. Math.6, 791-804) the leading coefficients are assumed to be constant. In this paper we allow them to be variable. Our result is applicable to 2-evolution differential operators with real characteristics, i.e., to Schrödinger type operators. This class of operators comprehends, for example, Schrödinger operator Dt-Δx or the plate operator D2t-Δ2x. The Cauchy problem in H∞ for such evolution operators has been studied extensively by Takeuchi when the coefficients in the principal part are constant and the characteristic roots are distinct.

  5. A new (2+1) dimensional integrable evolution equation for an ion acoustic wave in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhik; Janaki, M. S.; Kundu, Anjan

    2015-07-01

    A new, completely integrable, two dimensional evolution equation is derived for an ion acoustic wave propagating in a magnetized, collisionless plasma. The equation is a multidimensional generalization of a modulated wavepacket with weak transverse propagation, which has resemblance to nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and has a connection to Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation through a constraint relation. Higher soliton solutions of the equation are derived through Hirota bilinearization procedure, and an exact lump solution is calculated exhibiting 2D structure. Some mathematical properties demonstrating the completely integrable nature of this equation are described. Modulational instability using nonlinear frequency correction is derived, and the corresponding growth rate is calculated, which shows the directional asymmetry of the system. The discovery of this novel (2+1) dimensional integrable NLS type equation for a magnetized plasma should pave a new direction of research in the field.

  6. A new (2+1) dimensional integrable evolution equation for an ion acoustic wave in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Abhik Janaki, M. S. Kundu, Anjan

    2015-07-15

    A new, completely integrable, two dimensional evolution equation is derived for an ion acoustic wave propagating in a magnetized, collisionless plasma. The equation is a multidimensional generalization of a modulated wavepacket with weak transverse propagation, which has resemblance to nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and has a connection to Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation through a constraint relation. Higher soliton solutions of the equation are derived through Hirota bilinearization procedure, and an exact lump solution is calculated exhibiting 2D structure. Some mathematical properties demonstrating the completely integrable nature of this equation are described. Modulational instability using nonlinear frequency correction is derived, and the corresponding growth rate is calculated, which shows the directional asymmetry of the system. The discovery of this novel (2+1) dimensional integrable NLS type equation for a magnetized plasma should pave a new direction of research in the field.

  7. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero

    2012-08-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  8. On the nonlinear self-adjointness and local conservation laws for a class of evolution equations unifying many models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Igor Leite; Santos Sampaio, Júlio Cesar

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we consider a class of evolution equations up to fifth-order containing many arbitrary smooth functions from the point of view of nonlinear self-adjointness. The studied class includes many important equations modeling different phenomena. In particular, some of the considered equations were studied previously by other researchers from the point of view of quasi self-adjointness or strictly self-adjointness. Therefore we find new local conservation laws for these equations invoking the obtained results on nonlinearly self-adjointness and the conservation theorem proposed by Nail Ibragimov.

  9. Kranc: a Mathematica package to generate numerical codes for tensorial evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husa, Sascha; Hinder, Ian; Lechner, Christiane

    2006-06-01

    We present a suite of Mathematica-based computer-algebra packages, termed "Kranc", which comprise a toolbox to convert certain (tensorial) systems of partial differential evolution equations to parallelized C or Fortran code for solving initial boundary value problems. Kranc can be used as a "rapid prototyping" system for physicists or mathematicians handling very complicated systems of partial differential equations, but through integration into the Cactus computational toolkit we can also produce efficient parallelized production codes. Our work is motivated by the field of numerical relativity, where Kranc is used as a research tool by the authors. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of both the Mathematica packages and the resulting code, we discuss some example applications, and provide results on the performance of an example numerical code for the Einstein equations. Program summaryTitle of program: Kranc Catalogue identifier: ADXS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXS_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Distribution format: tar.gz Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: General computers which run Mathematica (for code generation) and Cactus (for numerical simulations), tested under Linux Programming language used: Mathematica, C, Fortran 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: This depends on the number of variables and gridsize, the included ADM example requires 4308 KB Has the code been vectorized or parallelized: The code is parallelized based on the Cactus framework. Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 578 142 Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11 711 Nature of physical problem: Solution of partial differential equations in three space dimensions, which are formulated as an initial value problem. In particular, the program is geared

  10. Evolution equations for the joint probability of several compositions in turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    One-point statistical simulations of turbulent combustion require models to represent the molecular mixing of species mass fractions, which then determine the reaction rates. For multi-species mixing the Dirichlet distribution has been used to characterize the assumed joint probability density function (PDF) of several scalars, parametrized by solving modeled evolution equations for their means and the sum of their variances. The PDF is then used to represent the mixing state and to obtain the chemical reactions source terms in moment closures or large eddy simulation. We extend the Dirichlet PDF approach to transported PDF methods by developing its governing stochastic differential equation (SDE). The transport equation, as opposed to parametrizing the assumed PDF, enables (1) the direct numerical computation of the joint PDF (and therefore the mixing model to directly account for the flow dynamics (e.g. reaction) on the shape of the evolving PDF), and (2) the individual specification of the mixing timescales of each species. From the SDE, systems of equations are derived that govern the first two moments, based on which constraints are established that provide consistency conditions for material mixing. A SDE whose solution is the generalized Dirichlet PDF is also developed and some of its properties from the viewpoint of material mixing are investigated. The generalized Dirichlet distribution has the following advantages over the standard Dirichlet distribution due to its more general covariance structure: (1) its ability to represent differential diffusion (i.e. skewness) without affecting the scalar means, and (2) it can represent both negatively and positively correlated scalars. The resulting development is a useful representation of the joint PDF of inert or reactive scalars in turbulent flows: (1) In moment closures, the mixing physics can be consistently represented by one underlying modeling principle, the Dirichlet or the generalized Dirichlet PDF, and

  11. QCD In Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    Introduction Symmetry and the Phenomena of QCD Apparent and Actual Symmetries Asymptotic Freedom Confinement Chiral Symmetry Breaking Chiral Anomalies and Instantons High Temperature QCD: Asymptotic Properties Significance of High Temperature QCD Numerical Indications for Quasi-Free Behavior Ideas About Quark-Gluon Plasma Screening Versus Confinement Models of Chiral Symmetry Breaking More Refined Numerical Experiments High-Temperature QCD: Phase Transitions Yoga of Phase Transitions and Order Parameters Application to Glue Theories Application to Chiral Transitions Close Up on Two Flavors A Genuine Critical Point! (?) High-Density QCD: Methods Hopes, Doubts, and Fruition Another Renormalization Group Pairing Theory Taming the Magnetic Singularity High-Density QCD: Color-Flavor Locking and Quark-Hadron Continuity Gauge Symmetry (Non)Breaking Symmetry Accounting Elementary Excitations A Modified Photon Quark-Hadron Continuity Remembrance of Things Past More Quarks Fewer Quarks and Reality

  12. Scale of dark QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Schwaller, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    Most of the mass of ordinary matter has its origin from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A similar strong dynamics, dark QCD, could exist to explain the mass origin of dark matter. Using infrared fixed points of the two gauge couplings, we provide a dynamical mechanism that relates the dark QCD confinement scale to our QCD scale, and hence provides an explanation for comparable dark baryon and proton masses. Together with a mechanism that generates equal amounts of dark baryon and ordinary baryon asymmetries in the early Universe, the similarity of dark matter and ordinary matter energy densities can be naturally explained. For a large class of gauge group representations, the particles charged under both QCD and dark QCD, necessary ingredients for generating the infrared fixed points, are found to have masses at 1-2 TeV, which sets the scale for dark matter direct detection and novel collider signatures involving visible and dark jets.

  13. Coherence and Physics of QCD Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokshitzer, Yu. L.; Khoze, V. A.; Troyan, S. I.

    This paper presents a review of analytical perturbative approach to QCD jet physics. The role of coherent phenomena reflecting the collective character of multiple hadroproduction is emphasized. The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * Perturbative Approach to Hard Processes and Jets * Petrurbation Theory and Shower Picture * Leading Logs, Coherence and Hadronization Schemes * SPACE-TIME PICTURE OF QCD BREMSSTRAHLUNG AND LOCAL PARTON-HADRON DUALITY * Radiation of Partons * Formation and Hadronization times * Gluons and `Gluers's Soft Confinement Scenario * Angular Ordering and `Partonic Gas' * LPHD Concept * ESSENCE OF QCD COHERENCE * Angular Ordering of Successive Parton Branching * Hump-Backed QCD Plateau in Particle Spectra * Soft Gluon Emission from Colourless `Quark-Antiquark Antenna' * Physical Origin of Drag Effect * DOUBLE LOG APPROXIMATION * Tree Multigluon Amplitudes for e^ + e^ - to qbar q + Ng * Proof of Angular Ordering * Virtual Corrections * Cross Section. Method of Generating Functionals * Multiplicity Distributions in DLA * Inclusive Particle Spectra in DLA * ζ -Scaling * MODIFIED LEADING LOG APPROXIMATION * Exact Angular Ordering * MLLA Master Equation * V-Scheme for Gluon Cascades * Jet Polarizability arid Colour Monsters * Magnitude of Dipole Corrections to Jet Characteristics * MLLA RESULTS FOR JET CHARACTERISTICS * Correlators of Jet Multiplicity * Inclusive Energy Spectrum of Partons in MLLA * Developed Cascade and LPHD Concept * On Infrared Stability of Limiting Parton Spectrum * CHROMODYNAMICS OF HADRONIC JETS * On Experimental Selection Procedures * On Structure of Particle Flows in Multijet Events * QCD Portrait of Individual Jet * RADIOPHYSICS OF PARTICLE FLOWS * Inclusive QCD Portrait of {text{qbar qg}} Events of e+e- Annihilation * Drag Phenomena in High p⊥ Hadronic Reactions * Prompt & Production at Large p⊥ * Two Jet Production at Large p⊥ * Correlations of Interjet Particle Flows * Azimuthal Asymmetry of QCD Jets

  14. Standard Model anatomy of WIMP dark matter direct detection. II. QCD analysis and hadronic matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Richard J.; Solon, Mikhail P.

    2015-02-01

    Models of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) specified at the electroweak scale are systematically matched to effective theories at hadronic scales where WIMP-nucleus scattering observables are evaluated. Anomalous dimensions and heavy-quark threshold matching conditions are computed for the complete basis of lowest-dimension effective operators involving quarks and gluons. The resulting QCD renormalization group evolution equations are solved. The status of relevant hadronic matrix elements is reviewed and phenomenological illustrations are given, including details for the computation of the universal limit of nucleon scattering with heavy S U (2 )W×U (1 )Y charged WIMPs. Several cases of previously underestimated hadronic uncertainties are isolated. The results connect arbitrary models specified at the electroweak scale to a basis of nf=3 -flavor QCD operators. The complete basis of operators and Lorentz invariance constraints through order v2/c2 in the nonrelativistic nucleon effective theory are derived.

  15. Frontiers of finite temperature lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsányi, Szabolcs

    2017-03-01

    I review a selection of recent finite temperature lattice results of the past years. First I discuss the extension of the equation of state towards high temperatures and finite densities, then I show recent results on the QCD topological susceptibility at high temperatures and highlight its relevance for dark matter search.

  16. PROGRESS IN LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.

    SciTech Connect

    PETRECZKY,P.

    2007-02-11

    I review recent developments in lattice QCD at finite temperature, including the determination of the transition temperature T{sub c}, equation of state and different static screening lengths. The lattice data suggest that at temperatures above 1.5T{sub c} the quark gluon plasma can be considered as gas consisting of quarks and gluons.

  17. Diffusion-equation representations of landform evolution in the simplest circumstances: Appendix C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Most of us here know that the diffusion equation has also been used to describe the evolution through time of scarp-like landforms, including fault scarps, shoreline scarps, or a set of marine terraces. The methods, models, and data employed in such studies have been described in the literature many times over the past 25 years. For most situations, everything you will ever need (or want) to know can be found in Hanks et al. (1984) and Hanks (2000), the latter being a review of numerous studies of the 1980s and 1990s and a summary of available estimates of the mass diffusivity κ. The geometric parameterization of scarp-like landforms is shown in Figure 1.

  18. A multiscale asymptotic analysis of time evolution equations on the complex plane

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, Gastão A.; Conti, William R. P.

    2016-07-15

    Using an appropriate norm on the space of entire functions, we extend to the complex plane the renormalization group method as developed by Bricmont et al. The method is based upon a multiscale approach that allows for a detailed description of the long time asymptotics of solutions to initial value problems. The time evolution equation considered here arises in the study of iterations of the block spin renormalization group transformation for the hierarchical N-vector model. We show that, for initial conditions belonging to a certain Fréchet space of entire functions of exponential type, the asymptotics is universal in the sense that it is dictated by the fixed point of a certain operator acting on the space of initial conditions.

  19. On polynomial solutions to Fokker-Planck and sinked density evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuparic, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    We analytically solve for the time dependent solutions of various density evolution models. With specific forms of the diffusion, drift and sink coefficients, the eigenfunctions can be expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. We obtain the relevant discrete and continuous spectra for the eigenfunctions. With non-zero sink terms the discrete spectra eigenfunctions are generalizations of well known orthogonal polynomials: the so-called associated-Laguerre, Bessel, Fisher-Snedecor and Romanovski functions. We use MacRobert’s proof to obtain closed form expressions for the continuous normalization of the Romanovski density function. Finally, we apply our results to obtain the analytical solutions associated with the Bertalanffy-Richards-Langevin equation.

  20. Description of the evolution of inhomogeneities on a dark matter halo with the Vlasov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Fernández, Paola; Jiménez-Vázquez, Erik; Alcubierre, Miguel; Montoya, Edison; Núñez, Darío

    2017-09-01

    We use a direct numerical integration of the Vlasov equation in spherical symmetry with a background gravitational potential to determine the evolution of a collection of particles in different models of a galactic halo in order to test its stability against perturbations. Such collection is assumed to represent a dark matter inhomogeneity which is represented by a distribution function defined in phase-space. Non-trivial stationary states are obtained and determined by the virialization of the system. We describe some features of these stationary states by means of the properties of the final distribution function and final density profile. We compare our results using the different halo models and find that the NFW halo model is the most stable of them, in the sense that an inhomogeneity in this halo model requires a shorter time to virialize.

  1. QCD thermodynamics on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkova, Ludmila A.

    Numerical simulations of full QCD on anisotropic lattices provide a convenient way to study QCD thermodynamics with fixed physics scales and reduced lattice spacing errors. We report results from calculations with two flavors of dynamical staggered fermions, where all bare parameters and the renormalized anisotropy are kept constant and the temperature is changed in small steps by varying only the number of time slices. Including results from zero-temperature scale setting simulations, which determine the Karsch coefficients, allows for the calculation of the Equation of State at finite temperatures. We also report on studies of the chiral properties of dynamical domain-wall fermions combined with the DBW2 gauge action for different gauge couplings and fermion masses. For quenched theories, the DBW2 action gives a residual chiral symmetry breaking much smaller than what was found with more traditional choices for the gauge action. Our goal is to investigate the possibilities which this and further improvements provide for the study of QCD thermodynamics and other simulations at stronger couplings.

  2. Continuous Advances in QCD 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloso, Marco M.

    2008-12-01

    1. High-order calculations in QCD and in general gauge theories. NLO evolution of color dipoles / I. Balitsky. Recent perturbative results on heavy quark decays / J. H. Piclum, M. Dowling, A. Pak. Leading and non-leading singularities in gauge theory hard scattering / G. Sterman. The space-cone gauge, Lorentz invariance and on-shell recursion for one-loop Yang-Mills amplitudes / D. Vaman, Y.-P. Yao -- 2. Heavy flavor physics. Exotic cc¯ mesons / E. Braaten. Search for new physics in B[symbol]-mixing / A. J. Lenz. Implications of D[symbol]-D[symbol] mixing for new physics / A. A. Petrov. Precise determinations of the charm quark mass / M. Steinhauser -- 3. Quark-gluon dynamics at high density and/or high temperature. Crystalline condensate in the chiral Gross-Neveu model / G. V. Dunne, G. Basar. The strong coupling constant at low and high energies / J. H. Kühn. Quarkyonic matter and the phase diagram of QCD / L. McLerran. Statistical QCD with non-positive measure / J. C. Osborn, K. Splittorff, J. J. M. Verbaarschot. From equilibrium to transport properties of strongly correlated fermi liquids / T. Schäfer. Lessons from random matrix theory for QCD at finite density / K. Splittorff, J. J. M. Verbaarschot -- 4. Methods and models of holographic correspondence. Soft-wall dynamics in AdS/QCD / B. Batell. Holographic QCD / N. Evans, E. Threlfall. QCD glueball sum rules and vacuum topology / H. Forkel. The pion form factor in AdS/QCD / H. J. Kwee, R. F. Lebed. The fast life of holographic mesons / R. C. Myers, A. Sinha. Properties of Baryons from D-branes and instantons / S. Sugimoto. The master space of N = 1 quiver gauge theories: counting BPS operators / A. Zaffaroni. Topological field congurations. Skyrmions in theories with massless adjoint quarks / R. Auzzi. Domain walls, localization and confinement: what binds strings inside walls / S. Bolognesi. Static interactions of non-abelian vortices / M. Eto. Vortices which do not abelianize dynamically: semi

  3. Thin film evolution equations from (evaporating) dewetting liquid layers to epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, U.

    2010-03-01

    In the present contribution we review basic mathematical results for three physical systems involving self-organizing solid or liquid films at solid surfaces. The films may undergo a structuring process by dewetting, evaporation/condensation or epitaxial growth, respectively. We highlight similarities and differences of the three systems based on the observation that in certain limits all of them may be described using models of similar form, i.e. time evolution equations for the film thickness profile. Those equations represent gradient dynamics characterized by mobility functions and an underlying energy functional. Two basic steps of mathematical analysis are used to compare the different systems. First, we discuss the linear stability of homogeneous steady states, i.e. flat films, and second the systematics of non-trivial steady states, i.e. drop/hole states for dewetting films and quantum-dot states in epitaxial growth, respectively. Our aim is to illustrate that the underlying solution structure might be very complex as in the case of epitaxial growth but can be better understood when comparing the much simpler results for the dewetting liquid film. We furthermore show that the numerical continuation techniques employed can shed some light on this structure in a more convenient way than time-stepping methods. Finally we discuss that the usage of the employed general formulation does not only relate seemingly unrelated physical systems mathematically, but does allow as well for discussing model extensions in a more unified way.

  4. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    PubMed

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Evolution of the temporal slope density function for waves propagating according to the inviscid Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Muhlestein, Michael B; Gee, Kent L

    2016-02-01

    An exact formulation for the evolution of the probability density function of the time derivative of a waveform (slope density) propagating according to the one-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation is given. The formulation relies on the implicit Earnshaw solution and therefore is only valid prior to shock formation. As explicit examples, the slope density evolution of an initially sinusoidal plane wave, initially Gaussian-distributed planar noise, and an initially triangular wave are presented. The triangular wave is used to examine weak-shock limits without violating the theoretical assumptions. It is also shown that the moments of the slope density function as a function of distance may be written as an expansion in terms of the moments of the source slope density function. From this expansion, approximate expressions are presented for the above cases as well as a specific non-Gaussian noise case intended to mimic features of jet noise. Finally, analytical predictions of the propagation of initially Gaussian-distributed noise are compared favorably with plane-wave tube measurements.

  6. Bäcklund Transformations and Non-Abelian Nonlinear Evolution Equations: a Novel Bäcklund Chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carillo, Sandra; Lo Schiavo, Mauro; Schiebold, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    Classes of third order non-Abelian evolution equations linked to that of Korteweg-de Vries-type are investigated and their connections represented in a non-commutative Bäcklund chart, generalizing results in [Fuchssteiner B., Carillo S., Phys. A 154 (1989), 467-510]. The recursion operators are shown to be hereditary, thereby allowing the results to be extended to hierarchies. The present study is devoted to operator nonlinear evolution equations: general results are presented. The implied applications referring to finite-dimensional cases will be considered separately.

  7. Nonlinear Evolution Equation of a Step with Anisotropy in a Diffusion Field for the Two-Sided Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, H.; Soma, T.; Okuda, K.; Wada, K.

    2004-05-01

    The nonlinear evolution equation for the fluctuation of a terrace edge with anisotropy in step stiffness during step flow growth is derived in the two-sided model where adatoms can be incorporated into the step from the upper terrace as well as from the lower terrace. It is shown by reductive perturbation method based on the linear stability analysis that (1) up to ɛ3 order in the smallness parameter of instability the nonlinear evolution equation reduces to the closed Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation with extra coefficients compared with the one-sided model and (2) the nonlinear evolution equation up to ɛ5 order is also derived in order to take into account the anisotropy in step stiffness in the lowest order. The nonlinear evolution equation is numerically calculated for various parameters included. It is also shown that the asymmetry of attachment into a step and the Gibbs-Thomson effect with anisotropy in step stiffness bring about various growth patterns of the step from chaotic growth to periodic growth and further to an inclined straight step mode with a single peak.

  8. On the Dirichlet problem for hypoelliptic evolution equations: Perron-Wiener solution and a cone-type criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogoj, Alessia E.

    2017-02-01

    We show how to apply harmonic spaces potential theory in the study of the Dirichlet problem for a general class of evolution hypoelliptic partial differential equations of second order. We construct Perron-Wiener solution and we provide a sufficient condition for the regularity of the boundary points. Our criterion extends and generalizes the classical parabolic-cone criterion for the Heat equation due to Effros and Kazdan.

  9. An automated tanh-function method for finding solitary wave solutions to non-linear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, E. J.; Duffy, B. R.

    1996-11-01

    The tanh-function method for finding explicit travelling solitary wave solutions to non-linear evolution equations is described. The method is usually extremely tedious to use by hand. We present a Mathematica package ATFM that deals with the tedious algebra and outputs directly the required solutions. The use of the package is illustrated by applying it to a variety of equations; not only are previously known solutions recovered but in some cases more general forms of solution are obtained.

  10. APFEL: A PDF evolution library with QED corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Rojo, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak corrections are important ingredients for many theoretical predictions at the LHC. This paper documents APFEL, a new PDF evolution package that allows for the first time to perform DGLAP evolution up to NNLO in QCD and to LO in QED, in the variable-flavor-number scheme and with either pole or MS bar heavy quark masses. APFEL consistently accounts for the QED corrections to the evolution of quark and gluon PDFs and for the contribution from the photon PDF in the proton. The coupled QCD ⊗ QED equations are solved in x-space by means of higher order interpolation, followed by Runge-Kutta solution of the resulting discretized evolution equations. APFEL is based on an innovative and flexible methodology for the sequential solution of the QCD and QED evolution equations and their combination. In addition to PDF evolution, APFEL provides a module that computes Deep-Inelastic Scattering structure functions in the FONLL general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme up to O(αs2) . All the functionalities of APFEL can be accessed via a Graphical User Interface, supplemented with a variety of plotting tools for PDFs, parton luminosities and structure functions. Written in FORTRAN 77, APFEL can also be used via the C/C++ and Python interfaces, and is publicly available from the HepForge repository.

  11. Anomalous mass dimension in multiflavor QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doff, A.; Natale, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Models of strongly interacting theories with a large mass anomalous dimension (γm) provide an interesting possibility for the dynamical origin of the electroweak symmetry breaking. A laboratory for these models is QCD with many flavors, which may present a nontrivial fixed point associated to a conformal region. Studies based on conformal field theories and on Schwinger-Dyson equations have suggested the existence of bounds on the mass anomalous dimension at the fixed points of these models. In this note we discuss γm values of multiflavor QCD exhibiting a nontrivial fixed point and affected by relevant four-fermion interactions.

  12. QCD results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2005-01-01

    Recent QCD measurements from the CDF collaboration at the Tevatron are presented, together with future prospects as the luminosity increases. The measured inclusive jet cross section is compared to pQCD NLO predictions. Precise measurements on jet shapes and hadronic energy flows are compared to different phenomenological models that describe gluon emissions and the underlying event in hadron-hadron interactions.

  13. Glueball physics in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. M.; Pham, X. Y.; Zhang, Pengming; Xie, Ju-Jun; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-06-01

    The Abelian decomposition of QCD which decomposes the gluons to the color neutral binding gluons and the colored valence gluons shows that QCD can be viewed as the restricted QCD (RCD) made of the binding gluons which has the valence gluons as colored source, and simplifies the QCD dynamics greatly. In particular, it tells that the gauge covariant valence gluons can be treated as the constituents of hadrons, and generalizes the quark model to the quark and valence gluon model. So it provides a comprehensive picture of glueballs and their mixing with quarkoniums, and predicts new hybrid hadrons made of quarks and valence gluons. We discuss how these predictions could be confirmed experimentally. In particular we present a systematic search for the ground state glueballs and their mixing with quarkoniums below 2 GeV in 0++ , 2++, and 0-+ channels within the framework of QCD, and predict the relative branching ratios of the radiative decay of ψ to the physical states.

  14. An Automated Algebraic Method for Finding a Series of Exact Travelling Wave Solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yin-Ping; Li, Zhi-Bin

    2003-03-01

    Based on a type of elliptic equation, a new algebraic method to construct a series of exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations is proposed, meanwhile, its complete implementation TRWS in Maple is presented. The TRWS can output a series of travelling wave solutions entirely automatically, which include polynomial solutions, exponential function solutions, triangular function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions, rational function solutions, Jacobi elliptic function solutions, and Weierstrass elliptic function solutions. The effectiveness of the package is illustrated by applying it to a variety of equations. Not only are previously known solutions recovered but also new solutions and more general form of solutions are obtained.

  15. NLO evolution of color dipoles in N=4 SYM

    SciTech Connect

    Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Balitsky, Ian

    2009-07-04

    Here, high-energy behavior of amplitudes in a gauge theory can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the conformally invariant BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In QCD, the next-to-leading order BK equation has both conformal and non-conformal parts, the latter providing the running of the coupling constant. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformal ${\\cal N}$=4 SYM theory. We define the "composite dipole operator" with the rapidity cutoff preserving conformal invariance.

  16. Progress in vacuum susceptibilities and their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhu-Fang; Hou, Feng-Yao; Shi, Yuan-Mei; Wang, Yong-Long; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-07-15

    The QCD vacuum condensates and various vacuum susceptibilities are all important parameters which characterize the nonperturbative properties of the QCD vacuum. In the QCD sum rules external field formula, various QCD vacuum susceptibilities play important roles in determining the properties of hadrons. In this paper, we review the recent progress in studies of vacuum susceptibilities together with their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD. The results of the tensor, the vector, the axial–vector, the scalar, and the pseudo-scalar vacuum susceptibilities are shown in detail in the framework of Dyson–Schwinger equations.

  17. Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project "Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter" - ARRA portion

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Denes

    2014-04-14

    The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the first four years of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Two main areas have been advanced: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time) on both single-CPU and parallel computers; ii) development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles, and application of this framework to relativistic heavy-ion collisions, in particular, determination of the shear viscosity. Year 5 of the ECRP is under a separate award number, and therefore it has its own report document ’Final Technical Report for Year 5 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCDmatter”’ (award DE-SC0008028). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Topical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).

  18. Precision QCD measurements in DIS at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britzger, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    New and recent results on QCD measurements from the H1 and ZEUS experiments at the HERA ep collider are reviewed. The final results on the combined deep-inelastic neutral and charged current cross-sections are presented and their role in the extractions of parton distribution functions (PDFs) is studied. The PDF fits give insight into the compatibility of QCD evolution and heavy flavor schemes with the data as a function of kinematic variables such as the scale Q2. Measurements of jet production cross-sections in ep collisions provide direct proves of QCD and extractions of the strong coupling constants are performed. Charm and beauty cross-section measurements are used for the determination of the heavy quark masses. Their role in PDF fits is investigated. In the regime of diffractive DIS and photoproduction, dijet and prompt photon production cross-sections provide insights into the process of factorization and the nature of the diffractive exchange.

  19. Light-Front Holography: A First Approximation to QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Teramond, Guy F. de; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2009-02-27

    Starting from the Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD, we identify an invariant light-front coordinate {zeta} which allows the separation of the dynamics of quark and gluon binding from the kinematics of constituent spin and internal orbital angular momentum. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wave functions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. This light-front wave equation is equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes on anti-de Sitter (AdS) space.

  20. Integrability and conservation laws for the nonlinear evolution equations of partially coherent waves in noninstantaneous Kerr media.

    PubMed

    Hansson, T; Lisak, M; Anderson, D

    2012-02-10

    It is shown that the evolution equations describing partially coherent wave propagation in noninstantaneous Kerr media are integrable and have an infinite number of invariants. A recursion relation for generating these invariants is presented, and it is demonstrated how to express them in the coherent density, self-consistent multimode, mutual coherence, and Wigner formalisms.

  1. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution. Stars with degenerate neutron cores. 1: Structure of equilibrium models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.; Zytkow, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    The general relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. Also, a general relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented. Finally, it is argued that in previous work on spherical systems general relativity theorists have identified the wrong quantity as "total mass-energy inside radius r."

  2. Time-evolution of quantum systems via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation. I. Conservative systems with time-independent Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Hans; Schuch, Dieter; Castaños, Octavio; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2015-09-15

    The sensitivity of the evolution of quantum uncertainties to the choice of the initial conditions is shown via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation leading to a reformulation of quantum dynamics. This sensitivity is demonstrated for systems with exact analytic solutions with the form of Gaussian wave packets. In particular, one-dimensional conservative systems with at most quadratic Hamiltonians are studied.

  3. QCD explanation of oscillating hadron and jet multiplicity moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, M. A.; Förster, C.; Ochs, W.

    2003-10-01

    Ratios of multiplicity moments, H q (cumulant over factorial moments K q / F q ), have been observed to show an oscillatory behavior with respect to order, q. Recent studies of e + e - annihilations at LEP have shown, moreover, that the amplitude and oscillation length vary strongly with the jet resolution parameter y cut. We study the predictions of the perturbative QCD parton cascade assuming low non-perturbative cut-off (Q_0˜ Λ_{{QCD}}˜ few 100 MeV) and derive the expectations as a function of the CMS energy and jet resolution from threshold to very high energies. We consider numerical solutions of the evolution equations of gluodynamics in double logarithmic and modified leading logarithmic approximations (DLA, MLLA), as well as results from a parton MC with readjusted parameters. The main characteristics are obtained in MLLA, while a more numerically accurate description is obtained by the MC model. A unified description of correlations between hadrons and correlations between jets emerges, in particular for the transition region of small y cut.

  4. Non-linear QCD dynamics and exclusive production in ep collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.; Meneses, A. R.

    2010-07-01

    The exclusive processes in electron-proton ( ep) interactions are an important tool to investigate the QCD dynamics at high energies as they are in general driven by the gluon content of proton which is strongly subject to parton saturation effects. In this paper we compute the cross sections for the exclusive vector meson production as well as the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) relying on the color dipole approach and considering the numerical solution of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation including running coupling corrections. We show that the small- x evolution given by this evolution equation is able to describe the DESY-HERA data and is relevant for the physics of the exclusive observables in future electron-proton colliders and in photoproduction processes to be measured in coherent interactions at the LHC.

  5. Lattice QCD in rotating frames.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji

    2013-08-23

    We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD.

  6. Robust non-linear differential equation models of gene expression evolution across Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Haye, Alexandre; Albert, Jaroslav; Rooman, Marianne

    2012-01-19

    This paper lies in the context of modeling the evolution of gene expression away from stationary states, for example in systems subject to external perturbations or during the development of an organism. We base our analysis on experimental data and proceed in a top-down approach, where we start from data on a system's transcriptome, and deduce rules and models from it without a priori knowledge. We focus here on a publicly available DNA microarray time series, representing the transcriptome of Drosophila across evolution from the embryonic to the adult stage. In the first step, genes were clustered on the basis of similarity of their expression profiles, measured by a translation-invariant and scale-invariant distance that proved appropriate for detecting transitions between development stages. Average profiles representing each cluster were computed and their time evolution was analyzed using coupled differential equations. A linear and several non-linear model structures involving a transcription and a degradation term were tested. The parameters were identified in three steps: determination of the strongest connections between genes, optimization of the parameters defining these connections, and elimination of the unnecessary parameters using various reduction schemes. Different solutions were compared on the basis of their abilities to reproduce the data, to keep realistic gene expression levels when extrapolated in time, to show the biologically expected robustness with respect to parameter variations, and to contain as few parameters as possible. We showed that the linear model did very well in reproducing the data with few parameters, but was not sufficiently robust and yielded unrealistic values upon extrapolation in time. In contrast, the non-linear models all reached the latter two objectives, but some were unable to reproduce the data. A family of non-linear models, constructed from the exponential of linear combinations of expression levels, reached

  7. Robust non-linear differential equation models of gene expression evolution across Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper lies in the context of modeling the evolution of gene expression away from stationary states, for example in systems subject to external perturbations or during the development of an organism. We base our analysis on experimental data and proceed in a top-down approach, where we start from data on a system's transcriptome, and deduce rules and models from it without a priori knowledge. We focus here on a publicly available DNA microarray time series, representing the transcriptome of Drosophila across evolution from the embryonic to the adult stage. Results In the first step, genes were clustered on the basis of similarity of their expression profiles, measured by a translation-invariant and scale-invariant distance that proved appropriate for detecting transitions between development stages. Average profiles representing each cluster were computed and their time evolution was analyzed using coupled differential equations. A linear and several non-linear model structures involving a transcription and a degradation term were tested. The parameters were identified in three steps: determination of the strongest connections between genes, optimization of the parameters defining these connections, and elimination of the unnecessary parameters using various reduction schemes. Different solutions were compared on the basis of their abilities to reproduce the data, to keep realistic gene expression levels when extrapolated in time, to show the biologically expected robustness with respect to parameter variations, and to contain as few parameters as possible. Conclusions We showed that the linear model did very well in reproducing the data with few parameters, but was not sufficiently robust and yielded unrealistic values upon extrapolation in time. In contrast, the non-linear models all reached the latter two objectives, but some were unable to reproduce the data. A family of non-linear models, constructed from the exponential of linear combinations

  8. Predictive Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Kronfeld, Andreas

    2005-09-21

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the quantum field theory describing the strong interactions of quarks bound inside hadrons. It is marvelous theory, which works (mathematically) at all distance scales. Indeed, for thirty years, theorists have known how to calculate short-distance properties of QCD, thanks to the (Nobel-worthy) idea of asymptotic freedom. More recently, numerical techniques applied to the strong-coupling regime of QCD have enabled us to compute long-distance bound-state properties. In this colloquium, we review these achievements and show how the new-found methods of calculation will influence high-energy physics.

  9. Lattice QCD for nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beane, Silas

    2016-09-01

    Over the last several decades, theoretical nuclear physics has been evolving from a very-successful phenomenology of the properties of nuclei, to a first-principles derivation of the properties of visible matter in the Universe from the known underlying theories of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and Electrodynamics. Many nuclear properties have now been calculated using lattice QCD, a method for treating QCD numerically with large computers. In this talk, some of the most recent results in this frontier area of nuclear theory will be reviewed.

  10. High Temperature Equation of State of Enstatite and Forsterite: Implications for Thermal Origins and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratanduono, D.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal history of terrestrial planets depends upon the melt boundary as it represents the largest rheological transition a material can undergo. This change in rheological behavior with solidification corresponds to a dramatic change in the thermal and chemical transport properties. Because of this dramatic change in thermal transport, recent work by Stixrude et al.[1] suggests that the silicate melt curve sets the thermal profile within super-Earths during their early thermal evolution. Here we present recent decaying shock wave experiments studying both enstatite and forsterite. The continuously measured shock pressure and temperature in these studies ranged from 8 to 1.5 Mbar and 20,000-4,000 K, respectively. We find a point on the MgSiO3 liquidus at 6800 K and 285 GPa, which is nearly a factor of two higher pressure than previously measured and provides a strong constraint on the temperature profile within super-Earths. Our shock temperature measurements on forsterite and enstatite provide much needed equation of state information to the planetary impact modeling community since the shock temperature data can be used to constrain the initial entropy state of a growing planet. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. 1. Stixrude, L., Melting in super-earths. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 2014. 372(2014).

  11. Modeling QCD for Hadron Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Tandy, P. C.

    2011-10-24

    We review the approach to modeling soft hadron physics observables based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations of QCD. The focus is on light quark mesons and in particular the pseudoscalar and vector ground states, their decays and electromagnetic couplings. We detail the wide variety of observables that can be correlated by a ladder-rainbow kernel with one infrared parameter fixed to the chiral quark condensate. A recently proposed novel perspective in which the quark condensate is contained within hadrons and not the vacuum is mentioned. The valence quark parton distributions, in the pion and kaon, as measured in the Drell Yan process, are investigated with the same ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  12. AdS/QCD and its Holographic Light-Front Partonic Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Teramond, Guy F. de; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2009-03-23

    Starting from the Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD we find a single variable light-front equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. This light-front wave equation is equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes on anti-de Sitter (AdS) space.

  13. AdS/QCD and Its Holographic Light-Front Partonic Representation

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2008-11-12

    Starting from the Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD we find a single variable light-front equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. This light-front wave equation is equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes on anti-de Sitter (AdS) space.

  14. Wilsonian matching of effective field theory with underlying QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Masayasu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2001-07-01

    We propose a novel way of matching effective field theory with the underlying QCD in the sense of a Wilsonian renormalization group equation (RGE). We derive Wilsonian matching conditions between current correlators obtained by the operator product expansion in QCD and those by the hidden local symmetry (HLS) model. This determines without much ambiguity the bare parameters of the HLS at the cutoff scale in terms of the QCD parameters. Physical quantities for the {pi} and {rho} system are calculated by the Wilsonian RGE{close_quote}s from the bare parameters in remarkable agreement with the experiment.

  15. Soft QCD at Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, Murilo; /Orsay, LAL

    2010-06-01

    Experimental studies of soft Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at Tevatron are reported in this note. Results on inclusive inelastic interactions, underlying events, double parton interaction and exclusive diffractive production and their implications to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics are discussed.

  16. Resonances in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015 (Fig.~1). A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions; what is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD?; where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers?; and what experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus.This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  17. QCD (&) event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  18. Behavior of universal critical parameters in the QCD phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhm, Marcus; Nahrgang, Marlene; Bass, Steffen A.; Schäfer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We determine the dependence of important parameters for critical fluctuations on temperature and baryon chemical potential in the QCD phase diagram. The analysis is based on an identification of the fluctuations of the order parameter obtained from the Ising model equation of state and the Ginzburg-Landau effective potential approach. The impact of the mapping from Ising model variables to QCD thermodynamics is discussed.

  19. Infrared Behavior and Fixed Points in Landau-Gauge QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Litim, Daniel F.; Nedelko, Sergei; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the infrared behavior of gluon and ghost propagators in Landau-gauge QCD by means of an exact renormalization group equation. We explain how, in general, the infrared momentum structure of Green functions can be extracted within this approach. An optimization procedure is devised to remove residual regulator dependences. In Landau-gauge QCD this framework is used to determine the infrared leading terms of the propagators. The results support the Kugo-Ojima confinement scenario. Possible extensions are discussed.

  20. Next-to-leading order QCD factorization for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering at twist 4.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian; Xing, Hongxi

    2014-03-14

    Within the framework of a high-twist approach, we calculate the next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD corrections to the transverse momentum broadening in semi-inclusive hadron production in deeply inelastic e+A collisions, as well as lepton pair production in p+A collisions. With explicit calculations of both real and virtual contributions, we verify, for the first time, the factorization theorem at twist 4 in NLO for the nuclear-enhanced transverse momentum weighted differential cross section and demonstrate the universality of the associated twist-4 quark-gluon correlation function. We also identify the QCD evolution equation for the twist-4 quark-gluon correlation function in a large nucleus, which can be solved to determine the scale dependence of the jet transport parameter in the study of jet quenching.

  1. QCD and Light-Front Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins /Costa Rica U.

    2011-01-10

    AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a dilaton-modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. Higher Fock states with extra quark-anti quark pairs also arise. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the nonperturbative effective coupling and its {beta}-function. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method to systematically include QCD interaction terms. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.

  2. Mapping the QCD Phase Transition with Accreting Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, D.; Poghosyan, G.; Grigorian, H.

    2008-10-29

    We discuss an idea for how accreting millisecond pulsars could contribute to the understanding of the QCD phase transition in the high-density nuclear matter equation of state (EoS). It is based on two ingredients, the first one being a ''phase diagram'' of rapidly rotating compact star configurations in the plane of spin frequency and mass, determined with state-of-the-art hybrid equations of state, allowing for a transition to color superconducting quark matter. The second is the study of spin-up and accretion evolution in this phase diagram. We show that the quark matter phase transition leads to a characteristic line in the {omega}-M plane, the phase border between neutron stars and hybrid stars with a quark matter core. Along this line a drop in the pulsar's moment of inertia entails a waiting point phenomenon in the accreting millisecond pulsar (AMXP) evolution: most of these objects should therefore be found along the phase border in the {omega}-M plane, which may be viewed as the AMXP analog of the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for normal stars. In order to prove the existence of a high-density phase transition in the cores of compact stars we need population statistics for AMXPs with sufficiently accurate determination of their masses, spin frequencies and magnetic fields.

  3. Nucleon Parton Structure from Continuum QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednar, Kyle; Cloet, Ian; Tandy, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The parton structure of the nucleon is investigated using QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs). This formalism builds in numerous essential features of QCD, for example, the dressing of parton propagators and dynamical formation of non-pointlike di-quark correlations. All needed elements of the approach, including the nucleon wave function solution from a Poincaré covariant Faddeev equation, are encoded in spectral-type representations in the Nakanishi style. This facilitates calculations and the necessary connections between Euclidean and Minkowski metrics. As a first step results for the nucleon quark distribution functions will be presented. The extension to the transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs) also be discussed. Supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1516138.

  4. FOREWORD: Extreme QCD 2012 (xQCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Bazavov, Alexei; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2013-04-01

    The Extreme QCD 2012 conference, held at the George Washington University in August 2012, celebrated the 10th event in the series. It has been held annually since 2003 at different locations: San Carlos (2011), Bad Honnef (2010), Seoul (2009), Raleigh (2008), Rome (2007), Brookhaven (2006), Swansea (2005), Argonne (2004), and Nara (2003). As usual, it was a very productive and inspiring meeting that brought together experts in the field of finite-temperature QCD, both theoretical and experimental. On the experimental side, we heard about recent results from major experiments, such as PHENIX and STAR at Brookhaven National Laboratory, ALICE and CMS at CERN, and also about the constraints on the QCD phase diagram coming from astronomical observations of one of the largest laboratories one can imagine, neutron stars. The theoretical contributions covered a wide range of topics, including QCD thermodynamics at zero and finite chemical potential, new ideas to overcome the sign problem in the latter case, fluctuations of conserved charges and how they allow one to connect calculations in lattice QCD with experimentally measured quantities, finite-temperature behavior of theories with many flavors of fermions, properties and the fate of heavy quarkonium states in the quark-gluon plasma, and many others. The participants took the time to write up and revise their contributions and submit them for publication in these proceedings. Thanks to their efforts, we have now a good record of the ideas presented and discussed during the workshop. We hope that this will serve both as a reminder and as a reference for the participants and for other researchers interested in the physics of nuclear matter at high temperatures and density. To preserve the atmosphere of the event the contributions are ordered in the same way as the talks at the conference. We are honored to have helped organize the 10th meeting in this series, a milestone that reflects the lasting interest in this

  5. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear QCD dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2004-09-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon cross sections are computed taking into account different phenomenological implementations of the nonlinear QCD dynamics. Based on the color dipole framework, the results for the saturation model supplemented by the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution as well as for the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) formalism in the geometric scaling regime are presented. They are contrasted with recent calculations using next-to-leading order DGLAP and unified BFKL-DGLAP formalisms.

  6. Analytical solutions with the improved (G’/G)-expansion method for nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet; Akbulut, Arzu

    2016-10-01

    To seek the exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs), the improved (G'/G)-expansion method is proposed in the present work. With the aid of symbolic computation, this effective method is applied to construct exact solutions of the (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear dispersive modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation and (3+1)- dimensional Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation. As a result, new types of exact solutions are obtained.

  7. Nonlinear inhomogeneous Fokker-Planck equations: Entropy and free-energy time evolution.

    PubMed

    Sicuro, Gabriele; Rapčan, Peter; Tsallis, Constantino

    2016-12-01

    We extend a recently introduced free-energy formalism for homogeneous Fokker-Planck equations to a wide, and physically appealing, class of inhomogeneous nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations. In our approach, the free-energy functional is expressed in terms of an entropic functional and an auxiliary potential, both derived from the coefficients of the equation. With reference to the introduced entropic functional, we discuss the entropy production in a relaxation process towards equilibrium. The properties of the stationary solutions of the considered Fokker-Planck equations are also discussed.

  8. Nuclear chiral dynamics and phases of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, W.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation starts with a brief review of our current picture of QCD phases, derived from lattice QCD thermodynamics and from models based on the symmetries and symmetry breaking patterns of QCD. Typical approaches widely used in this context are the PNJL and chiral quark-meson models. It is pointed out, however, that the modeling of the phase diagram in terms of quarks as quasiparticles misses important and well known nuclear physics constraints. In the hadronic phase of QCD governed by confinement and spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, in-medium chiral effective field theory is the appropriate framework, with pions and nucleons as active degrees of freedom. Nuclear chiral thermodynamics is outlined and the liquid-gas phase transition is described. The density and temperature dependence of the chiral condensate is deduced. As a consequence of two- and three-body correlations in the nuclear medium, no tendency towards a first-order chiral phase transition is found at least up to twice the baryon density of normal nuclear matter and up to temperatures of about 100 MeV. Isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter are also discussed. An outlook is given on new tightened constraints for the equation-of-state of cold and highly compressed matter as implied by a recently observed two-solar-mass neutron star.

  9. Evolutions of Longitudinal Structure Function F L upto Next-to-Next-to-Leading Orders at Small- x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Nomita; Sarma, J. K.

    2014-07-01

    We compute the longitudinal structure function F L of proton from its QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) evolution equation in next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) approximation at small- x. Here we use Taylor series expansion method to solve the evolution equation for small- x and the obtained simple analytical expressions for F L provide t- and x-evolution equations for the computation of the longitudinal structure function. Finally, we compare our results with the recent H1, ZEUS experimental data and results of MSTW, CT10 parameterizations and Block, Donnachie-Landshoff (DL) models. Our results are in good agreement with the data and the related fittings and parameterizations, which can also be described within the framework of perturbative QCD.

  10. QCD at D0 and CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Blazey, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    Selected recent Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) results from the D0 and CDF experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented and discussed. The inclusive jet and inclusive triple differential dijet cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations. The sensitivity of the dijet cross section to parton distribution functions (for hadron momentum fractions {approximately} 0.01 to {approximately} 0.4) will constrain the gluon distribution of the proton. Two analyses of dijet production at large rapidity separation are presented. The first analysis tests the contributions of higher order processes to dijet production and can be considered a test of BFKL or GLAP parton evolution. The second analysis yields a strong rapidity gap signal consistent with colorless exchange between the scattered partons. The prompt photon inclusive cross section is consistent with next-to-leading order QCD only at the highest transverse momenta. The discrepancy at lower momenta may be indicative of higher order processes impacting a transverse momentum or ``k{sub T}`` to the partonic interaction. The first measurement of the strong coupling constant from the Tevatron is also presented. The coupling constant can be determined from the ratio of W + 1jet to W + 0jet cross sections and a next-to-leading order QCD calculation.

  11. QCD analysis of nucleon structure functions in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering: Laplace transform and Jacobi polynomials approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Tehrani, S. Atashbar; Mahdavi, Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    We present a detailed QCD analysis of nucleon structure functions x F3(x ,Q2) , based on Laplace transforms and the Jacobi polynomials approach. The analysis corresponds to the next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order approximations of perturbative QCD. The Laplace transform technique, as an exact analytical solution, is used for the solution of nonsinglet Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations at low- and large-x values. The extracted results are used as input to obtain the x and Q2 evolution of x F3(x ,Q2) structure functions using the Jacobi polynomials approach. In our work, the values of the typical QCD scale ΛMS¯ (nf) and the strong coupling constant αs(MZ2) are determined for four quark flavors (nf=4 ) as well. A careful estimation of the uncertainties shall be performed using the Hessian method for the valence-quark distributions, originating from the experimental errors. We compare our valence-quark parton distribution functions sets with those of other collaborations, in particular with the CT14, MMHT14, and NNPDF sets, which are contemporary with the present analysis. The obtained results from the analysis are in good agreement with those from the literature.

  12. Electroweak symmetry breaking via QCD.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Jisuke; Lim, Kher Sham; Lindner, Manfred

    2014-08-29

    We propose a new mechanism to generate the electroweak scale within the framework of QCD, which is extended to include conformally invariant scalar degrees of freedom belonging to a larger irreducible representation of SU(3)c. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered dynamically via the Higgs portal by the condensation of the colored scalar field around 1 TeV. The mass of the colored boson is restricted to be 350  GeV≲mS≲3  TeV, with the upper bound obtained from perturbative renormalization group evolution. This implies that the colored boson can be produced at the LHC. If the colored boson is electrically charged, the branching fraction of the Higgs boson decaying into two photons can slightly increase, and moreover, it can be produced at future linear colliders. Our idea of nonperturbative electroweak scale generation can serve as a new starting point for more realistic model building in solving the hierarchy problem.

  13. Renormalization-group evolution of the B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude.

    PubMed

    Lange, Björn O; Neubert, Matthias

    2003-09-05

    An integro-differential equation governing the evolution of the leading-order B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude is derived. The anomalous dimension in this equation contains a logarithm of the renormalization scale, whose coefficient is identified with the cusp anomalous dimension of Wilson loops. The exact solution of the evolution equation is obtained, from which the asymptotic behavior of the distribution amplitude is derived. These results can be used to resum Sudakov logarithms entering the hard-scattering kernels in QCD factorization theorems for exclusive B decays.

  14. Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  15. Lattice QCD simulation with the overlap Dirac operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Joseph

    A complete understanding of the predictions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) will be an important part of moving particle physics beyond the current Standard Model. At the energy scales relevant to bound QCD systems, such as the pion and the proton, non-perturbative techniques must be used to estimate QCD predictions. The non-perturbative method used to investigate QCD is lattice QCD, or QCD on a discrete spacetime lattice. One aspect of continuum QCD that should be preserved in lattice QCD is chiral symmetry. The inability of maintaining such symmetry in the discretization of the Dirac equation has for years been a shortcoming of lattice QCD. Recently, however, Neuberger has introduced the overlap Dirac operator, which preserves exact chiral symmetry, even at finite lattice spacing. This dissertation describes a simulation of lattice QCD using the Wilson gauge action and the overlap Dirac operator, performed on two separate lattices. The first was an 183 x 64 lattice (where the first number represents the spatial extent and the second the extent in time) with coupling beta = 6.0 (lattice spacing a-1 ≃ 2.0 GeV), and the second a 143 x 48 lattice with coupling beta = 5.85 (lattice spacing a-1 ≃ 1.5 GeV). The finer 183 x 64 lattice size was chosen in order to allow a large enough extent in time for prediction of QCD observables that previous investigations using smaller lattices were unable to predict. The coarser 143 x 48 lattice was chosen to have roughly the same physical volume as the finer lattice, allowing for an investigation into scaling effects. The dissertation begins with a review of the basics of QCD and lattice QCD, including descriptions of the overlap Dirac operator and chiral symmetry on the lattice. Next, the results from the two simulations are presented. The chiral nature of the overlap Dirac operator is confirmed. The light hadron spectrum is presented, along with decay constants and other observables. An investigation is described on the use

  16. Random matrix model for QCD{sub 3} staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bialas, P.; Burda, Z.; Petersson, B.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the lowest part of the eigenvalue density of the staggered fermion operator in lattice QCD{sub 3} at small lattice coupling constant {beta} has exactly the same shape as in QCD{sub 4}. This observation is quite surprising, since universal properties of the QCD{sub 3} Dirac operator are expected to be described by a nonchiral matrix model. We show that this effect is related to the specific nature of the staggered fermion discretization and that the eigenvalue density evolves toward the nonchiral random matrix prediction when {beta} is increased and the continuum limit is approached. We propose a two-matrix model with one free parameter which interpolates between the two limits and very well mimics the pattern of evolution with {beta} of the eigenvalue density of the staggered fermion operator in QCD{sub 3}.

  17. Small-x Evolution of Structure Functions in the Next-to-Leading Order

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanni Antonio Chirilli

    2009-12-01

    The high-energy behavior of amplitudes in gauge theories can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading order this evolution is governed by the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation. The NLO corrections define the scale of the running coupling constant in the BK equation and in QCD, its kernel has both conformal and non-conformal parts. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformal N = 4 SYM theory, then we define the "composite dipole operator" with the rapidity cutoff preserving conformal invariance, and the resulting Möbius invariant kernel for this operator agrees with the forward NLO BFKL calculation. In QCD, the NLO kernel for the composite operators resolves in a sum of the conformal part and the running-coupling part.

  18. Small-x Evolution of Structure Functions in the Next-to-Leading Order

    SciTech Connect

    Chirilli, Giovanni A.

    2009-12-17

    The high-energy behavior of amplitudes in gauge theories can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading order this evolution is governed by the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation. The NLO corrections define the scale of the running-coupling constant in the BK equation and in QCD, its kernel has both conformal and non-conformal parts. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformal N = 4 SYM theory, then we define the 'composite dipole operator' with the rapidity cutoff preserving conformal invariance, and the resulting Moebius invariant kernel for this operator agrees with the forward NLO BFKL calculation.In QCD, the NLO kernel for the composite operators resolves in a sum of the conformal part and the running-coupling part.

  19. Evolution of higher order nonlinear equation for the dust ion-acoustic waves in nonextensive plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yasmin, S.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2012-10-15

    There are three different types of nonlinear equations, namely, Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and mixed modified K-dV (mixed mK-dV) equations, for the nonlinear propagation of the dust ion-acoustic (DIA) waves. The effects of electron nonextensivity on DIA solitary waves propagating in a dusty plasma (containing negatively charged stationary dust, inertial ions, and nonextensive q distributed electrons) are examined by solving these nonlinear equations. The basic features of mixed mK-dV (higher order nonlinear equation) solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The properties of mK-dV solitons are compared with those of mixed mK-dV solitons. It is found that both positive and negative solitons are obtained depending on the q (nonextensive parameter).

  20. Baryons and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1997-03-01

    The author presents an idiosyncratic view of baryons which calls for a marriage between quark-based and hadronic models of QCD. He advocates a treatment based on valence quark plus glue dominance of hadron structure, with the sea of q pairs (in the form of virtual hadron pairs) as important corrections.

  1. QCD: Quantum Chromodynamics

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The strongest force in the universe is the strong nuclear force and it governs the behavior of quarks and gluons inside protons and neutrons. The name of the theory that governs this force is quantum chromodynamics, or QCD. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the intricacies of this dominant component of the Standard Model.

  2. QCD and Hadron Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  3. REGGE TRAJECTORIES IN QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V.; Efremov, Anatoly Vasilievich; Ginzburg, Ilya F.

    2013-04-01

    We discuss some problems concerning the application of perturbative QCD to high energy soft processes. We show that summing the contributions of the lowest twist operators for non-singlet $t$-channel leads to a Regge-like amplitude. Singlet case is also discussed.

  4. QCD results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, R.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    Results are presented for hadronic jet and direct photon production at {radical}{bar s} = 1800 GeV. The data are compared with next-to-leading QCD calculations. A new limit on the scale of possible composite structure of the quarks is also reported. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  5. QCD physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, T.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-10-01

    The CDF collaboration is engaged in a broad program of QCD measurements at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. I will discuss inclusive jet production at center-of-mass energies of 1800 GeV and 630 GeV, properties of events with very high total transverse energy and dijet angular distributions.

  6. Progress in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2002-09-30

    After reviewing some of the mathematical foundations and numerical difficulties facing lattice QCD, I review the status of several calculations relevant to experimental high-energy physics. The topics considered are moments of structure functions, which may prove relevant to search for new phenomena at the LHC, and several aspects of flavor physics, which are relevant to understanding CP and flavor violation.

  7. QCD: Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-06-17

    The strongest force in the universe is the strong nuclear force and it governs the behavior of quarks and gluons inside protons and neutrons. The name of the theory that governs this force is quantum chromodynamics, or QCD. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the intricacies of this dominant component of the Standard Model.

  8. Phenomenology Using Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R.

    2005-08-01

    This talk provides a brief summary of the status of lattice QCD calculations of the light quark masses and the kaon bag parameter BK. Precise estimates of these four fundamental parameters of the standard model, i.e., mu, md, ms and the CP violating parameter η, help constrain grand unified models and could provide a window to new physics.

  9. Phenomenology Using Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R.

    This talk provides a brief summary of the status of lattice QCD calculations of the light quark masses and the kaon bag parameter BK. Precise estimates of these four fundamental parameters of the standard model, i.e., mu, md, ms and the CP violating parameter η, help constrain grand unified models and could provide a window to new physics.

  10. QCD propagators and vertices from lattice QCD (in memory of Michael Müller-Preußker)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternbeck, André

    2017-03-01

    We review lattice calculations of the elementary Greens functions of QCD with a special emphasis on the Landau gauge. These lattice results have been of interest to continuum approaches to QCD over the past 20 years. They are used as reference for Dyson-Schwinger- and functional renormalization group equation calculations as well as for hadronic bound state equations. The lattice provides low-energy data for propagators and three-point vertices in Landau gauge at zero and finite temperature even including dynamical fermions. We summarize Michael Müller-Preußker's important contributions to this field and put them into the perspective of his other research interests.

  11. RAEEM: A Maple package for finding a series of exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Yin-Ping

    2004-11-01

    In Maple 8, by taking advantage of the package RIF contained in DEtools, we developed a package RAEEM which is a comprehensive and complete implementation of such methods as the tanh-method, the extended tanh-method, the Jacobi elliptic function method and the elliptic equation method. RAEEM can entirely automatically output a series of exact traveling wave solutions, including those of polynomial, exponential, triangular, hyperbolic, rational, Jacobi elliptic, Weierstrass elliptic type. The effectiveness of the package is illustrated by applying it to a large variety of equations. In addition to recovering previously known solutions, we also obtain more general forms of some solutions and new solutions. Program summaryTitle of program: RAEEM Catalogue identifier: ADUP Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUP Program obtained from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: PC Pentium IV Installations: Copy Operating systems: Windows 98/2000/XP Program language used: Maple 8 Memory required to execute with typical data: depends on the problem, minimum about 8M words No. of bits in a word: 8 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3163 No. of bytes in distributed program, including the test data, etc.: 26 720 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Our program provides exact traveling wave solutions, which describe various phenomena in nature, and thus can give more insight into the physical aspects of problems. These solutions may be easily used in further applications. Restriction on the complexity of the problem: The program can handle system of nonlinear evolution equations with any number of independent and dependent variables, in which each equation is a polynomial (or can be converted to a polynomial) in the dependent variables and their derivatives. Typical running time: It depends on the input equations as well as the degrees of the desired polynomial solutions. For

  12. Evolution of initial discontinuities in the Riemann problem for the Kaup-Boussinesq equation with positive dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congy, T.; Ivanov, S. K.; Kamchatnov, A. M.; Pavloff, N.

    2017-08-01

    We consider the space-time evolution of initial discontinuities of depth and flow velocity for an integrable version of the shallow water Boussinesq system introduced by Kaup. We focus on a specific version of this "Kaup-Boussinesq model" for which a flat water surface is modulationally stable, we speak below of "positive dispersion" model. This model also appears as an approximation to the equations governing the dynamics of polarisation waves in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We describe its periodic solutions and the corresponding Whitham modulation equations. The self-similar, one-phase wave structures are composed of different building blocks, which are studied in detail. This makes it possible to establish a classification of all the possible wave configurations evolving from initial discontinuities. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  13. Conformal Aspects of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S

    2003-11-19

    Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that the QCD coupling becomes constant at small virtuality; i.e., {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) develops an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. For example, the hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton can be used to determine the effective charge {alpha}{sub {tau}}(m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2}) for a hypothetical {tau}-lepton with mass in the range 0 < m{sub {tau}{prime}} < m{sub {tau}}. The {tau} decay data at low mass scales indicates that the effective charge freezes at a value of s = m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2} of order 1 GeV{sup 2} with a magnitude {alpha}{sub {tau}} {approx} 0.9 {+-} 0.1. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer and why there are no significant running coupling corrections to quark counting rules for exclusive processes. The AdS/CFT correspondence of large N{sub c} supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with supersymmetric QCD in 4-dimensional space-time also has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for exclusive processes and light-front wavefunctions. The utility of light-front quantization and light-front Fock wavefunctions for analyzing nonperturbative QCD and representing the dynamics of QCD bound states is also discussed.

  14. Novel QCD Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-08-12

    I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom in hadron physics has been challenged. For example, hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard higher-twist QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation. Such 'direct' processes can explain the deviations from perturbative QCD predictions in measurements of inclusive hadron cross sections at fixed x{sub T} = 2p{sub T}/{radical}s, as well as the 'baryon anomaly', the anomalously large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Initial-state and final-state interactions of the struck quark, the soft-gluon rescattering associated with its Wilson line, lead to Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing and antishadowing. The Gribov-Glauber theory predicts that antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is not universal, but instead depends on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark, thus explaining the anomalous nuclear dependence measured in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering. Since shadowing and antishadowing arise from the physics of leading-twist diffractive deep inelastic scattering, one cannot attribute such phenomena to the structure of the nucleus itself. It is thus important to distinguish 'static' structure functions, the probability distributions computed from the square of the target light-front wavefunctions, versus 'dynamical' structure functions which include the effects of the final-state rescattering of the struck quark. The importance of the J = 0 photon-quark QCD contact interaction in deeply virtual Compton scattering is also emphasized. The scheme-independent BLM method for setting the renormalization scale is discussed. Eliminating the renormalization scale ambiguity greatly improves the precision of QCD predictions and increases the sensitivity of searches for new physics at the LHC

  15. Novel QCD Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2011-04-01

    I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom in hadron physics has been challenged. For example, hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation. Such "direct" higher-twist processes can explain the deviations from perturbative QCD predictions in measurements of inclusive hadron cross sections at fixed {xT} = 2{pT}/√ s , as well as the "baryon anomaly, the anomalously large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Initial-state and final-state interactions of the struck quark, soft-gluon rescattering associated with its Wilson line lead to Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing and antishadowing. The Gribov-Glauber theory predicts that antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is not universal, but instead depends on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark, thus explaining the anomalous nuclear dependence measured in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering. Since shadowing and antishadowing arise from the physics of leading-twist diffractive deep inelastic scattering, one cannot attribute such phenomena to the structure of the nucleus itself. It is thus important to distinguish "static" structure functions, the probability distributions computed from the square of the target light-front wavefunctions, versus "dynamical" structure functions which include the effects of the final-state rescattering of the struck quark. The importance of the J = 0 photon-quark QCD contact interaction in deeply virtual Compton scattering is also emphasized. The scheme-independent BLM method for setting the renormalization scale is discussed. The elimination of the renormalization scale ambiguity would greatly improve the precision of QCD predictions and increase the sensitivity of searches for new physics at the LHC. Other novel

  16. The optimal control of a new class of impulsive stochastic neutral evolution integro-differential equations with infinite delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zuomao; Lu, Fangxia

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce the optimal control problems governed by a new class of impulsive stochastic partial neutral evolution equations with infinite delay in Hilbert spaces. First, by using stochastic analysis, the analytic semigroup theory, fractional powers of closed operators, and suitable fixed point theorems, we prove an existence result of mild solutions for the control systems in the α-norm without the assumptions of compactness. Next, we derive the existence conditions of optimal pairs of these systems. Finally, application to a nonlinear impulsive stochastic parabolic optimal control system is considered.

  17. The prediction of adaptive evolution: empirical application of the secondary theorem of selection and comparison to the breeder's equation.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael B; Parker, Darren J; Korsten, Peter; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Wilson, Alastair J

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive evolution occurs when fitness covaries with genetic merit for a trait (or traits). The breeder's equation (BE), in both its univariate and multivariate forms, allows us to predict this process by combining estimates of selection on phenotype with estimates of genetic (co)variation. However, predictions are only valid if all factors causal for trait-fitness covariance are measured. Although this requirement will rarely (if ever) be met in practice, it can be avoided by applying Robertson's secondary theorem of selection (STS). The STS predicts evolution by directly estimating the genetic basis of trait-fitness covariation without any explicit model of selection. Here we apply the BE and STS to four morphological traits measured in Soay sheep (Ovis aries) from St. Kilda. Despite apparently positive selection on heritable size traits, sheep are not getting larger. However, although the BE predicts increasing size, the STS does not, which is a discrepancy that suggests unmeasured factors are upwardly biasing our estimates of selection on phenotype. We suggest this is likely to be a general issue, and that wider application of the STS could offer at least a partial resolution to the common discrepancy between naive expectations and observed trait dynamics in natural populations. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tevzadze, Alexander G.; Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-11-01

    We study the evolution of QCD phase transition-generated magnetic fields (MFs) in freely decaying MHD turbulence of the expanding universe. We consider an MF generation model that starts from basic non-perturbative QCD theory and predicts stochastic MFs with an amplitude of the order of 0.02 {mu}G and small magnetic helicity. We employ direct numerical simulations to model the MHD turbulence decay and identify two different regimes: a 'weakly helical' turbulence regime, when magnetic helicity increases during decay, and 'fully helical' turbulence, when maximal magnetic helicity is reached and an inverse cascade develops. The results of our analysis show that in the most optimistic scenario the magnetic correlation length in the comoving frame can reach 10 kpc with the amplitude of the effective MF being 0.007 nG. We demonstrate that the considered model of magnetogenesis can provide the seed MF for galaxies and clusters.

  19. Viscous QCD matter in a hybrid hydrodynamic+Boltzmann approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huichao; Bass, Steffen A.; Heinz, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    A hybrid transport approach for the bulk evolution of viscous QCD matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented. The expansion of the dense deconfined phase of the reaction is modeled with viscous hydrodynamics, while the dilute late hadron gas stage is described microscopically by the Boltzmann equation. The advantages of such a hybrid approach lie in the improved capability of handling large dissipative corrections in the late dilute phase of the reaction, including a realistic treatment of the nonequilibrium hadronic chemistry and kinetic freeze-out. By varying the switching temperature at which the hydrodynamic output is converted to particles for further propagation with the Boltzmann cascade we test the ability of the macroscopic hydrodynamic approach to emulate the microscopic evolution during the hadronic stage and extract the temperature dependence of the effective shear viscosity of the hadron resonance gas produced in the collision. We find that the extracted values depend on the prior hydrodynamic history and hence do not represent fundamental transport properties of the hadron resonance gas. We conclude that viscous fluid dynamics does not provide a faithful description of hadron resonance gas dynamics with predictive power, and that both components of the hybrid approach are needed for a quantitative description of the fireball expansion and its freeze-out.

  20. Viscous QCD matter in a hybrid hydrodynamic+Boltzmann approach

    SciTech Connect

    Song Huichao; Bass, Steffen A.; Heinz, Ulrich

    2011-02-15

    A hybrid transport approach for the bulk evolution of viscous QCD matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented. The expansion of the dense deconfined phase of the reaction is modeled with viscous hydrodynamics, while the dilute late hadron gas stage is described microscopically by the Boltzmann equation. The advantages of such a hybrid approach lie in the improved capability of handling large dissipative corrections in the late dilute phase of the reaction, including a realistic treatment of the nonequilibrium hadronic chemistry and kinetic freeze-out. By varying the switching temperature at which the hydrodynamic output is converted to particles for further propagation with the Boltzmann cascade we test the ability of the macroscopic hydrodynamic approach to emulate the microscopic evolution during the hadronic stage and extract the temperature dependence of the effective shear viscosity of the hadron resonance gas produced in the collision. We find that the extracted values depend on the prior hydrodynamic history and hence do not represent fundamental transport properties of the hadron resonance gas. We conclude that viscous fluid dynamics does not provide a faithful description of hadron resonance gas dynamics with predictive power, and that both components of the hybrid approach are needed for a quantitative description of the fireball expansion and its freeze-out.

  1. AdS/QCD and Light Front Holography: A New Approximation to QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy

    2010-02-15

    The combination of Anti-de Sitter space (AdS) methods with light-front holography leads to a semi-classical first approximation to the spectrum and wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states. Starting from the bound-state Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD, we derive relativistic light-front wave equations in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. These equations of motion in physical space-time are equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. Its eigenvalues give the hadronic spectrum, and its eigenmodes represent the probability distribution of the hadronic constituents at a given scale. Applications to the light meson and baryon spectra are presented. The predicted meson spectrum has a string-theory Regge form M{sup 2} = 4{kappa}{sup 2}(n+L+S/2); i.e., the square of the eigenmass is linear in both L and n, where n counts the number of nodes of the wavefunction in the radial variable {zeta}. The space-like pion form factor is also well reproduced. One thus obtains a remarkable connection between the description of hadronic modes in AdS space and the Hamiltonian formulation of QCD in physical space-time quantized on the light-front at fixed light-front time {tau}. The model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method in order to systematically include the QCD interaction terms.

  2. An evolution infinity Laplace equation modelling dynamic elasto-plastic torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messelmi, Farid

    2016-09-01

    We consider in this paper a parabolic partial differential equation involving the infinity Laplace operator and a Leray-Lions operator with no coercitive assumption. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the corresponding approached problem and we show that at the limit the solution solves the parabolic variational inequality arising in the elasto-plastic torsion problem.

  3. QCD bulk thermodynamics and conserved charge fluctuations with HISQ fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christian; pre="(for" post="" affil="1, HotQcd; Bnl-Bielefeld Collaborations

    2013-04-01

    After briefly reviewing recent progress by the HotQCD collaboration in studying the 2+1 flavor QCD equation of state, we will focus on results on fluctuations of conserved charges by the BNL-Bielefeld and HotQCD collaborations. Higher order cumulants of the net-charge distributions are increasingly dominated by a universal scaling behavior, which arises due to a critical point of QCD in the chiral limit. Considering cumulants up to the 6th order, we observe that they generically behave as expected from universal scaling laws, which is quite different from cumulants calculated within the hadron resonance gas model. Taking ratios of these cumulants, we obtain volume independent results that can be compared to the experimental measurements. We will argue that the freeze-out chemical potentials and the freeze-out temperature, usually obtained by a HRG model fit to the measured hadronic yields, can also be obtained in a model independent way from ab-initio lattice QCD calculations by utilizing observables related to conserved charge fluctuations. Further, we will show that the freeze-out strangeness and electric charge chemical potentials can be fixed by imposing strangeness neutrality and isospin asymmetry constraints in the lattice QCD calculations, in order to accommodate conditions met in heavy ion collisions. All results have been obtained with the highly improved staggered quark action (HISQ) and almost physical quark masses on lattices with temporal extent of Nτ = 6, 8, 10, 12.

  4. The Price equation framework to study disease within-host evolution.

    PubMed

    Alizon, S

    2009-05-01

    The evolution of infectious diseases is known to affect epidemiological dynamics, but, for some viruses and bacteria, this evolution also takes place inside a host during the course of an infection. I develop an original approach to study intrahost evolutionary dynamics of quantitative disease traits. This approach can be expressed mathematically using the ‘Price equation’ framework recently developed in evolutionary epidemiology. This framework combines population genetics and within-host population dynamics models to identify trade-offs that affect disease intrahost evolution and to predict short-term evolutionary dynamics of life-history traits. I show that this can be applied to study the evolution of viruses competing for host cells or to study the coevolution between parasites and the immune system of the host. This framework can also easily incorporate experimental data. Studying intrahost evolutionary dynamics provides insight at the within-host level, because it allows us to better understand the course of chronic infections, and at the epidemiological level, because it helps to study multi-scale evolutionary processes. This framework can be used to address important biological issues, from immune escape to disease evolutionary response to treatments.

  5. The evolution equation for the flame surface density in turbulent premixed combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouve, A.; Poinsot, T.

    1992-01-01

    One central ingredient in flamelet models for turbulent premixed combustion is the flame surface density. This quantity conveys most of the effects of the turbulence on the rate of energy release and is obtained via a modeled transport equation, called the Sigma-equation. Past theoretical work has produced a rigorous approach that leads to an exact, but unclosed, formulation for the turbulent Sigma-equation. In this exact Sigma-equation, it appears that the dynamical properties of the flame surface density are determined by a single parameter, namely the turbulent flame stretch. Unfortunately, the flame surface density and the turbulent flame stretch are not available from experiments and, in the absence of experimental data, little is known on the validity of the closure assumptions used in current flamelet models. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is the obvious, complementary approach to get basic information on these fundamental quantities. Three-dimensional DNS of premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow is used to estimate the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation. A new methodology is proposed to provide the source and sink terms for the flame surface density, resolved both temporally and spatially throughout the turbulent flame brush. Using this methodology, the effects of the Lewis number on the rate of production of flame surface area are described in great detail and meaningful comparisons with flamelet models can be performed. The analysis reveals in particular the tendency of the models to overpredict flame surface dissipation as well as their inability to reproduce variations due to thermo-diffusive phenomena. Thanks to the detailed information produced by a DNS-based analysis, this type of comparison not only underscores the shortcomings of current models but also suggests ways to improve them.

  6. The evolution equation for the flame surface density in turbulent premixed combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouve, Arnaud

    1993-01-01

    The mean reaction rate in flamelet models for turbulent premixed combustion depends on two basic quantities: a mean chemical rate, called the flamelet speed, and the flame surface density. Our previous work had been primarily focused on the problem of the structure and topology of turbulent premixed flames, and it was then determined that the flamelet speed, when space-averaged, is only weakly sensitive to the turbulent flow field. Consequently, the flame surface density is the key quantity that conveys most of the effects of the turbulence on the rate of energy release. In flamelet models, this quantity is obtained via a modeled transport equation called the Sigma-equation. Past theoretical work has produced a rigorous approach that leads to an exact but unclosed formulation for the turbulent Sigma-equation. In the exact Sigma-equation, it appears that the dynamical properties of the flame surface density are determined by a single parameter, namely the turbulent flame stretch. Unfortunately, the turbulent flame stretch as well as the flame surface density is not available from experiments, and, in the absence of experimental data, little is known on the validity of the closure assumptions used in current flamelet models. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is the alternative approach to get basic information on these fundamental quantities. In the present work, three-dimensional DNS of premixed flames in isotropic turbulent flow is used to estimate the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation. A new methodology is proposed to provide the source and sink terms for the flame surface density, resolved both temporally and spatially throughout the turbulent flame brush. Using this methodology, our objective is to extract the turbulent flame stretch from the DNS data base and then perform extensive comparisons with flamelet models. Thanks to the detailed information produced by the DNS-based analysis, it is expected that this type of comparison will not only

  7. Comparisons of predicted bore evolutions by the Benjamin-Davis-Ono and Navier-Stokes equations for idealized mesopause thermal ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughman, B.; Fritts, D. C.; Werne, J.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed employing two numerical models to contrast nonlinear bore evolutions predicted by the Benjamin-Davis-Ono (BDO) equation with evolutions described by the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The first model is a simple one-dimensional solver of the BDO equation; the second describes the nonlinear two-dimensional dynamics of the NS equations. Both utilize the Boussinesq approximation. Owing to their simpler, horizontally isotropic nature, only isolated thermal ducts are considered in this study. Simulations assume an initial long-wave perturbation and address the influences of perturbation amplitude and wavelength, viscosity, and nonzero background stability on the resulting evolutions. Results indicate that the BDO equation provides reasonable predictions of bore character and evolution for conditions that satisfy its underlying assumptions. BDO predictions fail to describe bore character and evolution in cases where either the initial perturbations or the thermal environment differs significantly from BDO assumptions. Predictions employing the NS equations will thus provide more realistic guidance in the interpretation and understanding of bores observed in the mesopause region for general environments.

  8. Hadron Resonances from QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef

    2016-03-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  9. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbers $N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$ and $\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $J^{P}=1^{+}$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.

  10. QCD tests at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, E.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    We present results for the inclusive jet cross section and the dijet mass distribution. The inclusive cross section and dijet mass both exhibit significant deviations from the predictions of NLO QCD for jets with E{sub T}>200 GeV, or dijet masses > 400 GeV/c{sup 2}. We show that it is possible, within a global QCD analysis that includes the CDF inclusive jet data, to modify the gluon distribution at high x. The resulting increase in the jet cross-section predictions is 25-35%. Owing to the presence of k{sub T} smearing effects, the direct photon data does not provide as strong a constraint on the gluon distribution as previously thought. A comparison of the CDF and UA2 jet data, which have a common range in x, is plagued by theoretical and experimental uncertainties, and cannot at present confirm the CDF excess or the modified gluon distribution.

  11. Introduction to lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1998-12-31

    The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author`s charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations.

  12. Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jozef Dudek

    2007-08-05

    Charmonium is an attractive system for the application of lattice QCD methods. While the sub-threshold spectrum has been considered in some detail in previous works, it is only very recently that excited and higher-spin states and further properties such as radiative transitions and two-photon decays have come to be calculated. I report on this recent progress with reference to work done at Jefferson Lab.

  13. Future directions for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC.

  14. Minijets, QCD, and unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, A.; Tran Thanh Van, J.; Kwiecinski, J.

    1987-05-18

    We introduce the minijet cross section, computed from QCD, together with a standard soft component, into a unitarizaton scheme (eikonal model) and show that most of the increase of the inelastic cross section between CERN ISR and SPS collider energies is due to the soft component. We also show that the main properties of minijet production, observed by the UA1 collaboration, can be understood by the introduction of semihard scattering in the dual parton model.

  15. QCD tests with CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.

    1992-09-01

    Measurement of scaling violations, the inclusive photon and diphoton cross sections as well as the photon-jet and jet-jet angular distributions are discussed and compared to leading order and next-to-leading order QCD. A study of four-jet events is described, with a limit on the cross section for double parton scattering. The multiplicity of jets in W boson events is compared to theoretical predictions.

  16. QCD results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mesropian

    2002-07-12

    The Tevatron hadron collider provides the unique opportunity to study Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD, at the highest energies. The results summarized in this talk, although representing different experimental objects, as hadronic jets and electromagnetic clusters, serve to determine the fundamental input ingredients of QCD as well as to search for new physics. The authors present results from QCD studies at the Tevatron from Run 1 data, including jet and direct photon production, and a measurement of the strong coupling constant.

  17. Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    John Bulava; Robert Edwards; George Fleming; K. Jimmy Juge; Adam C. Lichtl; Nilmani Mathur; Colin Morningstar; David Richards; Stephen J. Wallace

    2007-06-16

    The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.

  18. Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtl, Adam C.; Bulava, John; Morningstar, Colin; Edwards, Robert; Mathur, Nilmani; Richards, David; Fleming, George; Juge, K. Jimmy; Wallace, Stephen J.

    2007-10-26

    The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.

  19. Optical analogues of the Newton–Schrödinger equation and boson star evolution

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Thomas; Maitland, Calum; Wilson, Kali; Westerberg, Niclas; Vocke, David; Wright, Ewan M.; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Many gravitational phenomena that lie at the core of our understanding of the Universe have not yet been directly observed. An example in this sense is the boson star that has been proposed as an alternative to some compact objects currently interpreted as being black holes. In the weak field limit, these stars are governed by the Newton–Schrodinger equation. Here we present an optical system that, under appropriate conditions, identically reproduces such equation in two dimensions. A rotating boson star is experimentally and numerically modelled by an optical beam propagating through a medium with a positive thermal nonlinearity and is shown to oscillate in time while also stable up to relatively high densities. For higher densities, instabilities lead to an apparent breakup of the star, yet coherence across the whole structure is maintained. These results show that optical analogues can be used to shed new light on inaccessible gravitational objects. PMID:27841261

  20. Optical analogues of the Newton-Schrödinger equation and boson star evolution.

    PubMed

    Roger, Thomas; Maitland, Calum; Wilson, Kali; Westerberg, Niclas; Vocke, David; Wright, Ewan M; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-11-14

    Many gravitational phenomena that lie at the core of our understanding of the Universe have not yet been directly observed. An example in this sense is the boson star that has been proposed as an alternative to some compact objects currently interpreted as being black holes. In the weak field limit, these stars are governed by the Newton-Schrodinger equation. Here we present an optical system that, under appropriate conditions, identically reproduces such equation in two dimensions. A rotating boson star is experimentally and numerically modelled by an optical beam propagating through a medium with a positive thermal nonlinearity and is shown to oscillate in time while also stable up to relatively high densities. For higher densities, instabilities lead to an apparent breakup of the star, yet coherence across the whole structure is maintained. These results show that optical analogues can be used to shed new light on inaccessible gravitational objects.

  1. The evolution equations for Taylor vortices in the small gap limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.

    1983-01-01

    The centrifugal instability of the viscous fluid flow between concentric circular cylinders in the small gap limit is considered. The amplitude of the Taylor vortex is allowed to depend on a slow time variable, a slow axial variable, and the polar angle. It is shown that the amplitude of the vortex cannot in general be described by a single amplitude equation. However, if the axial variations are periodic a single amplitude equation can be derived. In the absence of any slow axial variations it is shown that a Taylor vortex remains stable to wavy vortex perturbations. Furthermore, in this situation, stable nonaxisymmetric modes can occur but do not bifurcate from the Taylor vortex state. The stability of these modes is shown to be governed by a modified form of the Eckhaus criterion.

  2. Optical analogues of the Newton-Schrödinger equation and boson star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Thomas; Maitland, Calum; Wilson, Kali; Westerberg, Niclas; Vocke, David; Wright, Ewan M.; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Many gravitational phenomena that lie at the core of our understanding of the Universe have not yet been directly observed. An example in this sense is the boson star that has been proposed as an alternative to some compact objects currently interpreted as being black holes. In the weak field limit, these stars are governed by the Newton-Schrodinger equation. Here we present an optical system that, under appropriate conditions, identically reproduces such equation in two dimensions. A rotating boson star is experimentally and numerically modelled by an optical beam propagating through a medium with a positive thermal nonlinearity and is shown to oscillate in time while also stable up to relatively high densities. For higher densities, instabilities lead to an apparent breakup of the star, yet coherence across the whole structure is maintained. These results show that optical analogues can be used to shed new light on inaccessible gravitational objects.

  3. Universal envelope equation and emittance evolution of high-brightness beam in linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-X.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2009-01-01

    We report a universal beam envelope equation that governs the transverse linear dynamics of high-intensity and high-brightness relativistic beams under constant acceleration in axisymmetric linear accelerators. This dimensionless and almost parameter-free nonlinear equation is useful for understanding scaling properties and for investigating nonlinear behaviors that are beyond analytical analysis. Particularly, we explore emittance compensation in high-brightness beams evolving from the space-charge regime to the thermal-emittance regime, a transition that commonly occurs during acceleration but is not well studied. A new formula is given for correctly computing the rms bunch emittance from slice envelopes, which is different from the commonly used quadratic sum of the thermal emittance and the rms emittance in the envelope phase space.

  4. Evolution Equations of C(3)I: Cannonical Forms and Their Properties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    paper are all generalized Lotka - Volterra equations for two-species systems . In spite of these restric- tions, their interpretation in the C31 context...this is interpreted- for C 1, coulnter- C , and intelligence operations. For the environmentally unstable systems it is shown that the relationships...unstable. The meaning of this is interpreted for &, counter-C61, and intel- ligence operations. For the environmentally un- stable systems it is

  5. Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles in Nucleate Boiling. 1; Basic Equations of Bubble Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Callaway, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We consider the behaviour of a vapour bubble formed at a nucleation site on a heated horizontal wall. There is no forced convection of an ambient liquid, and the bubble is presumably separated from the wall by a thin liquid microlayer. The energy conservation law results in a variational equation for the mechanical energy of the whole system consisting of the bubble and liquid. It leads to a set of two strongly nonlinear equations which govern bubble expansion and motion of its centre of mass. A supplementary equation to find out the vapour temperature follows from consideration of heat transfer to the bubble, both from the bulk of surrounding liquid and through the microlayer. The average thickness of the microlayer is shown to increase monotonously with time as the bubble meniscus spreads along the wall. Bubble expansion is driven by the pressure head between vapour inside and liquid far away from the bubble, with due allowance for surface tension and gravity effects. It is resisted by inertia of liquid being placed into motion as the bubble grows. The inertia originates also a force that presses the bubble to the wall. This force is counteracted by the buoyancy and an effective surface tension force that tends to transform the bubble into a sphere. The analysis brings about quite a new formulation of the familiar problem of bubble growth and detachment under conditions of nucleate pool boiling.

  6. Renormalization of Extended QCD2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukaya, Hidenori; Yamamura, Ryo

    2015-10-01

    Extended QCD (XQCD), proposed by Kaplan [D. B. Kaplan, arXiv:1306.5818], is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low-energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of 2D (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of a large number of colors N_c, to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low-energy region.

  7. Recent QCD results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    I. Gorelov

    2001-12-28

    Experimental results on QCD measurements obtained in recent analyses and based on data collected with CDF Detector from the Run 1b Tevatron running cycle are presented. The scope of the talk includes major QCD topics: a measurement of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}, extracted from inclusive jet spectra and the underlying event energy contribution to a jet cone. Another experimental object of QCD interest, prompt photon production, is also discussed and the updated measurements by CDF of the inclusive photon cross section at 630 GeV and 1800 GeV, and the comparison with NLO QCD predictions is presented.

  8. Hybrid model for QCD deconfining phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, C. P.

    2012-06-01

    Intensive search for a proper and realistic equations of state (EOS) is still continued for studying the phase diagram existing between quark gluon plasma (QGP) and hadron gas (HG) phases. Lattice calculations provide such EOS for the strongly interacting matter at finite temperature (T) and vanishing baryon chemical potential (μB). These calculations are of limited use at finite μB due to the appearance of notorious sign problem. In the recent past, we had constructed a hybrid model description for the QGP as well as HG phases where we make use of a new excluded-volume model for HG and a thermodynamically-consistent quasiparticle model for the QGP phase and used them further to get QCD phase boundary and a critical point. Since then many lattice calculations have appeared showing various thermal and transport properties of QCD matter at finite T and μB=0. We test our hybrid model by reproducing the entire data for strongly interacting matter and predict our results at finite μB so that they can be tested in future. Finally we demonstrate the utility of the model in fixing the precise location, the order of the phase transition and the nature of CP existing on the QCD phase diagram. We thus emphasize the suitability of the hybrid model as formulated here in providing a realistic EOS for the strongly interacting matter.

  9. Gravitational waves from the cosmological QCD transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourão Roque, V. R. C.; Roque, G. Lugones o.; Lugones, G.

    2014-09-01

    We determine the minimum fluctuations in the cosmological QCD phase transition that could be detectable by the eLISA/NGO gravitational wave observatory. To this end, we performed several hydrodynamical simulations using a state-of-the-art equation of state derived from lattice QCD simulations. Based on the fact that the viscosity per entropy density of the quark gluon plasma obtained from heavy-ion collision experiments at the RHIC and the LHC is extremely small, we considered a non-viscous fluid in our simulations. Several previous works about this transition considered a first order transition that generates turbulence which follows a Kolmogorov power law. We show that for the QCD crossover transition the turbulent spectrum must be very different because there is no viscosity and no source of continuous energy injection. As a consequence, a large amount of kinetic energy accumulates at the smallest scales. From the hydrodynamic simulations, we have obtained the spectrum of the gravitational radiation emitted by the motion of the fluid, finding that, if typical velocity and temperature fluctuations have an amplitude Δ v /c ≳ 10-2 and/or Δ T/T_c ≳ 10-3, they would be detected by eLISA/NGO at frequencies larger than ˜ 10-4 Hz.

  10. The evolution of travelling waves in generalized Fisher equations via matched asymptotic expansions: Exponential corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J. A.; Needham, D. J.

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we address an initial boundary value problem for a generalized Fisher equation. In particular we develop the matched asymptotic theory presented in Leach and Needham (2000) to consider the correction terms to the asymptotic approach to the wave-front of speed v = v*(≥ 2) as t (time) → ∞. We establish the precise form of these corrections, and demonstrate that the rate of approach to the wave-front is algebraic in t when v* = 2 (there being two cases), but exponential in t when v* > 2.

  11. Electromigration-induced step meandering on vicinal surfaces: Nonlinear evolution equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufay, Matthieu; Debierre, Jean-Marc; Frisch, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of a constant electrical field applied on vicinal surfaces such as the Si(111) surface. An electrical field parallel to the steps induces a meandering instability with a nonzero phase shift. Using the Burton-Cabrera-Frank model, we extend the linear stability analysis performed by Liu, Weeks, and Kandel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2743 (1998)] to the nonlinear regime for which the meandering amplitude is large. We derive an amplitude equation for the step dynamics using a highly nonlinear expansion method. We investigate numerically two limiting regimes (small and large attachment lengths) which both reveal long-time coarsening dynamics.

  12. Evolution equations for the double parton distributions. Initial conditions and transverse momentum dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staśto, Anna M.; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof

    2017-04-01

    In the first part of this contribution we discuss the problem of the initial conditions for the evolution of double parton distribution functions (PDFs). We show that one can construct a framework based on the expansion in terms of the Dirichlet functions in which both single and double PDFs satisfy momentum sum rules. In the second part, we propose how to include the transverse momentum dependence for the double parton distribution functions using the extension of the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin framework previously applied to the single PDFs.

  13. A non-local evolution equation model of cell–cell adhesion in higher dimensional space

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Janet; Gourley, Stephen A.; Webb, Glenn F.

    2013-01-01

    A model for cell–cell adhesion, based on an equation originally proposed by Armstrong et al. [A continuum approach to modelling cell–cell adhesion, J. Theor. Biol. 243 (2006), pp. 98–113], is considered. The model consists of a nonlinear partial differential equation for the cell density in an N-dimensional infinite domain. It has a non-local flux term which models the component of cell motion attributable to cells having formed bonds with other nearby cells. Using the theory of fractional powers of analytic semigroup generators and working in spaces with bounded uniformly continuous derivatives, the local existence of classical solutions is proved. Positivity and boundedness of solutions is then established, leading to global existence of solutions. Finally, the asymptotic behaviour of solutions about the spatially uniform state is considered. The model is illustrated by simulations that can be applied to in vitro wound closure experiments. AMS Classifications: 35A01; 35B09; 35B40; 35K57; 92C17 PMID:23289870

  14. An extended structure-based model based on a stochastic eddy-axis evolution equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassinos, S. C.; Reynolds, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have proposed and implemented an extension of the structure-based model for weak deformations. It was shown that the extended model will correctly reduce to the form of standard k-e models for the case of equilibrium under weak mean strain. The realizability of the extended model is guaranteed by the method of its construction. The predictions of the proposed model were very good for rotating homogeneous shear flows and for irrotational axisymmetric contraction, but were seriously deficient in the case of plane strain and axisymmetric expansion. We have concluded that the problem behind these difficulties lies in the algebraic constitutive equation relating the Reynolds stresses to the structure parameters rather than in the slow model developed here. In its present form, this equation assumes that under irrotational strain the principal axes of the Reynolds stresses remain locked onto those of the eddy-axis tensor. This is correct in the RDT limit, but inappropriate under weaker mean strains, when the non-linear eddy-eddy interactions tend to misalign the two sets of principal axes and create some non-zero theta and gamma.

  15. Green's function-stochastic methods framework for probing nonlinear evolution problems: Burger's equation, the nonlinear Schrödinger's equation, and hydrodynamic organization of near-molecular-scale vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keanini, R. G.

    2011-04-01

    A framework which combines Green's function (GF) methods and techniques from the theory of stochastic processes is proposed for tackling nonlinear evolution problems. The framework, established by a series of easy-to-derive equivalences between Green's function and stochastic representative solutions of linear drift-diffusion problems, provides a flexible structure within which nonlinear evolution problems can be analyzed and physically probed. As a preliminary test bed, two canonical, nonlinear evolution problems - Burgers' equation and the nonlinear Schrödinger's equation - are first treated. In the first case, the framework provides a rigorous, probabilistic derivation of the well known Cole-Hopf ansatz. Likewise, in the second, the machinery allows systematic recovery of a known soliton solution. The framework is then applied to a fairly extensive exploration of physical features underlying evolution of randomly stretched and advected Burger's vortex sheets. Here, the governing vorticity equation corresponds to the Fokker-Planck equation of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a correspondence that motivates an investigation of sub-sheet vorticity evolution and organization. Under the assumption that weak hydrodynamic fluctuations organize disordered, near-molecular-scale, sub-sheet vorticity, it is shown that these modes consist of two weakly damped counter-propagating cross-sheet acoustic modes, a diffusive cross-sheet shear mode, and a diffusive cross-sheet entropy mode. Once a consistent picture of in-sheet vorticity evolution is established, a number of analytical results, describing the motion and spread of single, multiple, and continuous sets of Burger's vortex sheets, evolving within deterministic and random strain rate fields, under both viscous and inviscid conditions, are obtained. In order to promote application to other nonlinear problems, a tutorial development of the framework is presented. Likewise, time-incremental solution approaches and

  16. A dynamic model for the time evolution of the modulated cosmic ray spectrum. [using Fokker-Planck equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogallagher, J. J.; Maslyar, G. A., III

    1975-01-01

    A recently developed model predicts an energy dependent phase lag in the modulated cosmic ray density U(t) given by U(t) approximately equal to US (t - tau) where US is the solution to the Fokker-Planck equation under time independent conditions and tau is the average time spent by particles inside the modulating region. The delay times tau are functions of modulating parameters R (the radius of the modulating cavity), V (the solar wind velocity), and K (the effective average diffusion-coefficient which is a function of energy). This model is applied to predict the time evolution of the modulated cosmic ray proton spectrum over a simulated solar cycle. A modulation produced mostly by varying R over the solar cycle is less consistent with the observations.

  17. Light-Front Holographic QCD and the Confinement Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter

    2014-06-01

    Light-Front Hamiltonian theory, derived from the quantization of the QCD Lagrangian at fixed light-front time τ = t + z / c, provides a rigorous frame-independent framework for solving nonperturbative QCD. The eigenvalues of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian predict the hadronic mass spectrum, and the corresponding eigensolutions provide the light-front wavefunctions which describe hadron structure. The valence Fock-state wavefunctions of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian satisfy a single-variable relativistic equation of motion, analogous to the nonrelativistic radial Schrödinger equation, with an effective confining potential U which systematically incorporates the effects of higher quark and gluon Fock states. In fact, the potential U has a unique form if one requires that the action for zero quark mass remains conformally invariant. We also show that the holographic mapping of gravity in AdS space to QCD with a specific soft-wall dilaton yields the same light-front Schrödinger equation. Light-front holography also leads to a precise relation between the bound-state amplitudes in the fifth dimension z of AdS space and the boost-invariant light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons in physical space-time. The elastic and transition form factors of the pion and the nucleons are found to be well described in this framework. The predictions of the LF equations of motion include a zero-mass pion in the chiral mq → 0 limit, and linear Regge trajectories M2 (n, L) ∝ n + L with the same slope in the radial quantum number n and orbital angular momentum L. The light-front AdS/QCD holographic approach thus gives a frame-independent representation of color-confining dynamics, Regge spectroscopy, and the excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark meson and baryon bound states in QCD in terms of a single mass parameter. We also briefly discuss the implications of the underlying conformal template of QCD for renormalization scale-setting and

  18. QCD dynamics in mesons at soft and hard scales

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.; Souchlas, N. A.; Tandy, P. C.

    2010-07-27

    Using a ladder-rainbow kernel previously established for the soft scale of light quark hadrons, we explore, within a Dyson-Schwinger approach, phenomena that mix soft and hard scales of QCD. The difference between vector and axial vector current correlators is examined to estimate the four quark chiral condensate and the leading distance scale for the onset of non-perturbative phenomena in QCD. The valence quark distributions, in the pion and kaon, defined in deep inelastic scattering, and measured in the Drell Yan process, are investigated with the same ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  19. Two-flavor QCD thermodynamics using anisotropic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkova, Ludmila; Manke, Thomas; Mawhinney, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Numerical simulations of full QCD on anisotropic lattices provide a convenient way to study QCD thermodynamics with fixed physics scales and reduced lattice spacing errors. We report results from calculations with two flavors of dynamical staggered fermions, where all bare parameters and the renormalized anisotropy are kept constant and the temperature is changed in small steps by varying only the number of time slices. Including results from zero-temperature scale-setting simulations, which determine the Karsch coefficients, allows for the calculation of the equation of state at finite temperatures.

  20. Multi-meson systems in lattice QCD / Many-body QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Detmold, William

    2013-08-31

    Nuclear physics entails the study of the properties and interactions of hadrons, such as the proton and neutron, and atomic nuclei and it is central to our understanding of our world at the smallest scales. The underlying basis for nuclear physics is provided by the Standard Model of particle physics which describes how matter interacts through the strong, electromagnetic and weak (electroweak) forces. This theory was developed in the 1970s and provides an extremely successful description of our world at the most fundamental level to which it has been probed. The Standard Model has been, and continues to be, subject to stringent tests at particle accelerators around the world, so far passing without blemish. However, at the relatively low energies that are relevant for nuclear physics, calculations involving the strong interaction, governed by the equations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), are enormously challenging, and to date, the only systematic way to perform them is numerically, using a framework known as lattice QCD (LQCD). In this approach, one discretizes space-time and numerically solves the equations of QCD on a space-time lattice; for realistic calculations, this requires highly optimized algorithms and cutting-edge high performance computing (HPC) resources. Progress over the project period is discussed in detail in the following subsections

  1. Pseudo-Newtonian Equations for Evolution of Particles and Fluids in Stationary Space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzany, Vojtěch; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2017-06-01

    Pseudo-Newtonian potentials are a tool often used in theoretical astrophysics to capture some key features of a black hole space-time in a Newtonian framework. As a result, one can use Newtonian numerical codes, and Newtonian formalism, in general, in an effective description of important astrophysical processes such as accretion onto black holes. In this paper, we develop a general pseudo-Newtonian formalism, which pertains to the motion of particles, light, and fluids in stationary space-times. In return, we are able to assess the applicability of the pseudo-Newtonian scheme. The simplest and most elegant formulas are obtained in space-times without gravitomagnetic effects, such as the Schwarzschild rather than the Kerr space-time; the quantitative errors are smallest for motion with low binding energy. Included is a ready-to-use set of fluid equations in Schwarzschild space-time in Cartesian and radial coordinates.

  2. Extended Painlevé Expansion, Nonstandard Truncation and Special Reductions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Sen-yue

    1998-05-01

    To study a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE), the Painleve expansion developed by Weiss, Tabor and Carnevale (WTC) is one of the most powerful methods. In this paper, using any singular manifold, the expansion series in the usual Painleve analysis is shown to be resummable in some different ways. A simple nonstandard truncated expansion with a quite universal reduction function is used for many nonlinear integrable and nonintegrable PDEs such as the Burgers, Korteweg de-Vries (KdV), Kadomtsev-Petviashvli (KP), Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kortera (CDGSK), Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS), Davey-Stewartson (DS), Broer-Kaup (BK), KdV-Burgers (KdVB), λf4 , sine-Gordon (sG) etc.

  3. QCD: Questions, challenges, and dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.

    1996-11-01

    An introduction to some outstanding issues in QCD is presented, with emphasis on work by Diakonov and co-workers on the influence of the instanton vacuum on low-energy QCD observables. This includes the calculation of input valence-parton distributions for deep-inelastic scattering. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  4. QCD coupling constants and VDM

    SciTech Connect

    Erkol, G.; Ozpineci, A.; Zamiralov, V. S.

    2012-10-23

    QCD sum rules for coupling constants of vector mesons with baryons are constructed. The corresponding QCD sum rules for electric charges and magnetic moments are also derived and with the use of vector-meson-dominance model related to the coupling constants. The VDM role as the criterium of reciprocal validity of the sum rules is considered.

  5. Recent Developments in Perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC

    2005-07-11

    I review recent progress in perturbative QCD on two fronts: extending next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections to a broader range of collider processes, and applying twistor-space methods (and related spinoffs) to computations of multi-parton scattering amplitudes.

  6. A systematic construction of parity-time (PT )-symmetric and non-PT -symmetric complex potentials from the solutions of various real nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamilselvan, K.; Kanna, T.; Khare, Avinash

    2017-10-01

    We systematically construct a distinct class of complex potentials including parity-time (PT ) symmetric potentials for the stationary Schrödinger equation by using the soliton and periodic solutions of the four integrable real nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs), namely the sine-Gordon (sG) equation, the modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) equation, combined mKdV–sG equation and the Gardner equation. These potentials comprise of kink, breather, bion, elliptic bion, periodic and soliton potentials which are explicitly constructed from the various respective solutions of the NLEEs. We demonstrate the relevance between the identified complex potentials and the potential of the graphene model from an application point of view.

  7. A Pair of Resonance Stripe Solitons and Lump Solutions to a Reduced (3+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei-Dan; Li, Xian; Wang, Yao; Li, Biao

    2017-06-01

    With symbolic computation, some lump solutions are presented to a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation by searching the positive quadratic function from the Hirota bilinear form of equation. The quadratic function contains six free parameters, four of which satisfy two determinant conditions guaranteeing analyticity and rational localization of the solutions, while the others are free. Then, by combining positive quadratic function with exponential function, the interaction solutions between lump solutions and the stripe solitons are presented on the basis of some conditions. Furthermore, we extend this method to obtain more general solutions by combining of positive quadratic function and hyperbolic cosine function. Thus the interaction solutions between lump solutions and a pair of resonance stripe solitons are derived and asymptotic property of the interaction solutions are analyzed under some specific conditions. Finally, the dynamic properties of these solutions are shown in figures by choosing the values of the parameters. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11271211, 11275072, and 11435005, Ningbo Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 2015A610159 and the Opening Project of Zhejiang Provincial Top Key Discipline of Physics Sciences in Ningbo University under Grant No. xkzw11502 and K.C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  8. QCD Measurements at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubacek, Z.; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents recent QCD related measurements from the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC at CERN. The results on the total inelastic cross-section, charged particle production, jet production, photon production, and W -, Z -bosons productions are briefly summarized. The measurments are performed at different center-of-mass energies √{s}=7, 8, and 13 TeV . The measured cross-sections are generally found to be in agreement with the expectations from the Standard Model within the estimated uncertainties.

  9. QCD, with strings attached

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güijosa, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    In the nearly 20 years that have elapsed since its discovery, the gauge-gravity correspondence has become established as an efficient tool to explore the physics of a large class of strongly-coupled field theories. A brief overview is given here of its formulation and a few of its applications, emphasizing attempts to emulate aspects of the strong-coupling regime of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). To the extent possible, the presentation is self-contained, and does not presuppose knowledge of string theory.

  10. Narrow pentaquarks in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Navarra, F. S.; Nielsen, M.; Rodrigues da Silva, R.

    2006-02-11

    We study the decay {theta} {yields} K+n within the framework of QCD sum rules and compute the coupling g{theta}nK, which is directly related to the pentaquark width. Restricting the decay diagrams to those with color exchange between the meson-like and baryon-like clusters reduces the coupling constant by a factor of four. Whereas a small decay width might be possible for a positive parity pentaquark, it seems difficult to explain the measured width for a pentaquark with negative parity.

  11. QCD and strings

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Tadakatsu; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2005-12-02

    We propose a holographic dual of QCD with massless flavors on the basis of a D4/D8-brane configuration within a probe approximation. We are led to a five-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on a curved space-time along with a Chern-Simons five-form on it, both of which provide us with a unifying framework to study the massless pion and an infinite number of massive vector mesons. We make sample computations of the physical quantities that involve the mesons and compare them with the experimental data. It is found that most of the results of this model are compatible with the experiments.

  12. Novel scheme for simulating the force-free equations: Boundary conditions and the evolution of solutions towards stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, F. L.; Reula, O. A.

    2017-09-01

    Force-free electrodynamics (FFE) describes a particular regime of magnetically dominated relativistic plasmas, which arises on several astrophysical scenarios of interest such as pulsars or active galactic nuclei. In this article, we present a full 3D numerical implementation of the FFE evolution around a Kerr black hole. The novelty of our approach is three-folded: (i) We use the "multiblock" technique [1 L. Lehner, O. Reula, and M.Tiglio, Multi-block simulations in general relativity: High-order discretizations, numerical stability and applications, Classical Quantum Gravity 22, 5283 (2005)., 10.1088/0264-9381/22/24/006] to represent a domain with S2×R+ topology within a stable finite-differences scheme. (ii) We employ as evolution equations those arising from a covariant hyperbolization of the FFE system [2 F. Carrasco and O. Reula, Covariant hyperbolization of force-free electrodynamics, Phys. Rev. D 93, 085013 (2016)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.085013]. (iii) We implement stable and constraint-preserving boundary conditions to represent an outer region given by a uniform magnetic field aligned or misaligned respect to the symmetry axis. The construction of appropriate and consistent boundary conditions, both preserving the constraints and physically immersing the system in a uniform magnetic field, has allowed us to obtain long-term stationary solutions representing jets of astrophysical relevance. These numerical solutions are shown to be consistent with previous studies.

  13. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-02-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three-nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between LQCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from LQCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  14. Demonstrating the value of medicines: evolution of value equation and stakeholder perception of uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Siva

    2016-01-01

    It is important to evaluate how the value of medicine is assessed, as it may have important implications for health technology and reimbursement assessments. The value equation could comprise 'incremental benefit/outcome' (relative results of care in terms of patient health, comparing the innovation to best available alternative(s)) in the numerator and 'cost' (relative costs involved in the full cycle of care (or a defined period) for the patient's medical condition, incorporating the relevant cost-offsets due to displacement of best available alternative(s)) in the denominator. This 'relative value' combined with the overall net budget impact (of including the drug in the formulary or reimbursed drug list) at the concerned population level in the given institution/region/country may better inform the usefulness of the new therapeutic option to the healthcare system. As product value messages are created, anticipating external stakeholder questions and information needs, including addressing three main categories of 'uncertainties', namely the scientific uncertainties, usage uncertainties, and financial uncertainties, could facilitate demonstration of optimal product value and help informed decision-making to benefit all stakeholders involved in the process.

  15. Demonstrating the value of medicines: evolution of value equation and stakeholder perception of uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Siva

    2016-01-01

    It is important to evaluate how the value of medicine is assessed, as it may have important implications for health technology and reimbursement assessments. The value equation could comprise ‘incremental benefit/outcome’ (relative results of care in terms of patient health, comparing the innovation to best available alternative(s)) in the numerator and ‘cost’ (relative costs involved in the full cycle of care (or a defined period) for the patient's medical condition, incorporating the relevant cost-offsets due to displacement of best available alternative(s)) in the denominator. This ‘relative value’ combined with the overall net budget impact (of including the drug in the formulary or reimbursed drug list) at the concerned population level in the given institution/region/country may better inform the usefulness of the new therapeutic option to the healthcare system. As product value messages are created, anticipating external stakeholder questions and information needs, including addressing three main categories of ‘uncertainties’, namely the scientific uncertainties, usage uncertainties, and financial uncertainties, could facilitate demonstration of optimal product value and help informed decision-making to benefit all stakeholders involved in the process. PMID:27489585

  16. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2017-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on 6 th order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (μB ) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the μB -dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  17. QCD for Postgraduates (1/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Modern QCD - Lecture 1 Starting from the QCD Lagrangian we will revisit some basic QCD concepts and derive fundamental properties like gauge invariance and isospin symmetry and will discuss the Feynman rules of the theory. We will then focus on the gauge group of QCD and derive the Casimirs CF and CA and some useful color identities.

  18. Small-x evolution of structure functions in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanni A. Chirilli

    2010-01-01

    The high-energy behavior of amplitudes in gauge theories can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading order this evolution is governed by the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation. In QCD the NLO kernel has both conformal and non-conformal parts. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformal N = 4 SYM theory, then we define the "composite dipole operator", and the resulting Mobius invariant kernel for this operator agrees with the forward NLO BFKL calculation.

  19. Massively Parallel QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Blumrich, M; Chen, D; Gara, A; Giampap, M; Heidelberger, P; Salapura, V; Sexton, J; Bhanot, G

    2007-04-11

    The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), can be numerically simulated from first principles on massively-parallel supercomputers using the method of Lattice Gauge Theory. We describe the special programming requirements of lattice QCD (LQCD) as well as the optimal supercomputer hardware architectures that it suggests. We demonstrate these methods on the BlueGene massively-parallel supercomputer and argue that LQCD and the BlueGene architecture are a natural match. This can be traced to the simple fact that LQCD is a regular lattice discretization of space into lattice sites while the BlueGene supercomputer is a discretization of space into compute nodes, and that both are constrained by requirements of locality. This simple relation is both technologically important and theoretically intriguing. The main result of this paper is the speedup of LQCD using up to 131,072 CPUs on the largest BlueGene/L supercomputer. The speedup is perfect with sustained performance of about 20% of peak. This corresponds to a maximum of 70.5 sustained TFlop/s. At these speeds LQCD and BlueGene are poised to produce the next generation of strong interaction physics theoretical results.

  20. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbersmore » $$N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$$ and $$\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $$J^{P}=1^{+}$$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.« less

  1. Post-equinox observations of Uranus: Berg's evolution, vertical structure, and track towards the equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Sromovsky, L. A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Fry, P. M.; LeBeau, R. P.; Rages, Kathy; Showalter, Mark; Matthews, Keith

    2011-09-01

    We present observations of Uranus taken with the near-infrared camera NIRC2 on the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope, the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) from July 2007 through November 2009. In this paper we focus on a bright southern feature, referred to as the "Berg." In Sromovsky et al. (Sromovsky, L.A., Fry, P.M., Hammel, H.B., Ahue, A.W., de Pater, I., Rages, K.A., Showalter, M.R., van Dam, M. [2009]. Icarus 203, 265-286), we reported that this feature, which oscillated between latitudes of -32° and -36° for several decades, suddenly started on a northward track in 2005. In this paper we show the complete record of observations of this feature's track towards the equator, including its demise. After an initially slow linear drift, the feature's drift rate accelerated at latitudes ∣ θ∣ < 25°. By late 2009 the feature, very faint by then, was spotted at a latitude of -5° before disappearing from view. During its northward track, the feature's morphology changed dramatically, and several small bright unresolved features were occasionally visible poleward of the main "streak." These small features were sometimes visible at a wavelength of 2.2 μm, indicative that the clouds reached altitudes of ˜0.6 bar. The main part of the Berg, which is generally a long sometimes multipart streak, is estimated to be much deeper in the atmosphere, near 3.5 bars in 2004, but rising to 1.8-2.5 bars in 2007 after it began its northward drift. Through comparisons with Neptune's Great Dark Spot and simulations of the latter, we discuss why the Berg may be tied to a vortex, an anticyclone deeper in the atmosphere that is visible only through orographic companion clouds.

  2. Coalescence kinetics in surfactant stabilized emulsions: Evolution equations from direct numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    R. Skartlien; E. Sollum; A. Akselsen; P. Meakin; B. Grimes; J. Sjoblom

    2012-12-01

    Lattice Boltzmann simulations were used to study the coalescence kinetics in emulsions with amphiphilic surfactant, under neutrally buoyant conditions, and with a significant kinematic viscosity contrast between the phases (emulating water in oil emulsions). The 3D simulation domain was large enough (256 3rd power -- 10 7th power grid points) to obtain good statistics with droplet numbers ranging from a few thousand at early times to a few hundred near equilibrium. Increased surfactant contents slowed down the coalescence rate between droplets due to the Gibbs-Marangoni effect, and the coalescence was driven by a quasi-turbulent velocity field. The kinetic energy decayed at a relatively slow rate at early times, due to conversion of interfacial energy to kinetic energy in the flow during coalescence. Phenomenological, coupled differential equations for the mean droplet diameter D(t) and the number density nd(t) were obtained from the simulation data and from film draining theories. Local (in time) power law exponents for the growth of the mean diameter (and for the concomitant decrease of nd) were established in terms of the instantaneous values of the kinetic energy, coalescence probability, Gibbs elasticity, and interfacial area. The model studies indicated that true power laws for the growth of the droplet size and decrease of the number of droplets with time may not be justified, since the exponents derived using the phenomenological model were time dependent. In contrast to earlier simulation results for symmetric blends with surfactant, we found no evidence for stretched logarithmic scaling of the formD -- [ln (ct)]a for the morphology length, or exponential scalings associated with arrested growth, on the basis of the phenomenological model.

  3. Dynamics for QCD on an Infinite Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundling, Hendrik; Rudolph, Gerd

    2017-02-01

    We prove the existence of the dynamics automorphism group for Hamiltonian QCD on an infinite lattice in R^3, and this is done in a C*-algebraic context. The existence of ground states is also obtained. Starting with the finite lattice model for Hamiltonian QCD developed by Kijowski, Rudolph (cf. J Math Phys 43:1796-1808 [15], J Math Phys 46:032303 [16]), we state its field algebra and a natural representation. We then generalize this representation to the infinite lattice, and construct a Hilbert space which has represented on it all the local algebras (i.e., kinematics algebras associated with finite connected sublattices) equipped with the correct graded commutation relations. On a suitably large C*-algebra acting on this Hilbert space, and containing all the local algebras, we prove that there is a one parameter automorphism group, which is the pointwise norm limit of the local time evolutions along a sequence of finite sublattices, increasing to the full lattice. This is our global time evolution. We then take as our field algebra the C*-algebra generated by all the orbits of the local algebras w.r.t. the global time evolution. Thus the time evolution creates the field algebra. The time evolution is strongly continuous on this choice of field algebra, though not on the original larger C*-algebra. We define the gauge transformations, explain how to enforce the Gauss law constraint, show that the dynamics automorphism group descends to the algebra of physical observables and prove that gauge invariant ground states exist.

  4. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  5. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  6. QCD and Light-Front Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2010-10-27

    The soft-wall AdS/QCD model, modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The model predicts a zero-mass pion for zero-mass quarks and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum L of hadrons and the radial quantum number N. Light-Front Holography maps the amplitudes which are functions of the fifth dimension variable z of anti-de Sitter space to a corresponding hadron theory quantized on the light front. The resulting Lorentz-invariant relativistic light-front wave equations are functions of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. The result is to a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states, which in turn predict the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors. The theory implements chiral symmetry in a novel way: the effects of chiral symmetry breaking increase as one goes toward large interquark separation, consistent with spectroscopic data, and the the hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub g1} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method in order to systematically include the QCD interaction terms. A new perspective on quark and gluon condensates is also reviewed.

  7. Hard QCD processes in the nuclear medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Adam

    The environment inside the atomic nucleus is one of the most fascinating arenas for the study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The strongly-interacting nature of the nuclear medium a?ects the nature of both QCD processes and the quark-gluon structure of hadrons, allowing several unique aspects of the strong nuclear force to be investigated in reactions involving nuclear targets. The research presented in this dissertation explores two aspects of nuclear QCD: firstly, the partonic structure of the nucleus itself; and secondly, the use of the nucleus as a micro-laboratory in which QCD processes can be studied. The partonic structure of the nucleus is calculated in this work by deriving and utilizing a convolution formula. The hadronic structure of the nucleus and the quark-gluon structure of its constituent nucleons are taken together to determine the nuclear partonic structure. Light cone descriptions of short range correlations, in terms of both hadronic and partonic structure, are derived and taken into account. Medium modifications of the bound nucleons are accounted for using the color screening model, and QCD evolution is used to connect nuclear partonic structure at vastly di?erent energy scales. The formalism developed for calculating nuclear partonic structure is applied to inclusive dijet production from proton-nucleus collisions at LHC kinematics, and novel predictions are calculated and presented for the dijet cross section. The nucleus is investigated as a micro-laboratory in vector meson photoproduction reactions. In particular, the deuteron is studied in the break-up reaction gammad → Vpn, for both the φ(1020) and J/v vector mesons. The generalized eikonal approximation is utilized, allowing unambiguous separation of the impulse approximation and final state interactions (FSIs). Two peaks or valleys are seen in the angular distribution of the reaction cross section, each of which is due to an FSI between either the proton and neutron, or the

  8. Lattice QCD and Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos

    2007-03-01

    A steady stream of developments in Lattice QCD have made it possible today to begin to address the question of how nuclear physics emerges from the underlying theory of strong interactions. Central role in this understanding play both the effective field theory description of nuclear forces and the ability to perform accurate non-perturbative calculations in lo w energy QCD. Here I present some recent results that attempt to extract important low energy constants of the effective field theory of nuclear forces from lattice QCD.

  9. Theta angle in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, Matti

    2017-03-01

    V-QCD is a class of effective holographic models for QCD which fully includes the backreaction of quarks to gluon dynamics. The physics of the θ-angle and the axial anomaly can be consistently included in these models. We analyze their phase diagrams over ranges of values of the quark mass, Nf/Nc, and θ, computing observables such as the topological susceptibility and the meson masses. At small quark mass, where effective chiral Lagrangians are reliable, they agree with the predictions of V-QCD.

  10. The Symmetries of QCD

    ScienceCinema

    Sekhar Chivukula

    2016-07-12

    The symmetries of a quantum field theory can be realized in a variety of ways. Symmetries can be realized explicitly, approximately, through spontaneous symmetry breaking or, via an anomaly, quantum effects can dynamically eliminate a symmetry of the theory that was present at the classical level.  Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the modern theory of the strong interactions, exemplify each of these possibilities. The interplay of these effects determine the spectrum of particles that we observe and, ultimately, account for 99% of the mass of ordinary matter. 

  11. A novel coupled system of non-local integro-differential equations modelling Young's modulus evolution, nutrients' supply and consumption during bone fracture healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanfei; Lekszycki, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    During fracture healing, a series of complex coupled biological and mechanical phenomena occurs. They include: (i) growth and remodelling of bone, whose Young's modulus varies in space and time; (ii) nutrients' diffusion and consumption by living cells. In this paper, we newly propose to model these evolution phenomena. The considered features include: (i) a new constitutive equation for growth simulation involving the number of sensor cells; (ii) an improved equation for nutrient concentration accounting for the switch between Michaelis-Menten kinetics and linear consumption regime; (iii) a new constitutive equation for Young's modulus evolution accounting for its dependence on nutrient concentration and variable number of active cells. The effectiveness of the model and its predictive capability are qualitatively verified by numerical simulations (using COMSOL) describing the healing of bone in the presence of damaged tissue between fractured parts.

  12. Fourth Order Nonlinear Evolution Equation For Interfacial Gravity Waves In The Presence Of Air Flowing Over Water And A Basic Current Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, D. P.; Dhar, A. K.

    2015-08-01

    A fourth order nonlinear evolution equation, which is a good starting point for the study of nonlinear water waves as first pointed out by Dysthe (1979) is derived for gravity waves propagating at the interface of two superposed fluids of infinite depth in the presence of air flowing over water and a basic current shear. A stability analysis is then made for a uniform Stokes gravity wave train. Graphs are plotted for the maximum growth rate of instability and for wave number at marginal stability against wave steepness for different values of air flow velocity and basic current shears. Significant deviations are noticed from the results obtained from the third order evolution equation, which is the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  13. QCD instantons and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Lawrence

    In the first half of this dissertation, after giving a pedagogical introduction to quantum chromodynamics, we revisit the question of whether or not one can perform reliable semiclassical QCD computations at zero temperature. We study correlation functions with no perturbative contributions, and organize the problem by means of the operator product expansion, establishing a precise criterion for the validity of a semiclassical calculation. For N ƒ > N, a systematic computation is possible; for Nƒ < N, it is not. N ƒ = N is a borderline case. In our analysis, we see explicitly the exponential suppression of instanton effects at large N. As an application, we describe a test of QCD lattice gauge theory computations in the chiral limit. For the second half, we turn our attention to inflation. Once again, a pedagogical overview of inflation is given, after which we explore some issues in slow roll inflation in situations where field excursions are small compared to Mp. We argue that for small field inflation, minimizing fine tuning requires low energy supersymmetry and a tightly constrained structure. Hybrid inflation is almost an inevitable outcome. The resulting theory can be described in terms of a supersymmetric low energy effective action and inflation completely characterized in terms of a small number of parameters. Demanding slow roll inflation significantly constrains these parameters. In this context, the generic level of fine tuning can be described as a function of the number of light fields, there is an upper bound on the scale of inflation, and an (almost) universal prediction for the spectral index. Models of this type need not suffer from a cosmological moduli problem.

  14. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.

    SciTech Connect

    PETRECZKY, P.

    2005-03-12

    I review recent progress in lattice QCD at finite temperature. Results on the transition temperature will be summarized. Recent progress in understanding in-medium modifications of interquark forces and quarkonia spectral functions at finite temperatures is discussed.

  15. Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-11-08

    The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.

  16. QCD and Multiparticle Production - Proceedings of the XXIX International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarcevic, Ina; Tan, Chung-I.

    2000-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Monday morning session: Hadronic Final States - Conveners: E. de Wolf and J. W. Gary * Session Chairman: J. W. Gary * Inclusive Jets at the Tevatron * Forward Jets, Dijets, and Subjets at the Tevatron * Inclusive Hadron Production and Dijets at HERA * Recent Opal Results on Photon Structure and Interactions * Review of Two-Photon Physics at LEP * Session Chairman: E. de Wolf * An Intriguing Area-Law-Based Hadron Production Scheme in e+e- Annihilation and Its Possible Extensions * Hyperfine Splitting in Hadron Production at High Energies * Event Selection Effects on Multiplicities in Quark and Gluon Jets * Quark and Gluon Jet Properties at LEP * Rapidity Gaps in Quark and Gluon Jets -- A Perturbative Approach * Monday afternoon session: Diffractive and Small-x - Conveners: M. Derrick and A. White * Session Chairman: A. White * Structure Functions: Low x, High y, Low Q2 * The Next-to-Leading Dynamics of the BFKL Pomeron * Renormalization Group Improved BFKL Equation * Session Chairman: G. Briskin * New Experimental Results on Diffraction at HERA * Diffractive Parton Distributions in Light-Cone QCD * The Logarithmic Derivative of the F2 Structure Function and Saturation * Spin Dependence of Diffractive DIS * Monday evening session * Session Chairman: M. Braun * Tests of QCD with Particle Production at HERA: Review and Outlook * Double Parton Scattering and Hadron Structure in Transverse Space * The High Density Parton Dynamics from Eikonal and Dipole Pictures * Hints of Higher Twist Effects in the Slope of the Proton Structure Function * Tuesday morning session: Correlations and Fluctuations - Conveners: R. Hwa and M. Tannenbaum * Session Chairman: A. Giovannini -- Fluctuations and Correlations * Bose-Einstein Results from L3 * Short-Range and Long-Range Correlations in DIS at HERA * Coior Mutation Model, Intermittency, and Erraticity * QCD Queuing and Hadron Multiplicity * Soft and Semi

  17. On the possible role of zonal dynamics in the formation and evolution of F3 layers over equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridula, N.; Pant, Tarun Kumar

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, occurrences of F3 layer over Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N; 77°E; dip latitude ~0.5°N), a dip equatorial station in India have been investigated using ionosonde data for the years 2004-2007. The F3 layers appearing in the ionograms during the pre noon hours only have been included in the analysis. The result indicates that a weak EIA resulting in low ionospheric height and high ionization density prevails before the occurrence of F3 layer and serves as an essential condition for its occurrence. The relative Slant Total Electron Content (rSTEC) measured using collocated ground based coherent low earth orbiting (LEO) radio beacon receiver has also been used along with electron densities measured by CHAMP satellite for the year 2006 and 2007 to illustrate this difference in the evolution of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) on F3 and non F3 days. A new mechanism for F3 generation has been proposed. It has been shown that the coupling of the thermospheric zonal wind jet over equator and enhanced ionospheric density at lower heights over Indian longitude can account for the generation of F3 layer through ion-drag. The vertical wind associated with the thermospheric heating resulting from ion-drag causes the generation of an additional eastward field which, along with the prevailing F-region electric field, leads to the upward excursion of the F3 layer.

  18. RECENT LATTICE RESULTS ON FINITE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY QCD, PART 1.

    SciTech Connect

    KARSCH,F.

    2007-07-09

    We discuss recent progress made studies of bulk thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter through lattice simulations of QCD with an almost physical light and strange quark mass spectrum. We present results on the QCD equation of state at vanishing and non-vanishing quark chemical potential and show first results on baryon number and strangeness fluctuations, which might be measured in event-by-event fluctuations in low energy runs at RHIC as well as at FAIR.

  19. The modified alternative (G'/G)-expansion method to nonlinear evolution equation: application to the (1+1)-dimensional Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation.

    PubMed

    Akbar, M Ali; Mohd Ali, Norhashidah Hj; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, (G'/G)-expansion method is employed to generate traveling wave solutions to various wave equations in mathematical physics. In the present paper, the alternative (G'/G)-expansion method has been further modified by introducing the generalized Riccati equation to construct new exact solutions. In order to illustrate the novelty and advantages of this approach, the (1+1)-dimensional Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson (DSW) equation is considered and abundant new exact traveling wave solutions are obtained in a uniform way. These solutions may be imperative and significant for the explanation of some practical physical phenomena. It is shown that the modified alternative (G'/G)-expansion method an efficient and advance mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

  20. NLO evolution of color dipoles in N=4 SYM

    DOE PAGES

    Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Balitsky, Ian

    2009-07-04

    Here, high-energy behavior of amplitudes in a gauge theory can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the conformally invariant BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In QCD, the next-to-leading order BK equation has both conformal and non-conformal parts, the latter providing the running of the coupling constant. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformalmore » $${\\cal N}$$=4 SYM theory. We define the "composite dipole operator" with the rapidity cutoff preserving conformal invariance.« less

  1. NLO evolution of color dipoles in N=4 SYM

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian; Chirilli, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    High-energy behavior of amplitudes in a gauge theory can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the conformally invariant BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In QCD, the next-to-leading order BK equation has both conformal and non-conformal parts, the latter providing the running of the coupling constant. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformal ${\\cal N}$=4 SYM theory. We define the ``composite dipole operator' with the rapidity cutoff preserving conformal invariance. The resulting M\\"obius invariant kernel agrees with the forward NLO BFKL calculation of Ref. 1

  2. Bell-polynomial approach and Wronskian determinant solutions for three sets of differential–difference nonlinear evolution equations with symbolic computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Bo; Tian, Bo; Wang, Yu-Feng; Shen, Yu-Jia; Wang, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Under investigation in this paper are the Belov-Chaltikian (BC), Leznov and Blaszak-Marciniak (BM) lattice equations, which are associated with the conformal field theory, UToda(m_1,m_2) system and r-matrix, respectively. With symbolic computation, the Bell-polynomial approach is developed to directly bilinearize those three sets of differential-difference nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). This Bell-polynomial approach does not rely on any dependent variable transformation, which constitutes the key step and main difficulty of the Hirota bilinear method, and thus has the advantage in the bilinearization of the differential-difference NLEEs. Based on the bilinear forms obtained, the N-soliton solutions are constructed in terms of the N × N Wronskian determinant. Graphic illustrations demonstrate that those solutions, more general than the existing results, permit some new properties, such as the solitonic propagation and interactions for the BC lattice equations, and the nonnegative dark solitons for the BM lattice equations.

  3. A numerical method for integrating the kinetic equations of droplet spectra evolution by condensation/evaporation and by coalescence/breakup processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emukashvily, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    An extension of the method of moments is developed for the numerical integration of the kinetic equations of droplet spectra evolution by condensation/evaporation and by coalescence/breakup processes. The number density function n sub k (x,t) in each separate droplet packet between droplet mass grid points (x sub k, x sub k+1) is represented by an expansion in orthogonal polynomials with a given weighting function. In this way droplet number concentrations, liquid water contents and other moments in each droplet packet are conserved and the problem of solving the kinetic equations is replaced by one of solving a set of coupled differential equations for the number density function moments. The method is tested against analytic solutions of the corresponding kinetic equations. Numerical results are obtained for different coalescence/breakup and condensation/evaporation kernels and for different initial droplet spectra. Also droplet mass grid intervals, weighting functions, and time steps are varied.

  4. A QCD description of the ATLAS jet veto measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Y.; Marquet, C.; Royon, C.; Soyez, G.; Ueda, T.; Werder, D.

    2013-03-01

    We present a new QCD description of the ATLAS jet veto measurement, using the Banfi-Marchesini-Smye equation to constrain the interjet QCD radiation. This equation resums emissions of soft gluons at large angles, at leading-logarithmic accuracy, and accounts for both the so-called Sudakov and nonglobal logarithms. We show that this approach is able to reproduce, with no fitting parameters, the fraction of high-pT forward-backward dijet events which do not contain additional hard emissions in the interjet rapidity range. We also compute the gap fraction in fixed-order perturbation theory to O(αs2) and show that the perturbative series is unstable at large rapidity intervals.

  5. QCD measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Bandurin, Dmitry; /Florida State U.

    2011-12-01

    Selected quantum chromodynamics (QCD) measurements performed at the Fermilab Run II Tevatron p{bar p} collider running at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV by CDF and D0 Collaborations are presented. The inclusive jet, dijet production and three-jet cross section measurements are used to test perturbative QCD calculations, constrain parton distribution function (PDF) determinations, and extract a precise value of the strong coupling constant, {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1161{sub -0.0048}{sup +0.0041}. Inclusive photon production cross-section measurements reveal an inability of next-to-leading-order (NLO) perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations to describe low-energy photons arising directly in the hard scatter. The diphoton production cross-sections check the validity of the NLO pQCD predictions, soft-gluon resummation methods implemented in theoretical calculations, and contributions from the parton-to-photon fragmentation diagrams. Events with W/Z+jets productions are used to measure many kinematic distributions allowing extensive tests and tunes of predictions from pQCD NLO and Monte-Carlo (MC) event generators. The charged-particle transverse momenta (p{sub T}) and multiplicity distributions in the inclusive minimum bias events are used to tune non-perturbative QCD models, including those describing the multiple parton interactions (MPI). Events with inclusive production of {gamma} and 2 or 3 jets are used to study increasingly important MPI phenomenon at high p{sub T}, measure an effective interaction cross section, {sigma}{sub eff} = 16.4 {+-} 2.3 mb, and limit existing MPI models.

  6. The Emergence of Hadrons from QCD Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, William; Color Dynamics in Cold Matter (CDCM) Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The formation of hadrons from energetic quarks, the dynamical enforcement of QCD confinement, is not well understood at a fundamental level. In Deep Inelastic Scattering, modifications of the distributions of identified hadrons emerging from nuclei of different sizes reveal a rich variety of spatial and temporal characteristics of the hadronization process, including its dependence on spin, flavor, energy, and hadron mass and structure. The EIC will feature a wide range of kinematics, allowing a complete investigation of medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung by the propagating quarks, leading to partonic energy loss. This fundamental process, which is also at the heart of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions, can be studied for light and heavy quarks at the EIC through observables quantifying hadron ``attenuation'' for a variety of hadron species. Transverse momentum broadening of hadrons, which is sensitive to the nuclear gluonic field, will also be accessible, and can be used to test our understanding from pQCD of how this quantity evolves with pathlength, as well as its connection to partonic energy loss. The evolution of the forming hadrons in the medium will shed new light on the dynamical origins of the forces between hadrons, and thus ultimately on the nuclear force. Supported by the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) of Chile.

  7. Justification of the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation for the Evolution of Gravity Driven 2D Surface Water Waves in a Canal of Finite Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düll, Wolf-Patrick; Schneider, Guido; Wayne, C. Eugene

    2016-05-01

    In 1968 V.E. Zakharov derived the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the two-dimensional water wave problem in the absence of surface tension, that is, for the evolution of gravity driven surface water waves, in order to describe slow temporal and spatial modulations of a spatially and temporarily oscillating wave packet. In this paper we give a rigorous proof that the wave packets in the two-dimensional water wave problem in a canal of finite depth can be approximated over a physically relevant timespan by solutions of the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  8. Existence, uniqueness, and stability of mild solutions for second-order neutral stochastic evolution equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yong; Sakthivel, R.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we study a class of second-order neutral stochastic evolution equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps (SNSEEIPs), in which the initial value belongs to the abstract space B. We establish the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions for SNSEEIPs under non-Lipschitz condition with Lipschitz condition being considered as a special case by means of the successive approximation. Furthermore, we give the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial data by means of a corollary of the Bihari inequality. An application to the stochastic nonlinear wave equation with infinite delay and Poisson jumps is given to illustrate the theory.

  9. Light-Front Holography and Non-Perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2009-12-09

    The combination of Anti-de Sitter space (AdS) methods with light-front holography leads to a semi-classical first approximation to the spectrum and wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states. Starting from the bound-state Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD, we derive relativistic light-front wave equations in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. These equations of motion in physical space-time are equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. Its eigenvalues give the hadronic spectrum, and its eigenmodes represent the probability distribution of the hadronic constituents at a given scale. Applications to the light meson and baryon spectra are presented. The predicted meson spectrum has a string-theory Regge form M{sup 2} = 4{kappa}{sup 2}(n + L + S = 2); i.e., the square of the eigenmass is linear in both L and n, where n counts the number of nodes of the wavefunction in the radial variable {zeta}. The space-like pion form factor is also well reproduced. One thus obtains a remarkable connection between the description of hadronic modes in AdS space and the Hamiltonian formulation of QCD in physical space-time quantized on the light-front at fixed light-front time {tau}. The model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method in order to systematically include the QCD interaction terms.

  10. Towards the QCD phase diagram from analytical continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellwied, R.; Borsányi, S.; Fodor, Z.; Günther, J.; Katz, S. D.; Pásztor, A.; Ratti, C.; Szabó, K. K.

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the QCD cross-over temperature, the equation of state and fluctuations of conserved charges at finite density by analytical continuation from imaginary to real chemical potentials. Our calculations are based on new continuum extrapolated lattice simulations using the 4stout staggered actions with a lattice resolution up to Nt = 16. The simulation parameters are tuned such that the strangeness neutrality is maintained, as it is in heavy ion collisions.

  11. High-Energy QCD Asymptotics of Photon--Photon Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2002-07-26

    The high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons, as predicted by the BFKL equation at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD, is discussed. The NLO BFKL predictions, improved by the BLM optimal scale setting, are in good agreement with recent OPAL and L3 data at CERN LEP2. NLO BFKL predictions for future linear colliders are presented.

  12. Chiral limit of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1994-12-31

    This talk contains an analysis of quenched chiral perturbation theory and its consequences. The chiral behavior of a number of quantities such as the pion mass m{sub pi}{sup 2}, the Bernard-Golterman ratios R and {sub X}, the masses of nucleons, and the kaon B-parameter are examined to see if the singular terms induced by the additional Goldstone boson, {eta}{prime}, are visible in present data. The overall conclusion (different from that presented at the lattice meeting) of this analysis is that even though there are some caveats attached to the indications of the extra terms induced by {eta}{prime} loops, the standard expressions break down when extrapolating the quenched data with m{sub q} < m{sub s}/2 to physical light quarks. I then show that due to the single and double poles in the quenched {eta}{prime}, the axial charge of the proton cannot be calculated using the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly condition. I conclude with a review of the status of the calculation of light quark masses from lattice QCD.

  13. QCD at collider energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaidis, A.; Bordes, G.

    1986-05-01

    We examine available experimental distributions of transverse energy and transverse momentum, obtained at the CERN pp¯ collider, in the context of quantum chromodynamics. We consider the following. (i) The hadronic transverse energy released during W+/- production. This hadronic transverse energy is made out of two components: a soft component which we parametrize using minimum-bias events and a semihard component which we calculate from QCD. (ii) The transverse momentum of the produced W+/-. If the transverse momentum (or the transverse energy) results from a single gluon jet we use the formalism of Dokshitzer, Dyakonov, and Troyan, while if it results from multiple-gluon emission we use the formalism of Parisi and Petronzio. (iii) The relative transverse momentum of jets. While for W+/- production quarks play an essential role, jet production at moderate pT and present energies is dominated by gluon-gluon scattering and therefore we can study the Sudakov form factor of the gluon. We suggest also how through a Hankel transform of experimental data we can have direct access to the Sudakov form factors of quarks and gluons.

  14. Induced QCD I: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Bastian B.; Lohmayer, Robert; Wettig, Tilo

    2016-11-01

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU( N c ) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N b auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N b can be as small as N c . In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U( N c ) to SU( N c ), (ii) derive refined bounds on N b for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the gauge fields to arrive at a dual formulation of lattice QCD.

  15. Hadroquarkonium from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Maurizio; Bali, Gunnar S.; Collins, Sara; Knechtli, Francesco; Moir, Graham; Söldner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The hadroquarkonium picture [S. Dubynskiy and M. B. Voloshin, Phys. Lett. B 666, 344 (2008), 10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.086] provides one possible interpretation for the pentaquark candidates with hidden charm, recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, as well as for some of the charmoniumlike "X , Y , Z " states. In this picture, a heavy quarkonium core resides within a light hadron giving rise to four- or five-quark/antiquark bound states. We test this scenario in the heavy quark limit by investigating the modification of the potential between a static quark-antiquark pair induced by the presence of a hadron. Our lattice QCD simulations are performed on a Coordinated Lattice Simulations (CLS) ensemble with Nf=2 +1 flavors of nonperturbatively improved Wilson quarks at a pion mass of about 223 MeV and a lattice spacing of about a =0.0854 fm . We study the static potential in the presence of a variety of light mesons as well as of octet and decuplet baryons. In all these cases, the resulting configurations are favored energetically. The associated binding energies between the quarkonium in the heavy quark limit and the light hadron are found to be smaller than a few MeV, similar in strength to deuterium binding. It needs to be seen if the small attraction survives in the infinite volume limit and supports bound states or resonances.

  16. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUM,T.; CREUTZ,M.; PETRECZKY,P.

    2004-02-24

    With the operation of the RHIC heavy ion program, the theoretical understanding of QCD at finite temperature and density has become increasingly important. Though QCD at finite temperature has been extensively studied using lattice Monte-Carlo simulations over the past twenty years, most physical questions relevant for RHIC (and future) heavy ion experiments remain open. In lattice QCD at finite temperature and density there have been at least two major advances in recent years. First, for the first time calculations of real time quantities, like meson spectral functions have become available. Second, the lattice study of the QCD phase diagram and equation of state have been extended to finite baryon density by several groups. Both issues were extensively discussed in the course of the workshop. A real highlight was the study of the QCD phase diagram in (T, {mu})-plane by Z. Fodor and S. Katz and the determination of the critical end-point for the physical value of the pion mass. This was the first time such lattice calculations at, the physical pion mass have been performed. Results by Z Fodor and S. Katz were obtained using a multi-parameter re-weighting method. Other determinations of the critical end point were also presented, in particular using a Taylor expansion around {mu} = 0 (Bielefeld group, Ejiri et al.) and using analytic continuation from imaginary chemical potential (Ph. de Forcrand and O. Philipsen). The result based on Taylor expansion agrees within errors with the new prediction of Z. Fodor and S. Katz, while methods based on analytic continuation still predict a higher value for the critical baryon density. Most of the thermodynamics studies in full QCD (including those presented at this workshop) have been performed using quite coarse lattices, a = 0.2-0.3 fm. Therefore one may worry about cutoff effects in different thermodynamic quantities, like the transition temperature T{sub tr}. At the workshop U. Heller presented a study of the transition

  17. Recent QCD results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Pickarz, Henryk; CDF and DO collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Recent QCD results from the CDF and D0 detectors at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider are presented. An outlook for future QCD tests at the Tevatron collider is also breifly discussed. 27 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Novel Spin Effects in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S

    2004-01-15

    Measurements from HERMES, SMC, and Jlab show a significant single-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive pion leptoproduction {gamma}*(q)p {yields} {pi}X when the proton is polarized normal to the photon-to-pion production plane. Hwang, Schmidt, and I [1] have shown that final-state interactions from gluon exchange between the outgoing quark and the target spectator system lead to such single-spin asymmetries at leading twist in perturbative QCD; i.e., the rescattering corrections are not power-law suppressed at large photon virtuality Q{sup 2} at fixed x{sub bj}. The existence of such single-spin asymmetries (the Sivers effect) requires a phase difference between two amplitudes coupling the proton target with J{sub p}{sup z} = {+-} 1/2 to the same final-state, the same amplitudes which are necessary to produce a nonzero proton anomalous magnetic moment. The single-spin asymmetry which arises from such final-state interactions is in addition to the Collins effect which measures the transversity distribution {delta}q(x, Q). The Sivers effect also leads to a leading-twist target single-spin asymmetry for jet production in electroproduction where the thrust axis is used to define the production plane. More generally, Hoyer, Marchal, Peigne, Sannino, and I [2] have shown that one cannot neglect the interactions which occur between the times of the currents in the current correlator even in light-cone gauge. For example, the final-state interactions lead to the Bjorken-scaling diffractive component {gamma}*p {yields} pX of deep inelastic scattering. Since the gluons exchanged in the final state carry negligible k{sup +}, the Pomeron structure function closely resembles that of the primary gluon. The diffractive scattering of the fast outgoing quarks on spectators in the target in turn causes shadowing in the DIS cross section. These effects highlight the unexpected importance of final- and initial-state interactions in QCD observables, they lead to leading-twist single

  19. Twisted mass QCD for weak matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Carlos

    2006-12-01

    I report on the application of tmQCD techniques to the computation of hadronic matrix elements of four-fermion operators. Emphasis is put on the computation of BK in quenched QCD performed by the ALPHA Collaboration. The extension of tmQCD strategies to the study of neutral B- meson mixing is briefly discussed. Finally, some remarks are made concerning proposals to apply tmQCD to the computation of K → ππ amplitudes.

  20. Light-Front Holography and Novel Effects in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2008-12-18

    The correspondence between theories in anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semiclassical model for strongly-coupled QCD. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons at the amplitude level. We identify the AdS coordinate z with an invariant light-front coordinate {zeta} which separates the dynamics of quark and gluon binding from the kinematics of constituent spin and internal orbital angular momentum. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The mapping of electromagnetic and gravitational form factors in AdS space to their corresponding expressions in light-front theory confirms this correspondence. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates and the behavior of the QCD coupling in the infrared. The distinction between static structure functions such as the probability distributions computed from the square of the light-front wavefunctions versus dynamical structure functions which include the effects of rescattering is emphasized. A new method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level, an event amplitude generator, is outlined.

  1. Light-Front Holography and Novel Effects in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Teramond, Guy F. de

    2009-04-20

    The correspondence between theories in anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semiclassical model for strongly-coupled QCD. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons at the amplitude level. We identify the AdS coordinate z with an invariant light-front coordinate {zeta} which separates the dynamics of quark and gluon binding from the kinematics of constituent spin and internal orbital angular momentum. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The mapping of electromagnetic and gravitational form factors in AdS space to their corresponding expressions in light-front theory confirms this correspondence. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates and the behavior of the QCD coupling in the infrared. The distinction between static structure functions such as the probability distributions computed from the square of the light-front wavefunctions versus dynamical structure functions which include the effects of rescattering is emphasized. A new method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level, an event amplitude generator, is outlined.

  2. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.K. ); Stirling, W.J. )

    1990-08-14

    This report discusses: fundamentals of perturbative QCD; QCD in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} hadrons; deep inelastic scattering and parton distributions; the QCD parton model in hadron-hadron collisions; large p{sub T} jet production in hadron-hadron collisions; the production of vector bosons in hadronic collisions; and the production of heavy quarks.

  3. BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, N.; Rybalchenko, A.; Shevelko, V. P.; Al-Turany, M.; Kollegger, T.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  4. Lattice QCD: Status and Prospect

    SciTech Connect

    Ukawa, Akira

    2006-02-08

    A brief review is given of the current status and near-future prospect of lattice QCD studies of the Standard Model. After summarizing a bit of history, we describe current attempts toward inclusion of dynamical up, down and strange quarks. Recent results on the light hadron mass spectrum as well as those on the heavy quark quantities are described. Recent work on lattice pentaquark search is summarized. We touch upon the PACS-CS Project for building our next machine for lattice QCD, and conclude with a summary of computer situation and the physics possibilities over the next several years.

  5. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, Raul

    2016-12-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  6. The supercritical pomeron in QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    White, A. R.

    1998-06-29

    Deep-inelastic diffractive scaling violations have provided fundamental insight into the QCD pomeron, suggesting a single gluon inner structure rather than that of a perturbative two-gluon bound state. This talk outlines a derivation of a high-energy, transverse momentum cut-off, confining solution of QCD. The pomeron, in first approximation, is a single reggeized gluon plus a ''wee parton'' component that compensates for the color and particle properties of the gluon. This solution corresponds to a super-critical phase of Reggeon Field Theory.

  7. QCD inequalities for hadron interactions.

    PubMed

    Detmold, William

    2015-06-05

    We derive generalizations of the Weingarten-Witten QCD mass inequalities for particular multihadron systems. For systems of any number of identical pseudoscalar mesons of maximal isospin, these inequalities prove that near threshold interactions between the constituent mesons must be repulsive and that no bound states can form in these channels. Similar constraints in less symmetric systems are also extracted. These results are compatible with experimental results (where known) and recent lattice QCD calculations, and also lead to a more stringent bound on the nucleon mass than previously derived, m_{N}≥3/2m_{π}.

  8. Some Qcd/gravity Intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    Gravitational form factors are the matrix elements of the Belinfante energy momentum tensor (EMT) which naturally incorporate the hadron structure and the equivalence principle. The relocalization property allowing to transform EMT to the Belinfante form provides the "kinematical" counterpart of the famous UA(1) problem. The equivalence principle may be approximately valid for quarks and gluons separately in non-perturbative (NP)QCD, and this conjecture is supported by the experimental and lattice data. The extradimensional gravity leading to holographic AdS/QCD is supporting the relation of quark transverse momentum to the Regge slope, discovered by V.N. Gribov.

  9. Some QCD/gravity intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    Gravitational form factors are the matrix elements of the Belinfante energy momentum tensor (EMT) which naturally incorporate the hadron structure and the equivalence principle. The relocalization property allowing to transform EMT to the Belinfante form provides the “kinematical” counterpart of the famous UA(1) problem. The equivalence principle may be approximately valid for quarks and gluons separately in non-perturbative (NP)QCD, and this conjecture is supported by the experimental and lattice data. The extra-dimensional gravity leading to holographic AdS/QCD is supporting the relation of quark transverse momentum to the Regge slope, discovered by V.N. Gribov.

  10. Reliable semiclassical computations in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dine, Michael; Festuccia, Guido; Pack, Lawrence; Wu, Weitao

    2010-09-01

    We revisit the question of whether or not one can perform reliable semiclassical QCD computations at zero temperature. We study correlation functions with no perturbative contributions, and organize the problem by means of the operator product expansion, establishing a precise criterion for the validity of a semiclassical calculation. For Nf>N, a systematic computation is possible; for NfQCD lattice gauge theory computations in the chiral limit.

  11. Recent QCD results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, J.C.

    1990-10-10

    In this paper we report recent QCD analysis with the new data taken from CDF detector. CDF recorded an integrated luminosity of 4.4 nb{sup {minus}1} during the 1988--1989 run at center of mass system (CMS) energy of 1.8 TeV. The major topics of this report are inclusive jet, dijet, trijet and direct photon analysis. These measurements are compared of QCD predictions. For the inclusive jet an dijet analysis, tests of quark compositeness are emphasized. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Glueball decay in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Koji; Tan, C.-I; Terashima, Seiji

    2008-04-15

    Using holographic QCD based on D4-branes and D8-anti-D8-branes, we have computed couplings of glueballs to light mesons. We describe glueball decay by explicitly calculating its decay widths and branching ratios. Interestingly, while glueballs remain less well understood both theoretically and experimentally, our results are found to be consistent with the experimental data for the scalar glueball candidate f{sub 0}(1500). More generally, holographic QCD predicts that decay of any glueball to 4{pi}{sup 0} is suppressed, and that mixing of the lightest glueball with qq mesons is small.

  13. J.J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics: 40 Years of Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Lattice QCD was invented in 1973-74 by Ken Wilson, who passed away in 2013. This talk will describe the evolution of lattice QCD through the past 40 years with particular emphasis on its first years, and on the past decade, when lattice QCD simulations finally came of age. Thanks to theoretical breakthroughs in the late 1990s and early 2000s, lattice QCD simulations now produce the most accurate theoretical calculations in the history of strong-interaction physics. They play an essential role in high-precision experimental studies of physics within and beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The talk will include a non-technical review of the conceptual ideas behind this revolutionary development in (highly) nonlinear quantum physics, together with a survey of its current impact on theoretical and experimental particle physics, and prospects for the future. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  14. Evolution of average multiplicities of quark and gluon jets

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, A.; Dremin, I. M.; Gary, J. W.; Nechitailo, V. A.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    2000-04-01

    The energy evolution of the average multiplicities of quark and gluon jets is studied in perturbative QCD. Higher order (3NLO) terms in the perturbative expansion of equations for the generating functions are found. First and second derivatives of average multiplicities are calculated. The mean multiplicity of gluon jets is larger than that of quark jets and evolves more rapidly with energy. It is shown which quantities are most sensitive to higher order perturbative and nonperturbative corrections. We define the energy regions where the corrections to different quantities are important. The latest experimental data are discussed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  15. Two-color QCD at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Boz, Tamer; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Giudice, Pietro; Hands, Simon; Williams, Anthony G.

    2016-01-22

    QCD at high chemical potential has interesting properties such as deconfinement of quarks. Two-color QCD, which enables numerical simulations on the lattice, constitutes a laboratory to study QCD at high chemical potential. Among the interesting properties of two-color QCD at high density is the diquark condensation, for which we present recent results obtained on a finer lattice compared to previous studies. The quark propagator in two-color QCD at non-zero chemical potential is referred to as the Gor’kov propagator. We express the Gor’kov propagator in terms of form factors and present recent lattice simulation results.

  16. Problems with vector confinement in 4d QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Yu. A.

    2017-07-01

    It is shown that vector confinement does not support bound state spectrum in the 4d Dirac equation. The same property is confirmed in the heavy-light and light-light QCD systems. This situation is compared with the confinement in the 2d system, which is generated by the gluon exchange. Considering the existing theories of confinement, it is shown that both the field correlator approach and the dual superconductor model ensure the scalar confinement in contrast to the Gribov-Zwanziger model, where the confning Coulomb potential does not support bound states in the Dirac equation..

  17. General QED/QCD aspects of simple systems

    SciTech Connect

    Telegdi, V.L.; Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-09-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: renormalization theory; the Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg theorem; the Yennie-Frautschi-Suura relation; scale invariance at large momentum transfer; scaling and scaling violation at large momentum transfers; low-energy theorem in Compton scattering; does the perturbation series in QED converge; renormalization of the weak angle /Theta//sub w/; the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) equation; the decay rate of /sup 3/S, positronium; radiative corrections to QCD Born cross section; and progress on the relativistic 2-body equation.

  18. Integral equation for spin dependent unintegrated parton distributions incorporating double ln2(1/x) effects at low x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwieciński, Jan; Maul, Martin

    2003-02-01

    In this paper we derive an integral equation for the evolution of unintegrated (longitudinally) polarized quark and gluon parton distributions. The conventional Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) framework is modified at small x in order to incorporate the QCD expectations concerning the double ln2(1/x) resummation at low x for the integrated distributions. Complete Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions are included that makes the formalism compatible with the leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution at large and moderately small values of x. The obtained modified polarized CCFM equation is shown to be partially diagonalized by the Fourier-Bessel transformation. Results of the numerical solution for this modifed polarized CCFM equation for the nonsinglet quark distributions are presented.

  19. Strong Coupling Continuum QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Pennington

    2011-05-01

    The Schwinger-Dyson, Bethe-Salpeter system of equations are the link between coloured quarks and gluons, and colourless hadrons and their properties. This talk reviews some aspects of these studies from the infrared behaviour of ghosts to the prediction of electromagnetic form-factors.

  20. Strong Coupling Continuum QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, M. R.

    2011-05-23

    The Schwinger-Dyson, Bethe-Salpeter system of equations are the link between coloured quarks and gluons, and colourless hadrons and their properties. This talk reviews some aspects of these studies from the infrared behaviour of ghosts to the prediction of electromagnetic form-factors.

  1. Controlling quark mass determinations non-perturbatively in three-flavour QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Isabel; Fritzsch, Patrick; Pena, Carlos; Preti, David; Ramos, Alberto; Vladikas, Anastassios

    2017-03-01

    The determination of quark masses from lattice QCD simulations requires a non-perturbative renormalization procedure and subsequent scale evolution to high energies, where a conversion to the commonly used \\overline {{{MS}}} scheme can be safely established. We present our results for the non-perturbative running of renormalized quark masses in Nf = 3 QCD between the electroweak and a hadronic energy scale, where lattice simulations are at our disposal. Recent theoretical advances in combination with well-established techniques allows to follow the scale evolution to very high statistical accuracy, and full control of systematic effects.

  2. New results in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.K.

    1985-11-01

    Three topics in perturbative QCD important for Super-collider physics are reviewed. The topics are: (2 2) jet phenomena calculated in O( sT); new techniques for the calculation of tree graphs; and colour coherence in jet phenomena. 31 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Heavy quark production and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, M.V.

    1988-12-01

    Recent results on charm and beauty production in fixed target experiments are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the recent results, on the trend favored by the data, on companies with the recently improved QCD predictions and on what may be expected in the near future. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Meson Resonances from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Robert G.

    2016-06-01

    There has been recent, significant, advances in the determination of the meson spectrum of QCD. Current efforts have focused on the development and application of finite-volume formalisms that allow for the determination of scattering amplitudes as well as resonance behavior in coupled channel systems. I will review some of these recent developments, and demonstrate the viability of the method in meson systems.

  5. QCD Spin Physics: Theoretical Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsang,W.

    2008-11-09

    We give an overview of some of the current activities and results in QCD spin physics. We focus on the helicity structure of the nucleon, where we highlight the results of a recent first global analysis of the helicity parton distributions, and on single-transverse spin asymmetries.

  6. QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.

    1999-03-20

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  7. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  8. Recent progress in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1992-12-01

    A brief overview of the status of lattice QCD is given, with emphasis on topics relevant to phenomenology. The calculation of the light quark spectrum, the lattice prediction of {alpha} {sub {ovr MS}} (M {sub Z}), and the calculation of f{sub B} are discussed. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 40 refs.

  9. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  10. Strings, quarkonium and nuclear physics in lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Christopher Robert

    2000-11-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD, is currently accepted as the correct theory of quark and gluon interactions, a theory that embodies many of our modern notions about the links between mathematical symmetry and physical reality. It is also, for many interesting phenomena, a strongly-coupled theory. Traditional perturbation theory can not be applied to low-energy QCD; new, non-perturbative methods are required. Lattice QCD is the most successful non-perturbative, first-principles approach to investigations of QCD physics. The QCD field equations are discretised on a space-time grid, making them well-suited to numerical simulation. We have performed lattice simulations to investigate three separate problems in low-energy QCD. First, the nature of the strong nuclear force was examined through the simpler system of two interacting heavy-light mesons. The inter-meson binding potential was extracted from lattice simulations, and was in quantitative agreement with the Yukawa model of pion exchange. Next we investigated the phenomenon of string-breaking. The QCD static-quark potential is confining-the gluon field between spatially separated quarks forms a narrow flux `string', with energy that increases linearly with the quark separation. For large separations, the field energy is sufficient for the system to decay into a static-light meson pair. To date, evidence for this `string-breaking' effect has been elusive. We presented a lattice operator that produces the desired effect, even in the absence of light sea-quarks. This has implications for current string- breaking investigations. Finally, we attempted precision simulations of the charmonium ( cc¯) meson family using a non-relativistic effective theory of heavy-quark interactions known as NRQCD. The charm quark is a challenge for lattice simulations-large discrepancies exist between experimental measurements and lattice results for the charmonium spectrum. We performed NRQCD simulations of the charmonium system to examine

  11. Dynamical model for longitudinal wave functions in light-front holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Chabysheva, Sophia S.; Hiller, John R.

    2013-10-15

    We construct a Schrödinger-like equation for the longitudinal wave function of a meson in the valence qq{sup -bar} sector, based on the ’t Hooft model for large-N two-dimensional QCD, and combine this with the usual transverse equation from light-front holographic QCD, to obtain a model for mesons with massive quarks. The computed wave functions are compared with the wave function ansatz of Brodsky and de Téramond and used to compute decay constants and parton distribution functions. The basis functions used to solve the longitudinal equation may be useful for more general calculations of meson states in QCD. -- Highlights: •Provide relativistic quark model based on light-front holographic QCD. •Incorporate dependence on quark mass. •Consistent with the Brodsky–de Téramond quark-wave-function ansatz. •Compute meson decay constants and parton distribution functions. •Illustrate use of basis functions that could be convenient for more general numerical calculations in light-front QCD.

  12. Small-x evolution in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanni Antonio Chirilli

    2009-12-01

    After a brief introduction to Deep Inelastic Scattering in the Bjorken limit and in the Regge Limit we discuss the operator product expansion in terms of non local string operator and in terms of Wilson lines. We will show how the high-energy behavior of amplitudes in gauge theories can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading order this evolution is governed by the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation. In order to see if this equation is relevant for existing or future deep inelastic scattering (DIS) accelerators (like Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC)) one needs to know the next-to-leading order (NLO) corrections. In addition, the NLO corrections define the scale of the running-coupling constant in the BK equation and therefore determine the magnitude of the leading-order cross sections. In Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the next-to-leading order BK equation has both conformal and non-conformal parts. The NLO kernel for the composite operators resolves in a sum of the conformal part and the running-coupling part. The QCD and kernel of the BK equation is presented.

  13. Vector meson electroproduction in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Juan; Cai, Xian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Juan

    2012-08-01

    Based on the generalized QCD vector meson dominance model, we study the electroproduction of a vector meson off a proton in the QCD inspired eikonalized model. Numerical calculations for the total cross section σtot and differential cross section dσ/dt are performed for ρ, ω and varphi meson electroproduction in this paper. Since gluons interact among themselves (self-interaction), two gluons can form a glueball with quantum numbers IG, JPC = 0+,2++, decay width Γt ≈ 100 MeV, and mass of mG = 2.23 GeV. The three gluons can form a three-gluon colorless bound state with charge conjugation quantum number C = -1, called the Odderon. The mediators of interactions between projectiles (the quark and antiquark pair fluctuated from the virtual photon) and the proton target (a three-quark system) are the tensor glueball and the Odderon. Our calculated results in the tensor glueball and Odderon exchange model fit to the existing data successfully, which evidently shows that our present QCD mechanism is a good description of meson electroproduction off a proton. It should be emphasized that our mechanism is different from the theoretical framework of Block et al. We also believe that the present study and its success are important for the investigation of other vector meson electro- and photoproduction at high energies, as well as for searching for new particles such as tensor glueballs and Odderons, which have been predicted by QCD and the color glass condensate model (CGC). Therefore, in return, it can test the validity of QCD and the CGC model.

  14. Pion Parton Distribution Function from DSE-QCD Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitrin, Konstantin; Cobos-Martinez, Javier; Roberts, Craig; Tandy, Peter

    2012-10-01

    We obtain the valence quark PDF of the pion from a direct formulation of the moments within a Euclidean-formated modeling of QCD. There are no limitations on the number of moments that can be obtained. This approach employs the ladder-rainbow (LR) truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) formulation of QCD and eliminates an obstacle that hinders a direct approach to the PDF. Bethe-Salpeter wavefunctions and dressed quark propagators from previous extensive DSE-LR work are recast in a form that allows exact Feynman integral techniques. Performance of this approach will be assessed through results for the reconstructed PDF, and considerations of the momentum sum rule.

  15. Further studies on relic neutrino asymmetry generation. I. The adiabatic Boltzmann limit, nonadiabatic evolution, and the classical harmonic oscillator analogue of the quantum kinetic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkas, Raymond R.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2000-11-01

    We demonstrate that the relic neutrino asymmetry evolution equation derived from the quantum kinetic equations (QKE's) reduces to the Boltzmann limit that is dependent only on the instantaneous neutrino distribution functions, in the adiabatic limit in conjunction with sufficient damping. An original physical and/or geometrical interpretation of the adiabatic approximation is given, which serves as a convenient visual aid for understanding the sharply contrasting resonance behaviors exhibited by the neutrino ensemble in opposing collision regimes. We also present a classical analogue for the evolution of the difference in the να and νs distribution functions which, in the Boltzmann limit, is akin to the behavior of the generic reaction A⇌B with equal forward and reverse reaction rate constants. A new characteristic quantity, the matter and collision-affected mixing angle of the neutrino ensemble, is identified here for the first time. The role of collisions is revealed to be twofold: (i) to wipe out the inherent oscillations, and (ii) to equilibrate the να and νs distribution functions in the long run. Studies on non-adiabatic evolution and its possible relation to rapid oscillations in lepton number generation are also featured, with the introduction of an adiabaticity parameter for collision-affected oscillations.

  16. Phases of QCD, thermal quasiparticles, and dilepton radiation from a fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renk, Thorsten; Schneider, Roland; Weise, Wolfram

    2002-07-01

    We calculate dilepton production rates from a fireball adapted to the kinematical conditions realized in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of beam energies. The freeze-out state of the fireball is fixed by hadronic observables. We use this information combined with the initial geometry of the collision region to follow the space-time evolution of the fireball. Assuming entropy conservation, its bulk thermodynamic properties can then be uniquely obtained once the equation of state (EOS) is specified. The high-temperature quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase is modeled by a nonperturbative quasiparticle model that incorporates a phenomenological confinement description, adapted to lattice QCD results. For the hadronic phase, we interpolate the EOS into the region where a resonance gas approach seems applicable, keeping track of a possible overpopulation of the pion phase space. In this way, the fireball evolution is specified without reference to dilepton data, thus eliminating it as an adjustable parameter in the rate calculations. Dilepton emission in the QGP phase is then calculated within the quasiparticle model. In the hadronic phase, both temperature and finite baryon density effects on the photon spectral function are incorporated. Existing dilepton data from CERES at 158 and 40 A GeV Pb-Au collisions are well described, and a prediction for the PHENIX setup at RHIC for (s)=200A GeV is given.

  17. Effect of Capillarity on Fourth Order Nonlinear Evolution Equation for Two Stokes Wave Trains in Deep Water in the Presence of Air Flowing Over Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, A. K.; Mondal, J.

    2015-05-01

    Fourth order nonlinear evolution equations, which are a good starting point for the study of nonlinear water waves, are derived for deep water surface capillary gravity waves in the presence of second waves in which air is blowing over water. Here it is assumed that the space variation of the amplitude takes place only in a direction along which the group velocity projection of the two waves overlap. A stability analysis is made for a uniform wave train in the presence of a second wave train. Graphs are plotted for the maximum growth rate of instability wave number at marginal stability and wave number separation of fastest growing sideband component against wave steepness. Significant improvements are noticed from the results obtained from the two coupled third order nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

  18. Finite-gap solutions of 2+1 dimensional integrable nonlinear evolution equations generated by the Neumann systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinbing

    2010-08-01

    Each soliton equation in the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy, the 2+1 dimensional breaking soliton equation, and the 2+1 dimensional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada (CDGKS) equation are reduced to two or three Neumann systems on the tangent bundle TSN -1 of the unit sphere SN -1. The Lax-Moser matrix for the Neumann systems of degree N -1 is deduced in view of the Mckean-Trubowitz identity and a bilinear generating function, whose favorite characteristic accounts for the problem of the genus of Riemann surface matching to the number of elliptic variables. From the Lax-Moser matrix, the constrained Hamiltonians in the sense of Dirac-Poisson bracket for all the Neumann systems are written down in a uniform recursively determined by integrals of motion. The involution of integrals of motion and constrained Hamiltonians is completed on TSN -1 by using a Lax equation and their functional independence is displayed over a dense open subset of TSN -1 by a direct calculation, which contribute to the Liouville integrability of a family of Neumann systems in a new systematical way. We also construct the hyperelliptic curve of Riemann surface and the Abel map straightening out the restricted Neumann flows that naturally leads to the Jacobi inversion problem on the Jacobian with the aid of the holomorphic differentials, from which some finite-gap solutions expressed by Riemann theta functions for the 2+1 dimensional breaking soliton equation, the 2+1 dimensional CDGKS equation, the KdV, and the fifth-order KdV equations are presented by means of the Riemann theorem.

  19. Evolution of magnetic field and atmospheric response. I - Three-dimensional formulation by the method of projected characteristics. II - Formulation of proper boundary equations. [stellar magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The method described as the method of nearcharacteristics by Nakagawa (1980) is renamed the method of projected characteristics. Making full use of properties of the projected characteristics, a new and simpler formulation is developed. As a result, the formulation for the examination of the general three-dimensional problems is presented. It is noted that since in practice numerical solutions must be obtained, the final formulation is given in the form of difference equations. The possibility of including effects of viscous and ohmic dissipations in the formulation is considered, and the physical interpretation is discussed. A systematic manner is then presented for deriving physically self-consistent, time-dependent boundary equations for MHD initial boundary problems. It is demonstrated that the full use of the compatibility equations (differential equations relating variations at two spatial locations and times) is required in determining the time-dependent boundary conditions. In order to provide a clear physical picture as an example, the evolution of axisymmetric global magnetic field by photospheric differential rotation is considered.

  20. anQCD: Fortran programs for couplings at complex momenta in various analytic QCD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, César; Cvetič, Gorazd

    2016-02-01

    We provide three Fortran programs which evaluate the QCD analytic (holomorphic) couplings Aν(Q2) for complex or real squared momenta Q2. These couplings are holomorphic analogs of the powers a(Q2)ν of the underlying perturbative QCD (pQCD) coupling a(Q2) ≡αs(Q2) / π, in three analytic QCD models (anQCD): Fractional Analytic Perturbation Theory (FAPT), Two-delta analytic QCD (2 δanQCD), and Massive Perturbation Theory (MPT). The index ν can be noninteger. The provided programs do basically the same job as the Mathematica package anQCD.m published by us previously (Ayala and Cvetič, 2015), but are now written in Fortran.

  1. QCD on the Light-Front. A Systematic Approach to Hadron Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter

    2014-06-01

    Light-front Hamiltonian theory, derived from the quantization of the QCD Lagrangian at fixed light-front time x + = x 0 + x 3, provides a rigorous frame-independent framework for solving nonperturbative QCD. The eigenvalues of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian H LF predict the hadronic mass spectrum, and the corresponding eigensolutions provide the light-front wavefunctions which describe hadron structure, providing a direct connection to the QCD Lagrangian. In the semiclassical approximation the valence Fock-state wavefunctions of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian satisfy a single-variable relativistic equation of motion, analogous to the nonrelativistic radial Schrödinger equation, with an effective confining potential U which systematically incorporates the effects of higher quark and gluon Fock states. Remarkably, the potential U has a unique form of a harmonic oscillator potential if one requires that the chiral QCD action remains conformally invariant. A mass gap and the color confinement scale also arises when one extends the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan to light-front Hamiltonian theory. In the case of mesons, the valence Fock-state wavefunctions of H LF for zero quark mass satisfy a single-variable relativistic equation of motion in the invariant variable , which is conjugate to the invariant mass squared . The result is a nonperturbative relativistic light-front quantum mechanical wave equation which incorporates color confinement and other essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics, including a massless pion for zero quark mass and linear Regge trajectories with the same slope in the radial quantum number n and orbital angular momentum L. Only one mass parameter appears. The corresponding light-front Dirac equation provides a dynamical and spectroscopic model of nucleons. The same light-front equations arise from the holographic mapping of the soft-wall model modification of AdS5 space with a unique dilaton profile to QCD

  2. Nonperturbative comparison of QCD effective charges

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-10-15

    We study the nonperturbative behavior of two versions of the QCD effective charge, one obtained from the pinch technique gluon self-energy, and one from the ghost-gluon vertex. Despite their distinct theoretical origin, due to a fundamental identity relating various ingredients appearing in their respective definitions, the two effective charges are almost identical in the entire range of physical momenta, and coincide exactly in the deep infrared, where they freeze at a common finite value. Specifically, the dressing function of the ghost propagator is related to the two form factors in the Lorentz decomposition of a certain Green's function, appearing in a variety of field-theoretic contexts. The central identity, which is valid only in the Landau gauge, is derived from the Schwinger-Dyson equations governing the dynamics of the aforementioned quantities. The renormalization procedure that preserves the validity of the identity is carried out, and various relevant kinematic limits and physically motivated approximations are studied in detail. A crucial ingredient in this analysis is the infrared finiteness of the gluon propagator, which is inextricably connected with the aforementioned freezing of the effective charges. Some important issues related to the consistent definition of the effective charge in the presence of such a gluon propagator are resolved. We finally present a detailed numerical study of a special set of Schwinger-Dyson equations, whose solutions determine the nonperturbative dynamics of the quantities composing the two effective charges.

  3. Classical scaling and the correspondence between the coupled rate equation and molecular dynamics models for the evolution of ultracold neutral plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, J. P.; Saquet, N.; Grant, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Coupled rate equation calculations demonstrate that the variational rate theory models for the three-body electron-electron-ion scattering dynamics associated with ultracold plasma evolution scale with density in accordance with the classical mechanics of a Coulomb system. Completeness of scaling requires a broad domain of Rydberg levels over which a quasi-equilibrium can be established. For given initial conditions, the predicted evolution of electron temperature with time changes with the choice of nmax, i.e. the highest Rydberg orbital populated by three-body recombination. But, if the criterion that defines nmax scales with density, then the results scale. Molecular dynamics calculations distinguish bound Rydberg states by an electron-ion distance criterion, Rmax, which is represented in scaled coordinates by Rmax = rmaxaws, where aws represents the Wigner-Seitz radius and rmax is chosen arbitrarily. The rate equation calculations best conform with the output of molecular dynamics simulations for values of nmax defined by a thermal criterion, n_max=\\sqrt{ {R}/k_BT_e}. In a hydrogenic limit, the thermal criterion equates with a scaled distance criterion when rmax = Γe/2, where Γe = e2/4πɛ0awskBTe describes the degree of electron correlation. Molecular dynamics simulations conventionally attenuate the Coulomb potential by means of a term, C, PE_{ij}=q_iq_j/4\\pi \\epsilon _0\\sqrt{R_{ij}^2+(Ca_{ws})^2}. Reference to rate equation calculations suggests a connection between the soft-core term, C, and nmin, the lowest Rydberg level considered in the relaxation of the plasma to a quasi-steady state.

  4. Small-x Evolution in the Next-to-Leading Order

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2009-10-01

    The high-energy behavior of amplitudes in gauge theories can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading order this evolution is governed by the non-linear BK equation. The NLO corrections define the scale of the running-coupling constant in the BK equation and in QCD, its kernel has both conformal and non-conformal parts. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformal N=4 SYM theory, then we define the 'composite dipole operator' with the rapidity cutoff preserving conformal invariance, and the resulting Möbius invariant kernel for this operator agrees with the forward NLO BFKL calculation.

  5. Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  6. Form factors from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dru Renner

    2012-04-01

    Precision computation of hadronic physics with lattice QCD is becoming feasible. The last decade has seen precent-level calculations of many simple properties of mesons, and the last few years have seen calculations of baryon masses, including the nucleon mass, accurate to a few percent. As computational power increases and algorithms advance, the precise calculation of a variety of more demanding hadronic properties will become realistic. With this in mind, I discuss the current lattice QCD calculations of generalized parton distributions with an emphasis on the prospects for well-controlled calculations for these observables as well. I will do this by way of several examples: the pion and nucleon form factors and moments of the nucleon parton and generalized-parton distributions.

  7. Lattice QCD on nonorientable manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mages, Simon; Tóth, Bálint C.; Borsányi, Szabolcs; Fodor, Zoltán; Katz, Sándor D.; Szabó, Kálmán K.

    2017-05-01

    A common problem in lattice QCD simulations on the torus is the extremely long autocorrelation time of the topological charge when one approaches the continuum limit. The reason is the suppressed tunneling between topological sectors. The problem can be circumvented by replacing the torus with a different manifold, so that the connectivity of the configuration space is changed. This can be achieved by using open boundary conditions on the fields, as proposed earlier. It has the side effect of breaking translational invariance strongly. Here we propose to use a nonorientable manifold and show how to define and simulate lattice QCD on it. We demonstrate in quenched simulations that this leads to a drastic reduction of the autocorrelation time. A feature of the new proposal is that translational invariance is preserved up to exponentially small corrections. A Dirac fermion on a nonorientable manifold poses a challenge to numerical simulations: the fermion determinant becomes complex. We propose two approaches to circumvent this problem.

  8. Innovations in Lattice QCD Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos

    2006-06-25

    Lattice QCD calculations demand a substantial amount of computing power in order to achieve the high precision results needed to better understand the nature of strong interactions, assist experiment to discover new physics, and predict the behavior of a diverse set of physical systems ranging from the proton itself to astrophysical objects such as neutron stars. However, computer power alone is clearly not enough to tackle the calculations we need to be doing today. A steady stream of recent algorithmic developments has made an important impact on the kinds of calculations we can currently perform. In this talk I am reviewing these algorithms and their impact on the nature of lattice QCD calculations performed today.

  9. Electromagnetic instability in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Oka, Takashi; Sonoda, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we calculate the vacuum decay rate for the Schwinger effect in confining large N c gauge theories. The instability is induced by thecorrespondence, we calculate the vacuum quark antiquark pair creation triggered by strong electromagnetic fields. The decay rate is obtained as the imaginary part of the Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian evaluated from the D-brane action with a constant electromagnetic field in holographic QCD models such as the Sakai-Sugimoto model and the deformed Sakai-Sugimoto model. The decay rate is found to increase with the magnetic field parallel to the electric field, while it decreases with the magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field. We discuss generic features of a critical electric field as a function of the magnetic field and the QCD string tension in the Sakai-Sugimoto model.

  10. Precision QCD measurements at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirumov, Hayk

    2014-11-01

    A review of recent experimental results on perturbative QCD from the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS is presented. All inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised ep scattering are combined. They span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q2, and in Bjorken x. This data set is used as the sole input to NLO and NNLO QCD analyses to determine new sets of parton distributions, HERAPDF2.0, with small experimental uncertainties and an estimate of model and parametrisation uncertainties. Also shown are new results on inclusive jet, dijet and trijet differential cross sections measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering. The precision jet data is used to extract the strong coupling αs at NLO with small experimental errors.

  11. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMIDT, C.

    2006-07-23

    I discuss different approaches to finite density lattice QCD. In particular, I focus on the structure of the phase diagram and discuss attempts to determine the location of the critical end-point. Recent results on the transition line as function of the chemical potential (T{sub c}({mu}{sub q})) are reviewed. Along the transition line, hadronic fluctuations have been calculated; which can be used to characterize properties of the Quark Gluon plasma and eventually can also help to identify the location of the critical end-point in the QCD phase diagram on the lattice and in heavy ion experiments. Furthermore, I comment on the structure of the phase diagram at large {mu}{sub q}.

  12. Simplex Free Adaptive Tree Fast Sweeping and Evolution Methods for Solving Level Set Equations in Arbitrary Dimension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-06

    and node counts for a codimension-n problem of solving the eikonal equation |∇φ| = 1, (8) with a boundary point at xb = (0.5, 0.5, . . . , 0.5) with...unorganized points using variational level set method. Comp. Vis. and Image Under., 80:295–319, 2000. [40] Hongkai Zhao. A fast sweeping method for eikonal equations. Math. Comp., 74(250):603–627 (electronic), 2005. 21 ...nature. Secondly, they re- quire a backtracking along characteristics and an interpolation at an arbitrary point within the domain. This

  13. Superqualitons: Baryons in Dense QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Deog Ki

    QCD predicts matter at high density should exhibit color superconductivity. We review briefly several pertinent properties of color superconductivity and then discuss how baryons are realized in color superconductors. Especially, we explain an attempt to describe the color-flavor locked quark matter in terms of bosonic degrees of freedom, where the gapped quarks and Fermi sea are realized as Skyrmions, called superqualitons, and Q-matter, respectively.

  14. Berry Phase in Lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-07-29

    We propose the lattice QCD calculation of the Berry phase, which is defined by the ground state of a single fermion. We perform the ground-state projection of a single-fermion propagator, construct the Berry link variable on a momentum-space lattice, and calculate the Berry phase. As the first application, the first Chern number of the (2+1)-dimensional Wilson fermion is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Lattice QCD: A Brief Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H. B.

    A general introduction to lattice QCD is given. The reader is assumed to have some basic familiarity with the path integral representation of quantum field theory. Emphasis is placed on showing that the lattice regularization provides a robust conceptual and computational framework within quantum field theory. The goal is to provide a useful overview, with many references pointing to the following chapters and to freely available lecture series for more in-depth treatments of specifics topics.

  16. A collider observable QCD axion

    DOE PAGES

    Dimopoulos, Savas; Hook, Anson; Huang, Junwu; ...

    2016-11-09

    Here, we present a model where the QCD axion is at the TeV scale and visible at a collider via its decays. Conformal dynamics and strong CP considerations account for the axion coupling strongly enough to the standard model to be produced as well as the coincidence between the weak scale and the axion mass. The model predicts additional pseudoscalar color octets whose properties are completely determined by the axion properties rendering the theory testable.

  17. Hadron physics from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    We sketch the basic ideas of the lattice regularization in Quantum Field Theory, the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations, and applications to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This approach enables the numerical measurement of observables at the non-perturbative level. We comment on selected results, with a focus on hadron masses and the link to Chiral Perturbation Theory. At last, we address two outstanding issues: topological freezing and the sign problem.

  18. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrand, T.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.

  19. Pinning down QCD-matter shear viscosity in A + A collisions via EbyE fluctuations using pQCD + saturation + hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, H.; Eskola, K. J.; Paatelainen, R.; Tuominen, K.

    2016-12-01

    We compute the initial energy densities produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions from NLO perturbative QCD using a saturation conjecture to control soft particle production, and describe the subsequent space-time evolution of the system with hydrodynamics, event by event. The resulting centrality dependence of the low-pT observables from this pQCD + saturation + hydro ("EKRT") framework are then compared simultaneously to the LHC and RHIC measurements. With such an analysis we can test the initial state calculation, and constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity-to-entropy ratio η / s of QCD matter. Using these constraints from the current RHIC and LHC measurements we then predict the charged hadron multiplicities and flow coefficients for the 5 TeV Pb + Pb collisions.

  20. Coherence and Incoherence in QCD Jets Dynamics (QCD Jets and Branching Processes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    The interpretation of QCD jets as Markov branching processes obtained by solving Konishi Ukawa Veneziano equations [1] in the leading logarithmic approximation with a fixed cut-off regularization prescription [2] is reviewed, and its impact in multiparticle dynamics critically examined. Independent intermediate gluon sources (clans) are generated through quark bremsstrahlung, each source then decays into final partons according to a cascading mechanism dominated by gluon self-interaction. At the hadron level, approximate universal regularities are expected in the different components (or substructures) of the various classes of high-energy collisions. The general behavior of collective variables of final multiplicity distributions is reproduced in terms of the weighted superposition of the above-mentioned regularities controlling the component behaviors of each collision. Predictions of signals of new physics at LHC [3] are reviewed, and perspective of the 1/N expansion approach [4] indicated.