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  1. How Is Long QT Syndrome Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Long QT Syndrome Diagnosed? Cardiologists diagnose and treat long ... or blood levels of potassium. Types of Inherited Long QT Syndrome If you have inherited LQTS, it ...

  2. Autonomic Control of Heart Rate and of QT Interval Variability Influences Arrhythmic Risk in Long QT Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Alberto; Girardengo, Giulia; Bari, Vlasta; George, Alfred L.; Brink, Paul A.; Goosen, Althea; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND A puzzling feature of the long QT syndrome (LQTS) is that family members carrying the same mutation often have divergent symptoms and clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES We tested the hypothesis that vagal and sympathetic control, as assessed from spectral analysis of spontaneous beat-to-beat variability of RR and QT intervals from standard 24-hour electrocardiogram Holter recordings, can modulate the severity of LQTS type 1 (LQT1) in 46 members of a South-African LQT1 founder population carrying the clinically severe KCNQ1-A341V mutation. METHODS Nonmutation carriers (NMCs, n = 14) were compared with mutation carriers (MCs, n = 32), 22 with and 10 without major symptoms. We assessed the effect of circadian rhythm and of beta-blocker therapy over traditional time and frequency domain RR and QT variability indices. RESULTS The asymptomatic MCs differed significantly from the symptomatic MCs and from NMCs in less vagal control of heart rate and more reactive sympathetic modulation of the QT interval, particularly during daytime when arrhythmia risk for LQT1 patients is greatest. CONCLUSIONS The present data identify an additional factor contributing to the differential arrhythmic risk among LQT1 patients carrying the same mutation. A “normal” autonomic control confers a high risk, whereas patients with higher sympathetic control of the QT interval and reduced vagal control of heart rate are at lower risk. This differential “autonomic make-up,” likely under genetic control, will allow refinement of risk stratification within LQTS families, leading to more targeted management. PMID:25634836

  3. Light phase-restricted feeding slows basal heart rate to exaggerate the type-3 long QT syndrome phenotype in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Burgess, Don E.; Manning, Cody L.; Zhao, Yihua; Moss, Arthur J.; Patwardhan, Abhijit; Elayi, Claude S.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) is caused by mutations in the SCN5A-encoded Nav1.5 channel. LQT3 patients exhibit time of day-associated abnormal increases in their heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals and risk for life-threatening episodes. This study determines the effects of uncoupling environmental time cues that entrain circadian rhythms (time of light and time of feeding) on heart rate and ventricular repolarization in wild-type (WT) or transgenic LQT3 mice (Scn5a+/ΔKPQ). We used an established light phase-restricted feeding paradigm that disrupts the alignment among the circadian rhythms in the central pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues including heart. Circadian analysis of the RR and QT intervals showed the Scn5a+/ΔKPQ mice had QT rhythms with larger amplitudes and 24-h midline means and a more pronounced slowing of the heart rate. For both WT and Scn5a+/ΔKPQ mice, light phase-restricted feeding shifted the RR and QT rhythms ∼12 h, increased their amplitudes greater than twofold, and raised the 24-h midline mean by ∼10%. In contrast to WT mice, the QTc interval in Scn5a+/ΔKPQ mice exhibited time-of-day prolongation that was flipped after light phase-restricted feeding. The time-of-day changes in the QTc intervals of Scn5a+/ΔKPQ mice were secondary to a steeper power relation between their QT and RR intervals. We conclude that uncoupling time of feeding from normal light cues can dramatically slow heart rate to unmask genotype-specific differences in the QT intervals and aggravate the LQT3-related phenotype. PMID:25343952

  4. Light phase-restricted feeding slows basal heart rate to exaggerate the type-3 long QT syndrome phenotype in mice.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Elizabeth A; Burgess, Don E; Manning, Cody L; Zhao, Yihua; Moss, Arthur J; Patwardhan, Abhijit; Elayi, Claude S; Esser, Karyn A; Delisle, Brian P

    2014-12-15

    Long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) is caused by mutations in the SCN5A-encoded Nav1.5 channel. LQT3 patients exhibit time of day-associated abnormal increases in their heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals and risk for life-threatening episodes. This study determines the effects of uncoupling environmental time cues that entrain circadian rhythms (time of light and time of feeding) on heart rate and ventricular repolarization in wild-type (WT) or transgenic LQT3 mice (Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ)). We used an established light phase-restricted feeding paradigm that disrupts the alignment among the circadian rhythms in the central pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues including heart. Circadian analysis of the RR and QT intervals showed the Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ) mice had QT rhythms with larger amplitudes and 24-h midline means and a more pronounced slowing of the heart rate. For both WT and Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ) mice, light phase-restricted feeding shifted the RR and QT rhythms ~12 h, increased their amplitudes greater than twofold, and raised the 24-h midline mean by ~10%. In contrast to WT mice, the QTc interval in Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ) mice exhibited time-of-day prolongation that was flipped after light phase-restricted feeding. The time-of-day changes in the QTc intervals of Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ) mice were secondary to a steeper power relation between their QT and RR intervals. We conclude that uncoupling time of feeding from normal light cues can dramatically slow heart rate to unmask genotype-specific differences in the QT intervals and aggravate the LQT3-related phenotype.

  5. How Is Long QT Syndrome Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Long QT Syndrome Treated? The goal of treating long QT syndrome (LQTS) is to prevent life-threatening, ... levels. (For more information, go to "What Causes Long QT Syndrome?" ) Many people who have LQTS also ...

  6. Purkinje Cells as Sources of Arrhythmias in Long QT Syndrome Type 3

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Vivek; Roman-Campos, Danilo; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kang, Guoxin; Fishman, Glenn I.; Kass, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Purkinje cells (PC) within the specialized cardiac conduction system have unique electrophysiological properties that we hypothesize may produce the primary sources of arrhythmia in heritable LQTS. LQTS type 3 (LQT3) transgenic mice harboring the ΔKPQ+/− mutation were crossed with Contactin2-EGFP BAC transgenic mice, which express a fluorescent reporter gene within the Purkinje fiber network. Isolated ventricular myocytes (VMs) (EGFP−) and PCs (EGFP+) from wild type and ΔKPQ mutant hearts were compared using the whole-cell patch clamp technique and microfluorimetry of calcium transients. Increased late sodium current was seen in ΔKPQ-PCs and ΔKPQ-VMs, with larger density in ΔKPQ-PCs. Marked prolongation of action potential duration of ΔKPQ-PCs was seen compared to ΔKPQ-VMs. ΔKPQ-PCs, but not ΔKPQ-VMs, exhibited frequent early afterdepolarizations, which corresponded to repetitive oscillations of intracellular calcium. Abnormalities in cell repolarization were reversed with exposure to mexiletine. We present the first direct experimental evidence that PCs are uniquely sensitive to LQT3 mutations, displaying electrophysiological behavior that is highly pro-arrhythmic. PMID:26289036

  7. Purkinje Cells as Sources of Arrhythmias in Long QT Syndrome Type 3.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Vivek; Roman-Campos, Danilo; Sampson, Kevin J; Kang, Guoxin; Fishman, Glenn I; Kass, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Purkinje cells (PC) within the specialized cardiac conduction system have unique electrophysiological properties that we hypothesize may produce the primary sources of arrhythmia in heritable LQTS. LQTS type 3 (LQT3) transgenic mice harboring the ΔKPQ(+/-) mutation were crossed with Contactin2-EGFP BAC transgenic mice, which express a fluorescent reporter gene within the Purkinje fiber network. Isolated ventricular myocytes (VMs) (EGFP(-)) and PCs (EGFP(+)) from wild type and ΔKPQ mutant hearts were compared using the whole-cell patch clamp technique and microfluorimetry of calcium transients. Increased late sodium current was seen in ΔKPQ-PCs and ΔKPQ-VMs, with larger density in ΔKPQ-PCs. Marked prolongation of action potential duration of ΔKPQ-PCs was seen compared to ΔKPQ-VMs. ΔKPQ-PCs, but not ΔKPQ-VMs, exhibited frequent early afterdepolarizations, which corresponded to repetitive oscillations of intracellular calcium. Abnormalities in cell repolarization were reversed with exposure to mexiletine. We present the first direct experimental evidence that PCs are uniquely sensitive to LQT3 mutations, displaying electrophysiological behavior that is highly pro-arrhythmic. PMID:26289036

  8. Long QT syndrome with craniofacial, digital, and neurologic features: Is it useful to distinguish between Timothy syndrome types 1 and 2?

    PubMed

    Diep, Vinson; Seaver, Laurie H

    2015-11-01

    Timothy syndrome (TS) is a rare genetic condition that associates long QT syndrome, structural heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, syndactyly, seizures, developmental delay, and autism. Timothy syndrome type 1 is caused by a recurrent de novo mutation (p.Gly406Arg) in exon 8A of the L-type calcium channel gene CACNA1C. Timothy syndrome type 2 was originally reported to be associated with a more severe cardiac phenotype but without syndactyly. Timothy syndrome type 2 is caused by mutation in an alternatively spliced exon 8 of the CACNA1C gene. Other mutations in CACNA1C are also reported with long QT syndrome with and without syndromic features overlapping that described in Timothy syndrome. The purpose of this report is to describe the presentation, physical features and natural history of a 4-year-old girl with Timothy syndrome type 2 due to the recurrent p.Gly406Arg mutation in exon 8 of CACNA1C. She has similar facial features to Timothy syndrome type 1 without syndactyly. She is developmentally delayed without autism. She recently had her first episode of torsade de pointes associated with febrile illness and hypoglycemia. The findings in this case provide further information about the phenotype and natural history of CACNA1C exon 8 mutation and together with previously reported cases of Timothy syndrome question whether the clinical and molecular distinction between Timothy syndromes types 1 and 2 remains clinically useful.

  9. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Long QT Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Long QT Syndrome? Major Signs and Symptoms If you ... This may cause noisy gasping while sleeping. Silent Long QT Syndrome Sometimes long QT syndrome doesn't ...

  10. A Neonate with Susceptibility to Long QT Syndrome Type 6 who Presented with Ventricular Fibrillation and Sudden Unexpected Infant Death

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Charles W.; Marc-Aurele, Krishelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 19-day Final Diagnosis: 19 day old neonate with susceptibility to Long QT syndrome • ventricular fibrillation Symptoms: Cardiac arrest • cardiac arrhythmia • encephalopathy Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cardioversion Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Rare disease Background: This is a case of a neonate with susceptibility to long QT syndrome (LQTS) who presented with a sudden unexpected infant death. Experts continue to debate whether universal electrocardiogram (ECG) screening of all newborns is feasible, practical, and cost-effective. Case Report: A 19-day-old neonate was found unresponsive by her mother. ECG showed ventricular fibrillation and a combination of a lidocaine drip plus multiple defibrillations converted the rhythm to normal sinus. Unfortunately, MRI brain imaging showed multiple infarcts and EEG showed burst suppression pattern with frequent seizures; life supportive treatment was stopped and the infant died. Genetic testing revealed two mutations in the KCNE2 gene consistent with susceptibility to LQTS type 6. Conclusions: We believe this case is the first to demonstrate both a precipitating electrocardiographic and genetic cause of death for an infant with LQTS, showing a cause-and-effect relationship between LQTS mutation, ventricular arrhythmia, and death. We wonder whether universal ECG newborn screening to prevent LQTS death could have saved this baby. PMID:27465075

  11. Intrapericardial and retrocardial implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead in a child with type 3 long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Iwamoto, Mari; Yanagi, Sadamitsu; Masuda, Munetaka

    2011-10-01

    A 6-year-old girl with type 3 long QT syndrome was safely and successfully implanted with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) system. Prior to implantation, she had experienced uncontrollable life-threatening arrhythmia in spite of high-dose administration of mexiletine. An ICD coil lead for transvenous use was placed in the intrapericardial and retrocardial space and was connected to a generator placed in front of the posterior sheath of the right abdominal rectal muscle. Administration of a beta-blocker in addition to atrial pacing almost completely eliminated the patient's life-threatening arrhythmia attacks. Intrapericardial and retrocardial implantation of ICD coil leads might be useful for children. PMID:21818650

  12. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell line from a patient with a long QT syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Azra; Ivanyuk, Dina; Herms, Stefan; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; O'Shea, Orla; Chapman, Charlotte; Izsvák, Zsuszanna; Farr, Martin; Hescheler, Jürgen; Šarić, Tomo

    2016-03-01

    We report here the generation of human iPS cell line UKKi009-A from dermal fibroblasts of a patient carrying heterozygous mutation c.3035-3045delTCCCTCGATGC, p.Leu1012Pro (fs*55) in KCNH2 gene leading to long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2). We used the Sleeping Beauty transposon-based plasmids expressing OSKM along with microRNAs 307/367 to reprogram the fibroblasts. The iPS cells possess pluripotent stem cell characteristics and differentiate to cell lineages of all three germ layers. This cell line can serve as a source for in vitro modeling of LQT2. This cell line is distributed by the European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC). PMID:27345990

  13. Genetics Home Reference: short QT syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the KCNH2 , KCNJ2 , and KCNQ1 genes can cause short QT syndrome . These ...

  14. Foetal presentation of long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Theeuws, Chloe; Nuyens, Dieter; Gewillig, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Long-QT syndrome is a rare, inherited cardiac channelopathy that is characterized by arrhythmia, syncope and sudden cardiac death. Foetal symptoms are very rare and prenatal diagnosis is difficult. We report on a foetal presentation of long-QT syndrome with severe hydrops and a chaotic heart rhythm at 32 weeks of gestation. Postnatal electrocardiography showed runs of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and an extremely prolonged-QT segment (QTc of 640 ms). The initial approach of overdrive pacing, followed by the combined therapy of a beta blocker, a sodium channel blocker (mexiletine) and potassium suppletion proved successful in maintaining a stable sinus rhythm. The girl was doing well at eight months of followup. In this patient a timely diagnosis and effective management after birth have been life-saving.The intrauterine manifestation of foetal atrioventricular dissociation and ventricular arrhythmia should raise suspicion of congenital long-QT syndrome. PMID:23882882

  15. Gene-Specific Therapy With Mexiletine Reduces Arrhythmic Events in Patients With Long QT Syndrome Type 3

    PubMed Central

    Mazzanti, Andrea; Maragna, Riccardo; Faragli, Alessandro; Monteforte, Nicola; Bloise, Raffaella; Memmi, Mirella; Novelli, Valeria; Baiardi, Paola; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Etheridge, Susan P.; Napolitano, Carlo; Priori, Silvia G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) is a lethal disease caused by gain-of-function mutations in the SCN5A gene, coding for the alpha-subunit of the sodium channel NaV1.5. Mexiletine is used to block late sodium current and to shorten QT interval in LQT3 patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether mexiletine prevents arrhythmic events (arrhythmic syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death) in LQT3 patients. Methods The endpoint of this retrospective cohort study, which studied consecutive LQT3 patients who were referred to our center and treated with mexiletine, was to evaluate the antiarrhythmic efficacy of mexiletine by comparing the number of arrhythmic events per patient and the annual rate of arrhythmic events during observation periods of equal duration before and after the beginning of therapy with mexiletine. Results The study population comprised 34 LQT3 patients, 19 (56%) of whom were male. The median age at beginning of treatment with mexiletine was 22 years, and median QTc interval before therapy 509 ms. The median duration of oral mexiletine therapy was 36 months, at an average daily dose of 8 ± 0.5 mg/kg. Mexiletine significantly shortened QTc (by 63 ± 6 ms; p < 0.0001) and reduced the percentage of patients with arrhythmic events (from 22% to 3%; p = 0.031), the mean number of arrhythmic events per patient (from 0.43 ± 0.17 to 0.03 ± 0.03; p = 0.027), and the annual rate of arrhythmic events (from 10.3% to 0.7%; p = 0.0097). Conclusions Besides shortening QTc interval, mexiletine caused a major reduction of life-threatening arrhythmic events in LQT3 patients, thus representing an efficacious therapeutic strategy. PMID:26940925

  16. Large-scale mutational analysis of Kv11.1 reveals molecular insights into type 2 long QT syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Corey L.; Kuzmicki, Catherine E.; Childs, Ryan R.; Hintz, Caleb J.; Delisle, Brian P.; January, Craig T.

    2014-11-01

    It has been suggested that deficient protein trafficking to the cell membrane is the dominant mechanism associated with type 2 Long QT syndrome (LQT2) caused by Kv11.1 potassium channel missense mutations, and that for many mutations the trafficking defect can be corrected pharmacologically. However, this inference was based on expression of a small number of Kv11.1 mutations. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 167 LQT2-linked missense mutations in four Kv11.1 structural domains and found that deficient protein trafficking is the dominant mechanism for all domains except for the distal carboxy-terminus. Also, most pore mutations—in contrast to intracellular domain mutations—were found to have severe dominant-negative effects when co-expressed with wild-type subunits. Finally, pharmacological correction of the trafficking defect in homomeric mutant channels was possible for mutations within all structural domains. However, pharmacological correction is dramatically improved for pore mutants when co-expressed with wild-type subunits to form heteromeric channels.

  17. A Neonate with Susceptibility to Long QT Syndrome Type 6 who Presented with Ventricular Fibrillation and Sudden Unexpected Infant Death.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Charles W; Marc-Aurele, Krishelle L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This is a case of a neonate with susceptibility to long QT syndrome (LQTS) who presented with a sudden unexpected infant death. Experts continue to debate whether universal electrocardiogram (ECG) screening of all newborns is feasible, practical, and cost-effective. CASE REPORT A 19-day-old neonate was found unresponsive by her mother. ECG showed ventricular fibrillation and a combination of a lidocaine drip plus multiple defibrillations converted the rhythm to normal sinus. Unfortunately, MRI brain imaging showed multiple infarcts and EEG showed burst suppression pattern with frequent seizures; life supportive treatment was stopped and the infant died. Genetic testing revealed two mutations in the KCNE2 gene consistent with susceptibility to LQTS type 6. CONCLUSIONS We believe this case is the first to demonstrate both a precipitating electrocardiographic and genetic cause of death for an infant with LQTS, showing a cause-and-effect relationship between LQTS mutation, ventricular arrhythmia, and death. We wonder whether universal ECG newborn screening to prevent LQTS death could have saved this baby. PMID:27465075

  18. Concealed long QT syndrome and intractable partial epilepsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jason H; Bos, Johan Martijn; Meyer, Fredric B; Cascino, Gregory D; Ackerman, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Herein, we describe a patient with concealed type 2 long QT syndrome with concomitant electroencephalogram-documented epilepsy. Although syncope in patients with long QT syndrome is common and often secondary to cerebral hypoxia after a protracted ventricular arrhythmia, this article demonstrates the importance of avoiding "tunnel vision" as patients with long QT syndrome could also have a primary seizure disorder. Identification of the etiology underlying seizurelike activity is paramount in instituting effective therapy. Furthermore, we theorize that abnormal KCHN2-encoded potassium channel repolarization in the brain could result in epilepsy and arrhythmias in long QT syndrome. PMID:23058853

  19. A case of Long QT syndrome type 3 aggravated by beta-blockers and alleviated by mexiletine: the role of epinephrine provocation test.

    PubMed

    Park, Junbeom; Kim, Sook Kyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2013-03-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTs) is an uncommon genetic disease causing sudden cardiac death with Torsade de Pointes (TdP). The first line drug treatment has been known to be β-blocker. We encountered a 15-year-old female student with LQTs who had prolonged QTc and multiple episodes of syncope or agonal respiration during sleep. Although her T wave morphology in surface electrocardiography resembled LQTs type 1, her clinical presentation was unusual. During the epinephrine test, TdP was aggravated during β-blocker medication, but alleviated by sodium channel blocker (mexiletine). Therefore, she underwent implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. PMID:23364992

  20. Increased QT interval dispersion in diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome with atypical symptoms and EKG.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Fernando; Chávez, Elibet; Machín, Wilfredo J; Alonso, Alain; González, Vielka

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION EKG remains a highly valuable tool for heart disease management. Corrected QT interval dispersion is a useful EKG parameter to assess prognosis in ischemic heart disease and specifically acute coronary syndrome. Understanding QT interval physiopathology helps assess importance of QT measurement in this context. Although increased QT dispersion is an ominous prognostic marker, its utility has not been evaluated for all types of acute coronary syndrome, even though in many circumstances it is the only tool available for diagnosing patients with equivocal EKG signs and/or atypical symptoms. OBJECTIVE Describe corrected QT interval dispersion in acute coronary syndrome in three groups of patients-with ST elevation, without ST elevation, and without ST elevation with equivocal EKG signs-admitted to the intensive care unit of Celestino Hernández Robau University Hospital in Santa Clara, Cuba, from January 2010 through June 2011. METHODS A descriptive retrospective study was conducted in 194 patients admitted with diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. QT interval was measured and its dispersion calculated for the first EKG after symptom onset. Patterns were assessed for typical and atypical clinical presentations, and unequivocal and equivocal EKG signs. RESULTS Nonclassifiable acute coronary syndrome was found in 6.7% of patients (13/194), the majority of whom had increased QT dispersion (76.9%, 10/13). There were significant differences in QT dispersion patterns between patients with typical and atypical presentations and between patients with equivocal and unequivocal EKG findings. In non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome and nonclassifiable acute coronary syndrome with increased dispersion, atypical presentation was the most common (65.5%, 19/29; and 90%, 9/10, respectively). CONCLUSION Corrected QT interval dispersion is a useful diagnostic tool for acute coronary syndrome, especially when patients present with atypical symptoms and equivocal EKG

  1. The disease-specific phenotype in cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of two long QT syndrome type 3 patients.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Azra; Kaifeng, Shao; Dittmann, Sven; Xu, Guoxing; Gupta, Manoj K; Linke, Matthias; Zechner, Ulrich; Nguemo, Filomain; Milting, Hendrik; Farr, Martin; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sarić, Tomo

    2013-01-01

    Long QT syndromes (LQTS) are heritable diseases characterized by prolongation of the QT interval on an electrocardiogram, which often leads to syncope and sudden cardiac death. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stems (iPS) cells from two patients with LQTS type 3 carrying a different point mutation in a sodium channel Nav1.5 (p.V240M and p.R535Q) and functional characterization of cardiomyocytes (CM) derived from them. The iPS cells exhibited all characteristic properties of pluripotent stem cells, maintained the disease-specific mutation and readily differentiated to CM. The duration of action potentials at 50% and 90% repolarization was longer in LQTS-3 CM as compared to control CM but this difference did not reach statistical significance due to high variations among cells. Sodium current recordings demonstrated longer time to peak and longer time to 90% of inactivation of the Na(+) channel in the LQTS-3 CM. This hints at a defective Na(+) channel caused by deficiency in open-state inactivation of the Na(+) channel that is characteristic of LQTS-3. These analyses suggest that the effect of channel mutation in the diseased CM is demonstrated in vitro and that the iPS cell-derived CM can serve as a model system for studying the pathophysiology of LQTS-3, toxicity testing and design of novel therapeutics. However, further improvements in the model are still required to reduce cell-to-cell and cell line-to-cell line variability. PMID:24349418

  2. Long QT syndrome with nocturnal cardiac events caused by a KCNH2 missense mutation (G604S).

    PubMed

    Sato, Akinori; Chinushi, Masaomi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Numano, Fujito; Hanyu, Takanori; Iijima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Furushima, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy suffered from an unconsciousness attack and torsade de pointes arrhythmia during sleep or at rest. His electrocardiogram showed prolonged QT intervals, but the T wave morphology was atypical for type 1, 2 or 3 congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Intravenous epinephrine slightly prolonged the QT interval whereas mexiletine infusion shortened the QT interval. Although these clinical characteristics might suggest type 3 LQTS, a genetic analysis identified the G604S-KCNH2 mutation (type 2 LQTS). Because mismatches between the genotype and phenotype of LQTS are possible, genetic analysis of LQTS is important to identify the most appropriate therapeutic option and risk stratification. PMID:22821100

  3. Structure of the Cyclic Nucleotide-Binding Homology Domain of the hERG Channel and Its Insight into Type 2 Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Ng, Hui Qi; Li, Qingxin; Kang, CongBao

    2016-01-01

    The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) channel is crucial for the cardiac action potential by contributing to the fast delayed-rectifier potassium current. Mutations in the hERG channel result in type 2 long QT syndrome (LQT2). The hERG channel contains a cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain (CNBHD) and this domain is required for the channel gating though molecular interactions with the eag domain. Here we present solution structure of the CNBHD of the hERG channel. The structural study reveals that the CNBHD adopts a similar fold to other KCNH channels. It is self-liganded and it contains a short β-strand that blocks the nucleotide-binding pocket in the β-roll. Folding of LQT2-related mutations in this domain was shown to be affected by point mutation. Mutations in this domain can cause protein aggregation in E. coli cells or induce conformational changes. One mutant-R752W showed obvious chemical shift perturbation compared with the wild-type, but it still binds to the eag domain. The helix region from the N-terminal cap domain of the hERG channel showed unspecific interactions with the CNBHD. PMID:27025590

  4. hERG quality control and the long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foo, Brian; Williamson, Brittany; Young, Jason C; Lukacs, Gergely; Shrier, Alvin

    2016-05-01

    Long-QT syndrome type-2 (LQT2) is characterized by reduced functional expression of the human ether-à-go-go related (hERG) gene product, resulting in impaired cardiac repolarization and predisposition to fatal arrhythmia. Previous studies have implicated abnormal trafficking of misfolded hERG as the primary mechanism of LQT2, with misfolding being caused by mutations in the hERG gene (inherited) or drug treatment (acquired). More generally, environmental and metabolic stresses present a constant challenge to the folding of proteins, including hERG, and must be countered by robust protein quality control (QC) systems. Disposal of partially unfolded yet functional plasma membrane (PM) proteins by protein QC contributes to the loss-of-function phenotype in various conformational diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF) and long-QT syndrome type-2 (LQT2). The prevalent view has been that the loss of PM expression of hERG is attributed to biosynthetic block by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) QC pathways. However, there is a growing appreciation for protein QC pathways acting at post-ER cellular compartments, which may contribute to conformational disease pathogenesis. This article will provide a background on the structure and cellular trafficking of hERG as well as inherited and acquired LQT2. We will review previous work on hERG ER QC and introduce the more novel view that there is a significant peripheral QC at the PM and peripheral cellular compartments. Particular attention is drawn to the unique role of the peripheral QC system in acquired LQT2. Understanding the QC process and players may provide targets for therapeutic intervention in dealing with LQT2. PMID:26718903

  5. Short QT Syndrome – Review of Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schimpf, Rainer; Borggrefe, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is an inherited cardiac channelopathy characterised by an abnormally short QT interval and increased risk for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Diagnosis is based on the evaluation of symptoms (syncope or cardiac arrest), family history and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings. Mutations of cardiac ion channels responsible for the repolarisation orchestrate electrical heterogeneity during the action potential and provide substrate for triggering and maintaining of tachyarrhythmias. Due to the malignant natural history of SQTS, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the first-line therapy in affected patients. This review summarises current data and addresses the genetic basis and clinical features of SQTS. PMID:26835070

  6. Congenital and drug-induced long-QT syndrome: an update

    PubMed Central

    Wehrens, X.H.T.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    The congenital long-QT syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition characterised clinically by prolonged QT intervals, syncope and sudden cardiac death. The abnormally prolonged repolarisation is the result of mutations in genes encoding cardiac ion channels. The diagnosis of long-QT syndrome is based on clinical, electrocardiographic, and genetic criteria. Beta-blocking therapy is important in the treatment of long-QT syndrome, although pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are useful in certain categories of patients. In the near future, mutation-specific treatment will probably become a novel approach to this potentially lethal syndrome. Drug-induced long-QT syndrome has been associated with silent mutations and common polymorphisms in potassium and sodium channel genes associated with congenital long-QT syndrome. Genetic screening for such mutations and polymorphisms may become an important instrument in preventing drug-induced 'torsades de pointes' arrhythmias in otherwise asymptomatic patients. PMID:25696318

  7. Anaesthesia Application for Cardiac Denervation in a Patient with Long QT Syndrome and Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz, Ümit; Demir, Aslı; Koçulu, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome is a congenital disorder that is characterized by a prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiograms and a propensity to ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which may lead to syncope, cardiac arrest or sudden death. Cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension diseases have additional risks in anaesthesia management. In this study, we emphasize on one lung ventilation, pacemaker-implantable cardioverter–defibrillator and the anaesthesia management process in a patient with long QT syndrome, cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension who underwent thoracic sympathectomy. PMID:27366557

  8. Toward Personalized Medicine: Using Cardiomyocytes Differentiated From Urine-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells to Recapitulate Electrophysiological Characteristics of Type 2 Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jouni, Mariam; Si-Tayeb, Karim; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Latypova, Xenia; Champon, Benoite; Caillaud, Amandine; Rungoat, Anais; Charpentier, Flavien; Loussouarn, Gildas; Baró, Isabelle; Zibara, Kazem; Lemarchand, Patricia; Gaborit, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Background Human genetically inherited cardiac diseases have been studied mainly in heterologous systems or animal models, independent of patients’ genetic backgrounds. Because sources of human cardiomyocytes (CMs) are extremely limited, the use of urine samples to generate induced pluripotent stem cell–derived CMs would be a noninvasive method to identify cardiac dysfunctions that lead to pathologies within patients’ specific genetic backgrounds. The objective was to validate the use of CMs differentiated from urine-derived human induced pluripotent stem (UhiPS) cells as a new cellular model for studying patients’ specific arrhythmia mechanisms. Methods and Results Cells obtained from urine samples of a patient with long QT syndrome who harbored the HERG A561P gene mutation and his asymptomatic noncarrier mother were reprogrammed using the episomal-based method. UhiPS cells were then differentiated into CMs using the matrix sandwich method. UhiPS-CMs showed proper expression of atrial and ventricular myofilament proteins and ion channels. They were electrically functional, with nodal-, atrial- and ventricular-like action potentials recorded using high-throughput optical and patch-clamp techniques. Comparison of HERG expression from the patient’s UhiPS-CMs to the mother’s UhiPS-CMs showed that the mutation led to a trafficking defect that resulted in reduced delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr). This phenotype gave rise to action potential prolongation and arrhythmias. Conclusions UhiPS cells from patients carrying ion channel mutations can be used as novel tools to differentiate functional CMs that recapitulate cardiac arrhythmia phenotypes. PMID:26330336

  9. [Perioperative treatment of patients with long QT syndrome].

    PubMed

    Krönauer, T; Friederich, P

    2015-08-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by a change in cardiac repolarization due to functional ion channel dysfunction which is associated with an elongation of the QT interval (hence the name) in the electrocardiogram and a predisposition to cardiac rhythm disorders (e.g. torsade de pointes, TdP) as well as cardiac events up to sudden cardiac death. There is a congenital (cLQTS) and an acquired (aLQTS) form of the disease. The prevalence of cLQTS is 1 in 2000 but aLQTS is much more common and includes a grey area due to many asymptomatic patients. The LQTS is, therefore, more common than malignant hyperthermia which is much discussed in anesthesiology and has a reported prevalence in the population of 1:3000. Considering the prevalence of both aLQTS as well as cLQTS the importance of the LQTS seems to be underestimated in current perioperative care. Potential perioperative risks of such patients can be significantly reduced by appropriate patient management. This includes adequate preoperative preparation, the correct choice of anesthetic medication as well as adequate perioperative monitoring and preparedness for immediate pharmaceutical and electrical intervention in case of typical cardiac rhythm disturbances, such as TdP arrhythmia. PMID:26260197

  10. Variants in the 3′ untranslated region of the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel modify disease severity in patients with type 1 long QT syndrome in an allele-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ahmad S.; Giudicessi, John R.; Tijsen, Anke J.; Spanjaart, Anne M.; Reckman, Yolan J.; Klemens, Christine A.; Tanck, Michael W.; Kapplinger, Jamie D.; Hofman, Nynke; Sinner, Moritz F.; Müller, Martina; Wijnen, Wino J.; Tan, Hanno L.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Creemers, Esther E.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Heterozygous mutations in KCNQ1 cause type 1 long QT syndrome (LQT1), a disease characterized by prolonged heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) and life-threatening arrhythmias. It is unknown why disease penetrance and expressivity is so variable between individuals hosting identical mutations. We aimed to study whether this can be explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KCNQ1's 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR). Methods and results This study was performed in 84 LQT1 patients from the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam and validated in 84 LQT1 patients from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester. All patients were genotyped for SNPs in KCNQ1's 3′UTR, and six SNPs were found. Single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2519184, rs8234, and rs10798 were associated in an allele-specific manner with QTc and symptom occurrence. Patients with the derived SNP variants on their mutated KCNQ1 allele had shorter QTc and fewer symptoms, while the opposite was also true: patients with the derived SNP variants on their normal KCNQ1 allele had significantly longer QTc and more symptoms. Luciferase reporter assays showed that the expression of KCNQ1's 3′UTR with the derived SNP variants was lower than the expression of the 3′UTR with the ancestral SNP variants. Conclusion Our data indicate that 3′UTR SNPs potently modify disease severity in LQT1. The allele-specific effects of the SNPs on disease severity and gene expression strongly suggest that they are functional variants that directly alter the expression of the allele on which they reside, and thereby influence the balance between proteins stemming from either the normal or the mutant KCNQ1 allele. PMID:22199116

  11. Revisiting the challenges of universal screening for long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tristani-Firouzi, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of long QT syndrome (LQTS) is generally believed to be approximately 1:2500 individuals. Given the relatively common nature of this disorder, the observation that sudden cardiac death is often a presenting symptom and the highly treatable nature of the disease, LQTS meets common criteria for the design of a universal screening program. In spite of multiple lines of evidence (international experience, cost-benefit simulations) suggesting that universal screening for LQTS is feasible and effective, there remains considerable debate and controversy surrounding the implementation of universal LQTS screening in the United States. Here, we describe some of the challenges and potential novel solutions to the practical implementation of LQTS screening.

  12. Drug-induced long QT syndrome increases the risk of drowning.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Frank F

    2016-02-01

    There is strong evidence linking inherited long QT syndromes with an increased risk of drowning due to fatal arrhythmias in the water. Drug-induced long QT syndrome (DILQTS) is hypothesized to increase the risk of drowning by similar mechanisms. It is suggested that QT prolongation caused by a drug or drugs, when combined with the autonomic conflict associated with the mammalian dive reflex and/or the cold shock reflex, sets up conditions that may result in a sudden fatal arrhythmia while in water - thus an increased risk of drowning related to a drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval. Many widely used drugs prolong the QT interval thus raising a drug safety issue that needs confirmation or refutation.

  13. A common antitussive drug, clobutinol, precipitates the long QT syndrome 2.

    PubMed

    Bellocq, Chloé; Wilders, Ronald; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Louérat-Oriou, Bénédicte; Boisseau, Pierre; Le Marec, Hervé; Escande, Denis; Baró, Isabelle

    2004-11-01

    QT prolongation, a classic risk factor for arrhythmias, can result from a mutation in one of the genes governing cardiac repolarization and also can result from the intake of a medication acting as blocker of the cardiac K(+) channel human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG). Here, we identified the arrhythmogenic potential of a nonopioid antitussive drug, clobutinol. The deleterious effects of clobutinol were suspected when a young boy, with a diagnosis of congenital long QT syndrome, experienced arrhythmias while being treated with this drug. Using the patch-clamp technique, we showed that clobutinol dose-dependently inhibited the HERG K(+) current with a half-maximum block concentration of 2.9 microM. In the proband, we identified a novel A561P HERG mutation. Two others long QT mutations (A561V and A561T) had been reported previously at the same position. None of the three mutants led to a sizeable current in heterologous expression system. When coexpressed with wild-type (WT) HERG channels, the three Ala561 mutants reduced the trafficking of WT and mutant heteromeric channels, resulting in decreased K(+) current amplitude (dominant-negative effects). In addition, A561P but not A561V and A561T mutants induced a approximately -11 mV shift of the current activation curve and accelerated deactivation, thereby partially counteracting the dominant-negative effects. A561P mutation and clobutinol effects on the human ventricular action potential characteristics were simulated using the Priebe-Beuckelmann model. Our work shows that clobutinol has limited effects on WT action potential but should be classified as a "drug to be avoided by congenital long QT patients" rather than as a "drug with risk of torsades de pointes".

  14. A common antitussive drug, clobutinol, precipitates the long QT syndrome 2.

    PubMed

    Bellocq, Chloé; Wilders, Ronald; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Louérat-Oriou, Bénédicte; Boisseau, Pierre; Le Marec, Hervé; Escande, Denis; Baró, Isabelle

    2004-11-01

    QT prolongation, a classic risk factor for arrhythmias, can result from a mutation in one of the genes governing cardiac repolarization and also can result from the intake of a medication acting as blocker of the cardiac K(+) channel human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG). Here, we identified the arrhythmogenic potential of a nonopioid antitussive drug, clobutinol. The deleterious effects of clobutinol were suspected when a young boy, with a diagnosis of congenital long QT syndrome, experienced arrhythmias while being treated with this drug. Using the patch-clamp technique, we showed that clobutinol dose-dependently inhibited the HERG K(+) current with a half-maximum block concentration of 2.9 microM. In the proband, we identified a novel A561P HERG mutation. Two others long QT mutations (A561V and A561T) had been reported previously at the same position. None of the three mutants led to a sizeable current in heterologous expression system. When coexpressed with wild-type (WT) HERG channels, the three Ala561 mutants reduced the trafficking of WT and mutant heteromeric channels, resulting in decreased K(+) current amplitude (dominant-negative effects). In addition, A561P but not A561V and A561T mutants induced a approximately -11 mV shift of the current activation curve and accelerated deactivation, thereby partially counteracting the dominant-negative effects. A561P mutation and clobutinol effects on the human ventricular action potential characteristics were simulated using the Priebe-Beuckelmann model. Our work shows that clobutinol has limited effects on WT action potential but should be classified as a "drug to be avoided by congenital long QT patients" rather than as a "drug with risk of torsades de pointes". PMID:15280442

  15. [Progress in research on defective protein trafficking and functional restoration in HERG-associated long QT syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fang, Peiliang; Lian, Jiangfang

    2016-02-01

    The human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) encodes the α -subunit of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K(+) channel, which is essential for the third repolarization of the action potential of human myocardial cells. Mutations of the HERG gene can cause type II hereditary long QT syndrome (LQT2), characterized by prolongation of the QT interval, abnormal T wave, torsade de pointes, syncope and sudden cardiac death. So far more than 300 HERG mutations have been identified, the majority of which can cause LQT2 due to HERG protein trafficking defect. It has been reported that certain drugs can induce acquired long QT syndrome through directly blocking the pore and/or affecting the HERG trafficking. The trafficking defects and K(+) currents can be restored with low temperature and certain drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying defective trafficking caused by HERG mutations and the inhibition/restoration of HERG trafficking by drugs are still unknown. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms including HERG trafficking under physiological and pathological conditions, and the effects of drugs on the HERG trafficking, in order to provide theoretical evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of long QT syndrome.

  16. Of Founder Populations, Long QT Syndrome, and Destiny

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Peter J.; Brink, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Founder populations, characterized by a single ancestor affected by LQTS and by a large number of individuals and families all related to the ancestor and thereby carrying the same disease-causing mutation, represent the ideal human model to study the role of “modifier genes” in the long QT syndrome (LQTS). This chapter reviews some of the fundamental concepts related to founder populations and provides the necessary historic background to understand why so many can be found in South Africa. The focus then moves onto a specific LQT1 founder population, carrier of the A341V mutation, that has been extensively studied during the last 10 years and has provided a significant number of previously unforeseen information. These novel findings range from an unusually high clinical severity not explained by the electrophysiological characteristics of the mutation, to the importance of the tonic and reflex control of heart rate for risk stratification, to the identification of the first modifier genes for the clinical severity of LQTS. PMID:19880070

  17. Long QT Syndrome: An Emerging Role for Inflammation and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lazzerini, Pietro Enea; Capecchi, Pier Leopoldo; Laghi-Pasini, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The long QT syndrome (LQTS), classified as congenital or acquired, is a multi-factorial disorder of myocardial repolarization predisposing to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, particularly torsades de pointes. In the latest years, inflammation and immunity have been increasingly recognized as novel factors crucially involved in modulating ventricular repolarization. In the present paper, we critically review the available information on this topic, also analyzing putative mechanisms and potential interplays with the other etiologic factors, either acquired or inherited. Accumulating data indicate inflammatory activation as a potential cause of acquired LQTS. The putative underlying mechanisms are complex but essentially cytokine-mediated, including both direct actions on cardiomyocyte ion channels expression and function, and indirect effects resulting from an increased central nervous system sympathetic drive on the heart. Autoimmunity represents another recently arising cause of acquired LQTS. Indeed, increasing evidence demonstrates that autoantibodies may affect myocardial electric properties by directly cross-reacting with the cardiomyocyte and interfering with specific ion currents as a result of molecular mimicry mechanisms. Intriguingly, recent data suggest that inflammation and immunity may be also involved in modulating the clinical expression of congenital forms of LQTS, possibly triggering or enhancing electrical instability in patients who already are genetically predisposed to arrhythmias. In this view, targeting immuno-inflammatory pathways may in the future represent an attractive therapeutic approach in a number of LQTS patients, thus opening new exciting avenues in antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:26798623

  18. Genotype-phenotype correlation in long QT syndrome families.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sameera Fatima; Ali, Altaf; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur; Rao, Hygriv; Jayakrishnan, M P; Narasimhan, Calambur; Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Nallari, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in clinical manifestations is a well-known feature in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). The extent of this phenomenon became evident in families wherein both symptomatic and asymptomatic family members are reported. The study hence warrants genetic testing and/or screening of family members of LQTS probands for risk stratification and prediction. Of the 46 families screened, 18 probands revealed novel variations/compound heterozygosity in the gene/s screened. Families 1-4 revealed probands carrying novel variations in KCNQ1 gene along with compound heterozygosity of risk genotypes of the SCN5A, KCNE1 and NPPA gene/s polymorphisms screened. It was also observed that families- 5, 6 and 7 were typical cases of "anticipation" in which both mother and child were diagnosed with congenital LQTS (cLQTS). Families- 16 and 17 represented aLQTS probands with variations in IKs and INa encoding genes. First degree relatives (FDRs) carrying the same haplotype as the proband were also identified which may help in predictive testing and management of LQTS. Most of the probands exhibiting a family history were found to be genetic compounds which clearly points to the role of cardiac genes and their modifiers in a recessive fashion in LQTS manifestation. PMID:27479201

  19. NAA10 mutation causing a novel intellectual disability syndrome with Long QT due to N-terminal acetyltransferase impairment

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jillian P.; Støve, Svein I.; McGorrian, Catherine; Galvin, Joseph; Blenski, Marina; Dunne, Aimee; Ennis, Sean; Brett, Francesca; King, Mary D.; Arnesen, Thomas; Lynch, Sally Ann

    2015-01-01

    We report two brothers from a non-consanguineous Irish family presenting with a novel syndrome characterised by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and long QT. Their mother has a milder phenotype including long QT. X-linked inheritance was suspected. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.128 A > C; p.Tyr43Ser) in NAA10 (X chromosome) as the cause of the family’s disorder. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the mutation arose de novo in the carrier mother. NAA10 encodes the catalytic subunit of the major human N-terminal acetylation complex NatA. In vitro assays for the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme showed a significant decrease in catalytic activity and reduced stability compared to wild-type Naa10 protein. NAA10 has previously been associated with Ogden syndrome, Lenz microphthalmia syndrome and non-syndromic developmental delay. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of NAA10 and suggest that the proposed correlation between mutant Naa10 enzyme activity and phenotype severity is more complex than anticipated; the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme has less catalytic activity than the p.Ser37Pro mutant associated with lethal Ogden syndrome but results in a milder phenotype. Importantly, we highlight the need for cardiac assessment in males and females with NAA10 variants as both patients and carriers can have long QT. PMID:26522270

  20. NAA10 mutation causing a novel intellectual disability syndrome with Long QT due to N-terminal acetyltransferase impairment.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jillian P; Støve, Svein I; McGorrian, Catherine; Galvin, Joseph; Blenski, Marina; Dunne, Aimee; Ennis, Sean; Brett, Francesca; King, Mary D; Arnesen, Thomas; Lynch, Sally Ann

    2015-01-01

    We report two brothers from a non-consanguineous Irish family presenting with a novel syndrome characterised by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and long QT. Their mother has a milder phenotype including long QT. X-linked inheritance was suspected. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.128 A > C; p.Tyr43Ser) in NAA10 (X chromosome) as the cause of the family's disorder. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the mutation arose de novo in the carrier mother. NAA10 encodes the catalytic subunit of the major human N-terminal acetylation complex NatA. In vitro assays for the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme showed a significant decrease in catalytic activity and reduced stability compared to wild-type Naa10 protein. NAA10 has previously been associated with Ogden syndrome, Lenz microphthalmia syndrome and non-syndromic developmental delay. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of NAA10 and suggest that the proposed correlation between mutant Naa10 enzyme activity and phenotype severity is more complex than anticipated; the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme has less catalytic activity than the p.Ser37Pro mutant associated with lethal Ogden syndrome but results in a milder phenotype. Importantly, we highlight the need for cardiac assessment in males and females with NAA10 variants as both patients and carriers can have long QT. PMID:26522270

  1. NAA10 mutation causing a novel intellectual disability syndrome with Long QT due to N-terminal acetyltransferase impairment.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jillian P; Støve, Svein I; McGorrian, Catherine; Galvin, Joseph; Blenski, Marina; Dunne, Aimee; Ennis, Sean; Brett, Francesca; King, Mary D; Arnesen, Thomas; Lynch, Sally Ann

    2015-11-02

    We report two brothers from a non-consanguineous Irish family presenting with a novel syndrome characterised by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and long QT. Their mother has a milder phenotype including long QT. X-linked inheritance was suspected. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.128 A > C; p.Tyr43Ser) in NAA10 (X chromosome) as the cause of the family's disorder. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the mutation arose de novo in the carrier mother. NAA10 encodes the catalytic subunit of the major human N-terminal acetylation complex NatA. In vitro assays for the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme showed a significant decrease in catalytic activity and reduced stability compared to wild-type Naa10 protein. NAA10 has previously been associated with Ogden syndrome, Lenz microphthalmia syndrome and non-syndromic developmental delay. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of NAA10 and suggest that the proposed correlation between mutant Naa10 enzyme activity and phenotype severity is more complex than anticipated; the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme has less catalytic activity than the p.Ser37Pro mutant associated with lethal Ogden syndrome but results in a milder phenotype. Importantly, we highlight the need for cardiac assessment in males and females with NAA10 variants as both patients and carriers can have long QT.

  2. Evidence of genetic heterogeneity in the long QT syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, M. )

    1993-06-25

    thee long QT syndrome (LQT) is a familial predisposition to sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias. M. Keating et al. performed linkage analysis in a large Utah family and found that th disease was closely linked to the Harvey ras-1 (H-ras-1) locus on chromosome 11. With the use of the probe pTBB-2 at the H-ras-1 oncogene, a logarithm of the likelihood ratio for linkage (lod score) of +16.44 was obtained by Keating et al. In a subsequent study, tight linkage of LQT to the H-ras-1 locus was found in six other small LQT families. The combined lod score from these two studies was +21.65 at a recombination fraction of 0. This tight linkage suggests that mutations at the H-ras-1 locus or at a closely linked locus resulted in LQT in the families studied. In view of the clinical heterogeneity and possible genetic heterogeneity in this syndrome, we analyzed a large Jewish family with a history of LQT. This family, whose origin is the island of Jerba near Tunic and whose members reside in Israel, is probably the largest family with LQT outside the United States. It comprises 131 individuals, of whom 28 have been affected. Clinical and electrocardiographic data collected over 7 years were available for 92 family members and blood samples for genetic analysis were available for 74. This analysis, together with that of Keating et al., provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity in the determination of the LQT.

  3. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed.

  4. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed. PMID:26544151

  5. In Utero Diagnosis of Long QT Syndrome by Magnetocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Cuneo, Bettina F.; Strasburger, Janette F.; Yu, Suhong; Horigome, Hitoshi; Hosono, Takayoshi; Kandori, Akihiko; Wakai, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The electrophysiology of long QT syndrome (LQTS) in utero is virtually unstudied. Our goal here was to evaluate the efficacy of fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) for diagnosis and prognosis of fetuses at risk of LQTS. Methods and Results We reviewed the pre/postnatal medical records of 30 fetuses referred for fMCG due to a family history of LQTS (n=17); neonatal/childhood sudden cardiac death (n=3) and/or presentation of prenatal LQTS rhythms (n=12): 2° AVB, ventricular tachycardia, heart rate < 3rd percentile. We evaluated heart rate and reactivity, cardiac time intervals, T-wave characteristics, and initiation/termination of Torsade de Pointes (TdP), and compared these with neonatal ECG findings. After birth, subjects were tested for LQTS mutations. Based on accepted clinical criteria, 21 subjects (70%; 9 KCNQ1, 5 KCNH2, 2 SCN5A, 2 other, 3 untested) had LQTS. Using a threshold of QTc= 490 ms, fMCG accurately identified LQTS fetuses with 89% (24/27) sensitivity and 89% (8/9) specificity in 36 sessions. Four fetuses (2 KCNH2 and 2 SCN5A), all with QTc ≥ 620 ms, had frequent episodes of TdP, which were present 22–79% of the time. While some episodes initiated with a long-short sequence, most initiations showed QRS aberrancy and a notable lack of pause dependency. T-wave alternans was strongly associated with severe LQTS phenotype. Conclusions QTc prolongation (≥490 ms) assessed by fMCG accurately identified LQTS in utero; extreme QTc prolongation (≥620 ms) predicted TdP. FMCG can play a critical role in the diagnosis and management of fetuses at risk of LQTS. PMID:24218437

  6. Sports Participation in Genotype Positive Children With Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Peter F.; Sweeten, Tammy; Vogel, Ramon L.; Bonney, William J.; Henderson, Jacqueline; Patel, Akash R.; Shah, Maully J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The study sought to examine the prevalence and outcomes of sports participation (both competitive and recreational) in our single-center LQTS genotype positive pediatric population. BACKGROUND The risks of sports participation in patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) are not clearly elucidated. METHODS A retrospective review was performed on genotype positive patients referred for the evaluation and management of LQTS between 1998 and 2013 at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Pediatric patients participating in competitive or recreational sports were included in the analysis and their charts were reviewed for documented LQTS events during follow-up. RESULTS The cohort of genotype-positive LQTS patients included 212 patients, and 103 patients (49%, female n = 53, average follow-up 7.1 ± 4.0 years, average QTc 468 ± 42 ms) participated in sports. A total of 105 LQTS disease-causing mutations were identified: KCNQ1 n = 60 (58%), KCNH2 n = 36 (35%), SCN5A n = 6 (6%), KCNE1 n = 1 (1%), and KCNE2 n = 2 (2%). All patients were treated with beta-blockade, with noncompliance in 1 patient and intolerance in 1 patient. Twenty-six patients participated in competitive sports (26%, female n = 15, average follow-up 6.9 ± 4.1 years, average QTc 461 ± 35 ms). Seventy-seven patients (75%, female n = 35, average follow-up 7.3 ± 3.9 years, average QTc 470 ± 43 ms) participated in recreational sports. No patients had LQTS symptoms during sports participation. Five appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks occurred in 2 patients, though none were related to sports participation. CONCLUSIONS In this series no cardiac events and no deaths were observed in treatment-compliant LQTS children while participating in sports in 755 patient-years of follow-up. PMID:26301263

  7. QT Interval Derived Measurements in Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X Compared to Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies assessing effect of ischemia on ventricular repolarization are mostly directed toward patients with coronary artery disease (CAD); however, similar reports on cardiac syndrome X (CSX) are scarce. Whether microvascular dysfunction of CSX and ischemia induced by CAD produce comparable effect on ventricular repolarization is unclear and deserve further studies. In the present study, ECG measures of ventricular repolarization were compared between CAD and CSX patients (40 subjects in each group). Following evaluation of sociodemographic characteristics, medical and past medical history, a resting ECG was used to assess measurements of ventricular repolarization in each patient, namely, QT interval (QT), corrected QT interval (QTc), QT dispersion (QTd), corrected QT dispersion (QTcd), adjacent QT dispersion (AdQTd), QT dispersion ratio (QTdR), JT dispersion (JTd), and Corrected JT dispersion (JTcd). Results showed comparable QT intervals and QTd in CAD and CSX patients even after adjustment for the possible variations in gender, age and body mass index of the studied groups. Although JTd was increased in CSX subjects (26.6 ± 7.2 ms) compared with CAD patients (22.7 ± 6.5 ms, p = 0.019), statistical significance disappeared after correcting JT for variations in heart rate. QT and QTc were significantly below 440 ms in CAD as well as CSX patients (p < 0.001). In contrast, maximum QTd, maximum QTcd and AdQTd of CAD and CSX patients were significantly above 440 ms (p < 0.001). The means of JTd and JTcd were significantly above 22 ms and 24 ms respectively (p < 0.001, p = 0.001) in CSX but not CAD patients (p = 0.529, p = 0.281). The present findings clearly demonstrate comparable measures of ventricular repolarization in CAD and CSX patients and consequently an equal risk of cardiac events in both groups. PMID:27708590

  8. Patients with long Q-T syndrome: a caveat for the oral surgeon.

    PubMed

    Sandor, G K; Myall, R W

    1983-10-01

    Three children with long Q-T syndrome were admitted to the hospital for elective minor oral surgery. Patients afflicted with this syndrome often have a family history of recurrent syncope, prolongation of the Q-T interval on the electrocardiogram, sometimes deaf mutism, and occasionally sudden death. Their cardiac dysrhythmias are controlled by a variety of medications, all of which must be understood before the oral surgical procedure is undertaken, so that potentially lethal events can be recognized and dealt with appropriately. The management of two of the three patients was further complicated by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus.

  9. Genotype-specific risk stratification and management of patients with long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barsheshet, Alon; Dotsenko, Olena; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2013-11-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited disorder associated with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. An understanding of the relationship between the genotype and phenotype characteristics of LQTS can lead to improved risk stratification and management of this hereditary arrhythmogenic disorder. Risk stratification in LQTS relies on combined assessment of clinical, electrocardiographic, and mutations-specific factors. Studies have shown that there are genotype-specific risk factors for arrhythmic events including age, gender, resting heart rate, QT corrected for heart rate, prior syncope, the postpartum period, menopause, mutation location, type of mutation, the biophysical function of the mutation, and response to beta-blockers. Importantly, genotype-specific therapeutic options have been suggested. Lifestyle changes are recommended according to the prevalent trigger for cardiac events. Beta-blockers confer greater benefit among patients with LQT1 with the greatest benefit among those with cytoplasmic loops mutations; specific beta-blocker agents may provide greater protection than other agents in specific LQTS genotypes. Potassium supplementation and sex hormone-based therapy may protect patients with LQT2. Sodium channel blockers such as mexiletine, flecainide, and ranolazine could be treatment options in LQT3. PMID:24206565

  10. Sex differences in the mechanisms underlying long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salama, Guy; Bett, Glenna C L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a well-established phenomenon, but its degree varies tremendously among species. Since the early days of Einthoven's development of the three-lead galvanometer ECG, we have known there are marked differences in QT intervals of men and women. It required over a century to appreciate the profound implications of sex-based electrophysiological differences in QT interval on the panoply of sex differences with respect to arrhythmia risk, drug sensitivity, and treatment modalities. Little is known about the fundamental mechanism responsible for sex differences in electrical substrate of the human heart, in large part due to the lack of tissue availability. Animal models are an important research tool, but species differences in the sexual dimorphism of the QT interval, the ionic currents underlying the cardiac repolarization, and effects of sex steroids make it difficult to interpolate animal to human sex differences. In addition, in some species, different strains of the same animal model yield conflicting data. Each model has its strengths, such as ease of genetic manipulation in mice or size in dogs. However, many animals do not reproduce the sexual dimorphism of QT seen in humans. To match sex linked prolongation of QT interval and arrhythmogenic phenotype, the current data suggest that the rabbit may be best suited to provide insight into sex differences in humans. In the future, emerging technologies such as induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiac myocyte systems may offer the opportunity to study sex differences in a controlled hormonal situation in the context of a sex specific human model system.

  11. Sex differences in the mechanisms underlying long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salama, Guy; Bett, Glenna C L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a well-established phenomenon, but its degree varies tremendously among species. Since the early days of Einthoven's development of the three-lead galvanometer ECG, we have known there are marked differences in QT intervals of men and women. It required over a century to appreciate the profound implications of sex-based electrophysiological differences in QT interval on the panoply of sex differences with respect to arrhythmia risk, drug sensitivity, and treatment modalities. Little is known about the fundamental mechanism responsible for sex differences in electrical substrate of the human heart, in large part due to the lack of tissue availability. Animal models are an important research tool, but species differences in the sexual dimorphism of the QT interval, the ionic currents underlying the cardiac repolarization, and effects of sex steroids make it difficult to interpolate animal to human sex differences. In addition, in some species, different strains of the same animal model yield conflicting data. Each model has its strengths, such as ease of genetic manipulation in mice or size in dogs. However, many animals do not reproduce the sexual dimorphism of QT seen in humans. To match sex linked prolongation of QT interval and arrhythmogenic phenotype, the current data suggest that the rabbit may be best suited to provide insight into sex differences in humans. In the future, emerging technologies such as induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiac myocyte systems may offer the opportunity to study sex differences in a controlled hormonal situation in the context of a sex specific human model system. PMID:24973386

  12. Long QT Interval in Turner Syndrome – A High Prevalence of LQTS Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian H.; Pedersen, Lisbeth N.; Berglund, Agnethe; Jensen, Henrik K.; Andersen, Niels H.; Gravholt, Claus H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives QT-interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome. This study set out to explore the presence of known long QT mutations in Turner syndrome and to examine the corrected QT-interval (QTc) over time and relate the findings to the Turner syndrome phenotype. Methods Adult women with Turner syndrome (n = 88) were examined thrice and 68 age-matched healthy controls were examined once. QTc was measured by one blinded reader (intra-reader variability: 0.7%), and adjusted for influence of heart rate by Bazett’s (bQTc) and Hodges’s formula (hQTc). The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome was determined in women with Turner syndrome and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms). Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done. Results The mean hQTc in women with Turner syndrome (414.0±25.5 ms) compared to controls (390.4±17.8 ms) was prolonged (p<0.001) and did not change over time (416.9±22.6 vs. 415.6±25.5 ms; p = 0.4). 45,X karyotype was associated with increased hQTc prolongation compared to other Turner syndrome karyotypes (418.2±24.8 vs. 407.6±25.5 ms; p = 0.055). In women with Turner syndrome and a bQTc >432 ms, 7 had mutations in major Long QT syndrome genes (SCN5A and KCNH2) and one in a minor Long QT syndrome gene (KCNE2). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of mutations in the major LQTS genes in women with TS and prolonged QTc. It remains to be settled, whether these findings are related to the unexplained excess mortality in Turner women. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00624949. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol/sid/S0001FLI/selectaction/View/ts/3/uid/U000099E. PMID:23936059

  13. Mutant MiRP1 subunits modulate HERG K+ channel gating: a mechanism for pro-arrhythmia in long QT syndrome type 6

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P; Huang, Christopher L-H; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2003-01-01

    Mutations in KCNE2, which encodes the minK-related protein 1 (MiRP1), are associated with an increased risk of arrhythmias; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. MiRP1 is thought to associate with many K+ channel α-subunits, including HERG K+ channels, which have a major role in suppressing arrhythmias initiated by premature beats. In this study we have investigated in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells at 37 °C the effects of co-expressing HERG K+ channels with either wild-type (WT) MiRP1 or one of three mutant MiRP1 subunits, T8A, Q9E and M54T. The most significant effects of MiRP1 subunits on HERG channels were a more negative steady-state activation for HERG + T8A MiRP1 and a more positive steady-state activation for HERG + M54T MiRP1 compared to either HERG + WT MiRP1 or HERG alone. All three mutants caused a significant slowing of deactivation at depolarised potentials. T8A MiRP1 also caused an acceleration of inactivation and recovery from inactivation compared to HERG + WT MiRP1. During ventricular action potential clamp experiments there was a significant decrease in current in the early phases of the action potential for HERG + WT MiRP1 channels compared to HERG alone. This effect was not as prominent for the mutant MiRP1 subunits. During premature action potential clamp protocols, the T8A and Q9E mutants, but not the M54T mutant, resulted in significantly larger current spikes during closely coupled premature beats, compared to HERG + WT MiRP1. At longer coupling intervals, all three mutants resulted in larger current spikes than HERG alone or HERG + WT MiRP1 channels. It is therefore possible that augmentation of HERG currents in the early diastolic period may be pro-arrhythmic. PMID:12923204

  14. QT correction formulas and laboratory analysis on patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sara; Rivera, Pedro; Rodríguez, María. G.; Severeyn, Érika; Altuve, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a study of ventricular repolarization in diabetic and metabolic syndrome subjects. The corrected QT interval (QTc) was estimated using four correction formulas commonly employed in the literature: Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham and Hodges. After extracting the Q, R and T waves from the electrocardiogram of 52 subjects (19 diabetic, 15 with metabolic syndrome and 18 control), using a wavelet-based approach, the RR interval and QT interval were determined. Then, QTc interval was computed using the formulas previously mentioned. Additionally, laboratory test (fasting glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides) were also evaluated. Results show that metabolic syndrome subjects have normal QTc. However, a longer QTc in this population may be a sign of future complication. The corrected QT interval by Fridericia's formula seems to be the most appropriated for metabolic syndrome subjects (low correlation coefficient between RR and QTc). Significant differences were obtained in the blood glucose and triglyceride levels, principally due to the abnormal sugar metabolization of metabolic syndrome and diabetic subjects. Further studies are focused on the acquisition of a larger database of metabolic syndrome and diabetics subjects and the repetition of this study using other populations, like high performance athletes.

  15. Sudden cardiac arrest due to a single sodium channel mutation producing a mixed phenotype of Brugada and Long QT3 syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanadoss, U; Mertens, A; Gallagher, M; Kutinsky, I; Williamson, B

    2016-01-01

    Inherited arrhythmia syndromes are a known, albeit rare, cause of sudden cardiac arrest which may present with characteristic electrocardiogram changes in patients with structurally normal heart. There are a variety of distinct arrhythmogenic syndromes that arise from mutations in voltage gated sodium channels, resulting in either gain or loss of function. We describe a patient with a primary inherited arrhythmia syndrome which presented as sudden cardiac arrest. Further workup revealed that her arrest was due to a combination of Brugada syndrome and Long QT3 syndrome secondary to a deleterious mutation of voltage-gated, sodium channel, type V alpha subunit (SCN5A Thr1709Met). PMID:27676163

  16. Management of ventricular fibrillation or unstable ventricular tachycardia in patients with congenital long-QT syndrome: a suggested modification to ACLS guidelines.

    PubMed

    Homme, Jason H; White, Roger D; Ackerman, Michael J

    2003-10-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval is a known risk factor for syncope, seizures and sudden cardiac death. Most patients with QT prolongation have an acquired cause, but congenital forms of QT prolongation are being increasingly recognized. However, existing advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) treatment algorithms for prolonged QT mediated ventricular fibrillation pertains to acquired long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Here, a young patient with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest secondary to congenital LQTS illustrates critical exceptions to the current ACLS treatment algorithms for ventricular fibrillation and unstable ventricular tachycardia when QT prolongation is congenital in origin. A clarified ACLS algorithm is proposed.

  17. Update on the Diagnosis and Management of Familial Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Waddell-Smith, Kathryn E; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2016-08-01

    This update was reviewed by the CSANZ Continuing Education and Recertification Committee and ratified by the CSANZ board in August 2015. Since the CSANZ 2011 guidelines, adjunctive clinical tests have proven useful in the diagnosis of LQTS and are discussed in this update. Understanding of the diagnostic and risk stratifying role of LQTS genetics is also discussed. At least 14 LQTS genes are now thought to be responsible for the disease. High-risk individuals may have multiple mutations, large gene rearrangements, C-loop mutations in KCNQ1, transmembrane mutations in KCNH2, or have certain gene modifiers present, particularly NOS1AP polymorphisms. In regards to treatment, nadolol is preferred, particularly for long QT type 2, and short acting metoprolol should not be used. Thoracoscopic left cardiac sympathectomy is valuable in those who cannot adhere to beta blocker therapy, particularly in long QT type 1. Indications for ICD therapies have been refined; and a primary indication for ICD in post-pubertal females with long QT type 2 and a very long QT interval is emerging.

  18. Genotype- and Phenotype-Guided Management of Congenital Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Giudicessi, John R.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetically heterogeneous collection of heritable disorders of myocardial repolarization linked by their shared clinical phenotype of QT prolongation on electrocardiogram and an increased risk of potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. At the molecular level, mutations in 15 distinct LQTS-susceptibility genes that encode ion channel pore-forming α-subunits and accessory/auxiliary subunits central to the electromechanical function of the heart have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Over the past two decades, our evolving understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms by which specific genetic substrates perturb the cardiac action potential has translated into vastly improved approaches to the diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment of patients with LQTS. In this Review, we detail how our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of LQTS has yielded numerous clinically meaningful genotype-phenotype correlations and how these insights have translated into genotype- and phenotype-guided approaches to the clinical management of LQTS. PMID:24093767

  19. Prevalence of HCM and long QT syndrome mutations in young sudden cardiac death-related cases.

    PubMed

    Allegue, Catarina; Gil, Rocio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Santori, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Calvo, Marisol; Concheiro, Luis; Carracedo, Angel; Brion, María

    2011-07-01

    Cardiomyopathies and channelopathies are major causes of sudden cardiac death. The genetic study of these diseases is difficult because of their heterogenic nature not only in their genetic traits but also in their phenotypic expression. The purpose of the present study is the analysis of a wide spectrum of previously known genetic mutations in key genes related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), long QT syndrome (LQTS), and Brugada syndrome (BrS) development. The samples studied include cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young adults and their relatives in order to identify the real impact of genetic screening of SCD in forensic cases. Genetic screening of described variation in 16 genes implicated in the development of HCM and three more genes implicated in LQTS and BrS was performed by using MassARRAY technology. In addition, direct sequencing of the two most prevalent genes implicated in the development of SQTL type 1 and 2 was also carried out. Genetic screening allowed us to unmask four possibly pathogenic mutation carriers in the 49 SCD cases considered; carriers of mutation represent 9% (2/23) of the probands with structural anomalies found after autopsy and 7% (1/14) of the probands with structurally normal hearts after in depth autopsy protocol. One mutation was found among 12 of the recovered SCD cases considered. In people with direct family history of sudden cardiac death, but not themselves, 11 additional mutation carriers were found. Three different mutations were found in six of the 19 LQTS patients, representing three families and two different mutations were found among six patients with previous syncope. Genetic analysis in sudden cardiac death cases could help to elucidate the cause of death, but it also can help in the prevention of future deaths in families at risk. The study presented here shows the importance and relevance of genetic screening in patients with signs of cardiac hypertrophy and in family cases with more than one

  20. Mutational analysis of SCN5A gene in long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sameera Fatima; Ali, Altaf; John, Princy; Jadhav, Amol P; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur; Rao, Hygriv; Jayakrishnan, M P; Narasimhan, Calambur; Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Nallari, Pratibha

    2015-12-01

    The SCN5A gene encodes for the INa channel implicated in long QT syndrome type-3 (LQTS-type-3). Clinical symptoms of this type are lethal as most patients had a sudden death during sleep. Screening of SCN5A in South Indian cohort by PCR-SSCP analyses revealed five polymorphisms - A29A (exon-2), H558R (exon-12), E1061E and S1074R (exon-17) and IVS25 + 65G > A (exon-25) respectively. In-silico and statistical analyses were performed on all the polymorphisms. Exon-2 of SCN5A gene revealed A282G polymorphism (rs6599230), resulting in alanine for alanine (A29A) silent substitution in the N-terminus of SCN5A protein. Exon-12 showed A1868G polymorphism (H558R - rs1805124) and its 'AA' genotype and 'A' allele frequency were found to be higher in LQTS patients pointing towards its role in LQTS etiology. Two polymorphisms A3378G (E1061E) and the novel C3417A (S1074R) were identified as compound heterozygotes/genetic compounds in exon-17 of SCN5A located in the DIIS6-DIIIS1 domain of the SCN5A transmembrane protein. IVS25 + 65G > A was identified in intron-25 of SCN5A. The 'G' allele was identified as the risk allele. Variations were identified in in-silico analyses which revealed that these genetic compounds may lead to downstream signaling variations causing aberrations in sodium channel functions leading to prolonged QTc. The compound heterozygotes of SCN5A gene polymorphisms revealed a significant association which may be deleterious/lethal leading to an aberrant sodium ion channel causing prolonged QTc. PMID:26401487

  1. Role of alpha1-blockade in congenital long QT syndrome: investigation by exercise stress test.

    PubMed

    Furushima, H; Chinushi, M; Washizuka, T; Aizawa, Y

    2001-07-01

    Beta-blockade is widely reported to reduce the incidence of syncope in 75-80% of patients with congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). However, despite full-dose beta-blockade, 20-25% of patients continue to have syncopal episodes and remain at high risk for sudden cardiac death. In some patients refractory to beta-blockade, the recurrence of arrhythmias is successfully prevented by left stellate ganglionectomy, and also by labetalol, a nonselective beta-blockade with alpha1-blocking action. These observations suggest that not only beta-adrenoceptors, but also alpha1-adrenoceptors, play an important pathogenic role, especially under sympathetic stimulation, in LQTS. The clinical effects of alpha1-blockade in congenital LQTS were investigated in 8 patients with familial or sporadic LQTS. Two measurements of the QT interval were taken, from the QRS onset to the T wave offset (QT) and from the QRS onset to the peak of the T wave (QTp). Using the Bruce protocol, an exercise test was performed after administration of beta-blockade alone and again after administration of alpha1-blockade. The following were compared: (1) Bazzet-corrected QT (QTc) and QTp (QTpc) intervals in the supine and standing position before exercise and in the early recovery phase after exercise; and (2) the slopes (reflecting the dynamic change in the QT interval during exercise) of the QT interval to heart rate were obtained from the linear regression during the exercise test. In the supine position before exercise, there was no change in the QTc before or after the addition of alpha1-blockade (498+/-23 vs 486+/-23 ms [NS]). However, in the upright position before exercise and in the early recovery phase after exercise, QTc was significantly shortened from 523+/-21 to 483+/-22ms (p<0.01), and from 521+/-30 to 490+/-39ms (p<0.01), respectively, by alpha1-blockade. The QTpc was unchanged in any situation. Consequently, QTc-QTpc was significantly shortened by alpha1-blockade in the upright position

  2. Sevoflurane-associated torsade de pointes in a patient with congenital long QT syndrome genotype 2.

    PubMed

    Kumakura, Mika; Hara, Koji; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Although patients with congenital long QT syndrome (c-LQTS) are considered to be at high risk for anesthesia, few reports describe c-LQTS genotype-specific considerations for anesthesia. We describe a case of torsade de pointes (TdP) caused by sevoflurane in a patient with c-LQTS genotype 2 (LQT2). A 39-year-old woman diagnosed with c-LQTS was scheduled for an elective therapeutic abortion. Immediately after starting the operation, the patient developed TdP. Since pulseless ventricular tachycardia was sustained despite intravenous injection of lidocaine, defibrillation was performed. Analysis of the electrocardiogram revealed that the corrected QT interval before anesthesia was 530 ms and 2.0% sevoflurane markedly prolonged the corrected QT interval to 693 ms. Postoperative studies revealed a mutation in the KCNH2 gene. Anesthesiologists should note that patients with LQT2 could be more susceptible to volatile anesthetics than are those with other major genotypes. Genotype-specific management of anesthesia may reduce the risk of developing TdP during the perioperative period. PMID:27555138

  3. Long QT syndrome with mutations in three genes: A rare case.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marina; Martins Ribeiro, Sílvia; Sanfins, Victor; Lourenço, António

    2015-05-01

    Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare hereditary disease, with an incidence of 1 in 2000, characterized by prolonged ventricular repolarization and malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman, previously diagnosed with neurocardiogenic syncope, in whom LQTS was identified. The patient received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator due to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia under beta-blocker therapy. Molecular genetic testing identified three mutations in heterozygosity in the KCNH2, KCNQ1 and SCN5A genes, which is a rare finding and is associated with worse prognosis.

  4. Autre cause de mort subite du nourrisson: à propos d'un cas clinique de syndrome du QT long congenital

    PubMed Central

    Seka, Zena; Mols, Pierre; Gobin, Eric; Ngatchou, William

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome du QT long congénital est une maladie rythmique liée à une mutation génétique et caractérisée par un espace QT allongé sur l’électrocardiogramme, des arythmies malignes type torsade de pointe et fibrillation ventriculaire entraînant une mort subite. Les gènes impliqués dans ces mutations codent pour des sous unités des canaux ioniques responsables de l'activité électrique cardiaque. Le diagnostic est basé sur l’électrocardiogramme, une enquête familiale et l’étude génétique. Le traitement repose sur les bêtabloquants, la sympathectomie et le stimulateur cardiaque. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nourrisson de 2 ans retrouvé en état de mort apparente. Nous discutons de sa prise en charge initiale, de l'enquête familiale et de son suivi ultérieur. PMID:25667708

  5. Electrophysiologic Substrate in Congenital Long QT Syndrome: Noninvasive Mapping with Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI)

    PubMed Central

    Desouza, Kavit A.; Abraham, Robert L.; Strom, Maria; Sacher, Frederic; Van Hare, George F.; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Roden, Dan M.; Rudy, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrhythmogenic disorder that causes syncope and sudden death. While its genetic basis has become well-understood, the mechanisms whereby mutations translate to arrhythmia susceptibility in the in situ human heart have not been fully defined. We used noninvasive ECG imaging (ECGI) to map the cardiac electrophysiologic substrate and examine whether LQTS patients display regional heterogeneities in repolarization, a substrate which promotes arrhythmogenesis. Methods and Results 25 subjects (9 LQT1, 9 LQT2, 5 LQT3 and 2 LQT5) with genotype and phenotype positive LQTS underwent ECGI. Seven normal subjects provided control. Epicardial maps of activation, recovery times (RT), Activation-recovery intervals (ARI) and repolarization dispersion were constructed. Activation was normal in all patients. However, RT and ARI were prolonged relative to control, indicating delayed repolarization and abnormally long APD (312 ± 30 ms vs. 235 ± 21 ms in control). ARI prolongation was spatially heterogeneous, with repolarization gradients much steeper than control (119 ± 19 ms/cm vs. 2.0 ± 2.0 ms/cm). There was variability in steepness and distribution of repolarization gradients between and within LQTS types. Repolarization gradients were steeper in symptomatic patients (130 ± 27 ms/cm in 12 symptomatic patients vs. 98 ± 19 ms/cm in 13 asymptomatic patients; P < 0.05). Conclusions LQTS patients display regions with steep repolarization dispersion caused by localized APD prolongation. This defines a substrate for reentrant arrhythmias, not detectable by surface ECG. Steeper dispersion in symptomatic patients suggests a possible role for ECGI in risk stratification. PMID:25294783

  6. Electrocardiographic changes following exercise in the congenitally deaf school children: relationship with Jervell Lange Neilsen syndrome (the Long QT syndrome).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R D; Pramod, J; Deep, J; Jaison, T M; Singh, S; Soni, K

    1998-10-01

    The present study was conducted to test the effects of exercise stress on the ECG of the congenitally deaf children from school for deaf, in view of the occurrence of the Jervell-Lange Neilsen (Surdo Cardiac) variant of the Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) in them. An ECG Lead II was recorded at rest and after two minutes of static jogging. For comparison, the same protocol was repeated in normal healthy children from another school. ECG were analysed for the calculation of corrected QT interval (QTc) by Bazett's equation QTc = QT/square root of R-R and also for the evidence for other abnormalities. Both in the normal and deaf children, exercise did not produce significant (P > 0.05) change in QTc from their resting values. However, when pre and post exercise QTc values of deaf children were compared with normal children, the female deaf had significantly longer QTc (P < 0.01) both at rest and after exercise than normal female children. Normal children did not show significant ECG abnormality either at rest or on exercise. On the contrary many of their counter part (deaf) exhibited occasional ECG abnormality at rest but plethora of abnormalities after exercise viz., sinus arrhythmias, sinus pauses, ST depression, T-inversion, biphasic-T, notched-T, T-alternans, nodal ectopics and junctional rhythm. These results lend credence to the hypothesis of sympathetic imbalance and repolarisation defects in deaf children's heart, which in more severe form could pass into frank Jervell-Lange Neilsen variant of the Long: QT Syndrome. PMID:10874353

  7. Enhanced Effects of Isoflurane on the Long QT Syndrome 1 associated A341V Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Mikuni, Ikuomi; Torres, Carlos G.; Bakshi, Tania; Tampo, Akihito; Carlson, Brian E.; Bienengraeber, Martin W.; Kwok, Wai-Meng

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of volatile anesthetics on patients with inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS) is not well understood. This is further complicated by the different genotypes underlying LQTS. No studies have reported on the direct effects of volatile anesthetics on specific LQTS-associated mutations. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on a common LQTS-Type 1 mutation, A341V, with an unusually severe phenotype. Methods Whole-cell potassium currents (IKs) were recorded from HEK293 and HL-1 cells transiently expressing/co-expressing wild-type KCNQ1 (α-subunit), mutant KCNQ1, wild-type KCNE1 (β-subunit), and fusion KCNQ1+KCNE1. Current was monitored in the absence and presence of clinically relevant concentration of isoflurane (0.54 ± 0.05 mM, 1.14 vol%). Computer simulations determined the resulting impact on the cardiac action potential. Results Isoflurane had significantly greater inhibitory effect on A341V+KCNE1 (62.2 ± 3.4%, n=8), than on wild-type KCNQ1+KCNE1 (40.7 ± 4.5%; n=9) in transfected HEK293 cells. Under heterozygous conditions, isoflurane inhibited A341V+KCNQ1+KCNE1 by 65.2 ± 3.0% (n=13), and wild-type KCNQ1+KCNE1 (2:1 ratio) by 32.0 ± 4.5% (n=11). A341V exerted a dominant negative effect on IKs. Similar differential effects of isoflurane were also observed in experiments using the cardiac HL-1 cells. Mutations of the neighboring F340 residue significantly attenuated the effects of isoflurane, and fusion proteins revealed the modulatory effect of KCNE1. Action potential simulations revealed a stimulation-frequency dependent effect of A341V. Conclusions The LQTS-associated A341V mutation rendered the IKs channel more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of isoflurane compared to wild-type IKs in transfected cell lines; F340 is a key residue for anesthetic action. PMID:25585005

  8. Pharmacological approach to the treatment of long and short QT syndromes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chinmay; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2008-04-01

    Inherited channelopathies have received increasing attention in recent years. The past decade has witnessed impressive progress in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of arrhythmogenesis associated with inherited channelopathies. An imbalance in ionic forces induced by these channelopathies affects the duration of ventricular repolarization and amplifies the intrinsic electrical heterogeneity of the myocardium, creating an arrhythmogenic milieu. Today, many of the channelopathies have been linked to mutations in specific genes encoding either components of ion channels or membrane or regulatory proteins. Many of the channelopathies are genetically heterogeneous with a variable degree of expression of the disease. Defining the molecular basis of channelopathies can have a profound impact on patient management, particularly in cases in which genotype-specific pharmacotherapy is available. The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is one of the first identified and most studied channelopathies where abnormal prolongation of ventricular repolarization predisposes an individual to life threatening ventricular arrhythmia called Torsade de Pointes. On the other hand of the spectrum, molecular defects favoring premature repolarization lead to Short QT syndrome (SQTS), a recently described inherited channelopathy. Both of these channelopathies are associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia. Whereas pharmacological therapy is first line treatment for LQTS, defibrillators are considered as primary treatment for SQTS. This review provides a comprehensive review of the molecular genetics, clinical features, genotype-phenotype correlations and genotype-specific approach to pharmacotherapy of these two mirror-image channelopathies, SQTS and LQTS. PMID:18378319

  9. An interdomain KCNH2 mutation produces an intermediate long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Osterbur, Marika L.; Zheng, Renjian; Marion, Robert; Walsh, Christine; McDonald, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary Long QT Syndrome is caused by deleterious mutation in one of several genetic loci, including locus LQT2 that contains the KCNH2 gene (or hERG), causing faulty cardiac repolarization. Here, we describe and characterize a novel mutation, p.Asp219Val in the hERG channel, identified in an 11 year old male with syncope and prolonged QT interval. Genetic sequencing showed a non-synonymous variation in KCNH2 (c.656A>T: amino acid p.Asp219Val). p.Asp219Val resides in a region of the channel predicted to be unstructured and flexible, located between the PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domain and its interaction sites in the transmembrane domain. The p.Asp219Val hERG channel produced K+ current that activated with modest changes in voltage dependence. Mutant channels were also slower to inactivate, recovered from inactivation more readily and demonstrated a significantly accelerated deactivation rate compared to the slow deactivation of WT channels. The intermediate nature of the biophysical perturbation is consistent with the degree of severity in the clinical phenotype. The findings of this study demonstrate a previously unknown role of the proximal N-terminus in deactivation and support the hypothesis that the proximal N-terminal domain is essential in maintaining slow hERG deactivation. PMID:25914329

  10. Left Stellate Ganglionectomy for the Long Q-T Interval Syndrome: Nine-Year Follow-up of a Patient

    PubMed Central

    Strickman, Neil E.; Dear, Wayne E.

    1982-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias in patients with the long Q-T interval syndrome remain difficult to treat. In 1972, the first left stellate ganglionectomy was performed successfully to alter the pattern of ventricular recovery with control of ventricular arrhythmias. To date, no long-term evaluation has been carried out in any patients who have undergone left stellate ganglion removal for control of life-threatening arrhythmias. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman previously afflicted with idiopathic prolongation of the Q-T and syncope 9 years after successful partial ablation of the left stellate ganglion for the control of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. PMID:15226961

  11. SEVOFLURANE AS A CAUSE OF TORSADE DE POINTES IN PATIENT WITH THE LONG QT SYNDROME: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choromanski, Dominik W; Amin, Sapan; Zestos, Maria M

    2016-02-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare condition that in certain circumstances can lead to severe and potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia known as Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Inhalational anesthetics are among many medications and conditions known to prolong QT and thus potentially predispose the patient to TdP. Although studies have shown that sevoflurane should be safe for the healthy patients, the situation is unclear in patients with LQTS. We present a case of 14-year-old Caucasian female with the diagnosis of LQTS who developed TdP during sevoflurane inhalational induction. At the end, an anesthetic plan for patients with LQTS will be suggested. PMID:27382818

  12. We Only Find What We Look For: Fetal Heart Rate and the Diagnosis of Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cuneo, Bettina F.; Strasburger, Janette F.

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS), an inherited channelopathy, is a common cause of arrhythmic death in infants, children and young adults. Although many LQTS genes have been identified, most (~75%) of LQTS mutations are found in KCNQ1, KCNH2 or SCN5A. In most cases, treatment for LQTS is successful and modifies the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias; thus, making the correct diagnosis is important. The diagnosis of LQTS is made by the measurement of a prolonged QT interval on the standard ECG; family history or characteristic arrhythmia features are used to strengthen the diagnosis and genetic testing confirms the diagnosis. PMID:26286300

  13. Identification of Genetic Alterations, as Causative Genetic Defects in Long QT Syndrome, Using Next Generation Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Mademont-Soler, Irene; Allegue, Catarina; Cesar, Sergi; Ferrer-Costa, Carles; Coll, Monica; Mates, Jesus; Iglesias, Anna; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Background Long QT Syndrome is an inherited channelopathy leading to sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias. Despite that several genes have been associated with the disease, nearly 20% of cases remain without an identified genetic cause. Other genetic alterations such as copy number variations have been recently related to Long QT Syndrome. Our aim was to take advantage of current genetic technologies in a family affected by Long QT Syndrome in order to identify the cause of the disease. Methods Complete clinical evaluation was performed in all family members. In the index case, a Next Generation Sequencing custom-built panel, including 55 sudden cardiac death-related genes, was used both for detection of sequence and copy number variants. Next Generation Sequencing variants were confirmed by Sanger method. Copy number variations variants were confirmed by Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification method and at the mRNA level. Confirmed variants and copy number variations identified in the index case were also analyzed in relatives. Results In the index case, Next Generation Sequencing revealed a novel variant in TTN and a large deletion in KCNQ1, involving exons 7 and 8. Both variants were confirmed by alternative techniques. The mother and the brother of the index case were also affected by Long QT Syndrome, and family cosegregation was observed for the KCNQ1 deletion, but not for the TTN variant. Conclusions Next Generation Sequencing technology allows a comprehensive genetic analysis of arrhythmogenic diseases. We report a copy number variation identified using Next Generation Sequencing analysis in Long QT Syndrome. Clinical and familiar correlation is crucial to elucidate the role of genetic variants identified to distinguish the pathogenic ones from genetic noise. PMID:25494010

  14. Atrial Fibrillation and Long QT Syndrome Presenting in a 12-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Jonathan W; Orland, Kate M; January, Craig T; Maginot, Kathleen R

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare in the pediatric population; however, there is increasing recognition that AF can be inherited. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), likewise, can be both acquired and inherited with mutations leading to abnormalities in cardiac ion channel function. Mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of LQTS. Although rare, mutations in KCNQ1 also can cause familial AF. This report describes a child with a KCNQ1 missense mutation who uniquely expresses concomitant AF and LQTS. Due to the potential for increased morbidity and mortality, young patients who present with AF and a family history suggestive of inherited arrhythmias should trigger further investigation for LQTS and subsequent familial genetic counseling. PMID:23193492

  15. Atrial Fibrillation and Long QT Syndrome Presenting in a 12-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Knoche, Jonathan W.; Orland, Kate M.; January, Craig T.; Maginot, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare in the pediatric population; however, there is increasing recognition that AF can be inherited. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), likewise, can be both acquired and inherited with mutations leading to abnormalities in cardiac ion channel function. Mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of LQTS. Although rare, mutations in KCNQ1 also can cause familial AF. This report describes a child with a KCNQ1 missense mutation who uniquely expresses concomitant AF and LQTS. Due to the potential for increased morbidity and mortality, young patients who present with AF and a family history suggestive of inherited arrhythmias should trigger further investigation for LQTS and subsequent familial genetic counseling. PMID:23193492

  16. α1-Syntrophin Variant Identified in Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome Increases Late Sodium Current

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Il; Wang, Chaojian; Thomas, Matthew J.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced long-QT syndrome (diLQTS) is often due to drug block of IKr, especially in genetically susceptible patients with subclinical mutations in the IKr-encoding KCHN2. Few variants in the cardiac NaV1.5 Na+ channel complex have been associated with diLQTS. We tested whether a novel SNTA1 (α1-syntrophin) variant (p.E409Q) found in a patient with diLQTS increases late sodium current (INa-L), thereby providing a disease mechanism. Electrophysiological studies were performed in HEK293T cells co-expressing human NaV1.5/nNOS/PMCA4b with either wild type (WT) or SNTA1 variants (A390V-previously reported in congenital LQTS; and E409Q); and in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes infected with SNTA1 expressing adenoviruses (WT or one of the two SNTA1 variants). In HEK293T cells and in cardiomyocytes, there was no significant difference in the peak INa densities among the SNTA1 WT and variants. However, both variants increased INa-L (% of peak current) in HEK293T cells (0.58±0.10 in WT vs. 0.90±0.11 in A390V, p = 0.048; vs. 0.88±0.07 in E409Q, p = 0.023). In cardiomyocytes, INa-L was significantly increased by E409Q, but not by A390V compared to WT (0.49±0.14 in WT vs.0.94±0.23 in A390V, p = 0.099; vs. 1.12±0.24 in E409Q, p = 0.019). We demonstrated that a novel SNTA1 variant is likely causative for diLQTS by augmenting INa-L. These data suggest that variants within the NaV1.5-interacting α1-syntrophin are a potential mechanism for diLQTS, thereby expanding the concept that variants within congenital LQTS loci can cause diLQTS. PMID:27028743

  17. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed “in silico mutagenesis” by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O'Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr–drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  18. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired Long-QT Syndrome (aLTQS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed “in silico mutagenesis” by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired Long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O’Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr-drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired Long QT Syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  19. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E

    2014-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed "in silico mutagenesis" by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O'Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr-drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  20. Ankyrin-B syndrome: a case of sinus node dysfunction, atrial fibrillation and prolonged QT in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Robaei, Daniel; Ford, Thomas; Ooi, Sze-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Ankyrin-B protein is involved in regulating expression and localisation of cardiac ion channels and transporters. Mutations of the ANK2 gene in the rare condition Ankyrin-B syndrome result in loss of function of the ankyrin-B protein which in turn leads to abnormal regulation of intracellular sodium and calcium and a predisposition to cardiac arrhythmia including torsades de pointes. We describe a rare case of this condition characterised by sinus node dysfunction, atrial fibrillation and prolonged QT syndrome in a young patient with a family history of sudden death. The management of Ankyrin-B syndrome may include avoidance of QT prolonging medications, insertion of a permanent pacemaker for sinus node dysfunction, or a cardioverter defibrillator for those at high-risk of sudden death from torsades de pointes.

  1. Induced pluripotent stem cells used to reveal drug actions in a long QT syndrome family with complex genetics.

    PubMed

    Terrenoire, Cecile; Wang, Kai; Tung, Kelvin W Chan; Chung, Wendy K; Pass, Robert H; Lu, Jonathan T; Jean, Jyh-Chang; Omari, Amel; Sampson, Kevin J; Kotton, Darrell N; Keller, Gordon; Kass, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the basis for differential responses to drug therapies remains a challenge despite advances in genetics and genomics. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the pharmacology of disease processes in therapeutically and genetically relevant primary cell types in vitro and to interweave clinical and basic molecular data. We report here the derivation of iPSCs from a long QT syndrome patient with complex genetics. The proband was found to have a de novo SCN5A LQT-3 mutation (F1473C) and a polymorphism (K897T) in KCNH2, the gene for LQT-2. Analysis of the biophysics and molecular pharmacology of ion channels expressed in cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from these iPSCs (iPSC-CMs) demonstrates a primary LQT-3 (Na(+) channel) defect responsible for the arrhythmias not influenced by the KCNH2 polymorphism. The F1473C mutation occurs in the channel inactivation gate and enhances late Na(+) channel current (I(NaL)) that is carried by channels that fail to inactivate completely and conduct increased inward current during prolonged depolarization, resulting in delayed repolarization, a prolonged QT interval, and increased risk of fatal arrhythmia. We find a very pronounced rate dependence of I(NaL) such that increasing the pacing rate markedly reduces I(NaL) and, in addition, increases its inhibition by the Na(+) channel blocker mexiletine. These rate-dependent properties and drug interactions, unique to the proband's iPSC-CMs, correlate with improved management of arrhythmias in the patient and provide support for this approach in developing patient-specific clinical regimens. PMID:23277474

  2. [Sympathetic ganglionitis in the hereditary syndrome of QT prolongation (Romano-Ward syndrome); intracardiac registration of after-potentials (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Djonlagić, H; Bos, I; Diederich, K W

    1982-04-30

    A 20-year-old woman, admitted to an intensive care unit in ventricular fibrillation, had marked QT prolongation in the ECG after successful defibrillation. Family study revealed ECG signs of QT prolongation, as seen in the Romano-Ward syndrome, in four generations. Syncopal attacks only occurred in the third generation, affecting four siblings. In the described patient the intraventricular ECG revealed additional depolarizations (after-potentials) during and following repolarization (ST-T) in the surface ECG. The patient died later as a result of irreversible hypoxic cerebral damage. Invasive ECG studies in the mother also revealed after-potentials. In the patient, morbid-anatomical examination revealed, in addition to fibrosis and lipomatosis around the sinus and AV nodes, focal round-cell ganglionitis in both sympathetic trunks, but predominantly on the right. These infiltrations have not previously been described in this disease and could be of significance in the pathogenesis of the prolonged QT syndrome.

  3. Localization of Romano-Ward long QT syndrome gene, LQTI, to the interval between tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and D11S1349

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.W. |; Hulse, J.E.; Campbell, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Romano-Ward long-QT syndrome (RWLQTS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by heritable prolongation of the QT interval, syncope, and sudden death. Identification of the gene responsible for this syndrome may aid the diagnosis, management, and treatment of patients with this disease. Furthermore, it may lead to improved understanding of and therapy for other sympathetic-dependent ventricular arrhythmias. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Transgenic rabbit models to investigate the cardiac ion channel disease long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lang, C N; Koren, G; Odening, K E

    2016-07-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare inherited channelopathy caused mainly by different mutations in genes encoding for cardiac K(+) or Na(+) channels, but can also be caused by commonly used ion-channel-blocking and QT-prolonging drugs, thus affecting a much larger population. To develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical management of these patients, a thorough understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis and potential pharmacological targets is needed. Drug-induced and genetic animal models of various species have been generated and have been instrumental for identifying pro-arrhythmic triggers and important characteristics of the arrhythmogenic substrate in LQTS. However, due to species differences in features of cardiac electrical function, these different models do not entirely recapitulate all aspects of the human disease. In this review, we summarize advantages and shortcomings of different drug-induced and genetically mediated LQTS animal models - focusing on mouse and rabbit models since these represent the most commonly used small animal models for LQTS that can be subjected to genetic manipulation. In particular, we highlight the different aspects of arrhythmogenic mechanisms, pro-arrhythmic triggering factors, anti-arrhythmic agents, and electro-mechanical dysfunction investigated in transgenic LQTS rabbit models and their translational application for the clinical management of LQTS patients in detail. Transgenic LQTS rabbits have been instrumental to increase our understanding of the role of spatial and temporal dispersion of repolarization to provide an arrhythmogenic substrate, genotype-differences in the mechanisms for early afterdepolarization formation and arrhythmia maintenance, mechanisms of hormonal modification of arrhythmogenesis and regional heterogeneities in electro-mechanical dysfunction in LQTS. PMID:27210307

  5. Use of a cardioselective beta-blocker for pediatric patients with prolonged QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moltedo, Jose M; Kim, Jeffrey J; Friedman, Richard A; Kertesz, Naomi J; Cannon, Bryan C

    2011-01-01

    The data on the efficacy of atenolol for long-QT syndrome (LQTS) are controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of atenolol for pediatric patients with LQTS. A retrospective observational study investigating all patients who had LQTS treated with atenolol at two institutions was performed. The study identified 57 patients (23 boys and 34 girls) with a mean QT corrected for heart rate (QTc) of 521 ± 54 ms. The mean age of these patients at diagnosis was 9 ± 6 years. Their clinical manifestations included no symptoms (n = 33, 58%), ventricular tachycardia (n = 10, 18%), syncope (n = 6, 10%), resuscitated sudden cardiac death (n = 4, 7%), atrioventricular block (n = 2, 4%), and bradycardia or presyncope (n = 2, 3%). Of the 57 patients, 13 (22%) had a family history of sudden death. The follow-up period was 5.4 ± 4.5 years. Atenolol at a mean dose of 1.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg/day was administered twice a day for all the patients. The mean maximum heart rate was 132 ± 27 bpm on Holter monitors and 155 ± 16 bpm on exercise treadmill tests, with medication doses titrated up to achieve a maximum heart rate lower than 150 bpm on both tests. During the follow-up period, one patient died (noncompliant with atenolol at the time of death), and the remaining patients had no sudden cardiac death events. Four patients (8%) had recurrent ventricular arrhythmias, three of whom received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (all symptomatic at the time of diagnosis). For three patients (6%), it was necessary to rotate to a different beta-blocker because of side effects or inadequate heart rate control. Atenolol administered twice daily constitutes a valid and effective alternative for the treatment of pediatric patients with LQTS.

  6. Genetic analysis, in silico prediction, and family segregation in long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riuró, Helena; Campuzano, Oscar; Berne, Paola; Arbelo, Elena; Iglesias, Anna; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Coll-Vidal, Mònica; Partemi, Sara; Mademont-Soler, Irene; Picó, Ferran; Allegue, Catarina; Oliva, Antonio; Gerstenfeld, Edward; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Castro-Urda, Víctor; Fernández-Lozano, Ignacio; Mont, Lluís; Brugada, Josep; Scornik, Fabiana S; Brugada, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The heritable cardiovascular disorder long QT syndrome (LQTS), characterized by prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiogram, carries a high risk of sudden cardiac death. We sought to add new data to the existing knowledge of genetic mutations contributing to LQTS to both expand our understanding of its genetic basis and assess the value of genetic testing in clinical decision-making. Direct sequencing of the five major contributing genes, KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2, was performed in a cohort of 115 non-related LQTS patients. Pathogenicity of the variants was analyzed using family segregation, allele frequency from public databases, conservation analysis, and Condel and Provean in silico predictors. Phenotype-genotype correlations were analyzed statistically. Sequencing identified 36 previously described and 18 novel mutations. In 51.3% of the index cases, mutations were found, mostly in KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A; 5.2% of cases had multiple mutations. Pathogenicity analysis revealed 39 mutations as likely pathogenic, 12 as VUS, and 3 as non-pathogenic. Clinical analysis revealed that 75.6% of patients with QTc≥500 ms were genetically confirmed. Our results support the use of genetic testing of KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A as part of the diagnosis of LQTS and to help identify relatives at risk of SCD. Further, the genetic tools appear more valuable as disease severity increases. However, the identification of genetic variations in the clinical investigation of single patients using bioinformatic tools can produce erroneous conclusions regarding pathogenicity. Therefore segregation studies are key to determining causality. PMID:24667783

  7. Genetic analysis, in silico prediction, and family segregation in long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Riuró, Helena; Campuzano, Oscar; Berne, Paola; Arbelo, Elena; Iglesias, Anna; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Coll-Vidal, Mònica; Partemi, Sara; Mademont-Soler, Irene; Picó, Ferran; Allegue, Catarina; Oliva, Antonio; Gerstenfeld, Edward; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Castro-Urda, Víctor; Fernández-Lozano, Ignacio; Mont, Lluís; Brugada, Josep; Scornik, Fabiana S; Brugada, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The heritable cardiovascular disorder long QT syndrome (LQTS), characterized by prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiogram, carries a high risk of sudden cardiac death. We sought to add new data to the existing knowledge of genetic mutations contributing to LQTS to both expand our understanding of its genetic basis and assess the value of genetic testing in clinical decision-making. Direct sequencing of the five major contributing genes, KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2, was performed in a cohort of 115 non-related LQTS patients. Pathogenicity of the variants was analyzed using family segregation, allele frequency from public databases, conservation analysis, and Condel and Provean in silico predictors. Phenotype-genotype correlations were analyzed statistically. Sequencing identified 36 previously described and 18 novel mutations. In 51.3% of the index cases, mutations were found, mostly in KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A; 5.2% of cases had multiple mutations. Pathogenicity analysis revealed 39 mutations as likely pathogenic, 12 as VUS, and 3 as non-pathogenic. Clinical analysis revealed that 75.6% of patients with QTc≥500 ms were genetically confirmed. Our results support the use of genetic testing of KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A as part of the diagnosis of LQTS and to help identify relatives at risk of SCD. Further, the genetic tools appear more valuable as disease severity increases. However, the identification of genetic variations in the clinical investigation of single patients using bioinformatic tools can produce erroneous conclusions regarding pathogenicity. Therefore segregation studies are key to determining causality. PMID:24667783

  8. Allele-specific RNA interference rescues the long-QT syndrome phenotype in human-induced pluripotency stem cell cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Matsa, Elena; Dixon, James E.; Medway, Christopher; Georgiou, Orestis; Patel, Minal J.; Morgan, Kevin; Kemp, Paul J.; Staniforth, Andrew; Mellor, Ian; Denning, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Aims Long-QT syndromes (LQTS) are mostly autosomal-dominant congenital disorders associated with a 1:1000 mutation frequency, cardiac arrest, and sudden death. We sought to use cardiomyocytes derived from human-induced pluripotency stem cells (hiPSCs) as an in vitro model to develop and evaluate gene-based therapeutics for the treatment of LQTS. Methods and results We produced LQTS-type 2 (LQT2) hiPSC cardiomyocytes carrying a KCNH2 c.G1681A mutation in a IKr ion-channel pore, which caused impaired glycosylation and channel transport to cell surface. Allele-specific RNA interference (RNAi) directed towards the mutated KCNH2 mRNA caused knockdown, while leaving the wild-type mRNA unaffected. Electrophysiological analysis of patient-derived LQT2 hiPSC cardiomyocytes treated with mutation-specific siRNAs showed normalized action potential durations (APDs) and K+ currents with the concurrent rescue of spontaneous and drug-induced arrhythmias (presented as early-afterdepolarizations). Conclusions These findings provide in vitro evidence that allele-specific RNAi can rescue diseased phenotype in LQTS cardiomyocytes. This is a potentially novel route for the treatment of many autosomal-dominant-negative disorders, including those of the heart. PMID:23470493

  9. Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing for Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Angrist, Misha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Genetic testing for Long QT syndrome (LQTS) exemplifies patenting and exclusive licensing with different outcomes at different times. Exclusive licensing from the University of Utah changed the business model from sole provider to two US providers of LQTS testing. LQTS is associated with mutations in many genes, ten of which are now tested by two competing firms in the United States, PGxHealth and GeneDx. Until 2009, PGxHealth was sole provider, based largely on exclusive rights to patents from the University of Utah and other academic institutions. University of Utah patents were initially licensed to DNA Sciences, whose patent rights were acquired by Gennaissance, and then by Clinical Data, Inc., which owns PGxHealth. In 2002, DNA Sciences “cleared the market” by sending cease and desist patent enforcement letters to university and reference laboratories offering LQTS genetic testing. There was no test on the market for a one- to two-year period. From 2005-2008, most LQTS-related patents were controlled by Clinical Data, Inc., and its subsidiary PGxHealth. BioReference Laboratories, Inc., secured countervailing exclusive patent rights starting in 2006, also from the University of Utah, and broke the PGxHealth monopoly in early 2009, creating a duopoly for genetic testing in the United States, and expanding the number of genes for which commercial testing is available from five to ten. PMID:20393304

  10. Mapping of a gene for long QT syndrome to chromosome 4q25-27

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.J.; Charpentier, F.; Peltier, S.

    1995-11-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heterogeneous inherited disorder causing syncope and sudden death from ventricular arrhythmias. A first locus for this disorder was mapped to chromosome 11p15.5. However, locus heterogeneity has been demonstrated in several families, and two other loci have recently been located on chromosomes 7q35-36 and 3p21-24. We used linkage analysis to map the locus in a 65-member family in which LQTS was associated with more marked sinus bradycardia than usual, leading to sinus node dysfunction. Linkage to chromosome 11p15.5, 7q35-36, or 3p21-24 was excluded. Positive linkage was obtained for markers located on chromosome 4q25-27. A maximal LOD score of 7.05 was found for marker D4S402. The identification of a fourth locus for LQTS confirms its genetic heterogeneity. Locus 4q25-27 is associated with a peculiar phenotype within the LQTS entity. 42 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Novel missense mutation in the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of HERG causes long QT syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Satler, C.A.; Walsh, E.P.; Vesely, M.R.

    1996-10-02

    Autosomal-dominant long QT syndrome (LQT) is an inherited disorder, predisposing affected individuals to sudden death from tachyarrhythmias. To identify the gene(s) responsible for LQT, we identified and characterized an LQT family consisting of 48 individuals. DNA was screened with 150 microsatellite polymorphic markers encompassing approximately 70% of the genome. We found evidence for linkage of the LQT phenotype to chromosome 7(q35-36). Marker D7S636 yielded a maximum lod score of 6.93 at a recombination fraction ({theta}) of 0.00. Haplotype analysis further localized the LQT gene within a 6-2-cM interval. HERG encodes a potassium channel which has been mapped to this region. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analyses demonstrated aberrant bands that were unique to all affected individuals. DNA sequencing of the aberrant bands demonstrated a G to A substitution in all affected patients; this point mutation results in the substitution of a highly conserved valine residue with a methionine (V822M) in the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of this potassium channel. The cosegregation of this distinct mutation with LQT demonstrates that HERG is the LQT gene in this pedigree. Furthermore, the location and character of this mutation suggests that the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of the potassium channel encoded by HERG plays an important role in normal cardiac repolarization and may decrease susceptibility to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. 38 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Molecular screening of selected long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutations in 165 consecutive bodies found in water.

    PubMed

    Lunetta, Philippe; Levo, Antti; Laitinen, Päivi J; Fodstad, Heidi; Kontula, Kimmo; Sajantila, Antti

    2003-04-01

    The association of the long QT-syndrome (LQTS) with single accidental drowning or near-drowning cases has been recently emphasised, but no data on the prevalence of LQTS among drowning victims are currently available. In this study, we have retrospectively screened specific founder mutations in KCNQ1 (KVLQT1) and KCNH2 (HERG) genes in 165 consecutive bodies found in water in Finland. We found a KCNH2-Fin mutation in a 44-year-old woman whose death was classified as suicidal drowning, whereas no other carriers of the two LQTS founder mutations were identified among the remaining 164 victims. This study provides the first estimate of the minimum prevalence of LQTS (0.61%, CI(95): 0.02-3.33) in such a setting and demonstrates the value of genetic analysis of LQTS in putative drownings. The detection of a LQTS founder mutation in a body found in water is a relatively rare event based on our study sample. This finding is, however, of utmost medico-legal importance, since it broadens the spectrum of potential causes and manners of death.

  13. Case Report: Direct Access Genetic Testing and A False-Positive Result For Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Predham, Sarah; Hamilton, Sara; Elliott, Alison M; T Gibson, William

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a woman who pursued direct access genetic testing and then presented with concerns regarding a positive test result for Long-QT syndrome. Although the result ultimately proved to be a false positive, this case illustrates that costs associated with follow-up of direct access genetic testing results can be non-trivial for both the patient and for health care systems. Here we raise policy questions regarding the appropriate distribution of these costs. We also discuss the possibility that, when confronted by a direct access genetic test result that reports high risk for one or more actionable diseases, a family physician might feel compelled to act out of a desire to avoid liability, even when information regarding the accuracy and validity of the testing were not easily accessible. This case outlines lessons that can easily be translated into clinical practice, not only by genetic counselors, but also by family physicians, medical specialists and members of the public.

  14. Late sodium current block for drug-induced long QT syndrome: Results from a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, L; Vicente, J; Mason, J W; Erato, C; Sanabria, C; Waite-Labott, K; Hong, M; Lin, J; Guo, P; Mutlib, A; Wang, J; Crumb, W J; Blinova, K; Chan, D; Stohlman, J; Florian, J; Ugander, M; Stockbridge, N; Strauss, D G

    2016-02-01

    Drug-induced long QT syndrome has resulted in many drugs being withdrawn from the market. At the same time, the current regulatory paradigm for screening new drugs causing long QT syndrome is preventing drugs from reaching the market, sometimes inappropriately. In this study, we report the results of a first-of-a-kind clinical trial studying late sodium (mexiletine and lidocaine) and calcium (diltiazem) current blocking drugs to counteract the effects of hERG potassium channel blocking drugs (dofetilide and moxifloxacin). We demonstrate that both mexiletine and lidocaine substantially reduce heart-rate corrected QT (QTc) prolongation from dofetilide by 20 ms. Furthermore, all QTc shortening occurs in the heart-rate corrected J-Tpeak (J-Tpeak c) interval, the biomarker we identified as a sign of late sodium current block. This clinical trial demonstrates that late sodium blocking drugs can substantially reduce QTc prolongation from hERG potassium channel block and assessment of J-Tpeak c may add value beyond only assessing QTc. PMID:26259627

  15. Late sodium current block for drug-induced long QT syndrome: Results from a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, L; Vicente, J; Mason, J W; Erato, C; Sanabria, C; Waite-Labott, K; Hong, M; Lin, J; Guo, P; Mutlib, A; Wang, J; Crumb, W J; Blinova, K; Chan, D; Stohlman, J; Florian, J; Ugander, M; Stockbridge, N; Strauss, D G

    2016-02-01

    Drug-induced long QT syndrome has resulted in many drugs being withdrawn from the market. At the same time, the current regulatory paradigm for screening new drugs causing long QT syndrome is preventing drugs from reaching the market, sometimes inappropriately. In this study, we report the results of a first-of-a-kind clinical trial studying late sodium (mexiletine and lidocaine) and calcium (diltiazem) current blocking drugs to counteract the effects of hERG potassium channel blocking drugs (dofetilide and moxifloxacin). We demonstrate that both mexiletine and lidocaine substantially reduce heart-rate corrected QT (QTc) prolongation from dofetilide by 20 ms. Furthermore, all QTc shortening occurs in the heart-rate corrected J-Tpeak (J-Tpeak c) interval, the biomarker we identified as a sign of late sodium current block. This clinical trial demonstrates that late sodium blocking drugs can substantially reduce QTc prolongation from hERG potassium channel block and assessment of J-Tpeak c may add value beyond only assessing QTc.

  16. A high-risk patient with long-QT syndrome with no response to cardioselective beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Naoki; Miyazaki, Aya; Sakaguchi, Heima; Shimizu, Wataru; Ohuchi, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    We present a case of a high-risk 19-year-old female with long-QT syndrome (LQTS) with compound mutations. She had a history of aborted cardiac arrest and syncope and had received treatment with propranolol for 15 years. However, because she developed adult-onset asthma we tried to switch propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, to beta-1-cardioselective agents, bisoprolol and metoprolol. These resulted in both a markedly prolonged corrected QT interval and the development of LQTS-associated arrhythmias. Eventually, propranolol was reinitiated at a higher dose with the addition of verapamil, and she has had no further cardiac or asthmatic events for 5 years.

  17. Early somatic mosaicism is a rare cause of long-QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Priest, James Rush; Gawad, Charles; Kahlig, Kristopher M.; Yu, Joseph K.; O’Hara, Thomas; Rajamani, Sridharan; Clark, Michael J.; Garcia, Sarah T. K.; Ceresnak, Scott; Harris, Jason; Boyle, Sean; Dewey, Frederick E.; Malloy-Walton, Lindsey; Dunn, Kyla; Grove, Megan; Neff, Norma F.; Chen, Richard; Maeda, Katsuhide; Dubin, Anne; Belardinelli, Luiz; West, John; Antolik, Christian; Macaya, Daniela; Quertermous, Thomas; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Quake, Stephen R.; Ashley, Euan A.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism, the occurrence and propagation of genetic variation in cell lineages after fertilization, is increasingly recognized to play a causal role in a variety of human diseases. We investigated the case of life-threatening arrhythmia in a 10-day-old infant with long QT syndrome (LQTS). Rapid genome sequencing suggested a variant in the sodium channel NaV1.5 encoded by SCN5A, NM_000335:c.5284G > T predicting p.(V1762L), but read depth was insufficient to be diagnostic. Exome sequencing of the trio confirmed read ratios inconsistent with Mendelian inheritance only in the proband. Genotyping of single circulating leukocytes demonstrated the mutation in the genomes of 8% of patient cells, and RNA sequencing of cardiac tissue from the infant confirmed the expression of the mutant allele at mosaic ratios. Heterologous expression of the mutant channel revealed significantly delayed sodium current with a dominant negative effect. To investigate the mechanism by which mosaicism might cause arrhythmia, we built a finite element simulation model incorporating Purkinje fiber activation. This model confirmed the pathogenic consequences of cardiac cellular mosaicism and, under the presenting conditions of this case, recapitulated 2:1 AV block and arrhythmia. To investigate the extent to which mosaicism might explain undiagnosed arrhythmia, we studied 7,500 affected probands undergoing commercial gene-panel testing. Four individuals with pathogenic variants arising from early somatic mutation events were found. Here we establish cardiac mosaicism as a causal mechanism for LQTS and present methods by which the general phenomenon, likely to be relevant for all genetic diseases, can be detected through single-cell analysis and next-generation sequencing. PMID:27681629

  18. In silico investigation of the short QT syndrome, using human ventricle models incorporating electromechanical coupling

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Ismail; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Genetic forms of the Short QT Syndrome (SQTS) arise due to cardiac ion channel mutations leading to accelerated ventricular repolarization, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Results from experimental and simulation studies suggest that changes to refractoriness and tissue vulnerability produce a substrate favorable to re-entry. Potential electromechanical consequences of the SQTS are less well-understood. The aim of this study was to utilize electromechanically coupled human ventricle models to explore electromechanical consequences of the SQTS. Methods and Results: The Rice et al. mechanical model was coupled to the ten Tusscher et al. ventricular cell model. Previously validated K+ channel formulations for SQT variants 1 and 3 were incorporated. Functional effects of the SQTS mutations on [Ca2+]i transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force at the single cell level were evaluated with and without the consideration of stretch-activated channel current (Isac). Without Isac, at a stimulation frequency of 1Hz, the SQTS mutations produced dramatic reductions in the amplitude of [Ca2+]i transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force. When Isac was incorporated, there was a considerable attenuation of the effects of SQTS-associated action potential shortening on Ca2+ transients, sarcomere shortening and contractile force. Single cell models were then incorporated into 3D human ventricular tissue models. The timing of maximum deformation was delayed in the SQTS setting compared to control. Conclusion: The incorporation of Isac appears to be an important consideration in modeling functional effects of SQT 1 and 3 mutations on cardiac electro-mechanical coupling. Whilst there is little evidence of profoundly impaired cardiac contractile function in SQTS patients, our 3D simulations correlate qualitatively with reported evidence for dissociation between ventricular repolarization and the end of mechanical systole. PMID

  19. Exome Analyses of Long QT Syndrome Reveal Candidate Pathogenic Mutations in Calmodulin-Interacting Genes.

    PubMed

    Shigemizu, Daichi; Aiba, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Ozaki, Kouichi; Miya, Fuyuki; Satake, Wataru; Toda, Tatsushi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Fujimoto, Akihiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Shimizu, Wataru; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrhythmogenic disorder that can lead to sudden death. To date, mutations in 15 LQTS-susceptibility genes have been implicated. However, the genetic cause for approximately 20% of LQTS patients remains elusive. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing analyses on 59 LQTS and 61 unaffected individuals in 35 families and 138 unrelated LQTS cases, after genetic screening of known LQTS genes. Our systematic analysis of familial cases and subsequent verification by Sanger sequencing identified 92 candidate mutations in 88 genes for 23 of the 35 families (65.7%): these included eleven de novo, five recessive (two homozygous and three compound heterozygous) and seventy-three dominant mutations. Although no novel commonly mutated gene was identified other than known LQTS genes, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analyses revealed ten new pathogenic candidates that directly or indirectly interact with proteins encoded by known LQTS genes. Furthermore, candidate gene based association studies using an independent set of 138 unrelated LQTS cases and 587 controls identified an additional novel candidate. Together, mutations in these new candidates and known genes explained 37.1% of the LQTS families (13 in 35). Moreover, half of the newly identified candidates directly interact with calmodulin (5 in 11; comparison with all genes; p=0.042). Subsequent variant analysis in the independent set of 138 cases identified 16 variants in the 11 genes, of which 14 were in calmodulin-interacting genes (87.5%). These results suggest an important role of calmodulin and its interacting proteins in the pathogenesis of LQTS. PMID:26132555

  20. Cellular mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias in a mouse model of Timothy syndrome (long QT syndrome 8).

    PubMed

    Drum, Benjamin M L; Dixon, Rose E; Yuan, Can; Cheng, Edward P; Santana, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    Ca(2+) flux through l-type CaV1.2 channels shapes the waveform of the ventricular action potential (AP) and is essential for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Timothy syndrome (TS) is a disease caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the CaV1.2 channel (CaV1.2-TS) that decreases inactivation of the channel, which increases Ca(2+) influx, prolongs APs, and causes lethal arrhythmias. Although many details of the CaV1.2-TS channels are known, the cellular mechanisms by which they induce arrhythmogenic changes in intracellular Ca(2+) remain unclear. We found that expression of CaV1.2-TS channels increased sarcolemmal Ca(2+) "leak" in resting TS ventricular myocytes. This resulted in higher diastolic [Ca(2+)]i in TS ventricular myocytes compared to WT. Accordingly, TS myocytes had higher sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load and Ca(2+) spark activity, larger amplitude [Ca(2+)]i transients, and augmented frequency of Ca(2+) waves. The large SR Ca(2+) release in TS myocytes had a profound effect on the kinetics of CaV1.2 current in these cells, increasing the rate of inactivation to a high, persistent level. This limited the amount of influx during EC coupling in TS myocytes. The relationship between the level of expression of CaV1.2-TS channels and the probability of Ca(2+) wave occurrence was non-linear, suggesting that even low levels of these channels were sufficient to induce maximal changes in [Ca(2+)]i. Depolarization of WT cardiomyocytes with a TS AP waveform increased, but did not equalize [Ca(2+)]i, compared to depolarization of TS myocytes with the same waveform. We propose that CaV1.2-TS channels increase [Ca(2+)] in the cytosol and the SR, creating a Ca(2+)overloaded state that increases the probability of arrhythmogenic spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release. PMID:24215710

  1. Characterization of N-terminally mutated cardiac Na+ channels associated with long QT syndrome 3 and Brugada syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gütter, Christian; Benndorf, Klaus; Zimmer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding the cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channel hNav1.5, can result in life-threatening arrhythmias including long QT syndrome 3 (LQT3) and Brugada syndrome (BrS). Numerous mutant hNav1.5 channels have been characterized upon heterologous expression and patch-clamp recordings during the last decade. These studies revealed functionally important regions in hNav1.5 and provided insight into gain-of-function or loss-of-function channel defects underlying LQT3 or BrS, respectively. The N-terminal region of hNav1.5, however, has not yet been investigated in detail, although several mutations were reported in the literature. In the present study we investigated three mutant channels, previously associated with LQT3 (G9V, R18W, V125L), and six mutant channels, associated with BrS (R18Q, R27H, G35S, V95I, R104Q, K126E). We applied both the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique, using cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes, and the whole-cell patch clamp technique using transfected HEK293 cells. Surprisingly, four out of the nine mutations did not affect channel properties. Gain-of-function, as typically observed in LQT3 mutant channels, was observed only in R18W and V125L, whereas loss-of-function, frequently found in BrS mutants, was found only in R27H, R104Q, and K126E. Our results indicate that the hNav1.5 N-terminus plays an important role for channel kinetics and stability. At the same time, we suggest that additional mechanisms, as e.g., disturbed interactions of the Na+ channel N-terminus with other proteins, contribute to severe clinical phenotypes. PMID:23805106

  2. Spectrum of pathogenic mutations and associated polymorphisms in a cohort of 44 unrelated patients with long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Millat, G; Chevalier, P; Restier-Miron, L; Da Costa, A; Bouvagnet, P; Kugener, B; Fayol, L; Gonzàlez Armengod, C; Oddou, B; Chanavat, V; Froidefond, E; Perraudin, R; Rousson, R; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C

    2006-09-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare and clinically heterogeneous inherited disorder characterized by a long QT interval on the electrocardiogram, increased risk of syncope and sudden death caused by arrhythmias. This syndrome is mostly caused by mutations in genes encoding various cardiac ion channels. The clinical heterogeneity is usually attributed to variable penetrance. One of the reasons for this variability in expression could be the coexistence of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on LQTS-causing genes and/or unknown genes. Some synonymous and nonsynonymous exonic SNPs identified in LQTS-causing genes may have an effect on the cardiac repolarization process and modulate the clinical expression of a latent LQTS pathogenic mutation. We report the molecular pattern of 44 unrelated patients with LQTS using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1 and KCNE2 genes. Forty-five disease-causing mutations (including 24 novel ones) were identified in this cohort. Most of our patients (84%) showed complex molecular pattern with one mutation (and even two for four patients) associated with several SNPs located in several LQTS genes. PMID:16922724

  3. Electro-mechanical dysfunction in long QT syndrome: Role for arrhythmogenic risk prediction and modulation by sex and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Lang, C N; Menza, M; Jochem, S; Franke, G; Perez Feliz, S; Brunner, M; Koren, G; Zehender, M; Bugger, H; Jung, B A; Foell, D; Bode, C; Odening, K E

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a congenital arrhythmogenic channelopathy characterized by impaired cardiac repolarization. Increasing evidence supports the notion that LQTS is not purely an "electrical" disease but rather an "electro-mechanical" disease with regionally heterogeneously impaired electrical and mechanical cardiac function. In the first part, this article reviews current knowledge on electro-mechanical (dys)function in LQTS, clinical consequences of the observed electro-mechanical dysfunction, and potential underlying mechanisms. Since several novel imaging techniques - Strain Echocardiography (SE) and Magnetic Resonance Tissue Phase Mapping (TPM) - are applied in clinical and experimental settings to assess the (regional) mechanical function, advantages of these non-invasive techniques and their feasibility in the clinical routine are particularly highlighted. The second part provides novel insights into sex differences and sex hormone effects on electro-mechanical cardiac function in a transgenic LQT2 rabbit model. Here we demonstrate that female LQT2 rabbits exhibit a prolonged time to diastolic peak - as marker for contraction duration and early relaxation - compared to males. Chronic estradiol-treatment enhances these differences in time to diastolic peak even more and additionally increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Importantly, time to diastolic peak is particularly prolonged in rabbits exhibiting ventricular arrhythmia - regardless of hormone treatment - contrasting with a lack of differences in QT duration between symptomatic and asymptomatic LQT2 rabbits. This indicates the potential added value of the assessment of mechanical dysfunction in future risk stratification of LQTS patients.

  4. Electro-mechanical dysfunction in long QT syndrome: Role for arrhythmogenic risk prediction and modulation by sex and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Lang, C N; Menza, M; Jochem, S; Franke, G; Perez Feliz, S; Brunner, M; Koren, G; Zehender, M; Bugger, H; Jung, B A; Foell, D; Bode, C; Odening, K E

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a congenital arrhythmogenic channelopathy characterized by impaired cardiac repolarization. Increasing evidence supports the notion that LQTS is not purely an "electrical" disease but rather an "electro-mechanical" disease with regionally heterogeneously impaired electrical and mechanical cardiac function. In the first part, this article reviews current knowledge on electro-mechanical (dys)function in LQTS, clinical consequences of the observed electro-mechanical dysfunction, and potential underlying mechanisms. Since several novel imaging techniques - Strain Echocardiography (SE) and Magnetic Resonance Tissue Phase Mapping (TPM) - are applied in clinical and experimental settings to assess the (regional) mechanical function, advantages of these non-invasive techniques and their feasibility in the clinical routine are particularly highlighted. The second part provides novel insights into sex differences and sex hormone effects on electro-mechanical cardiac function in a transgenic LQT2 rabbit model. Here we demonstrate that female LQT2 rabbits exhibit a prolonged time to diastolic peak - as marker for contraction duration and early relaxation - compared to males. Chronic estradiol-treatment enhances these differences in time to diastolic peak even more and additionally increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Importantly, time to diastolic peak is particularly prolonged in rabbits exhibiting ventricular arrhythmia - regardless of hormone treatment - contrasting with a lack of differences in QT duration between symptomatic and asymptomatic LQT2 rabbits. This indicates the potential added value of the assessment of mechanical dysfunction in future risk stratification of LQTS patients. PMID:26718598

  5. Buprenorphine as a safe alternative to methadone in a patient with acquired long QT syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Jong, I M; de Ruiter, G S

    2013-05-01

    A 52-year-old man with a medical history of intravenous drug abuse was admitted to our hospital with syncope due to torsades de pointes (TdP). Two days earlier, he had used methadone. The electrocardiogram showed a prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) of 600 ms. Continuous telemetry observation showed multiple episodes of TdP. The patient was diagnosed with bradyarrhythmia-induced TdP with acquired long QT syndrome resulting from methadone use. The QTc normalised within 2 weeks after discontinuation of the methadone. In this case of a patient with opioid dependency, there is a reasonable risk of repeated methadone use. Therefore, implantable cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker implantation is justified but risky because of possible infections when using intravenous drugs. Given the high mortality rates seen in untreated illicit opioid users, this patient needs an alternative pharmacological treatment. Buprenorphine is an opiate-receptor agonist associated with less QTc prolongation. The patient was referred to a rehab clinic and treated with an oral combination of buprenorphine and naloxone (Suboxone). During this therapy, his QTc remained normal. PMID:22020456

  6. How do sex hormones modify arrhythmogenesis in long QT syndrome? Sex hormone effects on arrhythmogenic substrate and triggered activity.

    PubMed

    Odening, Katja E; Koren, Gideon

    2014-11-01

    Gender differences in cardiac repolarization and the arrhythmogenic risk of patients with inherited and acquired long QT syndromes are well appreciated clinically. Enhancing our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these differences is critical to improve our therapeutic strategies for preventing sudden cardiac death in such patients. This review summarizes the effects of sex hormones on the expression and function of ion channels that control cardiac cell excitation and repolarization as well as key proteins that regulate Ca(2+) dynamics at the cellular level. Moreover, it examines the role of sex hormones in modifying the dynamic spatiotemporal (regional and transmural) heterogeneities in action potential duration (eg, the arrhythmogenic substrate) and the susceptibility to (sympathetic) triggered activity at the tissue, organ, and whole animal levels. Finally, it explores the implications of these effects on the management of patients with LQTS.

  7. Subject identification via ECG fiducial-based systems: influence of the type of QT interval correction.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Francesco; Fratini, Antonio; Sansone, Mario; Sansone, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) has been recently proposed as biometric trait for identification purposes. Intra-individual variations of ECG might affect identification performance. These variations are mainly due to Heart Rate Variability (HRV). In particular, HRV causes changes in the QT intervals along the ECG waveforms. This work is aimed at analysing the influence of seven QT interval correction methods (based on population models) on the performance of ECG-fiducial-based identification systems. In addition, we have also considered the influence of training set size, classifier, classifier ensemble as well as the number of consecutive heartbeats in a majority voting scheme. The ECG signals used in this study were collected from thirty-nine subjects within the Physionet open access database. Public domain software was used for fiducial points detection. Results suggested that QT correction is indeed required to improve the performance. However, there is no clear choice among the seven explored approaches for QT correction (identification rate between 0.97 and 0.99). MultiLayer Perceptron and Support Vector Machine seemed to have better generalization capabilities, in terms of classification performance, with respect to Decision Tree-based classifiers. No such strong influence of the training-set size and the number of consecutive heartbeats has been observed on the majority voting scheme.

  8. Some legal, social, and ethical issues related to the genetic testing revolution, as exemplified in the long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebman, J

    2001-01-01

    Molecular Biology is revolutionizing medicine. There are a number of conditions, particularly exemplified by the long QT syndrome, where there is no structural abnormality but where a subset of patients is prone to sudden death. The issues of appropriate care are very complex, because there is tremendous overlap between patients with prolongation of the QT who remain asymptomatic and those with prolongation who are very symptomatic. Furthermore, even those who are prone to have one of the abnormal genes, may be asymptomatic. A large literature has developed, from both legal and ethical aspects, related to the fact that in genetic disease per se, not only is the person at risk, but so are many members of his or her family. A large literature has also developed as to which should be prime, the patient's privacy or the responsibility to make sure the entire family is knowledgeable and perhaps tested. At the present moment our care is based upon the fact that the precise identification of the gene is not yet available on a routine basis. This of course, may soon change. But we will still have difficult decisions to make. Obviously, we have a responsibility as physicians to be as precise as our discipline allows, but we have a responsibility to be flexible. Relief of anxiety, as an example, has to be a prime issue. This is certainly the case now when any information related to infants with potential sudden death is still incomplete. We must not approach the care of the patient in such a way that protection of the physician may interfere with appropriate care. The discussion necessarily includes a variety of aspects. PMID:11781954

  9. Re-evaluating the efficacy of β-adrenergic agonists and antagonists in long QT-3 syndrome through computational modelling

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens-Nicklas, Rebecca C.; Clancy, Colleen E.; Christini, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heterogeneous collection of inherited cardiac ion channelopathies characterized by a prolonged electrocardiogram QT interval and increased risk of sudden cardiac death. β-Adrenergic blockers are the mainstay of treatment for LQTS. While their efficacy has been demonstrated in LQTS patients harbouring potassium channel mutations, studies of β-blockers in subtype 3 (LQT3), which is caused by sodium channel mutations, have produced ambiguous results. In this modelling study, we explore the effects of β-adrenergic drugs on the LQT3 phenotype. Methods and results In order to investigate the effects of β-adrenergic activity and to identify sources of ambiguity in earlier studies, we developed a computational model incorporating the effects of β-agonists and β-blockers into an LQT3 mutant guinea pig ventricular myocyte model. β-Activation suppressed two arrhythmogenic phenomena, transmural dispersion of repolarization and early after depolarizations, in a dose-dependent manner. However, the ability of β-activation to prevent cardiac conduction block was pacing-rate-dependent. Low-dose β-blockade by propranolol reversed the beneficial effects of β-activation, while high dose (which has off-target sodium channel effects) decreased arrhythmia susceptibility. Conclusion These results demonstrate that β-activation may be protective in LQT3 and help to reconcile seemingly conflicting results from different experimental models. They also highlight the need for well-controlled clinical investigations re-evaluating the use of β-blockers in LQT3 patients. PMID:19264765

  10. Importance of QT interval in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ambhore, Anand; Teo, Swee-Guan; Bin Omar, Abdul Razakjr; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2014-12-01

    Long QT interval is an important finding that is often missed by electrocardiogram interpreters. Long QT syndrome (inherited and acquired) is a potentially lethal cardiac channelopathy that is frequently mistaken for epilepsy. We present a case of long QT syndrome with multiple cardiac arrests presenting as syncope and seizures. The long QTc interval was aggravated by hypomagnesaemia and drugs, including clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Multiple drugs can cause prolongation of the QT interval, and all physicians should bear this in mind when prescribing these drugs.

  11. The importance of the family history in caring for families with long QT syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Jolien S; Berkenbosch-Nieuwhof, Karin; van den Berg, Maarten P; van Dijk, Rene; Middel, Berrie; van Tintelen, J Peter

    2010-03-01

    In potentially inherited cardiac diseases, the family history is of great importance. We looked at the way cardiologists take a family history in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or long QT syndrome (LQTS) and whether this led to screening of relatives or other follow-up. We performed retrospective cross-sectional analyses of adult index patients with DCM or LQTS in a general hospital (GH) or a University Medical Center (UMC). We identified 82 index patients with DCM (34 GH; 48 UMC) and 20 with LQTS (all UMC) between 1996 and 2005. Mean follow-up was 58 months. A family history was recorded in 90% of both LQTS and DCM patients most of the cases restricted to first-degree family members. The genetic aspects, counseling and screening of family members was discussed significantly more often with LQTS than DCM patients (all P < 0.05). Also follow-up (screening of family members, DNA analysis and referral) was performed significantly more often in LQTS than DCM patients. Cardiologists in the UMC referred DCM index patients for genetic counseling more often than those in the GH (25% vs. 6%; P < 0.05). Only a few index patients with DCM were referred to a clinical genetics department. One-third of DCM cases and nearly all LQTS cases are familial. Since early recognition and treatment may reduce morbidity and mortality we recommend cardiologists take a more thorough family history and always consider referring to a clinical genetics department in such index patients.

  12. High-risk long QT syndrome mutations in the Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) pore disrupt the molecular basis for rapid K(+) permeation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Don E; Bartos, Daniel C; Reloj, Allison R; Campbell, Kenneth S; Johnson, Jonathan N; Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J; Fressart, Véronique; Denjoy, Isabelle; Guicheney, Pascale; Moss, Arthur J; Ohno, Seiko; Horie, Minoru; Delisle, Brian P

    2012-11-13

    Type 1 long QT syndrome (LQT1) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the KCNQ1 gene, which encodes the K(+) channel (Kv7.1) that underlies the slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current in the heart. Intragenic risk stratification suggests LQT1 mutations that disrupt conserved amino acid residues in the pore are an independent risk factor for LQT1-related cardiac events. The purpose of this study is to determine possible molecular mechanisms that underlie the loss of function for these high-risk mutations. Extensive genotype-phenotype analyses of LQT1 patients showed that T322M-, T322A-, or G325R-Kv7.1 confers a high risk for LQT1-related cardiac events. Heterologous expression of these mutations with KCNE1 revealed they generated nonfunctional channels and caused dominant negative suppression of WT-Kv7.1 current. Molecular dynamics simulations of analogous mutations in KcsA (T85M-, T85A-, and G88R-KcsA) demonstrated that they disrupted the symmetrical distribution of the carbonyl oxygen atoms in the selectivity filter, which upset the balance between the strong attractive and K(+)-K(+) repulsive forces required for rapid K(+) permeation. We conclude high-risk LQT1 mutations in the pore likely disrupt the architectural and physical properties of the K(+) channel selectivity filter. PMID:23092362

  13. Partial Restoration of the Long QT Syndrome Associated KCNQ1 A341V Mutant by the KCNE1 β-Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Mikuni, Ikuomi; Torres, Carlos G.; Bienengraeber, Martin W.; Kwok, Wai-Meng

    2011-01-01

    Background The A341V mutation in the pore-forming KCNQ1 subunit of the slowly activating delayed-rectifier potassium current (IKs) underlies a common form of the long QT syndrome, and is associated with an unusually severe phenotype. However, there is controversy regarding the underlying mechanism responsible for the clinically observed phenotype. We investigated the biophysical characteristics of A341V in a cardiac environment by utilizing a cardiac cell line, and in particular the impact of the KCNE1 β -subunit. Methods Whole-cell current were recorded from transiently transfected HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. Mutant KCNQ1 and KCNE1 were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. Results The A341V mutant resulted in a non-functional channel when expressed alone. When co-expressed with wild type KCNE1, A341V produced a slowly activating current, with a smaller current density, slower rates of activation, and a depolarized shift in its activation curve compared to the wild type KCNQ1+KCNE1. Confocal microscopy confirmed the surface expression of GFP-tagged A341V, suggesting a functionally defective protein. A T58A mutation in KCNE1 abolished functional restoration of A341V. Under heterozygous conditions, the expression of A341V+KCNQ1+KCNE1 reduced but did not abolish the electrophysiological changes observed in A341V+KCNE1. A dominant negative effect of A341V was also observed. Action potential simulations revealed that the A341V mutation is arrhythmogenic. Conclusions The KCNE1 β-subunit partially rescued the non-functional A341V mutant, with electrophysiological properties distinct from the wild type IKs. General Significance The severity of the A341V phenotype may be due to a combination of a significant suppression of the IKs with altered biophysical characteristics. PMID:21854832

  14. Improved Clinical Risk Stratification in Patients with Long QT Syndrome? Novel Insights from Multi-Channel ECGs

    PubMed Central

    Samol, Alexander; Gönes, Mehmet; Zumhagen, Sven; Bruns, Hans-Jürgen; Paul, Matthias; Vahlhaus, Christian; Waltenberger, Johannes; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Eckardt, Lars; Mönnig, Gerold

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether multichannel ECG-recordings are useful to risk-stratify patients with congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS) for risk of sudden cardiac death under optimized medical treatment. Methods In 34 LQTS-patients (11 male; age 31±13 years, QTc 478±51ms; LQT1 n = 8, LQT2 n = 15) we performed a standard 12-channel ECG and a 120-channel body surface potential mapping. The occurrence of clinical events (CE; syncope, torsade de pointes (TdP), sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)) was documented and correlated with different ECG-parameters in all lead positions. Results Seven patients developed TdP, four survived SCA and 12 experienced syncope. 12/34 had at least one CE. CE was associated with a longer QTc-interval (519±43ms vs. 458±42ms; p = 0.001), a lower T-wave integral (TWI) on the left upper chest (-1.2±74.4mV*ms vs. 63.0±29.7mV*ms; p = 0.001), a lower range of T-wave amplitude (TWA) in the region of chest lead V8 (0.10±0.08mV vs. 0.18±0.07mV; p = 0.008) and a longer T-peak-T-end time (TpTe) in lead V1 (98±23ms vs. 78±26ms; p = 0.04). Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 75% (area under curve (AUC) 0.89±0.06, p = 0.001) at a cut-off value of 26.8mV*ms for prediction of CE by TWI, a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 83% at a cut-off value of 0.11mV (AUC 0.83±0.09, p = 0.002) for prediction of CE by TWA and a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 73% at a cut-off value of 87ms (AUC 0.80±0.07, p = 0.005) for prediction of CE by TpTe. Conclusions Occurrence of CE in LQTS-patients seems to be associated with a prolonged, low-amplitude T-wave. PMID:27379800

  15. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 is a disorder involving abnormalities in skeletal development ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 is a disorder primarily involving abnormalities in skeletal ...

  17. Long QT Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... distinct electrical waves: P, Q, R, S, and T. EKG The image shows the standard setup for an EKG. In figure A, a normal heart rhythm recording ... B, a patient lies in a bed with EKG electrodes attached to his chest, upper arms, and ...

  18. Time-to-Onset Analysis of Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome Based on a Spontaneous Reporting System for Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Sasaoka, Sayaka; Matsui, Toshinobu; Hane, Yuuki; Abe, Junko; Ueda, Natsumi; Motooka, Yumi; Hatahira, Haruna; Fukuda, Akiho; Naganuma, Misa; Hasegawa, Shiori; Kinosada, Yasutomi

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a disorder of the heart’s electrical activity that infrequently causes severe ventricular arrhythmias such as a type of ventricular tachycardia called torsade de pointes (TdP) and ventricular fibrillation, which can be fatal. There have been no previous reports on the time-to-onset for LQTS based on data from spontaneous reporting systems. The aim of this study was to assess the time-to-onset of LQTS according to drug treatment. We analyzed the association between 113 drugs in 37 therapeutic categories and LQTS including TdP using data obtained from the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. For signal detection, we used the reporting odds ratio (ROR). Furthermore, we analyzed the time-to-onset data and assessed the hazard type using the Weibull shape parameter. The RORs (95% confidence interval) for bepridil, amiodarone, pilsicainide, nilotinib, disopyramide, arsenic trioxide, clarithromycin, cibenzoline, donepezil, famotidine, sulpiride, and nifekalant were 174.4 (148.6–204.6), 17.3 (14.7–20.4), 52.0 (43.4–62.4), 13.9 (11.5–16.7), 69.3 (55.3–86.8), 54.2 (43.2–68.0), 4.7 (3.8–5.8), 19.9 (15.9–25.0), 8.1 (6.5–10.1), 3.2 (2.5–4.1), 7.1 (5.5–9.2), and 254.8 (168.5–385.4), respectively. The medians and quartiles of time-to-onset for aprindine (oral) and bepridil were 20.0 (11.0–35.8) and 18.0 (6.0–43.0) days, respectively. The lower 95% confidence interval of the shape parameter β of bepridil was over 1 and the hazard was considered to increase over time.Our study indicated that the pattern of LQTS onset might differ among drugs. Based on these results, careful long-term observation is recommended, especially for specific drugs such as bepridil and aprindine. This information may be useful for the prevention of sudden death following LQTS and for efficient therapeutic planning. PMID:27723808

  19. A Framework of Knowledge Integration and Discovery for Supporting Pharmacogenomics Target Predication of Adverse Drug Events: A Case Study of Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Qian; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge-driven text mining is becoming an important research area for identifying pharmacogenomics target genes. However, few of such studies have been focused on the pharmacogenomics targets of adverse drug events (ADEs). The objective of the present study is to build a framework of knowledge integration and discovery that aims to support pharmacogenomics target predication of ADEs. We integrate a semantically annotated literature corpus Semantic MEDLINE with a semantically coded ADE knowledgebase known as ADEpedia using a semantic web based framework. We developed a knowledge discovery approach combining a network analysis of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and a gene functional classification approach. We performed a case study of drug-induced long QT syndrome for demonstrating the usefulness of the framework in predicting potential pharmacogenomics targets of ADEs.

  20. How do sex hormones modify arrhythmogenesis in long-QT syndrome? – Sex hormone effects on arrhythmogenic substrate and triggered activity

    PubMed Central

    Odening, Katja E.; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in cardiac repolarization and the arrhythmogenic risk of patients with inherited and acquired long-QT syndromes are well appreciated clinically. Enhancing our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these differences is critical to improve our therapeutic strategies for preventing sudden cardiac death in such patients. This review summarizes the effects of sex hormones on the expression and function of ion channels that control cardiac cell excitation and repolarization as well as key proteins that regulate Ca2+ dynamics at the cellular level. Moreover, it examines the role of sex hormones in modifying the dynamic spatiotemporal (regional and transmural) heterogeneities in action potential duration (e.g., the arrhythmogenic substrate) and the susceptibility to (sympathetic) triggered activity at the tissue, organ, and whole-animal levels. Finally, it explores the implications of these effects on the management of LQTS patients. PMID:24954242

  1. A Framework of Knowledge Integration and Discovery for Supporting Pharmacogenomics Target Predication of Adverse Drug Events: A Case Study of Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Qian; Chute, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge-driven text mining is becoming an important research area for identifying pharmacogenomics target genes. However, few of such studies have been focused on the pharmacogenomics targets of adverse drug events (ADEs). The objective of the present study is to build a framework of knowledge integration and discovery that aims to support pharmacogenomics target predication of ADEs. We integrate a semantically annotated literature corpus Semantic MEDLINE with a semantically coded ADE knowledgebase known as ADEpedia using a semantic web based framework. We developed a knowledge discovery approach combining a network analysis of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and a gene functional classification approach. We performed a case study of drug-induced long QT syndrome for demonstrating the usefulness of the framework in predicting potential pharmacogenomics targets of ADEs. PMID:24303306

  2. Identification of a new SCN5A mutation, D1840G, associated with the long QT syndrome. Mutations in brief no. 153. Online.

    PubMed

    Benhorin, J; Goldmit, M; MacCluer, J W; Blangero, J; Goffen, R; Leibovitch, A; Rahat, A; Wang, Q; Medina, A; Towbin, J; Kerem, B

    1998-01-01

    The long QT syndrome (LQT) is an inherited cardiac disorder that can cause sudden cardiac death among apparently healthy young individuals due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias. LQT was found to be caused by mutations in four genes LTQ1, LQT2, LQT3 and LQT5, and linkage was reported for an additional locus, LQT4, on chromosome 4q25-27. We have studied a large (n=131) LQT-affected Jewish kindred and identified tight linkage between the LQT-affected status and LQT3 (lod score 6.13, with an estimated recombination fraction of zero). We identified a new point-mutation, A to G substitution at nucleotide 5519 of the SCN5A gene, changing the aspartate 1840 to glycine, D1840G. This is a non-conservative change of an amino acid completely conserved in sodium channels from Molusca to human. The mutation was identified in all affected individuals (n=23), and not identified in all the unaffected family members (n=40), and not in 200 chromosomes of healthy control individuals. The mutation was identified in 3/12 individuals with equivocal phenotype, thus, providing an accurate dignostic tool for all family members. This mutation is currently being used in a cellular electrophysiological model, to characterize the function of the mutated sodium channel in this syndrome.

  3. Cerebellar involvement of Griscelli syndrome type 2

    PubMed Central

    Işikay, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Griscelli syndrome type 2 is characterised by partial albinism and primary immunodeficiency. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl diagnosed with cerebellar involvement of Griscelli syndrome type 2. Neurological complications may accompany Griscelli syndrome, however, to the best of my knowledge there are only a few case reports of cerebellar involvement of Griscelli syndrome type 2 in the literature. PMID:25315806

  4. Nicorandil normalizes prolonged repolarisation in the first transgenic rabbit model with Long-QT syndrome 1 both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Biermann, Jürgen; Wu, Kezhong; Odening, Katja E.; Asbach, Stefan; Koren, Gideon; Peng, Xuwen; Zehender, Manfred; Bode, Christoph; Brunner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic rabbits expressing loss-of-function pore mutants of the human gene KCNQ1 (KvLQT1-Y315S) have a Long QT-Syndrome 1 (LQT1) phenotype. We evaluated for the first time the effect of nicorandil, an opener of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, and of isoproterenol on cardiac action potential duration and heart rate dependent dispersion of repolarisation in transgenic LQT1 rabbits. In vivo LQT1 and littermate control were subjected to transvenous electrophysiological studies; in vitro monophasic action potentials were recorded from explanted Langendorff-perfused hearts. In vivo ventricular effective refractory periods (VERP) at the right ventricular base were significantly prolonged in LQT1 as compared to littermate control, resulting in a more pronounced VERP dispersion in LQT1. This difference in VERP dispersion between LQT1 and littermate control disappeared after infusion of nicorandil. In vitro, mean action potential durations (APD75 and APD90) of LQT1 were significantly prolonged compared to littermate control at baseline. Nicorandil decreased APD75 and APD90 in LQT1 and littermate control at all stimulated heart rates. After adding nicorandil, the APD90 at all hearts rates and the APD75 at high heart rates were no longer different. Dispersion of repolarisation (ΔAPD75 and ΔAPD90) was heart rate dependently decreased after nicorandil at all tested stimulation cycle lengths only in LQT1. We demonstrated phenotypic differences of LQT1 and littermate control in vivo and in vitro. Nicorandil 20 μmol/l improved repolarisation abnormalities and heterogeneities in transgenic LQT1 rabbits. PMID:20959120

  5. A novel mutation in KVLQT1 is the molecular basis of inherited long QT syndrome in a near-drowning patient's family.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, M J; Schroeder, J J; Berry, R; Schaid, D J; Porter, C J; Michels, V V; Thibodeau, S N

    1998-08-01

    After identifying a 10-year-old boy with inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS) after a near-drowning that required defibrillation from torsades de pointes, evaluation of first degree relatives revealed a four-generation kindred comprising 26 individuals with four additional symptomatic and eight asymptomatic members harboring an abnormally prolonged QTc (defined as > or =0.46 s1/2). We set out to determine the molecular basis of their LQTS. The inherited LQTS represents a collection of genetically distinct ion channelopathies with over 40 mutations in four fundamental cardiac ion channels identified. Molecular studies, including linkage analysis and identification of the disease-associated mutation, were performed on genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 29 available family members. Genetic linkage analysis excluded the regions for LQT2, LQT3, and LQT5. However, the chromosome 11p15.5 region (LQT1) showed evidence of linkage with a maximum lod score of 3.36. Examination of the KVLQT1 gene revealed a novel 3-bp deletion resulting in an in-frame deltaF339 (phenylalanine) deletion in the proband. This deltaF339 mutation was confirmed in nine additional family members who shared both an assigned affected phenotype and the disease-associated linked haplotype. Importantly, three asymptomatic family members, with a tentative clinical diagnosis based on their QTc, did not have this mutation and could be reclassified as unaffected. It is noteworthy that the proband's ECG suggested the sodium channel-based LQT3 genotype. These findings show the potential importance of establishing a molecular diagnosis rather than initiating genotype-specific interventions based upon inspection of a patient's ECG.

  6. Fatal cardiac arrhythmia and long-QT syndrome in a new form of congenital generalized lipodystrophy with muscle rippling (CGL4) due to PTRF-CAVIN mutations.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Anna; Straub, Volker; McCann, Liza J; Seelow, Dominik; Varon, Raymonda; Barresi, Rita; Schulze, Anne; Lucke, Barbara; Lützkendorf, Susanne; Karbasiyan, Mohsen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Spuler, Simone; Schuelke, Markus

    2010-03-01

    We investigated eight families with a novel subtype of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL4) of whom five members had died from sudden cardiac death during their teenage years. ECG studies revealed features of long-QT syndrome, bradycardia, as well as supraventricular and ventricular tachycardias. Further symptoms comprised myopathy with muscle rippling, skeletal as well as smooth-muscle hypertrophy, leading to impaired gastrointestinal motility and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in some children. Additionally, we found impaired bone formation with osteopenia, osteoporosis, and atlanto-axial instability. Homozygosity mapping located the gene within 2 Mbp on chromosome 17. Prioritization of 74 candidate genes with GeneDistiller for high expression in muscle and adipocytes suggested PTRF-CAVIN (Polymerase I and transcript release factor/Cavin) as the most probable candidate leading to the detection of homozygous mutations (c.160delG, c.362dupT). PTRF-CAVIN is essential for caveolae biogenesis. These cholesterol-rich plasmalemmal vesicles are involved in signal-transduction and vesicular trafficking and reside primarily on adipocytes, myocytes, and osteoblasts. Absence of PTRF-CAVIN did not influence abundance of its binding partner caveolin-1 and caveolin-3. In patient fibroblasts, however, caveolin-1 failed to localize toward the cell surface and electron microscopy revealed reduction of caveolae to less than 3%. Transfection of full-length PTRF-CAVIN reestablished the presence of caveolae. The loss of caveolae was confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in combination with fluorescent imaging. PTRF-CAVIN deficiency thus presents the phenotypic spectrum caused by a quintessential lack of functional caveolae.

  7. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  8. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  9. Genetics Home Reference: autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... polyglandular syndrome, type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1 is an inherited condition that affects many of ...

  10. Living with Long QT Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or go into cardiac arrest. Tell them to call 9–1–1 right away if you faint. Consider asking a family member and/or coworker to learn cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in case your heart stops beating. You also may want to keep an automated external defibrillator (AED) with you at home or ...

  11. Goldenhar syndrome and hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed, Moeen A; Asmari, Ali M; Rashed, Mohammed S

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of Goldenhar syndrome and hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HTT1), to our knowledge an association not previously described. This case further increases the diversity of observations and clinical descriptions of patients with this complex syndrome. We discuss pathogenetic aspects, and demonstrate further evidence of the effectiveness of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethyl benzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione in the treatment of HTT1.

  12. Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Arking, Dan E.; Pulit, Sara L.; Crotti, Lia; van der Harst, Pim; Munroe, Patricia B.; Koopmann, Tamara T.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Morley, Michael; Wang, Xinchen; Johnson, Andrew D.; Lundby, Alicia; Gudbjartsson, Daníel F.; Noseworthy, Peter A.; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Bradford, Yuki; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Dörr, Marcus; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Lahtinen, Annukka M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Bis, Joshua C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Evans, Daniel S.; Post, Wendy S.; Waggott, Daryl; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Hicks, Andrew A.; Eisele, Lewin; Ellinghaus, David; Hayward, Caroline; Navarro, Pau; Ulivi, Sheila; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tester, David J.; Chatel, Stéphanie; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W.; Naluai, Åsa T.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Kluttig, Alexander; Strohmer, Bernhard; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Torres, Maria; Knoflach, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Slowikowski, Kamil; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kumar, Runjun D.; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Bader, Joel S.; Ehret, Georg; Huang, Hailiang; Kao, W.H. Linda; Strait, James B.; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Brown, Morris; Caulfield, Mark J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kronenberg, Florian; Willeit, Johann; Smith, J. Gustav; Greiser, Karin H.; zu Schwabedissen, Henriette Meyer; Werdan, Karl; Carella, Massimo; Zelante, Leopoldo; Heckbert, Susan R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Kolcic, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Griffin, Maura; Daly, Mark J.; Arnar, David O.; Hólm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Denny, Joshua C.; Roden, Dan M.; Zuvich, Rebecca L.; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew S.; Larson, Martin G.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Bobbo, Marco; D'Adamo, Adamo P.; Iorio, Annamaria; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Carracedo, Angel; Cummings, Steven R.; Nalls, Michael A.; Jula, Antti; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Marjamaa, Annukka; Oikarinen, Lasse; Perola, Markus; Porthan, Kimmo; Erbel, Raimund; Hoffmann, Per; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kälsch, Hagen; Nöthen, Markus M.; consortium, HRGEN; den Hoed, Marcel; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Thelle, Dag S.; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Perz, Siegfried; Peters, Annette; Prucha, Hanna; Sinner, Moritz F.; Waldenberger, Melanie; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Franke, Lude; van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Beckmann, Britt Maria; Martens, Eimo; Bardai, Abdennasser; Hofman, Nynke; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Behr, Elijah R.; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Giudicessi, John R.; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Barc, Julien; Kyndt, Florence; Probst, Vincent; Ghidoni, Alice; Insolia, Roberto; Hamilton, Robert M.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Margulies, Kenneth; Moravec, Christine E.; Fabiola Del, Greco M.; Fuchsberger, Christian; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Lee, Wai K.; Watt, Graham C.M.; Campbell, Harry; Wild, Sarah H.; El Mokhtari, Nour E.; Frey, Norbert; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Navis, Gerjan; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Kellis, Manolis; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Kors, Jan A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Lamina, Claudia; Oostra, Ben A.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Mulas, Antonella; Orrú, Marco; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Markus, Marcello R.P.; Völker, Uwe; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D.; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lind, Lars; Sundström, Johan; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kivimaki, Mika; Kähönen, Mika; Mononen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Adamkova, Vera; Kiechl, Stefan; Brion, Maria; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haerting, Johannes; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Whincup, Peter H.; Hingorani, Aroon; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Bezzina, Connie R.; Ingelsson, Erik; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gasparini, Paolo; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Franke, Andre; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Lehtimäki, Terho J.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Parsa, Afshin; Liu, Yongmei; van Duijn, Cornelia; Siscovick, David S.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jamshidi, Yalda; Salomaa, Veikko; Felix, Stephan B.; Sanna, Serena; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Stefansson, Kari; Boyer, Laurie A.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Lage, Kasper; Schwartz, Peter J.; Kääb, Stefan; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ackerman, Michael J.; Pfeufer, Arne; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal Mendelian Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals we identified 35 common variant QT interval loci, that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 novel QT loci in 298 unrelated LQTS probands identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode for proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies novel candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS,and SCD. PMID:24952745

  13. Rare case of orofaciodigital syndrome type I

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhishek Bahadur; Girhotra, Manish; Goel, Medha; Bhatia, Shilpee

    2013-01-01

    Orofaciodigital syndrome (OFDS) is a group of congenital anomalies which affects the face, oral structures and digits. There are nine subtypes with different modes of inheritance. OFDS type I is an X-linked dominant trait with lethality in the vast majority of affected males. We report a case of OFDS type I in an Indian girl at the age of seven who had most of the typical features of OFDS type I and nephrocalcinosis. PMID:23417374

  14. QT dispersion in adult hypertensives.

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Isa Muhammad; Solomon, Danbauchi Sulei; Imhogene, Oyati Albert; Ahmad, Alhassan Muhammad; Bala, Garko Sani

    2006-01-01

    Increased QT dispersion is associated with sudden cardiac death in congestive cardiac failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and following myocardial infarction. Patients with hypertension--in particular, those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)--are also at greater risk of sudden cardiac death. We examined whether QT dispersion, which is easily obtained from a routine ECG, correlates with LVH. One-hundred untreated patients with systemic hypertension and 78 normotensives had QT dispersion measured manually from a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram and two-dimensional echocardiography performed to measure interventricular septal thickness, posterior wall thickness and left ventricular internal diameter. Office blood pressure was also recorded. Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant relationships between QT dispersion and office systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular mass index. Manual measurement of QT dispersion might be a simple, noninvasive screening procedure to identify those hypertensives at greatest risk of sudden cardiac death in a third-world country. PMID:16623077

  15. Quinine and the ABCs of Long QT: A Patient's Misfortune with Arthritis, (Alcoholic) Beverages, and Cramps.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Elyce T; Frizzell, Jarrod D; Gabaldon, Jude; West, Michael B

    2016-10-01

    A 91-year-old woman presented to the emergency department by ambulance after her family found her minimally responsive. Telemetry monitoring demonstrated episodes of non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) associated with significantly prolonged repolarization. Her medical history revealed that she was taking quinine or a derivative in three different forms: hydroxychloroquine, quinine sulfate (for leg cramps), and her gin mixed with tonic water (containing quinine). The present case is illustrative of classic etiologies and findings of acquired long QT syndrome, and serves as an important reminder for providers to take a complete medication history, including use of duplicative and alternative medicines and type of alcohol consumption.

  16. Quinine and the ABCs of Long QT: A Patient's Misfortune with Arthritis, (Alcoholic) Beverages, and Cramps.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Elyce T; Frizzell, Jarrod D; Gabaldon, Jude; West, Michael B

    2016-10-01

    A 91-year-old woman presented to the emergency department by ambulance after her family found her minimally responsive. Telemetry monitoring demonstrated episodes of non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) associated with significantly prolonged repolarization. Her medical history revealed that she was taking quinine or a derivative in three different forms: hydroxychloroquine, quinine sulfate (for leg cramps), and her gin mixed with tonic water (containing quinine). The present case is illustrative of classic etiologies and findings of acquired long QT syndrome, and serves as an important reminder for providers to take a complete medication history, including use of duplicative and alternative medicines and type of alcohol consumption. PMID:27173501

  17. Bartter's syndrome with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    See, Ting-Ting; Lee, Siu-Pak

    2009-02-01

    We report a rare case of Bartter's syndrome in a 35-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with leg weakness, fatigue, polyuria and polydipsia. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and high renin and aldosterone concentrations were present, but the patient was normotensive. Gitelman's syndrome was excluded because of the presence of hypercalciuria, secondary hyperparathyroidism and bilateral nephrocalcinosis. The patients condition improved upon administration of a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor (acemetacin), oral potassium chloride and potassium-sparing diuretics. Five months later, the patient discontinued acemetacin because of epigastric discomfort; at the same time, severe hypokalemia and hyperglycemia developed. Glucagon stimulation and water deprivation tests were performed. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was diagnosed. To avoid further gastrointestinal complications, the patient was treated with celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor. This case serves as a reminder that Bartter's syndrome is associated with various metabolic derangements including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, nephrocalcinosis and diabetes mellitus. When treating Bartter's syndrome, it is also prudent to remember that the long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and potassium-sparing diuretics may result in serious adverse reactions.

  18. Antimicrobial agents-associated with QT interval prolongation.

    PubMed

    Bril, Fernando; Gonzalez, Claudio Daniel; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    QT interval prolongation is one of the most important causes of withdrawal of drugs from the market, due to its association with Torsades de Pointes (TdP), a potentially fatal arrhythmia. Although many antimicrobial drugs are capable of inducing this type of arrhythmia, the importance of this effect is usually underestimated. Macrolides, quinolones, azoles, pentamidine, protease inhibitors, antimalarial drugs and cotrimoxazole are the anti-infective agents more frequently associated with this adverse effect. Despite the fact that the risk of QT prolongation and TdP under single antimicrobial therapy is low, these drugs are so extensively used that sporadic cases of this arrhythmia are reported. Moreover, antimicrobial drugs are susceptible to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with other drugs, which may increase the risk of this arrhythmia. Therefore, physicians must be familiar with not only the antimicrobial drugs capable of producing QT interval prolongation, but also their potential interactions. In addition, patient's specific risk factors of prolonging QT interval or producing TdP must be taken into account. This article reviews the role of anti-infective drugs in QT prolongation, focusing on QT prolongation mechanisms, potential drug interactions, and patients' predisposing factors to this arrhythmia. PMID:20210724

  19. [Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2)].

    PubMed

    Vialettes, Bernard; Dubois-Leonardon, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2) are the most frequent disorders associating several organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Their high prevalence is due to the fact that the main manifestations of APS-2, such as thyroidal autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune gastric atrophy and vitiligo, are common diseases. APS-2 represents a clinical model that can serve to help unravel the mechanisms underlying autoimmunity. Diagnosis of APS-2 is a challenge for the clinician, especially in poorly symptomatic forms, and may require systematic screening based on measurement of autoantibodies and functional markers.

  20. Drug-induced QT interval shortening: potential harbinger of proarrhythmia and regulatory perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2010-01-01

    ATP-dependent potassium channel openers such as pinacidil and levcromakalim have long been known to shorten action potential duration and to be profibrillatory in non-clinical models, raising concerns on the clinical safety of drugs that shorten QT interval. Routine non-clinical evaluation of new drugs for their potential to affect cardiac repolarization has revealed that drugs may also shorten QT interval. The description of congenital short QT syndrome in 2000, together with the associated arrhythmias, suggests that drug-induced short QT interval may be proarrhythmic, and an uncanny parallel is evolving between our appreciation of the short and the long QT intervals. Epidemiological studies report an over-representation of short QT interval values in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Therefore, as new compounds that shorten QT interval are progressed further into clinical development, questions will inevitably arise on their safety. Arising from the current risk-averse clinical and regulatory environment and concerns on proarrhythmic safety of drugs, together with our lack of a better understanding of the clinical significance of short QT interval, new drugs that substantially shorten QT interval will likely receive an unfavourable regulatory review unless these drugs fulfil an unmet clinical need. This review provides estimates of parameters of QT shortening that may be of potential clinical significance. Rufinamide, a recently approved anticonvulsant, illustrates the current regulatory approach to drugs that shorten QT interval. However, to further substantiate or confirm the safety of these drugs, their approval may well be conditional upon large-scale post-marketing studies with a focus on cardiac safety. PMID:19563537

  1. Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome – Finish Type

    PubMed Central

    Spahiu, Lidvana; Merovci, Besart; Jashari, Haki; Këpuska, Arbnore Batalli; Rugova, Blerta Elezi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Identification of the NPHS1 gene, which encodes nephrin, was followed by many studies demonstrating its mutation as a frequent cause of congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS). While this gene is found in 98% of Finnish children with this syndrome, non-Finnish cases have lower level of incidence ranging from 39 to 80%. Case report: This report describes the clinical presentation of a two-week-old neonate who presented with periorbital and lower extremities edema, abdominal distention, heavy proteinuria, serum hypoproteinemia and failure to thrive. Genetic analysis revealed NHPS1 gene mutation leading to CNS-Finnish type diagnosis. Conclusion: Through this case we want to create awareness about diagnosis and treatment challenges in developing countries for rare congenital diseases. PMID:27594755

  2. Targeted therapy for hereditary cancer syndromes: neurofibromatosis type 1, neurofibromatosis type 2, and Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rishi; Liebe, Sarah; Turski, Michelle L; Vidwans, Smruti J; Janku, Filip; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Munoz, Javier; Schwab, Richard; Rodon, Jordi; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary cancer syndromes are well known in the oncology community, typically affecting children, adolescents, and young adults and thereby resulting in great cumulative morbidity and mortality. These syndromes often lag behind their de novo counterparts in the development of approved novel treatment options due to their rarity in the general population. Recent work has allowed the identification of molecular aberrations and associated targeted therapies that may effectively treat these conditions. In this review, we seek to characterize some of the involved aberrations and associated targeted therapies for several germline malignancies, including neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, and Gorlin syndrome. Though patients with hereditary cancer syndromes may be too rare to effectively include in large clinical trials, by understanding the pathophysiology of these diseases, clinicians can attain insights into the use of targeted therapies in their own practice when treating affected individuals. PMID:25549703

  3. Iatrogenic QT Abnormalities and Fatal Arrhythmias: Mechanisms and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Cubeddu, Luigi X

    2009-01-01

    Severe and occasionally fatal arrhythmias, commonly presenting as Torsade de Pointes [TdP] have been reported with Class III-antiarrhythmics, but also with non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Most cases result from an action on K+ channels encoded by the HERG gene responsible for the IKr repolarizing current, leading to a long QT and repolarization abnormalities. The hydrophobic central cavity of the HERG-K+ channels, allows a large number of structurally unrelated drugs to bind and cause direct channel inhibition. Some examples are dofetilide, quinidine, sotalol, erythromycin, grepafloxacin, cisapride, dolasetron, thioridazine, haloperidol, droperidol and pimozide. Other drugs achieve channel inhibition indirectly by impairing channel traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, decreasing channel membrane density (pentamidine, geldalamicin, arsenic trioxide, digoxin, and probucol). Whereas, ketoconazole, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine induce both direct channel inhibition and impaired channel trafficking. Congenital long QT syndrome, subclinical ion-channel mutations, subjects and relatives of subjects with previous history of drug-induced long QT or TdP, dual drug effects on cardiac repolarization [long QT plus increased QT dispersion], increased transmural dispersion of repolarization and T wave abnormalities, use of high doses, metabolism inhibitors and/or combinations of QT prolonging drugs, hypokalemia, structural cardiac disease, sympathomimetics, bradycardia, women and older age, have been shown to increase the risk for developing drug-induced TdP. Because most of these reactions are preventable, careful evaluation of risk factors and increased knowledge of drugs use associated with repolarization abnormalities is strongly recommended. Future genetic testing and development of practical and simple provocation tests are in route to prevent iatrogenic TdP. PMID:20676275

  4. Antipsychotic agents and QT changes.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, R; Chue, P

    2000-01-01

    Recently, antipsychotic medications of the novel or atypical classes have received increased attention because of concerns with respect to potential lengthening of the QT interval, yet the currently available and commonly prescribed conventional antipsychotics are significantly more cardiotoxic, particularly agents in the butyrophenone and phenothiazine classes. Lengthening of the QT interval can be associated with a fatal paroxysmal ventricular arrhythmia known as torsades de pointes. The specific duration of the QT interval at which the risk of an adverse cardiac event is greatest, is not established. There is not only significant variation in the applied definition of an abnormal interval, but the maximal QT interval in healthy volunteers is greater than the currently accepted standards. The QT interval is influenced by normal physiological and pathologic factors, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Using recombinant technology, haloperidol and sertindole have been demonstrated to be high-affinity antagonists of a human cardiac potassium channel encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene. Pimozide, however, has been shown to act principally through calcium channel antagonism, and chlorpromazine may affect sodium channels. Nevertheless, it is possible that these effects are significant only in the presence of predisposing factors, either genetic or acquired. Despite proven efficacy in clinical trials and subsequent supervised use in Europe, a number of recently developed antipsychotic medications are not available to patients in North America. Yet, conventional antipsychotic medications that would not be approved by current safety standards continue to be widely used. PMID:10740988

  5. Nephrocalcinosis as adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Luiken, G P M; van Riemsdijk, I C; Petrij, F; Zandbergen, A A M; Dees, A

    2014-02-01

    Bartter syndrome consists a group of rare autosomal-recessive renal tubulopathies characterised by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism. It is classified into five types. Mutations in the KCNJ1 gene (classified as type II) usually cause the neonatal form of Bartter syndrome. We describe an adult patient with a homozygous KCNJ1 mutation resulting in a remarkably mild phenotype of neonatal type Bartter syndrome. PMID:24659592

  6. Adaptation of the QT interval to heart rate changes in isolated perfused guinea pig heart: influence of amiodarone and D-sotalol.

    PubMed

    Padrini, R; Speranza, G; Nollo, G; Bova, S; Piovan, D; Antolini, R; Ferrari, M

    1997-05-01

    The inadequacy of the QT interval to shorten following heart rate increase is a feature of the inherited long QT syndrome and may have a role in the genesis of the typical arrhythmias associated with this syndrome (torsade des pointes). The aim of our study was to evaluate whether drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as amiodarone and D-sotalol, may also impair the ability of the QT interval to adapt to sudden heart rate changes. Experiments were carried out on isolated perfused guinea pig hearts (Langendorff preparation). Driving frequency was changed, in steps, every two minutes (Hz: 2.5-3-2.5-3.75-2.5-5-2.5), while epicardial ECG was continuously recorded on magnetic tape. QT interval was automatically measured by means of a beat-by-beat analysis program. D-sotalol was added to the perfusion medium at a concentration of 4 micrograms ml-1, while amiodarone was administered, before in vitro evaluation, for seven days (50 mg kg-1 per day, intraperitoneally). In control experiments two phases of QT adaptation were identified: an abrupt QT shortening at the first beat after frequency change (QT1), followed by a gradual, exponential QT shortening that reached a new steady state in about 1 min (half life: 13 sec). The electrical restitution curve (the relation between QT1 and the corresponding diastolic interval) had a rate constant of 57 +/- 8 ms. Neither drug changed the slow component of QT adaptation. However, both drugs increased the ability of QT to shorten upon premature stimulation: D-sotalol by increasing the rate constant of the restitution curve and amiodarone by decreasing the y-intercept. Our results indicate that D-sotalol and amiodarone do not impair QT shortening during tachycardia but, on the contrary, they may favour QT adaptation, thus reducing the likelihood of the potentially lethal 'R on T phenomenon'. This may be an additional mechanism by which these drugs can exert their antifibrillatory action.

  7. QT interval in children with sensory neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    El Habbal, Magdi H; Mahoney, C O

    2002-04-01

    Long QT syndrome was first described in children with congenital sensory neural hearing loss (SNHL). The deafness was attributed to abnormalities in potassium ion channels of the inner ear. Similar channels are present in the heart and its dysfunction causes long QT syndrome. Whether congenital SNHL is associated with prolonged QT is unknown. This study examined 52 patients (median age 8.35 years, range 0.21-17.42 years) with SNHL and compared them to 63 healthy children (median age 10.2 years; range 0.67-19 years). An observer, who was blinded from the presence or absence of SNHL, measured QT, QTc intervals and dispersions from a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. To assess the cardiac autonomic enervation, power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was determined using a 24-hour ambulatory heart rate monitor and was expressed as high (HF) to low frequency (LF) ratio. Left ventricular size and functions were evaluated by using two-dimensional echocardiography. The medians (and ranges) of QT intervals were 340 ms (230-420 ms) in patients and 320 ms (240-386 ms) in the control group (P < 0.01). The QTc was longer in patients with SNHL (median 417 ms, range 384-490 ms) than in controls (median 388 ms, range 325-432 ms, P < 0.001). QT dispersions in SNHL were higher (median .038 ms, range 00-11 ms) than controls (median 27 ms, range 00-52 ms, P < 0.001). T wave inversion (n = 16) and alternans (n = 3) occurred in patients with SNHL. Heart rates were similar in both groups. Some deaf patients (n = 8) had dizzy episodes with a QTc > 440 ms. The HF:LF ratio was 1.32 (0.516-2.33) in deaf patients and 1.428 (0.67-2.3) in the control group (P > 0.1). Left ventricular size and functions were similar and normal in deaf patients and controls. In children, congenital SNHL is associated with a prolonged QT interval. PMID:11991368

  8. Cavotricuspid isthmus ablation and subcutaneous monitoring device implantation in a 2-year-old baby with 2 SCN5A mutations, sinus node dysfunction, atrial flutter recurrences, and drug induced long-QT syndrome: a tricky case of pediatric overlap syndrome?

    PubMed

    De Filippo, Paolo; Ferrari, Paola; Iascone, Maria; Racheli, Marco; Senni, Michele

    2015-03-01

    We describe the case of 2-year-old baby with compound heterozygosity for paternal and maternal alleles mutation of α-subunit of the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A), sinus node dysfunction, atrial flutter recurrences, and drug induced long-QT syndrome. In this setting, we chose at first to perform linear ablation of cavotricuspid isthmus resulting in a bidirectional isthmus block. As a second step, we decided to implant a miniaturized loop recorder that, with a minimally invasive procedure, permits us to follow the development of the disease in order to define the future strategy. After 8 months follow-up, automatic daily loop-recorder transmissions disclose the complete absence of any arrhythmia along with asymptomatic ventricular pauses due to sinus node dysfunction. Echocardiography shows normal findings, in particular no left ventricular dysfunction.

  9. Waardenburg syndrome type 2: an orthodontic perspective.

    PubMed

    Şuhani, Raluca Diana; Şuhani, Mihai Flaviu; Muntean, Alexandrina; Mesaroş, Michaela Florica; Badea, Mîndra Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare form of neurocristopathy. It is a disorder in the development of neural crest cells, caused by an altered cellular migration during the embryonic phase. That alteration causes an association of different abnormalities such as pigmentary disturbances of the hair, iris, skin, stria vascularis of the cochlea, dystopia canthorum and sensorineural hearing loss. We report a case of a 14-year-old Romanian male, with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome (mother) and Usher syndrome (father - congenitally sensorineural hearing loss and retinal degeneration). The case particularities are: the correlation between malocclusion and Waardenburg syndrome due to hypoplastic alae nasi and also factors that produced hearing loss, which could be Waardenburg syndrome, Usher syndrome or the presence of the connexin 26 (W24X) gene mutation. PMID:26429191

  10. Cholesterol and Alzheimer Type Dementia among Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a summary of research by Warren Zigman and colleagues investigating the link between cholesterol levels and Alzheimer type dementia among adults with Down syndrome. Warren Zigman and colleagues followed 123 adults with Down syndrome between May 1998 and April 2006. The participants were aged between 41 and 78 years at the…

  11. Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization.

    PubMed

    Arking, Dan E; Pulit, Sara L; Crotti, Lia; van der Harst, Pim; Munroe, Patricia B; Koopmann, Tamara T; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Morley, Michael; Wang, Xinchen; Johnson, Andrew D; Lundby, Alicia; Gudbjartsson, Daníel F; Noseworthy, Peter A; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Bradford, Yuki; Tarasov, Kirill V; Dörr, Marcus; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Lahtinen, Annukka M; Nolte, Ilja M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Bis, Joshua C; Isaacs, Aaron; Newhouse, Stephen J; Evans, Daniel S; Post, Wendy S; Waggott, Daryl; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Hicks, Andrew A; Eisele, Lewin; Ellinghaus, David; Hayward, Caroline; Navarro, Pau; Ulivi, Sheila; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tester, David J; Chatel, Stéphanie; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W; Naluai, Åsa T; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Kluttig, Alexander; Strohmer, Bernhard; Panayiotou, Andrie G; Torres, Maria; Knoflach, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Slowikowski, Kamil; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kumar, Runjun D; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Shuldiner, Alan R; Alonso, Alvaro; Bader, Joel S; Ehret, Georg; Huang, Hailiang; Kao, W H Linda; Strait, James B; Macfarlane, Peter W; Brown, Morris; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Kronenberg, Florian; Willeit, Johann; Smith, J Gustav; Greiser, Karin H; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette; Werdan, Karl; Carella, Massimo; Zelante, Leopoldo; Heckbert, Susan R; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Kolcic, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F; Griffin, Maura; Daly, Mark J; Arnar, David O; Hólm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Denny, Joshua C; Roden, Dan M; Zuvich, Rebecca L; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew S; Larson, Martin G; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Yin, Xiaoyan; Bobbo, Marco; D'Adamo, Adamo P; Iorio, Annamaria; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Carracedo, Angel; Cummings, Steven R; Nalls, Michael A; Jula, Antti; Kontula, Kimmo K; Marjamaa, Annukka; Oikarinen, Lasse; Perola, Markus; Porthan, Kimmo; Erbel, Raimund; Hoffmann, Per; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kälsch, Hagen; Nöthen, Markus M; den Hoed, Marcel; Loos, Ruth J F; Thelle, Dag S; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Perz, Siegfried; Peters, Annette; Prucha, Hanna; Sinner, Moritz F; Waldenberger, Melanie; de Boer, Rudolf A; Franke, Lude; van der Vleuten, Pieter A; Beckmann, Britt Maria; Martens, Eimo; Bardai, Abdennasser; Hofman, Nynke; Wilde, Arthur A M; Behr, Elijah R; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Giudicessi, John R; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Barc, Julien; Kyndt, Florence; Probst, Vincent; Ghidoni, Alice; Insolia, Roberto; Hamilton, Robert M; Scherer, Stephen W; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Margulies, Kenneth; Moravec, Christine E; del Greco M, Fabiola; Fuchsberger, Christian; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Lee, Wai K; Watt, Graham C M; Campbell, Harry; Wild, Sarah H; El Mokhtari, Nour E; Frey, Norbert; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van den Berg, Maarten P; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Kellis, Manolis; Krijthe, Bouwe P; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Kors, Jan A; Uitterlinden, André G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Lamina, Claudia; Oostra, Ben A; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Lakatta, Edward G; Mulas, Antonella; Orrú, Marco; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Markus, Marcello R P; Völker, Uwe; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lind, Lars; Sundström, Johan; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kivimaki, Mika; Kähönen, Mika; Mononen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Viikari, Jorma S; Adamkova, Vera; Kiechl, Stefan; Brion, Maria; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haerting, Johannes; Dominiczak, Anna F; Nyberg, Fredrik; Whincup, Peter H; Hingorani, Aroon D; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Bezzina, Connie R; Ingelsson, Erik; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gasparini, Paolo; Wilson, James F; Rudan, Igor; Franke, Andre; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Lehtimäki, Terho J; Paterson, Andrew D; Parsa, Afshin; Liu, Yongmei; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Siscovick, David S; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jamshidi, Yalda; Salomaa, Veikko; Felix, Stephan B; Sanna, Serena; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Stricker, Bruno H; Stefansson, Kari; Boyer, Laurie A; Cappola, Thomas P; Olsen, Jesper V; Lage, Kasper; Schwartz, Peter J; Kääb, Stefan; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ackerman, Michael J; Pfeufer, Arne; de Bakker, Paul I W; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD.

  12. Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization.

    PubMed

    Arking, Dan E; Pulit, Sara L; Crotti, Lia; van der Harst, Pim; Munroe, Patricia B; Koopmann, Tamara T; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Morley, Michael; Wang, Xinchen; Johnson, Andrew D; Lundby, Alicia; Gudbjartsson, Daníel F; Noseworthy, Peter A; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Bradford, Yuki; Tarasov, Kirill V; Dörr, Marcus; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Lahtinen, Annukka M; Nolte, Ilja M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Bis, Joshua C; Isaacs, Aaron; Newhouse, Stephen J; Evans, Daniel S; Post, Wendy S; Waggott, Daryl; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Hicks, Andrew A; Eisele, Lewin; Ellinghaus, David; Hayward, Caroline; Navarro, Pau; Ulivi, Sheila; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tester, David J; Chatel, Stéphanie; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W; Naluai, Åsa T; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Kluttig, Alexander; Strohmer, Bernhard; Panayiotou, Andrie G; Torres, Maria; Knoflach, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Slowikowski, Kamil; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kumar, Runjun D; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Shuldiner, Alan R; Alonso, Alvaro; Bader, Joel S; Ehret, Georg; Huang, Hailiang; Kao, W H Linda; Strait, James B; Macfarlane, Peter W; Brown, Morris; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Kronenberg, Florian; Willeit, Johann; Smith, J Gustav; Greiser, Karin H; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette; Werdan, Karl; Carella, Massimo; Zelante, Leopoldo; Heckbert, Susan R; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Kolcic, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F; Griffin, Maura; Daly, Mark J; Arnar, David O; Hólm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Denny, Joshua C; Roden, Dan M; Zuvich, Rebecca L; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew S; Larson, Martin G; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Yin, Xiaoyan; Bobbo, Marco; D'Adamo, Adamo P; Iorio, Annamaria; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Carracedo, Angel; Cummings, Steven R; Nalls, Michael A; Jula, Antti; Kontula, Kimmo K; Marjamaa, Annukka; Oikarinen, Lasse; Perola, Markus; Porthan, Kimmo; Erbel, Raimund; Hoffmann, Per; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kälsch, Hagen; Nöthen, Markus M; den Hoed, Marcel; Loos, Ruth J F; Thelle, Dag S; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Perz, Siegfried; Peters, Annette; Prucha, Hanna; Sinner, Moritz F; Waldenberger, Melanie; de Boer, Rudolf A; Franke, Lude; van der Vleuten, Pieter A; Beckmann, Britt Maria; Martens, Eimo; Bardai, Abdennasser; Hofman, Nynke; Wilde, Arthur A M; Behr, Elijah R; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Giudicessi, John R; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Barc, Julien; Kyndt, Florence; Probst, Vincent; Ghidoni, Alice; Insolia, Roberto; Hamilton, Robert M; Scherer, Stephen W; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Margulies, Kenneth; Moravec, Christine E; del Greco M, Fabiola; Fuchsberger, Christian; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Lee, Wai K; Watt, Graham C M; Campbell, Harry; Wild, Sarah H; El Mokhtari, Nour E; Frey, Norbert; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van den Berg, Maarten P; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Kellis, Manolis; Krijthe, Bouwe P; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Kors, Jan A; Uitterlinden, André G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Lamina, Claudia; Oostra, Ben A; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Lakatta, Edward G; Mulas, Antonella; Orrú, Marco; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Markus, Marcello R P; Völker, Uwe; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lind, Lars; Sundström, Johan; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kivimaki, Mika; Kähönen, Mika; Mononen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Viikari, Jorma S; Adamkova, Vera; Kiechl, Stefan; Brion, Maria; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haerting, Johannes; Dominiczak, Anna F; Nyberg, Fredrik; Whincup, Peter H; Hingorani, Aroon D; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Bezzina, Connie R; Ingelsson, Erik; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gasparini, Paolo; Wilson, James F; Rudan, Igor; Franke, Andre; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Lehtimäki, Terho J; Paterson, Andrew D; Parsa, Afshin; Liu, Yongmei; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Siscovick, David S; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jamshidi, Yalda; Salomaa, Veikko; Felix, Stephan B; Sanna, Serena; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Stricker, Bruno H; Stefansson, Kari; Boyer, Laurie A; Cappola, Thomas P; Olsen, Jesper V; Lage, Kasper; Schwartz, Peter J; Kääb, Stefan; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ackerman, Michael J; Pfeufer, Arne; de Bakker, Paul I W; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD. PMID:24952745

  13. [Oro-facial-digital syndrome type I: phenotypic variable expression].

    PubMed

    Boldrini, María Pía; Giovo, María Elsa; Bogado, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1; OMIM #311200) is a developmental disorder transmitted as an X-linked dominant condition with embryonic male lethality. It is associated with malformation of the oral cavity, face, and digits. Furthermore, it is characterized by the presence of milia, hypotrichosis and polycystic kidney disease. We present two cases with clinical diagnosis of oral-facial-digital syndrome type I with some phenotypic variability between them.

  14. Molecular predictors of drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval.

    PubMed

    Dilaveris, Polychronis E

    2005-04-01

    One of the most common causes of drug withdrawal from the market is the prolongation of the QT interval associated with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or torsade de pointes (TdP) that can degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Cardiac and non-cardiac drugs prolong the QT interval and cause TdP by blocking cardiac K+ channels in general, and selectively blocking the rapidly activating delayed rectifier channel IKr. Co-assembly of HERG (human-ether-a-go-go-related gene) alpha-subunits and MiRP1 (MinK-related peptide 1) beta-subunits recapitulate the behavior of native human IKr, and the majority of mutations of HERG and MiRP1 decrease the repolarizing current, delay ventricular repolarization and prolong the QT. Thus, drug-induced QT prolongation and TdP might represent an iatrogenic reproduction of the congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Current evidence suggests that 5 to 10% of persons in whom TdP develops on exposure to QT-interval prolonging drugs harbor mutations associated with the LQTS and can therefore be viewed as having a subclinical form of the congenital syndrome. This clinical observation is entirely consistent with the concept of reduced repolarization reserve arising from a mutation in an ion-channel gene, which predisposes the carrier to drug-induced TdP. This review centers on the possible molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced QT prolongation and TdP, the description of specific drugs and risk factors facilitating the development of TdP, and the recommendations for preventing and treating this potentially fatal arrhythmia.

  15. Gait Strategy in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Camerota, Filippo; Celletti, Claudia; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    People suffering from Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) hypermobility type present a severe ligament laxity that results in difficulties in muscle force transmission. The same condition is present in people suffering from Down syndrome (DS) even if their clumsy movements are due to cerebral and cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to…

  16. Nevus comedonicus in oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1: a new finding or overlapping syndromes?

    PubMed

    Baker, Lauren A; Agim, Nnenna G

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFDS1) who exhibited features overlapping those of nevus comedonicus syndrome, an unusual presentation that may potentially represent a new variant of OFDS1. OFDS1 and nevus comedonicus syndrome represent two rare syndromes with numerous overlapping features that have yet to be described in relation to one another. The features present in our patient led us to propose the possibility of a new variant of OFDS1 in which nevus comedonicus represents a cutaneous manifestation of the syndrome. Knowledge of this potential relationship is important for identification and management of the syndromes' accompanying manifestations in affected patients and may offer further insight into crossroads of pathogenesis. PMID:24517846

  17. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  18. Oral Contraceptive Use and the ECG: Evidence of an Adverse QT Effect on Corrected QT Interval

    PubMed Central

    Sedlak, Tara; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Iribarren, Carlos; Lyon, Liisa L; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2013-01-01

    Background A prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval is a marker for an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. We evaluated the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) use, type of OC, and QTc interval. Methods We identified 410,782 ECGs performed at Northern California Kaiser Permanente on female patients between 15–53 years from January, 1995 to June, 2008. QT was corrected for heart rate using log-linear regression. OC generation (first, second and third) was classified by increasing progestin androgenic potency, while the fourth generation was classified as anti-androgenic. Results Among 410,782 women, 8.4% were on OC. In multivariate analysis after correction for comorbidities, there was an independent shortening effect of OCs overall (slope = −0.5ms; SE = 0.12, p<0.0002). Users of first and second generation progestins had a significantly shorter QTc than non-users (p<0.0001), while users of fourth generation had a significantly longer QTc than non-users (slope = 3.6ms, SE = 0.35, p<0.0001). Conclusion Overall, OC use has a shortening effect on the QTc. Shorter QTc is seen with first and second generation OC while fourth generation OC use has a lengthening effect on the QTc. Careful examination of adverse event rates in fourth generation OC users is needed. PMID:23879279

  19. Type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Chiaratti, Francielle Chiavelli; Daxbacher, Egon Luiz Rodrigues; Neumann, Antonielle Borges Faria; Jeunon, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease characterized by manifestations in the peripheral nerves and skin. The course of the disease may be interrupted by acute phenomena called reactions. This article reports a peculiar case of type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like features as the first clinical manifestation of leprosy, resulting in a delay in the diagnosis due to unusual clinical presentation. The patient had clinical and histopathological features reminiscent of Sweet's syndrome associated with clusters of vacuolated histiocytes containing acid-fast bacilli isolated or forming globi. Herein, it is discussed how to recognize type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome features, the differential diagnosis with type 1 leprosy reaction and the treatment options. When this kind of reaction is the first clinical presentation of leprosy, the correct diagnosis might be not suspected clinically, and established only with histopathologic evaluation. PMID:27438203

  20. Type A aortic dissection presenting as superior vena cava syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raja, Faisal S; Islam, Ali; Khan, Mustafa; Abbasi, Iram

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old man presented with a 5-day history of progressive facial swelling, sensation of head fullness, increasing shortness of breath and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. He denied chest pain, syncope or presyncope. Past medical history included mechanical aortic valve replacement 7 years prior and atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin. A clinical diagnosis of acute superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome was made. Portable chest radiograph showed a widened superior mediastinum. Computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a large type A aortic dissection almost completely effacing the SVC. Acute type A aortic dissection (AD) is an emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Patients typically present with acute onset of chest and/or back pain, classically described as "ripping" or "tearing." SVC syndrome is rarely, if ever, mentioned as a presentation, as it is usually due to more chronic conditions. This case illustrates a rare incidence of type A AD actually presenting as SVC syndrome.

  1. [Coexistence of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 with diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterized by the combination of two or more organ-specific disorders. The underestimation oftheir real frequency probable results from physicians' inadequate knowledge of these clinical entities and sometimes their atypical clinical presentation. Because they comprise a wide spectrum of autoimmune disorders, autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are divided into four types, among which type-3 is the most common one. In this article, we report the case of a young female, initially diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who several years later developed full-blown autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 consisting of autoimmune thyroid disorder and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.The discussed case suggests that in selected patients diabetes insipidus may coexist with autoimmune endocrinopathies and nonendocrine autoimmunopathies, as well as that in some patients idiopathic diabetes insipidus may be secondary to lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and/or the supraoptic-hypophyseal tract

  2. The impact of varying autonomic states on the dynamic beat-to-beat QT-RR and QT-TQ interval relationships.

    PubMed

    Fossa, A A

    2008-08-01

    The beat-to-beat dynamicity of the QT-RR interval relationship is difficult to assess with the use of traditional correction factors (QTc) and changes in QTc do not accurately reflect or quantify arrhythmogenic risk. Further, the interpretation of arrhythmogenic risk is influenced by autonomic state. To visualize the QT-RR interval dynamics under varying conditions of autonomic state from impaired repolarization, we have developed a system to sequentially plot the beat-to-beat confluence of ECG data or 'clouds' obtained from conscious dogs and humans. To represent the non-uniformity of the clouds, a bootstrap sampling method that computes the mathematical centre of the uncorrected beat-to-beat QT value (QTbtb) and defines the upper and lower 95% confidence bounds is used. The same method can also be used to examine heterogeneity, hysteresis (both acceleration and deceleration) and restitution (beat-to-beat QT-TQ interval relationship). Impaired repolarization with the combination of E-4031 and L-768,673 (inhibitor of IKs current) increased heterogeneity of restitution at rest 55-91%; increased hysteresis during heart rate acceleration after isoproterenol challenge by approximately 40-60%; and dramatically diminished the minimum TQ boundary by 72% to only 28 ms. Impaired repolarization alters restitution during normal sinus rhythm and increases hysteresis/heterogeneity during heart rate acceleration following sympathetic stimulation. These findings are supported by similar clinical observations in LQT1 and LQT2 syndromes. Therefore, the assessment of the dynamic QT-RR and QT-TQ interval relationships through quantification of heterogeneity, hysteresis and restitution may allow a more accurate non-invasive evaluation of the conditions leading to cardiac arrhythmia.

  3. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma with the nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vankawala, Preksha; Kuperman, Michael B.; Mennel, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 23-year-old white man who presented with anasarca and a new periumbilical mass. He had preserved kidney function and laboratory findings consistent with nephrotic syndrome, including 9.7 g/day albuminuria. Serum serologies were positive for anti-SSa and anti-SSb and low complements but were negative for antinuclear antibody. Pathologic findings of the abdominal mass showed a mammary-type myofibroblastoma. A kidney biopsy revealed a diffuse proliferative and membranous immune-mediated glomerulonephritis with 10% interstitial fibrosis. This is a novel case of mammary-type myofibroblastoma associated with nephrotic syndrome mimicking a proliferative lupus pattern. PMID:27365885

  4. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2 with Alopecia Universalis and Hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Dave, Priti; Bhosle, Deepak; Dharme, Madhav; Deshmukh, Deepak; Patel, Jay

    2015-04-01

    A 46 years old female, presented with severe fatigue, nypotension ana hyperpigmentation. Her basal serum cortisol level at 8 a.m. was < 1.0 μg/dl which suggested a diagnosis of Addison's disease. An association with latent autoimmune diabetes of adult and autoimmune hypothyroidism led to a diagnosis of Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome type II (PAS II). She also had alopecia universalis and hypoparathyroidism which are very rare in PAS type II syndrome. On treatment with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone there was drastic improvement in the clinical features.

  5. Use of in vitro methods to predict QT prolongation

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, T.G. . E-mail: tim.hammond@astrazeneca.com; Pollard, C.E.

    2005-09-01

    The inhibition of the hERG-encoded potassium channel can lead to prolongation of the cardiac action potential-manifested as a prolongation of the QT interval on the ECG. Although QT interval prolongation is not dangerous per se, in a small percentage of cases, it is associated with a potentially fatal arrhythmia: Torsades de Pointes (TdP). This channel type is pharmacologically promiscuous, so many compounds have caused QT interval prolongation in man and this has led to drugs being withdrawn from the market following evidence of TdP. From a drug discovery perspective, focusing as early as possible on screening out hERG activity is important. Retrospective analysis of hERG potency versus clinical incidence of TdP suggests provisional safety margins that could be used as target values by medicinal chemists. Large safety margins will not always be possible; however, and in such circumstances, if the risk-benefit ratio still favours developing the compound, a pre-clinical assessment of the likelihood that any QT interval prolongation will or will not lead to TdP in man may be important. An isolated rabbit heart model of arrhythmia shows promise in this respect, based on a comparison of clinical data with that obtained from this assay. Specific regulatory guidance on this topic is still in the draft form but the pre-clinical document (ICH S7B) contains a largely useful perspective on how an integrated risk assessment could be formed using in vitro and in vivo assays. The role of this document is evolving however, since the draft clinical guideline (E14) suggests that irrespective of the pre-clinical data, a thorough clinical ECG study will be required at some point during development.

  6. Ehlers-danlos syndrome-hypermobility type and hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Plackett, Timothy P; Kwon, Edward; Gagliano, Ronald A; Oh, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-hypermobility type (EDS-HT) is a connective tissue disorder associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The diagnosis is based on simple clinical examination, although it is easily overlooked. Herein we present a case of EDS-HT associated with hemorrhoids and suggest that there may be an association between the two conditions. PMID:24839575

  7. Oral-facial-digital syndrome gabrielli type: second report.

    PubMed

    Obregón, Maria Gabriela; Barreiro, Cristina Zulema

    2003-05-01

    We describe a second sporadic case, a girl, with the features of Oral-Facial-Digital, type Gabrielli. We comment on several aspects of this condition and confirm this entity as a unique syndrome, different from the other OFDS. To date, the diagnosis is based only on clinical and radiographic findings.

  8. Richner-Hanhart syndrome and tyrosinemia type II.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, N

    1980-01-01

    A patient already published a case of Richner-Hanhart syndrome (RHS) (stabilized corneal lesions and hyperkeratotic lesions on the palms and soles) proved to be associated with tyrosinemia type II. 2 other cases (sister and brother) with only typical dermatologic features of RHS and tyrosinemia type II are described. The treatment with a low phenylalanine and tyrosine diet improves the cutaneous lesions in our 3 cases.

  9. Atypical clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Marek, Bogdan; Okopień, Bogusław

    2009-03-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary tumor syndrome characterized by a genetic predisposition to develop a variety of neuroendocrine tumors and hormone excess syndromes. The major components of MEN1 are hyperparathyroidism due to multiple parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia, duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and pituitary adenomas, most often producing prolactin. Physicians' inadequate knowledge of this clinical entity and sometimes its atypical presentation result in a probable significant underdiagnosis of MEN1. This describes the case of a 65-year-old female in whom primary hyperparathyroidism, limited to only one parathyroid gland, was preceded by acromegaly that was diagnosed 23 years earlier. This case shows that MEN1 manifests itself even in older groups and hyperparathyroidism may not be the first symptom of this syndrome. Therefore, we believe that all subjects who, regardless of age, gender and initial manifestation present with whichever the major symptom should be followed up regularly for the early detection of MEN1. PMID:19514648

  10. Adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type IV with erythrocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Tótoli, Cláudia; Calado, Joaquim Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bartter syndrome comprises a group of rare autosomal-recessive salt-losing disorders with distinct phenotypes, but one unifying pathophysiology consisting of severe reductions of sodium reabsorption caused by mutations in five genes expressed in the thick ascending limb of Henle, coupled with increased urinary excretion of potassium and hydrogen, which leads to hypokalemic alkalosis. Bartter syndrome type IV, caused by loss-of-function mutations in barttin, a subunit of chloride channel CLC-Kb expressed in the kidney and inner ear, usually occurs in the antenatal-neonatal period. We report an unusual case of late onset presentation of Bartter syndrome IV and mild phenotype in a 20 years-old man who had hypokalemia, deafness, secondary hyperparathyroidism and erythrocytosis. PMID:26537508

  11. Management of pregnancy in Crigler Najjar syndrome type 2

    PubMed Central

    Chaubal, Alisha Nitin; Patel, Ruchir; Choksi, Dhaval; Shah, Kaivan; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-01-01

    Crigler Najjar syndrome is associated with indirect hyperbilirubinemia due to a deficiency of enzyme Uridine Di Phospho Glucoronosyl Transferase (UDPGT). Presented here is a case of a female in the first trimester of pregnancy, who was diagnosed to have type 2 Crigler Najjar syndrome. We also discuss the management of this rare disease especially in pregnancy. Unconjugated bilirubin can cross the placental barrier causing neurological damage in the newborn. Patient was carefully monitored during pregnancy and treatment with phenobarbitone in low doses was adjusted such that the serum bilirubin levels were below 10 mg/dL. Crigler Najjar syndrome being rare needs to be diagnosed early in pregnancy to avoid adverse fetal outcomes. Phenobarbitone being an inducer of enzyme UDPGT is used as the first line of treatment and is not teratogenic in the low doses used. Treatment protocol followed was on the basis of previous reported cases and successful perinatal outcome was achieved. PMID:27099654

  12. Multicenter comparison of Roche COBAS AMPLICOR MONITOR version 1.5, Organon Teknika NucliSens QT with Extractor, and Bayer Quantiplex version 3.0 for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D G; Côté, L; Fauvel, M; René, P; Vincelette, J

    2000-11-01

    The performance and characteristics of Roche COBAS AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR version 1.5 (CA MONITOR 1.5) UltraSensitive (usCA MONITOR 1. 5) and Standard (stCA MONITOR 1.5) procedures, Organon Teknika NucliSens HIV-1 RNA QT with Extractor (NucliSens), and Bayer Quantiplex HIV RNA version 3.0 (bDNA 3.0) were compared in a multicenter trial. Samples used in this study included 460 plasma specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons, 100 plasma specimens from HIV antibody (anti-HIV)-negative persons, and culture supernatants of HIV-1 subtype A to E isolates diluted in anti-HIV-negative plasma. Overall, bDNA 3.0 showed the least variation in RNA measures upon repeat testing. For the Roche assays, usCA MONITOR 1.5 displayed less variation in RNA measures than stCA MONITOR 1.5. NucliSens, at an input volume of 2 ml, showed the best sensitivity. Deming regression analysis indicated that the results of all three assays were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001). However, the mean difference in values between CA MONITOR 1.5 and bDNA 3.0 (0.274 log(10) RNA copies/ml; 95% confidence interval, 0.192 to 0.356) was significantly different from 0, indicating that CA MONITOR 1.5 values were regularly higher than bDNA 3.0 values. Upon testing of 100 anti-HIV-negative plasma specimens, usCA MONITOR 1.5 and NucliSens displayed 100% specificity, while bDNA 3.0 showed 98% specificity. NucliSens quantified 2 of 10 non-subtype B viral isolates at 1 log(10) lower than both CA MONITOR 1.5 and bDNA 3.0. For NucliSens, testing of specimens with greater than 1,000 RNA copies/ml at input volumes of 0.1, 0.2, and 2.0 ml did not affect the quality of results. Additional factors differing between assays included specimen throughput and volume requirements, limit of detection, ease of execution, instrument work space, and costs of disposal. These characteristics, along with assay performance, should be considered when one is selecting a viral load assay.

  13. A 24-HOUR AMBULATORY ECG MONITORING IN ASSESSMENT OF QT INTERVAL DURATION AND DISPERSION IN ROWERS WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL MYOCARDIAL HYPERTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Z.F.; Bilalova, R.R.; Tsibulkin, N.A.; Almetova, R.R.; Mudarisova, R.R.; Ahmetov, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) due to cardiac pathology is characterized by an increase in QT interval duration and dispersion, while the findings for exercise-induced myocardial hypertrophy are contradictory. The majority of published research findings have not explored this relationship, but there have only been a few conducted studies using 24-hour ECG monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the QT interval duration and dispersion in short-term and 24-hour ECG in endurance athletes with myocardial hypertrophy and without it. Methods: A total of 26 well-trained rowers underwent a resting 12-lead ECG, 24-hour ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results: Athletes with MH (n = 7) at rest did not show any increase in QTc interval duration and dispersion, or mean and maximal QTc duration in Holter monitoring compared to athletes without MH (n = 19). Left ventricular mass was not significantly correlated with any QTc characteristics. Furthermore, athletes with MH had significantly longer mean QT (P = 0.01) and maximal QT (P = 0.018) intervals in Holter monitoring and higher 24-hour heart rate variability indexes due to stronger vagal effects. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that athlete's heart syndrome with myocardial hypertrophy as a benign phenomenon does not lead to an increase in QT interval duration, or increases in maximal and mean duration in a 24-hour ECG. An increase in QT interval duration in athletes may have an autonomic nature. PMID:24744494

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Romano-Ward syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead to fainting (syncope) or cardiac arrest and sudden death. Related Information What does it mean if a ... list from the University of Kansas Medical Center Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndromes (SADS) Foundation: Long QT Syndrome GeneReviews (1 ...

  15. Neutrophil adhesion in leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M L; Schwartz, B R; Etzioni, A; Bayer, R; Ochs, H D; Paulson, J C; Harlan, J M

    1995-01-01

    We have previously reported a newly discovered congenital disorder of neutrophil adhesion, leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 2 (LAD II). The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are similar to those seen in the classic leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, now designated type 1 (LAD I), but the two syndromes differ in the molecular basis of their adhesion defects. LAD I is caused by a deficiency in the CD18 integrin adhesion molecules while LAD II patients are deficient in expression of sialyl-Lewis X (SLeX), a carbohydrate ligand for selectins. In this report we demonstrate that neutrophils from a LAD II patient bind minimally or not at all to recombinant E-selectin, purified platelet P-selectin, or P-selectin expressed on histamine-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but have normal levels of L-selectin and CD11b/CD18 integrin, and adhere to and migrate across endothelium when CD11b/CD18 is activated. We compare LAD I and LAD II patient neutrophil function in vitro, demonstrating that integrin and selectin adhesion molecules have distinct but interdependent roles in neutrophil adhesion during an inflammatory response. Images PMID:8675661

  16. No Untoward Effect of Long-Term Ketoconazole Administration on Electrocardiographic QT Interval in Patients with Cushing's Disease.

    PubMed

    De Martin, Martina; Toja, Paola Maria; Goulene, Karine; Radaelli, Piero; Cavagnini, Francesco; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Pecori Giraldi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Ketoconazole is listed among drugs that prolong QT interval and may increase the risk of torsade de pointes, a severe ventricular arrhythmia. This compound has recently been approved for treatment of Cushing's syndrome, a severe endocrine disorder. These patients harbour several risk factors for prolonged QT interval, for example hypokalaemia and left ventricular hypertrophy, but no study has evaluated whether administration of ketoconazole affects their QT interval. The aim of this study was to assess the QT interval in patients with Cushing's disease during long-term administration of ketoconazole. Electrocardiograms from 15 patients with Cushing's disease (12 women, 3 men, age: 37.8 ± 2.66 years) on ketoconazole treatment (100 mg-800 mg qd) for 1 month to 12 years were reviewed retrospectively. QT interval was measured and corrected for heart rate (QTc). Measurements before and during ketoconazole treatment were compared and any abnormal QTc value recorded. Concurrent medical therapies were also documented. On average, QTc was superimposable before and during ketoconazole treatment (393.2 ± 7.17 versus 403.3 ± 6.05 msec. in women; 424.3 ± 23.54 versus 398.0 ± 14.93 msec. in men, N.S.). QTc normalized on ketoconazole in one man with prolonged QTc prior to treatment; no abnormal QTc was observed in any other patient during the entire observation period, even during concurrent treatment with other QT-prolonging drugs. In conclusion, long-term ketoconazole administration does not appear to be associated with significant prolongation of QT interval in patients with Cushing's disease. ECG monitoring can follow recommendations drawn for other low-risk QT-prolonging drugs with attention to specific risk factors, for example hypokalaemia and drug interactions.

  17. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV with Bilateral Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Wada, Hiroshi; Hajiro, Takashi; Nagao, Taishi; Ogawa, Emiko; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old teen was hospitalized with bilateral pneumothorax. After the bilateral lungs were expanded using catheter tubes, he fully recovered and he was discharged from our hospital. He had a history of colon perforation. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) was suspected due to the combination of colon perforation and pneumothorax, and EDS type IV was confirmed after a genetic study identified a c.1511g>a mutation in the COL3A1 gene. This is the first report of bilateral pneumothorax caused by EDS type IV. Clinicians should consider EDS type IV in the differential diagnosis for bilateral pneumothorax in conjunction with distinct previous histories and radiological findings.

  18. Occurrence of Parkinson's syndrome in type I Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, O; Giladi, N; Elstein, D; Abrahamov, A; Turezkite, T; Aghai, E; Reches, A; Bembi, B; Zimran, A

    1996-09-01

    Gaucher disease, the most prevalent glycolipid storage disorder, is classically subdivided into types according to the presence or absence of neurological involvement. Type I has hitherto been considered non-neuronopathic. We present six cases and a review of the literature of Parkinsonian symptoms in type I Gaucher disease patients. The hallmark of this atypical Parkinsonian syndrome is a relatively severe clinical course with early appearance of neurological signs in the 4th to 6th decade of life, aggressive progression of the signs and refractoriness to conventional anti-Parkinson therapy. We discuss the implications of these findings in the light of enzyme replacement therapy for Gaucher disease. PMID:8917744

  19. Embryonic type Na+ channel β-subunit, SCN3B masks the disease phenotype of Brugada syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okata, Shinichiro; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Ito, Shogo; Makita, Naomasa; Yoshida, Tetsu; Li, Min; Kurokawa, Junko; Seki, Tomohisa; Egashira, Toru; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Kodaira, Masaki; Motoda, Chikaaki; Yozu, Gakuto; Shimojima, Masaya; Hayashiji, Nozomi; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Kuroda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Atsushi; Murata, Mitsushige; Aiba, Takeshi; Shimizu, Wataru; Horie, Minoru; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    SCN5A is abundant in heart and has a major role in INa. Loss-of-function mutation in SCN5A results in Brugada syndrome (BrS), which causes sudden death in adults. It remains unclear why disease phenotype does not manifest in the young even though mutated SCN5A is expressed in the young. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the timing of the disease manifestation in BrS. A gain-of-function mutation in SCN5A also results in Long QT syndrome type 3 (LQTS3), leading to sudden death in the young. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from a patient with a mixed phenotype of LQTS3 and BrS with the E1784K SCN5A mutation. Here we show that electrophysiological analysis revealed that LQTS3/BrS iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate the phenotype of LQTS3 but not BrS. Each β-subunit of the sodium channel is differentially expressed in embryonic and adult hearts. SCN3B is highly expressed in embryonic hearts and iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. A heterologous expression system revealed that INa of mutated SCN5A is decreased and SCN3B augmented INa of mutated SCN5A. Knockdown of SCN3B in LQTS3/BrS iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes successfully unmasked the phenotype of BrS. Isogenic control of LQTS3/BrS (corrected-LQTS3/BrS) iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes gained the normal electrophysiological properties. PMID:27677334

  20. Fulminant hepatic failure in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Chapman, A R; Reid, G T; Hayes, P C

    2015-01-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is liver disease that causes encephalopathy within 8 weeks of onset of symptoms or within 2 weeks of onset of jaundice in a patient without prior evidence of liver disease. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 is an autoimmune autosomal-recessive condition causing parathyroid and adrenal insufficiency, alopecia, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, ectodermal dystrophy and, rarely, hepatitis. Although the liver can be affected as a consequence of the autoimmune process, the spectrum of disease activity is varied. Autoimmune hepatitis develops in 10-20% of patients and successful liver transplantation has been reported in pediatric patients who failed immunosuppressive treatment. We report fulminant hepatic failure in an adult patient with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 who responded to medical treatment and did not require liver transplantation. We highlight the diagnostic scoring system for autoimmune hepatitis and the referral criteria for liver transplantation in fulminant hepatic failure.

  1. Berardinelli-Seip syndrome type 1 in an Egyptian child

    PubMed Central

    Metwalley, Kotb Abbass; Farghaly, Hekma Saad

    2014-01-01

    Berardinelli-Seip syndrome type 1 or Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 1 (BSCL1) is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by lipoatrophy, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatomegaly and acromegaloid features. Its prevalence in Egypt is not known. Here, we report case of a 12-year-old Egyptian boy with the clinical, metabolic and molecular genetics manifestations of BSCL1 including overt diabetes mellitus. PMID:24959019

  2. DRESS syndrome associated with type 2 diabetes in a child

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Bag, Ozlem; Karkiner, Canan Sule Unsal; Korkmaz, Huseyin Anil; Can, Demet

    2016-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an uncommon, life-threatening drug reaction. The basic findings are skin rash, multiorgan involvement, and eosinophilia. Most of the aromatic anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital and carbamazepine can induce DRESS. Herein we report a 14-year-old patient with DRESS syndrome related to carbamazepine use. The patient presented with signs of involvement of the skin, lungs, liver, and microscopic hematuria. Carbamazepine treatment was discontinued; antihistamines and steroids were started. Hyperglycemia, commencing on the first dose of the steroid given, persisted even after the discontinuation of steroids and improvement of other signs. There were no signs of pancreatitis or type 1 diabetes clinically in laboratory tests. Her blood glucose levels were regulated at first with insulin and later with metformin. Within 1 year of follow-up, still regulated with oral antidiabetics, she has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Formerly, long-term sequelae related to “drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome” such as hepatic and renal failure, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Grave's disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and lupus have also been reported. However, up to date, no cases with type 2 diabetes have been reported as long-term sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature presenting with type 2 diabetes as long-term sequelae. PMID:26862317

  3. Congenital long QT 3 in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Blaufox, Andrew D; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Seslar, Stephen; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Trivedi, Bhavya; Fischbach, Peter; Paul, Thomas; Young, Ming-Lon; Tisma-Dupanovic, Svjetlana; Silva, Jennifer; Cuneo, Bettina; Fournier, Anne; Singh, Harinder; Tanel, Ronn E; Etheridge, Susan P

    2012-05-15

    There is insufficient knowledge concerning long-QT (LQT) 3 in the pediatric population to determine whether recommendations for more aggressive therapy in these patients are appropriate. An international multicenter review of 43 children with cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A) mutations and clinical manifestations of LQT syndrome without overlap of other SCN5A syndromes was undertaken to describe the clinical characteristics of LQT3 in children. Patients were aged 7.6 ± 5.9 years at presentation and were followed for 4.7 ± 3.9 years. There was significant intrasubject corrected QT interval (QTc) variability on serial electrocardiography. Forty-two percent presented with severe symptoms or arrhythmia and exhibited longer QTc intervals compared to asymptomatic patients. None of the 14 patients who underwent primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation received appropriate shocks in 41 patient-years of follow-up, while 2 of 6 patients who underwent secondary prevention ICD implantation received appropriate shocks in 30 patient-years of follow-up. Half of patients who underwent ICD implantation experienced inappropriate shocks or ICD-related complications. Mexiletine significantly shortened the QTc interval, and QTc shortening was greater in patients with longer pretreated QTc intervals. Two ICD patients with frequent appropriate ICD shocks showed immediate clinical improvement, with elimination of appropriate ICD shocks after mexiletine loading. In conclusion, severe symptoms are common in children with LQT3 and are associated with longer QTc intervals. ICD implantation is associated with significant morbidity. Mexiletine shortens the QTc interval, and it may be beneficial. PMID:22360817

  4. Griscelli syndrome type 2: A rare and fatal syndrome in a South Indian boy.

    PubMed

    Rajyalakshmi, R; Chakrapani, R N B

    2016-01-01

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the MYO5A (GS1), RAB27A (GS2), and MLPH (GS3) genes, characterized by a common feature, partial albinism. The common variant of three, GS type 2, in addition, shows primary immunodeficiency which leads to recurrent infections and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We, herewith, describe a case of GS type 2, in a 4-year-old male child who presented with chronic and recurrent fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and secondary neurological deterioration; highlighting the cytological and histopathological features of lymph nodes. Hair shaft examination of the child confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:26960655

  5. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV with Bilateral Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Wada, Hiroshi; Hajiro, Takashi; Nagao, Taishi; Ogawa, Emiko; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old teen was hospitalized with bilateral pneumothorax. After the bilateral lungs were expanded using catheter tubes, he fully recovered and he was discharged from our hospital. He had a history of colon perforation. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) was suspected due to the combination of colon perforation and pneumothorax, and EDS type IV was confirmed after a genetic study identified a c.1511g>a mutation in the COL3A1 gene. This is the first report of bilateral pneumothorax caused by EDS type IV. Clinicians should consider EDS type IV in the differential diagnosis for bilateral pneumothorax in conjunction with distinct previous histories and radiological findings. PMID:26666608

  6. Clinical findings in obligate carriers of type I Usher syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenaar, M.; Rahe, B. ter; Aarem, A. van; Huygen, P.; Admiraal, R.

    1995-11-20

    Seventeen obligate carriers from nine families with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type I underwent otological, audiological, vestibular, and ophthalmological examination in order to identify possible manifestations of heterozygosity. Linkage studies were performed and six families showed linkage to chromosome region 11q13.5 while 3 families have so far failed to show linkage to the candidate regions. Eight obligate carriers had an abnormal puretone audiogram. Two different audiometric patterns could be distinguished when hearing loss was corrected for age and sex. Four carriers (24%) had significant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) which increased at higher frequencies. The other 13 carriers had SNHL of about 10 dB at 0.25 and 0.5 kHz, but less at higher frequencies. Vestibular findings were generally normal. Electrooculography demonstrated a significant lower mean light peak/dark trough ratio in Usher type I carriers compared to normal control individuals. The methods used in this study were found not to be specific enough to clinically identify carriers of Usher type I syndrome. Nevertheless it is remarkable that a number of obligate carriers showed significant audiological and ophthalmological abnormalities. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Type 1 diabetes and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Martin P; Matheis, Nina; Kahaly, George J

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder caused by inflammatory destruction of the pancreatic tissue. The etiopathogenesis and characteristics of the pathologic process of pancreatic destruction are well described. In addition, the putative susceptibility genes for T1D as a monoglandular disease and the relation to polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) have also been well explored. The incidence of T1D has steadily increased in most parts of the world, especially in industrialized nations. T1D is frequently associated with autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine diseases and patients with T1D are at a higher risk for developing several glandular autoimmune diseases. Familial clustering is observed, which suggests that there is a genetic predisposition. Various hypotheses pertaining to viral- and bacterial-induced pancreatic autoimmunity have been proposed, however a definitive delineation of the autoimmune pathomechanism is still lacking. In patients with PAS, pancreatic and endocrine autoantigens either colocalize on one antigen-presenting cell or are expressed on two/various target cells sharing a common amino acid, which facilitates binding to and activation of T cells. The most prevalent PAS phenotype is the adult type 3 variant or PAS type III, which encompasses T1D and autoimmune thyroid disease. This review discusses the findings of recent studies showing noticeable differences in the genetic background and clinical phenotype of T1D either as an isolated autoimmune endocrinopathy or within the scope of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. PMID:25685279

  8. Drug-induced Inhibition and Trafficking Disruption of ion Channels: Pathogenesis of QT Abnormalities and Drug-induced Fatal Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cubeddu, Luigi X

    2016-01-01

    Risk of severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias, presenting as Torsade de Pointes (TdP), is increased in congenital and acquired forms of long QT syndromes (LQTS). Drug-induced inhibition of K+ currents, IKs, IKr, IK1, and/or Ito, delay repolarization, prolong QT, and increase the risk of TdP. Drug-induced interference with IKr is the most common cause of acquired LQTS/TdP. Multiple drugs bind to KNCH2-hERG-K+ channels affecting IKr, including antiarrythmics, antibiotics, antivirals, azole-antifungals, antimalarials, anticancer, antiemetics, prokinetics, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Azithromycin has been recently added to this list. In addition to direct channel inhibition, some drugs interfere with the traffic of channels from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, decreasing mature channel membrane density; e.g., pentamidine, geldalamicin, arsenic trioxide, digoxin, and probucol. Other drugs, such as ketoconazole, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, donepezil, tamoxifen, endoxifen, atazanavir, and roxitromycin, induce both direct channel inhibition and impaired channel trafficking. Although many drugs prolong the QT interval, TdP is a rare event. The following conditions increase the risk of drug-induced TdP: a) Disease states/electrolyte levels (heart failure, structural cardiac disease, bradycardia, hypokalemia); b) Pharmacogenomic variables (presence of congenital LQTS, subclinical ion-channel mutations, history of or having a relative with history of drug-induced long QT/TdP); c) Pharmacodynamic and kinetic factors (high doses, women, elderly, metabolism inhibitors, combining two or more QT prolonging drugs, drugs that prolong the QT and increase QT dispersion, and drugs with multiple actions on ion channels). Because most of these conditions are preventable, careful evaluation of risk factors and increased knowledge of drug use associated with repolarization abnormalities are strongly recommended. PMID:26926294

  9. Skeletal abnormalities of tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Guilherme Monteiro; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    The tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) type I is a rare genetic disorder related to the TRPS1 gene mutation in chromosome 8, characterized by craniofacial abnormalities and disturbances in formation and maturation of bone matrix. The hallmarks are sparse and brittle hair, tendency to premature baldness, bulbous nose called pear-shaped, long and flat filter and low ear implantation. The most noticeable skeletal changes are clinodactyly, phalangeal epiphyses of the hands appearing as cone-shaped, short stature and hip joint malformations. We report a case of a teenager boy diagnosed with TRPS and referred for rheumatologic evaluation due to joint complaints. PMID:27267340

  10. Paradoxical hypertension and salt wasting in Type II Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie Kwai-Yu; To, Ka Fai; Tong, Joanna H M; Law, Chi Wai

    2012-06-01

    Ante/neonatal Bartter syndrome (BS) is a rare hereditary disorder. It is characterized by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, high renin and aldosterone but normal blood pressure. We report a low birth weight newborn baby who presented with repeated apnoea shortly after birth as well as hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis. Her biochemical features mimicked pseudohypoaldosteronism but with initial hypertension, which had not been described in BS. Her subsequent genetic study confirmed two novel heterozygous mutations in the Exon 5 of KCNJ1 compatible with Type II BS. PMID:26069767

  11. Difficulty eating and significant weight loss in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Van den Bossche, Thomas; Grossin, Daniel; Hamonet, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Joint Hypermobility Syndrome, also known as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a heritable disorder of connective tissue, common but poorly known by the medical community. Although generalized joint hypermobility and fragility of tissues have been described as core features, recent research highlights the multisystemic nature of JHS/EDS-HT, which presents with a wide range of articular and extra-articular symptoms. Among these, gastrointestinal problems, temporomandibular disorders, and smell and taste abnormalities are common among those affected, having significant implications for eating. The present work reviews the literature linking JHS/EDS-HT and eating problems. Two illustrative case reports, in which JHS/EDS-HT manifestations contribute to developing and maintaining disturbed eating behaviors and significant weight loss, are presented.

  12. Difficulty eating and significant weight loss in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Van den Bossche, Thomas; Grossin, Daniel; Hamonet, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Joint Hypermobility Syndrome, also known as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a heritable disorder of connective tissue, common but poorly known by the medical community. Although generalized joint hypermobility and fragility of tissues have been described as core features, recent research highlights the multisystemic nature of JHS/EDS-HT, which presents with a wide range of articular and extra-articular symptoms. Among these, gastrointestinal problems, temporomandibular disorders, and smell and taste abnormalities are common among those affected, having significant implications for eating. The present work reviews the literature linking JHS/EDS-HT and eating problems. Two illustrative case reports, in which JHS/EDS-HT manifestations contribute to developing and maintaining disturbed eating behaviors and significant weight loss, are presented. PMID:26506923

  13. QT dispersion in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Unubol, Mustafa; Eryilmaz, Ufuk; Guney, Engin; Ture, Mevlut; Akgullu, Cagdas

    2013-04-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition caused by a pituitary adenoma that secretes growth hormone. The mortality rate is 72 % higher in patients with acromegaly than in the general population according to meta-analyses. Mortality analysis has shown as many as 60 % of acromegalic patients die due to cardiovascular disease. Sudden cardiac death may occur in patients with acromegaly and malignant ventricular arrhythmia may play an important role in this fatal complication; however, the precise mechanism is not fully known. QT dispersion (dQT) is an electrophysiological factor known to be associated with a tendency for ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. This study aimed to evaluate dQT as an early predictor of ventricular tachyarrhythmia, as sudden cardiac death commonly occurs in acromegalic patients. This cross-sectional case-control study enrolled 20 patients (10 female and 10 male) with acromegaly and 20 healthy controls (11 female and 9 male) after exclusion criteria were applied. Each participant underwent 12-lead electrocardiography, including ≥3 QRS complexes, at a speed of 25 mm/s after a 15-min rest. In each participant, the QT interval (beginning of the Q wave to the end of the T wave) was corrected (QTc) for heart rate using Bazett's formula [Formula: see text] QTc dispersion (dQTc) (QTc max - QTc min) was also calculated. There was no significant difference in median dQTc between the acromegalic patients (0.79 s) and the controls (0.45 s) (p > 0.05). Active acromegalic patients (n = 14) were estimated to have a median dQTc of 0.82 s, after excluding from the analysis six patients that were under full biochemical control, and that had randomly obtained growth hormone levels <0.4 ng/mL, GH <1 ng/mL based on oral glucose tolerance test, and normal IGF-I for age and gender. A significant difference was noted in median dQTc between the active acromegalic patients and the controls (p = 0.015). The dQT in active acromegalic patients was

  14. Marfan syndrome: abnormal alpha 2 chain in type I collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, P H; Siegel, R C; Peterson, K E; Rowe, D W; Holbrook, K A; Smith, L T; Chang, Y H; Fu, J C

    1981-01-01

    Cells in culture from a woman with a variety of the Marfan syndrome produce two species of the alpha 2 chains of type I collagen. One alpha 2 chain appears normal; the abnormal chain has a higher apparent molecular weight than normal and migrates more slowly during electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels. A similar change in electrophoretic behavior is seen in the prepro alpha 2 chain and the pN alpha 2 chain (which contains the amino-terminal extension). Asymmetric cleavage of the pepsin-treated procollagens with a fibroblast collagenase locates the abnormal segment amino terminal to the cleavage site, and analysis of cyanogen bromide peptides of collagenase cleavage peptides and of whole collagens indicates that the abnormal segment is in either the alpha 2CB3 peptide or the short segment of alpha 2CB5 amino terminal to the collagenase site of the altered alpha 2 chain. The higher apparent molecular weight is consistent with the insertion of a small peptide fragment of approximately 20 amino acids. This alteration in chain size has marked effects on crosslinking because collagen from the patient's skin was 5-10 times more extractable in nondenaturing solvents than that from control skins. Although the abnormal chain was not found in several other individuals with the Marfan syndrome, these findings suggest that the phenotype may be the expression of a variety of primary structure alterations in the chains of type I collagen that interfere with normal crosslink formation. Images PMID:6950413

  15. Changes in QT interval before and after hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Khosoosi Niaki, Mohammad Reza; Saravi, Mehrdad; Oliaee, Farshid; Akbari, Roghayeh; Noorkhomami, Sepideh; Bozorgi Rad, Seyed Hassan; Fallahpoor, Kobra; Ramezani, Mir Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are high in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. Increased dispersion of QT intervals is known to predispose to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. This study was conducted to assess the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on corrected QT (QTc) intervals and their dispersions (QTd) in chronic hemodialyzed patients. Methods: Fifty-eight patients ( mean age 54.2±15.8 years) with chronic renal disease on chronic hemodialysis (HD) were assessed by standard examination including blood pressure, body weight, heart rate, 12–lead electrocardiography and laboratory tests like electrolytes (Na +, K +, Ca ++, phosphate), urea, and creatinine 30 minutes before and after HD. The QT intervals and QTc QTc= QT √R-R/ (in milli seconds [ms]) for each lead were measured manually by one observer using calipers. The difference between the maximum and the minimum of QT interval was noted as QT dispersion (QT d). Results: The mean of pre and post dialysis R-R intervals was 859.22±96.85 ms and 870.43±91.45 ms, respectively (p>0.05). The mean of corrected QT cmax intervals increased significantly from 423.45±24.10 to 454.41±30.25 ms (p<0.05). The mean of QT dispersions and the corrected QT interval dispersions changed from 51.56±12.45 to 63.21±14.43 ms (p<0.05) from 59.40±13.58 to 68.33±14.55 ms (p<0.05), respectively. The changes in serum potassium and calcium levels were related with QT interval prolongation. Conclusion: QT and QTc interval and dispersion increase in HD patients. Prolonged QT interval indices had relation with K+ and Ca++ ions before but not after HD. PMID:24009942

  16. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Soo-Hoo, Sarah; Porten, Brandon R; Engstrom, Bjorn I; Skeik, Nedaa

    2016-04-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) encompasses a group of rare genetic connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (type IV) poses the most serious risk to patients. Diagnosis is usually difficult, especially if patients lack a family history. Life-threatening vascular emergency such as dissection or rupture can be the first presenting symptom. Management of the disease can pose a clinical challenge due to the emergency of presentation, tissue friability, and lack of clear management recommendations. We report a unique case of a 40-year-old man who presented with a ruptured celiac artery and a strong family history of EDS. This case highlights the difficulties and complications associated with treating this uncommon and serious disease.

  17. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Soo-Hoo, Sarah; Porten, Brandon R; Engstrom, Bjorn I; Skeik, Nedaa

    2016-04-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) encompasses a group of rare genetic connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (type IV) poses the most serious risk to patients. Diagnosis is usually difficult, especially if patients lack a family history. Life-threatening vascular emergency such as dissection or rupture can be the first presenting symptom. Management of the disease can pose a clinical challenge due to the emergency of presentation, tissue friability, and lack of clear management recommendations. We report a unique case of a 40-year-old man who presented with a ruptured celiac artery and a strong family history of EDS. This case highlights the difficulties and complications associated with treating this uncommon and serious disease. PMID:26975607

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... heartbeats increase the risk of fainting (syncope) and sudden death. Related Information What does it mean if a ... list from the University of Kansas Medical Center Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndromes (SADS) Foundation: Long QT Syndrome GeneReviews (1 ...

  19. Generalized joint hypermobility, joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2015-03-01

    This issue of the American Journal of Medical Genetics Seminar Series Part C is dedicated to generalized joint hypermobility (gJHM), joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS), and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT). gJHM is the best known clinical manifestation of inherited defects of the connective tissue. On the other side, JHS and EDS-HT are actually considered one and the same from a clinical perspective by most practitioners and researchers (i.e., JHS/EDS-HT), and their molecular basis remains unknown. For decades, "non-syndromic" gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT have been thought to be simple clinical curiosities or an asset for the "affected" individual. In recent years, the attention on these partially overlapping phenotypes has increased, as they are now recognized risk factors for a series of non-communicable diseases and long-term disabilities. This series consists of 10 papers focused on three main topics, namely (i) assessment and differential diagnosis of children and adults with gJHM, (ii) systematic presentation of selected key non-articular manifestations of JHS/EDS-HT and actual perception of physiotherapy as the best therapeutic resource for this condition, and (iii) exploration of the available knowledge relating "congenital laxity of tissues" to various dysfunctions of the nervous system during development and adulthood. The contributors hope that this collection raises attention to this fascinating field of knowledge, which seems to have ramifications in virtually all medical disciplines.

  20. Generalized joint hypermobility, joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2015-03-01

    This issue of the American Journal of Medical Genetics Seminar Series Part C is dedicated to generalized joint hypermobility (gJHM), joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS), and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT). gJHM is the best known clinical manifestation of inherited defects of the connective tissue. On the other side, JHS and EDS-HT are actually considered one and the same from a clinical perspective by most practitioners and researchers (i.e., JHS/EDS-HT), and their molecular basis remains unknown. For decades, "non-syndromic" gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT have been thought to be simple clinical curiosities or an asset for the "affected" individual. In recent years, the attention on these partially overlapping phenotypes has increased, as they are now recognized risk factors for a series of non-communicable diseases and long-term disabilities. This series consists of 10 papers focused on three main topics, namely (i) assessment and differential diagnosis of children and adults with gJHM, (ii) systematic presentation of selected key non-articular manifestations of JHS/EDS-HT and actual perception of physiotherapy as the best therapeutic resource for this condition, and (iii) exploration of the available knowledge relating "congenital laxity of tissues" to various dysfunctions of the nervous system during development and adulthood. The contributors hope that this collection raises attention to this fascinating field of knowledge, which seems to have ramifications in virtually all medical disciplines. PMID:25821089

  1. Mutations in PIEZO2 Cause Gordon Syndrome, Marden-Walker Syndrome, and Distal Arthrogryposis Type 5

    PubMed Central

    McMillin, Margaret J.; Beck, Anita E.; Chong, Jessica X.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Gildersleeve, Heidi I.S.; Aracena, Mariana I.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Bitoun, Pierre; Carey, John C.; Clericuzio, Carol L.; Crow, Yanick J.; Curry, Cynthia J.; Devriendt, Koenraad; Everman, David B.; Fryer, Alan; Gibson, Kate; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Graham, John M.; Hall, Judith G.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Heidenreich, Randall A.; Hurst, Jane A.; Irani, Sarosh; Krapels, Ingrid P.C.; Leroy, Jules G.; Mowat, David; Plant, Gordon T.; Robertson, Stephen P.; Schorry, Elizabeth K.; Scott, Richard H.; Seaver, Laurie H.; Sherr, Elliott; Splitt, Miranda; Stewart, Helen; Stumpel, Constance; Temel, Sehime G.; Weaver, David D.; Whiteford, Margo; Williams, Marc S.; Tabor, Holly K.; Smith, Joshua D.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Gordon syndrome (GS), or distal arthrogryposis type 3, is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cleft palate and congenital contractures of the hands and feet. Exome sequencing of five GS-affected families identified mutations in piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (PIEZO2) in each family. Sanger sequencing revealed PIEZO2 mutations in five of seven additional families studied (for a total of 10/12 [83%] individuals), and nine families had an identical c.8057G>A (p.Arg2686His) mutation. The phenotype of GS overlaps with distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWS). Using molecular inversion probes for targeted sequencing to screen PIEZO2, we found mutations in 24/29 (82%) DA5-affected families and one of two MWS-affected families. The presence of cleft palate was significantly associated with c.8057G>A (Fisher’s exact test, adjusted p value < 0.0001). Collectively, although GS, DA5, and MWS have traditionally been considered separate disorders, our findings indicate that they are etiologically related and perhaps represent variable expressivity of the same condition. PMID:24726473

  2. Mutations in PIEZO2 cause Gordon syndrome, Marden-Walker syndrome, and distal arthrogryposis type 5.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Margaret J; Beck, Anita E; Chong, Jessica X; Shively, Kathryn M; Buckingham, Kati J; Gildersleeve, Heidi I S; Aracena, Mariana I; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bitoun, Pierre; Carey, John C; Clericuzio, Carol L; Crow, Yanick J; Curry, Cynthia J; Devriendt, Koenraad; Everman, David B; Fryer, Alan; Gibson, Kate; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Graham, John M; Hall, Judith G; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Heidenreich, Randall A; Hurst, Jane A; Irani, Sarosh; Krapels, Ingrid P C; Leroy, Jules G; Mowat, David; Plant, Gordon T; Robertson, Stephen P; Schorry, Elizabeth K; Scott, Richard H; Seaver, Laurie H; Sherr, Elliott; Splitt, Miranda; Stewart, Helen; Stumpel, Constance; Temel, Sehime G; Weaver, David D; Whiteford, Margo; Williams, Marc S; Tabor, Holly K; Smith, Joshua D; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Gordon syndrome (GS), or distal arthrogryposis type 3, is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cleft palate and congenital contractures of the hands and feet. Exome sequencing of five GS-affected families identified mutations in piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (PIEZO2) in each family. Sanger sequencing revealed PIEZO2 mutations in five of seven additional families studied (for a total of 10/12 [83%] individuals), and nine families had an identical c.8057G>A (p.Arg2686His) mutation. The phenotype of GS overlaps with distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWS). Using molecular inversion probes for targeted sequencing to screen PIEZO2, we found mutations in 24/29 (82%) DA5-affected families and one of two MWS-affected families. The presence of cleft palate was significantly associated with c.8057G>A (Fisher's exact test, adjusted p value < 0.0001). Collectively, although GS, DA5, and MWS have traditionally been considered separate disorders, our findings indicate that they are etiologically related and perhaps represent variable expressivity of the same condition. PMID:24726473

  3. Absence of linkage of Noonan syndrome to the neurofibromatosis type 1 locus.

    PubMed Central

    Sharland, M; Taylor, R; Patton, M A; Jeffery, S

    1992-01-01

    Eleven families with Noonan syndrome in either two or three generations have been identified. Following the reports of subjects with features of both Noonan syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1, these pedigrees have been studied using a number of probes at the neurofibromatosis type 1 locus (17q11). A significantly negative lod score was obtained with the intragenic probe NF1-C2, suggesting that the genes for Noonan syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 are not contiguous. PMID:1348095

  4. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul Hh

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers-Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3).

  5. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge

    PubMed Central

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul HH

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers–Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3). PMID:26316810

  6. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul Hh

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers-Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3). PMID:26316810

  7. Myositis in Griscelli syndrome type 2 treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Born, Alfred Peter; Müller, Klaus; Marquart, Hanne Vibeke; Heilmann, Carsten; Schejbel, Lone; Vissing, John

    2010-02-01

    Griscelli syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution and is occasionally associated with a hemophagocytic syndrome (type 2). We present a 13-year-old girl with Griscelli syndrome type 2, who developed a hemophagocytic syndrome along with marked muscle weakness and elevated plasma creatine kinase. Muscle biopsy showed massive inflammatory changes in some fascicles, while other fascicles were relatively spared. Clinical symptoms and biopsy changes resolved after immunosuppression and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Our results suggest that muscle involvement should be considered in patients with hemophagocytic syndrome to ensure proper treatment.

  8. Targeted Exon Sequencing in Usher Syndrome Type I

    PubMed Central

    Bujakowska, Kinga M.; Consugar, Mark; Place, Emily; Harper, Shyana; Lena, Jaclyn; Taub, Daniel G.; White, Joseph; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Weigel DiFranco, Carol; Farkas, Michael H.; Gai, Xiaowu; Berson, Eliot L.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Patients with Usher syndrome type I (USH1) have retinitis pigmentosa, profound congenital hearing loss, and vestibular ataxia. This syndrome is currently thought to be associated with at least six genes, which are encoded by over 180 exons. Here, we present the use of state-of-the-art techniques in the molecular diagnosis of a cohort of 47 USH1 probands. Methods. The cohort was studied with selective exon capture and next-generation sequencing of currently known inherited retinal degeneration genes, comparative genomic hybridization, and Sanger sequencing of new USH1 exons identified by human retinal transcriptome analysis. Results. With this approach, we were able to genetically solve 14 of the 47 probands by confirming the biallelic inheritance of mutations. We detected two likely pathogenic variants in an additional 19 patients, for whom family members were not available for cosegregation analysis to confirm biallelic inheritance. Ten patients, in addition to primary disease–causing mutations, carried rare likely pathogenic USH1 alleles or variants in other genes associated with deaf-blindness, which may influence disease phenotype. Twenty-one of the identified mutations were novel among the 33 definite or likely solved patients. Here, we also present a clinical description of the studied cohort at their initial visits. Conclusions. We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied USH1 cohort with multiplicity of mutations, of which many were novel. No obvious influence of genotype on phenotype was found, possibly due to small sample sizes of the genotypes under study. PMID:25468891

  9. Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Missed as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Ramandi, Mohammad Mostafa; Firoozi, Ata

    2016-01-01

    Although the aortic dissection is not common, its outcome is frequently fatal, and many patients with aortic dissection die before referral to the hospital or any diagnostic testing. The symptoms of aortic dissection can be similar to myocardial ischemia. A 66-year-old male was referred to our hospital with suspicion of aortic dissection after echocardiography done for evaluating his high blood pressure. He had symptoms of acute coronary syndrome two years before and had done coronary angiography. On presentation to our hospital he had a high blood pressure. On reviewing his past medical history and examining, in the film of coronary angiography, the dissection flap in ascending aorta was identified. Although type A aortic dissection is a catastrophic condition with high mortality and requires prompt surgical treatment but in some cases it may be misdiagnosed as acute coronary syndrome. Sometimes against its high mortality when left untreated, patients survive and are diagnosed later in life incidentally. So it is of great importance to have great clinical suspicion for aortic dissection in patients referring to the hospital with chest pain and the predisposing factors. PMID:27437290

  10. [Anthropometric parameters and metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    de Castro, Simone Henriques; de Mato, Haroldo José; Gomes, Marilia de Brito

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the value of body mass index (BMI) as predictor of waist circumference of cardiovascular risk (CRWC) and diagnostic of metabolic syndrome (MSWC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2), we assessed BMI and WC in 753 patients with DM 2 (472 women) with 23 +/- 8 years. The participants had been divided in groups in accordance with the presence or absence of ACCR or ACMS. The best BMI cut-off to predict such disturbances was evaluated in women and men. In females, BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m(2) was the best predictor of CRWC. Area under ROC curve and IC 95% were 0.7202 (0.6753 - 0.7652) for CRWC and of [0.8318 (0.7928 - 0.8708)] for MSWC. In males, IMC > or = 25.0 kg/m(2) was better predictor for CRWC presence [0.8527 (0.8098 - 0.8955)], while BMI > or = 30.0 kg/m(2) for MSWC [0.9071 (0.8708 - 0.9433)]. We conclude that BMI can be a simple way to evaluate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk where there were not material and prepared professionals for the WC evaluation. We need prospective studies to evaluate if it is necessary to change the BMI cut-off adopted as indicative of these disturbances in the diabetic population. PMID:16936985

  11. [Clinical practice guideline 'Complex regional pain syndrome type I'].

    PubMed

    Perez, R S G M; Zollinger, P E; Dijkstra, P U; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I L; Zuurmond, W W A; Rosenbrand, C J G M; Geertzen, J H B

    2007-07-28

    The development and treatment ofthe complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) are a subject of much discussion. Using the method for the development ofevidence-based guidelines, a multidisciplinary guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome has been drawn up. The diagnosis of CRPS-I is based on the clinical observation of signs and symptoms. For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised up to step z. In case of pain ofa neuropathic nature, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For the treatment ofinflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. In order to enhance peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used for a cold extremity ifvasodilatory medication produces insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, the use of vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operation time and limited use of bloodlessness are advised for the secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Use of regional anaesthetic techniques can also be considered in this connection.

  12. QT interval and dispersion in primary autonomic failure.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, S. S.; Mathias, C. J.; Sutton, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in determining QT interval and dispersion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 32 patients with chronic primary (idiopathic) autonomic failure (19 men, mean age 60 years) and 21 normal controls (11 men, mean age 59) without symptoms of ischaemic heart disease were studied retrospectively. Autonomic failure was diagnosed by a combination of symptomatic postural hypotension, subnormal plasma noradrenaline response to head-up tilt, and abnormal cardiovascular responses to standing, Valsalva manoeuvre, mental stress, cutaneous cold, isometric exercise, and deep breathing. QT intervals were measured from surface electrocardiograms and QT dispersion was defined as maximum QT--minimum QT occurring in any of the 12 leads. RESULTS: Mean heart rate (RR intervals) was similar in patients with autonomic failure and controls (S2 lead: 865 (132) v 857 (108) ms, P = NS; V2 lead: 865 (130) v 868 (113) ms, P = NS). QT intervals measured from electrocardiogram leads S2 and V2 were significantly longer in patients than in controls (401 (40) v 376 (16) ms, P < 0.01; and 403 (41) v 381 (20) ms, P < 0.05 respectively). The mean maximum QT interval in any lead, which is the best estimate of the maximum duration of electrical systole, was significantly longer in the patients than in controls (417 (48) v 388 (23) ms, P < 0.005). Linear regression analysis of QT and RR intervals for both groups showed a significant difference between the slopes of the two regression lines (F = 8.4, P < 0.001). However, QT dispersions were similar between patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with primary autonomic failure have prolongation of QT intervals, indicating that the autonomic nervous system is an important determinant of QT interval. However, QT dispersion does not seem to be affected by chronic primary autonomic denervation. PMID:8665344

  13. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation: does ethnicity of the thorough QT study population matter?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2013-01-01

    Inter-ethnic differences in drug responses have been well documented. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation is a major safety concern and therefore, regulatory authorities recommend a clinical thorough QT study (TQT) to investigate new drugs for their QT-prolonging potential. A positive study, determined by breach of a preset regulatory threshold, significantly influences late phase clinical trials by requiring intense ECG monitoring. A few studies that are currently available, although not statistically conclusive at present, question the assumption that ethnicity of the study population may not influence the outcome of a TQT study. Collective consideration of available pharmacogenetic and clinical information suggests that there may be inter-ethnic differences in QT-prolonging effects of drugs and that Caucasians may be more sensitive than other populations. The information also suggest s that (a) these differences may depend on the QT-prolonging potency of the drug and (b) exposure–response (E–R) analysis may be more sensitive than simple changes in QTc interval in unmasking this difference. If the QT response in Caucasians is generally found to be more intense than in non-Caucasians, there may be significant regulatory implications for domestic acceptance of data from a TQT study conducted in foreign populations. However, each drug will warrant an individual consideration when extrapolating the results of a TQT studyfrom one ethnic population to another and the ultimate clinical relevance of any difference. Further adequately designed and powered studies, investigating the pharmacologic properties and E–R relationships of additional drugs with different potencies, are needed in Caucasians, Oriental/Asian and African populations before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22882246

  14. Creation of a knowledge management system for QT analyses.

    PubMed

    Tornøe, Christoffer W; Garnett, Christine E; Wang, Yaning; Florian, Jeffry; Li, Michael; Gobburu, Jogarao V

    2011-07-01

    An increasing number of thorough QT (TQT) reports are being submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration's interdisciplinary review team for QT (IRT-QT), requiring time-intensive quantitative analyses by a multidisciplinary review team within 45 days. This calls for systematic learning to guide future trials and policies by standardizing and automating the QT analyses to improve review efficiency, provide consistent advice, and enable pooled data analyses to answer key regulatory questions. The QT interval represents the time from initiation of ventricular depolarization to completion of ventricular repolarization recorded by electrocardiograph (ECG) and is used in the proarrhythmic risk assessment. The developed QT knowledge management system is implemented in the R package "QT." Data from 11 crossover TQT studies including time-matched ECGs and pharmacokinetic measurements following single doses of 400 to 1200 mg moxifloxacin were used for the QT analysis example. The automated workflow was divided into 3 components (data management, analysis, and archival). The generated data sets, scripts, tables, and graphs are automatically stored in a queryable repository and summarized in an analysis report. More than 100 TQT studies have been analyzed using the system since 2007. This has dramatically reduced the time needed to review TQT studies and has made the IRT-QT reviews consistent across reviewers. Furthermore, the system enables leveraging prior knowledge through pooled data analyses to answer policy-related questions and to understand the various effects that influence study results. PMID:20978278

  15. Creation of a knowledge management system for QT analyses.

    PubMed

    Tornøe, Christoffer W; Garnett, Christine E; Wang, Yaning; Florian, Jeffry; Li, Michael; Gobburu, Jogarao V

    2011-07-01

    An increasing number of thorough QT (TQT) reports are being submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration's interdisciplinary review team for QT (IRT-QT), requiring time-intensive quantitative analyses by a multidisciplinary review team within 45 days. This calls for systematic learning to guide future trials and policies by standardizing and automating the QT analyses to improve review efficiency, provide consistent advice, and enable pooled data analyses to answer key regulatory questions. The QT interval represents the time from initiation of ventricular depolarization to completion of ventricular repolarization recorded by electrocardiograph (ECG) and is used in the proarrhythmic risk assessment. The developed QT knowledge management system is implemented in the R package "QT." Data from 11 crossover TQT studies including time-matched ECGs and pharmacokinetic measurements following single doses of 400 to 1200 mg moxifloxacin were used for the QT analysis example. The automated workflow was divided into 3 components (data management, analysis, and archival). The generated data sets, scripts, tables, and graphs are automatically stored in a queryable repository and summarized in an analysis report. More than 100 TQT studies have been analyzed using the system since 2007. This has dramatically reduced the time needed to review TQT studies and has made the IRT-QT reviews consistent across reviewers. Furthermore, the system enables leveraging prior knowledge through pooled data analyses to answer policy-related questions and to understand the various effects that influence study results.

  16. Type III mixed cryoglobulinemia and antiphospholipid syndrome in a patient with partial DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alice D; Tachdjian, Raffi; Gallagher, Kerry; McCurdy, Deborah K; Lassman, Charles; Stiehm, E Richard; Yadin, Ora

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT). Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated beta(2)-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF), and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection.

  17. Type III Mixed Cryoglobulinemia and Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Patient With Partial DiGeorge Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alice D.; Tachdjian, Raffi; Gallagher, Kerry; McCurdy, Deborah K.; Lassman, Charles; Stiehm, E. Richard; Yadin, Ora

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT). Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated β2-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF), and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection. PMID:17162366

  18. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type VIIC: A Mexican Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Arce, Irma Elia; Tostado-Rabago, Enrique Alejandro; Vargas, Alberto; Padilla-Gómez, Luis Alfredo; Bolaños, Alejandro; Barrios-Guyot, Selenne; Anguiano-Alvarez, Víctor Manuel; Ledezma-Rodríguez, Víctor Chistian; Islas-Carbajal, María Cristina; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Dávalos, Nory Omayra

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders whose primary clinical features include soft and extensible skin, articular hypermobility and tissue fragility. EDS type VIIC or ‘human dermatosparaxis’ is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by severe skin fragility and sagging redundant skin (major criteria) with a soft, doughy texture, easy bruising, premature rupture of fetal membranes and large hernias (minor criteria). Dermatosparaxis (meaning ‘tearing of skin’), which has been described in several non-human species, is a disorder of the connective tissue resulting from a deficiency of the enzyme that cleaves the registration peptide off the N-terminal end of collagen after it has been secreted from fibroblasts. We describe a Mexican case from consanguineous parents with all the phenotypical characteristics previously described, plus skeletal abnormalities. PMID:22787447

  19. Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, W Y; Bergstrom, R W; Boyko, E J; Chen, K; Kahn, S E; Leonetti, D L; McNeely, M J; Newell, L L; Shofer, J B; Wahl, P W

    2000-10-01

    Japanese Americans have experienced a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes than in Japan. Research conducted in Seattle suggests that lifestyle factors associated with 'westernization' play a role in bringing out this susceptibility to diabetes. These lifestyle factors include consumption of a diet higher in saturated fat and reduced physical activity. A consequence of this is the development of central (visceral) adiposity, insulin resistance, and other features associated with this insulin resistance metabolic syndrome, such as dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and small and dense LDL particles), hypertension, and coronary heart disease. We have postulated that the superimposition of insulin resistance upon a genetic background of reduced beta-cell reserve results in hyperglycemia and diabetes among Japanese Americans. This article reviews evidence that support this view.

  20. Hypnosis for postpolio syndrome & Type-A behavior.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D C

    1991-07-01

    Many of the hundreds of thousands of survivors of polio are now developing postpolio syndrome. Symptoms include progressive muscle weakness, fatigue, decreased endurance, joint and muscle pain, weight gain, respiratory difficulties, and sleep disturbance, often precipitated or exacerbated by a Type-A Personality pattern. A postpolio patient with Type-A Personality was taught self-hypnosis as a vital component of treatment. Pre-post testing included the Profile of Mood States, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the State-Trait Anger Inventory, and the Personal Orientation Inventory; the patient's spouse was interviewed during the follow-up. At the 6-month follow-up, improvements were documented in pain level, depression, self-regard, self-acceptance, capacity for intimate contact, time competence (living in the present), confusion, anxiety, insomnia, and in trait and state anger. Only a mild improvement occurred in fatigue, and no improvement was found in weight control. Follow-up at 12 months confirmed the maintenance of improvements. Self-hypnosis training may prove extremely helpful for postpolio patients and may prove helpful in modifying central characteristics of Type-A Personality.

  1. Gastrointestinal and nutritional issues in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Pascolini, Giulia; Blundo, Carlo; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Gastrointestinal involvement is a well known complication of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDSs), mainly in form of abdominal emergencies due to intestinal/abdominal vessels rupture in vascular EDS. In the last decade, a growing number of works investigated the relationship between a wide spectrum of chronic gastrointestinal complaints and various EDS forms, among which the hypermobility type (a.k.a. joint hypermobility syndrome; JHS/EDS-HT) was the most studied. The emerging findings depict a major role for gastrointestinal involvement in the health status and, consequently, management of JHS/EDS-HT patients. Nevertheless, fragmentation of knowledge limits its impact on practice within the boundaries of highly specialized clinics. In this paper, literature review on gastrointestinal manifestations in JHS/EDS-HT was carried out and identified papers categorized as (i) case-control/cohort studies associating (apparently non-syndromic) joint hypermobility and gastrointestinal involvement, (ii) case-control/cohort studies associating JHS/EDS-HT and gastrointestinal involvement, (iii) case reports/series on various gastrointestinal complications in (presumed) JHS/EDS-HT, and (iv) studies reporting gastrointestinal features in heterogeneous EDS patients' cohorts. Gastrointestinal manifestations of JHS/EDS-HT were organized and discussed in two categories, including structural anomalies (i.e., abdominal/diaphragmatic hernias, internal organ/pelvic prolapses, intestinal intussusceptions) and functional features (i.e., dysphagia, gastro-esophageal reflux, dyspepsia, recurrent abdominal pain, constipation/diarrhea), with emphasis on practice and future implications. In the second part of this paper, a summary of possible nutritional interventions in JHS/EDS-HT was presented. Supplementation strategies were borrowed from data available for general population with minor modifications in the light of recent discoveries in the pathogenesis of selected JHS/EDS-HT features.

  2. Gastrointestinal and nutritional issues in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Pascolini, Giulia; Blundo, Carlo; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Gastrointestinal involvement is a well known complication of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDSs), mainly in form of abdominal emergencies due to intestinal/abdominal vessels rupture in vascular EDS. In the last decade, a growing number of works investigated the relationship between a wide spectrum of chronic gastrointestinal complaints and various EDS forms, among which the hypermobility type (a.k.a. joint hypermobility syndrome; JHS/EDS-HT) was the most studied. The emerging findings depict a major role for gastrointestinal involvement in the health status and, consequently, management of JHS/EDS-HT patients. Nevertheless, fragmentation of knowledge limits its impact on practice within the boundaries of highly specialized clinics. In this paper, literature review on gastrointestinal manifestations in JHS/EDS-HT was carried out and identified papers categorized as (i) case-control/cohort studies associating (apparently non-syndromic) joint hypermobility and gastrointestinal involvement, (ii) case-control/cohort studies associating JHS/EDS-HT and gastrointestinal involvement, (iii) case reports/series on various gastrointestinal complications in (presumed) JHS/EDS-HT, and (iv) studies reporting gastrointestinal features in heterogeneous EDS patients' cohorts. Gastrointestinal manifestations of JHS/EDS-HT were organized and discussed in two categories, including structural anomalies (i.e., abdominal/diaphragmatic hernias, internal organ/pelvic prolapses, intestinal intussusceptions) and functional features (i.e., dysphagia, gastro-esophageal reflux, dyspepsia, recurrent abdominal pain, constipation/diarrhea), with emphasis on practice and future implications. In the second part of this paper, a summary of possible nutritional interventions in JHS/EDS-HT was presented. Supplementation strategies were borrowed from data available for general population with minor modifications in the light of recent discoveries in the pathogenesis of selected JHS/EDS-HT features. PMID

  3. QT prolongation and safety in the Indian population.

    PubMed

    Dabhi, Jayesh; Mehta, Anita

    2007-09-01

    The QT interval in electrocardiogram (ECG) reflects the total duration of ventricular myocardial depolarization and repolarization. It has been well recognized that many condition may cause QT interval prolongation. Unfortunately, numbers of cardiac and non-cardiac drug prolong the QT interval and cause a distinctive polymorphic ventricular tachycardia termed torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP can degenerate into ventricular fibrillation, which leads to sudden cardiac death. Recently various regulatory and clinical bodies of Europe, USA, Canada and Australia have made their focus on the drugs that induce prolongation of QT interval. Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) of the European Agency issued a document entitled 'Points to Consider: The assessment of the potential for QT interval prolongation by non-cardiovascular medicinal products' [1, 2]. In addition, USFDA adopted the guideline 'Clinical evaluation of QT/QTc interval prolongation and proarrhythmic potential for non-anti arrhythmic drugs' [3]. These documents and guidelines are primarily concern with development of novel agents and the new use or new dose of already approved drugs. The scope of this guideline is to study the effect of drugs on QT prolongation and give idea of evaluation of drug's effects on QT prolongation. Today more than 50 available drugs (both old and new) have been identify, which prolong the QT interval [1]. Several drugs have been withdrawn from many countries on this basis but many of these drugs are still available in Indian market and potentially creating life-threatening arrhythmias. This article will focus on recommendation of study on the normal limits of QT interval in Indian population and preparation of the database, which can be helpful in withdrawal of drugs from the market that produces QT prolongation.

  4. Neurodevelopmental attributes of joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: Update and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ghibellini, Giulia; Brancati, Francesco; Castori, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade, increasing attention has been devoted to the extra-articular and extra-cutaneous manifestations of joint hypermobility syndrome, also termed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (i.e., JHS/EDS-HT). Despite the fact that the current diagnostic criteria for both disorders remain focused on joint hypermobility, musculoskeletal pain and skin changes, medical practice and research have started investigating a wide spectrum of visceral, neurological and developmental complications, which represent major burdens for affected individuals. In particular, children with generalized joint hypermobility often present with various neurodevelopmental issues and can be referred for neurological consultation. It is common that investigations in these patients yield negative or inconsistent results, eventually leading to the exclusion of any structural neurological or muscle disorder. In the context of specialized clinics for connective tissue disorders, a clear relationship between generalized joint hypermobility and a characteristic neurodevelopmental profile affecting coordination is emerging. The clinical features of these patients tend to overlap with those of developmental coordination disorder and can be associated with learning and other disabilities. Physical and psychological consequences of these additional difficulties add to the chief manifestations of the pre-existing connective tissue disorder, affecting the well-being and development of children and their families. In this review, particular attention is devoted to the nature of the link between joint hypermobility, coordination difficulties and neurodevelopmental issues in children. Presumed pathogenesis and management issues are explored in order to attract more attention on this association and nurture future clinical research. PMID:25654988

  5. Neurodevelopmental attributes of joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: Update and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ghibellini, Giulia; Brancati, Francesco; Castori, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade, increasing attention has been devoted to the extra-articular and extra-cutaneous manifestations of joint hypermobility syndrome, also termed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (i.e., JHS/EDS-HT). Despite the fact that the current diagnostic criteria for both disorders remain focused on joint hypermobility, musculoskeletal pain and skin changes, medical practice and research have started investigating a wide spectrum of visceral, neurological and developmental complications, which represent major burdens for affected individuals. In particular, children with generalized joint hypermobility often present with various neurodevelopmental issues and can be referred for neurological consultation. It is common that investigations in these patients yield negative or inconsistent results, eventually leading to the exclusion of any structural neurological or muscle disorder. In the context of specialized clinics for connective tissue disorders, a clear relationship between generalized joint hypermobility and a characteristic neurodevelopmental profile affecting coordination is emerging. The clinical features of these patients tend to overlap with those of developmental coordination disorder and can be associated with learning and other disabilities. Physical and psychological consequences of these additional difficulties add to the chief manifestations of the pre-existing connective tissue disorder, affecting the well-being and development of children and their families. In this review, particular attention is devoted to the nature of the link between joint hypermobility, coordination difficulties and neurodevelopmental issues in children. Presumed pathogenesis and management issues are explored in order to attract more attention on this association and nurture future clinical research.

  6. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1: Activation of Dual Apoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Pastori, Silvia; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Cantaluppi, Vincenzo; Castellani, Chiara; Fedrigo, Marny; Thiene, Gaetano; Valente, Maria Luisa; Angelini, Annalisa; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS1) pathophysiology is complex, and immune-mediated damage, including alterations in the immune response with monocyte apoptosis and cytokine release, has been reported as a potential mechanism. In this study, we examined the putative role of renal tubular epithelial cell (RTC) apoptosis as a pathogenic mechanism in CRS1. In particular, we investigated the caspase pathways involved in induced apoptosis. We enrolled 29 patients with acute heart failure (AHF), 11 patients with CRS1, and 15 controls (CTR) without AHF or acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients who had AKI prior to the episode of AHF or who had any other potential causes of AKI were excluded. Plasma from different groups was incubated with RTCs for 24 h. Subsequently, cell apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3, −8, and −9 activities were investigated in RTCs incubated with AHF, CRS1, and CTR plasma. A p value <0.5 was considered statistically significant. A quantitative analysis of apoptosis showed significantly higher apoptosis rates in CRS1 patients compared to AHF patients and CTR (p < 0.01). This increase in apoptosis was strongly confirmed by caspase-3 levels (ρ = 0.73). Caspase-8 and −9 were significantly higher in CRS1 patients compared to AHF patients and CTR (p < 0.01). Furthermore, caspase-3 levels showed a significantly positive correlation with caspase-8 (ρ = 0.57) and −9 (ρ = 0.47; p < 0.001). This study demonstrated the significantly heightened presence of dual apoptotic disequilibrium in CRS1. Our findings indicated that apoptosis may have a central role in the mechanism of CRS1, and it could be a potential therapeutic target in this syndrome. PMID:26648947

  7. A Mouse Model for Meckel Syndrome Type 3

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Susan A.; Collin, Gayle B.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Naggert, Jürgen K.; Liu, Dong P.; Akeson, Ellen C.; Davisson, Muriel T.

    2009-01-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome type 3 (MKS3; OMIM 607361) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bilateral polycystic kidney disease. Other malformations associated with MKS3 include cystic changes in the liver, polydactyly, and brain abnormalities (occipital encephalocele, hydrocephalus, and Dandy Walker–type cerebellar anomalies). The disorder is hypothesized to be caused by defects in primary cilia. In humans, the underlying mutated gene, TMEM67, encodes transmembrane protein 67, also called meckelin (OMIM 609884), which is an integral protein of the renal epithelial cell and membrane of the primary cilium. Here, we describe a spontaneous deletion of the mouse ortholog, Tmem67, which results in polycystic kidney disease and death by 3 wk after birth. Hydrocephalus also occurs in some mutants. We verified the mutated gene by transgenic rescue and characterized the phenotype with microcomputed tomography, histology, scanning electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. This mutant provides a mouse model for MKS3 and adds to the growing set of mammalian models essential for studying the role of the primary cilium in kidney function. PMID:19211713

  8. Fabry's disease: an example of cardiorenal syndrome type 5.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aashish; Sartori, Marco; Zaragoza, Jose J; Villa, Gianluca; Lu, Renhua; Faggiana, Elena; Brocca, Alessandra; Di Lullo, Luca; Feriozzi, Sandro; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5) includes conditions where there is a simultaneous involvement of the heart and kidney from a systemic disorder. This is a bilateral organ cross talk. Fabry's disease (FD) is a devastating progressive inborn error of metabolism with lysosomal glycosphingolipid deposition in variety of cell types, capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac and nerve cells. Basic effect is absent or deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase a-galactosidase A. Renal involvement consists of proteinuria, isosthenuria, altered tubular function, presenting in second or third decade leading to azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third to fifth decade mainly due to irreversible changes to glomerular, tubular and vascular structures, especially highlighted by podocytes foot process effacement. Cardiac involvement consists of left ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias (sinus node and conduction system impairment), diastolic dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, infarction, transmural replacement fibrosis, congestive heart failure and cardiac death. Management of FD is based on enzymatic replacement therapy and control of renal (with anti-proteinuric agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers), brain (coated aspirin, clopidogrel and statin to prevent strokes) and heart complications (calcium channel blockers for ischemic cardiomyopathy, warfarin and amiodarone or cardioverter device for arrhythmias). PMID:26232292

  9. Realtime Multichannel System for Beat to Beat QT Interval Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starc, Vito; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV) shows clinical promise for identifying several types of cardiac pathology. However, until now, there has been no device capable of displaying, in real time on a beattobeat basis, changes in QTV in all 12 conventional leads in a continuously monitored patient. While several software programs have been designed to analyze QTV, heretofore, such programs have all involved only a few channels (at most) and/or have required laborious user interaction or offline calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. This paper describes a PC-based ECG software program that in real time, acquires, analyzes and displays QTV and also PQ interval variability (PQV) in each of the eight independent channels that constitute the 12lead conventional ECG. The system also processes certain related signals that are derived from singular value decomposition and that help to reduce the overall effects of noise on the realtime QTV and PQV results.

  10. Bartter syndrome type III and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract: an antenatal presentation.

    PubMed

    Westland, Rik; Hack, Wilfried W; van der Horst, Henricus J R; Uittenbogaard, Lukas B; van Hagen, Johanna M; van der Valk, Paul; Kamsteeg, Erik J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; van Wijk, Joanna A E

    2012-12-01

    Bartter syndrome encompasses a variety of inheritable renal tubular transport disorders characterized by hypokalemia and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Bartter syndrome Type III is caused by genetic alterations in the chloride channel kidney B (CLCNKB) gene and often presents in the first 2 years of life, known as classic Bartter syndrome. However, in rare cases Bartter syndrome Type III has an antenatal presentation with polyhydramnios, premature delivery and severe dehydration in the first weeks of life. Associations between congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and Bartter syndrome are extremely rare. This case report presents a girl with Bartter syndrome Type III due to a homozygous CLCNKB mutation and bilateral congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In addition, we describe the antenatal presentation as well as its perinatal management.

  11. Non-antiarrhythmic drugs prolonging the QT interval: considerable use in seven countries

    PubMed Central

    De Ponti, Fabrizio; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Vaccheri, Alberto; Bergman, Ulf; Bjerrum, Lars; Ferguson, John; Frenz, Kerry J; McManus, Peter; Schubert, Ingrid; Selke, Gisbert; Terzis-Vaslamatzis, Georgia; Montanaro, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Aims Many drugs belonging to different therapeutic classes appear to share a potentially fatal side-effect: ventricular tachyarrhythmias associated with QT prolongation. The aim of this study was to assess the relevance and the magnitude of the problem in seven countries by grouping all nonantiarrhythmic drugs according to the type of evidence on QT prolongation and analysing their sales data. Methods We divided all nonantiarrhythmic QT-prolonging agents into the following categories (in increasing order of clinical relevance): group A, drugs with published clinical or preclinical evidence on QT prolongation or with relevant official warnings; group B, drugs with published clinical or preclinical evidence; group C, drugs with published clinical evidence; group D, drug with published clinical evidence on torsades de pointes or ventricular arrhythmias associated with QT prolongation; group E, drugs belonging to group D with official warnings. We retrieved 1998 sales data from community pharmacies in seven countries (Australia, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy and Sweden). Data for individual agents were expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000/day). Overall use in each country was calculated for each drug group. Groups D and E were considered as the most clinically relevant. Results Among the 102 nonantiarrhythmic agents meeting at least one of the inclusion criteria, 33 drugs had sales data ≥1 DDD/1000/day and 71 drugs had a use ≥0.1 DDD/1000/day in at least one country. Among the 37 nonantiarrhythmic agents with published reports of ventricular arrhythmias associated with QT prolongation, 12 compounds had sales data ≥1 DDD/1000/day. Total consumption in each country ranged: from 51.9 to 94.7 DDD/1000/day for group A; from 51.6 to 92.7 DDD/1000/day for group B; from 37.1 to 76.6 DDD/1000/day for group C; from 12.9 to 29.1 DDD/1000/day for group D; and from 5.8 to 15.3 DDD/1000/day for group E. Conclusions In spite of wide

  12. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, G.D.; Broderius, S.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed.

  13. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Veith, G D; Broderius, S J

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed. PMID:2269227

  14. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Veith, G D; Broderius, S J

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed.

  15. Ectopic expression of KCNE3 accelerates cardiac repolarization and abbreviates the QT interval

    PubMed Central

    Mazhari, Reza; Nuss, H. Bradley; Armoundas, Antonis A.; Winslow, Raimond L.; Marbán, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory subunit KCNE3 (E3) interacts with KCNQ1 (Q1) in epithelia, regulating its activation kinetics and augmenting current density. Since E3 is expressed weakly in the heart, we hypothesized that ectopic expression of E3 in cardiac myocytes might abbreviate action potential duration (APD) by interacting with Q1 and augmenting the delayed rectifier current (IK). Thus, we transiently coexpressed E3 with Q1 and KCNE1 (E1) in Chinese hamster ovary cells and found that E3 coexpression increased outward current at potentials by ≥ –80 mV and accelerated activation. We then examined the changes in cardiac electrophysiology following injection of adenovirus-expressed E3 into the left ventricular cavity of guinea pigs. After 72 hours, the corrected QT interval of the electrocardiogram was reduced by ∼10%. APD was reduced by >3-fold in E3-transduced cells relative to controls, while E-4031–insensitive IK and activation kinetics were significantly augmented. Based on quantitative modeling of a transmural cardiac segment, we demonstrate that the degree of QT interval abbreviation observed results from electrotonic interactions in the face of limited transduction efficiency and that heterogeneous transduction of E3 may actually potentiate arrhythmias. Provided that fairly homogeneous ectopic ventricular expression of regulatory subunits can be achieved, this approach may be useful in enhancing repolarization and in treating long QT syndrome. PMID:11956246

  16. The Complex QT/RR Relationship in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Julien; Champeroux, Pascal; Roy, Jérôme; Richard, Sylvain; Fauconnier, Jérémy; Le Guennec, Jean-Yves; Thireau, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The QT interval reflects the time between the depolarization of ventricles until their repolarization and is usually used as a predictive marker for the occurrence of arrhythmias. This parameter varies with the heart rate, expressed as the RR interval (time between two successive ventricular depolarizations). To calculate the QT independently of the RR, correction formulae are currently used. In mice, the QT-RR relationship as such has never been studied in conscious animals, and correction formulas are mainly empirical. In the present paper we studied how QT varies when the RR changes physiologically (comparison of nocturnal and diurnal periods) or after dosing mice with tachycardic agents (norepinephrine or nitroprusside). Our results show that there is significant variability of QT and RR in a given condition, resulting in the need to average at least 200 consecutive complexes to accurately compare the QT. Even following this method, no obvious shortening of the QT was observed with increased heart rate, regardless of whether or not this change occurs abruptly. In conclusion, the relationship between QT and RR in mice is weak, which renders the use of correction formulae inappropriate and misleading in this species. PMID:27138175

  17. QT prolongation and torsades de pointes with psychotropic agents

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nagaraj; Venkatesh, Chilkunda Raviprakash; Kumar, Shambu Sunil

    2015-01-01

    The unexpected and catastrophic cardiovascular effects of psychotropic drugs are well described albeit uncommon. The list of drugs which have been associated with prolonging QT interval and hence potentially causing Torsades de pointes is exhaustive. The insight into the plausible mechanisms are largely unclear. However, the practical implications of anticipating and recognizing QT prolongation cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26600587

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Nsiah, Kwabena; Shang, V Owusua; Boateng, K Agyenim; Mensah, FO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The diabetic condition is influenced by several factors, some of which can accelerate the disease's progression to various complications that aggravate the morbidity. Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components and the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and was conducted at the Diabetes Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, the Ashanti Region of Ghana, from February, 2013 to April, 2013. The study involved the use of a questionnaire to obtain some information on the diabetics, undertaking anthropometric measurements, as well as collecting blood samples for the measurement of some biochemical parameters; fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 58% in the studied Ghanaian population. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor (60%), followed by central obesity (48.67%) and dyslipidemia (37%). Female type 2 diabetics had a higher prevalence of MetS, and carried more components than their male counterparts. Regression analysis showed three factors; femininity, high body mass index and low educational status were the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS, according to this study. Conclusion: With hypertension being the commonest component, future cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should focus attention on its management and prevention, through education. PMID:26097823

  19. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and type 1 diabetes mellitus: more than a chance association?

    PubMed

    Gana, S; Sainati, L; Frau, M R; Monciotti, C; Poli, F; Cannioto, Z; Comelli, M; Danesino, C; Minelli, A

    2011-11-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rare clinical condition consisting of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, various degree of pancytopenia, and metaphyseal dysplasia. The majority of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome cases result from mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome gene. To date, type 1 diabetes mellitus has only been reported in 4 independent cases presenting with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, 3 of them with molecular confirmation of the diagnosis. We describe 2 unrelated patients with clinical and molecular features typical of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and type 1 diabetes mellitus. In addition, we report the occurrence rate of type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Italian registry for Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, which is low (3.23%) but increased at least 30-fold over the type 1 diabetes mellitus occurrence rate in the general population. No evidence of a direct correlation between Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and type 1 diabetes mellitus have been reported, therefore the presence of both diseases in the same patient might be a chance association, however we suggest that the defects in immune regulation of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome might play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, type II.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Aughton, D J; Comstock, C H; von Oeyen, P T; Higgins, J V; Schulz, R

    1994-01-15

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, type II (SLOS-II) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a distinctive face, unusual cleft palate, postaxial polydactyly, congenital heart defects, renal anomalies, and male pseudohermaphroditism. We present the first report of prenatal diagnosis of SLOS-II, as well as an additional report of prenatal detection of multiple anomalies, in which a positive diagnosis of SLOS II was made postnatally. In neither case was the pregnancy known prospectively to be at risk for SLOS-II. In the former case, targeted sonographic examination at 31 weeks of gestation showed intrauterine growth retardation, atrioventricular septal defect, mesomelic shortening of the arms, small kidneys, overlapping fingers, and female external genitalia; a 46,XY chromosome constitution had been ascertained previously. A provisional diagnosis of SLOS-II was made prenatally. In the latter case, targeted sonographic examination at 18 weeks of gestation showed severe oligohydramnios, atrioventricular septal defect, and Dandy-Walker malformation. The kidneys and bladder were not visualized. The chromosome constitution was 46,XX. The diagnosis of SLOS-II was made postnatally. In both cases, additional findings compatible with SLOS-II were noted postnatally. Prenatal detection of congenital heart defects and renal abnormalities, in combination with certain additional findings (most notably, female external genitalia in the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, polydactyly, disproportionately short limbs, or intrauterine growth retardation) and a normal karyotype, suggests the diagnosis of SLOS-II, and warrants further investigation.

  1. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382

  2. Risk of Restless Legs Syndrome Following Tension-Type Headache

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Te-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS) appear to be associated, but the relationship between tension-type headache (TTH) and RLS is unknown. This nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study explored the potential association between TTH and RLS. We identified 15,504 patients with newly diagnosed TTH from 2000 to 2007 and 62,016 individuals without TTH who were selected by frequency matched based on sex, age, and the index year. The study participants were followed until diagnosed with RLS, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify risk factors for RLS in TTH patients. After adjusting for sex, age, comorbidity, and medications, TTH was significantly associated with an increased risk of RLS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22–2.02). The risk was most prominent in patients aged 20 to 39 years in the TTH group, which exhibited a 2.60-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval = 1.53–4.42) of RLS compared with the non-TTH group. The TTH group had a higher risk of RLS than that of the non-TTH group regardless of sex. Tension-type headache appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing RLS. This similarity to migraines may indicate that headache and RLS have a coincident pathophysiological mechanism, a possibility requiring further study. Clinicians should be more attentive to RLS as a possible comorbidity in patients with TTH. PMID:26579827

  3. Fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores function of IKs channels with diverse long QT mutations

    PubMed Central

    Liin, Sara I; Larsson, Johan E; Barro-Soria, Rene; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Larsson, H Peter

    2016-01-01

    About 300 loss-of-function mutations in the IKs channel have been identified in patients with Long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia. How specific mutations cause arrhythmia is largely unknown and there are no approved IKs channel activators for treatment of these arrhythmias. We find that several Long QT syndrome-associated IKs channel mutations shift channel voltage dependence and accelerate channel closing. Voltage-clamp fluorometry experiments and kinetic modeling suggest that similar mutation-induced alterations in IKs channel currents may be caused by different molecular mechanisms. Finally, we find that the fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores channel gating of many different mutant channels, even though the mutations are in different domains of the IKs channel and affect the channel by different molecular mechanisms. N-arachidonoyl taurine is therefore an interesting prototype compound that may inspire development of future IKs channel activators to treat Long QT syndrome caused by diverse IKs channel mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20272.001 PMID:27690226

  4. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 in a pediatric patient: Case report.

    PubMed

    Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; Bükülmez, Ayşegül; Solak, Özlem

    2014-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 is one of the causes of morbidity of childhood which is also named reflex symphathetic dystrophia. The syndrome is characterized with regional pain and vasomotor, sudomotor and sensory changes in the distal parts of the extremities involved. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 shows difference in children in terms of clinical picture and imaging methods compared to adults. The most important point is that the prognosis is generally better in children if early diagnosis and treatment is provided. On the other hand, causes including presence of psychological factors or less contribution of imaging methods in children lead to delayed diagnosis or erroneous diagnosis. In this article, a 10 year-old male patient who was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 was described. Thus, we aimed to remind clinicians that this syndrome should also be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pain in children.

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 in a pediatric patient: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; Bükülmez, Ayşegül; Solak, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 is one of the causes of morbidity of childhood which is also named reflex symphathetic dystrophia. The syndrome is characterized with regional pain and vasomotor, sudomotor and sensory changes in the distal parts of the extremities involved. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 shows difference in children in terms of clinical picture and imaging methods compared to adults. The most important point is that the prognosis is generally better in children if early diagnosis and treatment is provided. On the other hand, causes including presence of psychological factors or less contribution of imaging methods in children lead to delayed diagnosis or erroneous diagnosis. In this article, a 10 year-old male patient who was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 was described. Thus, we aimed to remind clinicians that this syndrome should also be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pain in children. PMID:26078637

  6. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory.

  7. [Severe Frey syndrome after parotidectomy: treatment with botulinum neurotoxin type A].

    PubMed

    Laccourreye, O; Muscatello, L; Gutierrez-Fonseca, R; Seckin, S; Brasnu, D; Bonan, B

    1999-06-01

    Based upon an inception cohort of 30 patients with severe Frey's syndrome, after conservative parotidectomy, the technique and the results of intracutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A are presented. The skin surface involved with Frey's syndrome was managed with intracutaneous injection of 2.5 international units of botulinum toxin type A per square centimeter. A minimum follow-up of 16 months was achieved. The only adverse side effect encountered was a temporary paresis of the upper lid noted in 2 patients. Frey's syndrome vanished within 2-5 days from the intracutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A. Frey's syndrome was controlled in 53.2% of cases (17/30) after the initial injection of botulinum toxin type A. Five of the 13 patients with recurrence of Frey's syndrome elicited to undergo a watch and wait policy due to the lack of discomfort induced by the recurrence. The remaining eight patients with recurrence of Frey's syndrome were successfully managed with a secondary intracutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A. Such preliminary data, together with the review of the literature suggests, that the intracutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A should now be the first line treatment option in patients with severe Frey syndrome. PMID:10399528

  8. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome types I and II.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Arias, Pedro; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Santos, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Nevado, Julián; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is a rare overgrowth syndrome clinically characterized by multiple congenital abnormalities, pre/postnatal overgrowth, distinctive craniofacial features, macrocephaly, and organomegaly. Abnormalities of the skeletal system, heart, central nervous system, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract may also be observed. Intellectual disability, early motor milestones and speech delay are sometimes present; however, there are a considerable number of individuals with normal intelligence. PMID:25238977

  9. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome types I and II.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Arias, Pedro; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Santos, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Nevado, Julián; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-09-20

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is a rare overgrowth syndrome clinically characterized by multiple congenital abnormalities, pre/postnatal overgrowth, distinctive craniofacial features, macrocephaly, and organomegaly. Abnormalities of the skeletal system, heart, central nervous system, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract may also be observed. Intellectual disability, early motor milestones and speech delay are sometimes present; however, there are a considerable number of individuals with normal intelligence.

  10. Detection of candidal antigens in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, P; Perheentupa, J; Krohn, K J

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS I) is associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. To characterize the antibody responses in this subgroup of Candida albicans infections, we screened a candidal cDNA expression library with patient sera and found four cDNA clones encoding the immunopositive proteins enolase, heat shock protein 90, pyruvate kinase, and alcohol dehydrogenase. The reactivity to these antigens was studied further by immunoprecipitation assays with in vitro-transcribed and -translated proteins. Analysis of sera from 44 APS I patients showed that the highest antibody reactivity was found with enolase (80% of patients reactive), but significant serological responses were also found with heat shock protein 90 (67%), pyruvate kinase (62.5%), and alcohol dehydrogenase (64%). Overall, 95.5% of patients had detectable antibodies to at least one of these proteins. The cDNAs of enolase and heat shock protein 90 were also expressed in Escherichia coli and studied by immunoblotting. Again, 84% of sera reacted with enolase, whereas 44% of sera reacted with heat shock protein 90. A good correlation between the two methods was found for both enolase (r = 0.86; n = 58; P < 0.001) and heat shock protein 90 (r = 0.71; n = 56; P < 0.001). Our results indicate that the four abundant candidal proteins are the major antigens and can be used as accurate markers of candidiasis in APS I patients. The immunoprecipitation assay described here is particularly useful for the rapid analysis of a large number of samples. PMID:8705671

  11. Alveolar Macrophage Dysregulation in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Farshid N.; Brantly, Mark L.; Markello, Thomas C.; Helip-Wooley, Amanda; O'Brien, Kevin; Hess, Richard; Huizing, Marjan; Gahl, William A.; Gochuico, Bernadette R.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Individuals with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 (HPS-1), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, develop an accelerated form of progressive fibrotic lung disease. The etiology of pulmonary fibrosis associated with HPS-1 is unknown. Objectives: To investigate the potential pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in HPS-1, lung cells and proteins from individuals with HPS-1 were studied. Methods: Forty-one subjects with HPS-1 with and without pulmonary fibrosis were evaluated with pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography scan, and bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage cells and analytes were analyzed. Measurements and Main Results: Concentrations of total bronchoalveolar lavage cells and alveolar macrophages were significantly higher in epithelial lining fluid from subjects with HPS-1 with and without pulmonary fibrosis compared with healthy research volunteers. Concentrations of cytokines and chemokines (i.e., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in alveolar epithelial lining fluid were significantly higher in subjects with HPS-1 with and without pulmonary fibrosis compared with healthy research volunteers (P < 0.001). In vitro, HPS-1 pulmonary fibrosis alveolar macrophages, which did not express HPS1 mRNA, secreted significantly higher concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) protein compared with normal cells (P = 0.001, P = 0.014, and P = 0.011, respectively). Pirfenidone suppressed HPS-1 alveolar macrophage cytokine and chemokine secretion in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: In HPS-1, alveolar inflammation predominantly involves macrophages and is associated with high lung concentrations of cytokines and chemokines. HPS-1 alveolar macrophages

  12. Type 1 diabetes: Syndromes in resource-challenged settings.

    PubMed

    Nagesh, V Sri; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Type 1 Diabetes is a complex disorder that is made more complex by the myriad of co-morbid conditions associated with it. Mauriac Syndrome is a well-known but nowadays uncommon condition that presents with growth retardation secondary to poor glycaemic control. Limited Joint Mobility is an often-missed association of diabetes. Its importance lies in the fact that it can cause significant impairment of fine movements in T1DM children. It also indicates poor glycaemic control over a long period of time and can be used as a surrogate marker for development of diabetic microvascular complications. Anaemia in T1DM is protean and can develop due to a combination of nutritional factors, chronic renal disease, coeliac disease and worm infestation. Management is etiological. Vitamin deficiencies are ubiquitous in T1DM and if left untreated, can lead to neurological, haematological and skeletal dysfunction. The best-known co-morbid conditions are the local site reactions clubbed together under the moniker lipodystrophies. These can be either atrophic or hypertrophic and are usually due to repeated injections at the same site, improper technique and needle re-use. Management is often difficult and they are best prevented by appropriate diabetes education and emphasis on proper injection techniques at the time of T1DM diagnosis, with periodic reinforcement. Amyloidosis is a little known condition that shares a lot of features in common with the lipodystrophies and often needs to be differentiated from lipohypertrophy. T1DM is a disease which is often associated with a poor quality of life and these co-morbid conditions also need to be treated for effective general and psychological well-being.

  13. Screening of three Usher syndrome type II candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemker, B.K.; Swaroop, A.; Kimberling, W.J.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type II (US2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa and congenital hearing loss. The disease affects approximately 1 in 20,000 individuals in the general population and is responsible for over 50% of all cases of deafness with blindness. The underlying US2 defect is unknown. The US2 gene has been localized to the 1q41 region of chromosome 1 by linkage studies. Three genes previously localized to 1q were analyzed to assess their candidacy as the US2 gene. These were evaluated by PCR assays using DNA from a YAC contig spanning the US2 region on chromosome 1. The first gene evaluated was the human choroideremia-like gene (hCHML), which had been mapped to chromosome 1q. The sequence on 1q is a homologue of the human choroideremia gene on chromosome X. Choroideremia is a degenerative disorder causing ocular pathology similar to that observed in US2 patients. Therefore, hCHML is a candidate for the US2 gene. Two cDNAs (A and B) from an enriched human retinal pigment epithelium library have been mapped to 1q41 by in situ hybridization. Both cDNAs are considered good candidates. The hCHML and cDNA A were ruled out as candidates for the US2 gene based on negative results from PCR assays performed on YACs spanning the US2 region. cDNA B could not be ruled out as a candidate for the US2 gene by these assays. Answers to many clinical questions regarding US2 will only be resolved after the gene is identified and characterized. Eventually, understanding the function and expression of the US2 gene will provide a basis for the development of therapy.

  14. Cushing’s Syndrome in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, William F.; Varghese, Sarah; Marx, Stephen J.; Nieman, Lynnette K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Cushing’s syndrome (CS) from endogenous hypercortisolism can result from pituitary, adrenal, or other endocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to characterize the range of presentations of CS in a large series of MEN1 patients. Design Retrospective review of NIH Clinical Center inpatient records over an approximately 40 year period. Patients 19 patients (8 males, 11 females) with CS and MEN1. Measurements Biochemical, imaging, surgical, and pathological findings. Results An etiology was determined for 14 of the 19 patients with CS and MEN1: 11 (79%) had Cushing’s disease (CD) and three (21%) had ACTH-independent CS due to adrenal tumors, frequencies indistinguishable from sporadic CS. Three of 11 MEN1 patients with CD (27%) had additional non-ACTH secreting pituitary microadenomas identified at surgery, an incidence 10-fold higher than in sporadic CD. Ninety-one percent of MEN1 patients with CD were cured after surgery. Two of three MEN1 patients with ACTH-independent CS (67%) had adrenocortical carcinoma. One patient with adrenal cancer and another with adrenal adenoma were cured by unilateral adrenalectomy. No case of ectopic ACTH secretion was identified in our patient cohort. The etiology of CS could not be defined in five patients; in three of these, hypercortisolism appeared to resolve spontaneously. Conclusions The tumor multiplicity of MEN1 can be reflected in the anterior pituitary, MEN1-associated ACTH-independent CS may be associated with aggressive adrenocortical disease, and an etiology for CS in MEN1 may be elusive in a substantial minority of patients. PMID:21916912

  15. Statistical analysis of QT/RR hysteresis in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Kozelek, Petr; Holcik, Jiri; Sedlinska, Marketa

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes experiments and their results that offered an insight to relationship between RR and QT intervals in equine ECG signals recorded under various conditions. In contrast to human heart in a great number of cases the QT intervals prolonged with a heart rate acceleration. Peak-to-peak differences between maximum and minimum RR intervals during the excitation response in non-standard responses were twice as smaller as in standard responses and the lengths of QT intervals were significantly longer in the non-standard records. This fact means that the electrical processes in equine heart ventricles must be controlled by different mechanisms than in human heart.

  16. Highly-Automated QT Measurement Techniques in Seven Thorough QT Studies Implemented under ICH E14 Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Garnett, Christine; Li, Mike; Handzel, Robert; McNitt, Scott; Xia, Xiajuan; Polonsky, Slava; Zareba, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Thorough QT (TQT) studies are designed to evaluate potential effect of a novel drug on the ventricular repolarization process of the heart using QTc prolongation as a surrogate marker for torsades de pointes. The current process to measure the QT intervals from the thousands of electrocardiograms is lengthy and expensive. In this study, we propose a validation of a highly-automatic QT interval measurement (HA-QT) method. We applied a HA-QT measurement method to the data from seven TQT studies. We investigated both the placebo and baseline-adjusted QTc interval prolongation induced by moxifloxacin (positive control drug) at the time of expected peak concentration. The comparative analysis evaluated the time course of moxifloxacin-induced QTc prolongation in one study as well. The absolute HA-QT data were longer than the FDA-approved QTc data. This trend was not different between ECGs from the moxifloxacin and placebo arms: 9.6±24msec on drug and 9.8±25msec on placebo. The difference between methods vanished when comparing the placebo-baseline-adjusted QTc prolongation (1.4±2.8msec, p=0.4). The differences in precision between the HA-QT and the FDA-approved measurements were not statistically different from zero: 0.1±0.1msec (p=0.7). Also, the time course of the moxifloxacin-induced QTc prolongation adjusted for placebo was not statistically different between measurements methods. PMID:21251129

  17. [Potassium channelopathies and Morvan's syndromes].

    PubMed

    Serratrice, Georges; Pellissier, Jean-François; Serra-Trice, Jacques; Weiller, Pierre-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Interest in Morvan's disease or syndrome has grown, owing to its close links with various potassium channelopathies. Potassium is crucial for gating mechanisms (channel opening and closing), and especially for repolarization. Defective potassium regulation can lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. There are three families of potassium channels: voltage-gated potassium channels or VGKC (Kv1.1-Kv1.8), inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir), and two-pore channels (K2p). VGK channels are the commonest, and especially those belonging to the Shaker group (neuromyotonia and Morvan's syndrome, limbic encephalitis, and type 1 episodic ataxia). Brain and heart K+ channelopathies are a separate group due to KCNQ1 mutation (severe type 2 long QT syndrome). Kv7 channel mutations (in KNQ2 and KCNQ3) are responsible for benign familial neonatal seizures. Mutation of the Ca+ activated K+ channel gene causes epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia. Inward rectifier K+ channels regulate intracellular potassium levels. The DEND syndrome, a treatable channelopathy of the brain and pancreas, is due to KCNJ1 mutation. Andersen's syndrome, due to KCNJ2 mutation, is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrythmia, and dysmorphia. Voltage-insensitive K2p channelopathies form a final group. PMID:21166127

  18. The pathogenesis of the clinical features of oral-facial-digital syndrome type I

    PubMed Central

    AlKattan, Wael M.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.; Bafaqeeh, Sameer A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFDI) is an X-linked syndrome, which has several craniofacial and limb features; and hence, patients frequently present to craniofacial and plastic surgeons. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I is caused by mutations in the CXORF5 gene. The gene product is one of the basal body proteins of a slim microtubule-based organelle called the “primary cilium”. Most of the clinical features of OFDI patients are related to dysfunctions of the primary cilium leading to abnormal Hedgehog signal transduction, depressed planar cell polarity pathway, and errors in cell cycle control. PMID:26593159

  19. Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A Surgical Emergency? A Case of Massive Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chun, Stephen G; Pedro, Patrick; Yu, Mihae; Takanishi, Danny M

    2011-01-01

    Retroperitoneal hemorrhagic bleeding is a known manifestation of Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome that is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the pro-alpha-1 chains of type III pro-collagen (COL3A1) resulting in vascular fragility. A number of previous reports describe futile surgical intervention for retroperitoneal bleeding in Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome with high post-operative mortality, although the rarity of retroperitoneal bleeding associated with Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome precludes an evidence-based approach to clinical management. We report a 23-year-old male with history of Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome who presented with severe abdominal pain and tachycardia following an episode of vomiting. Further work-up of his abdominal pain revealed massive retroperitoneal bleeding by CT-scan of the abdomen. Given numerous cases of catastrophic injury caused by surgical intervention in Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, the patient was treated non-operatively, and the patient made a full recovery. This case suggests that even in cases of large retroperitoneal hemorrhages associated with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, it may not truly represent a surgical emergency. PMID:21966332

  20. Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A Surgical Emergency? A Case of Massive Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chun, Stephen G; Pedro, Patrick; Yu, Mihae; Takanishi, Danny M

    2011-01-01

    Retroperitoneal hemorrhagic bleeding is a known manifestation of Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome that is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the pro-alpha-1 chains of type III pro-collagen (COL3A1) resulting in vascular fragility. A number of previous reports describe futile surgical intervention for retroperitoneal bleeding in Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome with high post-operative mortality, although the rarity of retroperitoneal bleeding associated with Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome precludes an evidence-based approach to clinical management. We report a 23-year-old male with history of Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome who presented with severe abdominal pain and tachycardia following an episode of vomiting. Further work-up of his abdominal pain revealed massive retroperitoneal bleeding by CT-scan of the abdomen. Given numerous cases of catastrophic injury caused by surgical intervention in Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, the patient was treated non-operatively, and the patient made a full recovery. This case suggests that even in cases of large retroperitoneal hemorrhages associated with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, it may not truly represent a surgical emergency.

  1. [Deceased Schizophrenic Patients--Focus on QT Prolongation].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kimiko; Kase, Koji; Hara, Koichiro; Asai, Yoshiyuki; Asai, Kuniya; Sakurai, Shotaro; Yumoto, Tetsuro; Takayama, Kohzo; Shuno, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated factors affecting the lifespan of schizophrenic patients, who are known to have a shorter life expectancy than healthy people, focusing on the relationship with QT prolongation associated with antipsychotics. In a total of 406 patients who died at Asai Hospital the mean age at death was compared between schizophrenic patients and nonpsychiatric patients. In deceased schizophrenic patients, drug-related factors, hematology results, and electrocardiographic findings for 3 years before death were compared with those for the same period in age-matched surviving schizophrenic patients. In addition, QT values in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls were evaluated by age group. The mean age at death was significantly younger in schizophrenic patients (63.4 +/- 2.63 years) than in nonpsychiatric patients (84.0 +/- 0.57 years) (p<0.001). Bivariate analysis between deceased and surviving schizophrenic patients showed significant differences in QT values at 2 years, 1 year, and 0.5 years before death and in AST and ALT values at 0.5.years before death. The incidence of QT prolongation in deceased schizophrenic patients (52.0%) was about twice as high as that in surviving schizophrenic patients (24.5%). Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that the proportion of deceased patients was higher when QT intervals were longer and ALT values were relatively higher, even if within the normal range. In both schizophrenic patients and medical checkup examinees, QT values were positively correlated with the age (R2 = 0.9061 and 0.9276, respectively), and QT intervals in schizophrenic patients were significantly longer in the 30- to 70-year age groups. In both schizophrenic patients and medical checkup examinees, QT values were positively correlated with the age, and QT intervals in schizophrenic patients were significantly longer than those in medical checkup examinees in the same age groups. Deceased schizophrenic patients showed

  2. The QT Interval and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Mandyam, Mala C.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Alonso, Alvaro; Dewland, Thomas A.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Cummings, Steven R.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Chaitman, Bernard R.; Stocke, Karen; Applegate, William B.; Arking, Dan E.; Butler, Javed; Loehr, Laura R.; Magnani, Jared W.; Murphy, Rachel A.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Newman, Anne B.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Abnormal atrial repolarization is important in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), but no direct measurement is available in clinical medicine. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the QT interval, a marker of ventricular repolarization, could be used to predict incident AF. METHODS We examined a prolonged QT corrected by the Framingham formula (QTFram) as a predictor of incident AF in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study were used for validation. Secondary predictors included QT duration as a continuous variable, a short QT interval, and QT intervals corrected by other formulae. RESULTS Among 14,538 ARIC participants, a prolonged QTFram predicted a roughly two-fold increased risk of AF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–2.96, p<0.001). No substantive attenuation was observed after adjustment for age, race, sex, study center, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, coronary disease, and heart failure. The findings were validated in CHS and Health ABC and were similar across various QT correction methods. Also in ARIC, each 10-ms increase in QTFram was associated with an increased unadjusted (HR 1.14, 95%CI 1.10–1.17, p<0.001) and adjusted (HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.14, p<0.001) risk of AF. Findings regarding a short QT were inconsistent across cohorts. CONCLUSIONS A prolonged QT interval is associated with an increased risk of incident AF. PMID:23872693

  3. A Critical Evaluation of the Down Syndrome Diagnosis for LB1, Type Specimen of Homo floresiensis

    PubMed Central

    Baab, Karen L.; Brown, Peter; Falk, Dean; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William

    2016-01-01

    The Liang Bua hominins from Flores, Indonesia, have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate since their initial description and classification in 2004. These remains have been assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis, with the partial skeleton LB1 as the type specimen. The Liang Bua hominins are notable for their short stature, small endocranial volume, and many features that appear phylogenetically primitive relative to modern humans, despite their late Pleistocene age. Recently, some workers suggested that the remains represent members of a small-bodied island population of modern Austro-Melanesian humans, with LB1 exhibiting clinical signs of Down syndrome. Many classic Down syndrome signs are soft tissue features that could not be assessed in skeletal remains. Moreover, a definitive diagnosis of Down syndrome can only be made by genetic analysis as the phenotypes associated with Down syndrome are variable. Most features that contribute to the Down syndrome phenotype are not restricted to Down syndrome but are seen in other chromosomal disorders and in the general population. Nevertheless, we re-evaluated the presence of those phenotypic features used to support this classification by comparing LB1 to samples of modern humans diagnosed with Down syndrome and euploid modern humans using comparative morphometric analyses. We present new data regarding neurocranial, brain, and symphyseal shape in Down syndrome, additional estimates of stature for LB1, and analyses of inter- and intralimb proportions. The presence of cranial sinuses is addressed using CT images of LB1. We found minimal congruence between the LB1 phenotype and clinical descriptions of Down syndrome. We present important differences between the phenotypes of LB1 and individuals with Down syndrome, and quantitative data that characterize LB1 as an outlier compared with Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups. Homo floresiensis remains a phenotypically unique, valid species with its roots

  4. A Critical Evaluation of the Down Syndrome Diagnosis for LB1, Type Specimen of Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Baab, Karen L; Brown, Peter; Falk, Dean; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Hildebolt, Charles F; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William

    2016-01-01

    The Liang Bua hominins from Flores, Indonesia, have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate since their initial description and classification in 2004. These remains have been assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis, with the partial skeleton LB1 as the type specimen. The Liang Bua hominins are notable for their short stature, small endocranial volume, and many features that appear phylogenetically primitive relative to modern humans, despite their late Pleistocene age. Recently, some workers suggested that the remains represent members of a small-bodied island population of modern Austro-Melanesian humans, with LB1 exhibiting clinical signs of Down syndrome. Many classic Down syndrome signs are soft tissue features that could not be assessed in skeletal remains. Moreover, a definitive diagnosis of Down syndrome can only be made by genetic analysis as the phenotypes associated with Down syndrome are variable. Most features that contribute to the Down syndrome phenotype are not restricted to Down syndrome but are seen in other chromosomal disorders and in the general population. Nevertheless, we re-evaluated the presence of those phenotypic features used to support this classification by comparing LB1 to samples of modern humans diagnosed with Down syndrome and euploid modern humans using comparative morphometric analyses. We present new data regarding neurocranial, brain, and symphyseal shape in Down syndrome, additional estimates of stature for LB1, and analyses of inter- and intralimb proportions. The presence of cranial sinuses is addressed using CT images of LB1. We found minimal congruence between the LB1 phenotype and clinical descriptions of Down syndrome. We present important differences between the phenotypes of LB1 and individuals with Down syndrome, and quantitative data that characterize LB1 as an outlier compared with Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups. Homo floresiensis remains a phenotypically unique, valid species with its roots

  5. A Critical Evaluation of the Down Syndrome Diagnosis for LB1, Type Specimen of Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Baab, Karen L; Brown, Peter; Falk, Dean; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Hildebolt, Charles F; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William

    2016-01-01

    The Liang Bua hominins from Flores, Indonesia, have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate since their initial description and classification in 2004. These remains have been assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis, with the partial skeleton LB1 as the type specimen. The Liang Bua hominins are notable for their short stature, small endocranial volume, and many features that appear phylogenetically primitive relative to modern humans, despite their late Pleistocene age. Recently, some workers suggested that the remains represent members of a small-bodied island population of modern Austro-Melanesian humans, with LB1 exhibiting clinical signs of Down syndrome. Many classic Down syndrome signs are soft tissue features that could not be assessed in skeletal remains. Moreover, a definitive diagnosis of Down syndrome can only be made by genetic analysis as the phenotypes associated with Down syndrome are variable. Most features that contribute to the Down syndrome phenotype are not restricted to Down syndrome but are seen in other chromosomal disorders and in the general population. Nevertheless, we re-evaluated the presence of those phenotypic features used to support this classification by comparing LB1 to samples of modern humans diagnosed with Down syndrome and euploid modern humans using comparative morphometric analyses. We present new data regarding neurocranial, brain, and symphyseal shape in Down syndrome, additional estimates of stature for LB1, and analyses of inter- and intralimb proportions. The presence of cranial sinuses is addressed using CT images of LB1. We found minimal congruence between the LB1 phenotype and clinical descriptions of Down syndrome. We present important differences between the phenotypes of LB1 and individuals with Down syndrome, and quantitative data that characterize LB1 as an outlier compared with Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups. Homo floresiensis remains a phenotypically unique, valid species with its roots

  6. 15 YEARS OF PARAGANGLIOMA: Clinical manifestations of paraganglioma syndromes types 1–5

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Diana E; Robinson, Bruce G; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J

    2015-01-01

    The paraganglioma (PGL) syndromes types 1–5 are autosomal dominant disorders characterized by familial predisposition to PGLs, phaeochromocytomas (PCs), renal cell cancers, gastrointestinal stromal tumours and, rarely, pituitary adenomas. Each syndrome is associated with mutation in a gene encoding a particular subunit (or assembly factor) of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx). The clinical manifestations of these syndromes are protean: patients may present with features of catecholamine excess (including the classic triad of headache, sweating and palpitations), or with symptoms from local tumour mass, or increasingly as an incidental finding on imaging performed for some other purpose. As genetic testing for these syndromes becomes more widespread, presymptomatic diagnosis is also possible, although penetrance of disease in these syndromes is highly variable and tumour development does not clearly follow a predetermined pattern. PGL1 syndrome (SDHD) and PGL2 syndrome (SDHAF2) are notable for high frequency of multifocal tumour development and for parent-of-origin inheritance: disease is almost only ever manifest in subjects inheriting the defective allele from their father. PGL4 syndrome (SDHB) is notable for an increased risk of malignant PGL or PC. PGL3 syndrome (SDHC) and PGL5 syndrome (SDHA) are less common and appear to be associated with lower penetrance of tumour development. Although these syndromes are all associated with SDH deficiency, few genotype–phenotype relationships have yet been established, and indeed it is remarkable that such divergent phenotypes can arise from disruption of a common molecular pathway. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these syndromes, including their component tumours and underlying genetic basis. PMID:26273102

  7. Family Therapy of the Moderate Type of Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    Modification of traditional family therapy approaches are warranted if there is to be any chance of success in the treatment of Parental Alienation Syndrome families. Especially important is the full support of the court. Describes the special family therapeutic techniques warranted in the treatment of families in which the Parental Alienation…

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and scurvy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Aggarwal, Anju; Faridi, M M A

    2009-06-01

    A 5 year old female developed features of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) i.e excessive pain to touch, decreased sweating and edema of left ankle 2 years after fracture of left tibia. Gum bleeding, petechiae and pseudoparalysis and suggestive radiograph characterized scurvy. Hyperesthesia improved and child walked with support following administration of vitamin C.

  9. Anaesthetists' knowledge of the QT interval in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S D; Myles, P S

    2005-12-01

    Many drugs used in anaesthesia may prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram (ECG), and recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines mandate monitoring of the ECG before, during and after droperidol administration. We surveyed 41 trainee and consultant anaesthetists in our Department to determine current practice and knowledge of the QT interval to investigate if this is a practical proposition. A response rate of 98% (40/41) was obtained. The majority of respondents expressed moderate to high levels of confidence in interpreting the ECG, and this was related to years of training (rho 0.36, P=0.024). A total of 27 respondents (65%) were able to correctly identify the QT interval on a schematic representation of the ECG, trainees 70% vs consultants 60%, P=0.51. When asked to name drugs that altered the QT interval, droperidol was included by 11 of the 40 respondents (28%); trainees 10% vs consultants 45%, OR 7.4 (95% CI: 1.3-41), P=0.013. Torsades de Pointes was correctly identified as a possible consequence of a prolonged QT interval by 65% of trainees and 70% of consultants, P=0.83. The results suggest that QT interval measurement is not widely practised by anaesthetists, although its clinical significance is well known, and interpretation would be unreliable without further education.

  10. Effect of dipyridamole on QT dispersion in vasospastic angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ashikaga, T; Nishizaki, M; Arita, M; Yamawake, N; Suzuki, M; Hashimoto, Y; Kishi, Y; Numano, F; Hiraoka, M

    1999-10-01

    Life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias have frequently been documented in patients with vasospastic angina. Moreover, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias has been closely associated with increased QT dispersion. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for this arrhythmogenesis has not been clarified. The effects of dipyridamole and subsequent aminophylline administration on QT dispersion were examined in 35 patients with vasospastic angina and 30 patients with atypical chest pain. None of the patients enrolled in this study revealed any significant stenosis in coronary angiography. QT dispersion during dipyridamole followed by aminophylline administration was compared between the 2 groups. The baseline QT dispersion was similar in both groups (vasospastic angina: 27 +/- 8 ms; atypical chest pain: 28 +/- 7 ms). No significant changes in QT dispersion were observed in patients with atypical chest pain by dipyridamole (23 +/- 9 ms) and subsequent aminophylline administration (23 +/- 5 ms). However, the QT dispersion in patients with vasospastic angina increased significantly by dipyridamole administration (53 +/- 14 ms, p <0.0001) and returned to baseline by subsequent aminophylline administration (26 +/- 10 ms). Our data suggest that the disparity of ventricular repolarization in vasospastic angina may be mediated by increased endogenous adenosine.

  11. X-linked albinism-deafness syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome type II: A hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zlotogora, J.

    1995-11-20

    Margolis reported on a large pedigree with a {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} X-linked syndrome of profound deafness and albinism (MIM 300700, albinism-deafness syndrome). The affected males presented with profound deafness and severe pigmentary abnormalities of the skin. At birth the skin appeared as almost albinotic except for areas of light pigmentation over the gluteal and scrotal areas, and thereafter pigmentation gradually increased over the body. Skin changes ultimately included areas of hypopigmentation and spots of hyperpigmentation. Some of the affected males also had blue irides, heterochromia, or segmental color iris changes. In carrier females, variable hearing impairment was documented without any pigmentary changes. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Clinical and genetic aspects of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classic type.

    PubMed

    Malfait, Fransiska; Wenstrup, Richard J; De Paepe, Anne

    2010-10-01

    Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heritable connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, fragile and soft skin, delayed wound healing with formation of atrophic scars, easy bruising, and generalized joint hypermobility. It comprises Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type I and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II, but it is now apparent that these form a continuum of clinical findings and differ only in phenotypic severity. It is currently estimated that approximately 50% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome harbor mutations in the COL5A1 and the COL5A2 gene, encoding the α1 and the α2-chain of type V collagen, respectively. However, because no prospective molecular studies of COL5A1 and COL5A2 have been performed in a clinically well-defined patient group, this number may underestimate the real proportion of patients with classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome harboring a mutation in one of these genes. In the majority of patients with molecularly characterized classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, the disease is caused by a mutation leading to a nonfunctional COL5A1 allele and resulting in haploinsufficiency of type V collagen. A smaller proportion of patients harbor a structural mutation in COL5A1 or COL5A2, causing the production of a functionally defective type V collagen protein. Most mutations identified so far result in a reduced amount of type V collagen in the connective tissues available for collagen fibrillogenesis. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability is observed, but no genotype-phenotype correlations have been observed. No treatment for the underlying defect is presently available for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, a series of preventive guidelines are applicable.

  13. Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) in the pre-Columbian culture of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pachajoa, Harry; Rodriguez, Carlos Armando

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI or Maroteaux Lamy syndrome is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase B, the clinical features include short stature, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, stiff joints, corneal clouding, cardiac abnormalities, and facial dysmorphism, with intelligence usually normal. We present evidence of the possible existence of Maroteaux Lamy syndrome in pre-Columbian pottery 2000 years ago, in the Colombo-Ecuadorian Pacific coast of the Tumaco-Tolita culture.

  14. Metachronous multifocal desmoid-type fibromatoses along the neuraxis with adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chung, K H Carlos; Charlton, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Chaseling, Raymond; Owler, Brian K

    2010-10-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis, aggressive fibromatosis, or desmoid tumor is an uncommon benign but locally aggressive fibroblastic lesion. Although intraabdominal desmoid-type fibromatoses are well described in association with adenomatous polyposis syndrome, their occurrence along the neuraxis is extremely rare. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old boy with metachronous intracranial and spinal desmoid-type fibromatoses with preceding medulloblastoma. He was ultimately diagnosed with adenomatous polyposis syndrome. This is the first reported case of spinal desmoid-type fibromatosis in association with adenomatous polyposis syndrome. The identification of an underlying genetic instability allows for screening to detect lesions and institute measures to avoid preventable mortality from nonneurological tumors.

  15. Perisigmoid Abscess Leading to a Diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    PubMed Central

    Kesavan, Anil; Srikumar, Pillai B.; McConnie, Randolph M.

    2016-01-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by triad of joint hypermobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV places patients at risk for life-threatening, spontaneous, vascular or visceral rupture due to reduced or abnormal secretion of type III collagen. We present an adolescent male who was found to have a perisigmoid abscess with a fistula connecting to adjacent sigmoid colon secondary to undiagnosed EDS type IV. Conservative management with antibiotics and bowel rest was pursued to allow for elective resection for his acute complicated diverticulitis at a safer time. PMID:26958560

  16. Perisigmoid Abscess Leading to a Diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV.

    PubMed

    Normatov, Inessa; Kesavan, Anil; Srikumar, Pillai B; McConnie, Randolph M

    2016-01-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by triad of joint hypermobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV places patients at risk for life-threatening, spontaneous, vascular or visceral rupture due to reduced or abnormal secretion of type III collagen. We present an adolescent male who was found to have a perisigmoid abscess with a fistula connecting to adjacent sigmoid colon secondary to undiagnosed EDS type IV. Conservative management with antibiotics and bowel rest was pursued to allow for elective resection for his acute complicated diverticulitis at a safer time. PMID:26958560

  17. Pharmacometabolomic approach to predict QT prolongation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeonghyeon; Noh, Keumhan; Lee, Hae Won; Lim, Mi-sun; Seong, Sook Jin; Seo, Jeong Ju; Kim, Eun-Jung; Kang, Wonku; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP), a life-threatening arrhythmia associated with prolongation of the QT interval, has been a significant reason for withdrawal of several medicines from the market. Prolongation of the QT interval is considered as the best biomarker for predicting the torsadogenic risk of a new chemical entity. Because of the difficulty assessing the risk for TdP during drug development, we evaluated the metabolic phenotype for predicting QT prolongation induced by sparfloxacin, and elucidated the metabolic pathway related to the QT prolongation. We performed electrocardiography analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of plasma samples obtained from 15 guinea pigs after administration of sparfloxacin at doses of 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg. Principal component analysis and partial least squares modelling were conducted to select the metabolites that substantially contributed to the prediction of QT prolongation. QTc increased significantly with increasing dose (r = 0.93). From the PLS analysis, the key metabolites that showed the highest variable importance in the projection values (>1.5) were selected, identified, and used to determine the metabolic network. In particular, cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP), deoxycorticosterone, L-aspartic acid and stearic acid were found to be final metabolomic phenotypes for the prediction of QT prolongation. Metabolomic phenotypes for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation of sparfloxacin were developed and can be applied to cardiac toxicity screening of other drugs. In addition, this integrative pharmacometabolomic approach would serve as a good tool for predicting pharmacodynamic or toxicological effects caused by changes in dose.

  18. A study of migraine characteristics in joint hypermobility syndrome a.k.a. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Puledda, Francesca; Viganò, Alessandro; Celletti, Claudia; Petolicchio, Barbara; Toscano, Massimiliano; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Castori, Marco; Laudani, Guido; Valente, Donatella; Camerota, Filippo; Di Piero, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two clinically overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and headache. Migraine with or without aura is considered the most common form of headache in JHS/EDS-HT. In this population of chronically ill patients, we investigated whether migraine characteristics were different from those of a control population of migraine patients. The study was carried out on 33 selected JHS/EDS-HT patients, diagnosed according to current criteria. Sixty-six migraine subjects matching age and gender were consecutively selected as controls (MO group) among patients attending our Headache Clinic. JHS/EDS-HT and MO were screened for a series of headache characteristics, such as frequency, intensity, age of onset, level of disability, use of rescue and prophylactic medications. Differences between the two groups were tested by using independent group comparisons. Results showed that in JHS/EDS-HT: (1) migraine has an earlier onset (12.6 vs 17 years of age; p = 0.005); (2) the rate of migraine days/month is higher (15 vs 9.3 days/month; p = 0.01); (3) accompanying symptoms are usually more frequent; (4) HIT-6 and MIDAS scores are higher (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03); (5) efficacy of rescue medication is almost identical, although, total drug consumption is significantly lower (p < 0.04). Joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type patients have a more severe headache syndrome with respect to the MO group, therefore demonstrating that migraine has a very high impact on quality of life in this disease.

  19. A study of migraine characteristics in joint hypermobility syndrome a.k.a. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Puledda, Francesca; Viganò, Alessandro; Celletti, Claudia; Petolicchio, Barbara; Toscano, Massimiliano; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Castori, Marco; Laudani, Guido; Valente, Donatella; Camerota, Filippo; Di Piero, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two clinically overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and headache. Migraine with or without aura is considered the most common form of headache in JHS/EDS-HT. In this population of chronically ill patients, we investigated whether migraine characteristics were different from those of a control population of migraine patients. The study was carried out on 33 selected JHS/EDS-HT patients, diagnosed according to current criteria. Sixty-six migraine subjects matching age and gender were consecutively selected as controls (MO group) among patients attending our Headache Clinic. JHS/EDS-HT and MO were screened for a series of headache characteristics, such as frequency, intensity, age of onset, level of disability, use of rescue and prophylactic medications. Differences between the two groups were tested by using independent group comparisons. Results showed that in JHS/EDS-HT: (1) migraine has an earlier onset (12.6 vs 17 years of age; p = 0.005); (2) the rate of migraine days/month is higher (15 vs 9.3 days/month; p = 0.01); (3) accompanying symptoms are usually more frequent; (4) HIT-6 and MIDAS scores are higher (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03); (5) efficacy of rescue medication is almost identical, although, total drug consumption is significantly lower (p < 0.04). Joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type patients have a more severe headache syndrome with respect to the MO group, therefore demonstrating that migraine has a very high impact on quality of life in this disease. PMID:25791889

  20. Who Is at Risk for Long QT Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... excessive vomiting or diarrhea or other conditions that cause low blood levels of potassium or sodium. These conditions include the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, as well as some ...

  1. Relationship between Fatigue and Gait Abnormality in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celletti, Claudia; Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Castori, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterised by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It has recently been shown that muscle weakness occurs frequently in EDS, and that fatigue is a common and clinically important symptom. The…

  2. QT Interval and QT Dispersion in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: Revisiting the Old Theory

    PubMed Central

    Alabd, Mohamed A.; El-Hammady, Walid; Shawky, Ahmed; Nammas, Wail; El-Tayeb, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Aims We sought to explore the response of the corrected QT (QTc) interval duration and QT dispersion (QTD) to hemodialysis. Methods We enrolled 50 patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing regular hemodialysis. Blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum electrolytes, and a 12-lead ECG was performed to measure the QTc interval duration and QTD, immediately before and just after dialysis sessions. Results The mean age of the cohort was 42.8 ± 12.2 years (58% males). Both the QTc duration and QTD showed marked variability after hemodialysis. A significant correlation was found between the decrease of both serum potassium and magnesium levels after dialysis and the post-dialysis QTc interval duration, with Pearson's correlation coefficients r = −0.43 and r = −0.34, p = 0.002 and p = 0.01, respectively. Patients with a post-dialysis increase of QTc interval duration had a significantly higher percentage of reduction of serum potassium (p = 0.029), whereas patients with a post-dialysis increase of QTD had a significantly higher percentage of reduction of serum magnesium (p = 0.03). Conclusion Our findings suggest a highly variable response of the QTc interval duration and QTD to hemodialysis. The post-dialysis QTc interval duration inversely correlated with the decrease of both serum potassium and magnesium levels after dialysis. PMID:22470374

  3. Effects of long-term hormone replacement therapy on QT and corrected QT dispersion during resting and peak exercise electrocardiography in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Altunkeser, Bülent B; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Içli, Abdullah; Celik, Cetin; Akyürek, Cemalettin; Gök, Hasan

    2002-01-01

    It is known that the QT interval is longer in women than men. Estrogen is reported to account for the QT interval prolongation in several studies conducted with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. Along with this, there are conflicting data as regards the effects of HRT on QT interval and dispersion. Moreover, there is no evidence about the effect of HRT on exercise QT parameters. We compared QT parameters obtained from surface electrocardiograms during resting and peak exercise before and after 6 months of HRT consisting of estrogen plus progesterone in healthy postmenopausal women. Twenty-four healthy postmenopausal women were given 0.625 mg/day conjugated estrogens and 2.5 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate for 6 months. Exercise stress testing using the Bruce protocol was performed before and after HRT. QT maximum, minimum, dispersion and corrected QT maximum, minimum and dispersion were calculated during resting and peak exercise. HRT resulted in a significant increase in estradiol plasma levels from 24+/-10 pg/mL to 117+/-66 pg/mL (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in resting QT parameters after HRT, whereas QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion were significantly increased during peak exercise (20+/-7 versus 25+/-10 ms; P<0.05, 33+/-12 versus 41+/-16 ms; P<0.05, respectively). Nonetheless, the other exercise QT parameters were unchanged. The resting QT parameters are not affected by long term HRT consisting of estrogen plus progesterone, which leads to an increase in QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion during peak exercise.

  4. Cushing's syndrome in type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Gungunes, Askin; Sahin, Mustafa; Demirci, Taner; Ucan, Bekir; Cakir, Evrim; Arslan, Muyesser Sayki; Unsal, Ilknur Ozturk; Karbek, Basak; Calıskan, Mustafa; Ozbek, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-12-01

    Cushing's syndrome may be more frequent in some specific patient groups such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome in outpatients with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control despite at least 3-months insulin therapy. Outpatients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemic control is poor (Hb Alc value >7 %) despite receiving at least 3-months long insulin treatment (insulin alone or insulin with oral antidiabetics) were included. Patients with classic features of Cushing's syndrome were excluded. Overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) was performed as a screening test. A total of 277 patients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemic control is poor (Hb Alc value >7 %) despite insulin therapy were included. Two of the 277 patients with type 2 diabetes were diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome (0.72 %). Hypertension was statistically more frequent in the patients with cortisol levels ≥1.8 μg/dL than the patients with cortisol levels <1.8 μg/dL after overnight 1 mg DST (p = 0.041). Statistically significant correlation was determined between cortisol levels after 1 mg DST and age, daily insulin dose (r = 0.266 and p < 0.001, r = 0.163 and p = 0.008, respectively). According to our findings, the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome among patients with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control despite insulin therapy is much higher than in the general population. The patients with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control despite at least three months of insulin therapy should be additionally tested for Cushing's syndrome if they have high dose insülin requirements.

  5. Thorough QT Studies: Questions and Quandaries.

    PubMed

    Malik, Marek; Garnett, Christine E; Zhang, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    The International Conference on Harmonisation E14 Guidance was successful in largely standardizing the conduct of the so-called thorough QT/QTc studies (TQTS). Nevertheless, there is still a spectrum of frequently encountered problems with details of design, conduct and interpretation of TQTS. Several of these challenges are reviewed here, starting with explaining that the TQTS goal is only to identify drugs for which the proarrhythmic risk might be considered excluded for the purposes of regulatory benefit-risk assessment. Suggestions are made on how to categorize and quantify or exclude proarrhythmic risk if the TQTS is positive. There is a conceptual need for TQTS, and this is discussed, together with reasons why restricted clinical registries cannot prove the absence of proarrhythmic liability of any drug. Appropriate drug doses investigated in TQTS should be derived from the maximum clinically tolerable dose rather than from the known or expected therapeutic dose. With the help of concentration-QTc modelling, the standard therapeutic dose can be omitted from TQTS, especially if the study is expected to be negative. Conditions for single-dose TQTS acceptability are reviewed. The role of the so-called positive control is assessed, contrasting the role of a same-class comparator for the investigated drug. A single 400 mg dose of moxifloxacin is advocated as the present 'gold standard' assay sensitivity test. The necessity of careful placebo control is explained and the frequency of ECG assessments is considered. The central tendency and outlier analyses are discussed, together with the correct approaches to baseline adjustment. The review concludes that the design and interpretation of TQTS must not be approached with mechanistic stereotypes, and highlights the importance of relating the QTc changes to drug plasma levels.

  6. [Chronic type A aortic dissection associated with Turner syndrome; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideyuki; Kozaki, Tomofumi; Kume, Masazumi; Miyamoto, Shinji

    2014-12-01

    Aortic dissection is a critical but rare complication of Turner syndrome. This report describes a case of chronic aortic dissection in a patient with Turner syndrome. A 54-year-old woman, suffering from mild back pain for 1 month, was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of Stanford type A chronic aortic dissection and a bicuspid aortic valve with moderate regurgitation. Computed tomography revealed aortic dissection, involving all arch branches, extending from the ascending to the abdominal aorta. The true lumen of the brachial artery was nearly obstructed by the thrombosed false lumen. Elective aortic arch repair and aortic valve replacement were successfully performed. The patient was diagnosed with 45, XO Turner syndrome after surgery. Taking aortopathy of Turner syndrome into consideration, surveillance of the residual aorta was performed. No rapidly progressive dilatation of the residual aorta was detected during the 6 years' follow-up.

  7. Oromandibular Limb Hypogenesis Syndrome Type IIB: Case Report of Hypoglossia-Hypodactyly

    PubMed Central

    Meundi, Manasa Anand; Nair, Gopakumar R.; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Raj, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglossia-hypodactyly is a rare congenital anomaly affecting the tongue and the limbs. Hall in 1971 classified it under a complex group of disorders called oromandibular limb hypogenesis syndromes. It is an extremely rare condition with around 40 cases reported in the world literature. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. Some type of intrauterine trauma is the most widely accepted etiology. The characteristic features of the syndrome are hypoglossia, limb anomalies of variable degree, and micrognathia of the mandible. This unique case report of hypoglossia-hypodactyly was observed in a patient with normal mandible. In addition, patient also had pulmonary regurgitation. His parents and other siblings were normal. Positive prenatal history of maternal hyperthermia was obtained suspecting it to be the cause of the syndrome. PMID:23431477

  8. Chiari Type I malformation yielded to the diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Canpolat, Aydin; Akçakaya, Mehmet Osman; Altunrende, Emre; Ozlü, Harun Mehmet; Duman, Hakan; Ton, Tuğrul; Akdemir, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) related to syndromic craniosynostosis in pediatric patients has been well-studied. The surgical management consists of cranial vault remodeling with or without posterior fossa decompression. There were also cases, in whom CM-I was diagnosed prior to the craniosynostosis in early childhood. We present a 16-year-old boy who admitted with symptoms related to CM-I. With careful examination and further genetic investigations, a diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome was made, of which the patient and his family was unaware before. The patient underwent surgery for posterior fossa decompression and followed-up for Crouzon's syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the only case report indicating a late adolescent diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome through clinical symptoms of an associated CM-I. PMID:24741262

  9. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bipul Kumar; Saiki, Uma Kaimal; Sarm, Dipti; Choudhury, Bikash Narayan; Choudhury, Sarojini Dutta; Saharia, Dhiren; Saikia, Mihir

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) comprise a wide clinical spectrum of autoimmune disorders. APS is divided into Type I, Type II, Type I and Type IV depending upon the pattern of disease combination. Ghronic diarrhoea is one of the many manifestations of APS and many aetiological factors have been suggested for it. Apart from the established aetiological factors, intestinal lymphangiectasia may be responsible for chronic diarrhea in some cases.Intestinal lymphangiectasia has been reported in Type I APS. We report a case of Type III APS with hypocalcaemia and hypothyroidism who had chronic diarrhea of long duration and was finally diagnosed to have intestinal lymphangiectasia. PMID:22616341

  10. Systemic capillary leak syndrome induced by influenza type A infection

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyeong Won; Heo, Sang Taek; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Yong-Geun; Park, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old man visited the emergency department complaining of lower extremity swelling and myalgia. His influenza A antigen test was positive, and he was admitted for supportive care of severe myalgia. On the first hospital day, the swelling in his lower legs was aggravated with intolerable pain, and his creatine phosphokinase and hemoglobin levels were elevated. He was treated with massive hydration, albumin replacement, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, phlebotomy, and oseltamivir. The swelling and pain in his extremities were decreased without renal dysfunction, even though peripheral neuropathy and muscular complication persisted. Systemic capillary leak syndrome is a rare but life-threatening condition. The diagnosis is made clinically based on a classic triad of hypotension, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. In our case, the influenza A infection was related to the capillary leakage.

  11. Orocardiodigital syndrome: an oral-facial-digital type II variant associated with atrioventricular canal.

    PubMed Central

    Digilio, M C; Marino, B; Giannotti, A; Dallapiccola, B

    1996-01-01

    We report on a patient with a constellation of anomalies including hamartomas of the tongue, polysyndactyly, and atrioventricular canal. A similar association has been previously described by Orstavik et al in two sibs. The clinical spectrum of the oralfacial-digital syndrome (OFDS) type II includes all these features. In particular, congenital heart defect, mainly atrioventricular canal, has been described in a few cases. It has been previously suggested that these latter patients may be affected by a variant of OFDS type II. We propose to distinguish this orocardiodigital variant and point out the association of the syndrome with atrioventricular canal. Images PMID:8733055

  12. The conventional antihistamine drug cyproheptadine lacks QT-interval-prolonging action in halothane-anesthetized guinea pigs: comparison with hydroxyzine.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuko; Omuro, Naoki; Takahara, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Antihistamines are known to belong to the chemical class that may induce long QT syndrome. Among them, cyproheptadine has been shown to exert multifaceted actions on the ventricular repolarization phase; namely, shortening of the action potential duration at supra-therapeutic concentrations of 2 - 8 μM and prolongation of the QT interval at ≥ 10 μM. Since information is limited regarding the in vivo electrophysiological effects of cyproheptadine, we assessed it using the halothane-anesthetized guinea-pig model, which was compared with effects of another antihistamine drug, hydroxyzine. Sub-therapeutic to therapeutic doses of hydroxyzine at 1 and 10 mg/kg, i.v. prolonged the QT interval and duration of monophasic action potential, whereas therapeutic to supra-therapeutic doses of cyproheptadine at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.v. hardly affected the indices of ventricular repolarization. These results suggest that cyproheptadine may be categorized into antihistamines with little effect on the ventricular repolarization.

  13. Hereditary epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (Vörner type) in a family with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mofid, M Z; Costarangos, C; Gruber, S B; Koch, S E

    1998-05-01

    We describe a kindred in whom epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma occurred in association with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III (benign hypermobility syndrome). This kindred consisted of 27 members of four generations, 14 of whom had palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK). Of those who had palmoplantar keratoderma, 6 had Ehlers-Danlos type III (EDS II). The proband presented with diffuse, symmetrical hyperkeratotic plaques that were yellow and sharply demarcated, covering the entire palms and soles, in addition to marked large and small joint flexibility and skin hyperextensibility. A biopsy specimen from the palm revealed features of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis with acanthosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PPK in a family with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Linkage analysis of these two clinical traits showed that the genes responsible for PPK and EDS III are not closely linked, and therefore are not immediately adjacent. However, linkage at greater genetic distances could not be excluded.

  14. [Duane's retraction syndrome--overview and diagnosis of clinical types].

    PubMed

    Otradovec, J

    2001-05-01

    The author presents a postgraduate review of the problem. In the introduction he reviews typical features of Duane's retraction syndrome (DS) and its main symptoms and reminds of the main approaches to classification: (1) Malbrane s (Duane I, II and III), (2) Huber's which is based on EMG findings in ZOS and (3) Kaufman's which classifies DS according to the enforced position of the head. The author maintains that even according to the above many atypical rare pictures cannot be classified or explained pathogenetically. Some are mentioned: (1) "Inverse" DS, which was recorded and documented by Chytilová-Divisová (1949) in a girl with congenital paralysis of abduction on both eyes retraction of the bulbus developed and narrowing of the palpebral aperture when attempting abduction (1) of the eye, (2) Bilateral acquired DS in a female patient with a tumour of the brain stem confirmed by EMG records of both horizontal muscles. (3) Unilateral DS in a child from a family with familial incidence of congenital ZOS fibrosis with an obscure ratio of the neurogenic and myogenic and fibrous component of the two pictures. In another member of this family the Marcus Gunn phenomenon was present. The latter findings support the idea that in the development of the fairly uniform picture of DS a combination of neurogenic, myogenic and connective tissue changes participate. PMID:11433591

  15. Endocrine tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis and related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are two familial syndromes known as phakomatoses that may be associated with endocrine tumours. These hereditary cutaneous conditions affect the central nervous system and are characterised by the development of hamartomas. Over the past 20 years, there have been major advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of these diseases. Both NF-1 and TSC are disorders of unregulated progression through the cell cycle, in which causative genes behave as tumour suppressor genes. The pathogenesis of these familial syndromes is linked by the shared regulation of a common pathway, the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Additional related disorders that also converge on the mTOR pathway include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Cowden syndrome. All of these inherited cancer syndromes are associated with characteristic skin findings that offer a clue to their recognition and treatment. The discovery of mTOR inhibitors has led to a possible new therapeutic modality for patients with endocrine tumours as part of these familial syndromes.

  16. Efficacy of ventricular pacing in the treatment of an arrhythmic storm associated with a congenital long QT mutation.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Peter F; Shah, Maully J

    2013-01-01

    Long QT syndrome in the infant with 2:1 atrioventricular block is a malignant form of disease associated with frequent torsade de pointes in some cases. Those patients that do not respond to antiarrhythmic therapy are particularly challenging to manage. Ventricular pacing in this patient population has been shown to reduce arrhythmic events. We report a case of a newborn with frequent torsade de pointes requiring defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation with immediate shortening of the QTc interval with ventricular pacing and subsequent resolution of torsade de pointes.

  17. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher; Arslan, Bulent; Harthun, Nancy L.

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  18. A rare type of congenital Sturge-Weber Syndrome: presenting with history of perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Ejike, Obuoha; Odume, Calistus; Ekwochi, Uchenna; Ndu, Ikenna; Imanyikwa, Ugochukwu

    2016-08-01

    The presentation of a newborn with perinatal asphyxia and poor developmental milestones in a resource-poor setting. Many a times, obscured, unsuspected, and uncommon etiologies compound well-known causes of failure to thrive; in this case a rare finding of Type III Sturge-Weber Syndrome was revealed by Brain CT scanning. PMID:27525070

  19. Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Alzheimer-Type Dementia in Institutionalized Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, F. E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Institutionalized patients with Down syndrome (N=307) were monitored for 5 to 10 years to determine prevalence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Prevalence increased from 11% between ages 40 and 49 to 77% between 60 and 69. All patients 70 and over had dementia. Mean age of onset of dementia was 56 years. Neuropathological findings were consistent with…

  20. Psychosocial Implications of Usher Syndrome, Type I, throughout the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, I. D.

    1995-01-01

    Usher syndrome, Type I, requires multiple adaptations throughout the life cycle because each stage of life has tasks and losses associated with deafness and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. This article examines the issues raised at each stage, using clinical vignettes from persons who have this condition and their families. (Author/DB)

  1. A rare type of congenital Sturge-Weber Syndrome: presenting with history of perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Ejike, Obuoha; Odume, Calistus; Ekwochi, Uchenna; Ndu, Ikenna; Imanyikwa, Ugochukwu

    2016-08-01

    The presentation of a newborn with perinatal asphyxia and poor developmental milestones in a resource-poor setting. Many a times, obscured, unsuspected, and uncommon etiologies compound well-known causes of failure to thrive; in this case a rare finding of Type III Sturge-Weber Syndrome was revealed by Brain CT scanning.

  2. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  3. Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome with Carbohydrate-Responsive Symptoms but without Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koy, Anne; Assmann, Birgit; Klepper, Joerg; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is caused by a defect in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. The main symptoms are epilepsy, developmental delay, movement disorders, and deceleration of head circumference. A ketogenic diet has been shown to be effective in controlling epilepsy in GLUT1-DS. We report a female…

  4. Survival of an aortic trauma patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: a case report.

    PubMed

    Levine, M P

    2000-12-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is the most lethal variant of that illness and is associated with fatal large vessel arterial hemorrhages. The literature reports only two survivors of elective aortic surgery and two survivors of spontaneous aortic hemorrhage. This article presents a 14-year-old boy who had aortic and vena cava blunt trauma and survived.

  5. Posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliosis type.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Xuhui; Yuan, Wen

    2011-06-14

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by articular hypermobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. Surgical treatment of scoliosis associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome poses a challenge to spine surgeons because of the high risk of major complications. There is a paucity of evidence in the literature on surgical treatment for scoliosis in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome patient.This article describes 3 adolescent patients diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliosis type, which was treated by posterior spinal fusion only. After unsuccessful conservative treatment for at least 1 year, the patients underwent posterior spinal surgery for the correction of spinal deformity. A satisfactory correction in the spinal curve was achieved, with no obvious loss of correction during follow-up. No intra- or postoperative major complications were observed.Our experience supports that a satisfactory correction of scoliosis can be achieved by posterior spinal fusion only in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliosis type.

  6. Exploration of Differences in Types of Sleep Disturbance and Severity of Sleep Problems between Individuals with Cri du Chat Syndrome, Down's Syndrome, and Jacobsen Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) seems to vary between genetic syndromes associated with ID. Different types of sleep disturbances may indicate underlying causes of sleep problems and these types of sleep disturbances may vary between different genetic syndromes. We examined and compared five types…

  7. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis. PMID:8930949

  8. Pulmonary Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells and Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    During the past ten years, functions of alveolar type II cells have been well characterized with isolated cells in vitro. Some of the functions were well known from studies in vivo, but others such as transepithelial sodium transport were unsuspected. A better understanding of this important pulmonary cell type improves our knowledge of the pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome and may in time lead to new therapeutic strategies. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:3909639

  9. Richner-Hanhart syndrome (tyrosinemia type II). Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    al-Hemidan, A I; al-Hazzaa, S A

    1995-03-01

    Richner-Hanhart syndrome (Tyrosinemia Type II) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism characterized by ocular changes, painful palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, and mental retardation. Serum tyrosine increases due to tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency resulting in the deposition of tyrosine crystals in the cornea and in corneal inflammation. Patients are often misdiagnosed as having herpes simplex keratitis. We report on a child who presented with bilateral keratitis secondary to Tyrosinemia Type II diagnosed as herpes simplex keratitis.

  10. Sleep-disordered breathing, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seetho, Ian W; Wilding, John P H

    2014-11-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) encompasses a spectrum of conditions that can lead to altered sleep homeostasis. In particular, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common form of SDB and is associated with adverse cardiometabolic manifestations including hypertension, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, ultimately increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiological basis of these associations may relate to repeated intermittent hypoxia and fragmented sleep episodes that characterize OSA which drive further mechanisms with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. The associations of OSA with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome have been described in studies ranging from epidemiological and observational studies to controlled trials investigating the effects of OSA therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In recent years, there have been rising prevalence rates of diabetes and obesity worldwide. Given the established links between SDB (in particular OSA) with both conditions, understanding the potential influence of OSA on the components of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes and the underlying mechanisms by which such interactions may contribute to metabolic dysregulation are important in order to effectively and holistically manage patients with SDB, type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. In this article, we review the literature describing the associations, the possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms linking these conditions and the effects of interventions including CPAP treatment and weight loss.

  11. Mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B: relation of phenotypic features to background strain.

    PubMed

    Gografe, Sylvia I; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Willing, Alison E; Haas, Ken; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Sanberg, Paul R

    2003-12-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B or mucopolysaccharidosis type III B (MPS IIIB) is a lysosomal storage disorder that is inherited in autosomal recessive manner. It is characterized by systemic heparan sulfate accumulation in lysosomes due to deficiency of the enzyme alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu). Devastating clinical abnormalities with severe central nervous system involvement and somatic disease lead to premature death. A mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B was created by targeted disruption of the gene encoding Naglu, providing a powerful tool for understanding pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic strategies. However, the JAX GEMM Strain B6.129S6-Naglutm1Efn mouse, although showing biochemical similarities to humans with Sanfilippo syndrome, exhibits aging and behavioral differences. We observed idiosyncrasies, such as skeletal dysmorphism, hydrocephalus, ocular abnormalities, organomegaly, growth retardation, and anomalies of the integument, in our breeding colony of Naglu mutant mice and determined that several of them were at least partially related to the background strain C57BL/6. These background strain abnormalities, therefore, potentially mimic or overlap signs of the induced syndrome in our mice. Our observations may prove useful in studies of Naglu mutant mice. The necessity for distinguishing background anomalies from signs of the modeled disease is apparent. PMID:14727810

  12. Precocious presentation of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 associated with an AIRE mutation.

    PubMed

    Resende, Eduarda; Gόmez, Gemma Novoa; Nascimento, Marta; Loidi, Lourdes; Saborido Fiaño, Rebeca; Cabanas Rodrίguez, Paloma; Castro-Feijoo, Lidia; Barreiro Conde, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (type 2 APS), or Schmidt's syndrome, is defined by the presence of Addison's disease in combination with type 1 diabetes and/or autoimmune thyroid disease. The estimated prevalence of this syndrome is 1.4-4.5 per 100,000 inhabitants and it is more frequent in middle-aged females, whilst it is quite rare in children. Type 2 APS, which shows a pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance with low penetrance, has been associated with HLA specific DR3/DQ2 and DR4/DQ8 haplotypes. However, it has been hypothesized that genetic variability in the AIRE gene, which causing type 1 APS, may play a role in more common organ-specific autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's disease and type 2 APS, among others. Here we present the case of an 8-year-old girl, with a past medical history of type 1 diabetes diagnosed at the age of 3. She was taken to the Emergency Department because she complained of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and her blood analysis revealed a severe hyponatremia. She also had seizures as a consequence of the hyponatremia and frequent hypoglycemia. She was ultimately found to be suffering from autoimmune primary adrenal insufficiency. The combination of both mentioned conditions, type 1 diabetes and Addison's disease, in the absence of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, made a diagnosis of type 2 APS plausible in this girl. The genetic study showed two heterozygous variants: NM_000383.2:C.1411C>T (p. Arg471Cys) in exon 12 and IVS9+6G>A in intron 9 of the AIRE gene. The description of an uncommon case of type 2 APS with precocious presentation associated with an AIRE mutation in a very young girl could help to clarify the role of AIRE in the development of autoimmune diseases.

  13. Review of evidence that epidemics of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome are polar opposite responses to iatrogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Classen, John B

    2012-11-01

    There is an epidemic in children of metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and other individual diseases that form the components of metabolic syndrome. Poor diet and low exercise can not explain many facets of the epidemic including the onset in children 6 month of age, the protective effect of obesity on the incidence of type 1 diabetes and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome in grass fed horses. Poor diet and exercise also do not explain the epidemic of type 1 diabetes in children that resembles the epidemic of type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome. Several papers have been published to indicate that the epidemics of type 1 and type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome in children are linked and are polar opposite responses to iatrogenic inflammation. Several lines of research support this. Data from different races indicates that there is an inverse relationship between developing type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Races with high risk of developing type 2 diabetes have a decreased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Data from Italy confirmed an inverse association between obesity and type 1 diabetes. Further studies indicate the inverse relationship between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes/obesity is due to cortisol production. Data indicates those with low cortisol responses have a predilection for type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune disorders following inflammation, while those with high cortisol/ immune suppressive responses develop type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome/obesity which resembles a Cushingoid state but are spared in the autoimmune disorders. Japanese children produce much more cortisol following immunization than Caucasian children. The later explains why discontinuation of BCG vaccination was associated with a decrease in type 1 diabetes in European children and a decrease in type 2 diabetes in Japanese children. Both the epidemics of type 1 diabetes and metabolic syndrome correlate with an increase in immunization. Finally

  14. Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type 1 as an outcome of in vitro fertilization?

    PubMed

    Karaer, K; Yüksel, Z

    2014-01-01

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I [OMIM #190350] is an autosomal dominant disorder. Common features are: Slowly growing sparse hair, laterally thin eyebrows, bulbous tip of the nose, long philtrum, thin upper lip, protruding ears. Common skeletal anomalies include shortening of phalanges and metacarpals causing mild to severe brachydactyly, cone shaped epiphyses, hip dysplasia and short stature. Recently many reports have been published on the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and the increased risk of congenital major malformations or syndromes. We present a 6 years old Turkish Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) case of a twin pair after in vitro fertilization (IVF). TRPS with IVF pregnancy has not been reported previously. This new case reported herein will contribute to a better understanding whether ART pregnancy increases congenital malformations. PMID:24783650

  15. Unusual phenotype of glucose transport protein type 1 deficiency syndrome: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Posar, Annio; Santucci, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    The glucose transport protein type 1 (GLUT1) deficit causes a chronic brain energy failure. The classic phenotype of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is characterized by: Mild to severe motor delay and mental retardation; infantile-onset epilepsy; head growth deceleration; movement disorders (ataxia, dystonia, spasticity); and non-epileptic paroxysmal events (intermittent ataxia, periodic confusion, recurrent headaches). During last years the classic phenotype of this syndrome, as originally reported, has expanded. We report the atypical phenotype of a boy with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, characterized by mild mental retardation and drug-resistant absence seizures with onset at the age of 6 years, without movement disorders nor decrease of head circumference. A prompt diagnosis of this disorder is mandatory since the ketogenic diet might represent an effective treatment. PMID:24891901

  16. Management of dyslipidemias in the presence of the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matikainen, Niina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2012-12-01

    In the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, excess energy intake on the background of genetic predisposition and lifestyle factors leads to the dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and acquired insulin resistance. These initial metabolic defects are reflected to both lipoprotein and glucose metabolism and contribute to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, even after controlling for the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, subjects with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes remain at high residual cardiovascular risk despite of low/normal LDL-cholesterol concentration. For 2 decades, statin therapy has been the cornerstone of treatment of dyslipidemia in these disorders. In the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, only statin treatment has demonstrated consistently a significant reduction in cardiovascular and all cause mortality in clinical trials. Lately, increased incidence of diabetes especially in the high-risk populations using statins has raised the debate whether statins are indicated for primary prevention especially in the metabolic syndrome. Guidelines recommend intensified lifestyle intervention to those in high risk groups on statin therapy to reduce the residual risk. Despite of the proven efficacy on plasma lipids, fibrate, or niacin as monotherapy, or in combination with statins has failed in reducing cardiovascular mortality. This underlies the fact that improvement in dyslipidemia or other biomarkers is not equal to the reduction in cardiovascular events. However, fibrates in combination with statins seem to be beneficial to reduce CVD events in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (< 0.9-1.1 mmol/L) and elevated triglycerides (> 2.3 mmol/L), but the data are derived from subgroup analysis of clinical trials. The position of niacin and ezetimibe and omega-3 fatty acids in treatment of dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is even less clear and remains to be established in future clinical trials.

  17. Acute effects of smoking on QT dispersion in healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Yazdani, Shahrooz; Ghaidari, Mohamad Esmail; Asadpour-Piranfar, Mohammad; Bahrololoumi-Bafruee, Negar; Golabchi, Allahyar; Azhari, Amirhossein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). QT dispersion (QTD) is an important predictor of cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effect of smoking a single standard cigarette containing 1.7 mg nicotine on QT interval and QTD in healthy smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS The study sample population consisted of 40 healthy male hospital staff, including 20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers. They were asked to refrain from smoking at least 6 h before attending the study. A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG), recorded at paper speed of 50 mm/s, was obtained from all participants before and 10 min after smoking of a single complete cigarette. QT interval, corrected QT interval, QTD, and corrected QT dispersion (QTcD) were measured before and after smoking. RESULTS Smokers and nonsmokers did not have any significant differences in heart rate (HR) (before smoking = 67.35 ± 5.14 vs. 67.70 ± 5.07, after smoking = 76.70 ± 6.50 vs. 76.85 ± 6.50, respectively), QTD (before smoking = 37.75 ± 7.16 vs. 39.15 ± 6.55, after smoking = 44.75 ± 11.97 vs. 45.50 ± 9.58, respectively), and QTcD (before smoking = 39.85 ± 7.40 vs. 41.55 ± 6.57, after smoking = 50.70 ± 14.31 vs. 51.50 ± 11.71, respectively). However, after smoking a single cigarette, HR, mean QTD, and QTcD significantly increased (all had P value <0.001) in comparison to the measures before smoking. CONCLUSION Smoking of a single complete cigarette in both smokers and nonsmokers results in significant QTD increase, which can cause arrhythmia and SCD. PMID:25161676

  18. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen in type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Antonio; Milkhu, Chaz; Datta, Vivek; Sayegh, Mazim; Cohen, Richard; Windsor, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    The vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type IV, is associated with severe complications, including arterial rupture and visceral perforation. However, to our knowledge, there has been only one previous report of splenic rupture caused by a spontaneous hemorrhage in type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. We report another case of this uncommon complication, occurring in a 35-year-old woman who presented after the sudden onset of acute abdominal pain. Patients should be stabilized quickly in the intensive care unit and the most timesaving surgical techniques used. Moreover, tissues must be handled with great care intraoperatively in view of their extreme fragility. Despite prompt and appropriate treatment, the prognosis is often dismal. PMID:19132469

  19. Myocardial infarction resulting from coronary artery dissection in an adolescent with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV due to a type III collagen mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Adès, L. C.; Waltham, R. D.; Chiodo, A. A.; Bateman, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome encompasses a group of inherited disorders of connective tissue, some of which are characterised by abnormalities of collagen metabolism. The chromosomal location, identified genes and biochemical defects, inheritance pattern, and clinical features for the various known subtypes are outlined. Prenatal diagnosis is possible for types IV, VI, VIIA1, and VIIA2. An unusual presentation of type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in a 16 year old boy with an anterior myocardial infarction resulting from dissection of the left anterior descending coronary artery is reported here. A clinical diagnosis of type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was made subsequently and confirmed by the reduced production, impaired secretion, and abnormally slow electrophoretic migration of type III collagen, indicating an underlying mutation in the COL3A1 gene. This patient represents the first case of type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with symptomatic coronary artery dissection. Images PMID:7546986

  20. Plasma Fibrinogen in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and its Relation with Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, J.V.; Anuradha, T.S.; Talikoti, Prashanth; Nagaraj, R.S.; Vishali, V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome or Syndrome X is characterized by hyperlipidemia, increased blood pressure, abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia, which increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. In addition to these, it is also associated with nontraditional risk factor like C- reactive protein, Plasminogen activator and fibrinogen. Various studies have documented association of these nontraditional risk factor, in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus patients with diabetes mellitus are higher risk of developing micro and macro vascular complications like ischemic heart disease (IHD) and diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of decreased visual acuity, which is associated with maculopathy and profierative complications of it. Chronic hyperglycemia and its associated nonenzymatic glycation play an important role in the development of microangiopathy. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus. To study the plasma fibrinogen and its relationship with IHD and retinopathy in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Patients of type 2 diabetes Mellitus were recruited based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. History of IHD and ECG evidence of ischemia was obtained. Retinopathy was diagnosed by direct opthalmoscopy. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and plasma fibrinogen were analyzed. Stastical analysis was carried by Chi square test and student‘t’ test. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in study population of 100 type 2 diabetic patients is 58% and is significantly associated with duration of the disease (p<0.001). Fifty eight patients have hyperfibrinogenemia and mean fibrinogen level is significantly high in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome when compared to diabetic patients without metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). Diabetic patient with metabolic syndrome and hyperfibrinogenemia have higher prevalence of IHD and

  1. Polyglandular endocrinopathy type II (Schmidt's syndrome) in a Dobermann pinscher.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, J A; Stone, J; Rick, M; Dunning, M D

    2016-09-01

    A three-year-old, female neutered, Dobermann pinscher was presented for investigation of lethargy, episodic collapse, ataxia and myxoedema. Primary hypothyroidism and primary cortisol-deficient hypoadrenocorticism were diagnosed based on history, physical examination and compatible hormonal analysis. Increased serum concentrations of thyroglobulin autoantibodies and 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies indicated an immune-mediated aetiology. The case was complicated by lymphadenopathy with hand-mirror lymphocytes, classically identified in lymphoma. A polymerase chain reaction test for antigen receptor rearrangement indicated polyclonality and therefore reactive lymphadenopathy. The dog's clinical signs resolved following introduction of levothyroxine and prednisolone. Prioritising the problem-based approach in this case facilitated the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in addition to hypothyroidism due to the persistence of clinical signs despite thyroxine replacement. Importantly, atypical adrenal gland dysfunction was not misinterpreted as inadequate therapeutic response to thyroxine supplementation. The observation that polyglandular endocrinopathy type II can occur in dogs suggests that in dogs with a suboptimal response to treatment for hypothyroidism or hypoadrenocorticism comorbid endocrinopathies should be investigated. PMID:27487017

  2. Inflammatory Cytokine Profile Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Molina-Ayala, Mario; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Vargas, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Baldomero; Isibasi, Armando; Archundia-Riveros, Irma; Mendoza, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the serum concentration of IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IL-8, resistin, and adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with and without metabolic syndrome and to determine the cut-off point of the estimated glucose disposal rate that accurately differentiated these groups. Design. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of all patients in our type 1 diabetes clinic from January 2012 to January 2013. Patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome when they fulfilled the joint statement criteria and were evaluated for clinical, biochemical, and immunological features. Methods. We determined serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF with flow cytometry and adiponectin and resistin concentrations with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with and without metabolic syndrome. We also compared estimated glucose disposal rate between groups. Results. We tested 140 patients. Forty-four percent fulfilled the metabolic syndrome criteria (n = 61), 54% had central obesity, 30% had hypertriglyceridemia, 29% had hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and 19% had hypertension. We observed that resistin concentrations were higher in patients with MS. Conclusion. We found a high prevalence of MS in Mexican patients with T1D. The increased level of resistin may be related to the increased fat mass and could be involved in the development of insulin resistance. PMID:26273680

  3. Knowledge, assessment, and management of adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type among Flemish physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Rombaut, Lies; Deane, Janet; Simmonds, Jane; De Wandele, Inge; De Paepe, Anne; Malfait, Fransiska; Calders, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Physiotherapy plays a fundamental role in managing adults with the joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT). However, it is a challenge for both the patient and the physiotherapist as the condition is poorly understood and treatment for JHS/EDS-HT is currently undefined. Insight into current practice is, therefore, necessary in order to establish baseline knowledge in this area and in the long term to improve the standard of patient care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate current physiotherapists' knowledge of JHS/EDS-HT and to gain insight into current physiotherapy practice with emphasis on assessment, management, and treatment efficacy. Three hundred twenty-five Flemish physiotherapists participated in the study by filling out electronically a modified version of the "Hypermobility and Hypermobility Syndrome Questionnaire" (HHQ), which covered theoretical constructs such as general knowledge, assessment, management, and learning in relation to generalized joint hypermobility and JHS/EDS-HT. The results show that physiotherapists report a low level of confidence with regard to assessment and management of JHS/EDS-HT. Knowledge of hypermobility and JHS/EDS-HT is weak, especially regarding the features associated with JHS/EDS-HT. Many treatment approaches are used by physiotherapists with the majority showing preference for education, reassurance, muscle strengthening, proprioceptive and core stability training. Almost all approaches were perceived as being clinically effective by the physiotherapists, highlighting a lack of consensus. In conclusion, this study in Flemish physiotherapists confirms that JHS/EDS-HT is under-recognized, not well known and deemed difficult to treat. Further education is required and sought by the physiotherapists surveyed, and future research is needed.

  4. Knowledge, assessment, and management of adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type among Flemish physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Rombaut, Lies; Deane, Janet; Simmonds, Jane; De Wandele, Inge; De Paepe, Anne; Malfait, Fransiska; Calders, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Physiotherapy plays a fundamental role in managing adults with the joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT). However, it is a challenge for both the patient and the physiotherapist as the condition is poorly understood and treatment for JHS/EDS-HT is currently undefined. Insight into current practice is, therefore, necessary in order to establish baseline knowledge in this area and in the long term to improve the standard of patient care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate current physiotherapists' knowledge of JHS/EDS-HT and to gain insight into current physiotherapy practice with emphasis on assessment, management, and treatment efficacy. Three hundred twenty-five Flemish physiotherapists participated in the study by filling out electronically a modified version of the "Hypermobility and Hypermobility Syndrome Questionnaire" (HHQ), which covered theoretical constructs such as general knowledge, assessment, management, and learning in relation to generalized joint hypermobility and JHS/EDS-HT. The results show that physiotherapists report a low level of confidence with regard to assessment and management of JHS/EDS-HT. Knowledge of hypermobility and JHS/EDS-HT is weak, especially regarding the features associated with JHS/EDS-HT. Many treatment approaches are used by physiotherapists with the majority showing preference for education, reassurance, muscle strengthening, proprioceptive and core stability training. Almost all approaches were perceived as being clinically effective by the physiotherapists, highlighting a lack of consensus. In conclusion, this study in Flemish physiotherapists confirms that JHS/EDS-HT is under-recognized, not well known and deemed difficult to treat. Further education is required and sought by the physiotherapists surveyed, and future research is needed. PMID:25821093

  5. QT/RR curvatures in healthy subjects: sex differences and covariates.

    PubMed

    Malik, Marek; Hnatkova, Katerina; Kowalski, Donna; Keirns, James J; van Gelderen, E Marcel

    2013-12-01

    Data of a large clinical study were used to investigate how much are the QT/RR patterns in healthy subjects curved and whether these curvatures differ between women and men. Daytime drug-free 12-lead Holter recordings were repeated 4 times in each of 176 female healthy subjects and 176 male healthy subjects aged 32.7 ± 9.1 yr. In each of the subjects, up to 1,440 carefully verified QT interval measurements were obtained with QT/RR hysteresis-corrected RR intervals. Individual subject data were used to fit the following regression equation: QT = χ + (δ/γ)(1 - RR(γ)) + ε, where QT and RR are QT and RR measurements (in s), χ is regression intercept, δ is the QT/RR slope, γ is the QT/RR curvature and provides the lowest regression residual, and ε represents normally distributed zero-centered errors. The bootstrap technique showed the intrasubject reproducibility of QT/RR slopes and curvatures. In women and men, QT/RR curvatures were 0.544 ± 0.661 and 0.797 ± 0.706, respectively (P = 0.0006). The corresponding QT/RR slopes were 0.158 ± 0.030 and 0.139 ± 0.023, respectively (P < 0.0001). QT/RR curvatures were related to QT/RR slopes but not to individually corrected mean QTc intervals or individual QT/RR hysteresis profiles. The individual heart rate correction formula derived from the curvilinear regression provided a significantly lower intrasubject variability of QTc interval than individual optimisation of linear or log-linear QT/RR heart rate corrections. The QT/RR curvature can be reliable measured and expressed numerically. The corresponding heart rate correction formula provides more compact data than the previously proposed approaches. There are substantial sex differences in QT/RR patterns. Women have a QT/RR pattern that is not only steeper than men but also more curved. PMID:24163079

  6. Heart rate, conduction and ultrasound abnormalities in adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Colotto, Marco; Amato, Silvia; Colella, Alessandra; Curione, Mario; Danese, Chiara

    2014-07-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two clinically overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders strongly associating with pain, fatigue and other secondary aspects. Though not considered a diagnostic criterion for most EDS subtypes, cardiovascular involvement is a well-known complication in EDS. A case-control study was carried out on 28 adults with JHS/EDS-HT diagnosed according to current criteria, compared to 29 healthy subjects evaluating resting electrocardiographic (ECG), 24-h ECG and resting heart ultrasound data. Results obtained in the ECG studies showed a moderate excess in duration of the PR interval and P wave, an excess of heart conduction and rate abnormalities and an increased rate of mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency often complicating with "true" mitral valve prolapse in the ecocardiographic study. These variable ECG subclinical anomalies reported in our sample may represent the resting surrogate of such a subnormal cardiovascular response to postural changes that are known to be present in patients with JHS/EDS-HT. Our findings indicate the usefulness of a full cardiologic evaluation of adults with JHS/EDS-HT for the correct management. PMID:24752348

  7. The role of narrative medicine in the management of joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Knight, Isobel

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is a hereditary connective tissue disorder affecting every bodily system. It is largely underdiagnosed by many practitioners, with the result of a considerable delay in diagnosis and, consequently, in the onset of adequate management schedule and treatment. Patients may also experience to be misbelieved, erroneously considered affected by a psychiatric or psychosomatic disorders, and rejected by the medical profession, which can lead to feelings of anger and resentment. Patient journeys are often long and complicated, but if doctors allowed the patient time to tell the full story, and were more prepared to think holistically, there may be a far more positive outcome. Here, the patients' perspective is presented with a narrative medicine approach, illustrating the tri-dimensional experience of a JHS/EDS-HT patient, who is also a Bowen Practitioner and a medical writer/educator. Narrative medicine would be invaluable in working with JHS/EDS-HT so that the patient can tell the story, and offer the practitioner a whole picture of her/his suffering and, often, the key for understanding the cause(s). Once this has been achieved, it might be possible to build upon a more positive and therapeutic dialogue which would result in better treatment and more effective management. It is also important for doctors to communicate with JHS/EDS-HT experts who will ultimately improve the patient journey and treatment outcomes of such a complex connective tissue disorder.

  8. The role of narrative medicine in the management of joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Knight, Isobel

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is a hereditary connective tissue disorder affecting every bodily system. It is largely underdiagnosed by many practitioners, with the result of a considerable delay in diagnosis and, consequently, in the onset of adequate management schedule and treatment. Patients may also experience to be misbelieved, erroneously considered affected by a psychiatric or psychosomatic disorders, and rejected by the medical profession, which can lead to feelings of anger and resentment. Patient journeys are often long and complicated, but if doctors allowed the patient time to tell the full story, and were more prepared to think holistically, there may be a far more positive outcome. Here, the patients' perspective is presented with a narrative medicine approach, illustrating the tri-dimensional experience of a JHS/EDS-HT patient, who is also a Bowen Practitioner and a medical writer/educator. Narrative medicine would be invaluable in working with JHS/EDS-HT so that the patient can tell the story, and offer the practitioner a whole picture of her/his suffering and, often, the key for understanding the cause(s). Once this has been achieved, it might be possible to build upon a more positive and therapeutic dialogue which would result in better treatment and more effective management. It is also important for doctors to communicate with JHS/EDS-HT experts who will ultimately improve the patient journey and treatment outcomes of such a complex connective tissue disorder. PMID:25821096

  9. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome type 3 with polymicrogyria: a clinical presentation of Baraitser-Winter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eker, Hatice Koçak; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Ünal, Sevim; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Drunat, Séverine; Verloes, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a rare condition affecting the development of the brain and the face. The most common characteristics are unusual facial appearance including hypertelorism and ptosis, ocular colobomas, hearing loss, impaired neuronal migration and intellectual disability. BRWS is caused by mutations in the ACTB and ACTG1 genes. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome (CFFS) is a clinically heterogeneous condition with distinct facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities. Three subtypes are identified. We report a female infant with striking facial features and brain anomalies (included polymicrogyria) that fit into the spectrum of the CFFS type 3 (CFFS3). She also had minor anomalies on her hands and feet, heart and kidney malformations, and recurrent infections. DNA investigations revealed c.586C>T mutation (p.Arg196Cys) in ACTB. This mutation places this patient in the spectrum of BRWS. The same mutation has been detected in a polymicrogyric patient reported previously in literature. We expand the malformation spectrum of BRWS/CFFS3, and present preliminary findings for phenotype-genotype correlation in this spectrum.

  10. Type III Guyon Syndrome in 'B Boy' Break-Dancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Soo-Young; Choi, Jin-Gyu; Son, Byung-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Although the musculoskeletal injuries associated with break-dancing which is gaining more popularity among adolescent and young people has been reported, the report regarding a peripheral nerve injury associated with breakdance is scarce. We report a rare case of a young amateur break-dancer, 'b-boy' who suffered from a painful paresthesia in his left hand, later diagnosed as type III Guyon's canal syndrome. A 23-year-old, right handed college man presented with a tenderness over the left hypothenar eminence and painful paresthesia over the ring and little fingers of 3 months duration. He trained himself as an amateur 'b boy' break-dancer for the last 10 months. Conservative management under the diagnosis of wrist sprain before presentation did not improve his hand pain. An magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed that painful paresthesia was caused by type III Guyon's canal syndrome, and 4 weeks of corticosteroid treatment was given with resolution of pain and paresthesia.

  11. [Low birth weight and delayed risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Svacina, S

    2003-12-01

    Low birth weight is according to many studies associated with later incidence of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and in lower degree with obesity and hypertriacylglycerolemia. Detection of history of low birth weight could have some importance in detection of persons with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. In the pathogenesis can be involved fetal selection of thrifty genes which are later unable to overcome low physical activity and overfeeding in adult age. More probable is that low birth weight is primary of genetic origin. The same genetic origin can be involved in BMI rebound in childhood, development of insulin resistance, weight gain and later incidence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Detection of all these phenomena is important in selecting patients in diabetes and cardiovascular risk for preventive intervention.

  12. Daughter and mother with orofaciodigital syndrome type 1 and glomerulocystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takashi; Hoshino, Junichi; Mise, Koki; Sumida, Keiichi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hayami, Noriko; Ueno, Toshiharu; Takaichi, Kenmei; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Morisada, Naoya; Iijima, Kazumoto; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2016-09-01

    A 35-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of end-stage renal failure. Diagnostic imaging, including ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, showed polycystic kidneys and peribiliary hepatic cysts, but the renal cysts were isointense and her kidneys were smaller than the end-stage kidneys of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Glomerulocystic kidney disease was diagnosed by renal biopsy. Clinical examination revealed findings such as a missing maxillary canine, lingual anomalies, and brachydactyly. Genetic testing gave a diagnosis of orofaciodigital syndrome type 1 with a 5 nucleotide deletion indicating a frameshift mutation in exon 9. The patient's mother had the same mutation and similar clinical findings. This case is useful for understanding kidney and liver involvement in orofaciodigital syndrome type 1. PMID:27131853

  13. Cardiac arrest refractory to standard intervention in atypical Timothy syndrome (LQT8 type 2)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Fred H.

    2016-01-01

    Timothy syndrome (TS) is a rare, multisystem disorder most commonly associated with profound QTc prolongation and cutaneous dysmorphia arising from mutations of the L-type calcium channel. We present a case of a 12-day-old newborn who presented with respiratory distress and cyanosis. Diagnostic workup was notable for multiple cardiac abnormalities, and genetic analysis was consistent with an exon 8 mutation of the CACNA1C gene, which is diagnostic for TS type 2 (atypical TS). This patient presented with a novel constellation of symptoms, without dysmorphic features, and with a more moderate QTc interval. The heterogeneity of phenotypes suggests that this disorder may be characterized by variable expressivity or a spectrum of disease rather than a clearly defined syndrome. PMID:27034553

  14. [Target Molecule for a Demyelinating Type of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is classified into demyelinating type, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and axonal form, acute axonal motor neuropathy (AMAN). It has been clearly established that the target molecule for the former is a ganglioside. In contrast, despite years of effort, the target molecule for the latter has not been identified. Recently, molecules around the nodes of Ranvier have entered the spotlight, and "moesin" was reported to be a target molecule for cytomegalovirus associated-AIDP.

  15. Extended phenotypes in a boy and his mother with oto-palato-digital-syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Kaissi, Ali Al; Kraschl, Raimund; Kaulfersch, Wilhelm; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We describe additional phenotypic features in a boy and his mother. Both manifested the phenotypic/genotypic correlation of oto-palato-digital syndrome type II. The mother′s radiographs showed wormian bones of the skull, and paranasal bossing, her feet showed bilateral fusion of the cuboid with the lateral cuneiform bone with subsequent development of metatarsus varus associated with dysplastic distal phalanges. PMID:26401283

  16. Möbius syndrome associated with neurofibromatosis Type 1: A rare co-occurrence.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankush; Gupta, Nitin; Talwar, Tejinder; Gupta, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Möbius syndrome is a rare congenital disorder presenting with facial diplegia and horizontal gaze disturbance. Patients can have additional cranial nerve palsies and musculoskeletal deformities. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is an uncommon neurocutaneous disorder. The only plausible link between these two disorders is autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Simultaneous occurrence of these two uncommon disorders has not been yet reported in literature, and it is the first case report to the best of our knowledge. PMID:26167228

  17. Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome of Papillon-Léage and Psaume.

    PubMed

    Larralde de Luna, M; Raspa, M L; Ibargoyen, J

    1992-03-01

    A female infant was classified as having oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFDS) type 1, with oral (cleft palate, bifid uvula, lingual cleft, numerous hypertrophic frenula), facial (numerous milia on face, scalp, and ears; frontal bossing; hypertelorism; hypoplasia of nasal alar cartilage; micrognathia), and digital (bilateral brachydactyly of hands) symptoms. She also had diffuse, nonscarring alopecia with wiry, dry hair. Results of roentgenographic and ultrasound studies were normal. At her present age of 11 months, her psychomotor development is appropriate for her age.

  18. Induced pluripotent stem cells as a model for telomeric abnormalities in ICF type I syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sagie, Shira; Ellran, Erika; Katzir, Hagar; Shaked, Rony; Yehezkel, Shiran; Laevsky, Ilana; Ghanayim, Alaa; Geiger, Dan; Tzukerman, Maty; Selig, Sara

    2014-07-15

    Human telomeric regions are packaged as constitutive heterochromatin, characterized by extensive subtelomeric DNA methylation and specific histone modifications. ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) type I patients carry mutations in DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) that methylates de novo repetitive sequences during early embryonic development. ICF type I patient fibroblasts display hypomethylated subtelomeres, abnormally short telomeres and premature senescence. In order to study the molecular mechanism by which the failure to de novo methylate subtelomeres results in accelerated telomere shortening, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from 3 ICF type I patients. Telomeres were elongated in ICF-iPSCs during reprogramming, and the senescence phenotype was abolished despite sustained subtelomeric hypomethylation and high TERRA levels. Fibroblast-like cells (FLs) isolated from differentiated ICF-iPSCs maintained abnormally high TERRA levels, and telomeres in these cells shortened at an accelerated rate, leading to early senescence, thus recapitulating the telomeric phenotype of the parental fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that the abnormal telomere phenotype associated with subtelomeric hypomethylation is overridden in cells expressing telomerase, therefore excluding telomerase inhibition by TERRA as a central mechanism responsible for telomere shortening in ICF syndrome. The data in the current study lend support to the use of ICF-iPSCs for modeling of phenotypic and molecular defects in ICF syndrome and for unraveling the mechanism whereby subtelomeric hypomethylation is linked to accelerated telomeric loss in this syndrome.

  19. Math Learning Disability and Math LD Subtypes: Evidence from Studies of Turner Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether indicators of math learning disability were observed in 35 5- and 6-year-olds with either neurofibromatosis, Turner Syndrome, or fragile X syndrome and compared to controls. Findings indicate that girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome but not neurofibromatosis are significantly more likely to have specific math…

  20. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  1. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  2. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  3. Prolonged QT interval in a man with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Robles, María Dolores; Perez-Clemente, Ana María; Maciá-Bobes, Carmen; Alvarez-Rueda, María Asunción; Pozo-Nuevo, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by the avoidance of food intake, which usually leads to a weight loss. Cardiac co-morbility is common and we can find sometimes a mass loss from the left ventricle, which can be seen by echocardiography. But the commonest complications are rhythm variations, typically bradycardia with a prolonged QT interval in up to a 40% of the cases, which altogether elevates ventricular tachycardia and sudden death risk. We present the case of a male who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and developed asthenia, a long QT interval and also a severe both hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia. We intend to discuss the pathogenic paths as well as prophylactic and therapeutic measures to this potentially-lethal pathology. PMID:19646241

  4. Antibodies with beta-adrenergic activity from chronic chagasic patients modulate the QT interval and M cell action potential duration

    PubMed Central

    Medei, Emiliano Horacio; Nascimento, José H.M.; Pedrosa, Roberto C.; Barcellos, Luciane; Masuda, Masako O.; Sicouri, Serge; Elizari, Marcelo V.; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate whether the sera from chronic chagasic patients (CChPs) with beta-1 adrenergic activity (Ab-β) can modulate ventricular repolarization. Beta-adrenergic activity has been described in CChP. It increases the L-type calcium current and heart rate in isolated hearts, but its effects on ventricular repolarization has not been described. Methods and results In isolated rabbit hearts, under pacing condition, QT interval was measured under Ab-β perfusion. Beta-adrenergic activity was also tested in guinea pig ventricular M cells. Furthermore, the immunoglobulin fraction (IgG-β) of the Ab-β was tested on Ito, ICa, and Iks currents in rat, rabbit, and guinea pig myocytes, respectively. Beta-adrenergic activity shortened the QT interval. This effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol. In addition, sera from CChP without beta-adrenergic activity (Ab-β) did not modulate QT interval. The M cell action potential duration (APD) was reversibly shortened by Ab-β. Atenolol inhibited this effect of Ab-β, and Ab- did not modulate the AP of M cells. Ito was not modulated by isoproterenol nor by IgG-β. However, IgG-β increased ICa and IKs. Conclusion The shortening of the QT interval and APD in M cells and the increase of IKs and ICa induced by IgG-β contribute to repolarization changes that may trigger malignant ventricular arrhythmias observed in patients with chronic chagasic or idiopathic cardiomyopathy. PMID:18515284

  5. QT interval dispersion in the patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dagli, Necati; Turgut, Burak; Tanyildizi, Rumeysa; Kobat, Sabiha; Kobat, Mehmet Ali; Dogdu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate QT dispersion (QTD) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS This clinical, comperative, case-control study included 30 patients with CSC at acute phase (Group 1) and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (Group 2, the control group). From all subjects, a 12-lead surface electrocardiography was obtained. The heart rate (HR), QT maximum (QTmax), QT minimum (QTmin), QT corrected (QTc), QTD and Tmean were manually measured and analyzed. Student's t-test and Pearson's method of correlation were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS The patient and control groups were matched for age, smoking status (rate and duration) and gender. There were no significant differences with regard to these among the groups (P>0.05). The participants included 19 men (63.3%) and 11 women (36.7%) in Group 1, 20 men (66.7%) and 10 women (33.3%) in Group 2. QTmax, QTD and QTc were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (P<0.001 for QTmax, P=0.01 for QTD and P=0.001 for QTc). QTmin, Tmean and HR did not differ significantly between the study groups (P=0.28 for QTmin, P=0.56 for Tmean and P>0.05 for HR). No significant correlation was found between duration of the disorder and QTD values (r=0.13, P>0.05). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that CSC may be associated with an increase in QTD and that the patients might be at risk for ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:25709909

  6. The evaluation of QT intervals during diagnosis and after follow-up in acromegaly patients.

    PubMed

    Baser, Husniye; Akar Bayram, Nihal; Polat, Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Ersoy, Reyhan; Bozkurt, Engin; Cakir, Bekir

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O estudo teve como objectivo a determinação do intervalo QT em doentes com acromegália e a análise da correlação entre o intervalo QT e a concentração de hormona do crescimento e de IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1). Material e Métodos: O estudo englobou 41 doentes com acromegália. O grupo de controlo englobou 41 indivíduos com características semelhantes no que se refere a comorbilidades, idade e género. A electrocardiografia de doentes com acromegália foi obtida no início do estudo e após o follow-up. Foi apenas obtido um electrocardiograma no grupo de controlo. Foram calculados o QT máximo, QT mínimo, dispersão do intervalo QT, QT máximo corrigido, QT mínimo corrigido e dispersão do intervalo QT corrigido. Resultados: Os valores do QT máximo basal, dispersão do intervalo QT, QT máximo corrigido e dispersão do QT corrigido foram significativamente mais prolongados no grupo de doentes com acromegália do que nos controlos. O QT máximo corrigido e a dispersão do QT corrigido foram significativamente mais curtos durante o seguimento clínico, quando comparados com os valores basais dos doentes. O QT máximo, dispersão do QT, QT máximo corrigido e dispersão do QT corrigido durante o seguimento clínico não foram estatisticamente diferentes dos valores obtidos nos controlos. Com excepção de uma correlação negativa entre os valores da hormona do crescimento e a dispersão do QT corrigido em doentes durante o seguimento clínico, nenhuma outra correlação foi assinalada entre os valores do intervalo QT e as concentrações de hormona do crescimento e de IGF-1. Concluiu-se que a dispersão do intervalo QT está correlacionada com a duração da doença nos doentes com acromegália. Discussão: Em doentes com acromegália, é importante a detecção de preditores clínicos de arritmia cardíaca. A dispersão do intervalo QT é considerada um preditor relevante de arritmias ventriculares. Os doentes com acromeg

  7. [The psychopathological pictures of the early stages of dementia syndromes (vasogenic and of Alzheimer's type)].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, L

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the research is to determine the early symptoms predicting dementia syndromes both Vasogenic and Alzheimer type. The investigations covered: 36 people without any psychopathological syndrome, 32 people with dementia of Alzheimer type and 36 people with vasogenic dementia. DSM IV criteria were accepted as a basis for recognition of dementia syndromes. The qualified patients underwent basic examination consisting of the following elements: AMDP scale (the estimation of psychic and somatic condition), Global Scale of Dementia, Hachinski scale, Blessed scale, Folsteins scale (MMS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Physical self Maintenance Scale and two methods of the authors: Current Events Card and Prodromal Symptoms Card. On the basis of examinations the following conclusions can be stated:--persons in early stages of dementia differ from those without any symptoms of it by the occurrence of many psychopathological symptoms--not only connected with the cognitive sphere;--in the period preceding the development of dementia the frequency of occurrence of some symptoms is different according to etiology of the process (Alzheimer or vasogenic);--the applied clinical scales differ significantly in their value for the diagnosis and the estimation of intensification of dementia processes. PMID:9920996

  8. Localization of two genes for Usher syndrome type I to chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.H.; Daiger, S.P. ); Jay, M.; Bird, A. ); Reardon, W. ); Guest, M. ); Kimberling, W.J.; Pelias, M.Z.; Keats, B.J.B.

    1992-12-01

    The Usher syndromes (USH) are autosomal recessive diseases characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss and progressive pigmentary retinopathy. While relatively rare in the general population, collectively they account for approximately 6% of the congenitally deaf population. Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been mapped to chromosome 1q, and one form of Usher syndrome type I (USH1) has been mapped to chromosome 14q. These loci have been excluded as regions of USH genes in this data set, which is composed of 8 French-Acadian USH1 families and 11 British USH1 families. Both of these sets of families show linkage to loci on chromosome 11. Linkage analysis demonstrates locus heterogeneity between these sets of families, with the French-Acadian families showing linkage to D11S419 (Z = 4.20, [theta] = 0) and the British families showing linkage to D11S527 (Z = 6.03, [theta] = 0). Genetic heterogeneity of the data set was confirmed using HOMOG and the M test (log likelihood ratio > 10[sup 5]). These results confirm the presence of two distinct USH1 loci on chromosome 11. 41 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. A Case of Acute Aortic Dissection Type B Associated with Cushing's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Petramala, Luigi; Cotesta, Dario; Sapienza, Paolo; Zinnamosca, Laura; Moroni, Enrico; di Marzio, Luca; De Toma, Giorgio; Letizia, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of a 63-year-old man, with a previous history of hypertension and glucose intolerance associated troncular obesity that was emergently admitted to our Institution for evaluation of a severe, constant posterior chest pain which radiated anteriorly and dyspnoea with a suspected diagnosis of acute aortic dissection. A CT scan of thorax and abdomen demonstrated a dissection starting just below left succlavian artery and extending downward to the left renal artery, involving the celiac tripod and superior mesenteric artery. The dissection was classified as Stanford B, De Bakey III. Moreover, CT scan of abdomen revealed incidentally a left adrenal tumor of 25 mm of diameter. An emergent prosthetic graft was placed just below the origin of the left succlavian artery up-to the diaphragmatic hiatus. Furthermore, a diagnostic evaluation of the mass revealed an increase of cortisol production, and a diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome was done and the patient underwent an adrenalectomy via laparotomic approach. We report an association of acute aortic dissection of acute aortic dissection type B associated to Cushing's syndrome. Keywords Cushing's syndrome; Adrenocortical adenoma; Aortic dissection type B PMID:22505966

  10. QCD Prediction of ATT for Small QT Dimuon Production in pp and pp-bar Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kodaira, Jiro; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2007-06-13

    We present QCD prediction of double-spin asymmetries (ATT) in transversely polarized Drell-Yan process at small transverse momentum QT of dimuon. Resummation of large logarithmic corrections, relevant in small QT region, is performed up to next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy. ATT at RHIC, J-PARC and GSI are studied numerically in the corresponding kinematic regions. We show that the large ATT is obtained for small QT and moderate energies.

  11. Unexpected association between joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Massimo; Celletti, Claudia; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Mastroeni, Simona; Castori, Marco; Biondi, Massimo; Camerota, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is a largely unrecognized, heritable connective tissue disorder, mainly characterized by joint instability complications, widespread musculoskeletal pain, and minor skin features. In a case-control study, 47 consecutive JHS/EDS-HT patients were investigated for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and compared to 45 healthy controls in a single center. The psychiatric evaluation consisted of structured clinical interview for DSM-IV criteria by using the SCID-I and the SCID-II. Symptom severity was assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) was used to assess the overall severity of psychological, social, and occupational functions. JHS/EDS-HT patients had significantly higher mean scores for all questionnaires: HAM-A (6.7 vs. 3.8), HAM-D (6.4 vs. 2.7), GAF (75.0 vs. 86.1), and BPRS (27.5 vs. 25.6). The JHS/EDS-HT group had a 4.3 higher risk of being affected by any psychiatric disorder, and in particular, a 5.8 higher risk of having a personality disorder. In particular, 5 JHS/EDS-HT suffered from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder with an observed prevalence rate of 10.6 % (3.6-23.1). Psychiatric assessment of JHS/EDS-HT patients showed an extremely high prevalence of personality disorders (21 %), and of Axis-I disorders (38 %), mostly depressive. This study did not confirm the previously reported increased rate of panic disorders in JHS/EDS-HT. PMID:24272065

  12. Spectrum of mucocutaneous manifestations in 277 patients with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Dordoni, Chiara; Morlino, Silvia; Sperduti, Isabella; Ritelli, Marco; Valiante, Michele; Chiarelli, Nicola; Zanca, Arianna; Celletti, Claudia; Venturini, Marina; Camerota, Filippo; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Grammatico, Paola; Colombi, Marina

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous manifestations are a diagnostic criterion of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS). These two conditions, originally considered different disorders, are now accepted as clinically indistinguishable and often segregate as a single-familial trait. EDS-HT and JHS are still exclusion diagnoses not supported by any specific laboratory test. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis is, therefore, crucial for appropriate patients' classification and management, but it is actually hampered by the low consistency of many applied criteria including the cutaneous one. We report on mucocutaneous findings in 277 patients with JHS/EDS-HT with both sexes and various ages. Sixteen objective and five anamnestic items were selected and ascertained in two specialized outpatient clinics. Feature rates were compared by sex and age by a series of statistical tools. Data were also used for a multivariate correspondence analysis with the attempt to identify non-causal associations of features depicting recognizable phenotypic clusters. Our findings identified a few differences between sexes and thus indicated an attenuated sexual dimorphism for mucocutaneous features in JHS/EDS-HT. Ten features showed significantly distinct rates at different ages and this evidence corroborated the concept of an evolving phenotype in JHS/EDS-HT also affecting the skin. Multivariate correspondence analysis identified three relatively discrete phenotypic profiles, which may represent the cutaneous counterparts of the three disease phases previously proposed for JHS/EDS-HT. These findings could be used for revising the cutaneous criterion in a future consensus for the clinical diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT.

  13. Transcriptome-Wide Expression Profiling in Skin Fibroblasts of Patients with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Nicola; Carini, Giulia; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Dordoni, Chiara; Ritelli, Marco; Venturini, Marina; Castori, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common systemic heritable connective tissue disorder, and is mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility, joint instability complications, minor skin changes and a wide range of satellite features. JHS/EDS-HT is considered an autosomal dominant trait but is still without a defined molecular basis. The absence of (a) causative gene(s) for JHS/EDS-HT is likely attributable to marked genetic heterogeneity and/or interaction of multiple loci. In order to help in deciphering such a complex molecular background, we carried out a comprehensive immunofluorescence analysis and gene expression profiling in cultured skin fibroblasts from five women affected with JHS/EDS-HT. Protein study revealed disarray of several matrix structural components such as fibrillins, tenascins, elastin, collagens, fibronectin, and their integrin receptors. Transcriptome analysis indicated perturbation of different signaling cascades that are required for homeostatic regulation either during development or in adult tissues as well as altered expression of several genes involved in maintenance of extracellular matrix architecture and homeostasis (e.g., SPON2, TGM2, MMP16, GPC4, SULF1), cell-cell adhesion (e.g., CDH2, CHD10, PCDH9, CLDN11, FLG, DSP), immune/inflammatory/pain responses (e.g., CFD, AQP9, COLEC12, KCNQ5, PRLR), and essential for redox balance (e.g., ADH1C, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, MAOB, GSTM5). Our findings provide a picture of the gene expression profile and dysregulated pathways in JHS/EDS-HT skin fibroblasts that correlate well with the systemic phenotype of the patients. PMID:27518164

  14. Transcriptome-Wide Expression Profiling in Skin Fibroblasts of Patients with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Nicola; Carini, Giulia; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Dordoni, Chiara; Ritelli, Marco; Venturini, Marina; Castori, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common systemic heritable connective tissue disorder, and is mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility, joint instability complications, minor skin changes and a wide range of satellite features. JHS/EDS-HT is considered an autosomal dominant trait but is still without a defined molecular basis. The absence of (a) causative gene(s) for JHS/EDS-HT is likely attributable to marked genetic heterogeneity and/or interaction of multiple loci. In order to help in deciphering such a complex molecular background, we carried out a comprehensive immunofluorescence analysis and gene expression profiling in cultured skin fibroblasts from five women affected with JHS/EDS-HT. Protein study revealed disarray of several matrix structural components such as fibrillins, tenascins, elastin, collagens, fibronectin, and their integrin receptors. Transcriptome analysis indicated perturbation of different signaling cascades that are required for homeostatic regulation either during development or in adult tissues as well as altered expression of several genes involved in maintenance of extracellular matrix architecture and homeostasis (e.g., SPON2, TGM2, MMP16, GPC4, SULF1), cell-cell adhesion (e.g., CDH2, CHD10, PCDH9, CLDN11, FLG, DSP), immune/inflammatory/pain responses (e.g., CFD, AQP9, COLEC12, KCNQ5, PRLR), and essential for redox balance (e.g., ADH1C, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, MAOB, GSTM5). Our findings provide a picture of the gene expression profile and dysregulated pathways in JHS/EDS-HT skin fibroblasts that correlate well with the systemic phenotype of the patients. PMID:27518164

  15. Unexpected association between joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Massimo; Celletti, Claudia; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Mastroeni, Simona; Castori, Marco; Biondi, Massimo; Camerota, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is a largely unrecognized, heritable connective tissue disorder, mainly characterized by joint instability complications, widespread musculoskeletal pain, and minor skin features. In a case-control study, 47 consecutive JHS/EDS-HT patients were investigated for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and compared to 45 healthy controls in a single center. The psychiatric evaluation consisted of structured clinical interview for DSM-IV criteria by using the SCID-I and the SCID-II. Symptom severity was assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) was used to assess the overall severity of psychological, social, and occupational functions. JHS/EDS-HT patients had significantly higher mean scores for all questionnaires: HAM-A (6.7 vs. 3.8), HAM-D (6.4 vs. 2.7), GAF (75.0 vs. 86.1), and BPRS (27.5 vs. 25.6). The JHS/EDS-HT group had a 4.3 higher risk of being affected by any psychiatric disorder, and in particular, a 5.8 higher risk of having a personality disorder. In particular, 5 JHS/EDS-HT suffered from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder with an observed prevalence rate of 10.6 % (3.6-23.1). Psychiatric assessment of JHS/EDS-HT patients showed an extremely high prevalence of personality disorders (21 %), and of Axis-I disorders (38 %), mostly depressive. This study did not confirm the previously reported increased rate of panic disorders in JHS/EDS-HT.

  16. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 relieved by acupuncture point injections with placental extract.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tae Hwan; Park, Kyeong Mee

    2014-06-01

    This is a case report of a female patient who developed complex regional pain syndrome in the left upper limb after a traumatic injury to the distal part of the left forearm. The pain was immediate and resistant to oral analgesics and continued transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Five months after the injury, the patient presented to our clinic with severe pain, swelling, redness, cold sensation of the left hand, and loss of function from the left hand up to the left shoulder. Acupuncture points LI5, LU2, SI10, HT1, GB21, and SI11 (which are localized in the joints or in the muscles responsible for the movement of the left upper limb) were selected for the application of the placental extract. Injection of placental extract into the acupuncture points resulted in dramatic pain relief, swelling remission, motor recovery, temperature normalization, and disappearance of redness in this patient with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

  17. A Rare Clinical Variant of Oromandibular Limb Hypogenesis Syndrome Type I B

    PubMed Central

    Godhane, Alkesh; Kalaskar, Ashita; Demble, Swati

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aglossia is a rare congenital malformation that often occurs as an isolated disorder or is observed in association with other congenital deformities, particularly limb defects. We present a unique case of a 7-year-old girl with aglossia, hypodactyli, rudimentary ears, retrognathic and V-shaped mandible. Her parental history revealed intrauterine exposure of medicines. The patient had problems in difficulty in eating, speech, taste sensation and hearing. The present case does not fit into Hall’s classification of oromandibular limb hypogenesis syndrome (OLHS) which best describes hypoglossia and limb deformities. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to document the rare variant of OLHS which can be included in Hall’s classification. How to cite this article: Kalaskar RR, Godhane A, Kalaskar A, Demble S. A Rare Clinical Variant of Oromandibular Limb Hypogenesis Syndrome Type I B. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):78-81. PMID:27274161

  18. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Anthony; Bernstein, Richard K; Dahlqvist, Annika; Draznin, Boris; Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J; Gleed, Amy; Jacobs, David B; Larson, Gabriel; Lustig, Robert H; Manninen, Anssi H; McFarlane, Samy I; Morrison, Katharine; Nielsen, Jørgen Vesti; Ravnskov, Uffe; Roth, Karl S; Silvestre, Ricardo; Sowers, James R; Sundberg, Ralf; Volek, Jeff S; Westman, Eric C; Wood, Richard J; Wortman, Jay; Vernon, Mary C

    2008-01-01

    Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome. PMID:18397522

  19. Differential diagnosis and diagnostic flow chart of joint hypermobility syndrome/ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type compared to other heritable connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Marina; Dordoni, Chiara; Chiarelli, Nicola; Ritelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is an evolving and protean disorder mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility and without a defined molecular basis. JHS/EDS-HT also presents with other connective tissue features affecting a variety of structures and organs, such as skin, eye, bone, and internal organs. However, most of these signs are present in variable combinations and severity in many other heritable connective tissue disorders. Accordingly, JHS/EDS-HT is an "exclusion" diagnosis which needs the absence of any consistent feature indicative of other partially overlapping connective tissue disorders. While both Villefranche and Brighton criteria include such an exclusion as a mandatory item, a systematic approach for reaching a stringent clinical diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT is still lacking. The absence of a consensus on the diagnostic approach to JHS/EDS-HT concerning its clinical boundaries with similar conditions contribute to limit our actual understanding of the pathologic and molecular bases of this disorder. In this review, we revise the differential diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT with those heritable connective tissue disorders which show a significant overlap with the former and mostly include EDS classic, vascular and kyphoscoliotic types, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, and lateral meningocele syndrome. A diagnostic flow chart is also offered with the attempt to support the less experienced clinician in stringently recognizing JHS/EDS-HT and stimulate the debate in the scientific community for both management and research purposes.

  20. Human USP18 deficiency underlies type 1 interferonopathy leading to severe pseudo-TORCH syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meuwissen, Marije E C; Schot, Rachel; Buta, Sofija; Oudesluijs, Grétel; Tinschert, Sigrid; Speer, Scott D; Li, Zhi; van Unen, Leontine; Heijsman, Daphne; Goldmann, Tobias; Lequin, Maarten H; Kros, Johan M; Stam, Wendy; Hermann, Mark; Willemsen, Rob; Brouwer, Rutger W W; Van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Martin-Fernandez, Marta; de Coo, Irenaeus; Dudink, Jeroen; de Vries, Femke A T; Bertoli Avella, Aida; Prinz, Marco; Crow, Yanick J; Verheijen, Frans W; Pellegrini, Sandra; Bogunovic, Dusan; Mancini, Grazia M S

    2016-06-27

    Pseudo-TORCH syndrome (PTS) is characterized by microcephaly, enlarged ventricles, cerebral calcification, and, occasionally, by systemic features at birth resembling the sequelae of congenital infection but in the absence of an infectious agent. Genetic defects resulting in activation of type 1 interferon (IFN) responses have been documented to cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, which is a cause of PTS. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (USP18) is a key negative regulator of type I IFN signaling. In this study, we identified loss-of-function recessive mutations of USP18 in five PTS patients from two unrelated families. Ex vivo brain autopsy material demonstrated innate immune inflammation with calcification and polymicrogyria. In vitro, patient fibroblasts displayed severely enhanced IFN-induced inflammation, which was completely rescued by lentiviral transduction of USP18. These findings add USP18 deficiency to the list of genetic disorders collectively termed type I interferonopathies. Moreover, USP18 deficiency represents the first genetic disorder of PTS caused by dysregulation of the response to type I IFNs. Therapeutically, this places USP18 as a promising target not only for genetic but also acquired IFN-mediated CNS disorders. PMID:27325888

  1. Metabolic syndrome as a predictor of type 2 diabetes, and its clinical interpretations and usefulness.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lim, Sun-Young; Ha, Hee-Sung; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Lee, Won-Chul; Kang, Moo-Il; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity with insulin resistance as the source of pathogenesis. Although several different combinations of criteria have been used to define metabolic syndrome, a recently published consensus recommends the use of ethnic-specific criteria, including waist circumference as an indicator of central obesity, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as indicators of dyslipidemia, and blood pressure greater than 130/85 mmHg. The definition of dysglycemia, and whether central obesity and insulin resistance are essential components remain controversial. Regardless of the definition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in Western and Asian countries, particularly in developing areas undergoing rapid socioenvironmental changes. Numerous clinical trials have shown that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus and all-cause mortality. Therefore, metabolic syndrome might be useful as a practical tool to predict these two major metabolic disorders. Comprehensive management of risk factors is very important to the improvement of personal and public health. However, recent studies have focused on the role metabolic syndrome plays as a risk factor for CVD; its importance in the prediction of incident diabetes is frequently overlooked. In the present review, we summarize the known evidence supporting metabolic syndrome as a predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD. Additionally, we suggest how metabolic syndrome might be useful in clinical practice, especially for the prediction of diabetes. PMID:24843675

  2. Candidate regions for Waardenburg syndrome type II: Search for a second WS locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, W.E.; Pandya, A.; Blanton, S.H.

    1994-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by deafness and pigmentary abnormalities such as heterochromia of irides, hypopigmented skin patches, white forlock and premature graying. Clinically the syndrome has been classified into three types. Type II differs from type I in that dystopia canthorum is generally absent, and type III has associated limb anomalies. Recently linkage analysis localized the gene for WSI to chromosome 2q. PAX-3, which is a human analogue of the murine pax-3 locus, maps to this region and mutations in this gene have been found to segregate with WSI. However genetic heterogeneity clearly exists: most if not all WSII families are unlinked to PAX-3 while most if not all WSI cases are linked. We ascertained a four-year-old female child with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 13 who had features of WS including bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pale blue irides and pinched nostrils as well as hypertelorism microcephaly, bilateral eyelid ptosis, digitalization of thumbs and fifth finger clinodactyly. High resolution chromosomal analysis revealed a de novo interstitial deletion of 13q22-33.2. There was no family history of WS or retardation. A similar deletion in the region of 13q21-32 has been described in a 13-year-old boy with features of WSII. These two cases strongly suggested that this chromosomal region may include a second locus for WS. We have identified eight families with clinical features of WS type I which have been excluded from linkage to the PAX-3 locus. We have typed these families for microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 13. Linkage between WSII and the chromosome 13 markers was excluded in these families. Hirschsprung disease has been associated with WS and it has recently been mapped to chromosome 10q11.2-q21.1. We are currently typing the 8 families for microsatellites in this region.

  3. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5: In Vitro Cytotoxicity Effects on Renal Tubular Cells and Inflammatory Profile

    PubMed Central

    Brocca, Alessandra; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Pasqualin, Chiara; Pastori, Silvia; Marcante, Stefano; de Cal, Massimo; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5 (CRS Type 5) reflects concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunctions in the setting of a wide spectrum of systemic disorders. Our aim was to study in vitro effects of CRS Type 5 plasma on renal tubular cells (RTCs), in terms of cellular death and the characterization of inflammatory plasma profile in these patients. Material and Methods. We enrolled 11 CRS Type 5 patients from ICU and 16 healthy controls. Plasma from patients and controls was incubated with renal tubular cells (RTCs) and cell death was evaluated. Plasma cytokines were detected. Results. RTCs incubated with CRS Type 5 plasma showed significantly higher apoptosis and necrosis with respect to controls. Plasma cytokine profile of CRS Type 5 patients was significantly different from controls: we observed the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in these patients. Caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were activated in cells treated with CRS Type 5 plasma compared to controls. Conclusions. Our results underline the cytotoxic effect of CRS Type 5 mediators on RTC viability, probably due to the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis and to the deregulation of cytokine release. The consequence may be the damage of distant organs which lead to the worsening of condition of patients. PMID:26266085

  4. Frequency of Usher syndrome type 1 in deaf children by massively parallel DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Hidekane; Miyagawa, Maiko; Kumakawa, Kozo; Nishio, Shin-ya; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) is the most severe of the three USH subtypes due to its profound hearing loss, absent vestibular response and retinitis pigmentosa appearing at a prepubescent age. Six causative genes have been identified for USH1, making early diagnosis and therapy possible through DNA testing. Targeted exon sequencing of selected genes using massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS) technology enables clinicians to systematically tackle previously intractable monogenic disorders and improve molecular diagnosis. Using MPS along with direct sequence analysis, we screened 227 unrelated non-syndromic deaf children and detected recessive mutations in USH1 causative genes in five patients (2.2%): three patients harbored MYO7A mutations and one each carried CDH23 or PCDH15 mutations. As indicated by an earlier genotype–phenotype correlation study of the CDH23 and PCDH15 genes, we considered the latter two patients to have USH1. Based on clinical findings, it was also highly likely that one patient with MYO7A mutations possessed USH1 due to a late onset age of walking. This first report describing the frequency (1.3–2.2%) of USH1 among non-syndromic deaf children highlights the importance of comprehensive genetic testing for early disease diagnosis. PMID:26791358

  5. Scintigraphic portrayal of the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Yobbagy, J.J.; Levatter, R.; Sisson, J.C.; Shulkin, B.L.; Polley, T.

    1988-06-01

    The scintigraphic appearance of the neoplasms in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN-2B) and the interpretations of the image patterns are described. An 18-year-old male patient with the MEN-2B syndrome underwent TI-201 imaging that showed concentrations of TI-201 in the primary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tumor and in cervical lymph node metastases. After total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, the TI-201 image was normal. Catecholamine levels in the blood and urine were only borderline elevated. Yet, greater than normal concentrations of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) were present in both adrenal glands. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed normal adrenal glands. These results were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal medullary hyperplasia, a precursor of pheochromocytoma. No operation was indicated to remove the adrenal glands. Imaging with TI-201 appears to be useful in identifying sites of MTC in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome. I-131 MIBG imaging, in conjunction with computed tomography of the adrenal glands and appropriate catecholamine measurements, should be performed in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome to determine the status of the adrenal medullae, which then may be classified as normal, hyperplastic, or tumorous with pheochromocytoma.

  6. Laparoscopic Treatment of Type III Mirizzi Syndrome by T-Tube Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yetışır, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, H. Zafer; Polat, Yılmaz; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Aygar, Muhittin; Ciftciler, A. Erdinc; Parlak, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann's pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct. We would like to report laparoscopic treatment of type III MS. A 75-year-old man was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain and jaundice. The patient was accepted as MS type III according to radiological imaging and intraoperative view. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, extraction of impacted stone by opening anterior surface of dilated cystic duct and choledochus, and repair of this opening by using the remaining part of gallbladder over the T-tube drainage were performed in a patient with type III MS. Application of reinforcement suture over stump was done in light of the checking with oliclinomel N4 injection trough the T-tube. At the 18-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests. PMID:27293947

  7. Laparoscopic Treatment of Type III Mirizzi Syndrome by T-Tube Drainage.

    PubMed

    Yetışır, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, H Zafer; Polat, Yılmaz; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Aygar, Muhittin; Ciftciler, A Erdinc; Parlak, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann's pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct. We would like to report laparoscopic treatment of type III MS. A 75-year-old man was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain and jaundice. The patient was accepted as MS type III according to radiological imaging and intraoperative view. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, extraction of impacted stone by opening anterior surface of dilated cystic duct and choledochus, and repair of this opening by using the remaining part of gallbladder over the T-tube drainage were performed in a patient with type III MS. Application of reinforcement suture over stump was done in light of the checking with oliclinomel N4 injection trough the T-tube. At the 18-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests. PMID:27293947

  8. Pregnancy and delivery in ehlers-danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Indranil; Wilson, Helen; Oteri, Odiri

    2011-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of connective tissue disorders which are divided into various distinguishable phenotypes. The type of EDS determines the potential obstetric complications. Due to the spectrum of clinical manifestation and overlap between phenotypes, there are no standardised obstetric management guidelines. Existing literature illustrates different obstetric management in hypermobility type of EDS, including uneventful term vaginal deliveries as well as preterm cesarean section deliveries. This paper discusses obstetric management of a woman with EDS hypermobility type. Cesarean section was deemed the most appropriate delivery method in this patient due to the possible complications including risk of joint dislocation and pain morbidity. No obstetric complications were experienced, and good maternal and neonatal outcomes were achieved. PMID:21765833

  9. Wolfram Syndrome: a rare optic neuropathy in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bucca, Brian C; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Bennett, Jeffrey L

    2011-11-01

    Wolfram Syndrome (WS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder that causes non-autoimmune type 1 diabetes. The etiology involves a single gene mutation of the wolframin protein inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in selected cell types with resultant diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and sensory-neural deafness. Symptoms are initially absent and signs within the posterior segment of the eye are usually the earliest indicator of WS.These cases characterize unusual and poorly described findings of pigmentary maculopathy in WS and illustrate the importance of collaboration between diabetes and eye care providers; especially in cases of non-autoimmune type 1 diabetes exhibiting atypical human leukocyte-associated antigen haplotypes.

  10. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure. PMID:24653803

  11. Two patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIII with unexpected hoarseness.

    PubMed

    George, S M C; Vandersteen, A; Nigar, E; Ferguson, D J P; Topham, E J; Pope, F M

    2016-10-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) encompasses a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders, characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It is a rare condition, and inheritance is either autosomal dominant or recessive. Previously grouped into 11 different subtypes, with increasing knowledge of the underlying molecular defects, it was reclassified in 1997 into 6 major groups, with type VIII excluded from this classification. Type VIII EDS is a very rare subtype, characterized by severe, early-onset periodontitis, skin fragility and abnormal scarring. Voice abnormalities have occasionally been described in other forms of the condition, and may be due to defects in the collagen of the vocal ligament. We report two cases of patients with EDS type VIII and hoarseness. PMID:27663155

  12. Clinical variability of type 1 neurofibromatosis: is there a neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Stern, H J; Saal, H M; Lee, J S; Fain, P R; Goldgar, D E; Rosenbaum, K N; Barker, D F

    1992-01-01

    Detailed clinical, ophthalmological, and molecular studies were performed on a multigeneration family in which there were many subjects with type 1 neurofibromatosis, a common autosomal dominant disorder. Affected family members displayed a wide range of clinical findings including, in two subjects, features seen in Noonan syndrome (triangular facies, downward slanting palpebral fissures, micrognathia, short stature, and learning disability). Subjects have been described previously whose features have overlapped with neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome, and it has been suggested that these persons might represent a separate condition. DNA haplotype analysis showed linkage of the neurofibromatosis phenotype seen in this family to the proximal long arm of chromosome 17 in the region where the type 1 neurofibromatosis gene has been mapped. These results imply that the Noonan phenotype seen in some patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis might be the result of variable or variant expression of the neurofibromatosis gene on chromosome 17. The possible role of non-specific factors, such as fetal hypotonia, in producing the neurofibromatosis-Noonan phenotype needs further investigation. The availability of closely linked and intragenic molecular markers for neurofibromatosis could potentially be useful in the diagnosis and characterisation of patients and families with atypical forms of neurofibromatosis. Images PMID:1348094

  13. [Vascular and/or cardiac manifestations of type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. 9 cases].

    PubMed

    de Wazières, B; Coppere, B; Durieu, I; Fest, T; Ninet, J; Levrat, R; Vuitton, D A; Dupond, J L

    1995-10-14

    Type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, a rare disease caused by abnormal synthesis of type III collagen, often leads to vascular fragility. We report 9 cases (6 men and 3 women, mean age 35 years). For 7 of the patients, the inaugural signs were arterial complications including haemoperitoneum in 2 patients with multiple aneurysmal dystrophy of the abdominal arteries, one case of ruptured subclavian artery, two dissections of the renal artery, one case with rupture of a cerebral aneurysm, one rupture of the mesenteric artery and a haematoma after arterial puncture. Other vascular manifestations were acrosyndrome (n = 4), varicose veins (n = 3), and prolapsus of the mitral valve (n = 2). In addition, 8 of the 9 patients presented extravascular signs. There was a history of familial disease in 5 cases. Pregnancy was completed to term in three patients: a cesarean section was required in one case and intra-uterine growth retardation was seen in 2. Morbidity was important with hemiparesia, blindness and paraparesis sequellae. One patient died from haemorrhage. This series of patients with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome illustrates the severity of this disease whose prevalence is often underestimated. The disease is transmitted by autosomal dominant inheritance, underscoring the importance of familial testing for early diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware of the vascular manifestations and avoid invasive punctures or operations except in exceptional indications. PMID:8545315

  14. Blunt aortic trauma in a patient with the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome type VI

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Marco Yat Hang; Murray, Jennifer; Thompson, Errington C.

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old male with the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VI (ocular scoliotic) who was kicked in the abdomen presented to the emergency room (ER) with abdominal pain. He was found to have a blunt traumatic aortic injury. The patient was treated nonoperatively. He was stable and discharged home on the eighth day. The patient returned to the ER several days later hypotensive and tachycardic. The patient was taken immediately to the operating room, but vascular repair was not possible. The patient expired. We discuss the challenges of taking care of a patient with EDS and offer suggestions that might improve future patient's outcome. PMID:26956239

  15. Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome effectively treated with modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Edda; Karall, Daniela; Jud, Veronika; Baumgartner, Sara Sigl; Zotter, Sibylle; Rostasy, Kevin; Baumann, Matthias; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    This is a report on the successful treatment of a 6-year-old girl with genetically proven glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) with modified Atkins diet (MAD). GLUT1-DS is an inborn disorder of glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier, which leads to energy deficiency of the brain with a broad spectrum of neurological symptoms including therapy-resistant epilepsy. Usually classical ketogenic diet (KD) is the standard treatment for patients with GLUT1-DS. Treatment with MAD, a variant of KD, for an observation period of 17 months resulted in improvement of seizures, alertness, cognitive abilities, and electroencephalography in this patient.

  16. A gene for Usher syndrome type I (USH1A) maps to chromosome 14q

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.; Gerber, S.; Rozet, J.M.; Delrieu, O.; Briard, M.L.; Dollfus, H.; Frezal, J.; Munnich, A. ); Bonneau, D. ); Ghazi, I. )

    1992-12-01

    Usher syndrome (US) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by congenital hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. It is the most frequent cause of deaf-blindness in adults and accounts for 3 to 6% of deaf children. Here, the authors report the genetic mapping of a gene for US type I (USH1A), the most severe form of the disease, to the long arm of chromosome 14, by linkage to probe MLJ14 at the D14S13 locus in 10 families of Western France ancestry ([cflx Z] = 4.13 at [cflx [theta

  17. Tyrosinemia type II in two cases previously reported as Richner-Hanhart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Cusano, F; Lembo, G; Santoianni, P

    1986-01-01

    Two sibs with palmo-plantar keratosis and dendritic corneal opacities, previously described as suffering from Richner-Hanhart syndrome by other authors, about 25 years ago, showed increased plasma and urine tyrosine levels. Their neurological and mental features were within normal limits. A comprehensive review of the literature showed a total of 47 cases of fully documented tyrosinemia type II; 8 more patients also had the clinical features of the disease, but aminoacidemia had never been observed. The importance of early diagnosis is stressed, since a low tyrosine-phenylalanine diet dramatically improves the symptoms and may prevent mental retardation.

  18. Stanford type A aortic dissection in a patient with Marfan syndrome during pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ho; Bae, Jisue; Choi, Seung Won; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Chung Su; Cho, Hyun Sung; Lee, Sangmin M

    2016-02-01

    Aortic dissection during pregnancy is a devastating event for both the pregnant woman and the baby. We report a case of acute aortic dissection (Stanford type A) in a pregnant woman with Marfan syndrome at the 29(th) week of gestation. She underwent a cesarean section followed by an ascending aorta and total arch replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass, without a prior sternotomy. The hemodynamic parameters were kept stable during the cesarean section by using inotropes and vasopressors under transesophageal echocardiography monitoring. The newborn survived after endotracheal intubation and management in a neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:26885307

  19. Blunt aortic trauma in a patient with the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI.

    PubMed

    Yung, Marco Yat Hang; Murray, Jennifer; Thompson, Errington C

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old male with the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VI (ocular scoliotic) who was kicked in the abdomen presented to the emergency room (ER) with abdominal pain. He was found to have a blunt traumatic aortic injury. The patient was treated nonoperatively. He was stable and discharged home on the eighth day. The patient returned to the ER several days later hypotensive and tachycardic. The patient was taken immediately to the operating room, but vascular repair was not possible. The patient expired. We discuss the challenges of taking care of a patient with EDS and offer suggestions that might improve future patient's outcome. PMID:26956239

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Some treatments assessed versus placebo, limited efficacy.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    (1) Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 generally occurs after trauma and usually affects a limb; (2) How is complex regional pain syndrome type 1 diagnosed? What is its natural course? How safe and effective are available treatments? To answer these questions, we reviewed the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology; (3) Diagnosis is mainly based on clinical features, including pain disproportionate to the initial trauma, associated with cutaneous vasomotor, trophic and sweating disorders; (4) Some clinical signs call for additional examinations to help rule out another vascular, neurological, infectious or rheumatic disorder. Radiological evidence of bone demineralisation supports the diagnosis, but radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy generally contribute little to the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome; (5) Some patients recover spontaneously after a few weeks, while others develop chronic pain or even severe disability after a period of years; (6) The results of small placebo-controlled trials suggest that corticosteroids are effective during the initial phase of this syndrome; (7) A very high oral dose of alendronic acid provided sustained pain relief in a randomised trial. Other studies suggest that bisphosphonates have some impact. The adverse effects of alendronic acid given at such high doses are poorly known; (8) Calcitonin, antiepileptics, antidepressants and opiates have no proven efficacy; (9) Transcutaneous neurostimulation is rapidly effective and safe, but its efficacy also diminishes rapidly. Therefore, the sessions have to take place at increasingly shorter intervals. (10) Spinal neurostimulation with implanted electrodes has been assessed in a comparative trial in 54 patients. Some efficacy was observed, but one-third of patients had complications requiring further surgery; (11) Various substances have been given intravenously with the goal of achieving regional anaesthesia, but none was found to

  1. Co-Prescription of QT-Interval Prolonging Drugs: An Analysis in a Large Cohort of Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schächtele, Simone; Tümena, Thomas; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter; Fromm, Martin F.; Maas, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug-induced QT-interval prolongation is associated with occurrence of potentially fatal Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP). So far, data regarding the overall burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs) in geriatric patients are limited. Objective This study was performed to assess the individual burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs) in geriatric polymedicated patients and to identify the most frequent and risky combinations of QT-drugs. Methods In the discharge medication of geriatric patients between July 2009 and June 2013 from the Geriatrics in Bavaria–Database (GiB-DAT) (co)-prescriptions of QT-drugs were investigated. QT-drugs were classified according to a publicly available reference site (CredibleMeds®) as ALL-QT-drugs (associated with any QT-risk) or High-risk-QT-drugs (corresponding to QT-drugs with known risk of Torsades de Pointes according to CredibleMeds®) and in addition as SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs (according to the German prescribing information (SmPC) contraindicated co-prescription with other QT-drugs). Results Of a cohort of 130,434 geriatric patients (mean age 81 years, 67% women), prescribed a median of 8 drugs, 76,594 patients (58.7%) received at least one ALL-QT-drug. Co-prescriptions of two or more ALL-QT-drugs were observed in 28,768 (22.1%) patients. Particularly risky co-prescriptions of High-risk-QT-drugs or SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs with at least on further QT-drug occurred in 55.9% (N = 12,633) and 54.2% (N = 12,429) of these patients, respectively. Consideration of SmPCs (SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs) allowed the identification of an additional 15% (N = 3,999) patients taking a risky combination that was not covered by the commonly used CredibleMeds® classification. Only 20 drug-drug combinations accounted for more than 90% of these potentially most dangerous co-prescriptions. Conclusion In a geriatric study population co-prescriptions of two and more QT-drugs were common. A considerable proportion of QT

  2. Exploration of differences in types of sleep disturbance and severity of sleep problems between individuals with Cri du Chat syndrome, Down's syndrome, and Jacobsen syndrome: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Maas, Anneke P H M; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) seems to vary between genetic syndromes associated with ID. Different types of sleep disturbances may indicate underlying causes of sleep problems and these types of sleep disturbances may vary between different genetic syndromes. We examined and compared five types of sleep disturbance as well as severity of sleep problems in individuals with Cri du Chat syndrome (CDC), Down's syndrome (DS), Jacobsen syndrome (JS), and individuals with non-specific ID (NS). We used Simonds and Parraga's Sleep Questionnaire (1982) to assess prevalence of types of sleep disturbance and to explore differences in types of sleep disturbance and severity of sleep problems between the four diagnostic groups. In each group, mean scores for Snoring were significantly higher than those for Sleep apnea and Snoring was the most prevalent type of sleep disturbance in CDC, DS, and JS. The mean score on Complaints related to sleep was remarkably high in the JS group. There were no differences in severity of sleep problems between groups. These findings suggest that snoring is an important underlying cause of sleep problems in individuals with CDS, DS, and JS. PMID:22699250

  3. [Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). Pathophysiology, diagnostics, and therapy].

    PubMed

    Köck, F X; Borisch, N; Koester, B; Grifka, J

    2003-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS type I)--formerly termed Sudeck's atrophy or reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)--causes chronic, poorly controllable pain, autonomic, sensorimotor disorders,and serious trophic alterations in the later stages. It develops in the distal extremities mostly after minimal trauma or surgical intervention and rarely spontaneously. The severity of symptoms is disproportionate to the causative event. The latest scientific findings show that the previously called reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), which was supposed to be a result of a hyperreactive autonomic nervous system,is a very complex syndrome that occurs on different integration levels of the nervous system. Sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) may be facultatively characteristic, but is not to be misunderstood as an underlying mechanism. A neurogenic inflammation reaction has recently been discussed, just as had been postulated by Paul Sudeck long before. That was the reason why the International Association for the Study of Pain (ISAP) introduced the more descriptive term "complex regional pain syndrome" (CRPS) type I in 1994. Due to the complexity of the process necessitating qualified knowledge, it is important to immediately refer patients to a specialized pain OPD or clinic. The diagnosis of CRPS type I is based upon a carefully taken case history and a clinical examination by an experienced practitioner. Imaging diagnostic tools and laboratory findings are of no or only low predicative value. The question of whether SMP exists after diagnosing CRPS type I is eminent for therapy planning. Therefore, diagnostic regional anesthetics are still important in spite of their uncertain prognostic relevance. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, medical treatment, and psychotherapy play an important role in the primary treatment of CRPS type I as noninvasive procedures. Despite heavy criticism, invasive sympathetic block, subsequent to adequate diagnostics, is an

  4. Assessing QT prolongation and electrocardiography restitution using a beat-to-beat method.

    PubMed

    Fossa, Anthony A; Zhou, Meijian

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the heart rate corrected QT (QTc) interval has been the standard method to assess for impaired ventricular repolarization, particularly for drug development. However, QTc does not reflect changes in autonomic state or QT-RR hysteresis which can also affect the interpretation of arrhythmogenic risk. With the advent of more accurate algorithms to automatically measure the QT interval from continuously collected digital ECG data, usage of heart rate corrected functions is no longer necessary. The dynamic beat-to-beat QT interval method compares the QT interval to individual cardiac cycles from all normal autonomic states at similar RR intervals, thus eliminating the need for correction functions. The upper 97.5% reference boundary of these beat-to-beat QT interval values is defined across the entire 24-hour RR interval range. Beats with QT intervals exceeding this limit are flagged as outlier beats for further arrhythmia vulnerability assessment. The same beat-to-beat technique can also be used to assess the QT-TQ interval relationship known as ECG restitution. This analysis potentially provides an additional means to quantify cardiac stress or arrhythmia vulnerability as the heart works more in relationship to each rest cycle.

  5. Impact of Psychotropic Drugs on QT Interval Dispersion in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, Bruno de Queiroz; Costa, Marcelle Azevedo Nossar; Penna, Filipe; Konder, Mariana Teixeira; Celoria, Bruno Miguel Jorge; de Souza, Luciana Lopes; Pozzan, Roberto; Schneider, Roberta Siuffo; Albuquerque, Felipe Neves; Albuquerque, Denilson Campos

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug-induced increase in QT dispersion has been associated with potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Little is known about the use of psychotropic substances, alone or in combination with other drugs on QT dispersion. Objectives To evaluate the impact of psychotropic drugs on QT interval dispersion in adults. Methods An observational cohort study was designed involving 161 patients hospitalized from an emergency department at a tertiary hospital, divided into psychotropic users or non-users. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data and drugs used on a regular basis were collected on admission, in addition to 12-lead electrocardiogram with QT dispersion measurement. Results QT dispersion was significantly higher in the psychotropic user group compared to non-users (69.25 ± 25.5 ms vs. 57.08 ± 23.4 ms; p = 0.002). The QT interval corrected by Bazzett formula was also higher in the psychotropic drugs user group, with statistical significance. (439.79 ± 31.14 ms vs. 427.71 ± 28.42 ms; p = 0.011). A regression analysis model showed a positive association between the number of psychotropic drugs used and QT interval dispersion, with r = 0.341 and p < 0.001. Conclusions The use of psychotropic drugs was associated with increased QT dispersion and this increase was accentuated, as the number of psychotropic drugs used was higher. PMID:24830389

  6. Food and Insulin Effect on QT/QTC Interval of ECG

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-19

    Effects of Different Meals on the QT/QTc Interval; Insulin and Oral Hypoglycemic [Antidiabetic] Drugs Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use; C-Peptide Effects on the QT/QTc Interval; Moxifloxacin ECG Profile in Fed and Fasted State; Japanese vs. Caucasian TQT Comparison

  7. Abducens Nerve in Patients with Type 3 Duane’s Retraction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that the presence of the abducens nerve was variable in patients with type 3 Duane’s retraction syndrome (DRS), being present in 2 of 5 eyes (40%) and absent in 3 (60%) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The previous study included only 5 eyes with unilateral DRS type 3. Objectives To supplement existing scarce pathologic information by evaluating the presence of the abducens nerve using high resolution thin-section MRI system in a larger number of patients with DRS type 3, thus to provide further insight into the pathogenesis of DRS. Data Extraction A retrospective review of medical records on ophthalmologic examination and high resolution thin-section MRI at the brainstem level and orbit was performed. A total of 31 patients who showed the typical signs of DRS type 3, including abduction and adduction deficit, globe retraction, narrowing of fissure on adduction and upshoot and/or downshoot, were included. The abducens nerve and any other extraocular muscle abnormalities discovered by MRI were noted. Results DRS was unilateral in 26 patients (84%) and bilateral in 5 patients (16%). Two out of 5 bilateral patients had DRS type 3 in the right eye and DRS type 1 in the left eye. Of the 34 affected orbits with DRS type 3 in 31 patients, the abducens nerve was absent or hypoplastic in 31 eyes (91%) and present in 3 eyes (9%). Patients with a present abducens nerve showed more limitation in adduction compared to patients with an absent abducens nerve (P = 0.030). Conclusions The abducens nerve is absent or hypoplastic in 91% of DRS type 3. Patients with a present abducens nerve showed more prominent limitation of adduction. As DRS type 3 partly share the same pathophysiology with type 1 and 2 DRS, the classification of DRS may have to be revised according to MRI findings. PMID:27352171

  8. Clinical, morphological, and biochemical phenotype of a new case of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, A; Wilcox, W R; Cohn, D H

    1997-01-10

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIIC is a newly recognized human disorder which results from failure to remove the amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen. Four cases of EDS type VIIC have been reported, and here we describe a fifth case. The propositus was a 1,445 g male infant born at 30 weeks of gestation following premature rupture of membranes. He had wide fontanelles, prominent eyes with swollen eyelids and blue sclerae, anteverted nostrils, micrognathia, umbilical hernia, short stubby fingers, and cutis laxa with hirsutism. At age 3 months, during the repair of the umbilical hernia, he was noted to have unusual skin fragility. Examination of skin by scanning electron microscopy showed frayed collagen fibrils, and transmission electron microscopy showed the hieroglyphic collagen fibril morphology characteristic of the disorder. As reported in other cases, cultured fibroblasts synthesized type I procollagen that was very poorly processed at the amino-terminal propeptide cleavage site. the 5 known cases of human EDS type VIIC characterize a distinct clinical phenotype, making this condition recognizable at birth before manifestation of severe skin fragility. The diagnosis can be confirmed by biochemical studies of type I procollagen synthesis and by electron microscopic examination of skin. PMID:8986271

  9. Association of Parental Age and the Type of Down Syndrome on the Territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Sotonica, Mia; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Hasic, Sabaheta; Kiseljakovic, Emina; Jadric, Radivoj; Ibrulj, Slavka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advanced paternal and/or maternal age is a classic risk factor for Down syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of Down syndrome types in children and its association with maternal and paternal age in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Subjects and Methods: The cross sectional, observational study included 127 children, 49 girls and 78 boys, aged 1-180 months suspected to have Down syndrome, admitted to the Centre for Genetics, Faculty of Medicine University of Sarajevo, for cytogenetic analysis and differential diagnosis of Down syndrome during the period from January 2010 to May 2015. Standard method of 72 hours cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been applied. The accepted level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Study Results: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy (86.6%), comparing to translocation and mosaicism (7.1%; 6.3%, respectively). The highest frequency of Down syndrome cases was in mother and father’s group from 30-39 years old (57; 57 children, respectively) compared to mother and father’s groups with younger than 30 (44; 29, respectively) and 40 and older (26; 41, respectively). The significant difference was found in maternal age between translocation and mosaicism groups (p=0.036). Difference between parental years and type of Down syndrome was significant when Standard trisomy 21 and translocation (p=0.045), as well as mosaicism and translocation (p=0.036), were compared. Conclusion: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy 21, with highest occurrence in parents from 30 to 39 years old. Parents were the youngest in translocation group. Obtained results suggest that multidisciplinary approach to identifying the trigger for trisomy appearance and the influence of maternal age is required. PMID:27147778

  10. Treatment for Acute Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II with Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II is a syndrome that develops after nerve injury. Symptoms may be severe, and vary depending on the degree of sympathetic nerve involvement. As yet, there is no satisfactory treatment. We report the case of a female patient who had an L5 left transverse process fracture and an S2 body fracture, who developed symptoms of CRPS type II in her left lower leg that were aggravated during ambulation in spite of absolute bed rest for one month after the trauma. Several treatments, including bed rest, medication, and numerous nerve blocks were attempted, but the pain persisted. We finally tried injection of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) solution at the left L5 transverse process fracture site because we knew of the anti-inflammatory effect of PDRN. One day after this treatment, her symptoms had almost disappeared and three days later, she was discharged. We will also further discuss the possibility of using PDRN solution for the treatment of CRPS.

  11. A new COL3A1 mutation in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV.

    PubMed

    Eder, Johanna; Laccone, Franco; Rohrbach, Marianne; Giunta, Cecilia; Aumayr, Klaus; Reichel, Christofer; Trautinger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    The vascular type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, EDS IV; OMIM #130050) is a rare connective tissue disorder with autosomal dominant transmission caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene resulting in increased fragility of connective tissue with arterial, intestinal, and uterine ruptures and premature death. We present a 28-year-old female who in addition to typical EDS IV symptoms had severe peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) and subtotal stenosis of the abdominal aorta. COL3A1 sequencing resulted in detection of an as yet undescribed mutation in exon 36 at position 2465 leading to a nucleotide replacement (c.2465G>C; p.G822A). Ultrastructural analysis of a skin biopsy revealed abnormal morphology and distribution of dermal collagen fibres. We conclude that PAOD is a possible manifestation of EDS IV and that further research is required to define its true prevalence among patients with EDS IV and its molecular pathology including genotype-phenotype correlation.

  12. Delayed diagnosis with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 causing acute adrenal crisis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ping, Fan; Qi, Cuijuan; Xiao, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2), also known as Schmidt's syndrome, is an uncommon disorder characterized by the coexistence of Addison's disease with thyroid autoimmune disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Addison's disease as the obligatory component is potentially life-threatening. Unfortunately, the delayed diagnosis of Addison's disease is common owing to its rarity and the nonspecific clinical manifestation. Methods: Here we reported a case of 38-year-old female patient who presented with 2 years’ history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and received levothyroxine replacement. One year later, skin hyperpigmentation, fatigue, loss of appetite, and muscle soreness occurred. She was advised to increase the dose of levothyroxine, but the symptoms were not relieved. After 4 months, the patient accompanied with dizziness, nausea, nonbloody vomiting, and fever. However, she was diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis and fell into shock and ventricular fibrillation subsequently. Further evaluation in our hospital revealed elevated adrenocorticotrophic hormone and low morning serum cortisol, associated with hyponatremia and atrophic adrenal gland. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis were also demonstrated. Results: After the supplementation with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone was initiated, the physical discomforts were alleviated and plasma electrolytes were back to normal. Conclusion: The uncommon case involving 3 endocrine organs reinforced the significance of a timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment of APS-2, and physicians needed to sharpen their awareness of the potentially life-threatening disease. PMID:27759634

  13. Treatment for Acute Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II with Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kun Soo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II is a syndrome that develops after nerve injury. Symptoms may be severe, and vary depending on the degree of sympathetic nerve involvement. As yet, there is no satisfactory treatment. We report the case of a female patient who had an L5 left transverse process fracture and an S2 body fracture, who developed symptoms of CRPS type II in her left lower leg that were aggravated during ambulation in spite of absolute bed rest for one month after the trauma. Several treatments, including bed rest, medication, and numerous nerve blocks were attempted, but the pain persisted. We finally tried injection of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) solution at the left L5 transverse process fracture site because we knew of the anti-inflammatory effect of PDRN. One day after this treatment, her symptoms had almost disappeared and three days later, she was discharged. We will also further discuss the possibility of using PDRN solution for the treatment of CRPS. PMID:27651875

  14. Type III Guyon Syndrome in 'B Boy' Break-Dancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Soo-young; Choi, Jin-gyu

    2015-01-01

    Although the musculoskeletal injuries associated with break-dancing which is gaining more popularity among adolescent and young people has been reported, the report regarding a peripheral nerve injury associated with breakdance is scarce. We report a rare case of a young amateur break-dancer, 'b-boy' who suffered from a painful paresthesia in his left hand, later diagnosed as type III Guyon's canal syndrome. A 23-year-old, right handed college man presented with a tenderness over the left hypothenar eminence and painful paresthesia over the ring and little fingers of 3 months duration. He trained himself as an amateur 'b boy' break-dancer for the last 10 months. Conservative management under the diagnosis of wrist sprain before presentation did not improve his hand pain. An magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed that painful paresthesia was caused by type III Guyon's canal syndrome, and 4 weeks of corticosteroid treatment was given with resolution of pain and paresthesia. PMID:27169091

  15. Type III Guyon Syndrome in 'B Boy' Break-Dancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Soo-Young; Choi, Jin-Gyu; Son, Byung-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Although the musculoskeletal injuries associated with break-dancing which is gaining more popularity among adolescent and young people has been reported, the report regarding a peripheral nerve injury associated with breakdance is scarce. We report a rare case of a young amateur break-dancer, 'b-boy' who suffered from a painful paresthesia in his left hand, later diagnosed as type III Guyon's canal syndrome. A 23-year-old, right handed college man presented with a tenderness over the left hypothenar eminence and painful paresthesia over the ring and little fingers of 3 months duration. He trained himself as an amateur 'b boy' break-dancer for the last 10 months. Conservative management under the diagnosis of wrist sprain before presentation did not improve his hand pain. An magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed that painful paresthesia was caused by type III Guyon's canal syndrome, and 4 weeks of corticosteroid treatment was given with resolution of pain and paresthesia. PMID:27169091

  16. Treatment for Acute Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II with Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II is a syndrome that develops after nerve injury. Symptoms may be severe, and vary depending on the degree of sympathetic nerve involvement. As yet, there is no satisfactory treatment. We report the case of a female patient who had an L5 left transverse process fracture and an S2 body fracture, who developed symptoms of CRPS type II in her left lower leg that were aggravated during ambulation in spite of absolute bed rest for one month after the trauma. Several treatments, including bed rest, medication, and numerous nerve blocks were attempted, but the pain persisted. We finally tried injection of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) solution at the left L5 transverse process fracture site because we knew of the anti-inflammatory effect of PDRN. One day after this treatment, her symptoms had almost disappeared and three days later, she was discharged. We will also further discuss the possibility of using PDRN solution for the treatment of CRPS. PMID:27651875

  17. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, Christine G

    2008-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to promote the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These risk factors include abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) catalyzes the interconversion of glucocorticoids through the activity of two isozymes: type 1 (11beta-HSD1) and type 2 (11beta-HSD2). 11beta-HSD1 converts inactive glucocorticoid to the active form, whereas 11beta-HSD2 converts active glucocorticoid to the inactive form. It is well established that reduced 11beta-HSD2 activity causes hypertension and electrolyte abnormalities. More recently, the pathophysiological role of 11beta-HSD1 has been explored and studies suggest that increased 11beta-HSD1 activity within target tissues may promote insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This review will discuss the evidence that inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 may be therapeutic in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1: A Defective Regulation of Monocyte Apoptosis Induced by Proinflammatory and Proapoptotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pastori, Silvia; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Clementi, Anna; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the possible immune-mediated mechanisms in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1 pathogenesis. We enrolled 40 patients with acute heart failure (AHF), 11 patients with CRS type 1 and 15 controls. Plasma from the different groups was incubated with monocytes; subsequently, cell apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation, caspase activity and cytofluorometric assay. Cytokine quantification in plasma and supernatant was performed by ELISA. Monocytes treated with CRS type 1 plasma showed significantly higher apoptosis compared with those treated with AHF and the controls (p < 0.05). Caspase-3 (CRS type 1: 2.20 ng/ml, IQR 2.06-2.33; AHF: 1.48 ng/ml, IQR 1.31-1.56; controls: 0.71 ng/ml, IQR 0.67-0.81) and caspase-8 levels (CRS type 1: 1.49 ng/ml, IQR 1.42-1.57; AHF: 0.94 ng/ml, IQR 0.84-0.98; controls: 0.56 ng/ml, IQR 0.51-0.58) in cells incubated with plasma from these patients demonstrated a significantly higher concentration. We observed a strong upregulation of plasma IL-6 and IL-18 in CRS type 1 compared with AHF and the controls (p < 0.05). Interestingly, we observed a similar concentration of TNF-α in CRS type 1 and AHF. In CRS type 1 patients, IL-6 (52.13 ng/ml, IQR 47.29-66.83) and IL-18 levels (197.75 ng/ml, IQR 120.80-265.49) in supernatant were significantly higher than in AHF patients (IL-6: 28.79 ng/ml, IQR 19.90-36.10; IL-18: 21.98 ng/ml, IQR 15.98-29.85) and controls (IL-6: 5.02 ng/ml, IQR 4.56-6.44; IL-18: 7.91 ng/ml, IQR 5.57-10.62). These findings suggest the presence of a defective regulation of monocyte apoptosis in CRS type 1 patients and the involvement of an immune-mediated mechanism in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. PMID:25999959

  19. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II Secondary to Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hamilton; Tafazoli, Sharwin

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder characterized by severe pain and vasomotor and pseudomotor changes. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms is a recent advance in vascular surgery that has allowed repair of AAA while offering reduced intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay, reduced blood loss, fewer major complications, and more rapid recovery. Pseudoaneurysms are a rare complication of an EVAR procedure that may result in a wide range of complications. The present report examines CRPS type II as a novel consequence of pseudoaneurysm formation from brachial artery access in the EVAR procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CRPS type II presentation as sequelae of an EVAR procedure. PMID:25650247

  20. [Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 after fracture of distal phalanx: case report].

    PubMed

    Boyacı, Ahmet; Tutoğlu, Ahmet; Boyacı, Fatıma Nurefşan; Yalçın, Şaban

    2014-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a disease characterized especially by pain, swelling, limited range of motion, vasomotor instability and patchy bone demineralization in the extremities. In this case, we report a 46-year-old woman diagnosed with CRPS type 1, whose complaints, such as swelling in the left hand, pain, and limitation of movement, started 2 months after a fracture of the distal phalanx in the left 4th finger. Her complaints were reduced with treatment of calcitonin, gabapentin, calcium and vitamin D3, retrograde edema massage, contrast baths, conventional TENS, pulsed ultrasound, desensitization and exercise with range of joint motion. CRPS type 1 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of upper limb pains which start after a fracture of the distal phalanx.

  1. Expanding the spectrum of genetic mutations in antenatal Bartter syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Fretzayas, Andreas; Gole, Evangelia; Attilakos, Achilleas; Daskalaki, Anna; Nicolaidou, Polyxeni; Papadopoulou, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) is a group of genetic disorders characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia and elevated renin and aldosterone plasma concentrations. BS type II is caused by mutations in the KCNJ1 gene and usually presents with transient hyperkalemia. We report here a novel KCNJ1 mutation in a male neonate, prematurely born after a pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios. The infant presented with typical clinical and laboratory findings of BS type II, such as hyponatremia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, severe weight loss, elevated renin and aldosterone levels and transient hyperkalemia in the early postnatal period, which were later normalized. Molecular analysis revealed a compound heterozygous mutation in the KCNJ1 gene, consisting of a novel K76E and an already described V315G mutation, both affecting functional domains of the channel protein. Typical manifestations of antenatal BS in combination with hyperkalemia should prompt the clinician to search for mutations in the KCNJ1 gene first. PMID:23782368

  2. Bloom's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glycogen Storage Disease, Type 1A Joubert Syndrome Maple Syrup Urine Disease and DLD Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) Nemaline ... Glycogen Storage Disease, Type 1A Joubert Syndrome Maple Syrup Urine Disease and DLD Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) Nemaline ...

  3. The multifaceted and complex hypermobility syndrome (a.k.a. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type): evaluation and management through a rehabilitative approach.

    PubMed

    Celletti, C; Camerota, F

    2013-01-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a hereditary disorder of connective tissue recently considered the one and the same as the Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type (EDS-HT). The JHS/EDS-HT is mainly characterized by joint hypermobility, chronic pain and a variable skin involvement. Clinical manifestations expressed by patients are multiple and varied. The rehabilitative approach may play a fundamental role in the understanding and management of symptoms and clinical manifestation. Aim of this study is to make a literature revision of all the aspects of this not so rare disease. PMID:24045532

  4. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuji; Hasunuma, Tomoko; Sakai, Soichi; Ochiai, Hidekazu; Samukawa, Yoshishige

    2015-01-01

    Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose), luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose), placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF) method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF) in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg) nor supratherapeutic (20 mg) doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects. PMID:26444986

  5. Molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of Chinese Han deaf patients with type I and type II Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lianhua; Li, Xiaohua; Shi, Jun; Pang, Xiuhong; Hu, Yechen; Wang, Xiaowen; Wu, Hao; Yang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities is genetically heterogeneous and phenotypically variable. This study investigated the molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of WS in 36 Chinese Han deaf probands and 16 additional family members that were clinically diagnosed with WS type I (WS1, n = 8) and type II (WS2, n = 42). Mutation screening of six WS-associated genes detected PAX3 mutations in 6 (86%) of the 7 WS1 probands. Among the 29 WS2 probands, 13 (45%) and 10 (34%) were identified with SOX10 and MITF mutations, respectively. Nineteen of the 26 detected mutations were novel. In WS2 probands whose parental DNA samples were available, de novo mutations were frequently seen for SOX10 mutations (7/8) but not for MITF mutations (0/5, P = 0.005). Excessive freckle, a common feature of WS2 in Chinese Hans, was frequent in WS2 probands with MITF mutations (7/10) but not in those with SOX10 mutations (0/13, P = 4.9 × 10−4). Our results showed that mutations in SOX10 and MITF are two major causes for deafness associated with WS2. These two subtypes of WS2 can be distinguished by the high de novo rate of the SOX10 mutations and the excessive freckle phenotype exclusively associated with the MITF mutations. PMID:27759048

  6. Biochemical changes in blood of type 2 diabetes with and without metabolic syndrome and their association with metabolic syndrome components

    PubMed Central

    Zadhoush, Fouzieh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Pourfarzam, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple factors are involved in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMII) to DMII with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular complications. To identify some of these factors, we aim to investigate the changes in erythrocyte membrane Na+/K+-ATPase activity, serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure in DMII with and without MetS. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 155 male subjects distributed into three groups as healthy controls (50 non-DMII volunteers), Group I (50 DMII without MetS), and Group II (55 DMII with MetS). Fasting blood samples were taken for the measurement of glucose, insulin, HbA1c, hs-CRP and lipid profile. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was determined in erythrocyte ghost. Results: Na+/K+-ATPase activity was significantly decreased in DMII groups compared with controls. No significant difference was shown in Na+/K+-ATPase activity between DMII groups. Total ATPase activity, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were similar in the three groups. Levels of insulin, hs-CRP, triacylglycerols, systolic blood pressure, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, and body mass index were significantly elevated and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol significantly decreased only in Group II. Significant differences in serum glucose and hip circumference were seen between the groups. No significant differences in HbA1c levels were observed between DMII groups. Conclusion: Changes in many of the measured risk factors that occurred only in Group II compared with controls and Group I may provide an explanation of how DMII progresses to DMII with MetS and future cardiovascular complications. PMID:26664424

  7. Conservative management of small bowel perforation in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV.

    PubMed

    Allaparthi, Satya; Verma, Himanshu; Burns, David L; Joyce, Ann M

    2013-08-16

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. EDS type IV, or vascular EDS, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the type III pro-collagen gene (COL3A1). Common complications of EDS type IV include gastrointestinal bleeding and bowel perforations, posing diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas for both surgeons and gastroenterologists. Here, we describe a complicated case of EDS type IV in a 35-year-old caucasian female who presented with overt gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient had a prior history of spontaneous colonic perforation, and an uncomplicated upper endoscopy was performed. A careful ileoscopy was terminated early due to tachycardia and severe abdominal pain, and a subsequent computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis of ileal perforation. The patient was managed conservatively, and demonstrated daily improvement. At the time of hospital discharge, no further episodes of gastrointestinal blood loss had occurred. This case highlights the benefit of conservative management for EDS patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It is recommended that surgical treatment should be reserved for patients who fail conservative treatment or in cases of hemodynamic instability. Finally, this case demonstrates the necessity for a higher threshold of operative or endoscopic interventions in EDS type IV patients. PMID:23951395

  8. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome associated with Chiari type I malformation caused by a large 16p13.3 microdeletion: a contiguous gene syndrome?

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Cezary; Volz, Kim; Ranola, Maria; Kitch, Karla; Karim, Tariza; O'Neil, Joseph; Smith, Jodi; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo

    2010-02-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RSTS, OMIM 180849) is a rare condition, which in 65% of cases is caused by haploinsufficiency of CREBBP (cAMP response element binding protein binding protein) localized to 16p13.3. A small subset of RSTS cases caused by 16p13.3 microdeletions involving neighboring genes have been recently suggested to be a true contiguous gene syndrome called severe RSTS or 16p13.3 deletion syndrome (OMIM 610543). In the present report, we describe a case of a 2-year-old female with RSTS who, besides most of the typical features of RSTS has corpus callosum dysgenesis and a Chiari type I malformation which required neurosurgical decompression. CGH microarray showed a approximately 520.7 kb microdeletion on 16p13.3 involving CREBBP, ADCY9, and SRL genes. We hypothesize that the manifestations in this patient might be influenced by the haploinsufficiency for ADCY9 and SRL.

  9. Change of QT variability index during general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Young; Sung, Minha; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Soon Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background The QT variability index (QTVI)–a non-invasive measure of beat-to-beat QT interval (QTI) fluctuations–is related to myocardial repolarization lability. The QTVI represents the relationship between QTI and the RR interval. Elevated QTVI is associated with an increased risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. We investigated the influence of general anesthesia and tourniquets on the QTVI. Methods We studied fifty patients who received total knee replacement arthroplasty under sevoflurane anesthesia. We measured QTI, corrected QTI (QTc), T-wave peak-to-end interval (TPE), QTVI, and heart rate variability. All variables were calculated at baseline (B), 30 min after general anesthesia (A), 30 min (TQ1) and 60 min (TQ2) after tourniquet inflation, and at tourniquet deflation (TQR). Results Prolongation of QTI was detected at all times, and QTc was significantly prolonged TQR. TPE was unchanged during general anesthesia. The QTVI was significantly decreased and more negative during anesthesia and tourniquet inflation. After deflation of the tourniquet, the QTVI was restored to preanesthetic values. Low frequency (LF) was significantly decreased during general anesthesia, but high frequency (HF) was somewhat maintained, except at TQ2. The LF/HF ratio was significantly decreased at A and TQ2. Conclusions Sevoflurane based general anesthesia induced repolarization stability and, more negativity of the QTVI, in patients undergoing total knee replacement arthroplasty. PMID:27274370

  10. Energy Types of Snoring Sounds in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Preliminary Observation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Ang; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Wang, Ding-Li; Cho, Chih-Ming; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Background Annoying snore is the principle symptom and problem in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, investigation has been hampered by the complex snoring sound analyses. Objective This study was aimed to investigate the energy types of the full-night snoring sounds in patients with OSAS. Patients and Method Twenty male OSAS patients underwent snoring sound recording throughout 6 hours of in-lab overnight polysomnogragphy. Snoring sounds were processed and analyzed by a new sound analytic program, named as Snore Map®. We transformed the 6-hour snoring sound power spectra into the energy spectrum and classified it as snore map type 1 (monosyllabic low-frequency snore), type 2 (duplex low-&mid-frequency snore), type 3 (duplex low- & high-frequency snore), and type 4 (triplex low-, mid-, & high-frequency snore). The interrator and test-retest reliabilities of snore map typing were assessed. The snore map types and their associations among demographic data, subjective snoring questionnaires, and polysomnographic parameters were explored. Results The interrator reliability of snore map typing were almost perfect (κ = 0.87) and the test-retest reliability was high (r = 0.71). The snore map type was proportional to the body mass index (r = 0.63, P = 0.003) and neck circumference (r = 0.52, P = 0.018). Snore map types were unrelated to subjective snoring questionnaire scores (All P>0.05). After adjustment for body mass index and neck circumference, snore map type 3–4 was significantly associated with severity of OSAS (r = 0.52, P = 0.026). Conclusions Snore map typing of a full-night energy spectrum is feasible and reliable. The presence of a higher snore map type is a warning sign of severe OSAS and indicated priority OSAS management. Future studies are warranted to evaluate whether snore map type can be used to discriminate OSAS from primary snoring and whether it is affected by OSAS management. PMID:23300931

  11. Differential diagnosis and diagnostic flow chart of joint hypermobility syndrome/ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type compared to other heritable connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Marina; Dordoni, Chiara; Chiarelli, Nicola; Ritelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is an evolving and protean disorder mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility and without a defined molecular basis. JHS/EDS-HT also presents with other connective tissue features affecting a variety of structures and organs, such as skin, eye, bone, and internal organs. However, most of these signs are present in variable combinations and severity in many other heritable connective tissue disorders. Accordingly, JHS/EDS-HT is an "exclusion" diagnosis which needs the absence of any consistent feature indicative of other partially overlapping connective tissue disorders. While both Villefranche and Brighton criteria include such an exclusion as a mandatory item, a systematic approach for reaching a stringent clinical diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT is still lacking. The absence of a consensus on the diagnostic approach to JHS/EDS-HT concerning its clinical boundaries with similar conditions contribute to limit our actual understanding of the pathologic and molecular bases of this disorder. In this review, we revise the differential diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT with those heritable connective tissue disorders which show a significant overlap with the former and mostly include EDS classic, vascular and kyphoscoliotic types, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, and lateral meningocele syndrome. A diagnostic flow chart is also offered with the attempt to support the less experienced clinician in stringently recognizing JHS/EDS-HT and stimulate the debate in the scientific community for both management and research purposes. PMID:25821090

  12. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 manifested as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and adrenocortical insufficiency, in Turner syndrome woman, with onset following introduction of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Cyniak-Magierska, Anna; Lasoń, Agnieszka; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a constellation of signs and symptoms of simultaneous insufficiencies of several endocrine glands. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS 2) may be diagnosed when the adrenocortical insufficiency is associated with an autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease), and/or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in females, caused by complete or partial X chromosome monosomy. We present the case of a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, in whom APS 2 (Hashimoto's thyroiditis and adrenocortical insufficiency) has been diagnosed after introduction of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. In Turner syndrome, examination of the patient must regularly be conducted in order to diagnose a possible onset of autoimmune diseases; respective treatment must be applied as soon as the diagnosis is established. In particular, therapy of rhGH, used for short stature treatment, may be a trigger factor of adrenal insufficiency. The cortisol level in blood should be assessed before rhGH administration and carefully monitored during the therapy, especially in case of autoimmune thyroid disease coexistence.

  13. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 manifested as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and adrenocortical insufficiency, in Turner syndrome woman, with onset following introduction of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Cyniak-Magierska, Anna; Lasoń, Agnieszka; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a constellation of signs and symptoms of simultaneous insufficiencies of several endocrine glands. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS 2) may be diagnosed when the adrenocortical insufficiency is associated with an autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease), and/or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in females, caused by complete or partial X chromosome monosomy. We present the case of a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, in whom APS 2 (Hashimoto's thyroiditis and adrenocortical insufficiency) has been diagnosed after introduction of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. In Turner syndrome, examination of the patient must regularly be conducted in order to diagnose a possible onset of autoimmune diseases; respective treatment must be applied as soon as the diagnosis is established. In particular, therapy of rhGH, used for short stature treatment, may be a trigger factor of adrenal insufficiency. The cortisol level in blood should be assessed before rhGH administration and carefully monitored during the therapy, especially in case of autoimmune thyroid disease coexistence. PMID:26071578

  14. Genetic analysis of Tunisian families with Usher syndrome type 1: toward improving early molecular diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Rebeh, Imen; Bonnet, Crystel; Bouassida, Walid; Hadjamor, Imen; Ayadi, Hammadi; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Petit, Christine; Masmoudi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Usher syndrome accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deaf-blindness cases. The most severe form of this syndrome, Usher syndrome type I (USH1), is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. Six USH1 genes have been identified, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, SANS, and CIB2, encoding myosin VIIA, cadherin-23, protocadherin-15, harmonin, scaffold protein containing ankyrin repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, and calcium- and integrin-binding member 2, respectively. Methods In the present study, we recruited four Tunisian families with a diagnosis of USH1, together with healthy unrelated controls. Affected members underwent detailed audiologic and ocular examinations. We used the North African Deafness (NADf) chip to search for known North African mutations associated with USH. Then, we selected microsatellite markers covering USH1 known loci to genotype the DNA samples. Finally, we performed DNA sequencing of three known USH1 genes: MYO7A, PCDH15, and USH1C. Results Four biallelic mutations, all single base changes, were found in the MYO7A, USH1C, and PCDH15 genes. These mutations consist of a previously reported splicing defect c.470+1G>A in MYO7A, three novel variants, including two nonsense (p.Arg3X and p.Arg134X) in USH1C and PCDH15, respectively, and one frameshift (p.Lys615Asnfs*6) in MYO7A. Conclusions We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied families with USH1 with a variety of mutations, among which three were novel. These novel mutations will be included in the NADf mutation screening chip that will allow a higher diagnosis efficiency of this extremely genetically heterogeneous disease. Ultimately, efficient molecular diagnosis of USH in a patient’s early childhood is of utmost importance, allowing better educational and therapeutic management. PMID:27440999

  15. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chen; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Chong; Yu, Lu-Gang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the serious public health problems worldwide. Moreover, it is estimated that MetS patients have about five-fold greater risk of the T2DM development compared with people without the syndrome. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors which play an important role in the pathogenesis of MetS and T2DM. All three members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear receptor subfamily, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ are critical in regulating insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. Recently, more and more studies indicated that the gene polymorphism of PPARs, such as Leu162Val and Val227Ala of PPARα, +294T > C of PPARβ/δ, Pro12Ala and C1431T of PPARγ, are significantly associated with the onset and progressing of MetS and T2DM in different population worldwide. Furthermore, a large body of evidence demonstrated that the glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were influenced by gene-gene interaction among PPARs genes. However, given the complexity pathogenesis of metabolic disease, it is unlikely that genetic variation of a single locus would provide an adequate explanation of inter-individual differences which results in diverse clinical syndromes. Thus, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions associated with T2DM and MetS need future comprehensive studies. PMID:25987964

  16. Torsades de pointes induced by concomitant use of chlorpheniramine and propranolol: An unusual presentation with no QT prolongation

    PubMed Central

    Ösken, Altuğ; Yelgeç, Nizamettin Selçuk; Zehir, Regayip; Öz, Tuğba Kemaloğlu; Yaylacı, Selçuk; Akdemir, Ramazan; Gündüz, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) is a rare but potentially fatal adverse effect of commonly prescribed medications including cardiac and noncardiac drugs. Importantly, many drugs have been reported to cause the characteristic Brugada syndrome-linked electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities and/or (fatal) ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Chlorpheniramine and propranolol have the arrhythmogenic effects reported previously. A review of literature revealed a large number of case reports of chlorpheniramine or propranolol use resulting in QTc prolongation, TdP, or both. However, we wish to report the case of a patient who was treated with a combination of chlorpheniramine and propranolol, whose ECG showed no QT prolongation but who suffered from cardiac arrest due to TdP.

  17. Predicting the age of the mutation for Usher syndrome type I in the Acadian population

    SciTech Connect

    Nouri, N.; Risch, N.J.; Pelias, M.Z.

    1994-09-01

    The locus for Usher syndrome type I (USH1C) in the Acadian population is in the p15.1-p14 region of chromosome 11. This recessive disease is characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment, vestibular dysfunction, and pigmentary retinopathy. Three separate loci have been localized for Usher syndrome type I. All Acadian, but no non-Acadian, families show linkage to the 11p locus, suggesting a founder effect in the Acadian population. Linkage and haplotype analyses of eight markers spanning 10 centiMorgans demonstrate that USH1C lies between D11S1397 and D11S1310. Based on analyses of Usher and CEPH families the most likely linkage map for the eight markers is: D11S569-(.02)-D11S861-(.01)-D11S419-(.01)-D11S1397-(.004)-D11S921-(.007)-D11S1310-(.01)-D11S899-(.04)-D11S928. Evidence of linkage disequilibrium with USH1C was found for all markers, indicating a recent origin of a unique mutation. Parental haplotypes were separated into those with the disease allele and those with the normal allele at the USH1C locus. Of the 54 chromosomes with the disease allele, 17 had an identical haplotype for the eight markers. All but one of the haplotypes on the remaining 37 chromosomes could be explained by a few recombination events, suggesting that a single mutation is responsible for nearly all cases of Usher syndrome type I in the Acadian population. The same alleles were found at D11S921 and D11S1310 on 50 of the 54 chromosomes with the disease allele and on only 5 of the 50 chromosomes with the normal allele. Analysis of recombination and linkage disequilibrium between USH1C and each of the markers suggests that the age of the mutation is approximately 15 generations, which corresponds with the time that the Acadians arrived in the Canadian territory of Acadia. The analysis indicates that this mutation was already established in the Acadians who made their way to Louisiana after 1755.

  18. Recurring and generalized visceroptosis in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Dordoni, Chiara; Ritelli, Marco; Venturini, Marina; Chiarelli, Nicola; Pezzani, Lidia; Vascellaro, Annalisa; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Colombi, Marina

    2013-05-01

    Visceroptosis is described in several heritable connective tissue disorders, including the hypermobility type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS), a.k.a. joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS). Clinical features of hEDS comprise joint hypermobility, mild skin hyperextensibility, joint instability complications, chronic joint/limb pain, and positive family history. Uterine and rectal prolapse has been reported in nulliparous women. We report on a family with two patients with hEDS. The proposita, a 38-year-old woman, present bilateral kidney prolapse requiring three nephropexies, gastric ptosis treated with gastropexy and Billroth I gastrectomy, and liver prolapse treated with a non-codified hepatopexy procedure. Radiological evaluation also showed ovarian and heart prolapse. To our knowledge this is the first case of multiple visceral ptoses in hEDS. Visceral prolapse may lead to severe morbidity, affecting quality of life and a high rate of relapses after surgical procedures. Further investigations are needed to understand the molecular basis of the disease and retrospective studies on surgical outcomes, presentation of case series can be effective in order to offer a better treatment and prevention for hEDS patients. PMID:23533212

  19. Carbohydrate restriction as the default treatment for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2008-08-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome is based on an underlying principle of control of insulin secretion and the theory that insulin resistance is a response to chronic hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. As such, the theory is intuitive and has substantial experimental support. It has generally been opposed by health agencies because of concern that carbohydrate will be replaced by fat, particularly saturated fat, thereby increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease as dictated by the so-called diet-heart hypothesis. Here we summarize recent data showing that, in fact, substitution of fat for carbohydrate generally improves cardiovascular risk factors. Removing the barrier of concern about dietary fat makes carbohydrate restriction a reasonable, if not the preferred method for treating type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We emphasize the ability of low carbohydrate diets to improve glycemic control, hemoglobin A1C and to reduce medication. We review evidence that such diets are effective even in the absence of weight loss.

  20. Waardenburg syndrome type I: Dental phenotypes and genetic analysis of an extended family

    PubMed Central

    de Aquino, Sibele-Nascimento; Paranaíba, Lívia-Maris-R.; Gomes, Andreia; dos-Santos-Neto, Pedro; Coletta, Ricardo-D.; Cardoso, Aline-Francoise; Frota, Ana-Cláudia; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of inheritance and the clinical features in a large family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1), detailing the dental abnormalities and screening for PAX3 mutations. Material and Methods To characterize the pattern of inheritance and clinical features, 29 family members were evaluated by dermatologic, ophthalmologic, otorhinolaryngologic and orofacial examination. Molecular analysis of the PAX3 gene was performed. Results The pedigree of the family,including the last four generations, was constructed and revealed non-consanguineous marriages. Out of 29 descendants, 16 family members showed features of WS1, with 9 members showing two major criteria indicative of WS1. Five patients showed white forelock and iris hypopigmentation, and four showed dystopia canthorum and iris hypopigmentation. Two patients had hearing loss. Dental abnormalities were identified in three family members, including dental agenesis, conical teeth and taurodontism. Sequencing analysis failed to identify mutations in the PAX3 gene. Conclusions These results confirm that WS1 was transmitted in this family in an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expressivity and high penetrance. The presence of dental manifestations, especially tooth agenesis and conical teeth which resulted in considerable aesthetic impact on affected individuals was a major clinical feature. Clinical relevance: This article reveals the presence of well-defined dental changes associated with WS1 and tries to establish a possible association between these two entities showing a new spectrum of WS1. Key words:Waardenburg syndrome, hearing loss, oral manifestations, mutation. PMID:27031059

  1. [Drug-induced exacerbation of hypoaldosteronism in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    Hypoaldosteronism is a clinical condition resulting from inadequate stimulation of aIdosterone secretion (hyporeninemic hypoaIdosteronism), defects in adrenal synthesis of aldosterone (hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism), or resistance to the peripheral action of this hormone (pseudohypoaldosteronism). The disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic hyperkalemia to life-threatening volume depletion, and, if unrecognized and untreated, it increases morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, we report a case of a woman diagnosed with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2. As a consequence of adrenal cortex destruction, the patient developed subclinical hypoaldosteronism which was effectively treated with small doses of fludrocortisone. Two and fours years later, she required ibuprofen and atenolol treatment and each of these treatments was accompanied by a transient deterioration in mineralocorticoid activity which resolved after drug withdrawal. This case shows for the first time that drugs reducing plasma renin activity may unmask subclinical hypoaldosteronism in subjects with autoimmune polyglandular syndromes, and that they should be avoided in patients with even small disturbances in the hormonal function of the zona glomerulosa.

  2. Impaired Empathic Abilities among Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Type I)

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Hong-Suk; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Noh, Eun Chung; Choi, Soo-Hee; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate differences in empathic abilities between patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Type I and healthy control subjects (HCs) and to assess correlations between empathic abilities and multidimensional aspects of pain. Methods Empathic ability was measured in 32 patients with CRPS Type I and in 36 HCs using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). A comprehensive assessment of pain was conducted in the patient group using the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI). Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI), and quality of life was evaluated using the WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Results Patients with CRPS showed impaired cognitive and emotional empathic abilities compared with HCs. Significantly lower levels of perspective taking and empathic concern and higher levels of personal distress on the IRI were exhibited by the patient group. Perspective taking and personal distress were associated with affective distress and poor quality of life in social contexts (BDI, BAI, and WHOQOL). However, empathic concern was positively correlated with pain severity and social support from others (WHYMPI). Conclusion A tendency toward self-oriented distress in social cognition was exhibited among patients with CRPS Type I. Impaired empathic ability was shown to have potentially negative effects on subjective emotional outcomes and social performance in the lives of patients. Interventions to improve emotional awareness and theory of mind would be beneficial for enhancing social functioning in patients with CRPS Type I. PMID:26766944

  3. Classification of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome by Types of Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Boulton, Aaron; Porter, Nicole S.; Jessen, Tricia; Njoku, Mary Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Persons with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) often complain of fatigue states (e.g. post-exertional malaise, brain fog) that are qualitatively different than normal, daily fatigue. Given the heterogeneous nature of ME/CFS, it is likely that individuals with this illness experience these fatigue types differently in terms of severity and frequency. It is also possible that meaningful subgroups of patients exist regarding different patterns of the fatigue experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether individuals with ME/CFS can be classified in a meaningful way according to the different types of fatigue they experience. One hundred individuals with ME/CFS participated in the study. Individuals that met inclusion criteria were administered the Multiple Fatigue Types Questionnaire (MFTQ), a five-factor instrument that distinguishes between different types of fatigue. A cluster analysis was used to classify patients into various clusters based upon factor subscale scores. Using a three-factor solution, individuals were classified according to illness severity (low, moderate, severe) across the different fatigue factors. However, a 5-cluster solution enabled participants with moderate to severe fatigue levels to fall out into more differentiated clusters and demonstrate distinct fatigue state patterns. These results suggest that fatigue patterns of individuals with ME/CFS are heterogeneous and patients may be classified into meaningful subgroups. PMID:20185398

  4. Aberrant splicing of U12-type introns is the hallmark of ZRSR2 mutant myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Vikas; Kanojia, Deepika; Li, Jia; Okamoto, Ryoko; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Kohlmann, Alexander; Sanada, Masashi; Grossmann, Vera; Sundaresan, Janani; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Miyano, Satoru; Thol, Felicitas; Ganser, Arnold; Yang, Henry; Haferlach, Torsten; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene ZRSR2 — located on the X chromosome — are associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). ZRSR2 is involved in the recognition of 3΄ splice site during the early stages of spliceosome assembly; however, its precise role in RNA splicing has remained unclear. Here, we characterize ZRSR2 as an essential component of the minor spliceosome (U12-dependent) assembly. shRNA mediated knockdown of ZRSR2 leads to impaired splicing of the U12-type introns, and RNA-Sequencing of MDS bone marrow reveals that loss of ZRSR2 activity causes increased mis-splicing. These splicing defects involve retention of the U12-type introns while splicing of the U2-type introns remain mostly unaffected. ZRSR2 deficient cells also exhibit reduced proliferation potential and distinct alterations in myeloid and erythroid differentiation in vitro. These data identify a specific role for ZRSR2 in RNA splicing and highlight dysregulated splicing of U12-type introns as a characteristic feature of ZRSR2 mutations in MDS. PMID:25586593

  5. QT Interval Variability Index and QT Interval Duration in Different Sleep Stages: Analysis of Polysomnographic Recordings in Nonapneic Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Viigimae, Moonika; Karai, Deniss; Pirn, Peeter; Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Kaik, Jyri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether different sleep stages, especially REM sleep, affect QT interval duration and variability in male patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Polysomnographic recordings of 30 patients were analyzed. Beat-to-beat QT interval variability was calculated using QTV index (QTVI) formula. For QTc interval calculation, in addition to Bazett's formula, linear and parabolic heart rate correction formulas with two separate α values were used. QTVI and QTc values were calculated as means of 2 awake, 3 NREM, and 3 REM sleep episodes; the duration of each episode was 300 sec. Mean QTVI values were not statistically different between sleep stages. Therefore, elevated QTVI values found in patients with OSA cannot be interpreted as physiological sympathetic impact during REM sleep and should be considered as a risk factor for potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The absence of difference of the mean QTc interval values between NREM and REM stages seems to confirm our conclusion that sympathetic surges during REM stage do not induce repolarization variability. In patients without notable structural and electrical remodeling of myocardium, physiological elevation in sympathetic activity during REM sleep remains subthreshold concerning clinically significant increase of myocardial electrical instability. PMID:26693490

  6. QT Interval Variability Index and QT Interval Duration in Different Sleep Stages: Analysis of Polysomnographic Recordings in Nonapneic Male Patients.

    PubMed

    Viigimae, Moonika; Karai, Deniss; Pirn, Peeter; Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Kaik, Jyri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether different sleep stages, especially REM sleep, affect QT interval duration and variability in male patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Polysomnographic recordings of 30 patients were analyzed. Beat-to-beat QT interval variability was calculated using QTV index (QTVI) formula. For QTc interval calculation, in addition to Bazett's formula, linear and parabolic heart rate correction formulas with two separate α values were used. QTVI and QTc values were calculated as means of 2 awake, 3 NREM, and 3 REM sleep episodes; the duration of each episode was 300 sec. Mean QTVI values were not statistically different between sleep stages. Therefore, elevated QTVI values found in patients with OSA cannot be interpreted as physiological sympathetic impact during REM sleep and should be considered as a risk factor for potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The absence of difference of the mean QTc interval values between NREM and REM stages seems to confirm our conclusion that sympathetic surges during REM stage do not induce repolarization variability. In patients without notable structural and electrical remodeling of myocardium, physiological elevation in sympathetic activity during REM sleep remains subthreshold concerning clinically significant increase of myocardial electrical instability. PMID:26693490

  7. Comparison of different QT interval correction methods for heart rate and QT beat-to-beat method in a thorough QT study of triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor BMS-820836.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming; Burt, David; Chan, Wai; Hawthorne, Dara; Gasior, Maciej; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Keswani, Sanjay; AbuTarif, Malaz; Bertz, Richard

    2015-10-01

    As BMS-820836 causes dose-dependent heart rate increases, QTcI, QTcF, QTcB, and QT beat-to-beat methods were compared in this thorough QT study in healthy subjects. Two parallel groups of subjects (n = 60 per group) received 2 mg (maximum therapeutic) or 4 mg (supratherapeutic) of BMS-820836 once daily for 14 days with uptitration. Another 60 subjects received encapsulated moxifloxacin (400 mg) or matching placebo in a nested-crossover study design. Compared with QTcF and QTcB, baseline QTcI had the smallest and near-zero Pearson correlation coefficient with heart rate (0.0938), which supported the choice of QTcI as the primary electrocardiographic end point. BMS-820836 was not associated with prolongation of the QT interval at the doses tested; however, ΔΔQTbtb showed the smallest deviation from 0 milliseconds compared with ΔΔQTcI and ΔΔQTcF. The ΔΔQTbtb results appeared to be more consistent with the very low likelihood of any effect on the QT interval by BMS-820836 based on the wide margin (>400×) of the in vitro hERG IC50 and free plasma concentration. Further, this is the first published study that used the nested-crossover design and QTbtb analysis in a thorough QT study. Assay sensitivity was confirmed with encapsulated moxifloxacin.

  8. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome produced in gnotobiotic pigs following exposure to various amounts of porcine circovirus type 2a or type 2b

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In late 2005, a postweaning, high mortality syndrome spread rapidly through fattening barns in swine dense areas of the United States. Diagnostic investigations consistently isolated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from diseased tissues. Subsequent genetic analysis revealed the infectious agent was...

  9. Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 2 as the cause of Crigler-Najjar type I syndrome.

    PubMed

    Petit, François M; Gajdos, Vincent; Parisot, Frédéric; Capel, Liliane; Aboura, Azzedine; Lachaux, Alain; Tachdjian, Gérard; Poüs, Christian; Labrune, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN-I) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive metabolic disease due to a total deficiency of bilirubin uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase located on chromosome 2. We report on a child with CN-I due to a phenylalanine residue deletion inherited only from the father carrying this deletion at the heterozygous state. Cytogenetic analyses showed no deletion of the chromosomal 2q37 region. Microsatellite analysis of the child and his parents was consistent with paternal isodisomy for chromosome 2 in the child. This report demonstrates that uniparental disomy may be at the origin of very rare diseases transmitted as autosomal recessive traits and emphasizes the need for parental DNA analysis in such cases.

  10. Sturge-Weber syndrome type II treated with PDL 595 nm laser.

    PubMed

    Kowalska-Brocka, Joanna; Brocki, Maciej; Uczniak, Sebastian; Uczniak, Kamila; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Jurowski, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is rare congenital disorder presenting facial port-wine stains (PWS) eye abnormalities and cerebrovascular malformations. The frequency of SWS is estimated at 1 in 50 000. Cerebrovascular abnormalities can be responsible for seizures, hemiparesis, mental retardation and ophthalmologic abnormalities cause intraocular pressure, glaucoma. Etiopathogenesis of SWS remains elusive. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl with SWS type II. A port-wine stain involves the upper right part of half face and has been associated with glaucoma of both eyes. In the Department of Dermatology in 2009-2012 we performed 23 procedures within 2 months. We have been using PDL laser at wavelength 595 nm and very good cosmetic results were achieved. Given positive treatment effects, the laser therapy of port-wine stains is a method of selection. Port-wine stains in the course of SWS requires a large number of laser treatment. PMID:25821431

  11. An Adult Case of Bartter Syndrome Type III Presenting with Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Jung; Hwang, Won Min; Yun, Sung-Ro; Park, Moon Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) I–IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting salt reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. This report highlights clinicopathological findings and genetic studies of classic BS in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with persistent mild proteinuria for 2 years. A renal biopsy demonstrated a mild to moderate increase in the mesangial cells and matrix of most glomeruli, along with marked juxtaglomerular cell hyperplasia. These findings suggested BS associated with mild IgA nephropathy. Focal tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration were also observed. A genetic study of the patient and her parents revealed a mutation of the CLCNKB genes. The patient was diagnosed with BS, type III. This case represents an atypical presentation of classic BS in an adult patient. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy combined with genetic analysis and clinicolaboratory findings are important in making an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26755355

  12. Evidence for genetic heterogeneity in the carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type I (CDG1)

    SciTech Connect

    Matthijs, G.; Legius, E.; Schollen, E.

    1996-08-01

    We have analyzed a series of polymorphic markers on chromosome 16p13 in 17 families with carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type I (CDG1). First, linkage to the region between D15S406 and D16S500 is confirmed. The telomeric border of the candidate region is now definitively placed proximal to D16S406 by crossovers observed in 2 families. Second, in 1 family with affected siblings, the disease is not linked to chromosome 16p. Genetic heterogeneity has not been previously reported for CDG1, and this observation has implications for prenatal diagnosis. Third, allelic associations suggest that the disease locus is localized close to D16S414/D16S497. This places the region of interest centromeric of its published localization. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 in a male infant: A case report with a novel sequence variation

    PubMed Central

    Sankararaman, Senthilkumar; Kurepa, Dalibor; Shen, Yiping; Kakkilaya, Venkatakrishna; Ursin, Sussone; Chen, Harold

    2013-01-01

    We report a male infant with typical clinical, pathological and radiological features of otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD 2) with a novel sequence variation in the FLNA gene. His clinical manifestations include typical craniofacial features, cleft palate, hearing impairment, omphalocele, bowing of the long bones, absent fibulae and digital abnormalities consistent with OPD 2. Two hemizygous sequence variations in the FLNA gene were identified. The variation c.5290G>A/p.Ala1764Thr has been previously reported in a patient with periventricular nodular heterotopia, but subsequently it has been reported as a polymorphism. The other variation c.613T>C/p.Cys205Arg detected in the proband has not been previously reported and our analysis indicates that this is a novel disease-causing mutation for OPD2. PMID:27625837

  14. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I – a novel AIRE mutation in a North American patient

    PubMed Central

    Huibregtse, Kelly Egan; Wolfgram, Peter; Winer, Karen K.; Connor, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), also referred to as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare autoimmune disease that results from autosomal recessive mutations of the human autoimmune regulatory (AIRE) gene. We present the case of a 17-year-old North American girl of primarily Norwegian descent with a novel AIRE gene mutation causing APS-1. In addition to the classic triad of chronic candidiasis, hypoparathyoidism and autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency, she also has vitiligo, intestinal malabsorption, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune hypothyroidism, myositis, myalgias, chronic fatigue, and failure to thrive. Genetic testing revealed heterozygosity for c.20_115de196 and c.967_979del13 mutations in the AIRE gene. The AIRE gene c.20_115de196 mutation has not been previously reported. PMID:24945421

  15. Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 in a male infant: A case report with a novel sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Sankararaman, Senthilkumar; Kurepa, Dalibor; Shen, Yiping; Kakkilaya, Venkatakrishna; Ursin, Sussone; Chen, Harold

    2013-03-01

    We report a male infant with typical clinical, pathological and radiological features of otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD 2) with a novel sequence variation in the FLNA gene. His clinical manifestations include typical craniofacial features, cleft palate, hearing impairment, omphalocele, bowing of the long bones, absent fibulae and digital abnormalities consistent with OPD 2. Two hemizygous sequence variations in the FLNA gene were identified. The variation c.5290G>A/p.Ala1764Thr has been previously reported in a patient with periventricular nodular heterotopia, but subsequently it has been reported as a polymorphism. The other variation c.613T>C/p.Cys205Arg detected in the proband has not been previously reported and our analysis indicates that this is a novel disease-causing mutation for OPD2. PMID:27625837

  16. Tyrosinemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome): a new mutation in the TAT gene.

    PubMed

    Culic, Vida; Betz, Regina C; Refke, Melanie; Fumic, Ksenija; Pavelic, Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we report the clinical features and the molecular genetic investigation of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene in a young girl from Croatia with Richner-Hanhart syndrome, mainly suffering from photophobia, hyperkeratosis of the palmes and soles and slight neurological abnormalities. Sequencing analysis of the TAT gene revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation c.1250G>A (p.R417Q) in exon 12, and herewith confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Showing the first symptoms in babyhood, at the age of 8 years it was for the first time clinically diagnosed that the patient suffers from tyrosinemia type II and a therapy with tyrosine and phenylalanine reduced diet has been started successfully. All symptoms disappeared within 2-4 weeks. Since that time, we have been following the girl until today for more than ten years. She is in a good condition, and attends the normal high school program.

  17. Generation of Hermansky Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

    PubMed

    Maguire, Jean Ann; Lu, Lin; Mills, Jason A; Sullivan, Lisa M; Gadue, Paul; French, Deborah L

    2016-03-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from functional mutations in the adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit (AP3B1) gene. This gene plays a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. Here we describe the generation of an HPS2 iPS cell line (CHOPHPS2) using a Cre-excisable polycistronic STEMCCA lentivirus. This line was derived from human fibroblasts isolated from a patient carrying two mutations in the AP3B1 gene. The patient presented with severe neutropenia, ocular albinism, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, hemorrhagic diathesis, and an absence of platelet-dense granules. PMID:27345985

  18. [Acute Kidney Injury, Type - 3 cardiorenal syndrome, Biomarkers, Renal Replacement Therapy].

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Luca; Bellasi, Antonio; Barbera, Vincenzo; Cozzolino, Mario; Russo, Domenico; De Pascalis, Antonio; Santoboni, Francesca; Villani, Annalisa; De Rosa, Silvia; Colafelice, Marco; Russo, Luigi; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease and major cardiovascular events represent main cause of death in both acute and chronic kidney disease patients. Kidney and heart failure are common and frequently co-exist This organ-organ interaction, also called organ cross-talk, leads to well-known definition of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Here we will describe cardiovascular involvement in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Also known as Type-3 CRS or acute reno-cardiac CRS, it occurs when AKI contributes and/or precipitates development of acute cardiac injury. AKI may directly or indirectly produces an acute cardiac event and it can be associated with volume overload, metabolic acidosis and electrolytes disorders such as hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia, coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction and fibrosis which has been also described in patients with AKI with the consequence of direct negative effects on cardiac performance. PMID:27374388

  19. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I - a novel AIRE mutation in a North American patient.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Kelly Egan; Wolfgram, Peter; Winer, Karen K; Connor, Ellen L

    2014-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), also referred to as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare autoimmune disease that results from autosomal recessive mutations of the human autoimmune regulatory (AIRE) gene. We present the case of a 17-year-old North American girl of primarily Norwegian descent with a novel AIRE gene mutation causing APS-1. In addition to the classic triad of chronic candidiasis, hypoparathyoidism and autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency, she also has vitiligo, intestinal malabsorption, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune hypothyroidism, myositis, myalgias, chronic fatigue, and failure to thrive. Genetic testing revealed heterozygosity for c.20_115de196 and c.967_979del13 mutations in the AIRE gene. The AIRE gene c.20_115de196 mutation has not been previously reported.

  20. Type 1 Diabetes in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Syndrome (APECED): A "Rare" Manifestation in a "Rare" Disease.

    PubMed

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE); the encoded Aire protein plays an important role in the establishment of the immunological tolerance acting as a transcriptional regulator of the expression of organ-specific antigens within the thymus in perinatal age. While a high prevalence for this rare syndrome is reported in Finland and Scandinavia (Norway), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome (APECED) cohorts of patients are also detected in continental Italy and Sardinia, among Iranian Jews, as well as in other countries. The syndrome is diagnosed when patients present at least two out of the three fundamental disorders including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Among the associated conditions insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) has been rarely reported in different series of patients and occurring more frequently in Finnish APECED patients. In this review, we analyze the incidence of Type 1 diabetes as a clinical manifestation of APECED in different populations highlighting the peculiar genetic and immunological features of the disease when occurring in the context of this syndrome. PMID:27420045

  1. Disease-associated QT-shortage versus quinine associated QT-prolongation: age dependent ECG-effects in Ghanaian children with severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While several anti-malarials are known to affect the electric conduction system of the heart, less is known on the direct effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Some earlier studies point to a direct impact of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the electric conduction system of the heart. The aim of this study was to analyse infection- and drug-induced effects on the electric conduction system. Methods Children aged 12 months to 108 months with severe malaria were included in Kumasi, Ghana. In addition to basic demographic, clinical, biochemical and parasitological, biochemical data were measured data upon hospitalization (day 0) and 12-lead electrocardiograms were recorded before (day 0) and after (day 1) initiation of quinine therapy as well as after 42 (±3) days. Results A total of 180 children were included. Most children were tachycardic on day 0 but heart rate declined on day 1 and during follow up. The corrected QT intervals were longest on day 1 and shortest on day 0. Comparison of QT intervals with day 42 (healthy status) after stratification for age demonstrated that in the youngest (<24 months) this was mainly due to a QT shortage on day 0 while a QT prolongation on day 1 was most pronounced in the oldest (≥48 months). Nearly one third of the participating children had measurable 4-aminoquinoline levels upon admission, but no direct effect on the corrected QT intervals could be shown. Conclusion Severe P. falciparum infection itself can provoke changes in the electrophysiology of the heart, independent of anti-malarial therapy. Especially in young - thus non immune - children the effect of acute disease associated pre-treatment QT-shortage is more pronounced than quinine associated QT-prolongation after therapy. Nevertheless, neither malaria nor anti-malarial induced effects on the electrophysiology of the heart were associated with clinically relevant arrhythmias in the present study population. PMID:24902591

  2. [Cardiac complications in a metamizole-induced type I Kounis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Juste, Jose F Martínez; Garces, Tomas Ruiz; Enguita, Rafael Gonzalez; Blasco, Pedro Cia; Trallero, Jara Altemir

    2016-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is defined as the coincidental occurrence of allergic reaction and acute coronary syndrome secondary to vasospasm. Anti-inflammatory drugs are included as one of the multiple causes. Current data available about this syndrome come from case reports. We present the case of a patient who suffered Kounis syndrome with cardiogenic shock and asystole after intravenous infusion of Metamizole, and in which no lesions were observed in coronariography.

  3. Cardiac complications in a metamizole-induced type I Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Juste, Jose F Martínez; Garces, Tomas Ruiz; Enguita, Rafael Gonzalez; Blasco, Pedro Cia; Trallero, Jara Altemir

    2016-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is defined as the coincidental occurrence of allergic reaction and acute coronary syndrome secondary to vasospasm. Anti-inflammatory drugs are included as one of the multiple causes. Current data available about this syndrome come from case reports. We present the case of a patient who suffered Kounis syndrome with cardiogenic shock and asystole after intravenous infusion of Metamizole, and in which no lesions were observed in coronariography.

  4. [Risk management of QT-prolonging drugs by community pharmacists using a mobile electrocardiograph].

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Kohki

    2010-11-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval is associated with a high risk of serious arrhythmia, i.e., torsades de pointes (TdP). However, in many cases, the QT-prolonging drug(s) is prescribed without performing a thorough check-up of the patient's condition, especially an electrocardiogram. In addition to patient interview, we used an electrocardiogram obtained with a mobile electrocardiograph (RMH-ECG) in a community pharmacy in order to improve the risk management for QT-prolonging drugs. A comparison of the results obtained using RMH-ECG (modified I) and 12-lead ECG (I) revealed that both corrected QT (QTc) values were almost identical, and the correlation coefficient was 0.96. In one month, 5 of 948 patients who visited our pharmacy and continuously took QT-prolonging drugs had additional risk factors for TdP (advanced age, female, and drug-drug interaction). We monitored the QT interval of one of these patients. She had received erythromycin for 19 months along with other drugs metabolized by a P450 (CYP3A4); benidipine and prednisolone (for over 2 years), and tacrolimus (for 13 weeks). Three RMH-ECG tests at every 2 weeks revealed that QTcs were normal (0.43-0.45 s); therefore, we dispensed drugs without any change in the prescription. Approximately 1 in 1200 individuals has a prolonged QT interval without any subjective symptoms, and the time window of drug-induced TdP is considered to be from several hours to months after taking these drugs. Therefore, we think that an ECG test should be performed in community pharmacies before dispensing QT-prolonging drugs and that the QT interval should be monitored.

  5. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes in youth: from diagnosis to treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in youth is a worldwide public health problem. Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescents have a substantial effect upon many systems, resulting in clinical conditions such as metabolic syndrome, early atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity and the type of body fat distribution are still the core aspects of insulin resistance and seem to be the physiopathologic links common to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and T2D. The earlier the appearance of the clustering of risk factors and the higher the time of exposure, the greater will be the chance of developing coronary disease with a more severe endpoint. The age when the event may occur seems to be related to the presence and aggregation of risk factors throughout life. The treatment in this age-group is non pharmacological and aims at promoting changes in lifestyle. However, pharmacological treatments are indicated in special situations. The major goals in dietary treatments are not only limited to weight loss, but also to an improvement in the quality of life. Modification of risk factors associated to comorbidities, personal satisfaction of the child or adolescent and trying to establish healthy life habits from an early age are also important. There is a continuous debate on the best possible exercise to do, for children or adolescents, in order to lose weight. The prescription of physical activity to children and adolescents requires extensive integrated work among multidisciplinary teams, patients and their families, in order to reach therapeutic success. The most important conclusion drawn from this symposium was that if the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity continues at this pace, the result will be a population of children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome. This would lead to high mortality rates in young adults, changing the current increasing trend of worldwide longevity. Government actions and a better

  6. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes in youth: from diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Alfredo; Mancini, Marcio C; Magalhães, Maria Eliane C; Fisberg, Mauro; Radominski, Rosana; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Bertolami, Adriana; de Melo, Maria Edna; Zanella, Maria Teresa; Queiroz, Marcia S; Nery, Marcia

    2010-08-18

    Overweight and obesity in youth is a worldwide public health problem. Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescents have a substantial effect upon many systems, resulting in clinical conditions such as metabolic syndrome, early atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity and the type of body fat distribution are still the core aspects of insulin resistance and seem to be the physiopathologic links common to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and T2D. The earlier the appearance of the clustering of risk factors and the higher the time of exposure, the greater will be the chance of developing coronary disease with a more severe endpoint. The age when the event may occur seems to be related to the presence and aggregation of risk factors throughout life.The treatment in this age-group is non pharmacological and aims at promoting changes in lifestyle. However, pharmacological treatments are indicated in special situations.The major goals in dietary treatments are not only limited to weight loss, but also to an improvement in the quality of life. Modification of risk factors associated to comorbidities, personal satisfaction of the child or adolescent and trying to establish healthy life habits from an early age are also important. There is a continuous debate on the best possible exercise to do, for children or adolescents, in order to lose weight. The prescription of physical activity to children and adolescents requires extensive integrated work among multidisciplinary teams, patients and their families, in order to reach therapeutic success.The most important conclusion drawn from this symposium was that if the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity continues at this pace, the result will be a population of children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome. This would lead to high mortality rates in young adults, changing the current increasing trend of worldwide longevity. Government actions and a better

  7. Linkage of Usher syndrome type I gene (USH1B) to the long arm of chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberling, W.; Kenyon, J.B.; Grunkemeyers, J.A. ); Moeller, C.G. ); Davenport, S. ); Priluck, I.A. ); Beighton, H.; Greenberg, J. ); Reardon, W. ); Weston, M.D.

    1992-12-01

    Usher syndrome is the most commonly recognized cause of combined visual and hearing loss in technologically developed countries. There are several different types and all are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. There may be as many as five different genes responsible for at least two closely related phenotypes. The nature of the gene defects is unknown, and positional cloning strategies are being employed to identify the genes. This is a report of the localization of one gene for Usher syndrome type I to chromosome 11q, probably distal to marker D11S527. Another USH1 gene had been previously localized to chromosome 14q, and this second localization established the existence of a new and independent locus for Usher syndrome. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Isolation of avian bornaviruses from psittacine birds using QT6 quail cells in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HORIE, Masayuki; SASSA, Yukiko; IKI, Haruko; EBISAWA, Kazumasa; FUKUSHI, Hideto; YANAI, Tokuma; TOMONAGA, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABVs) were recently discovered as the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). Although molecular epidemiological studies revealed that ABVs exist in Japan, no Japanese isolate has been reported thus far. In this study, we isolated four strains of Psittaciform 1 bornavirus from psittacine birds affected by PDD using QT6 quail cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to isolate ABVs in Japan and to show that QT6 cells are available for ABV isolation. These isolates and QT6 cells would be powerful tools for elucidating the fundamental biology and pathogenicity of ABVs. PMID:26346745

  9. Concurrent vaccination of pigs with type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protects against type 1 PRRSV but not against type 2 PRRSV on dually challenged pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae-; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent vaccination of pigs with both type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine against heterologous dual challenge of both genotypes and compare with single vaccination of pigs against heterologous single challenge of both genotypes. Pigs were administered both type 1 and type 2 PRRSV vaccine concurrently into separate anatomical sites at 28 days of age and inoculated intranasally with both genotypes at 63 days of age. Neutralizing antibodies (NA) were not detected in any pigs in any group (NA titer <2 log2) throughout the experiment. In addition, concurrent vaccination of pigs with two PRRSV genotypes had significantly lower numbers of type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to vaccination of pigs with type 1 or type 2 PRRSV only. Despite the decreased induction of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC, concurrent vaccination is still able to reduce type 1 PRRSV viremia whereas the decreased induction of type 2 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC by concurrent vaccination correlates with lack of reduction of type 2 PRRSV viremia after dual challenge. The results of this study demonstrated that concurrent vaccination of pigs with two PRRSV genotypes is able to reduce the levels of type 1 PRRSV viremia and lung lesions but not able to reduce the levels of type 2 PRRSV viremia and lung lesions.

  10. [Patient safety: prescription of drugs that prolong the QT interval].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Arroyo, María Jesús; Díaz-Madero, Alfonso; Menacho-Miguel, David

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: conocer la prescripcion de farmacos con riesgo conocido de prolongar el intervalo QT en un area de salud, informar a los medicos responsables de los factores de riesgo asociados a su aparicion y mejorar la seguridad del paciente. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal y observacional de prevalencia. Se incluyeron 4.964 pacientes de un area de salud en tratamiento con farmacos con riesgo conocido en un mes. Se identificaron farmacos de riesgo, interacciones y factores predisponentes. Se proporciono a cada medico los pacientes con farmacos con riesgo conocido, las recomendaciones y la encuesta para conocer mas factores de riesgo, su utilidad y su actitud clinica. Se realizo un analisis estadistico descriptivo. Resultados: el 3,2% de los pacientes del area estaban tratados con farmacos con riesgo conocido. El 64,0% eran mujeres, 57,5% mayores de 65 anos, y el 39,6% presentaban interacciones. El numero medio de factores de riesgo por paciente fue 1,78. Los farmacos con riesgo conocido mas frecuentes fueron antidepresivos (41,2%) y antibioticos (40,4%). El 25,4% de los medicos devolvio la encuesta informando de la actitud clinica en 1.073 pacientes: se retiro el farmaco con riesgo conocido en 289, se redujo la dosis en 113 y se realizo electrocardiograma en 398. Los medicos identificaron otros factores de riesgo: problema cardiaco (17,9%) e hiper/hipotiroidismo (8,8%). Conclusiones: la prevalencia detectada en la prescripcion de farmacos que prolongan el intervalo QT es relevante teniendo en cuenta que los pacientes tenian ademas otros factores de riesgo. Su identificacion permite mejorar la calidad de la atencion y la seguridad del paciente.

  11. Re-writing the natural history of pain and related symptoms in the joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Celletti, Claudia; Ghibellini, Giulia; Bruschini, Michela; Grammatico, Paola; Blundo, Carlo; Camerota, Filippo

    2013-12-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two clinically overlapping connective tissue disorders characterized by chronic/recurrent pain, joint instability complications, and minor skin changes. Fatigue and headache are also common, although are not yet considered diagnostic criteria. JHS/EDS-HT is a unexpectedly common condition that remains underdiagnosed by most clinicians and pain specialists. This results in interventions limited to symptomatic and non-satisfactory treatments, lacking reasonable pathophysiologic rationale. In this manuscript the fragmented knowledge on pain, fatigue, and headache in JHS/EDS is presented with review of the available published information and a description of the clinical course by symptoms, on the basis of authors' experience. Pathogenic mechanisms are suggested through comparisons with other functional somatic syndromes (e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and functional gastrointestinal disorders). The re-writing of the natural history of JHS/EDS-HT is aimed to raise awareness among clinical geneticists and specialists treating chronic pain conditions about pain and other complications of JHS/EDS-HT. Symptoms' clustering by disease stage is proposed to investigate both the molecular causes and the symptoms management of JHS/EDS-HT in future studies. PMID:24254847

  12. Results from the IQ-CSRC prospective study support replacement of the thorough QT study by QT assessment in the early clinical phase.

    PubMed

    Darpo, B; Benson, C; Dota, C; Ferber, G; Garnett, C; Green, C L; Jarugula, V; Johannesen, L; Keirns, J; Krudys, K; Liu, J; Ortemann-Renon, C; Riley, S; Sarapa, N; Smith, B; Stoltz, R R; Zhou, M; Stockbridge, N

    2015-04-01

    The QT effects of five "QT-positive" and one negative drug were tested to evaluate whether exposure-response analysis can detect QT effects in a small study with healthy subjects. Each drug was given to nine subjects (six for placebo) in two dose levels; positive drugs were chosen to cause 10 to 12 ms and 15 to 20 ms QTcF prolongation. The slope of the concentration/ΔQTc effect was significantly positive for ondansetron, quinine, dolasetron, moxifloxacin, and dofetilide. For the lower dose, an effect above 10 ms could not be excluded, i.e., the upper bound of the confidence interval for the predicted mean ΔΔQTcF effect was above 10 ms. For the negative drug, levocetirizine, a ΔΔQTcF effect above 10 ms was excluded at 6-fold the therapeutic dose. The study provides evidence that robust QT assessment in early-phase clinical studies can replace the thorough QT study. PMID:25670536

  13. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is associated with a novel G984R COL3A1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yao; Wei, Shijie; Hu, Shijun; Chen, Jinlan; Tan, Zhiping; Yang, Yifeng

    2015-07-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disease. Mutations in COL3A1 have been identified to underlie this disease; however, to the best of our knowledge, no COL3A1 mutations have been reported in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV patients with an ascending aortic aneurysm. In order to develop further understanding of COL3A1 mutations, an Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV patient diagnosed with an ascending aortic aneurysm and a familial history of sudden mortality was analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood of the patient and his family members. All coding exons of eight aneurysm-related genes (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR 2, MYH11, ACTA2, SLC2A10, NOTCH1 and COL3A1) were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were sequenced with the ABI 3100 Genetic Analyzer, and a mutation was predicted and identified using Polyphen-2, SIFT and Mutation Taster. The novel mutation was identified as c.2950G>A in COL3A1, which results in p.G984R. All three programs predicted this mutation to be deleterous to the protein function. The novel mutation identified in this study is potentially responsible for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in this patient, and expands the spectrum of COL3A1 mutations.

  14. A Review of College-Level Health Textbooks for Coverage of Type 2 Diabetes, Prediabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethan, Danna; Rennis, Lesley; Samuel, Lalitha; Seidel, Erica J.; Basch, Corey H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and metabolic syndrome are increasingly relevant health problems for United States (US) college-aged students and their family members. This study's aim was to determine the extent to which these chronic conditions were covered in leading college-level personal health textbooks and to what degree the…

  15. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is associated with a novel G984R COL3A1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yao; Wei, Shijie; Hu, Shijun; Chen, Jinlan; Tan, Zhiping; Yang, Yifeng

    2015-07-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disease. Mutations in COL3A1 have been identified to underlie this disease; however, to the best of our knowledge, no COL3A1 mutations have been reported in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV patients with an ascending aortic aneurysm. In order to develop further understanding of COL3A1 mutations, an Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV patient diagnosed with an ascending aortic aneurysm and a familial history of sudden mortality was analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood of the patient and his family members. All coding exons of eight aneurysm-related genes (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR 2, MYH11, ACTA2, SLC2A10, NOTCH1 and COL3A1) were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were sequenced with the ABI 3100 Genetic Analyzer, and a mutation was predicted and identified using Polyphen-2, SIFT and Mutation Taster. The novel mutation was identified as c.2950G>A in COL3A1, which results in p.G984R. All three programs predicted this mutation to be deleterous to the protein function. The novel mutation identified in this study is potentially responsible for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in this patient, and expands the spectrum of COL3A1 mutations. PMID:25776230

  16. [Use of the round ligament in the repair of large bile duct defects in type II Mirizzi's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Turégano-Fuentes, Fernando; Mercader-Cidoncha, Enrique; Pérez-Díaz, Dolores; Sanz-Sánchez, Mercedes; Jiménez-Gómez, Luis Miguel

    2006-06-01

    Mirizzi's syndrome is a rare complication of cholelithiasis, and type II (cholecystocholedochal fistula) can be a technical challenge due to inflammation and the biliary duct defect. We report two cases that were treated with a simple and little known technique that uses the round ligament as a plasty to seal the large bile duct defect. PMID:16769004

  17. Strategies and Considerations for Teaching an Adolescent with Down Syndrome and Type I Diabetes to Self-Administer Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosner, Sylvia M.; Belfiore, Phillip J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a system of least prompts, partial participation, and parental involvement was used to successfully teach an adolescent with Down syndrome, moderate mental retardation, and Type I diabetes to self-administer an injection of insulin as part of an overall plan to increase self-determination and independence. (Contains seven…

  18. Aspects of speech-language abilities are influenced by MECP2 mutation type in girls with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Girdler, Sonya; Ciccone, Natalie; Leonard, Helen

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates relationships between methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) mutation type and speech-language abilities in girls with Rett syndrome. Cross-sectional data on 766 girls, aged 15 years and under, with genetically confirmed Rett syndrome was obtained from the Australian Rett Syndrome Database (ARSD) (n = 244) and the International Rett Syndrome Phenotype Database (InterRett) (n = 522). Relationships between MECP2 mutation type and age of regression in speech-language abilities, and the level of speech-language abilities before and after this regression were investigated. The females had a median age of 4.95 years in the ARSD and 5.25 years in InterRett. The majority (89%, 685/766) acquired speech-language abilities in the form of babble or words at some point in time. Of those who acquired babble or words, 85% (581/685) experienced a regression in these abilities. Those with a p.Arg133Cys mutation were the most likely to use one or more words, prior to (RRR = 3.45; 95% CI 1.15-10.41) and after (RRR = 5.99; 95% CI 2.00-17.92), speech-language regression. Girls with Rett syndrome vary in their use of speech and language, and in their experience of speech-language regression and these variations are partly explained by genotype.

  19. Relation of Osteoprotegerin, Visfatin and Ghrelin to Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Manal Basyouni; Ismail, Maha Imam Ahmed; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is now realized that insulin resistance plays a principal role in initiating the pathologic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible role of osteoprotegerin, visfatin and ghrelin in the pathogenesis of MetS among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design and methods Serum blood samples were obtained from 116 subjects (39 T2DM; 48 T2DM with MetS; 29 healthy controls). Glycemic status and lipid profile were assessed by enzymatic method. Osteoprotegerin, visfatin, ghrelin and insulin were measured by ELISA method. Results Osteoprotegerin and visfatin were significantly higher, while ghrelin was significantly lower in diabetic patients compared to healthy control group (p<0.05). Moreover, Osteoprotegerin and visfatin showed significant higher levels in T2DM patients with MetS than those without MetS (p<0.05). The best cut-off values for the investigated markers were determined by ROC curve. Osteoprotegerin (1.06 ng/mL), visfatin (32.27 ng/mL) and ghrelin (33.65 pg/mL) presented sensitivity of 76%, 92% and 39.1%; respectively and specificity of 41%, 69.2% and 62.9%; respectively, in predicting MetS among T2DM. Among the investigated parameters, Visfatin was the one which predicts MetS among diabetic patients [AUC=0.88, p<0.05]. Conclusion Osteoprotegerin, visfatin and ghrelin might be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Moreover, osteoprotegerin and visfatin may have additional potential role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Visfatin was superior among studied parameters in predicting MetS among T2DM. PMID:26309431

  20. A recurrent germline mutation in the PIGA gene causes Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Fauth, Christine; Steindl, Katharina; Toutain, Annick; Farrell, Sandra; Witsch-Baumgartner, Martina; Karall, Daniela; Joset, Pascal; Böhm, Sebastian; Baumer, Alessandra; Maier, Oliver; Zschocke, Johannes; Weksberg, Rosanna; Marshall, Christian R; Rauch, Anita

    2016-02-01

    Hypomorphic germline mutations in the PIGA (phosphatidylinositol glycan class A) gene recently were recognized as the cause of a clinically heterogeneous spectrum of X-linked disorders including (i) early onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe muscular hypotonia, dysmorphism, multiple congenital anomalies, and early death ("MCAHS2"), (ii) neurodegenerative encephalopathy with systemic iron overload (ferro-cerebro-cutaneous syndrome, "FCCS"), and (iii) intellectual disability and seizures without dysmorphism. Previous studies showed that the recurrent PIGA germline mutation c.1234C>T (p.Arg412*) leads to a clinical phenotype at the most severe end of the spectrum associated with early infantile lethality. We identified three additional individuals from two unrelated families with the same PIGA mutation. Major clinical findings include early onset intractable epileptic encephalopathy with a burst-suppression pattern on EEG, generalized muscular hypotonia, structural brain abnormalities, macrocephaly and increased birth weight, joint contractures, coarse facial features, widely spaced eyes, a short nose with anteverted nares, gingival overgrowth, a wide mouth, short limbs with short distal phalanges, and a small penis. Based on the phenotypic overlap with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2), we hypothesized that both disorders might have the same underlying cause. We were able to confirm the same c.1234C>T (p.Arg412*) mutation in the DNA sample from an affected fetus of the original family affected with SGBS2. We conclude that the recurrent PIGA germline mutation c.1234C>T leads to a recognizable clinical phenotype with a poor prognosis and is the cause of SGBS2.

  1. Diabetes-Associated Dry Eye Syndrome in a New Humanized Transgenic Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Shahnawaz; Elagin, Raya B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) are at high risk of developing lacrimal gland dysfunction. We have developed a new model of human T1D using double-transgenic mice carrying HLA-DQ8 diabetes-susceptibility haplotype instead of mouse MHC-class II and expressing the human beta cell autoantigen Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in pancreatic beta cells. We report here the development of dry eye syndrome (DES) after diabetes induction in our humanized transgenic model. Methods Double-transgenic mice were immunized with DNA encoding human GAD65, either naked or in adenoviral vectors, to induce T1D. Mice monitored for development of diabetes developed lacrimal gland dysfunction. Results Animals developed lacrimal gland disease (classically associated with diabetes in Non Obese Diabetic [NOD] mice and with T1D in humans) as they developed glucose intolerance and diabetes. Animals manifested obvious clinical signs of dry eye syndrome (DES), from corneal erosions to severe keratitis. Histological studies of peri-bulbar areas revealed lymphocytic infiltration of glandular structures. Indeed, infiltrative lesions were observed in lacrimal/Harderian glands within weeks following development of glucose intolerance. Lesions ranged from focal lymphocytic infiltration to complete acinar destruction. We observed a correlation between the severity of the pancreatic infiltration and the severity of the ocular disease. Conclusions Our results demonstrate development of DES in association with antigen-specific insulitis and diabetes following immunization with clinically relevant human autoantigen concomitantly expressed in pancreatic beta cells of diabetes-susceptible mice. As in the NOD mouse model and as in human T1D, our animals developed diabetes-associated DES. This specific finding stresses the relevance of our model for studying these human diseases. We believe our model will facilitate studies to prevent/treat diabetes-associated DES as well as human diabetes. PMID

  2. Mapping of the locus for congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) on chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Kestilae, M.; Maennikkoe, M.; Tryggvason, K.

    1994-09-01

    Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) is an autosomal recessive disease which forms a distinct entity among congenital nephrotic syndromes. It is characterized by massive proteinuria starting already in utero, large placenta and manifestation of nephrosis soon after birth. The incidence in Finland is about 1 in 8000 newborns, and the disease has been reported occasionally in other countries, particularly in Minnesota, USA. The gene defect in CNF is unknown, but the gene product is likely to be important for kidney development of glomerular filtration. We have used a random mapping approach in 17 Finnish CNF families resulting in the localization of the gene to chromosome 19q12-q13.1. Based on observed recombination events, the CNF locus is flanked by markers D19S191 and D19S224 corresponding to a region under 1 Mb in physical length. Cosmid contigs have been isolated from this region and at least two new polymorphic CA-repeat markers (MKMM1, MKMM2) have been identified from those clones. Statistically highly significant linkage disequilibrium can be observed with markers MKMM1, D19S224 and D19S220, the allelic association being about 65%. The most common haplotype, which was combined from these markers, is found in 60% of chromosomes carrying the CNF mutation. This work has enabled DNA-based diagnosis of CNF, and recently linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses were used in prenatal diagnostics in a family with one affected child and two healthy siblings. DNA isolated from chorion villus biopsy was analyzed using markers D19S191, MKMM1, D19S224 and D19S220, and the fetus was shown to have the same genotype as the affected child.

  3. Is it worthwhile to screen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for subclinical Cushing's syndrome?

    PubMed

    Budyal, Sweta; Jadhav, Swati Sachin; Kasaliwal, Rajeev; Patt, Hiren; Khare, Shruti; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag R; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S

    2015-12-01

    Variable prevalence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) has been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), making the need for screening in this population uncertain. It is unknown if this variability is solely due to study-related methodological differences or a reflection of true differences in ethnic predisposition. The objective of this study is to explore the prevalence of SCS in Asian Indian patients with T2DM. In this prospective single center study conducted in a tertiary care referral center, 993 T2DM outpatients without any discriminatory clinical features (easy bruising, facial plethora, proximal muscle weakness, and/or striae) of hypercortisolism underwent an overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (ODST). ODST serum cortisol ≥1.8 μg/dl was considered positive, and those with positive results were subjected to 48 h, 2 mg/day low dose DST (LDDST). A stepwise evaluation for endogenous hypercortisolism was planned for patients with LDDST serum cortisol ≥1.8 μg/dl. Patients with positive ODST and negative LDDST were followed up clinically and re-evaluated a year later for the development of clinically evident Cushing's syndrome (CS). In this largest single center study reported to date, we found 37 out of 993 (3.72%) patients had ODST serum cortisol ≥1.8 μg/dl. None of them had LDDST cortisol ≥1.8 μg/dl, nor did they develop clinically evident CS over a follow-up period of 1 year. Specificity of ODST for screening of CS was 96.3% in our cohort. None of the T2DM outpatients in our cohort had SCS, hence cautioning against routine biochemical screening for SCS in this cohort. We suggest screening be based on clinical suspicion only.

  4. Genetic Analysis of Three Korean Patients with Clinical Features of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Seung-Tae; Kim, Jee-Ah; Kim, Sung Hae; Jang, Shin-Yi; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2007-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue. EDS type IV (EDS IV), the vascular type of the disease, is characterized by easy bruising, thin skin with visible veins, and spontaneous rupture of the large arteries, uterus, or bowel. EDS IV is caused by mutations in the gene for type III procollagen (COL3A1). However, recent studies suggest that the causative mutation of EDS IV is not homogeneous. We report our experience with three patients presenting with clinical features of type IV EDS. A 48-yr-old woman presented with acute aortic dissection (patient 1) and 36-yr-old and 21-yr-old women presented with carotid-cavernous fistula (patients 2 and 3, respectively). All three patients bruised easily. Two patients (patients 1 and 3) had thin transparent skin with visible veins. Genetic analysis of COL3A1 revealed a Gly732Val (c.2195G>T) mutation in patient 1 and a duplication of 15 base pairs (c.3221_3235dup) which resulted in an interposition of five amino acids (p.Gly1074_Pro1078dup) in patient 2. However, no mutations were observed in COL3A1 or transforming growth factor β receptors 1 and 2 in patients 3, which might be either due to a deletion of single or multiple exons in the COL3A1 gene or due to a genetic heterogeneity. This is the first report of genetically confirmed cases of EDS IV in Korea. PMID:17728513

  5. Impacts of Usher Syndrome Type IB Mutations on Human Myosin VIIa Motor Function†

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinya; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a human hereditary disorder characterized by profound congenital deafness, retinitis pigmentosa and vestibular dysfunction. Myosin VIIa has been identified as the responsible gene for USH type 1B, and a number of missense mutations have been identified in the affected families. However, the molecular basis of the dysfunction of USH gene, myosin VIIa, in the affected families is unknown to date. Here we clarified the effects of USH1B mutations on human myosin VIIa motor function for the first time. The missense mutations of USH1B significantly inhibited the actin activation of ATPase activity of myosin VIIa. G25R, R212C, A397D and E450Q mutations abolished the actin-activated ATPase activity completely. P503L mutation increased the basal ATPase activity for 2-3 fold, but reduced the actin-activated ATPase activity to 50% of the wild type. While all the mutations examined, except for R302H, reduced the affinity for actin and the ATP hydrolysis cycling rate, they did not largely decrease the rate of ADP release from acto-myosin, suggesting that the mutations reduce the duty ratio of myosin VIIa. Taken together, the results suggest that the mutations responsible for USH1B cause the complete loss of the actin-activated ATPase activity or the reduction of duty ratio of myosin VIIa. PMID:18700726

  6. [Neonatal herpes simplex type II virus infection complicated with meningitis and virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Arai, Chie; Nozawa, Tomo; Hara, Takuma; Kikuchi, Masako; Momomura, Mei; Kizawa, Toshiki; Tanoshima, Reita; Kita, Maiko; Yokosuka, Tomoko; Miyamae, Takako; Iwasaki, Shiho; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Yokota, Shunpei

    2012-01-01

    A 14-day-old neonate was transferred to our university hospital because of respiratory distress and mild disturbance of consciousness. He had no history of abnormal pregnancy or delivery, but had developed apnea at 6 days old. Thereafter, respiratory distress progressed and his condition deteriorated. On admission to our hospital, several vesicles were found on the left upper arm, and moderate hepatomegaly was also present. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type II genome was detected from serum, spinal fluid, and bone marrow. Laboratory examinations revealed typical abnormalities of disseminated intravascular coagulation, increased levels of serum ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Bone marrow aspiration demonstrated activated macrophages and hemophagocytosis. Spinal tap revealed numerous mononuclear cells. Meningitis and virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) due to systemic HSV type II infection were thus diagnosed. Acyclovir (60 mg/kg/day) and vidarabine were promptly administered. Dexamethasone palmitate and intravenous cyclosporine were also administered for systemic inflammation due to VAHS. Finally, these aggressive therapies rescued the patient without any sequelae. In general, neonatal systemic HSV infection is life-threatening and results in poor intact survival. Our case report suggests that not only antiviral treatment for HSV, but also anti-inflammatory treatment including steroid and cyclosporine should be considered from the early phase of neonatal systemic HSV infection.

  7. Lumbar Sympathetic Block with Botulinum Toxin Type B for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunjoo; Cho, Chan Woo; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Pyung Bok; Nahm, Francis Sahngun

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar sympathetic block (LSB) is an effective method for relief of sympathetically mediated pain in the lower extremities. To prolong the sympathetic blockade, sympathetic destruction with alcohol or radiofrequency has been used. The pre-ganglionic sympathetic nerves are cholinergic, and botulinum toxin (BTX) has been found to inhibit the release of acetylcholine at the cholinergic nerve terminals. Moreover, BTX type B (BTX-B) is more convenient to use than BTX type A. Based on these findings, we performed LSB on the 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the lower extremity. Levobupivacaine 0.25% 5 mL mixed with BTX-B 5,000 IU was given under fluoroscopic guidance. Two months after LSB with BTX-B, pain intensity and the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS) score were significantly reduced. Allodynia and coldness disappeared and skin color came back to normal. In conclusion, BTX-B can produce an efficacious and durable sympathetic blocking effect on patients with CRPS.

  8. Urinary pyridinoline cross-links in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmann, B.; Eyre, D.R.; Shao, P. |

    1995-12-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders of connective tissue, affecting skin, ligaments, joints, blood vessels, and internal organs. The main general findings are hyperextensibility and bruisability of the skin, with abnormal scarring, and joint laxity. On the basis of clinical, genetic, and biochemical findings, EDS can be classified today into at least 10 different types. Among them, EDS type VI (MIM 225400) is characterized by marked muscular hypotonia from birth; kyphoscoliosis, often present at birth and progressing to a severe form; marfanoid habitus; eye involvement, often with microcornea and a tendency of the eyeballs to rupture after minor trauma; osteoporosis; and sometimes spontaneous rupture of arteries. The disorder is due to a deficiency of lysyl hydroxylase (E.C.1.14.11.4), inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. Traditionally, the clinical diagnosis is confirmed by an insufficiency of hydroxylysine, on analysis of hydrolyzed dermis and/or reduced enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Spontaneous colon perforations associated with a vascular type of ehlers-danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Okada, Kazuya; Okubo, Hitoshi; Matsuo, Mitsutoshi; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Naing, Banyar Than; Watanabe, Atsushi; Shimada, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type (vEDS) (MIM #130050) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation in the type III collagen gene, COL3A1, leading to fragility of blood vessels, bowel and uterus that leads to spontaneous rupture. We report a previously undiagnosed vEDS patient with bowel complications. A 20-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed notable dilatation of the sigmoid colon with intraperitoneal fluid. Laparotomy revealed dilatation of the sigmoid colon, breakdown of serosa and muscularis propria of the sigmoid colon with impending perforation, and intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by breakdown of the mesenterium. Resection of the sigmoid colon with Hartmann's pouch and an end colostomy were performed. Physical examination showed joint hypermobility, translucent skin with venous prominence and facial structure abnormalities. Genetic analysis using cDNA extracted from the patient's fibroblasts by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing showed a missense mutation within the triple helix region of COL3A1 (c.2150 G>A; Gly717Asp). PMID:24932165

  10. Lumbar Sympathetic Block with Botulinum Toxin Type B for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunjoo; Cho, Chan Woo; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Pyung Bok; Nahm, Francis Sahngun

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar sympathetic block (LSB) is an effective method for relief of sympathetically mediated pain in the lower extremities. To prolong the sympathetic blockade, sympathetic destruction with alcohol or radiofrequency has been used. The pre-ganglionic sympathetic nerves are cholinergic, and botulinum toxin (BTX) has been found to inhibit the release of acetylcholine at the cholinergic nerve terminals. Moreover, BTX type B (BTX-B) is more convenient to use than BTX type A. Based on these findings, we performed LSB on the 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the lower extremity. Levobupivacaine 0.25% 5 mL mixed with BTX-B 5,000 IU was given under fluoroscopic guidance. Two months after LSB with BTX-B, pain intensity and the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS) score were significantly reduced. Allodynia and coldness disappeared and skin color came back to normal. In conclusion, BTX-B can produce an efficacious and durable sympathetic blocking effect on patients with CRPS. PMID:26431145

  11. Artoindonesianins Q-T, four isoprenylated flavones from Artocarpus champeden Spreng. (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Syah, Yana M; Achmad, Sjamsul A; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Hakim, Euis H; Makmur, Lukman; Mujahidin, Didin

    2002-12-01

    Four isoprenylated flavones, artoindonesianins Q-T, were isolated from the heartwood of Artocarpus champeden Roxb. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data.

  12. Optimal weighted combinatorial forecasting model of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhang; Miao, Ge; Xinlei, Liu; Minyi, Cen

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to provide a scientific basis for unifying the reference value standard of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults. Three predictive models including regression model, principal component model, and artificial neural network model are combined to establish the optimal weighted combination model. The optimal weighted combination model and single model are verified and compared. Optimal weighted combinatorial model can reduce predicting risk of single model and improve the predicting precision. The reference value of geographical distribution of Chinese adults' QT dispersion was precisely made by using kriging methods. When geographical factors of a particular area are obtained, the reference value of QT dispersion of Chinese adults in this area can be estimated by using optimal weighted combinatorial model and reference value of the QT dispersion of Chinese adults anywhere in China can be obtained by using geographical distribution figure as well.

  13. Evaluation of drug-induced QT interval prolongation in animal and human studies: a literature review of concordance

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Hugo M; Bass, Alan S; Koerner, John; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Pugsley, Michael K; Skinner, Matthew; Burnham, Matthew; Bridgland-Taylor, Matthew; Pettit, Syril; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating whether a new medication prolongs QT intervals is a critical safety activity that is conducted in a sensitive animal model during non-clinical drug development. The importance of QT liability detection has been reinforced by non-clinical [International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) S7B] and clinical (ICH E14) regulatory guidance from the International Conference on Harmonization. A key challenge for the cardiovascular safety community is to understand how the finding from a non-clinical in vivo QT assay in animals predicts the outcomes of a clinical QT evaluation in humans. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Pro-Arrhythmia Working Group performed a literature search (1960–2011) to identify both human and non-rodent animal studies that assessed QT signal concordance between species and identified drugs that prolonged or did not prolong the QT interval. The main finding was the excellent agreement between QT results in humans and non-rodent animals. Ninety-one percent (21 of 23) of drugs that prolonged the QT interval in humans also did so in animals, and 88% (15 of 17) of drugs that did not prolong the QT interval in humans had no effect on animals. This suggests that QT interval data derived from relevant non-rodent models has a 90% chance of predicting QT findings in humans. Disagreement can occur, but in the limited cases of QT discordance we identified, there appeared to be plausible explanations for the underlying disconnect between the human and non-rodent animal QT outcomes. PMID:26031452

  14. Fine-mapping and initial characterization of QT interval loci in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Avery, Christy L; Sethupathy, Praveen; Buyske, Steven; He, Qianchuan; Lin, Dan-Yu; Arking, Dan E; Carty, Cara L; Duggan, David; Fesinmeyer, Megan D; Hindorff, Lucia A; Jeff, Janina M; Klein, Liviu; Patton, Kristen K; Peters, Ulrike; Shohet, Ralph V; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Young, Alicia M; Kooperberg, Charles; Haiman, Christopher A; Mohlke, Karen L; Whitsel, Eric A; North, Kari E

    2012-01-01

    The QT interval (QT) is heritable and its prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. Most genetic studies of QT have examined European ancestral populations; however, the increased genetic diversity in African Americans provides opportunities to narrow association signals and identify population-specific variants. We therefore evaluated 6,670 SNPs spanning eleven previously identified QT loci in 8,644 African American participants from two Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) studies: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial. Of the fifteen known independent QT variants at the eleven previously identified loci, six were significantly associated with QT in African American populations (P≤1.20×10(-4)): ATP1B1, PLN1, KCNQ1, NDRG4, and two NOS1AP independent signals. We also identified three population-specific signals significantly associated with QT in African Americans (P≤1.37×10(-5)): one at NOS1AP and two at ATP1B1. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in African Americans assisted in narrowing the region likely to contain the functional variants for several loci. For example, African American LD patterns showed that 0 SNPs were in LD with NOS1AP signal rs12143842, compared with European LD patterns that indicated 87 SNPs, which spanned 114.2 Kb, were in LD with rs12143842. Finally, bioinformatic-based characterization of the nine African American signals pointed to functional candidates located exclusively within non-coding regions, including predicted binding sites for transcription factors such as TBX5, which has been implicated in cardiac structure and conductance. In this detailed evaluation of QT loci, we identified several African Americans SNPs that better define the association with QT and successfully narrowed intervals surrounding established loci. These results demonstrate that the same loci influence variation in QT across multiple

  15. Relationship between QT/QS2 ratio and angiographic severity of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, S; Acanfora, D; Papa, M; Covelluzzi, F; Tedeschi, C; Furgi, G; Rengo, F; De Caprio, L

    1988-08-01

    The relationship between QT/QS2 ratio and angiographic severity of coronary heart disease (CHD) was determined in 99 patients who underwent coronary arteriography because of chest pain. Sixteen control patients with normal coronary arteriograms and normal left ventricular function and 83 patients with angiographic evidence of CHD were studied. QT/QS2 ratio and systolic time intervals were calculated from poligraphic recordings taken at rest. In control subjects QT/QS2 ratio was significantly shorter (0.91 +/- 0.04) than in patients with double (0.95 +/- 0.07; p less than 0.05 versus control subjects) and triple vessel coronary artery disease (0.95 +/- 0.05; p less than 0.05 versus control subjects). QT/QS2 ratio was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in patients with 3 areas or more of left ventricular abnormal wall motion (LV AWM) (0.98 +/- 0.05) than in patients with none (0.92 +/- 0.06) or just 1-2 areas (0.93 +/- 0.06) of LV AWM. Multiple regression analysis revealed no relation between the number of coronary stenoses and QT/QS2 (t = 0.86; p = NS), while a relation was identified between the number of asynergic segments and QT/QS2 (t = 1.99; p less than 0.05). A significant correlation was found between QT/QS2 and PEP/LVET (r = 0.39; p less than 0.001). Setting the upper normal limit at 2 standard deviations from the mean of control subjects (QT/QS2 = 0.99), QT/QS2 criterion yielded a 30% sensitivity, a 94% specificity and a 96% predictive accuracy in diagnosing CHD. We conclude that in CHD patients QT/QS2 ratio is influenced by the extension of LV AWM. Although a low sensitivity may limit its use, a QT/QS2 value higher than 0.99 in a patient with chest pain strongly suggests CHD and thus this criterion may be diagnostically useful. PMID:3243415

  16. Impact of Age and Sex on QT Prolongation in Patients Receiving Psychotropics

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, Simon W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess older age and female sex, 2 of the major risk factors for potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death in patients prescribed psychotropics, within the context of electrocardiographic evidence of time between start of Q wave and end of T wave (QT) interval prolongation, which is an indicator of an increased risk for potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Method: The literature on the relation between age, sex, and QT interval with respect to psychotropic drugs was reviewed. Results: The QT interval must be corrected (QTc) for heart rate. Because slower heart rates prolong and faster heart rates shorten the QT interval, people with faster heart rates may have a prolonged QT interval that is not apparent until the correction is performed. QTc values for apparently healthy post-pubertal people are less than 450 ms for males and less than 470 ms for females. The longer QT intervals in women may account for their increased risk of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias on psychotropics. QTc increases with increasing age. Assessment of QTc in older people is especially important to identify people with a longer QTc who are more likely to attain a serious QT level with drugs that prolong QTc. The age-related increase in QTc is more evident in men than women, suggesting that male sex does not afford protection against potentially fatal arrhythmias at older age. Conclusion: The association of increasing age and female sex with greater QT intervals indicates the need to have an increased awareness of the QTc prior to use of these psychotropics and to evaluate the QTc after initiation of therapy. PMID:26174524

  17. QT dispersion is reduced after valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Darbar, D; Cherry, C; Kerins, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate whether QT dispersion is a reliable index of the severity of aortic stenosis and left ventricular hypertrophy in the setting of aortic stenosis.
DESIGN—A retrospective analysis of the results of echocardiography and electrocardiography before and after aortic valve replacement.
SETTING—Tertiary centre.
PATIENTS—36 men (30 white and six black) with symptomatic aortic stenosis requiring valve replacement.
RESULTS—All patients had significant aortic stenosis (mean (SD) aortic valve area 0.68 (0.18) cm2) and evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (left ventricular mass index (LVMI): 267 (90) g/m2). Before aortic valve replacement, QT dispersion was correlated with mean aortic valve area and LVMI (r = 0.697, p < 0.001, and r = 0.59, p < 2.4 × 10−6, respectively). QT dispersion and QT corrected for heart rate dispersion decreased from 133 (54) to 71 (33) ms and from 151 (64) to 94 (76) ms, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). LVMI regressed after aortic valve replacement to 190 (79) g/m2, p < 0.01.
CONCLUSIONS—QT dispersion is increased in association with LVMI in patients with significant symptomatic aortic stenosis. Aortic valve replacement reduces QT dispersion and LVMI. QT dispersion could be a useful indicator of risk and risk reduction in patients with significant symptomatic aortic stenosis.


Keywords: QT dispersion; left ventricular hypertrophy; aortic valve replacement PMID:10377301

  18. Influence of high ovarian hormones on QT interval duration in young African women.

    PubMed

    Balayssac-Siransy, Edwige; Ouattara, Soualiho; Adoubi, Anicet; Kouamé, Chantal; Hauhouot-Attoungbré, Marie-Laure; Dah, Cyrille; Bogui, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The longer QT interval duration observed in women compared to men is usually attributed to sexual hormones. The aim of our study was to investigate, among black African women, the influence of hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle on the duration of the QT interval. Fourteen young black African women, healthy, sedentary, aged 24 ± 1.7 years, with a regular menstrual cycle (28 ± 1 days) were selected from 59 volunteers. At each phase of their menstrual cycle, menstrual 2.9 ± 0.6 days, follicular 13 ± 1.5 days, and luteal 23.1 ± 1.4 days, an electrocardiogram was performed in supine position after a resting period of 30 min, to measure QT interval duration. QT interval was corrected by Bazett's (QTcb) and Fridericia's (QTcf) formulae. Then, blood samples were obtained to measure estradiol, progesterone, and serum electrolytes (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). There was no significant difference in uncorrected QT intervals between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. It was the same for QTcb and QTcf. Moreover, during the menstrual cycle, we did not observe any correlation between each QT, QTcb, QTcf, and estradiol levels which raised during the follicular phase (356.61 ± 160.77 pg/mL) and progesterone levels which raised during the luteal phase (16.38 ± 5.88 ng/mL). Finally, the method of Bland and Altman demonstrated that the corrections of QT by Bazett and Fridericia formulae were not interchangeable. The results of this study showed that high levels of estradiol and progesterone in young black African women did not influence the QT, QTcb and QTcf intervals duration during the menstrual cycle.

  19. Association between Particulate Air Pollution and QT Interval Duration in an Elderly Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Kloog, Itai; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Short-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been linked with increased QT interval duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization and a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death, in several studies. Only one previous study evaluated whether long-term PM exposure is related to the QT interval. We aim to evaluate whether sub-chronic and long-term exposure to PM2.5 at home is linked with QT duration in an elderly cohort. METHODS We measured heart-rate corrected QT interval duration among 404 participants from the Greater Boston area between 2003 and 2011. We modeled residential PM2.5 exposures using a hybrid satellite- and land use-based model. We evaluated associations between moving averages of short-term (1–2 day), sub-chronic (3–28 day) and long-term (1 year) pollutant exposures and corrected QT duration using linear mixed models. We also evaluated effect modification by oxidative stress genetic score using separated regression models and interaction terms. RESULTS We observed positive associations between sub-chronic and long-term PM2.5 exposure and corrected QT duration, with the strongest results for longer-term exposures. For example, a 1 standard deviation increase in 1-year PM2.5 was associated with a 6.3 ms increase in corrected QT (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 11). We observed somewhat greater effects among subjects with higher (8.5 ms) rather than lower (3.1 ms) oxidative stress allelic profiles (p-interaction=0.25). CONCLUSIONS PM2.5 was associated with increased corrected QT duration in an elderly cohort. While most previous studies focused on short-term air pollution exposures, our results suggest that longer-term exposures are associated with cardiac repolarization. PMID:26605812

  20. QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.P.; James, O.F.W. . Dept. of Medicine); Butler, T.J. . Dept. of Medical Statistics); Campbell, R.W.F. . Dept. of Academic Cardiology)

    1993-06-05

    Cardiovascular death is the most important cause of mortality in alcoholics, yet alcohol may protect against ischemic heart disease. This could be explained if deaths were a consequence of alcohol-related arrhythmias rather than of coronary atheroma. In many conditions, abnormalities of the QT interval are markers of arrhythmia and for risk of sudden death. The authors examined the relation between QT intervals and mortality in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

  1. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  2. Tandem duplication within a neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene exon in a family with features of Watson syndrome and Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Tassabehji, M; Strachan, T; Sharland, M; Colley, A; Donnai, D; Harris, R; Thakker, N

    1993-01-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), Watson syndrome (WS), and Noonan syndrome (NS) show some overlap in clinical manifestations. In addition, WS has been shown to be linked to markers flanking the NF1 locus and a deletion at the NF1 locus demonstrated in a WS patient. This suggests either that WS and NF1 are allelic or that phenotypes arise from mutations in very closely linked genes. Here we provide evidence for the former by demonstrating a mutation in the NF1 gene in a family with features of both WS and NS. The mutation is an almost perfect in-frame tandem duplication of 42 bases in exon 28 of the NF1 gene. Unlike the mutations previously described in classical NF1, which show a preponderance of null alleles, the mutation in this family would be expected to result in a mutant neurofibromin product. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8317503

  3. In vivo studies of Scn5a+/− mice modeling Brugada syndrome demonstrate both conduction and repolarization abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Claire A.; Zhang, Yanmin; Grace, Andrew A.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigate the extent to which the electrocardiographic (ECG) properties of intact Scn5a+/− mice reproduce the corresponding clinical Brugada syndrome phenotype and use this model to investigate the role of conduction and repolarization abnormalities in the arrhythmogenic mechanism. Methods and Results The ECGs were obtained from anesthetized wild-type and Scn5a+/− mice, before and after administration of the known pro- and antiarrhythmic agents flecainide and quinidine. The ECG intervals were measured and their dispersions calculated. Scn5a+/− hearts showed ventricular arrhythmias, ST elevation, and conduction disorders including increased QT dispersion, accentuated by flecainide. Quinidine did not cause ventricular arrhythmias but exerted variable effects on ST segments and worsened conduction abnormalities. Conclusions The ECG features in an Scn5a+/− mouse establish it as a suitable model for Brugada syndrome and demonstrate abnormal conduction and repolarization phenomena. Altered QT dispersion, taken to indicate increased transmural repolarization gradients, may be useful in clinical risk stratification. PMID:20638671

  4. The phenotype of the musculocontractural type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to CHST14 mutations.

    PubMed

    Janecke, Andreas R; Li, Ben; Boehm, Manfred; Krabichler, Birgit; Rohrbach, Marianne; Müller, Thomas; Fuchs, Irene; Golas, Gretchen; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; Ziegler, Shira G; Gahl, William A; Wilnai, Yael; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Geller, Herbert M; Giunta, Cecilia; Slavotinek, Anne; Steinmann, Beat

    2016-01-01

    The musculocontractural type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (MC-EDS) has been recently recognized as a clinical entity. MC-EDS represents a differential diagnosis within the congenital neuromuscular and connective tissue disorders spectrum. Thirty-one and three patients have been reported with MC-EDS so far with bi-allelic mutations identified in CHST14 and DSE, respectively, encoding two enzymes necessary for dermatan sulfate (DS) biosynthesis. We report seven additional patients with MC-EDS from four unrelated families, including the follow-up of a sib-pair originally reported with the kyphoscoliotic type of EDS in 1975. Brachycephaly, a characteristic facial appearance, an asthenic build, hyperextensible and bruisable skin, tapering fingers, instability of large joints, and recurrent formation of large subcutaneous hematomas are always present. Three of seven patients had mildly elevated serum creatine kinase. The oldest patient was blind due to retinal detachment at 45 years and died at 59 years from intracranial bleeding; her affected brother died at 28 years from fulminant endocarditis. All patients in this series harbored homozygous, predicted loss-of-function CHST14 mutations. Indeed, DS was not detectable in fibroblasts from two unrelated patients with homozygous mutations. Patient fibroblasts produced higher amounts of chondroitin sulfate, showed intracellular retention of collagen types I and III, and lacked decorin and thrombospondin fibrils compared with control. A great proportion of collagen fibrils were not integrated into fibers, and fiber bundles were dispersed into the ground substance in one patient, all of which is likely to contribute to the clinical phenotype. This report should increase awareness for MC-EDS.

  5. Presymptomatic genetic analysis during pregnancy for vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naing, Banyar Than; Watanabe, Atsushi; Tanigaki, Shinji; Ono, Masae; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi; Shimada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), EDS type IV (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [MIM] #130050) is characterized by thin, translucent skin, easy bruising, and arterial, intestinal, and/or uterine fragility during pregnancy, which may lead to sudden death. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused by type III procollagen gene (COL3A1: MIM #120180) mutations. Approximately 50% of the COL3A1 mutations are inherited from an affected parent, and 50% are de novo mutations. Each child of an affected individual has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation and developing the disorder. Pregnant women with vascular EDS are at an increased risk of uterine and arterial rupture during the peripartum period, with high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. We report the first case of an asymptomatic 35-year-old woman at a risk of complications of vascular EDS who underwent presymptomatic evaluation during pregnancy. The sequencing results of both her brother and mother had a one-base-pair deletion, resulting in Glutamate at position 730 changing to Lysine and causing a frame shift and premature termination codon at 61 amino acids from the mutation position (p. Glu730Lysfs*61) on exon 32 of COL3A1. This deletion caused frameshift, leading to a premature termination codon (TAG) at 181 nucleotides downstream in exon 35, which could not be detected by previous total RNA (ribonucleic acid) method. Thus, she was at risk of complications of vascular EDS, and diagnostic testing was employed at 8 weeks of pregnancy to minimize the risk of developing vascular EDS-related complications. The negative presymptomatic diagnostic result allowed the patient to choose normal delivery at term. Vascular EDS is a serious disorder, with high mortality, especially in high-risk women with vascular EDS during pregnancy. The presymptomatic genetic testing of vascular EDS during pregnancy for a high-risk family can help with the early establishment of preventive measures

  6. The phenotype of the musculocontractural type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to CHST14 mutations.

    PubMed

    Janecke, Andreas R; Li, Ben; Boehm, Manfred; Krabichler, Birgit; Rohrbach, Marianne; Müller, Thomas; Fuchs, Irene; Golas, Gretchen; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; Ziegler, Shira G; Gahl, William A; Wilnai, Yael; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Geller, Herbert M; Giunta, Cecilia; Slavotinek, Anne; Steinmann, Beat

    2016-01-01

    The musculocontractural type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (MC-EDS) has been recently recognized as a clinical entity. MC-EDS represents a differential diagnosis within the congenital neuromuscular and connective tissue disorders spectrum. Thirty-one and three patients have been reported with MC-EDS so far with bi-allelic mutations identified in CHST14 and DSE, respectively, encoding two enzymes necessary for dermatan sulfate (DS) biosynthesis. We report seven additional patients with MC-EDS from four unrelated families, including the follow-up of a sib-pair originally reported with the kyphoscoliotic type of EDS in 1975. Brachycephaly, a characteristic facial appearance, an asthenic build, hyperextensible and bruisable skin, tapering fingers, instability of large joints, and recurrent formation of large subcutaneous hematomas are always present. Three of seven patients had mildly elevated serum creatine kinase. The oldest patient was blind due to retinal detachment at 45 years and died at 59 years from intracranial bleeding; her affected brother died at 28 years from fulminant endocarditis. All patients in this series harbored homozygous, predicted loss-of-function CHST14 mutations. Indeed, DS was not detectable in fibroblasts from two unrelated patients with homozygous mutations. Patient fibroblasts produced higher amounts of chondroitin sulfate, showed intracellular retention of collagen types I and III, and lacked decorin and thrombospondin fibrils compared with control. A great proportion of collagen fibrils were not integrated into fibers, and fiber bundles were dispersed into the ground substance in one patient, all of which is likely to contribute to the clinical phenotype. This report should increase awareness for MC-EDS. PMID:26373698

  7. Whole genome association study identifies polymorphisms associated with QT prolongation during iloperidone treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Volpi, S; Heaton, C; Mack, K; Hamilton, J B; Lannan, R; Wolfgang, C D; Licamele, L; Polymeropoulos, M H; Lavedan, C

    2009-11-01

    Administration of certain drugs (for example, antiarrhythmics, antihistamines, antibiotics, antipsychotics) may occasionally affect myocardial repolarization and cause prolongation of the QT interval. We performed a whole genome association study of drug-induced QT prolongation after 14 days of treatment in a phase 3 clinical trial evaluating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of a novel atypical antipsychotic, iloperidone, in patients with schizophrenia. We identified DNA polymorphisms associated with QT prolongation in six loci, including the CERKL and SLCO3A1 genes. Each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) defined two genotype groups associated with a low mean QT change (ranging from -0.69 to 5.67 ms depending on the SNP) or a higher mean QT prolongation (ranging from 14.16 to 17.81 ms). The CERKL protein is thought to be part of the ceramide pathway, which regulates currents conducted by various potassium channels, including the hERG channel. It is well established that inhibition of the hERG channel can prolong the QT interval. SLCO3A1 is thought to play a role in the translocation of prostaglandins, which have known cardioprotective properties, including the prevention of torsades de pointes. Our findings also point to genes involved in myocardial infarction (PALLD), cardiac structure and function (BRUNOL4) and cardiac development (NRG3). Results of this pharmacogenomic study provide new insight into the clinical response to iloperidone, developed with the goal of directing therapy to those patients with the optimal benefit/risk ratio.

  8. Rare coding TTN variants are associated with electrocardiographic QT interval in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Ashish; Bakshy, Kiranmayee; Xu, Linda; Nandakumar, Priyanka; Lee, Dongwon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Grove, Megan L.; Arking, Dan E.; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2016-01-01

    We have shown previously that noncoding variants mapping around a specific set of 170 genes encoding cardiomyocyte intercalated disc (ID) proteins are more enriched for associations with QT interval than observed for genome-wide comparisons. At a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5%, we had identified 28 such ID protein-encoding genes. Here, we assessed whether coding variants at these 28 genes affect QT interval in the general population as well. We used exome sequencing in 4,469 European American (EA) and 1,880 African American (AA) ancestry individuals from the population-based ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Study cohort to focus on rare (allele frequency <1%) potentially deleterious (nonsynonymous, stop-gain, splice) variants (n = 2,398 for EA; n = 1,693 for AA) and tested their effects on standardized QT interval residuals. We identified 27 nonsynonymous variants associated with QT interval (FDR 5%), 22 of which were in TTN. Taken together with the mapping of a QT interval GWAS locus near TTN, our observation of rare deleterious coding variants in TTN associated with QT interval show that TTN plays a role in regulation of cardiac electrical conductance and coupling, and is a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. PMID:27321809

  9. [Andersen-Tawil syndrome: a review of its clinical and genetic diagnosis with emphasis on cardiac manifestations].

    PubMed

    Márquez, Manlio F; Totomoch-Serra, Armando; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Cruz-Robles, David; Pellizzon, Oscar A; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The Andersen-Tawil syndrome is a cardiac ion channel disease that is inherited in an autosomal dominant way and is classified as type 7 of the congenital long QT syndromes. Affected gene is KCNJ2, which forms the inward rectifier potassium channel designated Kir2.1. This protein is involved in stabilizing the resting membrane potential and controls the duration of the action potential in skeletal muscle and heart. It also participates in the terminal repolarization phase of the action potential in ventricular myocytes and is a major component responsible for the correction in the potassium current during phase 3 of the action potential repolarization. Kir 2.1 channel has a predominant role in skeletal muscle, heart and brain. Alterations in this channel produce flaccid paralysis, arrhythmias, impaired skeletal development primarily in extremities and facial area. In this review we address the disease from the point of view of clinical and molecular diagnosis with emphasis on cardiac manifestations.

  10. De Novo 17q paracentric inversion mosaicism in a patient with beemer-langer type short rib-polydactyly syndrome with special consideration to the classification of short rib polydactyly syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Mirkin, D.; Yang, S.

    1994-11-01

    A de novo 17q paracentric inversion mosaicism is detected in a fetus with type IV short rib (polydactyly) syndrome (Beemer-Langer). The cytogenetic finding in our case suggests a possible location of the gene or cluster of linked genes responsible for SR (P) S type IV to 17q21 or 17q23. Since this chromosome abnormality has not been described in short rib polydactyly syndromes and the existence of type IV SR (P) S has been controversial, the literature of this entity is reviewed with special consideration to the classification of short rib polydactyly syndromes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    PubMed

    Steca, Patrizia; D'Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio; Greco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:27589065

  12. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Steca, Patrizia; D’Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elen