Science.gov

Sample records for quadratures

  1. Quadrature-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Q 2PSK for the data stream a (t) in Figure 3.1 ................................................ 27 3.3. Spectral densities of OQPSK , MSK and Q’PSK...Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying ( OQPSK ). Minimum Shift Keying ( vISK ), Quadrature Overlapped taised Cosine ( QOW signalling scheme, Tamed Frequency...orthogonal; hence the name %liniliur ’t Keving (AfSK) . The baseband power spectral densities S~.f) a1nd( o’,,, r QPSlK (or OQPSk . and NLSK are given by

  2. The Quadrature Master Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, N. J.; Pourdarvish, A.; Sadeghi, J.; Olaomi, J. O.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we derive the non-Markovian stochastic equation of motion (SEM) and master equations (MEs) for the open quantum system by using the non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equations (SSEs) for the quadrature unraveling in linear and nonlinear cases. The SSEs for quadrature unraveling arise as a special case of a quantum system. Also we derive the Markovian SEM and ME by using linear and nonlinear Itô SSEs for the measurement probabilities. In linear non-Markovian case, we calculate the convolutionless linear quadrature non-Markovian SEM and ME. We take advantage from example and show that corresponding theory.

  3. Positive quadrature formulas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peherstorfer, Franz

    2008-12-01

    First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

  4. Analog quadrature signal to phase angle data conversion by a quadrature digitizer and quadrature counter

    DOEpatents

    Buchenauer, C.J.

    1981-09-23

    The quadrature phase angle phi (t) of a pair of quadrature signals S/sub 1/(t) and S/sub 2/(t) is digitally encoded on a real time basis by a quadrature digitizer for fractional phi (t) rotational excursions and by a quadrature up/down counter for full phi (t) rotations. The pair of quadrature signals are of the form S/sub 1/(t) = k(t) sin phi (t) and S/sub 2/(t) = k(t) cos phi (t) where k(t) is a signal common to both. The quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter may be used together or singularly as desired or required. Optionally, a digital-to-analog converter may follow the outputs of the quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter to provide an analog signal output of the quadrature phase angle phi (t).

  5. Analog quadrature signal to phase angle data conversion by a quadrature digitizer and quadrature counter

    DOEpatents

    Buchenauer, C. Jerald

    1984-01-01

    The quadrature phase angle .phi.(t) of a pair of quadrature signals S.sub.1 (t) and S.sub.2 (t) is digitally encoded on a real time basis by a quadrature digitizer for fractional .phi.(t) rotational excursions and by a quadrature up/down counter for full .phi.(t) rotations. The pair of quadrature signals are of the form S.sub.1 (t)=k(t) sin .phi.(t) and S.sub.2 (t)=k(t) cos .phi.(t) where k(t) is a signal common to both. The quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter may be used together or singularly as desired or required. Optionally, a digital-to-analog converter may follow the outputs of the quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter to provide an analog signal output of the quadrature phase angle .phi.(t).

  6. Quadrature, Interpolation and Observability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Lucille McDaniel

    1997-01-01

    Methods of interpolation and quadrature have been used for over 300 years. Improvements in the techniques have been made by many, most notably by Gauss, whose technique applied to polynomials is referred to as Gaussian Quadrature. Stieltjes extended Gauss's method to certain non-polynomial functions as early as 1884. Conditions that guarantee the existence of quadrature formulas for certain collections of functions were studied by Tchebycheff, and his work was extended by others. Today, a class of functions which satisfies these conditions is called a Tchebycheff System. This thesis contains the definition of a Tchebycheff System, along with the theorems, proofs, and definitions necessary to guarantee the existence of quadrature formulas for such systems. Solutions of discretely observable linear control systems are of particular interest, and observability with respect to a given output function is defined. The output function is written as a linear combination of a collection of orthonormal functions. Orthonormal functions are defined, and their properties are discussed. The technique for evaluating the coefficients in the output function involves evaluating the definite integral of functions which can be shown to form a Tchebycheff system. Therefore, quadrature formulas for these integrals exist, and in many cases are known. The technique given is useful in cases where the method of direct calculation is unstable. The condition number of a matrix is defined and shown to be an indication of the the degree to which perturbations in data affect the accuracy of the solution. In special cases, the number of data points required for direct calculation is the same as the number required by the method presented in this thesis. But the method is shown to require more data points in other cases. A lower bound for the number of data points required is given.

  7. Szego-Lobatto quadrature rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagels, Carl; Reichel, Lothar

    2007-03-01

    Gauss-type quadrature rules with one or two prescribed nodes are well known and are commonly referred to as Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature rules, respectively. Efficient algorithms are available for their computation. Szego quadrature rules are analogs of Gauss quadrature rules for the integration of periodic functions; they integrate exactly trigonometric polynomials of as high degree as possible. Szego quadrature rules have a free parameter, which can be used to prescribe one node. This paper discusses an analog of Gauss-Lobatto rules, i.e., Szego quadrature rules with two prescribed nodes. We refer to these rules as Szego-Lobatto rules. Their properties as well as numerical methods for their computation are discussed.

  8. Discrete observability and numerical quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Clyde F.; Wang, Xiaochang; Stamp, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of approximate observability of a one-dimensional diffusion equation on a finite spatial domain with spatial point measurements. The problem of the optimal selection of the measurement points is considered under three conditions: (1) no preassigned measurement nodes; (2) one preassigned node and; (3) two preassigned nodes. The main observation is that the optimal choice is related to three classical procedures in numerical analysis: (1) Gaussian quadrature; (2) Radau quadrature and; (3) Lobatto quadrature. It is shown that the existence of the Radau and Lobatto quadrature is closely related to classical root locus theory.

  9. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  10. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James A.; Johnson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency of phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention.

  11. Refinements of some new efficient quadrature rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, A.; Shoaib, M.; Faye, I.; Kashif, A. R.

    2016-11-01

    In the field of Engineering and Applied Mathematical Sciences, minimizing approximation error is very important task and therefore quadrature rules are investigated regularly. In this paper, using some standard results of theoretical inequalities, e.g. Ostrowski type inequality, some new efficient quadrature rules are introduced for n-times differentiable mappings. These quadrature rules are expected to give better results comparing to the conventional quadrature rules.

  12. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Gh.; Adam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1-16 (2012)] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule), mesoscopic (Simpson rule), and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision). Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  13. Error Analysis of Quadrature Rules. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2004-01-01

    Approaches to the determination of the error in numerical quadrature rules are discussed and compared. This article considers the problem of the determination of errors in numerical quadrature rules, taking Simpson's rule as the principal example. It suggests an approach based on truncation error analysis of numerical schemes for differential…

  14. Automatic quadrature control and measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Quadrature is separated from amplified signal by use of phase detector, with phase shifter providing appropriate reference. Output of phase detector is further amplified and filtered by dc amplifier. Output of dc amplifier provides signal to neutralize quadrature component of transducer signal.

  15. Gaussian Quadrature Formulae for Arbitrary Positive Measures

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Andrew D.; Atchley, William R.

    2007-01-01

    We present computational methods and subroutines to compute Gaussian quadrature integration formulas for arbitrary positive measures. For expensive integrands that can be factored into well-known forms, Gaussian quadrature schemes allow for efficient evaluation of high-accuracy and -precision numerical integrals, especially compared to general ad hoc schemes. In addition, for certain well-known density measures (the normal, gamma, log-normal, Student’s t, inverse-gamma, beta, and Fisher’s F) we present exact formulae for computing the respective quadrature scheme. PMID:19455218

  16. Gaussian quadrature for multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussement, Jonathan; van Assche, Walter

    2005-06-01

    We study multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II, which have orthogonality conditions with respect to r measures. These polynomials are connected by their recurrence relation of order r+1. First we show a relation with the eigenvalue problem of a banded lower Hessenberg matrix Ln, containing the recurrence coefficients. As a consequence, we easily find that the multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II satisfy a generalized Christoffel-Darboux identity. Furthermore, we explain the notion of multiple Gaussian quadrature (for proper multi-indices), which is an extension of the theory of Gaussian quadrature for orthogonal polynomials and was introduced by Borges. In particular, we show that the quadrature points and quadrature weights can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalue problem of Ln.

  17. Angular quadratures for improved transport computations

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Shumays, I.K.

    1999-07-22

    This paper introduces new octant-range, composite-type Gauss and mid-point rule angular quadrature formulas for neutron and photon transport computations. A generalization to octant-range quadratures is also introduced in order to allow for discontinuities at material interfaces for two- and three-dimensional transport problems which can be modeled with 60-degree triangular or hexagonal mesh subdivisions in the x-y plane.

  18. Theory of the quadrature elliptic birdcage coil.

    PubMed

    Leifer, M C

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents the theory of the quadrature birdcage coil wound on an elliptic cylindrical former. A conformal transformation of the ellipse to a circular geometry is used to derive the optimal sampling of the continuous surface current distribution to produce uniform magnetic fields within an elliptic cylinder. The analysis is rigorous for ellipses of any aspect ratio and shows how to produce quadrature operation of the elliptic birdcage with a conventional hybrid combiner. Insight gained from the transformation is also used to analyze field homogeneity, find the optimal RF shield shape, and specify component values to produce the correct current distribution in practice. Measurements and images from a 16-leg elliptic birdcage coil at both low and high frequencies show good quadrature performance, homogeneity, and sensitivity.

  19. Summation Paths in Clenshaw-Curtis Quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, S.; Adam, Gh.

    2016-02-01

    Two topics concerning the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature within the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of Riemann integrals are considered. First, it is found that the efficient floating point computation of the coefficients of the Chebyshev series expansion of the integrand is to be done within a mathematical structure consisting of the union of coefficient families ordered into complete binary trees. Second, the scrutiny of the decay rates of the involved even and odd rank Chebyshev expansion coefficients with the increase of their rank labels enables the definition of Bayesian decision paths for the advancement to the numerical output.

  20. Composite Gauss-Legendre Quadrature with Error Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature for determining definite integrals, including a means of controlling the approximation error. We compare the form and performance of the algorithm with standard Newton-Cotes quadrature. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. Thin-thick quadrature frequency conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-02-07

    The quadrature conversion scheme is a method of generating the second harmonic. The scheme, which uses two crystals in series, has several advantages over single-crystal or other two crystal schemes. The most important is that it is capable of high conversion efficiency over a large dynamic range of drive intensity and detuning angle.

  2. Error Bounds for Quadrature Methods Involving Lower Order Derivatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Fedotov, Igor; Fedotova, Tanya; Harding, Ansie

    2003-01-01

    Quadrature methods for approximating the definite integral of a function f(t) over an interval [a,b] are in common use. Examples of such methods are the Newton-Cotes formulas (midpoint, trapezoidal and Simpson methods etc.) and the Gauss-Legendre quadrature rules, to name two types of quadrature. Error bounds for these approximations involve…

  3. Automatic quadrature control and measuring system. [using optical coupling circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A quadrature component cancellation and measuring system comprising a detection system for detecting the quadrature component from a primary signal, including reference circuitry to define the phase of the quadrature component for detection is described. A Raysistor optical coupling control device connects an output from the detection system to a circuit driven by a signal based upon the primary signal. Combining circuitry connects the primary signal and the circuit controlled by the Raysistor device to subtract quadrature components. A known current through the optically sensitive element produces a signal defining the magnitude of the quadrature component.

  4. Twelfth degree spline with application to quadrature.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, P O; Hamasalh, F K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper existence and uniqueness of twelfth degree spline is proved with application to quadrature. This formula is in the class of splines of degree 12 and continuity order [Formula: see text] that matches the derivatives up to order 6 at the knots of a uniform partition. Some mistakes in the literature are pointed out and corrected. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the new method.

  5. Numerical quadratures for approximate computation of ERBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanaty, Peter

    2013-12-01

    In the ground-laying paper [3] on expo-rational B-splines (ERBS), the default numerical method for approximate computation of the integral with C∞-smooth integrand in the definition of ERBS is Romberg integration. In the present work, a variety of alternative numerical quadrature methods for computation of ERBS and other integrals with smooth integrands are studied, and their performance is compared on several benchmark examples.

  6. Comparison of two Galerkin quadrature methods

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, J. E.; Warsa, J. S.; Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.

    2013-07-01

    We compare two methods for generating Galerkin quadrature for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering. In Method 1, the standard Sn method is used to generate the moment-to-discrete matrix and the discrete-to-moment is generated by inverting the moment-to-discrete matrix. In Method 2, which we introduce here, the standard Sn method is used to generate the discrete-to-moment matrix and the moment-to-discrete matrix is generated by inverting the discrete-to-moment matrix. Method 1 has the advantage that it preserves both N eigenvalues and N eigenvectors (in a pointwise sense) of the scattering operator with an N-point quadrature. Method 2 has the advantage that it generates consistent angular moment equations from the corresponding S{sub N} equations while preserving N eigenvalues of the scattering operator with an N-point quadrature. Our computational results indicate that these two methods are quite comparable for the test problem considered. (authors)

  7. Correlated quadratures of resonance fluorescence and the generalized uncertainty relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldus, Henk F.; George, Thomas F.; Gross, Rolf W. F.

    1994-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence from a two-state atom has been predicted to exhibit quadrature squeezing below the Heisenberg uncertainty limit, provided that the optical parameters (Rabi frequency, detuning, laser linewidth, etc.) are chosen carefully. When the correlation between two quadratures of the radiation field does not vanish, however, the Heisenberg limit for quantum fluctuations might be an unrealistic lower bound. A generalized uncertainty relation, due to Schroedinger, takes into account the possible correlation between the quadrature components of the radiation, and it suggests a modified definition of squeezing. We show that the coherence between the two levels of a laser-driven atom is responsible for the correlation between the quadrature components of the emitted fluorescence, and that the Schrodinger uncertainty limit increases monotonically with the coherence. On the other hand, the fluctuations in the quadrature field diminish with an increasing coherence, and can disappear completely when the coherence reaches 1/2, provided that certain phase relations hold.

  8. Low-frequency quadrature mode birdcage resonator.

    PubMed

    Borsboom, H M; Claasen-Vujcić, T; Gaykema, H J; Mehlkopf, T

    1997-03-01

    The birdcage resonator is frequently used in conventional MRI because of its excellent attributes. Its use in low-field MRI is restricted to field strengths higher than, for example, 0.1 T, dependent on the size of the coil. This is because of the intrinsically low inductance value of the birdcage coils. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the birdcage at low field strengths is significantly lower when compared to, for example, the solenoid. Both problems can be overcome with the multiturn technique and a novel wound birdcage coil. The quadrature mode wound birdcage coil presented in this paper can be used at frequencies as low as 100 kHz. Its sensitivity is also increased when compared to the conventional strip-ring birdcage. Homogeneity, effective volume, and methods to increase the resonator bandwidth to match the signal bandwidth are left intact. The latter is a typical low-field problem.

  9. Integrated source of broadband quadrature squeezed light.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Ulrich B; Nielsen, Bo M; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2015-05-04

    An integrated silicon nitride resonator is proposed as an ultra-compact source of bright single-mode quadrature squeezed light at 850 nm. Optical properties of the device are investigated and tailored through numerical simulations, with particular attention paid to loss associated with interfacing the device. An asymmetric double layer stack waveguide geometry with inverse vertical tapers is proposed for efficient and robust fibre-chip coupling, yielding a simulated total loss of -0.75 dB/facet. We assess the feasibility of the device through a full quantum noise analysis and derive the output squeezing spectrum for intra-cavity pump self-phase modulation. Subject to standard material loss and detection efficiencies, we find that the device holds promises for generating substantial quantum noise squeezing over a bandwidth exceeding 1 GHz. In the low-propagation loss regime, approximately -6 dB squeezing is predicted for a pump power of only 75 mW.

  10. The May 1997 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Poletto, G.; Romoli, M.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Simnett, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present results from the May 1997 SOHO-Ulysses quadrature, near sunspot minimum. Ulysses was at 5.1 AU, 100 north of the solar equator, and off the east limb. It was, by chance, also at the very northern edge of the streamer belt. Nevertheless, SWOOPS detected only slow, relatively smooth wind and there was no direct evidence of fast wind from the northern polar coronal hole or of mixing with fast wind. LASCO images show that the streamer belt at 10 N was narrow and sharp at the beginning and end of the two week observation interval, but broadened in the middle. A corresponding change in density, but not flow speed, occurred at Ulysses. Coronal densities derived from UVCS show that physical parameters in the lower corona are closely related to those in the solar wind, both over quiet intervals and in transient events on the limb. One small transient observed by both LASCO and UVCS is analyzed in detail.

  11. Power flow control using quadrature boosters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Sandeep N.

    A power system that can be controlled within security constraints would be an advantage to power planners and real-time operators. Controlling flows can lessen reliability issues such as thermal limit violations, power stability problems, and/or voltage stability conditions. Control of flows can also mitigate market issues by reducing congestion on some lines and rerouting power to less loaded lines or onto preferable paths. In the traditional control of power flows, phase shifters are often used. More advanced methods include using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Controllers. Some examples include Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors, Synchronous Series Static Compensators, and Unified Power Flow Controllers. Quadrature Boosters (QBs) have similar structures to phase-shifters, but allow for higher voltage magnitude during real power flow control. In comparison with other FACTS controllers QBs are not as complex and not as expensive. The present study proposes to use QBs to control power flows on a power system. With the inclusion of QBs, real power flows can be controlled to desired scheduled values. In this thesis, the linearized power flow equations used for power flow analysis were modified for the control problem. This included modifying the Jacobian matrix, the power error vector, and calculating the voltage injected by the quadrature booster for the scheduled real power flow. Two scenarios were examined using the proposed power flow control method. First, the power flow in a line in a 5-bus system was modified with a QB using the method developed in this thesis. Simulation was carried out using Matlab. Second, the method was applied to a 30-bus system and then to a 118-bus system using several QBs. In all the cases, the calculated values of the QB voltages led to desired power flows in the designated line.

  12. Two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2009-02-01

    Conventional methods of quadrature phase-shifting holography require two holograms and either intensity distribution of the reference wave or that of the object wave to reconstruct an original object without the zero order and the twin-image noise in an on-axis holographic recording setup. We present a technique called two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting holography in which solely two quadrature-phase holograms are required. Neither reference-wave intensity nor an object-wave intensity measurement is needed in the technique.

  13. A Comparison of three high-precision quadrature schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2003-07-01

    The authors have implemented three numerical quadrature schemes, using the new Arbitrary Precision (ARPREC) software package, with the objective of seeking a completely ''automatic'' arbitrary precision quadrature facility, namely one that does not rely on a priori information of the function to be integrated. Such a facility is required, for example, to permit the experimental identification of definite integrals based on their numerical values. The performance and accuracy of these three quadrature schemes are compared using a suite of 15 integrals, ranging from continuous, well-behaved functions on finite intervals to functions with vertical derivatives and integrable singularities at endpoints, as well as several integrals on an infinite interval.

  14. Conditional homodyne detection of light with squeezed quadrature fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, Justin; Vyas, Reeta; Singh, Surendra

    2006-08-15

    We discuss the detection of field quadrature fluctuations in conditional homodyne detection experiments and possible sources of error in such an experiment. We also present modifications to these experiments to help eliminate such errors and extend their range of applicability.

  15. Quadrature mixture LO suppression via DSW DAC noise dither

    DOEpatents

    Dubbert, Dale F.; Dudley, Peter A.

    2007-08-21

    A Quadrature Error Corrected Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QECDWS) employs frequency dependent phase error corrections to, in effect, pre-distort the phase characteristic of the chirp to compensate for the frequency dependent phase nonlinearity of the RF and microwave subsystem. In addition, the QECDWS can employ frequency dependent correction vectors to the quadrature amplitude and phase of the synthesized output. The quadrature corrections cancel the radars' quadrature upconverter (mixer) errors to null the unwanted spectral image. A result is the direct generation of an RF waveform, which has a theoretical chirp bandwidth equal to the QECDWS clock frequency (1 to 1.2 GHz) with the high Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) necessary for high dynamic range radar systems such as SAR. To correct for the problematic upconverter local oscillator (LO) leakage, precision DC offsets can be applied over the chirped pulse using a pseudo-random noise dither. The present dither technique can effectively produce a quadrature DC bias which has the precision required to adequately suppress the LO leakage. A calibration technique can be employed to calculate both the quadrature correction vectors and the LO-nulling DC offsets using the radar built-in test capability.

  16. Aerosol dynamics using the quadrature method of moments: comparing several quadrature schemes with particle-resolved simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, R.; Leng, L.; Zhu, W.; Riemer, N.; West, M.

    2008-07-01

    The method of moments (MOM) is a statistically based alternative to sectional and modal methods for aerosol simulation. The MOM is highly efficient as the aerosol distribution is represented by its lower-order moments and only these, not the full distribution itself, are tracked during simulation. Quadrature is introduced to close the moment equations under very general growth laws and to compute aerosol physical and optical properties directly from moments. In this paper the quadrature method of moments (QMOM) is used in a bivariate test tracking of aerosol mixing state. Two aerosol populations, one enriched in soot and the other in sulfate, are allowed to interact through coagulation to form a generally-mixed third particle population. Quadratures of varying complexity (including two candidate schemes for use in climate models) are described and compared with benchmark results obtained by using particle-resolved simulation. Low-order quadratures are found to be highly accurate, and Gauss and Gauss-Radau quadratures appear to give nested lower and upper bounds, respectively, to aerosol mixing rate. These results suggest that the QMOM makes it feasible to represent the generallymixed states of aerosols and track their evolution in climate models.

  17. Offset quadrature communications with decision-feedback carrier synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Smith, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    In order to accommodate a quadrature amplitude-shift-keyed (QASK) signal, Simon and Smith (1974) have modified the decision-feedback loop which tracks a quadrature phase-shift-keyed (QPSK). In the investigation reported approaches are considered to modify the loops in such a way that offset QASK signals can be tracked, giving attention to the special case of an offset QPSK. The development of the stochastic integro-differential equation of operation for a decision-feedback offset QASK loop is discussed along with the probability density function of the phase error process.

  18. Digital holography with a quadrature phase-shifting interferometer.

    PubMed

    Kiire, Tomohiro; Nakadate, Suezou; Shibuya, Masato

    2009-03-01

    An alternative method for digital holography using a quadrature phase-shifting interferometer for high-speed measurement is presented. We show that it has image quality equal to the four-bucket method. In addition, it requires fewer imaging devices. Two quadrature phase-shifting fringe patterns are acquired in each state of an object changed temporally. The phase calculation method with these four fringe patterns gives the phase distribution of the hologram. This digital phase hologram is reconstructed to yield an object image by the Fresnel transform using digital convolutions with the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Verification results of simulations and experiments are given.

  19. Vibration analysis of structural elements using differential quadrature method

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Mohamed; Matbuly, Mohamed S.; Ragb, Ola

    2012-01-01

    The method of differential quadrature is employed to analyze the free vibration of a cracked cantilever beam resting on elastic foundation. The beam is made of a functionally graded material and rests on a Winkler–Pasternak foundation. The crack action is simulated by a line spring model. Also, the differential quadrature method with a geometric mapping are applied to study the free vibration of irregular plates. The obtained results agreed with the previous studies in the literature. Further, a parametric study is introduced to investigate the effects of geometric and elastic characteristics of the problem on the natural frequencies. PMID:25685406

  20. An Algorithm to Evaluate Imbalances of Quadrature Mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Arai, Michiaki

    It is essential, as bandwidths of wireless communications get wider, to evaluate the imbalances among quadrature mixer ports, in terms of carrier phase offset, IQ gain imbalance, and IQ skew. Because it is time consuming to separate skew, gain imbalance and carrier phase offset evaluation during test is often performed using a composite value, without separation of the imbalance factors. This paper describes an algorithm for enabling separation among quadrature mixer gain imbalance, carrier phase offset, and skew. Since the test time is reduced by the proposed method, it can be applied during high volume production testing.

  1. A non-uniform grid for triangular differential quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, HongZhi; Xu, Jia

    2016-12-01

    The triangular differential quadrature method based on a non-uniform grid is proposed in the paper. Explicit expressions of the non-uniform grid point coordinates are given and the weighting coefficients of the triangular differential quadrature method are determined with the aid of area coordinates. Two typical examples are presented to testify the effectiveness of the non-uniform grid. It is shown that rapid convergence is achieved under the non-uniform grid in comparison with those from the uniform grid with the same order of approximation.

  2. Archimedes Quadrature of the Parabola: A Mechanical View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    In his famous quadrature of the parabola, Archimedes found the area of the region bounded by a parabola and a chord. His method was to fill the region with infinitely many triangles each of whose area he could calculate. In his solution, he stated, without proof, three preliminary propositions about parabolas that were known in his time, but are…

  3. Wave-Based Inversion & Imaging for the Optical Quadrature Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K

    2005-10-27

    The Center for Subsurface Sensing & Imaging System's (CenSSIS) Optical Quadrature Microscope (OQM) is a narrow band visible light microscope capable of measuring both amplitude and phase of a scattered field. We develop a diffraction tomography, that is, wave-based, scattered field inversion and imaging algorithm, for reconstructing the refractive index of the scattering object.

  4. From Lobatto Quadrature to the Euler Constant "e"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattri, Sanjay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Lobatto quadrature, we develop several new closed form approximations to the mathematical constant "e." For validating effectiveness of our approximations, a comparison of our results to the existing approximations is also presented. Another objective of our work is to inspire students to formulate other better approximations by using…

  5. Coherent detection of frequency-hopped quadrature modulations in the presence of jamming. II - QPR Class I modulation. [Quadrature Partial Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper considers the performance of quadrature partial response (QPR) in the presence of jamming. Although a QPR system employs a single sample detector in its receiver, while quadrature amplitude shift keying (or quadrature phase shift keying) requires a matched-filter type of receiver, it is shown that the coherent detection performances of the two in the presence of the intentional jammer have definite similarities.

  6. Amplitude-weighted quadrature phase shift keying using SAW technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkerdid, M. A.; Malocha, D. C.

    1985-09-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) convolvers are capable of performing programmable matched filtering with the desirable properties of large processing gain, good dynamic range, broad bandwidth, small size and weight, and low power requirements. Equally powerful are the SAW-based modulators, which produce the desired pseudo-random code sequence for secure transmission in a spread-spectrum system. The SAW filter provides precise reproducible pulse shaping of the coded waveform with the same advantages of the convolver. It is very important as spectrum space becomes more crowded to optimize the spectral efficiency of transmitted information. Quadrature phase (QPSK) and minimum phase shift keying (MSK) are the two more popular quadrature modulation schemes. A new modulation technique that is composed of several amplitude-weighted QPSK signals (AWQPSK) and exhibits better bandwidth efficiency than OPSK or MSK is introduced. System analysis and performance parameters are presented for evaluation. A SAW modulator implementation is discussed and proposed.

  7. IQ quadrature demodulation algorithm used in heterodyne detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhui; Qu, Yang; Tang, Yajun Pang Tiantian

    2015-09-01

    In order to obtain better detection results of heterodyne, we used phase IQ quadrature demodulation algorithm to process the data which detected by laser heterodyne. Based on laser heterodyne interferometer, processing the data in the interferometer phase IQ quadrature demodulation algorithm from the signal to noise ratio, sampling rate, sampling rate, filter order and cutoff frequency, verify the effects of these system parameters to the phase precision, and choose the best parameters to obtain a better phase precision through experiment as: the signal to noise ratio is 25 dB, the IF signal frequency is 98.3 MHz, 98.5 MHz, 99.1 MHz, 99.5 MHz and 100 MHz, the sampling rate is 512-2048, the cutoff frequency and order of the filter are 0.11 and 40, respectively.

  8. Stable generation of quadrature entanglement using a ring interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Yujiro; Nonaka, Akihiro; Hirano, Takuya; Zhang Yun

    2009-05-15

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme to stably generate quadrature-entangled optical pulses using a ring interferometer composed of an optical parametric amplifier and a dispersive media. The entangled light pulses at telecommunication wavelength are generated by combining two squeezed beams. In our scheme, the relative phase between the two beams is kept stable by the ring interferometer and is controllable using dispersive media. The amplitude and phase quadratures of the entangled beams are measured using two time-domain pulsed homodyne detectors. When the relative phase is fixed at {pi}/2, we verify the inseparability of the states by a sufficient criterion <{delta}{sup 2}[X{sub a}({phi}{sub 0})+X{sub b}({pi}-{phi}{sub 0})]>+<{delta}{sup 2}[X{sub a}({phi}{sub 0}{sup '})-X{sub b}(-{phi}{sub 0}{sup '})]>=0.64<1 where {phi}{sub 0}{sup '}-{phi}{sub 0}={pi}/2.

  9. Statistical Quadrature Evolution for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2016-05-01

    We propose a statistical quadrature evolution (SQE) method for multicarrier continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). A multicarrier CVQKD protocol utilizes Gaussian subcarrier quantum continuous variables (CV) for information transmission. The SQE framework provides a minimal error estimate of the quadratures of the CV quantum states from the discrete, measured noisy subcarrier variables. We define a method for the statistical modeling and processing of noisy Gaussian subcarrier quadratures. We introduce the terms statistical secret key rate and statistical private classical information, which quantities are derived purely by the statistical functions of our method. We prove the secret key rate formulas for a multiple access multicarrier CVQKD. The framework can be established in an arbitrary CVQKD protocol and measurement setting, and are implementable by standard low-complexity statistical functions, which is particularly convenient for an experimental CVQKD scenario. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund - OTKA K-112125, and by the COST Action MP1006.

  10. Thin-plate spline quadrature of geodetic integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangysen, Herman

    1989-01-01

    Thin-plate spline functions (known for their flexibility and fidelity in representing experimental data) are especially well-suited for the numerical integration of geodetic integrals in the area where the integration is most sensitive to the data, i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the evaluation point. Spline quadrature rules are derived for the contribution of a circular innermost zone to Stoke's formula, to the formulae of Vening Meinesz, and to the recursively evaluated operator L(n) in the analytical continuation solution of Molodensky's problem. These rules are exact for interpolating thin-plate splines. In cases where the integration data are distributed irregularly, a system of linear equations needs to be solved for the quadrature coefficients. Formulae are given for the terms appearing in these equations. In case the data are regularly distributed, the coefficients may be determined once-and-for-all. Examples are given of some fixed-point rules. With such rules successive evaluation, within a circular disk, of the terms in Molodensky's series becomes relatively easy. The spline quadrature technique presented complements other techniques such as ring integration for intermediate integration zones.

  11. Testing the Empirical Shock Arrival Model Using Quadrature Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.

    2013-01-01

    The empirical shock arrival (ESA) model was developed based on quadrature data from Helios (in situ) and P-78 (remote sensing) to predict the Sun-Earth travel time of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The ESA model requires earthward CME speed as input, which is not directly measurable from coronagraphs along the Sun-Earth line. The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) were in quadrature during 20102012, so the speeds of Earth-directed CMEs were observed with minimal projection effects. We identified a set of 20 full halo CMEs in the field of view of SOHO that were also observed in quadrature by STEREO. We used the earthward speed from STEREO measurements as input to the ESA model and compared the resulting travel times with the observed ones from L1 monitors. We find that the model predicts the CME travel time within about 7.3 h, which is similar to the predictions by the ENLIL model. We also find that CME-CME and CME-coronal hole interaction can lead to large deviations from model predictions.

  12. Quadrature two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (Q-2DCOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Isao

    2016-11-01

    Quadrature 2D correlation spectroscopy (Q-2DCOS) is introduced. The technique incorporates the effect of the perturbation into the traditional 2DCOS analysis by building a multivariate model, merging the information of the perturbation variable and spectral responses. By employing factors which are 90° out of phase with each other, pertinent coincidental and sequential spectral intensity variations are adequately captured for the subsequent 2D correlation analysis. Almost complete replication of the original 2DCOS results based on such a simple rank 2 model of experimental spectra suggests that only the dominant spectral intensity variation patterns in combination with its quadrature counterpart seems to be utilized in 2DCOS analysis. Using the linear perturbation variable itself as the basis for generating the primary score vector is equivalent to the least squares fitting of a quadratic polynomial with spectral intensity variations. Q-2DCOS analysis may be displayed in terms of a graphical plot on a phase plane in the vector space, so that coincidental and sequential matching of the patterns of spectral intensity variations is represented simply by the phase angle difference between two vectors. Q-2DCOS analysis is closely related to other established ideas and practices in the 2D correlation spectroscopy field, such as dynamic 2D IR dichroism, PCA 2D, quadrature orthogonal signal correction (Q-OSC), and perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) analyses.

  13. An Application of the Quadrature-Free Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Atkins, Harold L.

    2000-01-01

    The process of generating a block-structured mesh with the smoothness required for high-accuracy schemes is still a time-consuming process often measured in weeks or months. Unstructured grids about complex geometries are more easily generated, and for this reason, methods using unstructured grids have gained favor for aerodynamic analyses. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a compact finite-element projection method that provides a practical framework for the development of a high-order method using unstructured grids. Higher-order accuracy is obtained by representing the solution as a high-degree polynomial whose time evolution is governed by a local Galerkin projection. The traditional implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin uses quadrature for the evaluation of the integral projections and is prohibitively expensive. Atkins and Shu introduced the quadrature-free formulation in which the integrals are evaluated a-priori and exactly for a similarity element. The approach has been demonstrated to possess the accuracy required for acoustics even in cases where the grid is not smooth. Other issues such as boundary conditions and the treatment of non-linear fluxes have also been studied in earlier work This paper describes the application of the quadrature-free discontinuous Galerkin method to a two-dimensional shear layer problem. First, a brief description of the method is given. Next, the problem is described and the solution is presented. Finally, the resources required to perform the calculations are given.

  14. Quadrature phase interferometer used to calibrate dial indicator calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shau-Chi; Liou, Huay-Chung; Peng, Gwo-Sheng; Lu, Ming-Feng

    2001-10-01

    To calibrate dial indicators, gage blocks or dial indicator calibrators are usually used. For better accuracy and resolution, interferometers are used to calibrate dial indicator calibrators. Systematic errors of laser interferometers can be classified into three categories of intrinsic errors, environment errors and installation errors. Intrinsic errors include laser wavelength error, electronic error and optics nonlinearity. In order to achieve nanometer accuracy, minimizing intrinsic error is crucial. In this paper, we will address the problems of minimizing the optics nonlinearity error and describe the discrete-time signal processing method to minimize the electronic error, nonlinearity error and drift by simply using quadrature phase interferometer for nanometer accuracy and linearity.

  15. Photoacoustic tomography using a Michelson interferometer with quadrature phase detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speirs, Rory W.; Bishop, Alexis I.

    2013-07-01

    We present a pressure sensor based on a Michelson interferometer, for use in photoacoustic tomography. Quadrature phase detection is employed allowing measurement at any point on the mirror surface without having to retune the interferometer, as is typically required by Fabry-Perot type detectors. This opens the door to rapid full surface detection, which is necessary for clinical applications. Theory relating acoustic pressure to detected acoustic particle displacements is used to calculate the detector sensitivity, which is validated with measurement. Proof-of-concept tomographic images of blood vessel phantoms have been taken with sub-millimeter resolution at depths of several millimeters.

  16. Parametric generation of quadrature squeezing of mirrors in cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Law, C. K.

    2011-03-15

    We propose a method to generate quadrature-squeezed states of a moving mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that when the cavity is driven by an external field with a large detuning, the moving mirror behaves as a parametric oscillator. We show that parametric resonance can be reached approximately by modulating the driving field amplitude at a frequency matching the frequency shift of the mirror. The parametric resonance leads to an efficient generation of squeezing, which is limited by the thermal noise of the environment.

  17. Noise-cancelling quadrature magnetic position, speed and direction sensor

    DOEpatents

    Preston, Mark A.; King, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    An array of three magnetic sensors in a single package is employed with a single bias magnet for sensing shaft position, speed and direction of a motor in a high magnetic noise environment. Two of the three magnetic sensors are situated in an anti-phase relationship (i.e., 180.degree. out-of-phase) with respect to the relationship between the other of the two sensors and magnetically salient target, and the third magnetic sensor is situated between the anti-phase sensors. The result is quadrature sensing with noise immunity for accurate relative position, speed and direction measurements.

  18. Real-time single analog output for quadrature phase interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraud, C.; Garcia, L.; Cross, B.; Charlaix, E.

    2017-04-01

    We present a dynamic displacement sensor based on a quadrature phase interferometer, providing a real-time analog output of the differential displacement between two mobile surfaces. The sensor offers a sub-picometer resolution with a sensitivity essentially uniform over a distance range extending to several micrometers, and can be used to measure the amplitude and phase of very small oscillations in nano-mechanical testing. We demonstrate its use in nano-rheology, by studying the flow in nanometric liquid films at very small strain rates.

  19. Principles and improvements of quadrature-based QKD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenhao; Shu, Di; Wang, Daqing; Liu, Yu

    2010-11-01

    An overview of quadrature-based quantum key distribution is provided. Beginning from the comparison between single-photon schema and continuous variable schema, the article focuses on the classical and state-of-art protocols. Protocols' main procedures and security analysis are introduced, which includes the methods under individual attack and collective attack. Then recent development of unconditional security proof is introduced including the optimality of Gaussian attack and de Finetti theorem. Introduction towards discrete modulated schemas' security proof is also made. At last, the article discusses experimental realization of various protocols and the main trend in this field.

  20. Fast convolution quadrature for the wave equation in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banjai, L.; Kachanovska, M.

    2014-12-01

    This work addresses the numerical solution of time-domain boundary integral equations arising from acoustic and electromagnetic scattering in three dimensions. The semidiscretization of the time-domain boundary integral equations by Runge-Kutta convolution quadrature leads to a lower triangular Toeplitz system of size N. This system can be solved recursively in an almost linear time (O(Nlog2⁡N)), but requires the construction of O(N) dense spatial discretizations of the single layer boundary operator for the Helmholtz equation. This work introduces an improvement of this algorithm that allows to solve the scattering problem in an almost linear time. The new approach is based on two main ingredients: the near-field reuse and the application of data-sparse techniques. Exponential decay of Runge-Kutta convolution weights wnh(d) outside of a neighborhood of d≈nh (where h is a time step) allows to avoid constructing the near-field (i.e. singular and near-singular integrals) for most of the discretizations of the single layer boundary operators (near-field reuse). The far-field of these matrices is compressed with the help of data-sparse techniques, namely, H-matrices and the high-frequency fast multipole method. Numerical experiments indicate the efficiency of the proposed approach compared to the conventional Runge-Kutta convolution quadrature algorithm.

  1. Quadrature imposition of compatibility conditions in Chebyshev methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Streett, C. L.

    1990-01-01

    Often, in solving an elliptic equation with Neumann boundary conditions, a compatibility condition has to be imposed for well-posedness. This condition involves integrals of the forcing function. When pseudospectral Chebyshev methods are used to discretize the partial differential equation, these integrals have to be approximated by an appropriate quadrature formula. The Gauss-Chebyshev (or any variant of it, like the Gauss-Lobatto) formula can not be used here since the integrals under consideration do not include the weight function. A natural candidate to be used in approximating the integrals is the Clenshaw-Curtis formula, however it is shown that this is the wrong choice and it may lead to divergence if time dependent methods are used to march the solution to steady state. The correct quadrature formula is developed for these problems. This formula takes into account the degree of the polynomials involved. It is shown that this formula leads to a well conditioned Chebyshev approximation to the differential equations and that the compatibility condition is automatically satisfied.

  2. Efficient Modified Filon-Type Quadrature for Highly Oscillatory Bessel Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, S.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we consider efficient modified Filon-type method for the integration of systems containing Bessel function and gives error analysis for these quadratures. Preliminary numerical results show the effectiveness and accuracy of the quadrature for large arguments of integral systems.

  3. Accurate computation of weights in classical Gauss-Christoffel quadrature rules

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimiw, E.

    1996-12-01

    For many classical Gauss-Christoffel quadrature rules there does not exist a method which guarantees a uniform level of accuracy for the Gaussian quadrature weights at all quadrature nodes unless the nodes are known exactly. More disturbing, some algebraic expressions for these weights exhibit an excessive sensitivity to even the smallest perturbations in the node location. This sensitivity rapidly increases with high order quadrature rules. Current uses of very high order quadratures are common with the advent of more powerful computers, and a loss of accuracy in the weights has become a problem and must be addressed. A simple but efficient and general method for improving the accuracy of the computation of the quadrature weights even though the nodes may carry a significant large error. In addition, a highly efficient root-finding iterative technique with superlinear converging rates for computing the nodes is developed. It uses solely the quadrature polynomials and their first derivatives. A comparison of this method with the eigenvalue method of Golub and Welsh implemented in most standard software libraries is made. The proposed method outperforms the latter from the point of view of both accuracy and efficiency. The Legendre, Lobatto, Radau, Hermite, and Laguerre quadrature rules are examined. 22 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Regenerative Fourier transformation for dual-quadrature regeneration of multilevel rectangular QAM.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Mariia; Sygletos, Stylianos; Ellis, Andrew; Turitsyn, Sergei

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new nonlinear optical loop mirror based configuration capable of regenerating regular rectangular quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signals. The scheme achieves suppression of noise distortion on both signal quadratures through the realization of two orthogonal regenerative Fourier transformations. Numerical simulations show the performance of the scheme for high constellation complexities (including 256-QAM formats).

  5. The Nature of the Nodes, Weights and Degree of Precision in Gaussian Quadrature Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive proof of the theorem that relates the weights and nodes of a Gaussian quadrature rule to its degree of precision. This level of detail is often absent in modern texts on numerical analysis. We show that the degree of precision is maximal, and that the approximation error in Gaussian quadrature is minimal, in a…

  6. Analysis and applications of quadrature hybrids as RF circulators

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.M.; Keane, J.

    1993-12-31

    The operation of a quadrature hybrid as a power combiner is analyzed. The analytical results are compared with data measured experimentally using a 211 MHz cavity. Graphical solution of the measured cases are in good agreement with analytical predictions. The use of the 90{degree}-hybrid as an RF circulator is also analyzed. The active operation of the harmonic cavity in the NSLS VUV-ring is used to demonstrate this application. This fourth-harmonic cavity is used to change the shape of the bucket potential to lengthen a stored bunch. Thus, a longer stored-beam lifetime can be achieved without compromising the high brightness of the VUV photon beam. If operated actively, the harmonic cavity would present a mismatched load to an RF generator. Thus, a need exists for a circulator. Similarities in operation between the 90{degree}-hybrid and a circulator are discussed.

  7. Convolution quadrature for the wave equation with impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, S. A.; Schanz, M.

    2017-04-01

    We consider the numerical solution of the wave equation with impedance boundary conditions and start from a boundary integral formulation for its discretization. We develop the generalized convolution quadrature (gCQ) to solve the arising acoustic retarded potential integral equation for this impedance problem. For the special case of scattering from a spherical object, we derive representations of analytic solutions which allow to investigate the effect of the impedance coefficient on the acoustic pressure analytically. We have performed systematic numerical experiments to study the convergence rates as well as the sensitivity of the acoustic pressure from the impedance coefficients. Finally, we apply this method to simulate the acoustic pressure in a building with a fairly complicated geometry and to study the influence of the impedance coefficient also in this situation.

  8. Terahertz single-shot quadrature phase-shifting interferometry.

    PubMed

    Földesy, Péter

    2012-10-01

    A single-shot quadrature phase-shifting interferometry architecture is presented that is applicable to antenna coupled detector technologies. The method is based on orthogonally polarized object and reference beams and on linear and circular polarization sensitive antennas in space-division multiplexing. The technique can be adapted to two-, three-, and four-step and Gabor holography recordings. It is also demonstrated that the space-division multiplexing does not necessarily cause sparse sampling. A sub-THz detector array is presented containing multiple on-chip antennas and FET plasma wave detectors implemented in a 90 nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. As an example, two-step phase-shifting reconstruction results are given at 360 GHz.

  9. Quadrature phase interferometer for high resolution force spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Paolino, Pierdomenico; Aguilar Sandoval, Felipe A.; Bellon, Ludovic

    2013-09-15

    In this article, we present a deflection measurement setup for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It is based on a quadrature phase differential interferometer: we measure the optical path difference between a laser beam reflecting above the cantilever tip and a reference beam reflecting on the static base of the sensor. A design with very low environmental susceptibility and another allowing calibrated measurements on a wide spectral range are described. Both enable a very high resolution (down to 2.5×10{sup −15} m/√(Hz)), illustrated by thermal noise measurements on AFM cantilevers. They present an excellent long-term stability and a constant sensitivity independent of the optical phase of the interferometer. A quick review shows that our precision is equaling or out-performing the best results reported in the literature, but for a much larger deflection range, up to a few μm.

  10. Implementation of a Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank on an SRC Reconfigurable Computer for Real-Time Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    7 A. QUADRATURE MIRROR FILTER BANK AS PART OF AN LPI ELINT DETECTION SYSTEM ...implementation for a real-time Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank on an SRC-6 reconfigurable computer system . A Quadrature Mirror Filter (QMF) Bank is a type...of wavelet decomposition filter system used for Digital Signal Processing (DSP). The use of a Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank as part of a larger

  11. A variant of the method of quadratures for solving integral equations with fractional integral of Weyl in the main part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agachev, J. R.; Galimyanov, A. F.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper the method of mechanical quadrature solutions fractional integral equation. Computational scheme quadrature method is based on the quadrature formula of rectangles with equidistant nodes, which is the formula of the highest trigonometric degree of accuracy, using a regularizing parameter. This decision is taken for the approximate trigonometric interpolation polynomial constructed from the values that make up the solution of the quadrature method. The substantiation of the method in Holder spaces.

  12. Induced polarization of volcanic rocks. 1Surface versus quadrature conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Breton, M. Le; Niu, Q.; Wallin, E.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2016-11-01

    We performed complex conductivity measurements on 28 core samples from the hole drilled for the Humu´ula Groundwater Research Project (Hawai´i Island, HI, USA). The complex conductivity measurements were performed at 4 different pore water conductivities (0.07, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0, and 10 S m-1 prepared with NaCl) over the frequency range 1 mHz to 45 kHz at 22 ± 1°C. The in-phase conductivity data are plotted against the pore water conductivity to determine, sample by sample, the intrinsic formation factor and the surface conductivity. The intrinsic formation factor is related to porosity by Archie's law with an average value of the cementation exponent m of 2.45, indicating that only a small fraction of the connected pore space controls the transport properties. Both the surface and quadrature conductivities are found to be linearly related to the cation exchange capacity of the material, which was measured with the cobalt hexamine chloride method. Surface and quadrature conductivities are found to be proportional to each other like for sedimentary siliclastic rocks. A Stern layer polarization model is used to explain these experimental results. Despite the fact that the samples contain some magnetite (up to 5% wt.), we were not able to identify the effect of this mineral on the complex conductivity spectra. These results are very encouraging in showing that galvanometric induced polarization measurements can be used in volcanic areas to separate the bulk from the surface conductivity and therefore to define some alteration attributes. Such a goal cannot be achieved with resistivity alone.

  13. Residual Distribution Schemes for Conservation Laws Via Adaptive Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Abgrall, Remi; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers a family of nonconservative numerical discretizations for conservation laws which retains the correct weak solution behavior in the limit of mesh refinement whenever sufficient order numerical quadrature is used. Our analysis of 2-D discretizations in nonconservative form follows the 1-D analysis of Hou and Le Floch. For a specific family of nonconservative discretizations, it is shown under mild assumptions that the error arising from non-conservation is strictly smaller than the discretization error in the scheme. In the limit of mesh refinement under the same assumptions, solutions are shown to satisfy an entropy inequality. Using results from this analysis, a variant of the "N" (Narrow) residual distribution scheme of van der Weide and Deconinck is developed for first-order systems of conservation laws. The modified form of the N-scheme supplants the usual exact single-state mean-value linearization of flux divergence, typically used for the Euler equations of gasdynamics, by an equivalent integral form on simplex interiors. This integral form is then numerically approximated using an adaptive quadrature procedure. This renders the scheme nonconservative in the sense described earlier so that correct weak solutions are still obtained in the limit of mesh refinement. Consequently, we then show that the modified form of the N-scheme can be easily applied to general (non-simplicial) element shapes and general systems of first-order conservation laws equipped with an entropy inequality where exact mean-value linearization of the flux divergence is not readily obtained, e.g. magnetohydrodynamics, the Euler equations with certain forms of chemistry, etc. Numerical examples of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows containing discontinuities together with multi-level mesh refinement are provided to verify the analysis.

  14. Induced polarization of volcanic rocks - 1. Surface versus quadrature conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Le Breton, M.; Niu, Q.; Wallin, E.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    We performed complex conductivity measurements on 28 core samples from the hole drilled for the Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project (Hawai'i Island, HI, USA). The complex conductivity measurements were performed at 4 different pore water conductivities (0.07, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0, and 10 S m-1 prepared with NaCl) over the frequency range 1 mHz to 45 kHz at 22 ± 1 °C. The in-phase conductivity data are plotted against the pore water conductivity to determine, sample by sample, the intrinsic formation factor and the surface conductivity. The intrinsic formation factor is related to porosity by Archie's law with an average value of the cementation exponent m of 2.45, indicating that only a small fraction of the connected pore space controls the transport properties. Both the surface and quadrature conductivities are found to be linearly related to the cation exchange capacity of the material, which was measured with the cobalt hexamine chloride method. Surface and quadrature conductivities are found to be proportional to each other like for sedimentary siliclastic rocks. A Stern layer polarization model is used to explain these experimental results. Despite the fact that the samples contain some magnetite (up to 5 per cent wt.), we were not able to identify the effect of this mineral on the complex conductivity spectra. These results are very encouraging in showing that galvanometric induced polarization measurements can be used in volcanic areas to separate the bulk from the surface conductivity and therefore to define some alteration attributes. Such a goal cannot be achieved with resistivity alone.

  15. A new algorithm for computing multivariate Gauss-like quadrature points.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark A.; Bos, Len P.; Wingate, Beth A.

    2004-06-01

    The diagonal-mass-matrix spectral element method has proven very successful in geophysical applications dominated by wave propagation. For these problems, the ability to run fully explicit time stepping schemes at relatively high order makes the method more competitive then finite element methods which require the inversion of a mass matrix. The method relies on Gauss-Lobatto points to be successful, since the grid points used are required to produce well conditioned polynomial interpolants, and be high quality 'Gauss-like' quadrature points that exactly integrate a space of polynomials of higher dimension than the number of quadrature points. These two requirements have traditionally limited the diagonal-mass-matrix spectral element method to use square or quadrilateral elements, where tensor products of Gauss-Lobatto points can be used. In non-tensor product domains such as the triangle, both optimal interpolation points and Gauss-like quadrature points are difficult to construct and there are few analytic results. To extend the diagonal-mass-matrix spectral element method to (for example) triangular elements, one must find appropriate points numerically. One successful approach has been to perform numerical searches for high quality interpolation points, as measured by the Lebesgue constant (Such as minimum energy electrostatic points and Fekete points). However, these points typically do not have any Gauss-like quadrature properties. In this work, we describe a new numerical method to look for Gauss-like quadrature points in the triangle, based on a previous algorithm for computing Fekete points. Performing a brute force search for such points is extremely difficult. A common strategy to increase the numerical efficiency of these searches is to reduce the number of unknowns by imposing symmetry conditions on the quadrature points. Motivated by spectral element methods, we propose a different way to reduce the number of unknowns: We look for quadrature formula

  16. Multidimensional Hermite-Gaussian quadrature formulae and their application to nonlinear estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcreynolds, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified technique is proposed for calculating multidimensional Hermite-Gaussian quadratures that involves taking the square root of a matrix by the Cholesky algorithm rather than computation of the eigenvectors of the matrix. Ways of reducing the dimension, number, and order of the quadratures are set forth. If the function f(x) under the integral sign is not well approximated by a low-order algebraic expression, the order of the quadrature may be reduced by factoring f(x) into an expression that is nearly algebraic and one that is Gaussian.

  17. Programs for computing abscissas and weights for classical and nonclassical Gaussian quadrature formulas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs for computing Gaussian quadrature abscissas and weights are described. For the classical case the programs use Laguerre iteration to compute abscissas as zeros of orthogonal polynomials. The polynomials are evaluated from known recursion coefficients. The nonclassical case is handled similarly except that the recursion coefficients are computed by numerical integration. A sample problem, with input and output, is presented to illustrate the use of the programs. It computes the quadrature abscissas and weights associated with the weight function over the interval (0,1) for quadrature orders from 16 to 96 in increments of 8.

  18. Optimal displacement in apparent motion and quadrature models of motion sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A grating appears to move if it is displaced by some amount between two brief presentations, or between multiple successive presentations. A number of recent experiments have examined the influence of displacement size upon either the sensitivity to motion, or upon the induced motion aftereffect. Several recent motion models are based upon quadrature filters that respond in opposite quadrants in the spatiotemporal frequency plane. Predictions of the quadrature model are derived for both two-frame and multiframe displays. Quadrature models generally predict an optimal displacement of 1/4 cycle for two-frame displays, but in the multiframe case the prediction depends entirely on the frame rate.

  19. A Cross-Correlated Trellis-Coded Quadrature Modulation Representation of MIL-STD Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.; Li, L.

    2003-08-01

    We show that MIL-STD shaped offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK), a highly bandwidth-efficient constant-envelope modulation, can be represented in the form of a cross-correlated trellis-coded quadrature modulation, a generic structure containing both memory and cross-correlation between the in-phase and quadrature-phase channels. Such a representation allows identification of the optimum form of receiver for MIL-STD SOQPSK and at the same time, through modification of the equivalent I and Q encoders to recursive types, allows for it to be embedded as the inner code of a serial or parallel (turbo-like) concatenated coding structure together with iterative decoding.

  20. Velocity envelope of vector flow estimation with spatial quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Richard F.; Anderson, Martin E.

    2003-05-01

    We present the results of two studies investigating the optimal aperture configuration for maximized lateral blood flow velocity estimation using Heterodyned Spatial Quadrature. Our objective was to determine the maximum velocities that can be estimated at Doppler angles of 90 degrees and 60 degrees with a bias of less than 5% for both uniform scatterer motion in a tissue-mimicking phantom and blood-mimicking fluid circulated through a wall-less vessel flow phantom. Constant flow rates ranging from 3.0 to 18.0 ml/sec were applied in the flow phantom, producing expected peak velocities of 15.0 to 89.8 cm/sec under laminar flow conditions. Velocity estimates were obtained at each flow rate using 256 trials, with each trial consisting of an ensemble of 32 vectors. For an f/1 receive geometry with bi-lobed Hamming apodization, all peak flow velocities tested were estimated to within 5% of their expected values for both 90 degree and 60 degree Doppler angles. An f/2 receive geometry featuring bi-lobed Blackman apodization generally provided accurate lateral velocity estimates up to 71.9 cm/sec for a Doppler angle of 90 degrees, and accurate lateral component estimates up to 50.1 cm/sec for a 60 degree Doppler angle. The implications of these findings will be discussed.

  1. A Quadrature Free Discontinuous Galerkin Conservative Level Set Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Mark; Desjardins, Olivier

    2010-11-01

    In an effort to improve the scalability and accuracy of the Accurate Conservative Level Set (ACLS) scheme [Desjardins et al., J COMPUT PHYS 227 (2008)], a scheme based on the quadrature free discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methodology has been developed. ACLS relies on a hyperbolic tangent level set function that is transported and reinitialized using conservative schemes in order to alleviate mass conservation issues known to plague level set methods. DG allows for an arbitrarily high order representation of the interface by using a basis of high order polynomials while only using data from the faces of neighboring cells. The small stencil allows DG to have excellent parallel scalability. The diffusion term present in the conservative reinitialization equation is handled using local DG method [Cockburn et al., SIAM J NUMER ANAL 39, (2001)] while the normals are computed from a limited form of the level set function in order to avoid spurious oscillations. The resulting scheme is shown to be both robust, accurate, and highly scalable, making it a method of choice for large-scale simulations of multiphase flows with complex interfacial topology.

  2. Carrier Synchronization of Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1998-01-01

    This article contains analyses of the performance of various carrier synchronization loops for offset quadrature phase-shift-keying (OQPSK) modulation, all motivated in one form or another by the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of carrier phase. When they are implemented as either high or low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) approximations to the generic implementation suggested by the MAP estimation of carrier phase for an OQPSK signal, it is shown that the loops behave more like biphase than quadriphase loops in that they only exhibit a 180-deg phase ambiguity rather than the 90-deg phase ambiguity typical of the latter. This phase ambiguity advantage coupled with the mean-square tracking-error performance advantage that results and its ultimate effect on average error probability performance offer a potentially significant justification for using OQPSK rather than QPSK even on a linear transmission channel, where it often is reasoned (based on the assumption of an ideal environment) that the two modulation schemes perform identically.

  3. Efficient Implementations of the Quadrature-Free Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Atkins, Harold L.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiency of the quadrature-free form of the dis- continuous Galerkin method in two dimensions, and briefly in three dimensions, is examined. Most of the work for constant-coefficient, linear problems involves the volume and edge integrations, and the transformation of information from the volume to the edges. These operations can be viewed as matrix-vector multiplications. Many of the matrices are sparse as a result of symmetry, and blocking and specialized multiplication routines are used to account for the sparsity. By optimizing these operations, a 35% reduction in total CPU time is achieved. For nonlinear problems, the calculation of the flux becomes dominant because of the cost associated with polynomial products and inversion. This component of the work can be reduced by up to 75% when the products are approximated by truncating terms. Because the cost is high for nonlinear problems on general elements, it is suggested that simplified physics and the most efficient element types be used over most of the domain.

  4. Modulator-free quadrature amplitude modulation signal synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhixin; Kakande, Joseph; Kelly, Brian; O’Carroll, John; Phelan, Richard; Richardson, David J.; Slavík, Radan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to generate high-speed on–off-keyed telecommunication signals by directly modulating a semiconductor laser’s drive current was one of the most exciting prospective applications of the nascent field of laser technology throughout the 1960s. Three decades of progress led to the commercialization of 2.5 Gbit s−1-per-channel submarine fibre optic systems that drove the growth of the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp associated with direct modulation forced industry to use external electro-optic modulators to deliver the next generation of on–off-keyed 10 Gbit s−1 systems and is absolutely prohibitive for today’s (>)100 Gbit s−1 coherent systems, which use complex modulation formats (for example, quadrature amplitude modulation). Here we use optical injection locking of directly modulated semiconductor lasers to generate complex modulation format signals showing distinct advantages over current and other currently researched solutions. PMID:25523757

  5. Modeling of optical quadrature microscopy for imaging mouse embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2008-02-01

    Optical quadrature microscopy (OQM) has been shown to provide the optical path difference through a mouse embryo, and has led to a novel method to count the total number of cells further into development than current non-toxic imaging techniques used in the clinic. The cell counting method has the potential to provide an additional quantitative viability marker for blastocyst transfer during in vitro fertilization. OQM uses a 633 nm laser within a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration to measure the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. Four cameras preceded by multiple beamsplitters record the four interferograms that are used within a reconstruction algorithm to produce an image of the complex electric field amplitude. Here we present a model for the electric field through the primary optical components in the imaging configuration and the reconstruction algorithm to calculate the signal to noise ratio when imaging mouse embryos. The model includes magnitude and phase errors in the individual reference and sample paths, fixed pattern noise, and noise within the laser and detectors. This analysis provides the foundation for determining the imaging limitations of OQM and the basis to optimize the cell counting method in order to introduce additional quantitative viability markers.

  6. Squeezed quadrature fluctuations in a gravitational wave detector using squeezed light.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, S; Barsotti, L; Chua, S S Y; Evans, M; Factourovich, M; Gustafson, D; Isogai, T; Kawabe, K; Khalaidovski, A; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Mavalvala, N; McClelland, D E; Meadors, G D; Mow-Lowry, C M; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Smith-Lefebvre, N; Stefszky, M; Vorvick, C; Sigg, D

    2013-08-12

    Squeezed states of light are an important tool for optical measurements below the shot noise limit and for optical realizations of quantum information systems. Recently, squeezed vacuum states were deployed to enhance the shot noise limited performance of gravitational wave detectors. In most practical implementations of squeezing enhancement, relative fluctuations between the squeezed quadrature angle and the measured quadrature (sometimes called squeezing angle jitter or phase noise) are one limit to the noise reduction that can be achieved. We present calculations of several effects that lead to quadrature fluctuations, and use these estimates to account for the observed quadrature fluctuations in a LIGO gravitational wave detector. We discuss the implications of this work for quantum enhanced advanced detectors and even more sensitive third generation detectors.

  7. Reissner-Mindlin Legendre Spectral Finite Elements with Mixed Reduced Quadrature

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, K. D.; Sprague, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Legendre spectral finite elements (LSFEs) are examined through numerical experiments for static and dynamic Reissner-Mindlin plate bending and a mixed-quadrature scheme is proposed. LSFEs are high-order Lagrangian-interpolant finite elements with nodes located at the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre quadrature points. Solutions on unstructured meshes are examined in terms of accuracy as a function of the number of model nodes and total operations. While nodal-quadrature LSFEs have been shown elsewhere to be free of shear locking on structured grids, locking is demonstrated here on unstructured grids. LSFEs with mixed quadrature are, however, locking free and are significantly more accurate than low-order finite-elements for a given model size or total computation time.

  8. Optimization and Experimentation of Dual-Mass MEMS Gyroscope Quadrature Error Correction Methods.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiliang; Li, Hongsheng; Kou, Zhiwei; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Ma, Zongmin; Shen, Chong; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-07

    This paper focuses on an optimal quadrature error correction method for the dual-mass MEMS gyroscope, in order to reduce the long term bias drift. It is known that the coupling stiffness and demodulation error are important elements causing bias drift. The coupling stiffness in dual-mass structures is analyzed. The experiment proves that the left and right masses' quadrature errors are different, and the quadrature correction system should be arranged independently. The process leading to quadrature error is proposed, and the Charge Injecting Correction (CIC), Quadrature Force Correction (QFC) and Coupling Stiffness Correction (CSC) methods are introduced. The correction objects of these three methods are the quadrature error signal, force and the coupling stiffness, respectively. The three methods are investigated through control theory analysis, model simulation and circuit experiments, and the results support the theoretical analysis. The bias stability results based on CIC, QFC and CSC are 48 °/h, 9.9 °/h and 3.7 °/h, respectively, and this value is 38 °/h before quadrature error correction. The CSC method is proved to be the better method for quadrature correction, and it improves the Angle Random Walking (ARW) value, increasing it from 0.66 °/√h to 0.21 °/√h. The CSC system general test results show that it works well across the full temperature range, and the bias stabilities of the six groups' output data are 3.8 °/h, 3.6 °/h, 3.4 °/h, 3.1 °/h, 3.0 °/h and 4.2 °/h, respectively, which proves the system has excellent repeatability.

  9. Optimization and Experimentation of Dual-Mass MEMS Gyroscope Quadrature Error Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huiliang; Li, Hongsheng; Kou, Zhiwei; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Ma, Zongmin; Shen, Chong; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on an optimal quadrature error correction method for the dual-mass MEMS gyroscope, in order to reduce the long term bias drift. It is known that the coupling stiffness and demodulation error are important elements causing bias drift. The coupling stiffness in dual-mass structures is analyzed. The experiment proves that the left and right masses’ quadrature errors are different, and the quadrature correction system should be arranged independently. The process leading to quadrature error is proposed, and the Charge Injecting Correction (CIC), Quadrature Force Correction (QFC) and Coupling Stiffness Correction (CSC) methods are introduced. The correction objects of these three methods are the quadrature error signal, force and the coupling stiffness, respectively. The three methods are investigated through control theory analysis, model simulation and circuit experiments, and the results support the theoretical analysis. The bias stability results based on CIC, QFC and CSC are 48 °/h, 9.9 °/h and 3.7 °/h, respectively, and this value is 38 °/h before quadrature error correction. The CSC method is proved to be the better method for quadrature correction, and it improves the Angle Random Walking (ARW) value, increasing it from 0.66 °/√h to 0.21 °/√h. The CSC system general test results show that it works well across the full temperature range, and the bias stabilities of the six groups’ output data are 3.8 °/h, 3.6 °/h, 3.4 °/h, 3.1 °/h, 3.0 °/h and 4.2 °/h, respectively, which proves the system has excellent repeatability. PMID:26751455

  10. Calculation method for a quadrature phase-shifting interferometer and its applications.

    PubMed

    Nakadate, Suezou; Sawada, Shinya; Kiire, Tomohiro; Shibuya, Masato; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    A calculation method for a quadrature phase-shifting interferometer is presented, and its applications to specular and speckle interferometers and digital holography are described. Two sets of quadrature phase-shifted interferograms are acquired, and the calculation method proposed gives the phase distribution of the interferograms. The principle of the calculation method with error analysis and experimental results for specular and speckle interferometers and digital holography are also given.

  11. OFDM-Based Signal Explotation Using Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank (QMFB) Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    signal duration (Ts), modulation type (AM, FM, BPSK, QAM , etc), frequency content and time allocation. Because of its unique structure, two widely...Power Spectral Density PSDU PLCP Service Data Unit PSK Phase Shift Keying QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QMFB Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank...estimating signal parameters such as bandwidth (W), center frequency (fc), signal duration (Ts), modulation type (AM, FM, BPSK, QAM , etc), frequency

  12. Generation of Arbitrary Quadrature Signals Using One Dual-Drive Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Keang-Po; Cuei, Han-Wei

    2005-02-01

    Regardless of the number of constellation points, all quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals can be generated using a single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator. When the general method is applied to quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signals, three different QPSK transmitters are shown with drive signals having four, three, or two levels. The usage of only one dual-drive modulator greatly simplifies the design of QAM and QPSK transmitters.

  13. Directional dual-tree complex wavelet packet transforms for processing quadrature signals.

    PubMed

    Serbes, Gorkem; Gulcur, Halil Ozcan; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2016-03-01

    Quadrature signals containing in-phase and quadrature-phase components are used in many signal processing applications in every field of science and engineering. Specifically, Doppler ultrasound systems used to evaluate cardiovascular disorders noninvasively also result in quadrature format signals. In order to obtain directional blood flow information, the quadrature outputs have to be preprocessed using methods such as asymmetrical and symmetrical phasing filter techniques. These resultant directional signals can be employed in order to detect asymptomatic embolic signals caused by small emboli, which are indicators of a possible future stroke, in the cerebral circulation. Various transform-based methods such as Fourier and wavelet were frequently used in processing embolic signals. However, most of the times, the Fourier and discrete wavelet transforms are not appropriate for the analysis of embolic signals due to their non-stationary time-frequency behavior. Alternatively, discrete wavelet packet transform can perform an adaptive decomposition of the time-frequency axis. In this study, directional discrete wavelet packet transforms, which have the ability to map directional information while processing quadrature signals and have less computational complexity than the existing wavelet packet-based methods, are introduced. The performances of proposed methods are examined in detail by using single-frequency, synthetic narrow-band, and embolic quadrature signals.

  14. Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Division for Multiuser MISO Broadcast Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zheng; Zhang, Yan-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Kang; Gao, Xiang-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    This paper considers a discrete-time multiuser multiple-input single-output (MISO) Gaussian broadcast channel~(BC), in which channel state information (CSI) is available at both the transmitter and the receivers. The flexible and explicit design of a uniquely decomposable constellation group (UDCG) is provided based on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations. With this, a modulation division (MD) transmission scheme is developed for the MISO BC. The proposed MD scheme enables each receiver to uniquely and efficiently detect their desired signals from the superposition of mutually interfering cochannel signals in the absence of noise. In our design, the optimal transmitter beamforming problem is solved in a closed-form for two-user MISO BC using max-min fairness as a design criterion. Then, for a general case with more than two receivers, we develop a user-grouping-based beamforming scheme, where the grouping method, beamforming vector design and power allocation problems are addressed by using weighted max-min fairness. It is shown that our proposed approach has a lower probability of error compared with the zero-forcing (ZF) method when the Hermitian angle between the two channel vectors is small in a two-user case. In addition, simulation results also reveal that for the general channel model with more than two users, our user-grouping-based scheme significantly outperforms the ZF, time division (TD), minimum mean-square error (MMSE) and signal-to-leakage-and-noise ratio (SLNR) based techniques in moderate and high SNR regimes when the number of users approaches to the number of base station (BS) antennas and it degrades into the ZF scheme when the number of users is far less than the number of BS antennas in Rayleigh fading channels.

  15. Extended Gaussian quadratures for functions with an end-point singularity of logarithmic type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, K.; Puchalski, M.; Yerokhin, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    The extended Gaussian quadrature rules are shown to be an efficient tool for numerical integration of wide class of functions with singularities of logarithmic type. The quadratures are exact for the functions pol1n-1(x)+lnx pol2n-1(x), where pol1n-1(x) and pol2n-1(x) are two arbitrary polynomials of degree n-1 and n is the order of the quadrature formula. We present an implementation of numerical algorithm that calculates the nodes and the weights of the quadrature formulas, provide a Fortran code for numerical integration, and test the performance of different kinds of Gaussian quadratures for functions with logarithmic singularities. Catalogue identifier: AETP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 39 963 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, Fortran. Computer: PCs or higher performance computers. Operating system: Linux, Windows, MacOS. RAM: Kilobytes. Classification: 4.11. Nature of problem: Quadrature formulas for numerical integration, effective for a wide class of functions with end-point singularities of logarithmic type. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the algorithm developed in Ref. [1] with some modifications. Running time: Milliseconds to minutes. J. Ma, V. Rokhlin, S. Wandzura, Generalized Gaussian quadrature rules for systems of arbitrary functions, Soc. Indust. Appl. Math. J. Numer. Anal. 33 (3) (1996) 971-996.

  16. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, Peter J.

    2015-09-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  17. Design and Application of Quadrature Compensation Patterns in Bulk Silicon Micro-Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yunfang; Li, Hongsheng; Huang, Libin

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detailed design issues of a peculiar quadrature reduction method named system stiffness matrix diagonalization, whose key technology is the design and application of quadrature compensation patterns. For bulk silicon micro-gyroscopes, a complete design and application case was presented. The compensation principle was described first. In the mechanical design, four types of basic structure units were presented to obtain the basic compensation function. A novel layout design was proposed to eliminate the additional disturbing static forces and torques. Parameter optimization was carried out to maximize the available compensation capability in a limited layout area. Two types of voltage loading methods were presented. Their influences on the sense mode dynamics were analyzed. The proposed design was applied on a dual-mass silicon micro-gyroscope developed in our laboratory. The theoretical compensation capability of a quadrature equivalent angular rate no more than 412 °/s was designed. In experiments, an actual quadrature equivalent angular rate of 357 °/s was compensated successfully. The actual compensation voltages were a little larger than the theoretical ones. The correctness of the design and the theoretical analyses was verified. They can be commonly used in planar linear vibratory silicon micro-gyroscopes for quadrature compensation purpose. PMID:25356646

  18. Design and application of quadrature compensation patterns in bulk silicon micro-gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yunfang; Li, Hongsheng; Huang, Libin

    2014-10-29

    This paper focuses on the detailed design issues of a peculiar quadrature reduction method named system stiffness matrix diagonalization, whose key technology is the design and application of quadrature compensation patterns. For bulk silicon micro-gyroscopes, a complete design and application case was presented. The compensation principle was described first. In the mechanical design, four types of basic structure units were presented to obtain the basic compensation function. A novel layout design was proposed to eliminate the additional disturbing static forces and torques. Parameter optimization was carried out to maximize the available compensation capability in a limited layout area. Two types of voltage loading methods were presented. Their influences on the sense mode dynamics were analyzed. The proposed design was applied on a dual-mass silicon micro-gyroscope developed in our laboratory. The theoretical compensation capability of a quadrature equivalent angular rate no more than 412 °/s was designed. In experiments, an actual quadrature equivalent angular rate of 357 °/s was compensated successfully. The actual compensation voltages were a little larger than the theoretical ones. The correctness of the design and the theoretical analyses was verified. They can be commonly used in planar linear vibratory silicon micro-gyroscopes for quadrature compensation purpose.

  19. On the Computation of High Order Rys Quadrature Weights and Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1976, the Rys Quadrature method has proven a very attractive method for evaluating electron repulsion integrals for calculations using Gaussian type orbitals. Since then, there have been considerable refinements of the method, but at it's core, Gaussian weights and nodes are used to exactly evaluate using a numerical approach to the transform integral. One of the powers of the Rys Quadrature method is the relative ease in evaluating integrals involving functions of high angular momentum. In this work we report on the complete resolution of these numerical difficulties, and we have easily computed accurate quadrature weights and nodes up to order 101. All calculations were carried out using 128-bit precision.

  20. Discrete variable representation in electronic structure theory: Quadrature grids for least-squares tensor hypercontraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Robert M.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Martínez, Todd J.; Sherrill, C. David

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the application of molecular quadratures obtained from either standard Becke-type grids or discrete variable representation (DVR) techniques to the recently developed least-squares tensor hypercontraction (LS-THC) representation of the electron repulsion integral (ERI) tensor. LS-THC uses least-squares fitting to renormalize a two-sided pseudospectral decomposition of the ERI, over a physical-space quadrature grid. While this procedure is technically applicable with any choice of grid, the best efficiency is obtained when the quadrature is tuned to accurately reproduce the overlap metric for quadratic products of the primary orbital basis. Properly selected Becke DFT grids can roughly attain this property. Additionally, we provide algorithms for adopting the DVR techniques of the dynamics community to produce two different classes of grids which approximately attain this property. The simplest algorithm is radial discrete variable representation (R-DVR), which diagonalizes the finite auxiliary-basis representation of the radial coordinate for each atom, and then combines Lebedev-Laikov spherical quadratures and Becke atomic partitioning to produce the full molecular quadrature grid. The other algorithm is full discrete variable representation (F-DVR), which uses approximate simultaneous diagonalization of the finite auxiliary-basis representation of the full position operator to produce non-direct-product quadrature grids. The qualitative features of all three grid classes are discussed, and then the relative efficiencies of these grids are compared in the context of LS-THC-DF-MP2. Coarse Becke grids are found to give essentially the same accuracy and efficiency as R-DVR grids; however, the latter are built from explicit knowledge of the basis set and may guide future development of atom-centered grids. F-DVR is found to provide reasonable accuracy with markedly fewer points than either Becke or R-DVR schemes.

  1. Evaluation of quadrature-phase-shift-keying signal characteristics in W-band radio-over-fiber transmission using direct in-phase/quadrature-phase conversion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Meisaku; Kanno, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sotobayashi, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    The effects of in-phase/quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalances are evaluated with a direct IQ down-converter in the W-band (75-110 GHz). The IQ imbalance of the converter is measured within a range of +/-10 degrees in an intermediate frequency of DC-26.5 GHz. 1-8-G-baud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals are transmitted successfully with observed bit error rates within a forward error correction limit of 2×10-3 using radio over fiber (RoF) techniques. The direct down-conversion technique is applicable to next-generation high-speed wireless access communication systems in the millimeter-wave band.

  2. On the remainder term of Gauss-Radau quadratures for analytic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Spalevic, Miodrag M.; Pranic, Miroslav S.

    2008-09-01

    For analytic functions the remainder term of Gauss-Radau quadrature formulae can be represented as a contour integral with a complex kernel. We study the kernel on elliptic contours with foci at the points ±1 and a sum of semi-axes [varrho]>1 for the Chebyshev weight function of the second kind. Starting from explicit expressions of the corresponding kernels the location of their maximum modulus on ellipses is determined. The corresponding Gautschi's conjecture from [On the remainder term for analytic functions of Gauss-Lobatto and Gauss-Radau quadratures, Rocky Mountain J. Math. 21 (1991), 209-226] is proved.

  3. Quadrature formulas on the unit circle with prescribed nodes and maximal domain of validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultheel, Adhemar; Daruis, Leyla; González-Vera, Pablo

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the Szego-Radau and Szego-Lobatto quadrature formulas on the unit circle. These are (n+m)-point formulas for which m nodes are fixed in advance, with m=1 and m=2 respectively, and which have a maximal domain of validity in the space of Laurent polynomials. This means that the free parameters (free nodes and positive weights) are chosen such that the quadrature formula is exact for all powers zj, -p<=j<=p, with p=p(n,m) as large as possible.

  4. Dual-quadrature coherent receiver for 100G Ethernet applications based on polymer planar lightwave circuit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Kroh, Marcel; Theurer, Abongwa; Zawadzki, Crispin; Schmidt, Detlef; Ludwig, Reinhold; Lauermann, Matthias; Zhang, Ziyang; Beling, Andreas; Matiss, Andreas; Schubert, Colja; Steffan, Andreas; Keil, Norbert; Grote, Norbert

    2011-12-12

    A dual-quadrature coherent receiver based on a polymer planar lightwave circuit (PLC) is presented. This receiver comprises two separate optical 90°-hybrid chips made of polymer waveguides and hybridly integrated with InGaAs/InP photodiode (PD) arrays. The packaged receiver was successfully operated in 112 Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) transmission experiments. In back-to-back configuration the OSNR requirement for a BER value of 10(-3) was 15.1 dB which has to be compared to a theoretical limit of 13.8 dB.

  5. A method to design tunable quadrature filters in phase shifting interferometry.

    PubMed

    Mosiño, J F; Doblado, D Malacara; Hernández, D Malacara

    2009-08-31

    The main purpose of this paper is to present a method to design tunable quadrature filters in phase shifting interferometry. The algorithm is obtained from a generalized Fourier transform of a symmetrical quadrature filter. This formalism allows us to represent the detuning phase shift error and bias modulation as geometrical conditions. Therefore, the design of the filter becomes a set of solvable linear equations. Hence, to prove our method, several general tunable filters, like three and four frame algorithms, are obtained. Finally, from our results we reproduce particular symmetrical four frame algorithms reported in literature.

  6. Saturation dependence of the quadrature conductivity of oil-bearing sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutz, M.; Blondel, A.; Revil, A.

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the complex conductivity of oil-bearing sands with six distinct oil types including sunflower oil, silicone oil, gum rosin, paraffin, engine oil, and an industrial oil of complex composition. In all these experiments, the oil was the non-wetting phase. The in-phase (real) conductivity follows a power law relationship with the saturation (also known as the second Archie's law) but with a saturation exponent n raging from 1.1 to 3.1. In most experiments, the quadrature conductivity follows also a power law relationship with the water saturation but with a power law exponent p can be either positive or negative. For some samples, the quadrature conductivity first increases with saturation and then decreases indicating that two processes compete in controlling the quadrature conductivity. One is related to the insulating nature of the oil phase and a second could be associated with the surface area of the oil / water interface. The quadrature conductivity seems to be influenced not only by the value of the saturation exponent n (according to the Vinegar and Waxman model, p = n - 1), but also by the surface area between the oil phase and the water phase especially for very water-repellent oil having a fractal oil-water interface.

  7. Light-controlled resistors provide quadrature signal rejection for high-gain servo systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Cauley, D. D.

    1967-01-01

    Servo amplifier feedback system, in which the phase sensitive detection, low pass filtering, and multiplication functions required for quadrature rejection, are preformed by light-controlled photoresistors, eliminates complex circuitry. System increases gain, improves signal-to-noise ratio, and eliminates the necessity for compensation.

  8. Denoising performance of modified dual-tree complex wavelet transform for processing quadrature embolic Doppler signals.

    PubMed

    Serbes, Gorkem; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2014-01-01

    Quadrature signals are dual-channel signals obtained from the systems employing quadrature demodulation. Embolic Doppler ultrasound signals obtained from stroke-prone patients by using Doppler ultrasound systems are quadrature signals caused by emboli, which are particles bigger than red blood cells within circulatory system. Detection of emboli is an important step in diagnosing stroke. Most widely used parameter in detection of emboli is embolic signal-to-background signal ratio. Therefore, in order to increase this ratio, denoising techniques are employed in detection systems. Discrete wavelet transform has been used for denoising of embolic signals, but it lacks shift invariance property. Instead, dual-tree complex wavelet transform having near-shift invariance property can be used. However, it is computationally expensive as two wavelet trees are required. Recently proposed modified dual-tree complex wavelet transform, which reduces the computational complexity, can also be used. In this study, the denoising performance of this method is extensively evaluated and compared with the others by using simulated and real quadrature signals. The quantitative results demonstrated that the modified dual-tree-complex-wavelet-transform-based denoising outperforms the conventional discrete wavelet transform with the same level of computational complexity and exhibits almost equal performance to the dual-tree complex wavelet transform with almost half computational cost.

  9. Numerical quadrature and operator splitting in finite element methods for cardiac electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee; Sarkar, Mainak; Klug, William S

    2013-11-01

    We study the numerical accuracy and computational efficiency of alternative formulations of the finite element solution procedure for the monodomain equations of cardiac electrophysiology, focusing on the interaction of spatial quadrature implementations with operator splitting and examining both nodal and Gauss quadrature methods and implementations that mix nodal storage of state variables with Gauss quadrature. We evaluate the performance of all possible combinations of 'lumped' approximations of consistent capacitance and mass matrices. Most generally, we find that quadrature schemes and lumped approximations that produce decoupled nodal ionic equations allow for the greatest computational efficiency, this being afforded through the use of asynchronous adaptive time-stepping of the ionic state variable ODEs. We identify two lumped approximation schemes that exhibit superior accuracy, rivaling that of the most expensive variationally consistent implementations. Finally, we illustrate some of the physiological consequences of discretization error in electrophysiological simulation relevant to cardiac arrhythmia and fibrillation. These results suggest caution with the use of semi-automated free-form tetrahedral and hexahedral meshing algorithms available in most commercially available meshing software, which produce nonuniform meshes having a large distribution of element sizes.

  10. Accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos using optical quadrature and differential interference contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Zhao, Bing; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2006-02-01

    Present imaging techniques used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics are unable to produce accurate cell counts in developing embryos past the eight-cell stage. We have developed a method that has produced accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos ranging from 13-25 cells by combining Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) and Optical Quadrature Microscopy. Optical Quadrature Microscopy is an interferometric imaging modality that measures the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. The phase is transformed into an image of optical path length difference, which is used to determine the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell. DIC microscopy gives distinct cell boundaries for cells within the focal plane when other cells do not lie in the path to the objective. Fitting an ellipse to the boundary of a single cell in the DIC image and combining it with the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell creates an ellipsoidal model cell of optical path length deviation. Subtracting the model cell from the Optical Quadrature image will either show the optical path length deviation of the culture medium or reveal another cell underneath. Once all the boundaries are used in the DIC image, the subtracted Optical Quadrature image is analyzed to determine the cell boundaries of the remaining cells. The final cell count is produced when no more cells can be subtracted. We have produced exact cell counts on 5 samples, which have been validated by Epi-Fluorescence images of Hoechst stained nuclei.

  11. Exact Integrations of Polynomials and Symmetric Quadrature Formulas over Arbitrary Polyhedral Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two important elements in the high-order accurate spatial discretization of finite volume equations over arbitrary grids. One element is the integration of basis functions over arbitrary domains, which is used in expressing various spatial integrals in terms of discrete unknowns. The other consists of quadrature approximations to those integrals. Only polynomial basis functions applied to polyhedral and polygonal grids are treated here. Non-triangular polygonal faces are subdivided into a union of planar triangular facets, and the resulting triangulated polyhedron is subdivided into a union of tetrahedra. The straight line segment, triangle, and tetrahedron are thus the fundamental shapes that are the building blocks for all integrations and quadrature approximations. Integrals of products up to the fifth order are derived in a unified manner for the three fundamental shapes in terms of the position vectors of vertices. Results are given both in terms of tensor products and products of Cartesian coordinates. The exact polynomial integrals are used to obtain symmetric quadrature approximations of any degree of precision up to five for arbitrary integrals over the three fundamental domains. Using a coordinate-free formulation, simple and rational procedures are developed to derive virtually all quadrature formulas, including some previously unpublished. Four symmetry groups of quadrature points are introduced to derive Gauss formulas, while their limiting forms are used to derive Lobatto formulas. Representative Gauss and Lobatto formulas are tabulated. The relative efficiency of their application to polyhedral and polygonal grids is detailed. The extension to higher degrees of precision is discussed.

  12. Quadrature transmit array design using single-feed circularly polarized patch antenna for parallel transmission in MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yong; Yu, Baiying; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Quadrature coils are often desired in MR applications because they can improve MR sensitivity and also reduce excitation power. In this work, we propose, for the first time, a quadrature array design strategy for parallel transmission at 298 MHz using single-feed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna technique. Each array element is a nearly square ring microstrip antenna and is fed at a point on the diagonal of the antenna to generate quadrature magnetic fields. Compared with conventional quadrature coils, the single-feed structure is much simple and compact, making the quadrature coil array design practical. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the decoupling between elements is better than –35 dB for all the elements and the RF fields are homogeneous with deep penetration and quadrature behavior in the area of interest. Bloch equation simulation is also performed to simulate the excitation procedure by using an 8-element quadrature planar patch array to demonstrate its feasibility in parallel transmission at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla. PMID:24649430

  13. Quadrature transmit array design using single-feed circularly polarized patch antenna for parallel transmission in MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Yu, Baiying; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-02-01

    Quadrature coils are often desired in MR applications because they can improve MR sensitivity and also reduce excitation power. In this work, we propose, for the first time, a quadrature array design strategy for parallel transmission at 298 MHz using single-feed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna technique. Each array element is a nearly square ring microstrip antenna and is fed at a point on the diagonal of the antenna to generate quadrature magnetic fields. Compared with conventional quadrature coils, the single-feed structure is much simple and compact, making the quadrature coil array design practical. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the decoupling between elements is better than -35 dB for all the elements and the RF fields are homogeneous with deep penetration and quadrature behavior in the area of interest. Bloch equation simulation is also performed to simulate the excitation procedure by using an 8-element quadrature planar patch array to demonstrate its feasibility in parallel transmission at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla.

  14. Numerical quadrature methods for integrals of singular periodic functions and their application to singular and weakly singular integral equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, A.; Israeli, M.

    1986-01-01

    High accuracy numerical quadrature methods for integrals of singular periodic functions are proposed. These methods are based on the appropriate Euler-Maclaurin expansions of trapezoidal rule approximations and their extrapolations. They are used to obtain accurate quadrature methods for the solution of singular and weakly singular Fredholm integral equations. Such periodic equations are used in the solution of planar elliptic boundary value problems, elasticity, potential theory, conformal mapping, boundary element methods, free surface flows, etc. The use of the quadrature methods is demonstrated with numerical examples.

  15. Parallel-coupled dual racetrack silicon micro-resonators for quadrature amplitude modulation.

    PubMed

    Integlia, Ryan A; Yin, Lianghong; Ding, Duo; Pan, David Z; Gill, Douglas M; Jiang, Wei

    2011-08-01

    A parallel-coupled dual racetrack silicon micro-resonator structure is proposed and analyzed for M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation. The over-coupled, critically coupled, and under-coupled scenarios are systematically studied. Simulations indicate that only the over-coupled structures can generate arbitrary M-ary quadrature signals. Analytic study shows that the large dynamic range of amplitude and phase of a modulated over-coupled structure stems from the strong cross-coupling between two resonators, which can be understood through a delicate balance between the direct sum and the "interaction" terms. Potential asymmetries in the coupling constants and quality factors of the resonators are systematically studied. Compensations for these asymmetries by phase adjustment are shown feasible.

  16. On the implementation of a modified Sag-Szekeres quadrature method

    SciTech Connect

    Lyness, J.N.; Delves, L.M.

    1997-07-01

    The authors describe a modified Sag-Szekeres multidimensional quadrature algorithm and discuss its implementation as a general-purpose library procedure on serial and parallel architectures. Examples illustrate its effectiveness for both smooth and singular integrands. The procedure has been implemented as a parallel library routine, running on transputer-based systems, as part of Esprit project P2528: Supernode II; (see Plowman (1992)). This routine is scheduled to appear in the quadrature section of the Liverpool-NAG Transputer Software Library. The authors give here some results obtained using this routine, to demonstrate the rapid convergence obtained with both smooth and singular integrands, and to demonstrate the routine`s effectiveness on a parallel NIMD architecture.

  17. Inhomogeneous phase-visibility modulating interferometry by space on-off non-quadrature amplitude modulation.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Rodriguez-Zurita, Gustavo

    2013-07-29

    A new method in interferometry based on on-off non-quadrature amplitude modulation for object phase retrieval is presented. Although the technique introduces inhomogeneous visibility and phase variations in the interferogram, it is shown that the phase retrieval of a given object is still possible. This method is implemented by using three beams and two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series. One of the arms of the system is used as a probe beam and the other two are used as reference beams, yielding from their sum the conventional reference beam of a two-beam interferometer. We demonstrate that, if there is a phase difference within the range of (0,π) between these two beams, the effect of modulation in both amplitude and phase is generated for the case of on-off non-quadrature amplitude modulation. An analytical discussion is provided to sustain this method. Numerical and experimental results are also shown.

  18. Analysis of V-cycle multigrid algorithms for forms defined by numerical quadrature

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H. . Dept. of Mathematics); Goldstein, C.I.; Pasciak, J.E. . Applied Mathematics Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    The authors describe and analyze certain V-cycle multigrid algorithms with forms defined by numerical quadrature applied to the approximation of symmetric second-order elliptic boundary value problems. This approach can be used for the efficient solution of finite element systems resulting from numerical quadrature as well as systems arising from finite difference discretizations. The results are based on a regularity free theory and hence apply to meshes with local grid refinement as well as the quasi-uniform case. It is shown that uniform (independent of the number of levels) convergence rates often hold for appropriately defined V-cycle algorithms with as few as one smoothing per grid. These results hold even on applications without full elliptic regularity, e.g., a domain in R[sup 2] with a crack.

  19. Solution of stochastic media transport problems using a numerical quadrature-based method

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.; Olson, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a new conceptual framework for analyzing transport problems in random media. We decompose such problems into stratified subproblems according to the number of material pseudo-interfaces within realizations. For a given subproblem we assign pseudo-interface locations in each realization according to product quadrature rules, which allows us to deterministically generate a fixed number of realizations. Quadrature integration of the solutions of these realizations thus approximately solves each subproblem; the weighted superposition of solutions of the subproblems approximately solves the general stochastic media transport problem. We revisit some benchmark problems to determine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach in comparison to randomly generated realizations. We find that this method is very accurate and fast when the number of pseudo-interfaces in a problem is generally low, but that these advantages quickly degrade as the number of pseudo-interfaces increases. (authors)

  20. Optimization of displacement-measuring quadrature interferometers considering the real properties of optical components

    SciTech Connect

    Pozar, Tomaz; Gregorcic, Peter; Mozina, Janez

    2011-03-20

    We present the influence of alignment and the real properties of optical components on the performance of a two-detector homodyne displacement-measuring quadrature laser interferometer. An experimental method, based on the optimization of visibility and sensitivity, was established and theoretically described to assess the performance and stability of the interferometer. We show that the optimal performance of such interferometers is achieved with the iterative alignment procedure described.

  1. Optimization of displacement-measuring quadrature interferometers considering the real properties of optical components.

    PubMed

    Požar, Tomaž; Gregorčič, Peter; Možina, Janez

    2011-03-20

    We present the influence of alignment and the real properties of optical components on the performance of a two-detector homodyne displacement-measuring quadrature laser interferometer. An experimental method, based on the optimization of visibility and sensitivity, was established and theoretically described to assess the performance and stability of the interferometer. We show that the optimal performance of such interferometers is achieved with the iterative alignment procedure described.

  2. Multiple bit differential detection of offset quadrature phase-shift-keying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analogous to multiple symbol differential detectionof quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK), a multiple bit differential detection scheme is described for offset QPSK that also exhibits continuous improvement in performance with increasing observation interval. Being derived from maximum-likelihood (ML) considerations, the proposed scheme is purported to be the most power efficient scheme for such a modulation and detection method. Extension of the results to shaped offset QPSK is also possible.

  3. Noncritical quadrature squeezing in two-transverse-mode optical parametric oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Roldan, Eugenio; Valcarcel, German J. de; Romanelli, Alejandro

    2010-04-15

    In this article we explore the quantum properties of a degenerate optical parametric oscillator when it is tuned to the first family of transverse modes at the down-converted frequency. Recently we found [C. Navarrete-Benlloch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203601 (2008)] that above threshold a TEM{sub 10} mode following a random rotation in the transverse plane emerges in this system (we denote it as the bright mode), breaking thus its rotational invariance. Then, owing to the mode orientation being undetermined, we showed that the phase quadrature of the transverse mode orthogonal to this one (denoted as the dark mode) is perfectly squeezed at any pump level and without an increase in the fluctuations on its amplitude quadrature (which seems to contradict the uncertainty principle). In this article we go further in the study of this system and analyze some important features not considered previously. First we show that the apparent violation of the uncertainty principle is just that -'apparent' - as the conjugate pair of the squeezed quadrature is not another quadrature but the orientation of the bright mode (which is completely undetermined in the long term). We also study a homodyne scheme in which the local oscillator is not perfectly matched to the dark mode, as this could be impossible in real experiments due to the random rotation of the mode, showing that even in this case large levels of noise reduction can be obtained (also including the experimentally unavoidable phase fluctuations). Finally, we show that neither the adiabatic elimination of the pump variables nor the linearization of the quantum equations are responsible for the remarkable properties of the dark mode (which we prove analytically and through numerical simulations, respectively), which were simplifying assumptions used in Navarrete-Benlloch et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203601 (2008)]. These studies show that the production of noncritically squeezed light through spontaneous rotational

  4. Quadrature conductivity: A quantitative indicator of bacterial abundance in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Chi Zhang; Andre Revil; Yoshiko Fujita; Junko Munakata-Marr; George Redden

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT The abundance and growth stages of bacteria in subsurface porous media affect the concentrations and distributions of charged species within the solid-solution interfaces. Therefore, spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements can be used to monitor changes in bacterial biomass and growth stage. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the SIP response of bacteria present in a porous material. Bacterial cell surfaces possess an electric double layer and therefore become polarized in an electric field. We performed SIP measurements over the frequency range of 0.1–1 kHz on cell suspensions alone and cell suspensions mixed with sand at four pore water conductivities. We used Zymomonas mobilis at four different cell densities (in- cluding the background). The quadrature conductivity spectra exhibited two peaks, one around 0.05–0.10 Hz and the other around 1–10 Hz. Because SIP measurements on bacterial suspensions are typically made at frequencies greater than 1 Hz, these peaks have not been previously reported. In the bac-terial suspensions in growth medium, the quadrature conduc-tivity at peak I was linearly proportional to the density of the bacteria. For the case of the suspensions mixed with sands, we observed that peak II presented a smaller increase in the quadrature conductivity with the cell density. A comparison of the experiments with and without sand grains illustrated the effect of the porous medium on the overall quadrature con- ductivity response (decrease in the amplitude and shift of the peaks to the lower frequencies). Our results indicate that for a given porous medium, time-lapse SIP has potential for mon- itoring changes in bacterial abundance within porous media.

  5. Adaptive Gaussian quadrature detection for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, L.; Imre, S.

    2016-03-01

    We propose the adaptive quadrature detection for multicarrier continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). A multicarrier CVQKD scheme uses Gaussian subcarrier continuous variables for the information conveying and Gaussian sub-channels for the transmission. The proposed multicarrier detection scheme dynamically adapts to the subchannel conditions using a corresponding statistics which is provided by our sophisticated sub-channel estimation procedure. The sub-channel estimation phase determines the transmittance coefficients of the sub-channels, which information are used further in the adaptive quadrature decoding process. We define a technique to estimate the transmittance conditions of the sub-channels. We introduce the terms of single and collective adaptive quadrature detection. We prove the achievable error probabilities, the signal-to-noise ratios, and quantify the attributes of the framework. The adaptive detection scheme allows to utilize the extra resources of multicarrier CVQKD and to maximize the amount of transmittable valuable information in diverse measurement and transmission conditions. The framework is particularly convenient for experimental CVQKD scenarios.

  6. A unified quadrature-based superconvergent finite element formulation for eigenvalue computation of wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Xiwei; Pan, Feixu

    2016-11-01

    A simple and unified finite element formulation is presented for superconvergent eigenvalue computation of wave equations ranging from 1D to 3D. In this framework, a general method based upon the so called α mass matrix formulation is first proposed to effectively construct 1D higher order mass matrices for arbitrary order elements. The finite elements discussed herein refer to the Lagrangian type of Lobatto elements that take the Lobatto points as nodes. Subsequently a set of quadrature rules that exactly integrate the 1D higher order mass matrices are rationally derived, which are termed as the superconvergent quadrature rules. More importantly, in 2D and 3D cases, it is found that the employment of these quadrature rules via tensor product simultaneously for the mass and stiffness matrix integrations of Lobatto elements produces a unified superconvergent formulation for the eigenvalue or frequency computation without wave propagation direction dependence, which usually is a critical issue for the multidimensional higher order mass matrix formulation. Consequently the proposed approach is capable of computing arbitrary frequencies in a superconvergent fashion. Meanwhile, numerical implementation of the proposed method for multidimensional problems is trivial. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is systematically demonstrated by a series of numerical examples. Numerical results revealed that a superconvergence with 2(p+1)th order of frequency accuracy is achieved by the present unified formulation for the pth order Lobatto element.

  7. Output field-quadrature measurements and squeezing in ultrastrong cavity-QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassi, Roberto; Savasta, Salvatore; Garziano, Luigi; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Nori, Franco

    2016-12-01

    We study the squeezing of output quadratures of an electro-magnetic field escaping from a resonator coupled to a general quantum system with arbitrary interaction strengths. The generalized theoretical analysis of output squeezing proposed here is valid for all the interaction regimes of cavity-quantum electrodynamics: from the weak to the strong, ultrastrong, and deep coupling regimes. For coupling rates comparable or larger then the cavity resonance frequency, the standard input-output theory for optical cavities fails to calculate the variance of output field-quadratures and predicts a non-negligible amount of output squeezing, even if the system is in its ground state. Here we show that, for arbitrary interaction strength and for general cavity-embedded quantum systems, no squeezing can be found in the output-field quadratures if the system is in its ground state. We also apply the proposed theoretical approach to study the output squeezing produced by: (i) an artificial two-level atom embedded in a coherently-excited cavity; and (ii) a cascade-type three-level system interacting with a cavity field mode. In the latter case the output squeezing arises from the virtual photons of the atom-cavity dressed states. This work extends the possibility of predicting and analyzing the results of continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography when optical resonators interact very strongly with other quantum systems.

  8. Spectral Quadrature method for accurate O(N) electronic structure calculations of metals and insulators

    DOE PAGES

    Pratapa, Phanisri P.; Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E.

    2015-12-02

    We present the Clenshaw–Curtis Spectral Quadrature (SQ) method for real-space O(N) Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In this approach, all quantities of interest are expressed as bilinear forms or sums over bilinear forms, which are then approximated by spatially localized Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature rules. This technique is identically applicable to both insulating and metallic systems, and in conjunction with local reformulation of the electrostatics, enables the O(N) evaluation of the electronic density, energy, and atomic forces. The SQ approach also permits infinite-cell calculations without recourse to Brillouin zone integration or large supercells. We employ a finite difference representation in order tomore » exploit the locality of electronic interactions in real space, enable systematic convergence, and facilitate large-scale parallel implementation. In particular, we derive expressions for the electronic density, total energy, and atomic forces that can be evaluated in O(N) operations. We demonstrate the systematic convergence of energies and forces with respect to quadrature order as well as truncation radius to the exact diagonalization result. In addition, we show convergence with respect to mesh size to established O(N3) planewave results. In conclusion, we establish the efficiency of the proposed approach for high temperature calculations and discuss its particular suitability for large-scale parallel computation.« less

  9. Spectral Quadrature method for accurate O(N) electronic structure calculations of metals and insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratapa, Phanisri P.; Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E.

    2016-03-01

    We present the Clenshaw-Curtis Spectral Quadrature (SQ) method for real-space O(N) Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In this approach, all quantities of interest are expressed as bilinear forms or sums over bilinear forms, which are then approximated by spatially localized Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rules. This technique is identically applicable to both insulating and metallic systems, and in conjunction with local reformulation of the electrostatics, enables the O(N) evaluation of the electronic density, energy, and atomic forces. The SQ approach also permits infinite-cell calculations without recourse to Brillouin zone integration or large supercells. We employ a finite difference representation in order to exploit the locality of electronic interactions in real space, enable systematic convergence, and facilitate large-scale parallel implementation. In particular, we derive expressions for the electronic density, total energy, and atomic forces that can be evaluated in O(N) operations. We demonstrate the systematic convergence of energies and forces with respect to quadrature order as well as truncation radius to the exact diagonalization result. In addition, we show convergence with respect to mesh size to established O(N3) planewave results. Finally, we establish the efficiency of the proposed approach for high temperature calculations and discuss its particular suitability for large-scale parallel computation.

  10. A unified quadrature-based superconvergent finite element formulation for eigenvalue computation of wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Xiwei; Pan, Feixu

    2017-01-01

    A simple and unified finite element formulation is presented for superconvergent eigenvalue computation of wave equations ranging from 1D to 3D. In this framework, a general method based upon the so called α mass matrix formulation is first proposed to effectively construct 1D higher order mass matrices for arbitrary order elements. The finite elements discussed herein refer to the Lagrangian type of Lobatto elements that take the Lobatto points as nodes. Subsequently a set of quadrature rules that exactly integrate the 1D higher order mass matrices are rationally derived, which are termed as the superconvergent quadrature rules. More importantly, in 2D and 3D cases, it is found that the employment of these quadrature rules via tensor product simultaneously for the mass and stiffness matrix integrations of Lobatto elements produces a unified superconvergent formulation for the eigenvalue or frequency computation without wave propagation direction dependence, which usually is a critical issue for the multidimensional higher order mass matrix formulation. Consequently the proposed approach is capable of computing arbitrary frequencies in a superconvergent fashion. Meanwhile, numerical implementation of the proposed method for multidimensional problems is trivial. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is systematically demonstrated by a series of numerical examples. Numerical results revealed that a superconvergence with 2(p+1)th order of frequency accuracy is achieved by the present unified formulation for the pth order Lobatto element.

  11. Quadrature-Free Implementation of the Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Hyperbolic Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, H. L.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1996-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin formulation that avoids the use of discrete quadrature formulas is described and applied to linear and nonlinear test problems in one and two space dimensions. This approach requires less computational time and storage than conventional implementations but preserves the compactness and robustness inherent to the discontinuous Galerkin method. Test problems include both linear and nonlinear one-dimensional scalar advection of botH smooth and discontinuous initial value problems, two-dimensional scalar advection of smooth initial value problems discretized by using unstructured grids with varying degrees of smoothness and regularity, and two-dimensional linear Euler solutions on unstructured grids.

  12. Improving noiseless linear amplification for optical quantum communication with quadrature squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Zhang, ShengLi; Zou, XuBo; Bi, SiWen; Lin, XuLing

    2013-02-01

    Quantum noiseless linear amplification (NLA) is an important tool for long-distance optical quantum communication. In this paper, we show that NLA with linear optics and photon counts can be further improved by applying quadrature squeezing. Moreover, we find that such enhancement through squeezing can be observed even when a photon dichotic on-off detector and a pseudo-single-photon state are applied to the amplification process. Such a result could find more applications in already-known NLA-related quantum information tasks.

  13. Full quadrature regeneration of QPSK signals using sequential phase sensitive amplification and parametric saturation.

    PubMed

    Bottrill, K R H; Hesketh, G; Jones, L; Parmigiani, F; Richardson, D J; Petropoulos, P

    2017-01-23

    We demonstrate all-optical regeneration of both the phase and the amplitude of a 10 GBaud quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signal using two nonlinear stages. First we regenerate the phase using a wavelength converting phase sensitive amplifier and then we regenerate the amplitude using a saturated single-pump parametric amplifier, returning the signal to its original wavelength at the same time. We exploit the conjugating nature of the two processing stages to eliminate the intrinsic SPM distortion of the system, further improving performance.

  14. A Synthetic Quadrature Phase Detector/Demodulator for Fourier Transform Transform Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed to demodulate (velocity correct) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data that is taken with an analog to digital converter that digitizes equally spaced in time. This method makes it possible to use simple low cost, high resolution audio digitizers to record high quality data without the need for an event timer or quadrature laser hardware, and makes it possible to use a metrology laser of any wavelength. The reduced parts count and simplicity implementation makes it an attractive alternative in space based applications when compared to previous methods such as the Brault algorithm.

  15. Differential quadrature solution of nonlinear Klein-Gordon and sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekmen, B.; Tezer-Sezgin, M.

    2012-08-01

    Differential quadrature method (DQM) is proposed to solve the one-dimensional quadratic and cubic Klein-Gordon equations, and two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation. We apply DQM in space direction and also blockwise in time direction. Initial and derivative boundary conditions are also approximated by DQM. DQM provides one to obtain numerical results with very good accuracy using considerably small number of grid points. Numerical solutions are obtained by using Gauss-Chebyshev-Lobatto (GCL) grid points in space intervals, and GCL grid points in each equally divided time blocks.

  16. Automatic IQ Imbalance Compensation Technique for Quadrature Modulator by Single-Tone Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minseok; Konishi, Yohei; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Gao, Boxin

    This letter proposes an automatic IQ imbalance compensation technique for quadrature modulators by means of spectrum measurement of RF signal using a spectrum analyzer. The analyzer feeds back only magnitude information of the frequency spectrum of the signal. To realize IQ imbalance compensation, the conventional method of steepest descent is modified; the descent direction is empirically determined and a variable step-size is introduced for accelerating convergence. The experimental results for a four-channel transmitter operating at 11GHz are presented for verification.

  17. Optimization of quadrature signal processing for laser interferometers for demanding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PodŻorny, Tomasz; Budzyń, Grzegorz; Tkaczyk, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    Presented paper performs an analysis of quadrature signal processing algorithms for high demanding laser interferometry applications. Careful signal processing is required to minimize nonlinearities which come from optical path and components' imperfections, and reduce overall instrumental error. Paper focuses on algebraic fits, because implementation for real time systems was a main requirement. The most demanding applications are stationary measurements where the position slightly fluctuates in the range below one fringe period. Therefore, analysis was performed for samples that were spread along a few milliradians of a full circle.

  18. Quantum quadrature amplitude modulation system and its applicability to coherent-state quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kentaro; Hirota, Osamu

    2005-08-01

    The quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal of coherent state of light is applied to the quantum stream cipher by Y-00 protocol. We first discuss on the performance of the square-root measurement (SRM) for the QAM signals in comparison with the optimum receiver. It is shown that the quantum stream cipher with the QAM signals is designed by using the SRM, taking account of the ciphertext-only attack and the known/chosen plain attack. Furthermore, the modification of the quantum stream cipher with the QAM signals is considered.

  19. Quadrature demodulation based circuit implementation of pulse stream for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoupeng, Song; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Converting ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream is the key step of finite rate of innovation (FRI) sparse sampling. At present, ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming techniques are mainly based on digital algorithms. No hardware circuit that can achieve it has been reported. This paper proposes a new quadrature demodulation (QD) based circuit implementation method for forming an ultrasonic pulse stream. Elaborating on FRI sparse sampling theory, the process of ultrasonic signal is explained, followed by a discussion and analysis of ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming methods. In contrast to ultrasonic signal envelope extracting techniques, a quadrature demodulation method (QDM) is proposed. Simulation experiments were performed to determine its performance at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The circuit was then designed, with mixing module, oscillator, low pass filter (LPF), and root of square sum module. Finally, application experiments were carried out on pipeline sample ultrasonic flaw testing. The experimental results indicate that the QDM can accurately convert ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream, and reverse the original signal information, such as pulse width, amplitude, and time of arrival. This technique lays the foundation for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling directly with hardware circuitry.

  20. Digital Detection and Processing of Multiple Quadrature Harmonics for EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, R.; Som, S.; Kesselring, E.; Kuppusamy, P.; Zweier, J.L.; Potter, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    A quadrature digital receiver and associated signal estimation procedure are reported for L-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The approach provides simultaneous acquisition and joint processing of multiple harmonics in both in-phase and out-of-phase channels. The digital receiver, based on a high-speed dual-channel analog-to-digital converter, allows direct digital down-conversion with heterodyne processing using digital capture of the microwave reference signal. Thus, the receiver avoids noise and nonlinearity associated with analog mixers. Also, the architecture allows for low-Q anti-alias filtering and does not require the sampling frequency to be time-locked to the microwave reference. A noise model applicable for arbitrary contributions of oscillator phase noise is presented, and a corresponding maximum-likelihood estimator of unknown parameters is also reported. The signal processing is applicable for Lorentzian lineshape under nonsaturating conditions. The estimation is carried out using a convergent iterative algorithm capable of jointly processing the in-phase and out-of-phase data in the presence of phase noise and unknown microwave phase. Cramér-Rao bound analysis and simulation results demonstrate a significant reduction in linewidth estimation error using quadrature detection, for both low and high values of phase noise. EPR spectroscopic data are also reported for illustration. PMID:20971667

  1. Stieltjes polynomials and Gauss-Kronrod quadrature formulae for measures induced by Chebyshev polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaris, Sotirios

    1995-03-01

    Given a fixed n≥1, and a (monic) orthogonal polynomial πn(·)Dπn(·;dσ) relative to a positive measuredσ on the interval [a, b], one can define the nonnegative measure , to which correspond the (monic) orthogonal polynomials . The coefficients in the three-term recurrence relation for , whendσ is a Chebyshev measure of any of the four kinds, were obtained analytically in closed form by Gautschi and Li. Here, we give explicit formulae for the Stieltjes polynomials whendσ is any of the four Chebyshev measures. In addition, we show that the corresponding Gauss-Kronrod quadrature formulae for each of these , based on the zeros of and , have all the desirable properties of the interlacing of nodes, their inclusion in [-1, 1], and the positivity of all quadrature weights. Exceptions occur only for the Chebyshev measuredσ of the third or fourth kind andn even, in which case the inclusion property fails. The precise degree of exactness for each of these formulae is also determined.

  2. 'EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVES' ARE WAVES: FIRST QUADRATURE OBSERVATIONS OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE FROM STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Patsourakos, Spiros; Vourlidas, Angelos E-mail: vourlidas@nrl.navy.mil

    2009-08-01

    The nature of coronal mass ejection (CME)-associated low corona propagating disturbances, 'extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves', has been controversial since their discovery by EIT on SOHO. The low-cadence, single-viewpoint EUV images and the lack of simultaneous inner corona white-light observations have hindered the resolution of the debate on whether they are true waves or just projections of the expanding CME. The operation of the twin EUV imagers and inner corona coronagraphs aboard STEREO has improved the situation dramatically. During early 2009, the STEREO Ahead (STA) and Behind (STB) spacecrafts observed the Sun in quadrature having a {approx}90 deg. angular separation. An EUV wave and CME erupted from active region 11012, on February 13, when the region was exactly at the limb for STA and hence at disk center for STB. The STEREO observations capture the development of a CME and its accompanying EUV wave not only with high cadence but also in quadrature. The resulting unprecedented data set allowed us to separate the CME structures from the EUV wave signatures and to determine without doubt the true nature of the wave. It is a fast-mode MHD wave after all.

  3. Compressive optical image encryption with two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Li, Hongbing; Li, Jiaosheng; Pan, Yangyang; Li, Rong

    2015-06-01

    An image encryption method which combines two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography with compressive sensing (CS) has been proposed in the fully optical domain. An object image is firstly encrypted to two on-axis quadrature-phase holograms using the two random phase masks in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the two encrypted images are highly compressed to a one-dimensional signal using the single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the two compressive encrypted holograms are exactly reconstructed from much less than the Nyquist sampling number of observations by solving an optimization problem, and the original image can be decrypted with only two reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. This method largely decreases holograms data volume for the current optical image encryption system, and it is also suitable for some special optical imaging cases such as different wavelengths imaging and weak light imaging. Numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of this novel image encryption method.

  4. Application of Quadrature Methods for Re-Weighting in Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou Abdel-Rehim, William Detmold, Kostas Orginos

    2011-12-01

    Re-weighting is a useful tool that has been employed in Lattice QCD in different contexts including, tuning the strange quark mass, approaching the light quark mass regime, and simulating electromagnetic fields on top of QCD gauge configurations. In case of re-weighting the sea quark mass, the re-weighting factor is given by the ratio of the determinants of two Dirac operators D{sub a} and D{sub b}. A popular approach for computing this ratio is to use a pseudofermion representation of the determinant of the composite operator {Omega} = D{sub a}(D{sub b}{sup {dagger}}D{sub b}){sup -1} D{sub a}{sup {dagger}}. Here, we study using quadrature methods together with noise vectors to compute the ratio of determinants. We show that, with quadrature methods each determinant can be computed separately using the operators {Omega}{sub a} = D{sub a}{sup {dagger}}D{sub a} and {Omega}{sub b} = D{sub b}{sup {dagger}} D{sub b}. We also discuss using bootstrap re-sampling to remove the bias from the determinant estimator.

  5. Achromatic registration of quadrature components of the optical spectrum in spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Shilyagin, P A; Gelikonov, G V; Gelikonov, V M; Moiseev, A A; Terpelov, D A

    2014-07-31

    We have thoroughly investigated the method of simultaneous reception of spectral components with the achromatised quadrature phase shift between two portions of a reference wave, designed for the effective suppression of the 'mirror' artefact in the resulting image obtained by means of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). We have developed and experimentally tested a phase-shifting element consisting of a beam divider, which splits the reference optical beam into the two beams, and of delay lines being individual for each beam, which create a mutual phase difference of π/2 in the double pass of the reference beam. The phase shift achromatism over a wide spectral range is achieved by using in the delay lines the individual elements with different dispersion characteristics. The ranges of admissible adjustment parameters of the achromatised delay line are estimated for exact and inexact conformity of the geometric characteristics of its components to those calculated. A possibility of simultaneous recording of the close-to-quadrature spectral components with a single linear photodetector element is experimentally confirmed. The suppression of the artefact mirror peak in the OCT-signal by an additional 9 dB relative to the level of its suppression is experimentally achieved when the air delay line is used. Two-dimensional images of the surface positioned at an angle to the axis of the probe beam are obtained with the correction of the 'mirror' artefact while maintaining the dynamic range of the image. (laser biophotonics)

  6. Methods to Prescribe Particle Motion to Minimize Quadrature Error in Meshfree Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Jeremy; Erickson, Lindsay; Morris, Karla; Poliakoff, David

    2015-11-01

    Meshfree methods are an attractive approach for simulating material systems undergoing large-scale deformation, such as spray break up, free surface flows, and droplets. Particles, which can be easily moved, are used as nodes and/or quadrature points rather than a relying on a fixed mesh. Most methods move particles according to the local fluid velocity that allows for the convection terms in the Navier-Stokes equations to be easily accounted for. However, this is a trade-off against numerical accuracy as the flow can often move particles to configurations with high quadrature error, and artificial compressibility is often required to prevent particles from forming undesirable regions of high and low concentrations. In this work, we consider the other side of the trade-off: moving particles based on reducing numerical error. Methods derived from molecular dynamics show that particles can be moved to minimize a surrogate for the solution error, resulting in substantially more accurate simulations at a fixed cost. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Low-Latitude Solar Wind During the Fall 1998 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poletto, G.; Suess, Steven T.; Biesecker, D.; Esser, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Zurbuchen, T.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Fall 1998 SOlar-Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) - Ulysses quadrature occurred when Ulysses was at 5.2 AU, 17.4 deg South of the equator, and off the West line of the Sun. SOHO coronal observations, at heliocentric distances of a few solar radii, showed that the line through the solar center and Ulysses crossed, over the first days of observations, a dark, weakly emitting area and through the northern edge of a streamer complex during the second half of the quadrature campaign. Ulysses in situ observations showed this transition to correspond to a decrease from higher speed wind typical of coronal hole flow to low speed wind. Physical parameters (density, temperature, flow speed) of the low latitude coronal plasma sampled over the campaign are determined using constraints from what is the same plasma measured later in situ and simulating the intensities of the Hydrogen Lyman-alpha and OVI 1032 and 1037 Angstrom lines, measured by the Ultra Violet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on SOHO. The densities, temperatures and outflow speed are compared with the same characteristic flow parameters for high-latitude fast wind streams and typical slow solar wind.

  8. A quadrature based method of moments for nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Dustin L.; Vedula, Prakash

    2011-09-01

    Fokker-Planck equations which are nonlinear with respect to their probability densities and occur in many nonequilibrium systems relevant to mean field interaction models, plasmas, fermions and bosons can be challenging to solve numerically. To address some underlying challenges, we propose the application of the direct quadrature based method of moments (DQMOM) for efficient and accurate determination of transient (and stationary) solutions of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations (NLFPEs). In DQMOM, probability density (or other distribution) functions are represented using a finite collection of Dirac delta functions, characterized by quadrature weights and locations (or abscissas) that are determined based on constraints due to evolution of generalized moments. Three particular examples of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations considered in this paper include descriptions of: (i) the Shimizu-Yamada model, (ii) the Desai-Zwanzig model (both of which have been developed as models of muscular contraction) and (iii) fermions and bosons. Results based on DQMOM, for the transient and stationary solutions of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, have been found to be in good agreement with other available analytical and numerical approaches. It is also shown that approximate reconstruction of the underlying probability density function from moments obtained from DQMOM can be satisfactorily achieved using a maximum entropy method.

  9. Coherent Detection of Optical Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying Signals With Carrier Phase Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly-Gagnon, Dany-Sebastien; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Katoh, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a coherent optical receiver for demodulating optical quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals. At the receiver, a phase-diversity homodyne detection scheme is employed without locking the phase of the local oscillator (LO). To handle the carrier phase drift, the carrier phase is estimated with digital signal processing (DSP) on the homodyne-detected signal. Such a scheme presents the following major advantages over the conventional optical differential detection. First, its bit error rate (BER) performance is better than that of differential detection. This higher sensitivity can extend the reach of unrepeated transmission systems and reduce crosstalk between multiwavelength channels. Second, the optoelectronic conversion process is linear, so that the whole optical signal information can be postprocessed in the electrical domain. Third, this scheme is applicable to multilevel modulation formats such as M-array PSK and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The performance of the receiver is evaluated through various simulations and experiments. As a result, an unrepeated transmission over 210 km with a 20-Gb/s optical QPSK signal is achieved. Moreover, in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) environment, coherent detection allows the filtering of a desired wavelength channel to reside entirely in the electrical domain, taking advantage of the sharp cutoff characteristics of electrical filters. The experiments show the feasibility to transmit polarization-multiplexed 40-Gb/s QPSK signals over 200 km with channel spacing of 16 GHz, leading to a spectral efficiency as high as 2.5 b/s/Hz.

  10. Combined quadrature amplitude modulation and convolutional codes for cross-coupled multidimensional channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehrad, M.; Sundberg, C.-E.; McLane, P. J.

    The performance of cross-coupled, M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) systems is determined when bandwidth efficient trellis codes are used to combat interference. Performance with and without compensation for cross-coupled interference is presented. It is found that simple trellis codes can maintain the error probability at an acceptable level for cross-coupling parameters that render uncoded systems unusable. Up to two dimensional trellis codes are considered for four dimensional QAM signals. The average probability of the most likely error events is calculated by using the method of moments. The results are applicable to any digital communication system using multidimensional quadrature amplitude modulation, e.g., voiceband modems and cross-polarized radio systems. In the paper the analysis is restricted to nondispersive cross-coupling models. In most cases the coding gain is larger than in the absence of cross-coupling interference. Specifically, it is found that simple trellis codes have coding gains of more than 5 dB in cross-coupling interference compared to 3 dB for a Gaussian channel. This is obtained for schemes compared at equal bandwidth.

  11. Digital detection and processing of multiple quadrature harmonics for EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, R; Som, S; Kesselring, E; Kuppusamy, P; Zweier, J L; Potter, L C

    2010-12-01

    A quadrature digital receiver and associated signal estimation procedure are reported for L-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The approach provides simultaneous acquisition and joint processing of multiple harmonics in both in-phase and out-of-phase channels. The digital receiver, based on a high-speed dual-channel analog-to-digital converter, allows direct digital down-conversion with heterodyne processing using digital capture of the microwave reference signal. Thus, the receiver avoids noise and nonlinearity associated with analog mixers. Also, the architecture allows for low-Q anti-alias filtering and does not require the sampling frequency to be time-locked to the microwave reference. A noise model applicable for arbitrary contributions of oscillator phase noise is presented, and a corresponding maximum-likelihood estimator of unknown parameters is also reported. The signal processing is applicable for Lorentzian lineshape under nonsaturating conditions. The estimation is carried out using a convergent iterative algorithm capable of jointly processing the in-phase and out-of-phase data in the presence of phase noise and unknown microwave phase. Cramér-Rao bound analysis and simulation results demonstrate a significant reduction in linewidth estimation error using quadrature detection, for both low and high values of phase noise. EPR spectroscopic data are also reported for illustration.

  12. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals

    PubMed Central

    Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an AWG provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5 kHz and the scan frequency was 40 kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2 mM trityl OX63 in water, 15N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5 G partially

  13. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-12-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5 kHz and the scan frequency was 40 kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2 mM trityl OX63 in water, 15N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5 G partially

  14. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-10-30

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5kHz and the scan frequency was 40kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2mM trityl OX63 in water, (15)N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5G partially-resolved proton

  15. Stress fields around two pores in an elastic body: exact quadrature domain solutions.

    PubMed

    Crowdy, Darren

    2015-08-08

    Analytical solutions are given for the stress fields, in both compression and far-field shear, in a two-dimensional elastic body containing two interacting non-circular pores. The two complex potentials governing the solutions are found by using a conformal mapping from a pre-image annulus with those potentials expressed in terms of the Schottky-Klein prime function for the annulus. Solutions for a three-parameter family of elastic bodies with two equal symmetric pores are presented and the compressibility of a special family of pore pairs is studied in detail. The methodology extends to two unequal pores. The importance for boundary value problems of plane elasticity of a special class of planar domains known as quadrature domains is also elucidated. This observation provides the route to generalization of the mathematical approach here to finding analytical solutions for the stress fields in bodies containing any finite number of pores.

  16. Fast numerical solution for fractional diffusion equations by exponential quadrature rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Hai-Wei; Pang, Hong-Kui

    2015-10-01

    After spatial discretization to the fractional diffusion equation by the shifted Grünwald formula, it leads to a system of ordinary differential equations, where the resulting coefficient matrix possesses the Toeplitz-like structure. An exponential quadrature rule is employed to solve such a system of ordinary differential equations. The convergence by the proposed method is theoretically studied. In practical computation, the product of a Toeplitz-like matrix exponential and a vector is calculated by the shift-invert Arnoldi method. Meanwhile, the coefficient matrix satisfies a condition that guarantees the fast approximation by the shift-invert Arnoldi method. Numerical results are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Nonlinear free vibrations of curved double walled carbon nanotubes using differential quadrature method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigeroglu, Ender; Samandari, Hamed

    2014-11-01

    Nonlinear free vibration analysis of curved double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) embedded in an elastic medium is studied in this study. Nonlinearities considered are due to large deflection of carbon nanotubes (geometric nonlinearity) and nonlinear interlayer van der Waals forces between inner and outer tubes. The differential quadrature method (DQM) is utilized to discretize the partial differential equations of motion in spatial domain, which resulted in a nonlinear set of algebraic equations of motion. The effect of nonlinearities, different end conditions, initial curvature, and stiffness of the surrounding elastic medium, and vibrational modes on the nonlinear free vibration of DWCNTs is studied. Results show that it is possible to detect different vibration modes occurring at a single vibration frequency when CNTs vibrate in the out-of-phase vibration mode. Moreover, it is observed that boundary conditions have significant effect on the nonlinear natural frequencies of the DWCNT including multiple solutions.

  18. Electrostatic stiffness correction for quadrature error in decoupled dual-mass MEMS gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongsheng; Cao, Huiliang; Ni, Yunfang

    2014-07-01

    This paper proposes an electrostatic stiffness correction method for the quadrature error (QUER) in a decoupled dual-mass gyroscope structure. The QUER is caused by the imperfections during the structure manufacturing process, and the two masses usually have different QUERs. The harm contribution to the Coriolis signal is analyzed and quantified. The generating forms of QUER motion in both masses are analyzed, the correction electrodes' working principle is introduced, and a single mass individual correction method is proposed. The QUER stiffness correction system is designed based on a PI controller, and the experiments are arranged to verify the theoretical analysis. The bias stability decreases from 2.06 to 0.64 deg/h after the QUER correction, and the parameters of scale factor such as nonlinearly, asymmetry, and repeatability, reduce from 143, 557, and 210 ppm to 84, 242, and 175 ppm, respectively.

  19. Parallel-quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using polarization beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhargab; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Rao, Dvgln

    2012-11-01

    We present a digital holography microscopy technique based on parallel-quadrature phase-shifting method. Two π/2 phase-shifted holograms are recorded simultaneously using polarization phase-shifting principle, slightly off-axis recording geometry, and two identical CCD sensors. The parallel phase-shifting is realized by combining circularly polarized object beam with a 45° degree polarized reference beam through a polarizing beam splitter. DC term is eliminated by subtracting the two holograms from each other and the object information is reconstructed after selecting the frequency spectrum of the real image. Both amplitude and phase object reconstruction results are presented. Simultaneous recording eliminates phase errors caused by mechanical vibrations and air turbulences. The slightly off-axis recording geometry with phase-shifting allows a much larger dimension of the spatial filter for reconstruction of the object information. This leads to better reconstruction capability than traditional off-axis holography.

  20. Performance of quadrature overlapped raised-cosine modulation over nonlinear satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Simon, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper considers the performance evaluation of Staggered Quadrature Overlapped Raised Cosine (SQORC) signal transmission through wideband nonlinear satellite channels in the presence of uplink and downlink additive Gaussian noise. Expressions for the bit error rate are derived for a general transponder model with AM-AM and AM-PM conversion. It is shown that the bit error rate of SQORC is one-half of the sum of the bit error rate of MSK at 2/3 of the uplink signal-to-noise ratio and the bit error rate of Quadriphase Phase-Shift Keying QPSK at 4/3 of the uplink signal-to-noise ratio, whereas the spectrum of SQROC is the product of MSK and QPSK spectra. Numerical results are presented for a transponder which is modelled as a hard limiter.

  1. Spherical-earth gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Frese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Luca, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration is used to calculate the anomalous potential of gravity and magnetic fields and their spatial derivatives on a spherical earth. The procedure involves representation of the anomalous source as a distribution of equivalent point gravity poles or point magnetic dipoles. The distribution of equivalent point sources is determined directly from the volume limits of the anomalous body. The variable limits of integration for an arbitrarily shaped body are obtained from interpolations performed on a set of body points which approximate the body's surface envelope. The versatility of the method is shown by its ability to treat physical property variations within the source volume as well as variable magnetic fields over the source and observation surface. Examples are provided which illustrate the capabilities of the technique, including a preliminary modeling of potential field signatures for the Mississippi embayment crustal structure at 450 km.

  2. Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Reaction-Diffusion Brusselator System by Differential Quadrature Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, R. C.; Jiwari, Ram

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid, convergent and accurate differential quadrature method (DQM) is employed for numerical study of a two-dimensional reaction-diffusion Brusselator system. In the Brusselator system the reaction terms arise from the mathematical modeling of chemical systems such as in enzymatic reactions, and in plasma and laser physics in multiple coupling between modes. By employing DQM, accurate results can be obtained using fewer grid points in spatial domain for a large value of T = 50. We also found that Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto grid points give excellent results in comparison to other grid points such as uniform grid points. Three examples are solved to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the DQM. Convergence and stability of the method is also examined.

  3. Mixed-precision evaluation of two-electron integrals by Rys quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadchev, Andrey; Gordon, Mark S.

    2012-08-01

    A mixed precision implementation of two-electron integrals is demonstrated to have two benefits: (a) computations can be performed reliably in 32-bit precision on architectures for which 32-bit precision is significantly faster than 64-bit precision (e.g. graphical processing units), and (b) numerical results that match those using higher than 64-bit precision can be recovered without a significant penalty associated with performing the entire computation in higher precision. A justification is presented for using mixed precision in the Rys two-electron integral quadrature algorithm, together with timings and numerical results using a variety of floating-point types. The code discussed here presents a systematic way to control the accuracy of the Rys algorithm, regardless of the types and numbers of integrals.

  4. Instrument Reflections and Scene Amplitude Modulation in a Polychromatic Microwave Quadrature Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Chavers, Greg

    2003-01-01

    A polychromatic microwave quadrature interferometer has been characterized using several laboratory plasmas. Reflections between the transmitter and the receiver have been observed, and the effects of including reflection terms in the data reduction equation have been examined. An error analysis which includes the reflections, modulation of the scene beam amplitude by the plasma, and simultaneous measurements at two frequencies has been applied to the empirical database, and the results are summarized. For reflection amplitudes around 1096, the reflection terms were found to reduce the calculated error bars for electron density measurements by about a factor of 2. The impact of amplitude modulation is also quantified. In the complete analysis, the mean error bar for high- density measurements is 7.596, and the mean phase shift error for low-density measurements is 1.2". .

  5. Atom-assisted quadrature squeezing of a mechanical oscillator inside a dispersive cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Asoka

    2016-08-01

    We present a hybrid optomechanical scheme to achieve dynamical squeezing of position quadrature of a mesoscopic mechanical oscillator, that can be externally controlled by classical fields. A membrane-in-the-middle setup is employed, in which an atom in Λ configuration is considered to be trapped on either side of the membrane inside the cavity. We show that a considerable amount of squeezing (beyond the 3-dB limit) can be achieved and maintained at a transient time scale that is not affected by the spontaneous emission of the atom. Squeezing depends upon the initial preparation of atomic states. Further, a strong effective coupling (larger than the relevant decay rates) between the atom and the oscillator can be attained by using large control fields that pump the atom and the cavity. The effects of cavity decay and the phononic bath on squeezing are studied. The results are supported by the detailed analytical calculations.

  6. Detection of interference phase by digital computation of quadrature signals in homodyne laser interferometry.

    PubMed

    Rerucha, Simon; Buchta, Zdenek; Sarbort, Martin; Lazar, Josef; Cip, Ondrej

    2012-10-19

    We have proposed an approach to the interference phase extraction in the homodyne laser interferometry. The method employs a series of computational steps to reconstruct the signals for quadrature detection from an interference signal from a non-polarising interferometer sampled by a simple photodetector. The complexity trade-off is the use of laser beam with frequency modulation capability. It is analytically derived and its validity and performance is experimentally verified. The method has proven to be a feasible alternative for the traditional homodyne detection since it performs with comparable accuracy, especially where the optical setup complexity is principal issue and the modulation of laser beam is not a heavy burden (e.g., in multi-axis sensor or laser diode based systems).

  7. Stress fields around two pores in an elastic body: exact quadrature domain solutions

    PubMed Central

    Crowdy, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Analytical solutions are given for the stress fields, in both compression and far-field shear, in a two-dimensional elastic body containing two interacting non-circular pores. The two complex potentials governing the solutions are found by using a conformal mapping from a pre-image annulus with those potentials expressed in terms of the Schottky–Klein prime function for the annulus. Solutions for a three-parameter family of elastic bodies with two equal symmetric pores are presented and the compressibility of a special family of pore pairs is studied in detail. The methodology extends to two unequal pores. The importance for boundary value problems of plane elasticity of a special class of planar domains known as quadrature domains is also elucidated. This observation provides the route to generalization of the mathematical approach here to finding analytical solutions for the stress fields in bodies containing any finite number of pores. PMID:26339198

  8. Bit error probability of trellis-coded quadrature amplitude modulation over cross-coupled multidimensional channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehrad, Mohsen; Sundberg, Carl-Erik W.

    1987-04-01

    Average bit error probabilities for M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) systems are evaluated using a truncated union bound to calculate an approximate upper bound on the average bit error probability. Coded BPSK and QSPK are studied in a dual-polarized channel with and without an interference compensator. Trellis-coded MQAM signals are also examined. A new technique, dual-channel polarization hopping, which provides diversity gains when applied to coded cross-coupled channels is proposed. Average bit error probabilities for convolutionally coded QAM schemes in cross-coupled interference channels are derived. It is concluded that trellis-coded QAM schemes give larger coding gains in cross-coupled interference channels than in Gaussian noise and the choice of optimum code for the trellis-coded QAM scheme depends on the expected interference level.

  9. Preservation of quadrature Doppler signals from bidirectional slow blood flow close to the vessel wall using an adaptive decomposition algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Shi, Xinling; Zhang, Kexin; Chen, Jianhua

    2009-03-01

    A novel approach based on the phasing-filter (PF) technique and the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm is proposed to preserve quadrature Doppler signal components from bidirectional slow blood flow close to the vessel wall. Bidirectional mixed Doppler ultrasound signals, which were echoed from the forward and reverse moving blood and vessel wall, were initially separated to avoid the phase distortion of quadrature Doppler signals (which is induced from direct decomposition by the nonlinear EMD processing). Separated unidirectional mixed Doppler signals were decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the EMD algorithm and the relevant IMFs that contribute to blood flow components were identified and summed to give the blood flow signals, whereby only the components from the bidirectional slow blood flow close to the vessel wall were retained independently. The complex quadrature Doppler blood flow signal was reconstructed from a combination of the extracted unidirectional Doppler blood flow signals. The proposed approach was applied to simulated and clinical Doppler signals. It is concluded from the experimental results that this approach is practical for the preservation of quadrature Doppler signal components from the bidirectional slow blood flow close to the vessel wall, and may provide more diagnostic information for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

  10. Quadrature mechatronic actuator (QMA) drives for heavy ship doors and machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Gareth J.; Bird, Ross W.; Goehrig, Michael J.; Knoll, William C.; Hoffman, Heath; Park, Jaedo

    2004-07-01

    An important part of the Navy objectives is to be both more efficient and enable manpower reduction is to reduce maintenance, reduce manpower, and eliminate pollutants through creating a more all-electric ship environment. However, placement of both non-centralized and centralized hydraulic systems for control of heavy machinery, large bay doors, articulated systems such as rudders for controlling air flow to the skirt system (such as in Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) is extremely challenging. At the base of the design approach to a Mechatronic Motion System is the fact that such applications do not require high precision. What is required is that the actuator delivers sufficient thrust power without increasing the existing actuator weight and be a self-contained unit. To address this need, QorTek and PSU have been developing a new concept of an entirely new kind of motion system actuator that has few parts, enormous thrust capability for its compact size, and is amenable to affordable manufacture. The new Quadrature Mechatronic Actuator (QMA) is a hydraulic replacement that will match hydraulic force-displacement capabilities in a fully solid-state design. Quadrature Mechatronic Actuators will look very similar to the existing hydraulic actuators currently used on LCAC. These compact self-contained units represent a one-for-one substitute for existing equipment. The Mechatronic Actuator itself will be lighter and slightly smaller than its hydraulic actuator equivalent and use one or more internal hybrid solid-state drivers that are internally coupled to a linear translator.

  11. Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, D. V.; Ivanov, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type, are established. They generalize quadrature formulae involving zeros of Bessel functions, which were first designed by Frappier and Olivier. Bessel quadratures correspond to the Fourier-Hankel integral transform. Some other examples, connected with the Jacobi integral transform, Fourier series in Jacobi orthogonal polynomials and the general Sturm-Liouville problem with regular weight are also given. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  12. Dual-mass vibratory rate gyroscope with suppressed translational acceleration response and quadrature-error correction capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated vibratory rate gyroscope to measure rotation includes two proof-masses mounted in a suspension system anchored to a substrate. The suspension has two principal modes of compliance, one of which is driven into oscillation. The driven oscillation combined with rotation of the substrate about an axis perpendicular to the substrate results in Coriolis acceleration along the other mode of compliance, the sense-mode. The sense-mode is designed to respond to Coriolis accelerationwhile suppressing the response to translational acceleration. This is accomplished using one or more rigid levers connecting the two proof-masses. The lever allows the proof-masses to move in opposite directions in response to Coriolis acceleration. The invention includes a means for canceling errors, termed quadrature error, due to imperfections in implementation of the sensor. Quadrature-error cancellation utilizes electrostatic forces to cancel out undesired sense-axis motion in phase with drive-mode position.

  13. Thermally induced parametric instability in back-action evading measurement of micromechanical quadrature near the zero-point level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Junho; Shaw, Matt; Weinstein, Aaron; Schwab, Keith

    2012-02-01

    Back-action evading (BAE) measurement of mechanical resonators allows, in principle, detection of a single quadrature of motion with sensitivity far below the standard quantum limit, limited in practice only by the non-idealities in the measurement. We report the results of experiments utilizing two-tone BAE in a tightly coupled cavity quantum electro-mechanical system (φc=7.1GHz, φm=10MHz, g=14MHz/nm). Due to excess dissipation in the microwave cavity, we observe a parametric instability induced by the thermal shift of mechanical resonance frequency. This bounds the minimum position imprecision on one quadrature and we measure the imprecision reaching twice the zero-point motion. We discuss the device requirements to avoid this thermal mechanism and perform measurements below the zero-point level.

  14. New formalism for two-photon quantum optics. I - Quadrature phases and squeezed states. II - Mathematical foundation and compact notation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caves, C. M.; Schumaker, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    A new formalism for analyzing two-photon devices, such as parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors, is proposed in part I, focusing on the properties and the significance of the quadrature-phase amplitudes and two-mode squeezed states. Time-stationary quasi-probability noise is also detailed for the case of Gaussian noise, and uncertainty principles for the quadrature-phase amplitudes are outlined, as well as some important properties of the two-mode states. Part II establishes a mathematical foundation for the formalism, with introduction of a vector notation for compact representation of two-mode properties. Fundamental unitary operators and special quantum states are also examined with an emphasis on the two-mode squeezed states. The results are applied to a previously studied degenerate limit (epsilon = 0).

  15. Error analysis in some Gauss-Turan-Radau and Gauss-Turan-Lobatto quadratures for analytic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Spalevic, Miodrag M.

    2004-03-01

    We consider the generalized Gauss-Turan quadrature formulae of Radau and Lobatto type for approximating . The aim of this paper is to analyze the remainder term in the case when f is an analytic function in some region of the complex plane containing the interval [-1,1] in its interior. The remainder term is presented in the form of a contour integral over confocal ellipses (cf. SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 80 (1983) 1170). Sufficient conditions on the convergence for some of such quadratures, associated with the generalized Chebyshev weight functions, are found. Using some ideas from Hunter (BIT 35 (1995) 64) we obtain new estimates of the remainder term, which are very exact. Some numerical results and illustrations are shown.

  16. Silicon Micromachined Waveguide Quadrature-Hybrid Coupler at Terahertz Frequency Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Li; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Ruimin; Xue, Quan

    2015-08-01

    A waveguide quadrature-hybrid coupler operating from 350 to 410 GHz is designed and fabricated using the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) silicon micromachining technique. The four-port branch-line coupling configuration with five branches is used as the basic structure of the coupler. The size of the coupler is about 6.3 mm × 6.3 mm × 1 mm, which is much smaller than the flange used in the vector network analyzer (VNA). Because it is difficult to measure all the characteristics of a four-port coupler with a small size using the two-port VNA with big-size flanges, four testing topologies with different bended input/output waveguide ports are designed for measurements. The terahertz (THz) wedged-type absorbing material is adopted as the replacement of the conventional waveguide matching load because the size of the conventional waveguide matching load is too large to use. Measured results of the proposed coupler are in good agreement with simulated results, indicating that the average insertion loss is 0.9 dB and the isolation is better than 20 dB. Effects of the DRIE process on the coupler's performance are discussed in detail.

  17. Noncontact accurate measurement of cardiopulmonary activity using a compact quadrature Doppler radar sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Zhangyan; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Lin, Fujiang

    2014-03-01

    The designed sensor enables accurate reconstruction of chest-wall movement caused by cardiopulmonary activities, and the algorithm enables estimation of respiration, heartbeat rate, and some indicators of heart rate variability (HRV). In particular, quadrature receiver and arctangent demodulation with calibration are introduced for high linearity representation of chest displacement; 24-bit ADCs with oversampling are adopted for radar baseband acquisition to achieve a high signal resolution; continuous-wavelet filter and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based algorithm are applied for cardio/pulmonary signal recovery and separation so that accurate beat-to-beat interval can be acquired in time domain for HRV analysis. In addition, the wireless sensor is realized and integrated on a printed circuit board compactly. The developed sensor system is successfully tested on both simulated target and human subjects. In simulated target experiments, the baseband signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 73.27 dB, high enough for heartbeat detection. The demodulated signal has 0.35% mean squared error, indicating high demodulation linearity. In human subject experiments, the relative error of extracted beat-to-beat intervals ranges from 2.53% to 4.83% compared with electrocardiography (ECG) R-R peak intervals. The sensor provides an accurate analysis for heart rate with the accuracy of 100% for p = 2% and higher than 97% for p = 1%.

  18. Real-space quadrature: A convenient, efficient representation for multipole expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, David M.

    2015-02-21

    Multipoles are central to the theory and modeling of polarizable and nonpolarizable molecular electrostatics. This has made a representation in terms of point charges a highly sought after goal, since rotation of multipoles is a bottleneck in molecular dynamics implementations. All known point charge representations are orders of magnitude less efficient than spherical harmonics due to either using too many fixed charge locations or due to nonlinear fitting of fewer charge locations. We present the first complete solution to this problem—completely replacing spherical harmonic basis functions by a dramatically simpler set of weights associated to fixed, discrete points on a sphere. This representation is shown to be space optimal. It reduces the spherical harmonic decomposition of Poisson’s operator to pairwise summations over the point set. As a corollary, we also shows exact quadrature-based formulas for contraction over trace-free supersymmetric 3D tensors. Moreover, multiplication of spherical harmonic basis functions translates to a direct product in this representation.

  19. Comparison of two-, three-, and four-exposure quadrature phase-shifting holography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Poon, Ting-Chung; Jhou, Gui-Syu; Chen, Po-Jung

    2011-06-01

    In standard (four-exposure) quadrature phase-shifting holography (QPSH), two holograms and two intensity maps are acquired for zero-order-free and twin-image-free reconstruction. The measurement of the intensity map of the object light can be omitted in three-exposure QPSH. Furthermore, the measurements of the two intensity maps can be omitted in two-exposure QPSH, and the acquisition time of the overall holographic recording process is reduced. In this paper we examine the quality of the reconstructed images in two-, three-, and four-exposure QPSH, in simulations as well as in optical experiments. Various intensity ratios of the object light and the reference light are taken into account. Simulations show that two- and three-exposure QPSH can provide reconstructed images with quality comparable to that of four-exposure QPSH at a low intensity ratio. In practice the intensity ratio is limited by visibility, and thus four-exposure QPSH exhibits the best quality of the reconstructed image. The uniformity and the phase error of the reference light are also discussed. We found in most cases there is no significant difference between the reconstructed images in two- and three-exposure QPSH, and the quality of the reconstructed images is acceptable for visual applications such as the acquisition of three-dimensional scene for display or particle tracking.

  20. Digital services using quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) over CATV analog DWDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, JengRong; Selker, Mark D.; Trail, J.; Piehler, David; Levi, Israel

    2000-04-01

    Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has recently gained great popularity as it provides a cost effective way to increase the transmission capacity of the existing fiber cable plant. For a long time, Dense WDM was exclusively used for baseband digital applications, predominantly in terrestrial long haul networks and in some cases in metropolitan and enterprise networks. Recently, the performance of DWDM components and frequency-stabilized lasers has substantially improved while the costs have down significantly. This makes a variety of new optical network architectures economically viable. The first commercial 8- wavelength DWDM system designed for Hybrid Fiber Coax networks was reported in 1998. This type of DWDM system utilizes Sub-Carrier Multiplexing (SCM) of Quadrature Amplitude Modulated (QAM) signals to transport IP data digital video broadcast and Video on Demand on ITU grid lightwave carriers. The ability of DWDM to provide scalable transmission capacity in the optical layer with SCM granularity is now considered by many to be the most promising technology for future transport and distribution of broadband multimedia services.

  1. A Quadrature-Free Conservative Level Set RKDG for Simulating Atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibben, Zechariah; Herrmann, Marcus

    2012-11-01

    We present an arbitrary high-order, quadrature-free, Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method for the solution of the conservative level set equation (Olsson et al., 2007), used for capturing phase interfaces in atomizing multiphase flows. Special care is taken to maintain high-order accuracy in the reinitialization equation, using appropriate slope limiters when necessary and a shared basis across cell interfaces for the diffusive flux. For efficiency, we implement the method in the context of the dual narrow band overset mesh approach of the Refined Level Set Grid method (Herrmann, 2008). The accuracy, consistency, and convergence of the resulting method is demonstrated using the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) and several standard test cases, including Zalesak's disk and columns and spheres in prescribed deformation fields. Using MMS, we demonstrate k + 1 order spatial convergence for k-th order orthonormal Legendre polynomial basis functions. We furthermore show several orders of magnitude improvement in shape and volume errors over traditional WENO based distance function level set methods, and k - 1 order spatial convergence of interfacial curvature using direct neighbor cells only. Supported by Stanford's 2012 CTR Summer Program and NSF grant CBET-1054272.

  2. A novel multi-channel quadrature Doppler backward scattering reflectometer on the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhongbing; Zhong, Wulu; Jiang, Min; Yang, Zengchen; Zhang, Boyu; Shi, Peiwan; Chen, Wei; Wen, Jie; Chen, Chengyuan; Fu, Bingzhong; Liu, Zetian; Ding, Xuantong; Yang, Qingwei; Duan, Xuru

    2016-11-01

    A novel 16-channel fixed frequency Doppler backward scattering (DBS) reflectometer system has been developed on the HL-2A tokamak. This system is based on the filter-based feedback loop microwave source (FFLMS) technique, which has lower phase noise and lower power variation compared with present tunable frequency generation and comb frequency array generation techniques [J. C. Hillesheim et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083507 (2009) and W. A. Peebles et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D902 (2010)]. The 16-channel DBS system is comprised of four × four-frequency microwave transmitters and direct quadrature demodulation receivers. The working frequencies are 17-24 GHz and 31-38 GHz with the frequency interval of 1 GHz. They are designed to measure the localized intermediate wave-number (k⊥ρ ˜ 1-2, k⊥ ˜ 2-9 cm-1) density fluctuations and the poloidal rotation velocity profile of turbulence. The details of the system design and laboratory tests are presented. Preliminary results of Doppler spectra measured by the multi-channel DBS reflectometer systems are obtained. The plasma rotation and turbulence distribution during supersonic molecular beam injection are analyzed.

  3. Algorithm for the Time-Propagation of the Radial Diffusion Equation Based on a Gaussian Quadrature.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The numerical integration of the time-dependent spherically-symmetric radial diffusion equation from a point source is considered. The flux through the source can vary in time, possibly stochastically based on the concentration produced by the source itself. Fick's one-dimensional diffusion equation is integrated over a time interval by considering a source term and a propagation term. The source term adds new particles during the time interval, while the propagation term diffuses the concentration profile of the previous time step. The integral in the propagation term is evaluated numerically using a combination of a new diffusion-specific Gaussian quadrature and interpolation on a diffusion-specific grid. This attempts to balance accuracy with the least number of points for both integration and interpolation. The theory can also be extended to include a simple reaction-diffusion equation in the limit of high buffer concentrations. The method is unconditionally stable. In fact, not only does it converge for any time step Δt, the method offers one advantage over other methods because Δt can be arbitrarily large; it is solely defined by the timescale on which the flux source turns on and off.

  4. SOHO-Ulysses Spring 2000 Quadrature: Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer and SUMER Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenti, S.; Landi, E.; Bromage, B. J. I.

    2003-06-01

    We present results from SOHO/CDS and SOHO/SUMER coordinated observations of coronal streamers made during the spring 2000 quadrature of SOHO, the Sun, and Ulysses. These observations form part of the JOP 112, which is primarily aimed at investigating the composition of the regions of the corona and the solar wind observed by both SOHO and Ulysses. SUMER and CDS observed the low corona from the limb up to about 1.3 Rsolar from the Sun center. The physical parameters of the plasma, such as electron density, temperature, emission measure, and composition, are measured along the radial direction, toward Ulysses. The variation in these parameters over the 6 day series of observations was examined, and no significant change was seen. The dependence of these parameters on the solar latitude was also investigated. The results indicate that the observed streamers are homogeneous, of coronal composition, and nearly in hydrostatic equilibrium. The structures remained almost stable during the whole period of the observations.

  5. Enhanced 16 Spiral quadrature amplitude modulation scheme for coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Li, Chong; Chen, Lin; Chen, Ming

    2014-09-01

    We propose an enhanced 16 Spiral quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) (16 E-Spiral QAM) scheme to overcome the laser phase noise in a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system. Considering both additive white Gaussian noise and large phase noise, 16 E-Spiral QAM schemes have a better transmission performance compared to conventional 16 QAM CO-OFDM systems. The simulated results show that the required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of the proposed 16 QAM is, respectively, 0.8 and 2.3 dB less than 16 Spiral and conventional 16 QAM at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 in a back-to-back case. After 800-km transmission over a single-mode fiber, the tolerance for the laser linewidth of the 16 E-Spiral QAM can improve about 30 kHz with an OSNR of 18 dB compared to that of a conventional 16 QAM.

  6. Optical-wireless-optical full link for polarization multiplexing quadrature amplitude/phase modulation signal transmission.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen

    2013-11-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless integration system at the Q-band, in which up to 40 Gb/s polarization multiplexing multilevel quadrature amplitude/phase modulation (PM-QAM) signal can be first transmitted over 20 km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28), then delivered over a 2 m 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless link, and finally transmitted over another 20 km SMF-28. The PM-QAM modulated wireless millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal at 40 GHz is generated based on the remote heterodyning technique, and demodulated by the radio-frequency transparent photonic technique based on homodyne coherent detection and baseband digital signal processing. The classic constant modulus algorithm equalization is used at the receiver to realize polarization demultiplexing of the PM-QAM signal. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we realize the conversion of the PM-QAM modulated wireless mm-wave signal to the optical signal as well as 20 km fiber transmission of the converted optical signal.

  7. Accurate phase measurements for thick spherical objects using optical quadrature microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures have resulted in the birth of over three million babies since 1978. Yet the live birth rate in the United States was only 34% in 2005, with 32% of the successful pregnancies resulting in multiple births. These multiple pregnancies were directly attributed to the transfer of multiple embryos to increase the probability that a single, healthy embryo was included. Current viability markers used for IVF, such as the cell number, symmetry, size, and fragmentation, are analyzed qualitatively with differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. However, this method is not ideal for quantitative measures beyond the 8-cell stage of development because the cells overlap and obstruct the view within and below the cluster of cells. We have developed the phase-subtraction cell-counting method that uses the combination of DIC and optical quadrature microscopy (OQM) to count the number of cells accurately in live mouse embryos beyond the 8-cell stage. We have also created a preliminary analysis to measure the cell symmetry, size, and fragmentation quantitatively by analyzing the relative dry mass from the OQM image in conjunction with the phase-subtraction count. In this paper, we will discuss the characterization of OQM with respect to measuring the phase accurately for spherical samples that are much larger than the depth of field. Once fully characterized and verified with human embryos, this methodology could provide the means for a more accurate method to score embryo viability.

  8. An efficient quadrature for 2.5D boundary element calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasess, Christian H.; Kreuzer, Wolfgang; Waubke, Holger

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, the boundary element method has become a widely used tool for calculating the mitigation effects of noise barriers. However, since for large structures calculations in 3D become very inefficient, most of the standard implementations are only in 2D. This means that the noise source is implicitly assumed to be given by a coherent line source, which is not realistic in most cases. By using a Fourier transform with respect to a spatial coordinate along the length of the structure it is possible to reduce the 3D problem to several 2D problems with distinct wavenumbers which allows the simulation of more realistic noise sources and which is typically referred to as 2.5D BEM. To that end, it is necessary to numerically calculate a Fourier-like integral over all the 2D solutions. In this work, an efficient way to calculate this integral is given building on existing approaches using Clenshaw-Curtis-Filon quadrature and demodulation combined with an adaptive order-selection scheme. As BEM calculations are costly, the main focus of the method introduced lies on avoiding too many of these calculations. The efficiency of the method is illustrated using two different examples: a reflecting cylinder and an L-shaped noise barrier.

  9. Round-robin differential quadrature phase-shift quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chun; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Mu-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Recently, a round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol was proposed [Nature 509, 475 (2014)], in which the amount of leakage is bounded without monitoring the signal disturbance. Introducing states of the phase-encoded Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol (PE-BB84) to the RRDPS, this paper presents another quantum key distribution protocol called round-robin differential quadrature phase-shift (RRDQPS) quantum key distribution. Regarding a train of many pulses as a single packet, the sender modulates the phase of each pulse by one of {0, π/2, π, 3π/2}, then the receiver measures each packet with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer having a phase basis of 0 or π/2. The RRDQPS protocol can be implemented with essential similar hardware to the PE-BB84, so it has great compatibility with the current quantum system. Here we analyze the security of the RRDQPS protocol against the intercept-resend attack and the beam-splitting attack. Results show that the proposed protocol inherits the advantages arising from the simplicity of the RRDPS protocol and is more robust against these attacks than the original protocol. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505261 and 11304397) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002)

  10. Noise tolerance in optical waveguide circuits for recognition of optical 16 quadrature amplitude modulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoshita, Kensuke; Hama, Yoshimitsu; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Goto, Nobuo

    2016-12-01

    In photonic label routers, various optical signal processing functions are required; these include optical label extraction, recognition of the label, optical switching and buffering controlled by signals based on the label information and network routing tables, and label rewriting. Among these functions, we focus on photonic label recognition. We have proposed two kinds of optical waveguide circuits to recognize 16 quadrature amplitude modulation codes, i.e., recognition from the minimum output port and from the maximum output port. The recognition function was theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by finite-difference beam-propagation method. We discuss noise tolerance in the circuit and show numerically simulated results to evaluate bit-error-rate (BER) characteristics against optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). The OSNR required to obtain a BER less than 1.0×10-3 for the symbol rate of 2.5 GBaud was 14.5 and 27.0 dB for recognition from the minimum and maximum output, respectively.

  11. Algorithm for the Time-Propagation of the Radial Diffusion Equation Based on a Gaussian Quadrature

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The numerical integration of the time-dependent spherically-symmetric radial diffusion equation from a point source is considered. The flux through the source can vary in time, possibly stochastically based on the concentration produced by the source itself. Fick’s one-dimensional diffusion equation is integrated over a time interval by considering a source term and a propagation term. The source term adds new particles during the time interval, while the propagation term diffuses the concentration profile of the previous time step. The integral in the propagation term is evaluated numerically using a combination of a new diffusion-specific Gaussian quadrature and interpolation on a diffusion-specific grid. This attempts to balance accuracy with the least number of points for both integration and interpolation. The theory can also be extended to include a simple reaction-diffusion equation in the limit of high buffer concentrations. The method is unconditionally stable. In fact, not only does it converge for any time step Δt, the method offers one advantage over other methods because Δt can be arbitrarily large; it is solely defined by the timescale on which the flux source turns on and off. PMID:26208111

  12. A novel multi-channel quadrature Doppler backward scattering reflectometer on the HL-2A tokamak.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhongbing; Zhong, Wulu; Jiang, Min; Yang, Zengchen; Zhang, Boyu; Shi, Peiwan; Chen, Wei; Wen, Jie; Chen, Chengyuan; Fu, Bingzhong; Liu, Zetian; Ding, Xuantong; Yang, Qingwei; Duan, Xuru

    2016-11-01

    A novel 16-channel fixed frequency Doppler backward scattering (DBS) reflectometer system has been developed on the HL-2A tokamak. This system is based on the filter-based feedback loop microwave source (FFLMS) technique, which has lower phase noise and lower power variation compared with present tunable frequency generation and comb frequency array generation techniques [J. C. Hillesheim et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083507 (2009) and W. A. Peebles et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D902 (2010)]. The 16-channel DBS system is comprised of four × four-frequency microwave transmitters and direct quadrature demodulation receivers. The working frequencies are 17-24 GHz and 31-38 GHz with the frequency interval of 1 GHz. They are designed to measure the localized intermediate wave-number (k⊥ρ ∼ 1-2, k⊥ ∼ 2-9 cm(-1)) density fluctuations and the poloidal rotation velocity profile of turbulence. The details of the system design and laboratory tests are presented. Preliminary results of Doppler spectra measured by the multi-channel DBS reflectometer systems are obtained. The plasma rotation and turbulence distribution during supersonic molecular beam injection are analyzed.

  13. Multipole-preserving quadratures for the discretization of functions in real-space electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Luigi; Deutsch, Thierry

    2015-12-21

    Discretizing an analytic function on a uniform real-space grid is often done via a straightforward collocation method. This is ubiquitous in all areas of computational physics and quantum chemistry. An example in density functional theory (DFT) is given by the external potential or the pseudo-potential describing the interaction between ions and electrons. The accuracy of the collocation method used is therefore very important for the reliability of subsequent treatments like self-consistent field solutions of the electronic structure problems. By construction, the collocation method introduces numerical artifacts typical of real-space treatments, like the so-called egg-box error, which may spoil the numerical stability of the description when the real-space grid is too coarse. As the external potential is an input of the problem, even a highly precise computational treatment cannot cope this inconvenience. We present in this paper a new quadrature scheme that is able to exactly preserve the moments of a given analytic function even for large grid spacings, while reconciling with the traditional collocation method when the grid spacing is small enough. In the context of real-space electronic structure calculations, we show that this method improves considerably the stability of the results for large grid spacings, opening up the path towards reliable low-accuracy DFT calculations with a reduced number of degrees of freedom.

  14. Security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato

    2016-08-01

    One of the simplest methods for implementing quantum key distribution over fiber-optic communication is the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol with phase encoding (PE-BB84 protocol), in which the sender uses phase modulation over double pulses from a laser and the receiver uses a passive delayed interferometer. Using essentially the same setup and by regarding a train of many pulses as a single block, one can carry out the so-called differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol, which is a variant of differential-phase-shift (DPS) protocols. Here we prove the security of the DQPS protocol based on an adaptation of proof techniques for the BB84 protocol, which inherits the advantages arising from the simplicity of the protocol, such as accommodating the use of threshold detectors and simple off-line calibration methods for the light source. We show that the secure key rate of the DQPS protocol in the proof is eight-thirds as high as the rate of the PE-BB84 protocol.

  15. Differential Space-Time Coding Scheme Using Star Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangbin; Xu, DaZhuan; Bi, Guangguo

    2006-12-01

    Differential space-time coding (DSTC) has received much interest as it obviates the requirement of the channel state information at the receiver while maintaining the desired properties of space-time coding techniques. In this paper, by introducing star quadrature amplitude modulation (star QAM) method, two kinds of multiple amplitudes DSTC schemes are proposed. One is based on differential unitary space-time coding (DUSTC) scheme, and the other is based on differential orthogonal space-time coding (DOSTC) scheme. Corresponding bit-error-rate (BER) performance and coding-gain analysis are given, respectively. The proposed schemes can avoid the performance loss of conventional DSTC schemes based on phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation in high spectrum efficiency via multiple amplitudes modulation. Compared with conventional PSK-based DSTC schemes, the developed schemes have higher spectrum efficiency via carrying information not only on phases but also on amplitudes, and have higher coding gain. Moreover, the first scheme can implement low-complexity differential modulation and different code rates and be applied to any number of transmit antennas; while the second scheme has simple decoder and high code rate in the case of 3 and 4 antennas. The simulation results show that our schemes have lower BER when compared with conventional DUSTC and DOSTC schemes.

  16. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Radial Alignment of 2007-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During quadrature, plasma seen on the limb of the Sun, along the radi al direction to Ulysses, by SOHO or STEREO can be sampled in situ as lt later passes Ulysses. A figure shows a coronagraph image, the rad ial towards Ulysses at 58 deg. S. and the SOHO/UVCS slit positions d uring one set of observations. A CME subsequently occurred and passed Ulysses (at 3/4 AU) 15 days later.

  17. Performance of Coded Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (OQPSK) and MIL-STD Shaped OQPSK (SOQPSK) with Iterative Decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Simon, M. K.

    2004-02-01

    We show that, similar to the trellis-coded modulation representation of MIL-STD shaped offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK), offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) can be decomposed into a "degraded" trellis encoder and a memoryless mapper. Based on the representations of OQPSK and MIL-STD SOQPSK as trellis-coded modulations, we investigate the potential coding gains achievable from the application of simple outer codes to form a concatenated coding structure with iterative decoding. For MIL-STD SOQPSK, we describe the optimum receiver corresponding to its trellis-coded modulation form and then propose a simplified receiver. The bit-error-rate (BER) performances of both receivers for uncoded and coded MIL-STD SOQPSK are simulated and compared to those of OQPSK and Feher-patented quadrature phase-shift keying (FQPSK). The asymptotic BER performance of MIL-STD SOQPSK also is analyzed and compared to that of OQPSK and FQPSK. Simulation results show that, compared to their uncoded systems, both OQPSK and MIL-STD SOQPSK obtain significant coding gains by applying iterative decoding to either the parallel concatenated coding scheme or the serial one, even when very simple outer codes are used.

  18. Amplitude and Transverse Quadrature Component Squeezing of Coherent Light in High Q Cavity by Injection of Atoms of Two-Photon Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Chang-Qi

    1996-01-01

    The amplitude and transverse quadrature component squeezing of coherent light in high Q cavity by injection of atoms of two-photon transition are studied. The Golubev-Sokolov master equation and generating function approach are utilized to derive the exact variances of photon number and of transverse quadrature component as function of t. The correlation functions and power spectrums of photon number noise and of output photon current noise are also investigated.

  19. Improving the Accuracy of Quadrature Method Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations That Arise from Nonlinear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Pennline, James A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with high-accuracy quadrature method solutions of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the form y(x) = r(x) + definite integral of g(x, t)F(t,y(t))dt with limits between 0 and 1,0 less than or equal to x les than or equal to 1, where the kernel function g(x,t) is continuous, but its partial derivatives have finite jump discontinuities across x = t. Such integral equations arise, e.g., when one applied Green's function techniques to nonlinear two-point boundary value problems of the form y "(x) =f(x,y(x)), 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1, with y(0) = y(sub 0) and y(l) = y(sub l), or other linear boundary conditions. A quadrature method that is especially suitable and that has been employed for such equations is one based on the trepezoidal rule that has a low accuracy. By analyzing the corresponding Euler-Maclaurin expansion, we derive suitable correction terms that we add to the trapezoidal rule, thus obtaining new numerical quadrature formulas of arbitrarily high accuracy that we also use in defining quadrature methods for the integral equations above. We prove an existence and uniqueness theorem for the quadrature method solutions, and show that their accuracy is the same as that of the underlying quadrature formula. The solution of the nonlinear systems resulting from the quadrature methods is achieved through successive approximations whose convergence is also proved. The results are demonstrated with numerical examples.

  20. Improving the Accuracy of Quadrature Method Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations that Arise from Nonlinear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Pennline, James A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with high-accuracy quadrature method solutions of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the form y(x) = r(x) + integral(0 to 1) g(x,t) F(t, y(t)) dt, 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1, where the kernel function g(x,t) is continuous, but its partial derivatives have finite jump discontinuities across x = t. Such integrals equations arise, e.g., when one applies Green's function techniques to nonlinear two-point boundary value problems of the form U''(x) = f(x,y(x)), 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1, with y(0) = y(sub 0) and g(l) = y(sub 1), or other linear boundary conditions. A quadrature method that is especially suitable and that has been employed for such equations is one based on the trapezoidal rule that has a low accuracy. By analyzing the corresponding Euler-Maclaurin expansion, we derive suitable correction terms that we add to the trapezoidal thus obtaining new numerical quadrature formulas of arbitrarily high accuracy that we also use in defining quadrature methods for the integral equations above. We prove an existence and uniqueness theorem for the quadrature method solutions, and show that their accuracy is the same as that of the underlying quadrature formula. The solution of the nonlinear systems resulting from the quadrature methods is achieved through successive approximations whose convergence is also proved. The results are demonstrated with numerical examples.

  1. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Alignment of 2007-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadratures the geometry of the configuration makes it possible to sample "in situ" the plasma parcels that are remotely observed in the corona. Although the quadrature position occurs at a well defined instant in time, we typically take data while Ulysses is within +/- 5 degrees of the limb, with the understanding that plasma sampled by Ulysses over this time interval can all be traced to its source in the corona. The relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses in winter 2007 (19 Dec 2006-28 May 2007) are unusual: the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is always between 85 and 95 degrees - the quadrature lasts for 5 months! This provides an opportunity for extended observations of specific observing objectives. In addition, in summer 2007, Ulysses (at 1.34 AU) is in near-radial alignment with Earth/ACE/Wind and SOHO, allowing us to analyze radial gradients and propagation in the solar wind and inner heliosphere. Our own quadrature campaigns rely heavily on LASCO and UVCS coronal observations: LASCO giving the overall context above 2 solar radii while the UVCS spectrograph acquired data from - 1.5 to, typically, 4-5 solar radii. In the past, coronal parameters have been derived from data acquired by these two experiments and compared with "in situ" data of Ulysses' SWOOPS and SWICS. Data from other experiments like EIT, CDS, SUMER, Sac Peak Fe XIV maps, magnetic field maps from the Wilcox solar magnetograph, MLSO, from MDI, and from the Ulysses magnetograph experiment have been, and will be, used to complement LASCO/UVCS/SWOOPS and SWICS data. We anticipate that observations by ACE/WIND/STEREO/Hinode and other missions will be relevant as well. During the IHY campaigns, Ulysses will be 52-80 degrees south in winter 2007, near sunspot minimum. Hence, our own scientific objective will be to sample high speed wind or regions of transition between slow and fast wind. This might be a very interesting situation - not met in previous quadratures - allowing

  2. Real-time hand-held ultrasound medical-imaging device based on a new digital quadrature demodulation processor.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Philippe; Sawan, Mohamad

    2009-08-01

    A fully hardware-based real-time digital wideband quadrature demodulation processor based on the Hilbert transform is proposed to process ultrasound radio frequency signals. The presented architecture combines 2 finite impulse response (FIR) filters to process in-phase and quadrature signals and includes a piecewise linear approximation architecture that performs the required square root operations. The proposed implementation enables flexibility to support different transducers with its ability to load on-the-fly different FIR filter coefficient sets. The complexity and accuracy of the demodulator processor are analyzed with simulated RF data; a normalized residual sum-of-squares cost function is used for comparison with the Matlab Hilbert function. Three implementations are integrated into a hand-held ultrasound system for experimental accuracy and performance evaluation. Real-time images were acquired from a reference phantom, demonstrating the feasibility of using the presented architecture to perform real-time digital quadrature demodulation of ultrasonic signal echoes. Experimental results show that the implementation, using only 2942 slices and 3 dedicated digital multipliers of a low-cost and low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is accurate relative to a comparable software- based system; axial and lateral resolution of 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively, were obtained with a 12-mm piezoelectric transducer without postprocessing. Because the processing and sampling rates are the same, high-frequency ultrasound signals can be processed as well. For a 15-frame-per-second display, the hand-held ultrasonic imaging-processing core (FPGA, memory) requires only 45 mW (dynamic) when using a 5-MHz single-element piezoelectric transducer.

  3. Interpretation of Quadrature and In-Phase Terrain Electrical Conductivity Responses Observed in Siting and Monitoring Surveys in Glaciolacustrine Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayles, J. G.; Ferguson, I. J.

    2004-05-01

    Terrain electrical conductivity (TEC) surveys can assist in the siting and monitoring of landfills and wastewater lagoons. Results of TEC surveys in glaciolacustrine clay-rich soils in southern Manitoba, Canada show how these surveys have successfully mapped sub-surface geology, identified heterogeneity in the sub-surface, and identified areas of leakage from such facilities. TEC instruments provide a quadrature response, from which the electrical conductivity of the ground is usually determined, and an in-phase response. In areas of low to moderate electrical conductivity (less than several hundred mS/m) the quadrature and in-phase responses both increase with increasing electrical conductivity. The relationship between the two responses over a uniform half-space is well approximated by a second-order power law. Results from many sites in Manitoba indicate that in some areas this power law is followed whereas in other areas a roughly linear relationship is observed. At some survey sites, TEC in-phase responses that are spatially uncorrelated with the quadrature response are observed. These observations occur in soils with relatively low electrical conductivity and relatively low magnetization. Results from a number of sites suggest the effect occurs in areas of plowed agricultural land that have undergone long-term exposure to wastewater seepage. We hypothesize that positive in-phase shifts indicate an increase in the electrical polarization in the glaciolacustrine soils caused by their interaction with wastewater. Laboratory studies have shown that the complex conductivity response at the frequency of the TEC measurements is affected by the clay mineralogy; groundwater salinity, acidity, and cation chemistry; and the presence of organic contaminants. In this study we examine a site with enhanced in-phase response in detail. The results reveal increased concentrations of heavy-metals and some variations in soil mineralogy that correlate with the in-phase response

  4. Large eddy simulations of coal jet flame ignition using the direct quadrature method of moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedel, Julien

    The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) was implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tool ARCHES to model coal particles. LES coupled with DQMOM was first applied to nonreacting particle-laden turbulent jets. Simulation results were compared to experimental data and accurately modeled a wide range of particle behaviors, such as particle jet waviness, spreading, break up, particle clustering and segregation, in different configurations. Simulations also accurately predicted the mean axial velocity along the centerline for both the gas phase and the solid phase, thus demonstrating the validity of the approach to model particles in turbulent flows. LES was then applied to the prediction of pulverized coal flame ignition. The stability of an oxy-coal flame as a function of changing primary gas composition (CO2 and O2) was first investigated. Flame stability was measured using optical measurements of the flame standoff distance in a 40 kW pilot facility. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the facility provided valuable insight into the experimentally observed data and the importance of factors such as heterogeneous reactions, radiation or wall temperature. The effects of three parameters on the flame stand-off distance were studied and simulation predictions were compared to experimental data using the data collaboration method. An additional validation study of the ARCHES LES tool was then performed on an air-fired pulverized coal jet flame ignited by a preheated gas flow. The simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to experimental observations for different inlet stoichiometric ratios. LES simulations were able to capture the various combustion regimes observed during flame ignition and to accurately model the flame stand-off distance sensitivity to the stoichiometric ratio. Gas temperature and coal burnout predictions were also examined and showed good agreement with experimental data. Overall, this research shows that high

  5. Complete gravity field of an ellipsoidal prism by Gauss-Legendre quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, C.; Verdun, J.; Cali, J.; Masson, F.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of geophysical models of the Earth's lithosphere and mantle has generated renewed interest in computation of theoretical gravity effects at global and regional scales. At the same time, the increasing availability of gravity gradient anomalies derived from satellite measurements, such as those provided by GOCE satellite, requires mathematical methods that directly model the gravity gradient anomalies in the same reference frame as GOCE gravity gradients. Our main purpose is to interpret these anomalies in terms of source and density distribution. Numerical integration methods for calculating gravity gradient values are generally based on a mass discretization obtained by decomposing the Earth's layers into a finite number of elementary solid bodies. In order to take into account the curvature of the Earth, spherical prisms or `tesseroids' have been established unequivocally as accurate computation tools for determining the gravitational effects of large-scale structures. The question which then arises from, is whether gravity calculation methods using spherical prisms remain valid when factoring in the ellipticity of the Earth. In the paper, we outline a comprehensive method to numerically compute the complete gravity field with the help of the Gauss-Legendre quadrature involving ellipsoidal shaped prisms. The assessment of this new method is conducted by comparison between the gravity gradient values of simple sources obtained by means of numerical and analytical calculations, respectively. A comparison of the gravity gradients obtained from PREM and LITHO1.0 models using spherical- and ellipsoidal-prism-based methods is also presented. Numerical results indicate that the error on gravity gradients, caused by the use of the spherical prism instead of its ellipsoidal counterpart to describe an ellipsoidally shaped Earth, is useful for a joint analysis with those deduced from GOCE satellite measurements. Provided that a suitable scaling

  6. I/Q reversal phenomena in 4-phase modified Costas Loops. [in-phase and quadrature outputs of unbalanced QPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for predicting the occurrence of I/Q reversals in unbalanced QPSK 4-phase modified Costas Loops is discussed. Potential causes for the reversal of in-phase and quadrature outputs of the unbalanced QPSK demodulator during acquisition and tracking are studied. The design of the unbalance QPSK demodulator and loop characteristics are described. The effect of an anomalous condition during a transient interval or demod/remod operation on data source output is examined. Filtering and hard-limiting effects, and the demodulator loop S-curve stability during tracking are evaluated.

  7. Tables of Lobatto quadrature sets for S/sub N/ calculations in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Tables of Lobatto quadrature sets for S/sub N/ calculations in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry are presented. The order of the sets varies from S/sub 2/ to S/sub 10/. Each S/sub N/ set is sufficiently accurate to be used in conjunction with Legendre cross-section expansions of degree N-1. These sets are particularly useful for calculations with normally incident sources and line sources and for adjoint calculations with plane-incident forward sources. 3 figures, 1 table.

  8. Shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) modulation scheme and its application in optical wavelength-division multiplexed (DWDM) transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ning; Huang, Benxiong; Xu, Zhengguang

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a new quaternary modulation scheme called SOQPSK. The principle on the optical SOQPSK generation is derived and analyzed, which is implemented by traditional Mach-Zehnder modulators. The performance of the optical SOQPSK modulated system is evaluated and compared with those of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and offset QPSK (OQPSK) modulation systems via simulation, in terms of spectral efficiency, receiver sensitivity and density DWDM transmission performance. Simulations show that the novel modulation scheme improves spectral efficiency for DWDM transmission and provides better transmission performance than QPSK.

  9. Dynamical error bounds for continuum discretisation via Gauss quadrature rules—A Lieb-Robinson bound approach

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M. P.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-02-15

    Instances of discrete quantum systems coupled to a continuum of oscillators are ubiquitous in physics. Often the continua are approximated by a discrete set of modes. We derive error bounds on expectation values of system observables that have been time evolved under such discretised Hamiltonians. These bounds take on the form of a function of time and the number of discrete modes, where the discrete modes are chosen according to Gauss quadrature rules. The derivation makes use of tools from the field of Lieb-Robinson bounds and the theory of orthonormal polynomials.

  10. Detection and alignment of dual-polarization optical quadrature amplitude transmitter IQ and XY skews using reconfigurable interference.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Lofland, Rob; O'Neil, Jason; Anderson, Jon

    2016-03-21

    Dual-polarization quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-QAM) is one of the feasible paths towards 100-Gb/s, 400-Gb/s and 1-Tb/s optical fiber communications systems. For DP-QAM transmitter, the time mismatch between the in-phase and quadrature (IQ) or x-polarized and y-polarized (XY) tributary channels is known as the IQ or XY skew. Large uncompensated IQ or XY skew can significantly degrade the optical fiber communications system performance. Sometimes, time-interleaved return-to-zero (RZ) DP signal is preferred with lower nonlinear polarization scattering induced penalty. In this work, detection and alignment of DP-QAM transmitter IQ and XY skews using reconfigurable interference is experimentally demonstrated. For IQ skew detection, a total dynamic range of 26.4 dB is achieved with ~1-dB power change for 0.5-ps skew from well alignment. For XY skew detection, it shows 23.2-dB dynamic range, and ~1.5-dB power change is achieved for 1-ps XY skew. Fast detection algorithm for arbitrary skew is also proposed and experimentally verified. The scheme is compatible with different modulation formats, flexible data sequences, and variable waveforms.

  11. A 2 to 5GHz-Band Self Frequency Dividing Quadrature Mixer Using Current Re-Use Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Eiji; Shimozawa, Mitsuhiro; Suematsu, Noriharu

    A 2 to 5GHz-band self frequency dividing quadrature mixer utilizing current re-use configuration with small size and broad band operation is proposed for a direct conversion receiver and a low-IF receiver of cognitive radio. The proposed mixer operates at twice the LO frequency by directly using a static type flip-flop frequency divider as the LO switching circuit for quadrature signal generation. The current re-use configuration is realized because the dc current of the frequency divider and the RF common-emitter amplifier share the same current flow path. Simulations and experiments verify that the proposed mixer offers broad band operation, miniaturization, and low power consumption. The mixer IC fabricated by 0.35μm SiGe-BiCMOS technology achieved the conversion gain of 20.6dB, noise figure of 11.9dB and EVM for π/4-shift QPSK signal of 4.4% at 2.1GHz with power consumption of 15mW and size of 0.22×0.31mm2. For the confirmation of broad band operation, the characteristics of conversion gain and noise figure were measured at 5.2GHz. The proposed mixer could operate at 5.2GHz with enough conversion gain, but the noise figure was inferior to that of 2.1GHz. Therefore the further investigation and improvement about the noise figure will be needed for higher frequency.

  12. Performance of coherent detection for FTN-DFTs-OFDM signal using receiver-side quadrature duobinary shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cheng; Gao, Guanjun; Chen, Sai; Zhang, Jie

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we investigate Faster-than-Nyquist Discrete-Fourier-Transform spread Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (FTN-DFTs-OFDM) signaling which combines the features of both single carrier FTN and OFDM system. By introducing the quadrature duo-binary (QDB) filtering at the receiver side, the transmitted OFDM signal can be packed in a sub-Nyquist spacing, which improves the spectral efficiency (SE) compared to conventional detection schemes. Maximum a posteriori (MAP) and maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) criteria have been both used and compared to find an optimal equalization scheme for combating FTN multiplexing at transmitter side and QDB filtering at receiver side. The simulations result show that by applying QDB filtering at the receiver side, the back-to-back (BTB) required optical signal noise ratio (OSNR) at bit error rate (BER) of 1 × 10-2 is reduced by 1.5-dB for 20-GHz spaced 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) signal, achieving a SE of 6.4-b/s/Hz.

  13. The Effect of Phase and Amplitude Imbalance on the Performance of Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift-Keyed (OQPSK) Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, H.

    1998-07-01

    The balanced modulator, which comprises two amplitude-modulation modules, is widely used in phase-modulated communication systems. In practice, the balance between these amplitude-modulation modules is difficult to maintain, and the amplitude and phase imbalances can cause distortion in the signal constellation and introduce undesired interfering tone signal components when such an imperfect modulator is used to modulate the data directly onto the RF carrier. The rendered imperfection inevitably degrades the receiver performance and, in a quadrature phase-shift-keyed (QPSK) system, causes cross talk between the in-phase and quadrature-phase channels. This article summarizes an analysis of the impact of these modulator imbalances on an offset QPSK (OQPSK) communication system in which an OQPSK signal is coherently demodulated by using a carrier reference extracted from a modified QPSK carrier tracking loop. Both carrier-suppression level and bit-error performance are analyzed in this article. The results show that the current Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations of 2-deg maximum permissible phase imbalance and 0.2-dB amplitude imbalance are sufficient to provide a 25-dB or more carrier suppression and a system degradation of 1 dB or less at the bit-error probability of 10±4 when the OQPSK system is operated in a reasonable loop SNR region.

  14. A new 16-ary modulation for super-Nyquist-WDM systems: Dual-polarized quadrature duoquaternary (DP-QDQ) modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun; Huang, Benxiong; Xu, Zhengguang; Li, Bin

    2015-12-01

    A partial-response-pulse-shaped 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) format called quadrature duoquaternary (QDQ) modulation, which can achieve higher spectral efficiency than Nyquist-pulse-shaped 16QAM and realize super-Nyquist wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmission, is proposed. The dual-polarized QDQ (DP-QDQ) modulation principle and coherent reception based on digital signal processing (DSP) are presented. The performance of the DP-QDQ scheme is investigated in 32-GBaud super-Nyquist-WDM systems by simulation. The simulation results show that DP-QDQ has only a 1.3 dB optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) penalty for the 28-GHz-spaced 5-channel super-Nyquist-WDM case relative to the single-channel case. Compared with Nyquist-pulse-shaped 16QAM, DP-QDQ not only has a higher spectral efficiency, but also a lower sensitivity to sampling time error and a better dispersion tolerance. The 28-GHz-spaced 5-channel super-Nyquist-WDM DP-QDQ system can successfully implement 1520-km transmission at the forward-error-correction (FEC) bit-error-rate (BER) requirements.

  15. Quadrature RF Coil for In Vivo Brain MRI of a Macaque Monkey in a Stereotaxic Head Frame

    PubMed Central

    ROOPNARIANE, COLIN A.; RYU, YEUN-CHUL; TOFIGHI, MOHAMMAD-REZA; MILLER, PATTI A.; OH, SUKHOON; WANG, JIANLI; PARK, BU SIK; ANSEL, LUKAS; LIEU, CHRISTOPHER A.; SUBRAMANIAN, THYAGARAJAN; YANG, QING X.; COLLINS, CHRISTOPHER M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a quadrature volume coil designed for brain imaging of a macaque monkey fixed in a sphinx position (facing down the bore) within a stereotactic frame at 3 T, where the position of the monkey and presence of the frame preclude use of existing coils. Requirements include the ability to position and remove the coil without disturbing the position of the monkey in the frame. A saddle coil and a solenoid were combined on a modified cylindrical former and connected in quadrature as to produce a homogeneous circularly polarized field throughout the brain. To allow the loops of the saddle coil to encompass the ear posts, partial disassembly and reassembly were facilitated by embedding pin and socket contacts into separate pieces of the former. Coil design included simulation of the electromagnetic fields for the coil containing a 3D model of a monkey’s head. The resulting coil produced adequate homogeneity and signal-to-noise ratio throughout the brain. PMID:22611340

  16. Planar quadrature RF transceiver design using common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) transmission line method for 7T MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Yu, Baiying; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-01-01

    The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM) technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM) and the differential mode (DM) of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays.

  17. Planar Quadrature RF Transceiver Design Using Common-Mode Differential-Mode (CMDM) Transmission Line Method for 7T MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Yu, Baiying; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-01-01

    The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM) technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM) and the differential mode (DM) of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays. PMID:24265823

  18. Application of a quadrature-based moments method to the modeling of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Barsotti, Sara; Neri, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    (namely the moments) are then derived and their transport equations formulated. For this work we extended, by adopting the method of moments, the Eulerian steady-state volcanic plume model presented in Barsotti et al. (2008). Differently from the original works where pyroclastic particles were partitioned in a finite number of classes with different size and properties, the new model is able to consider a continuous size distribution function of pyroclasts, f(D), representing the particles (for unit volume) with diameter between D and D+dD. Accordingly, transport equations for the moments of the ash particles size distribution are derived and the equations of the plume are expressed in terms of the moments. Here we present the new multiphase model formulation based on the implementation of the quadrature method of moments together with its advantages and drawbacks with respect to previous approaches. Results of a sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to the parameters of the continuous distribution describing the grain sizes at the vent (lognormal or beta distributions) are also shown and discussed. Barsotti, S., Neri, A., and Scire, J.: The VOL-CALPUFF model for atmospheric ash dispersal: 1. Approach and physical formulation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, 2008.

  19. Fiber nonlinear tolerance comparison between 112 Gb/s coherent transmission systems using quadrature-phase-shift-keying, offset quadrature-phase-shift-keying, and minimum-shift-keying formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Wu, Jian; Li, Yan; Lin, Jintong

    2012-10-01

    We numerically investigate the nonlinear transmission performance of 112 Gb/s coherent transmission systems using polarization multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK), offset QPSK (OQPSK) and minimum-shift-keying (MSK) formats, and compare the fiber nonlinear tolerances of the three modulation formats. Simulation results show that in both single channel and wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems, OQPSK is slightly more resistant to fiber nonlinearities than QPSK, and MSK has the best fiber nonlinear tolerance. The advantage of MSK format over QPSK and OQPSK is particularly notable in WDM systems. When digital back propagation (DBP) is used in the digital coherent receiver for intra-channel fiber nonlinearity compensation, system performance is improved with better Q-factor, enlarged input optical power range and extended transmission distance. It is found that the use of DBP brings the largest performance improvement in QPSK system and the least performance improvement in MSK system although MSK system has better fiber nonlinear tolerance.

  20. Wide and Narrow CMEs and Their Source Explosions Observed at the Spring 2003 SOHO-Sun-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven; Corti, G.; Poletto, G.; Sterling, A.; Moore, R.

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the spring 2003 Ulysses-SOHO-Sun quadrature, Ulysses was off the East limb of the Sun at 14.5 degrees north latitude and 4.91 AU. LASCO/C2 images show small transient events that originated from near the limb on May 25, 26 and 27 in the north-east quadrant, along with a large Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) that originated from an active region near disk center on May 26. Ulysses data bear clear signatures of the large CME, specifically including an enhanced abundance of highly ionized Fe. SOHO/UVCS spectra at 1.75 solar radii, near the radial direction to Ulysses, give no evidence of emission from high temperature lines, even for the large CME: instead, for the small events, occasional transient high emission in cool lines was observed, such as the CIII 977 Angstrom line usually absent at coronal levels. Each of these events lasted ca. 1 hour or less and never affected lines from ions forming above ca. 106K. Compact eruptions in Helium 304 Angstrom EIT images, related to the small UVCS transients, were observed at the limb of the Sun over the same period. At least one of these surge events produced a narrow CME observed in LASCO/C2. Most probably all these events are compact magnetic explosions (surges/jets, from around a small island of included polarity) which ejected cool material from lower levels. Ulysses data have been analyzed to find evidence of the cool, narrow CME events, but none or little was found. This puzzling scenario, where events seen by UVCS have no in situ counterparts and vice versa, can be partially explained once the region where the large CME originated is recognized as being at the center of the solar disk so that the CME material was actually much further from the Sun than the 1.7 Rsun height of the UVCS slit off the limb. Conversely, the narrow events may simply have missed Ulysses or been too brief for reliable signatures in composition and ionization state. A basic feature demonstrated by these observations is that large

  1. Optical encryption of parallel quadrature phase shift keying signals based on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yue; Zhang, Min; Zhan, Yueying; Wang, Danshi; Huang, Shanguo

    2016-08-01

    A scheme for optical parallel encryption/decryption of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signals is proposed, in which three QPSK signals at 10 Gb/s are encrypted and decrypted simultaneously in the optical domain through nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber. The results of theoretical analysis and simulations show that the scheme can perform high-speed wiretapping against the encryption of parallel signals and receiver sensitivities of encrypted signal and the decrypted signal are -25.9 and -23.8 dBm, respectively, at the forward error correction threshold. The results are useful for designing high-speed encryption/decryption of advanced modulated signals and thus enhancing the physical layer security of optical networks.

  2. Average symbol error rate for M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation in generalized atmospheric turbulence and misalignment errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-11-01

    A framework is presented for the analysis of average symbol error rate (SER) for M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation in a free-space optical communication system. The standard probability density function (PDF)-based approach is extended to evaluate the average SER by representing the Q-function through its Meijer's G-function equivalent. Specifically, a converging power series expression for the average SER is derived considering the zero-boresight misalignment errors in the receiver side. The analysis presented here assumes a unified expression for the PDF of channel coefficient which incorporates the M-distributed atmospheric turbulence and Rayleigh-distributed radial displacement for the misalignment errors. The analytical results are compared with the results obtained using Q-function approximation. Further, the presented results are supported by the Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. 3-D frequency-domain seismic wave modelling in heterogeneous, anisotropic media using a Gaussian Quadrature Grid (GQG) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a modified version of the spectral element method (SEM), called the Gaussian Quadrature Grid (GQG) approach, for frequency domain 3D seismic modelling in arbitrary heterogeneous, anisotropic media. The model may incorporate an arbitrary free-surface topography and irregular subsurface interfaces. Unlike the SEM ,it does not require a powerful mesh generator such as the Delauney Triangular or TetGen. Rather, the GQG approach replaces the element mesh with Gaussian quadrature abscissae to directly sample the physical properties of the model parameters and compute the weighted residual or variational integral. This renders the model discretisation simple and easily matched to the model topography, as well as direct control of the model paramterisation for subsequent inversion. In addition, it offers high accuracy in numerical modelling provided that an appropriate density of the Gaussian quadrature abscissae is employed. The second innovation of the GQG is the incorporation of a new implementation of perfectly matched layers to suppress artificial reflections from the domain margins. We employ PML model parameters (specified complex valued density and elastic moduli) rather than explicitly solving the governing wave equation with a complex co-ordinate system as in conventional approaches. Such an implementation is simple, general, effective and easily extendable to any class of anisotropy and other numerical modelling methods. The accuracy of the GQG approach is controlled by the number of Gaussian quadrature points per minimum wavelength, the so-called sampling density. The optimal sampling density should be the one which enables high definition of geological characteristics and high precision of the variational integral evaluation and spatial differentiation. Our experiments show that satisfactory results can be obtained using sampling densities of 5 points per minimum wavelength. Efficiency of the GQG approach mainly depends on the linear

  4. Complex linear minimum mean-squared-error equalization of spatially quadrature-amplitude-modulated signals in holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takanori; Kanno, Kazutaka; Bunsen, Masatoshi

    2016-09-01

    We applied complex linear minimum mean-squared-error equalization to spatially quadrature-amplitude-modulated signals in holographic data storage (HDS). The equalization technique can improve dispersion in constellation outputs due to intersymbol interference. We confirm the effectiveness of the equalization technique in numerical simulations and basic optical experiments. Our numerical results have shown that intersymbol interference of a retrieved signal in a HDS system can be improved by using the equalization technique. In our experiments, a mean squared error (MSE), which indicates the deviation from an ideal signal, has been used for quantitatively evaluating the dispersion of equalized signals. Our equalization technique has been able to improve the MSE. However, symbols in the equalized signal have remained inseparable. To further improve the MSE and make the symbols separable, reducing errors in repeated measurements is our future task.

  5. An efficient approach to study the pulsatile blood flow in femoral and coronary arteries by Differential Quadrature Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Seiyed E.; Hatami, M.; Hatami, J.; Sahebi, S. A. R.; Ganji, D. D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, flow analysis for a non-Newtonian third grade blood in coronary and femoral arteries is simulated numerically. Blood is considered as the third grade non-Newtonian fluid under periodic body acceleration motion and pulsatile pressure gradient. Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) and Crank Nicholson Method (CNM) are used to solve the Partial Differential Equation (PDE) governing equation by which a good agreement between them was observed in the results. The influences of some physical parameters such as amplitude, lead angle and body acceleration frequency on non-dimensional velocity and profiles are considered. For instance, the results show that increasing the amplitude, Ag, and reducing the lead angle of body acceleration, ϕ, make higher velocity profiles in the center line of both arteries.

  6. Quadrature Rotating-Frame Gradient Fields for Ultra-Low FieldNuclear Magnetic Resonance and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge

    2005-12-30

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very low fields isfundamentally limited by untruncated concomitant gradients which causesevere distortions in image acquisition and volume selection if thegradient fields are strong compared to the static field. In this paper,it is shown that gradient fields oscillating in quadrature can be usedfor spatial encoding in low fields and provide substantial improvementsover conventional encoding methods using static gradients. In particular,cases where the gradient field is comparable to or higher than theexternal field, Gmax/B0>1, are examined. It is shown thatundistorted slice selection and image encoding is possible because ofsmaller geometric phase errors introduced during cyclic motions of theHamiltonian. In the low field limit (Gmax/B_0 ->infinity) sliceselection is achieved with a combination of soft pulse segments and acoherent train of hard pulses to average out concomitant fields over thefast scale of the rf Hamiltonian.

  7. Ultrasonic study of adhesive bond quality at a steel-to-rubber interface by using quadrature phase detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. C.; Yang, H.

    1989-01-01

    The quadrature phase detection technique was used to simultaneously monitor the phase and amplitude of a toneburst signal normally reflected from an adhesively bonded steel-to-rubber interface. The measured phase was found to show a positive shift for all bonded samples with respect to the disbonded state - the phase shift being larger for samples with weaker bonds, as manifested by smaller values of applied tensile loads at failure. A model calculation, which incorporates the concept of interfacial strength into the usual problem of wave propagation in multilayered media, was used to deduce a bond-quality parameter from an experimentally measured phase shift. This bond-quality parameter was found to be correlated with the tensile strength of the adhesive bonds at failure loads.

  8. Detection and alignment of XY skew for dual-polarization optical quadrature amplitude transmitter using reconfigurable interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Lofland, Rob; O'Neil, Jason; Anderson, Jon

    2016-02-01

    DP-QAM is one of the feasible paths towards 100Gbps, 400Gbps and 1Tbps optical communications systems. For DPQAM transmitter, the time mismatch between the XY tributary channels is known as the XY skew. Large uncompensated XY skew can significantly degrade the system performance. Sometimes, time-interleaved return-to-zero DP signal is preferred with lower nonlinear polarization scattering induced penalty. In this work, XY skew detection and alignment of dual-polarization optical quadrature amplitude transmitter using reconfigurable interference is experimentally demonstrated with >23-dB dynamic range. ~1.5-dB power change is achieved for 1-ps XY skew. Fast detecting scheme for arbitrary skew measurement is also experimentally verified. The scheme is compatible with different modulation formats, data sequences, and waveforms.

  9. High-precision tilt sensor using a folded Mach-Zehnder geometry in-phase and quadrature interferometer.

    PubMed

    Park, June Gyu; Cho, Kyuman

    2016-03-20

    A new high-sensitivity homodyne in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) -interferometer scheme for measuring the tilt change of a target is presented. The new tilt sensor is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer folded by the target, in which the phase change is induced by the in-plane tilt change of the target but is not sensitive to any other motions. The interferometer is specially designed to minimize interferences caused by environmental perturbations. The induced phase is directly measured by using the I/Q-demodulation scheme. The tilt sensor exhibits an excellent sensitivity 10  prad/Hz1/2 at a frequency slightly above 1 Hz and a 0.4  prad/Hz1/2 at a frequency higher than 30 Hz.

  10. Sub-symbol-rate sampling for PDM-QPSK signals in super-Nyquist WDM systems using quadrature poly-binary shaping.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Gao, Guanjun; Chen, Sai; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Ming; Hu, Rong; Yang, Qi

    2016-11-14

    We compare the performance of sub-symbol-rate sampling for polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) signals in super-Nyquist wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system by using quadrature duo-binary (QDB) and quadrature four-level poly-binary (4PB) shaping together with maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE). PDM-16QAM is adopted in the simulation to be compared with PDM-QPSK. The numerical simulations show that, for a software defined communication system, the level number of quadrature poly-binary modulation should be adjusted to achieve the optimal performance according to channel spacing, required OSNR and sampling rate restrictions of optics. In the experiment, we demonstrate 3-channel 12-Gbaud PDM-QPSK transmission with 10-GHz channel spacing and only 8.4-GSa/s ADC sampling rate at lowest. By using QDB or 4PB shaping with 3tap-MLSE, the sampling rate can be reduced to the signal baud rate (1 samples per symbol) without penalty.

  11. Validity of Using Two Numerical Analysis Techniques To Estimate Item and Ability Parameters via MMLE: Gauss-Hermite Quadrature Formula and Mislevy's Histogram Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Tae-Je

    The similarity of item and ability parameter estimations was investigated using two numerical analysis techniques via marginal maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) with a large simulated data set (n=1,000 examinees) and changing the number of quadrature points. MMLE estimation uses a numerical analysis technique to integrate examinees' abilities…

  12. A robust two-node, 13 moment quadrature method of moments for dilute particle flows including wall bouncing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dan; Garmory, Andrew; Page, Gary J.

    2017-02-01

    For flows where the particle number density is low and the Stokes number is relatively high, as found when sand or ice is ingested into aircraft gas turbine engines, streams of particles can cross each other's path or bounce from a solid surface without being influenced by inter-particle collisions. The aim of this work is to develop an Eulerian method to simulate these types of flow. To this end, a two-node quadrature-based moment method using 13 moments is proposed. In the proposed algorithm thirteen moments of particle velocity, including cross-moments of second order, are used to determine the weights and abscissas of the two nodes and to set up the association between the velocity components in each node. Previous Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM) algorithms either use more than two nodes, leading to increased computational expense, or are shown here to give incorrect results under some circumstances. This method gives the computational efficiency advantages of only needing two particle phase velocity fields whilst ensuring that a correct combination of weights and abscissas is returned for any arbitrary combination of particle trajectories without the need for any further assumptions. Particle crossing and wall bouncing with arbitrary combinations of angles are demonstrated using the method in a two-dimensional scheme. The ability of the scheme to include the presence of drag from a carrier phase is also demonstrated, as is bouncing off surfaces with inelastic collisions. The method is also applied to the Taylor-Green vortex flow test case and is found to give results superior to the existing two-node QMOM method and is in good agreement with results from Lagrangian modelling of this case.

  13. Relationship Between the Expansion Speed and Radial Speed of CMEs Confirmed Using Quadrature Observations from SOHO and STEREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti; Yashiro, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to measure the true speed of Earth-directed CMEs from a coronagraph along the Sun-Earth line because of the occulting disk. However, the expansion speed (the speed with which the CME appears to spread in the sky plane) can be measured by such coronagraph. In order to convert the expansion speed to radial speed (which is important for space weather applications) one can use empirical relationship between the two that assumes an average width for all CMEs. If we have the width information from quadrature observations, we can confirm the relationship between expansion and radial speeds derived by Gopalswamy et al. (2009, CEAB, 33, 115,2009). The STEREO spacecraft were in quadrature with SOHO (STEREO-A ahead of Earth by 87 and STEREO-B 94 behind Earth) on 2011 February 15, when a fast Earth-directed CME occurred. The CME was observed as a halo by the Large-Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board SOHO. The sky-plane speed was measured by SOHO/LASCO as the expansion speed, while the radial speed was measured by STEREO-A and STEREO-B. In addition, STEREO-A and STEREO-B images measured the width of the CME, which is unknown from Earth view. From the SOHO and STEREO measurements, we confirm the relationship between the expansion speed (Vexp ) and radial speed (Vrad ) derived previously from geometrical considerations (Gopalswamy et al. 2009): Vrad = 1/2 (1 + cot w) Vexp, where w is the half width of the CME. STEREO-B images of the CME, we found that CME had a full width of 75 degrees, so w = 37.5 degrees. This gives the relation as Vrad = 1.15 Vexp. From LASCO observations, we measured Vexp = 897 km/s, so we get the radial speed as 1033 km/s. Direct measurement of radial speed from STEREO gives 945 km/s (STEREO-A) and 1057 km/s (STEREO-B). These numbers are different only by 2.3% and 8.5% (for STEREO-A and STEREO-B, respectively) from the computed value.

  14. Comparison of maximum entropy and quadrature-based moment closures for shock transitions prediction in one-dimensional gaskinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplante, Jérémie; Groth, Clinton P. T.

    2016-11-01

    The Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equations are conventionally used to model continuum flow near local thermodynamic equilibrium. In the presence of more rarefied flows, there exists a transitional regime in which the NSF equations no longer hold, and where particle-based methods become too expensive for practical problems. To close this gap, moment closure techniques having the potential of being both valid and computationally tractable for these applications are sought. In this study, a number of five-moment closures for a model one-dimensional kinetic equation are assessed and compared. In particular, four different moment closures are applied to the solution of stationary shocks. The first of these is a Grad-type moment closure, which is known to fail for moderate departures from equilibrium. The second is an interpolative closure based on maximization of thermodynamic entropy which has previously been shown to provide excellent results for 1D gaskinetic theory. Additionally, two quadrature methods of moments (QMOM) are considered. One method is based on the representation of the distribution function in terms of a combination of three Dirac delta functions. The second method, an extended QMOM (EQMOM), extends the quadrature-based approach by assuming a bi-Maxwellian representation of the distribution function. The closing fluxes are analyzed in each case and the region of physical realizability is examined for the closures. Numerical simulations of stationary shock structures as predicted by each moment closure are compared to reference kinetic and the corresponding NSF-like equation solutions. It is shown that the bi-Maxwellian and interpolative maximum-entropy-based moment closures are able to closely reproduce the results of the true maximum-entropy distribution closure for this case very well, whereas the other methods do not. For moderate departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium, the Grad-type and QMOM closures produced unphysical subshocks and were

  15. Simultaneous subchannel data updating for multiple channels of 16-quadrature amplitude modulation signals using a single periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Wu, Xiaoxia; Khaleghi, Salman; Ziyadi, Morteza; Tur, Moshe; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Paraschis, Loukas; Willner, Alan E

    2012-11-01

    Subchannel data updating of high-order modulation format signals using cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation in a single periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide is demonstrated. One quadrature phase-shift-keying subchannel of a 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal at 40 Gbit/s is successfully updated, with an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalty of ~2 dB for return-to-zero and ~4 dB for non-return-to-zero at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2×10(-3). Simultaneous processing of four wavelength-multiplexed 16-QAM signals with an average OSNR penalty of 4.5 dB at a BER of 2×10(-3) is also demonstrated.

  16. Explicit and implicit forms of differential quadrature method for advection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients in semi-infinite domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharehbaghi, Amin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a numerical solution of one-dimensional time-dependent advection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients in semi-infinite domain is presented by using the differential quadrature method. Both the explicit and implicit approaches are provided. Totally, two solute dispersion problems are employed to simulate various conditions. The inhomogeneity of the domain is supplied by the spatially dependent flow. The problem domains are modeled with Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto grid points. In order to examine the accuracy and the efficiency of the suggested explicit and implicit approaches, analytical solutions, which are presented in the literature, are employed. In addition, the results of the above-mentioned method are compared with outcomes of the finite difference method. The results show that both of the explicit and implicit forms of the differential quadrature method are efficient, robust and reliable. But between these two forms, numerical predictions of implicit form are more accurate than explicit form.

  17. Tensor Green's function evaluation in arbitrarily anisotropic, layered media using complex-plane Gauss-Laguerre quadrature.

    PubMed

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the application of complex-plane Gauss-Laguerre quadrature (CGLQ) to efficiently evaluate two-dimensional Fourier integrals arising as the solution to electromagnetic fields radiated by elementary dipole antennas embedded within planar-layered media exhibiting arbitrary material parameters. More specifically, we apply CGLQ to the long-standing problem of rapidly and efficiently evaluating the semi-infinite length "tails" of the Fourier integral path while simultaneously and robustly guaranteeing absolute, exponential convergence of the field solution despite diversity in the doubly anisotropic layer parameters, source type (i.e., electric or equivalent magnetic dipole), source orientation, observed field type (magnetic or electric), (nonzero) frequency, and (nonzero) source-observer separation geometry. The proposed algorithm exhibits robustness despite unique challenges arising for the fast evaluation of such two-dimensional integrals. Herein we develop the mathematical treatment to rigorously evaluate the tail integrals using CGLQ, as well as discuss and address the specific issues posed to the CGLQ method when anisotropic, layered media are present. To empirically demonstrate the CGLQ algorithm's computational efficiency, versatility, and accuracy, we perform a convergence analysis along with two case studies related to modeling of electromagnetic resistivity tools employed in geophysical prospection of layered, anisotropic Earth media and validating the ability of isoimpedance substrates to enhance the radiation performance of planar antennas placed in close proximity to metallic ground planes.

  18. Bounds and Simulation Results of 32-ary and 64-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation for Broadband-ISDN via Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kifle, Muli; Vanderaar, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Union bounds and Monte Carlo simulation Bit-Error-Rate (BER) performance results are presented for various 32-ary and 64-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) schemes. Filtered and unfiltered modulation formats are compared for the best packing arrangement in peak power limited systems. It is verified that circular constellations which populate as many symbols as possible at the peak magnitude offer the best performance. For example: a 32-ary QAM scheme based on concentric circles offers about 1.05 dB better peak power improvement at a BER of 10(exp -6) over the scheme optimized for average power using triangular symbol packing. This peak power improvement increases to 1.25 dB for comparable 64-ary QAM schemes. This work serves as a precursor to determine the feasibility of a combined modem/codec that can accommodate Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) at a rate of 155.52 Mbps through typical transponder bandwidths of 36 MHz and 54 MHz.

  19. Optical channel de-aggregation of quadrature-phase-shift-keying and eight-phase-shift-keying data using mapping onto constellation axes.

    PubMed

    Ziyadi, Morteza; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Almaiman, Ahmed; Cao, Yinwen; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Paraschis, Loukas; Tur, Moshe; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Touch, Joseph D; Willner, Alan E

    2015-11-01

    An eight-phase-shift-keying signal is experimentally de-aggregated onto two four-pulse amplitude modulation signals using nonlinear processes in optical elements. Quadrature-phase-shift-keying signals are similarly de-multiplexed into two binary phase shift keying signals by mapping the data points onto the constellation axes. De-multiplexing performance is evaluated as a function of the optical signal-to-noise ratio of the incoming signals. The effect of phase noise is also studied.

  20. Evaluating the potential for quantitative monitoring of in situ chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase TCE using in-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hort, R. D.; Revil, A.; Munakata-Marr, J.; Mao, D.

    2015-07-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements can potentially be used to remotely monitor fate and transport of ionic oxidants such as permanganate (MnO4-) during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of contaminants like trichloroethene (TCE). Time-lapse two-dimensional bulk conductivity and induced polarization surveys conducted during a sand tank ISCO simulation demonstrated that MnO4- plume movement could be monitored in a qualitative manner using bulk conductivity tomograms, although chargeability was below sensitivity limits. We also examined changes to in-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity resulting from ion injection, MnO2 and Cl- production, and pH change during TCE and humate oxidation by MnO4- in homogeneous aqueous solutions and saturated porous media samples. Data from the homogeneous samples demonstrated that inversion of the sand tank resistivity data using a common Tikhonov regularization approach was insufficient to recover an accurate conductivity distribution within the tank. While changes to in-phase conductivity could be successfully modeled, quadrature conductivity values could not be directly related to TCE oxidation product or MnO4- concentrations at frequencies consistent with field induced polarization surveys, limiting the utility of quadrature conductivity for monitoring ISCO.

  1. The Combined Effect of Modulator Imbalances and Amplifier Nonlinearity on the Performance of Offset Quadrature-Phase-Shift-Keyed (OQPSK) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, H.

    1999-01-01

    Imbalances from imperfect phase modulators can cause distorted signal constellations and interfering tone signals at the carrier frequency in phase-modulated communication systems. The rendered imperfection in the modulated signal inevitably degrades the receiver's carrier-tracking performance and, for quadrature-phase- shift-keyed (QPSK) systems in particular, causes cross-talk between the inphase and quadrature-phase channels. Previous studies have analyzed the impact from the amplitude and phase imbalances on an offset QPSK (OQPSK) communication system with the assumption of a linear channel. This article extends such efforts by including a fully saturated radio-frequency (RF) amplifier in the analytical model. Both carrier-suppression level and bit-error performance are addressed in this article, showing that the amplifier nonlinearity greatly alleviates the impact from modulator imbalances. With current Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations of a 2-deg-maximum permissible phase imbalance and a 0.2-dB-maximum permissible amplitude imbalance, a 34-dB or more carrier suppression and a system degradation of 0.27 dB or less at an uncoded bit-error probability of 10^(-4) are achievable when the OQPSK system is operated in a reasonable loop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region. These results are 9-dB better in terms of carrier suppression and 0.6-dB better in terms of system degradation than those with linear amplifiers at the aforementioned bit-error probability.

  2. Using a pruned basis, a non-product quadrature grid, and the exact Watson normal-coordinate kinetic energy operator to solve the vibrational Schrödinger equation for C2H4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we propose and test a method for computing numerically exact vibrational energy levels of a molecule with six atoms. We use a pruned product basis, a non-product quadrature, the Lanczos algorithm, and the exact normal-coordinate kinetic energy operator (KEO) with the πtμπ term. The Lanczos algorithm is applied to a Hamiltonian with a KEO for which μ is evaluated at equilibrium. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors obtained from this calculation are used as a basis to obtain the final energy levels. The quadrature scheme is designed, so that integrals for the most important terms in the potential will be exact. The procedure is tested on C2H4. All 12 coordinates are treated explicitly. We need only ˜1.52 × 108 quadrature points. A product Gauss grid with which one could calculate the same energy levels has at least 5.67 × 1013 points.

  3. 1D Current Source Density (CSD) Estimation in Inverse Theory: A Unified Framework for Higher-Order Spectral Regularization of Quadrature and Expansion-Type CSD Methods.

    PubMed

    Kropf, Pascal; Shmuel, Amir

    2016-07-01

    Estimation of current source density (CSD) from the low-frequency part of extracellular electric potential recordings is an unstable linear inverse problem. To make the estimation possible in an experimental setting where recordings are contaminated with noise, it is necessary to stabilize the inversion. Here we present a unified framework for zero- and higher-order singular-value-decomposition (SVD)-based spectral regularization of 1D (linear) CSD estimation from local field potentials. The framework is based on two general approaches commonly employed for solving inverse problems: quadrature and basis function expansion. We first show that both inverse CSD (iCSD) and kernel CSD (kCSD) fall into the category of basis function expansion methods. We then use these general categories to introduce two new estimation methods, quadrature CSD (qCSD), based on discretizing the CSD integral equation with a chosen quadrature rule, and representer CSD (rCSD), an even-determined basis function expansion method that uses the problem's data kernels (representers) as basis functions. To determine the best candidate methods to use in the analysis of experimental data, we compared the different methods on simulations under three regularization schemes (Tikhonov, tSVD, and dSVD), three regularization parameter selection methods (NCP, L-curve, and GCV), and seven different a priori spatial smoothness constraints on the CSD distribution. This resulted in a comparison of 531 estimation schemes. We evaluated the estimation schemes according to their source reconstruction accuracy by testing them using different simulated noise levels, lateral source diameters, and CSD depth profiles. We found that ranking schemes according to the average error over all tested conditions results in a reproducible ranking, where the top schemes are found to perform well in the majority of tested conditions. However, there is no single best estimation scheme that outperforms all others under all tested

  4. Miniaturized silicon photonic integrated swept source OCT receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Chen, Long; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of OCT systems are important for enabling many new clinical applications as well as accelerating the development of existing applications. Silicon photonics is an important low-cost, high-volume, multi-functional platform for integrated optics because it can benefit from existing semiconductor fabrication techniques to integrate many advanced optical functions onto a single microchip. We present a miniaturized silicon photonic integrated swept source OCT receiver, measuring 3×4mm2, with advanced functionalities including dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection, essentially enabling the detection of the full vector field (amplitude, phase, and polarization) of the optical signal. With this integrated receiver, we demonstrate full-range OCT for complex conjugate artifact suppression, polarization diversity detection for removing polarization fading artifact, and polarization sensitive OCT for tissue birefringence imaging. The silicon photonic integrated receiver is a key advance towards developing a miniaturized, multi-functional swept source OCT system.

  5. An in-building network based on community access television integration with quadrature phase-shift keying orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yi; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Lin, Huang-Chang; Wu, Hsiao-Wen

    2012-07-01

    An in-building network based on cable television (CATV) integration with quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transport over a combination of single-mode fibers (SMF) and perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fibers (GI-POF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this system, a 1558.5 nm optical signal is directly transmitted along two fiber spans (20 km SMF + 25 m GI-POF). An optimum guard band is carefully established to ensure that no very substantial signal interference is induced between the CATV and QPSK OFDM bands. Error free transmission with sufficiently low bit error rate values was achieved for 1.25 Gbps/771.5 MHz QPSK OFDM signals; also, acceptable carrier-to-noise ratio, composite second-order, and composite triple-beat performances were obtained for CATV signals. This proposed network is significant because it is economical and convenient to install.

  6. Efficient frequency-domain channel equalization methods for dual-polarization orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing/offset quadrature amplitude modulation-passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bangjiang; Fang, Xi; Tang, Xuan; Lin, Chun; Li, Yiwei; Zhang, Shihao; Wu, Yi; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    We present dual-polarization orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing/offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM/OQAM) transmission for passive optical network (PON) with intensity modulation and direct detection, which has high spectral efficiency and high robustness against chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The frequency-domain optical fiber channel transmission model for dual-polarization OFDM/OQAM-PON with the CD- and PMD-induced intrinsic imaginary interference (IMI) effect is systemically deduced. The intrasymbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) and minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) with the full loaded (FL) and half loaded (HL) preamble structures are used to mitigate the IMI effect. Compared with the conventional interference approximation method, the ISFA and MMSE offer improved receiver sensitivity. For channel estimation, the FL method is more effective than the HL method in mitigating the IMI effect and optical noise.

  7. A Comparison of the Performances of Coherent Binary-Phase-Shift Keying (BPSK) and Offset Quadrature-Phase-Shift Keying (OQPSK) in the Presence of Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.; Darden, S.

    1999-10-01

    The performance of offset quadrature-phase-shift keying (OQPSK) in the presence of narrowband and wideband interference signals is considered, assuming perfect carrier synchronization. Narrowband interference is modeled as an unmodulated tone at a given frequency offset and random phase with respect to the desired OQPSK signal. Wideband interference is modeled as another OQPSK signal at a given frequency offset, random phase, and random timing with respect to the desired OQPSK signal, but having the identical data rate. This model is more typical of co-channel interference than that considered in other studies of this subject, where a wideband Gaussian noise was assumed. The results obtained here for OQPSK are compared with analogous results obtained previously by one of the authors for binary-phase-shift-keyed (BPSK) modulation.

  8. Design and evaluation of a detunable water-based quadrature HEM11 mode dielectric resonator as a new type of volume coil for high field MRI.

    PubMed

    Aussenhofer, Sebastian A; Webb, Andrew G

    2012-10-01

    An annular dielectric resonator made from distilled water has been designed to operate in degenerate quadrature HEM11 modes at 298.1 MHz (7 Tesla). The circularly polarized B1+ field has a high degree of homogeneity throughout a sample placed within the annulus. The sensitivity of the resonator was measured to be essentially identical to that of an eight-rung high-pass birdcage resonator with the same physical dimensions. High resolution in vivo images have been obtained from the human wrist. A new method of electronically detuning the resonator has also been evaluated. The design is extremely simple and rapid to build, with direct applicability to very high field imaging and also potential integration into human and animal hybrid position emission tomography (PET)/MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/MRI systems due to the lack of conductor attenuation-induced artifacts in the reconstructed nuclear medicine images.

  9. Pulse-grouping transmission of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with time diversity multiple-input and multiple-output detection and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guanjun; Chen, Sai; Zhang, Jie

    2016-08-01

    We investigate an optical pulse-overlap transmission scheme where the orthogonal condition between neighbor pulses is violated. The interferences between the grouped optical pulses are mitigated at the optical coherent receiver with time diversity multiple-input and multiple-output-based digital signal processing. Numerical simulation investigates the performance of 50% return-to-zero (RZ)-quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals, where up to four pulses are overlapped and grouped for per pulse period. In the experiment demonstration, two 50% RZ-QPSK signals are combined with different time offset between neighbor pulses, and the Q-performance as a function of optical-signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is compared on each pulse channel basis, with minimum OSNR penalty of only 1-dB compared to the single pulse transmission.

  10. Lagrange interpolation and modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature methods for solving hyperbolic partial differential equations with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwari, Ram

    2015-08-01

    In this article, the author proposed two differential quadrature methods to find the approximate solution of one and two dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equations with Dirichlet and Neumann's boundary conditions. The methods are based on Lagrange interpolation and modified cubic B-splines respectively. The proposed methods reduced the hyperbolic problem into a system of second order ordinary differential equations in time variable. Then, the obtained system is changed into a system of first order ordinary differential equations and finally, SSP-RK3 scheme is used to solve the obtained system. The well known hyperbolic equations such as telegraph, Klein-Gordon, sine-Gordon, Dissipative non-linear wave, and Vander Pol type non-linear wave equations are solved to check the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methods. The numerical results are shown in L∞ , RMS andL2 errors form.

  11. Noise tolerance in wavelength-selective switching of optical differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying pulse train by collinear acousto-optic devices.

    PubMed

    Goto, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Optical switching of high-bit-rate quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) pulse trains using collinear acousto-optic (AO) devices is theoretically discussed. Since the collinear AO devices have wavelength selectivity, the switched optical pulse trains suffer from distortion when the bandwidth of the pulse train is comparable to the pass bandwidth of the AO device. As the AO device, a sidelobe-suppressed device with a tapered surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) waveguide and a Butterworth-type filter device with a lossy SAW directional coupler are considered. Phase distortion of optical pulse trains at 40 to 100  Gsymbols/s in QPSK format is numerically analyzed. Bit-error-rate performance with additive Gaussian noise is also evaluated by the Monte Carlo method.

  12. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2015-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications.

  13. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications. PMID:26203382

  14. Performance analysis of 100 Gb/s polarization division multiplexed differential quadrature phase shift keying payload with spectral amplitude code labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Yongsheng; Chen, Fushen

    2015-01-01

    We present the performance analysis of a spectral amplitude code labeled system with 100 Gb/s polarization division multiplexed (PDM) differential quadrature phase shift keying payload in simulation. Direct detection is chosen to demodulate the PDM payload by applying a polarization tracker, while 4-bits of the 156 Mb/s spectral amplitude code label is coherently detected with a scheme of frequency-swept coherent detection. We optimize the payload laser linewidth as well as the frequency spacing between the payload and label. For back-to-back system and 96 km transmission, label eye opening factors are 0.95 and 0.94, respectively, while payload optical signal-to-noise ratios are 20.6 dB and 22.0 dB, and the payload received optical powers are -15.0 dBm and -14.5 dBm for a bit error rate value of 10-9. The results show that both the payload and label have good transmission performances after long-haul transmission in a standard single mode fiber and dispersion compensating fiber, and the payload could be well demodulated after 288 km transmission.

  15. Multilevel mixed effects parametric survival models using adaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature with application to recurrent events and individual participant data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Michael J; Look, Maxime P; Riley, Richard D

    2014-09-28

    Multilevel mixed effects survival models are used in the analysis of clustered survival data, such as repeated events, multicenter clinical trials, and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses, to investigate heterogeneity in baseline risk and covariate effects. In this paper, we extend parametric frailty models including the exponential, Weibull and Gompertz proportional hazards (PH) models and the log logistic, log normal, and generalized gamma accelerated failure time models to allow any number of normally distributed random effects. Furthermore, we extend the flexible parametric survival model of Royston and Parmar, modeled on the log-cumulative hazard scale using restricted cubic splines, to include random effects while also allowing for non-PH (time-dependent effects). Maximum likelihood is used to estimate the models utilizing adaptive or nonadaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature. The methods are evaluated through simulation studies representing clinically plausible scenarios of a multicenter trial and IPD meta-analysis, showing good performance of the estimation method. The flexible parametric mixed effects model is illustrated using a dataset of patients with kidney disease and repeated times to infection and an IPD meta-analysis of prognostic factor studies in patients with breast cancer. User-friendly Stata software is provided to implement the methods.

  16. Representation of solutions to the problem of the motion of a heavy rigid body in the Kovalevskaya case in terms of Weierstrass \\zeta- and \\wp-functions and nonintegrability of the Hess case by quadratures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A method for the representation of Delaunay's solutions and some other particular solutions to the problem of the motion of a heavy rigid body in the Kovalevskaya case in terms of the Weierstrass \\zeta- and \\wp-functions is put forward. The Hess case in the problem of the motion of a heavy rigid body is shown to be nonintegrable by quadratures. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  17. Ultra-high-Degree Surface Spherical Harmonic Analysis Using the Gauss-Legendre and the Driscoll/Healy Quadrature Theorem and Application to Planetary Topography Models of Earth, Mars and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexer, Moritz; Hirt, Christian

    2015-11-01

    In geodesy and geophysics, spherical harmonic techniques are popular for modelling topography and potential fields with ever-increasing spatial resolution. For ultra-high-degree spherical harmonic modelling, i.e. degree 10,000 or more, classical algorithms need to be extended to avoid under- or overflow problems associated with the computation of associated Legendre functions (ALFs). In this work, two quadrature algorithms—the Gauss-Legendre (GL) quadrature and the quadrature following Driscoll/Healy (DH)—and their implementation for the purpose of ultra-high (surface) spherical harmonic analysis of spheroid functions are reviewed and modified for application to ultra-high degree. We extend the implementation of the algorithms in the SHTOOLS software package (v2.8) by (1) the X-number (or Extended Range Arithmetic) method for accurate computation of ALFs and (2) OpenMP directives enabling parallel processing within the analysis. Our modifications are shown to achieve feasible computation times and a very high precision: a degree-21,600 band-limited (=frequency limited) spheroid topographic function may be harmonically analysed with a maximum space-domain error of 3 × 10^{-5} and 5 × 10^{-5} m in 6 and 17 h using 14 CPUs for the GL and for the DH quadrature, respectively. While not being inferior in terms of precision, the GL quadrature outperforms the DH algorithm in terms of computation time. In the second part of the paper, we apply the modified quadrature algorithm to represent for—the first time—gridded topography models for Earth, Moon and Mars as ultra-high-degree series expansions comprising more than 2 billion coefficients. For the Earth's topography, we achieve a resolution of harmonic degree 43,200 (equivalent to 500 m in the space domain), for the Moon of degree 46,080 (equivalent to 120 m) and Mars to degree 23,040 (equivalent to 460 m). For the quality of the representation of the topographic functions in spherical harmonics, we use the

  18. The Relationship Between the Expansion Speed and Radial Speed of CMEs Confirmed Using Quadrature Observations of the 2011 February 15 CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Davila, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    It is difficult to measure the true speed of Earth-directed CMEs from a coronagraph along the Sun-Earth line because of the occulting disk. However, the expansion speed (the speed with which the CME appears to spread in the sky plane) can be measured by such coronagraph. In order to convert the expansion speed to radial speed (which is important for space weather applications) one can use empirical relationship between the two that assumes an average width for all CMEs. If we have the width information from quadrature observations, we can confirm the relationship between expansion and radial speeds derived by Gopalswamy et al. (2009a). The STEREO spacecraft were in qudrature with SOHO (STEREO-A ahead of Earth by 87oand STEREO-B 94obehind Earth) on 2011 February 15, when a fast Earth-directed CME occurred. The CME was observed as a halo by the Large-Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board SOHO. The sky-plane speed was measured by SOHO/LASCO as the expansion speed, while the radial speed was measured by STEREO-A and STEREO-B. In addition, STEREO-A and STEREO-B images measured the width of the CME, which is unknown from Earth view. From the SOHO and STEREO measurements, we confirm the relationship between the expansion speed (Vexp) and radial speed (Vrad) derived previously from geometrical considerations (Gopalswamy et al. 2009a): Vrad=1/2 (1 + cot w)Vexp, where w is the half width of the CME. STEREO-B images of the CME, we found that CME had a full width of 7 6o, so w=3 8o. This gives the relation as Vrad=1.1 4 Vexp. From LASCO observations, we measured Vexp=897 km/s, so we get the radial speed as 10 2 3 km/s. Direct measurement of radial speed yields 945 km/s (STEREO-A) and 105 8 km/s (STEREO-B). These numbers are different only by 7.6 % and 3.4 % (for STEREO-A and STEREO-B, respectively) from the computed value.

  19. Electronic post-compensation for nonlinear phase fluctuations in a 1000-km 20-Gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying transmission system using the digital coherent receiver.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2008-01-21

    We demonstrate electronic post-compensation for nonlinear phase fluctuation in a 1000-km 20-Gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) transmission system, where group-velocity dispersion is well managed. The inter-symbol interference (ISI) at the transmitter induces the nonlinear phase fluctuation through self-phase modulation (SPM) of the signal transmitted through a fiber. However, when the optimized phase shift proportional to the intensity fluctuation is given to the complex amplitude of the signal electric field by using a digital coherent receiver, the nonlinear phase fluctuation can be reduced effectively.

  20. 2  ×  2 multiple-input multiple-output optical-wireless integration system based on optical independent-sideband modulation enabled by an in-phase/quadrature modulator.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel and simple 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) optical-wireless integration system, in which optical independent-sideband modulation enabled by an in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulator, instead of optical polarization multiplexing, is used to assist the simultaneous generation of two wireless millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signals. Software-based digital signal processing is used to generate the driving signal for the I/Q modulator, the output of which is two independent single-sideband optical vector signals located at two sides of a large central optical carrier. Based on our proposed 2×2 MIMO optical-wireless integration system, we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous generation and 2×2 MIMO wireless delivery of two independent 40-GHz quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) wireless mm-wave signals. Each 40-GHz QPSK wireless mm-wave signal can carry up to 4-Gbaud transmitter data with a bit-error ratio less than the hard-decision forward-error-correction threshold of 3.8×10-3.

  1. Schematic-based 4/16/64 order quadrature amplitude modulation mapper-demapper implementation for 256 subchannel orthogonal frequency division multiplexing model on FPGA Xilinx SPARTAN 3E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaduddin, .; Setiyanto, Budi; Litasari, .

    2010-05-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a modulation technique which provides higher bit rate and efficient bandwidth. This paper presents an implementation of a 4/16/64 Order Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Mapper-Demapper for 256 Sub channel OFDM Model on Xilinx SPARTAN 3E Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) series, using schematic approach. This QAMOFDM model is reconfigurable in term of its QAM order. The result shows that under the clock frequency around 262 MHz, the implementation works well, high precision is achieved at its serial output. A precision process conducted at 20 ns internal clock input period, with the 25 Mbps input bit rate requires 81.94 μs QAM processing-time. The implementation consumes about 80 % of the total FPGA slices (3736 slices).

  2. Comparisons between the 35 mm Quadrature Surface Resonator at 300 K and the 40 mm High-Temperature Superconducting Surface Resonator at 77 K in a 3T MRI Imager

    PubMed Central

    Song, Manli; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Ji; Lin, In-Tsang

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to compare the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the 40 mm High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) surface resonator at 77 K and the 35 mm commercial quadrature (QD) surface resonator at 300 K in a 3 Tesla (T) MRI imager. To aquire images for the comparison, we implemented a phantom experiment using the 40 mm diameter Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) HTS surface resonator, the 35 mm commercial QD surface resonator and the 40 mm professionally-made copper surface resonator. The HTS surface resonator at 77 K provided a 1.43-fold SNR gain over the QD surface resonator at 300 K and provided a 3.84-fold SNR gain over the professionally-made copper surface resonator at 300 K on phantom images. The results agree with the predictions, and the difference between the predicted SNR gains and measured SNR gains is 1%. Although the geometry of the HTS surface resonator is different from the QD surface resonator, its SNR is still higher. The results demonstrate that a higher image quality can be obtained with the HTS surface resonator at 77 K. With the HTS surface resonator, the SNR can be improved, suggesting that the HTS surface resonator is a potentially helpful diagnostic tool for MRI imaging in various applications. PMID:25812124

  3. An orthogonal oriented quadrature hexagonal image pyramid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An image pyramid has been developed with basis functions that are orthogonal, self-similar, and localized in space, spatial frequency, orientation, and phase. The pyramid operates on a hexagonal sample lattice. The set of seven basis functions consist of three even high-pass kernels, three odd high-pass kernels, and one low-pass kernel. The three even kernels are identified when rotated by 60 or 120 deg, and likewise for the odd. The seven basis functions occupy a point and a hexagon of six nearest neighbors on a hexagonal sample lattice. At the lowest level of the pyramid, the input lattice is the image sample lattice. At each higher level, the input lattice is provided by the low-pass coefficients computed at the previous level. At each level, the output is subsampled in such a way as to yield a new hexagonal lattice with a spacing sq rt 7 larger than the previous level, so that the number of coefficients is reduced by a factor of 7 at each level. The relationship between this image code and the processing architecture of the primate visual cortex is discussed.

  4. Using a 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier with seeding light by 64-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation to achieve a 10-gbits/s upstream rate in long-reach passive optical network access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Wu, Yu-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We use a commercially available 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)--based optical network unit (ONU) to achieve 10-gbits/s upstream traffic for an optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON). This is the first time the 64--quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM format has been applied to RSOA-ONU to achieve a 75 km fiber transmission length. In the proposed LR-PON, the upstream power penalty of 5.2 dB at the bit error rate of 3.8×10-3 is measured by using a 64-QAM OFDM modulation after the 75 km fiber transmission without dispersion compensation.

  5. Fidelity between Gaussian mixed states with quantum state quadrature variances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Long, Zhang; Chun, Zhou; Jian-Hong, Shi; Wan-Su, Bao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, from the original definition of fidelity in a pure state, we first give a well-defined expansion fidelity between two Gaussian mixed states. It is related to the variances of output and input states in quantum information processing. It is convenient to quantify the quantum teleportation (quantum clone) experiment since the variances of the input (output) state are measurable. Furthermore, we also give a conclusion that the fidelity of a pure input state is smaller than the fidelity of a mixed input state in the same quantum information processing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the Foundation of Science and Technology on Information Assurance Laboratory (Grant No. KJ-14-001).

  6. Application of quadratures and operator splitting to partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Bernabe, Francisco J.; Salcedo, J.

    2013-02-01

    In this work we study the stability of a method for the numerical solution of initial value problems, that combines finite differences with Simpson's rule. This method is applied to a one spatial dimension, convection-dominated transport problem. To solve the same problem in two spatial dimensions, the proposed method was used in combination with Strang's operator decomposition method.

  7. A Nonlinear Optimization Procedure for Generalized Gaussian Quadratures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-30

    Norwood, MA, 2001. [5] R. Courant and D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics , Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991. [6] G. Dahlquist and A... Methods of Mathematical Physics , Feshbach Publishing, Min- neapolis, 1981. [19] Tyrtyshnikov, A Brief Introduction to Numerical Analysis, Birkhäuser

  8. Hollow vortices, capillary water waves and double quadrature domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren G.; Roenby, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Two new classes of analytical solutions for hollow vortex equilibria are presented. One class involves a central hollow vortex, comprising a constant pressure region having non-zero circulation, surrounded by an n-polygonal array of point vortices with n\\geqslant 2. The solutions generalize the non-rotating polygonal point vortex configurations of Morikawa and Swenson (1971 Phys. Fluids 14 1058-73) to the case where the point vortex at the centre of the polygon is replaced by a hollow vortex. The results of Morikawa and Swenson would suggest that all equilibria for n\

  9. A Novel Sample Based Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Demodulator

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sawal Hamid Md

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new practical QPSK receiver that uses digitized samples of incoming QPSK analog signal to determine the phase of the QPSK symbol. The proposed technique is more robust to phase noise and consumes up to 89.6% less power for signal detection in demodulation operation. On the contrary, the conventional QPSK demodulation process where it uses coherent detection technique requires the exact incoming signal frequency; thus, any variation in the frequency of the local oscillator or incoming signal will cause phase noise. A software simulation of the proposed design was successfully carried out using MATLAB Simulink software platform. In the conventional system, at least 10 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR) is required to achieve the bit error rate (BER) of 10−6, whereas, in the proposed technique, the same BER value can be achieved with only 5 dB SNR. Since some of the power consuming elements such as voltage control oscillator (VCO), mixer, and low pass filter (LPF) are no longer needed, the proposed QPSK demodulator will consume almost 68.8% to 99.6% less operational power compared to conventional QPSK demodulator. PMID:25197687

  10. A novel sample based quadrature phase shift keying demodulator.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Moubark, Asraf; Ali, Sawal Hamid Md

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new practical QPSK receiver that uses digitized samples of incoming QPSK analog signal to determine the phase of the QPSK symbol. The proposed technique is more robust to phase noise and consumes up to 89.6% less power for signal detection in demodulation operation. On the contrary, the conventional QPSK demodulation process where it uses coherent detection technique requires the exact incoming signal frequency; thus, any variation in the frequency of the local oscillator or incoming signal will cause phase noise. A software simulation of the proposed design was successfully carried out using MATLAB Simulink software platform. In the conventional system, at least 10 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR) is required to achieve the bit error rate (BER) of 10(-6), whereas, in the proposed technique, the same BER value can be achieved with only 5 dB SNR. Since some of the power consuming elements such as voltage control oscillator (VCO), mixer, and low pass filter (LPF) are no longer needed, the proposed QPSK demodulator will consume almost 68.8% to 99.6% less operational power compared to conventional QPSK demodulator.

  11. A Two Color Quadrature Interferometer for the TCS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Edward; Euripides, Peter; Votroubek, George

    1999-11-01

    The TCS experiment at the Redmond Plasma Physics Labotatory (RPPL) is designed to demonstrate current sustainment and heating of a pre-formed FRC plasma using a rotating magnetic field (RMF)at 150 kHz. NE must be accurately measured between 10^19 and 10^21 m-3. We have constructed a two-color, double pass interferometer for the TCS sustainment chamber. CO2 and HeNe lasers at 10.6 and 0.63 microns are used with separate Bragg modulators to generate reference beams shifted by 40 MHz. A unique design uses a single large spherical mirror to focus all beams. We find this technique greatly facilitates alignment. The scene beams may be switched from a single table mode of operation to a through-plasma mode by insertion of a single right angle mirror. Scene beams return to the main table from a hollow corner-cube reflector insuring good signal amplitude stability even though the supporting structure is quite flexible.

  12. Wide-band doubler and sine wave quadrature generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Phase-locked loop with photoresistive control, which provides both sine and cosine outputs for subcarrier demodulation, serves as a telemetry demodulator signal conditioner with a second harmonic signal for synchronization with the locally generated code.

  13. Radio frequency path characterization for wide band quadrature amplitude modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, R.

    1998-12-31

    Remote, high speed, high explosive wave front monitoring requires very high bandwidth telemetry to allow transmission of diagnostic data before the explosion destroys the sensor system itself. The main motivation for this study is that no known existing implementation of this sort has been applied to realistic weapons environments. These facts have prompted the research and gathering of data that can be used to extrapolate towards finding the best modulation method for this application. In addition to research of similar existing analysis and testing operations, data was recently captured from a Joint Test Assembly (JTA) Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) flight.

  14. Spectral Quadrature method for accurate O(N) electronic structure calculations of metals and insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapa, Phanisri P.; Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E.

    2015-12-02

    We present the Clenshaw–Curtis Spectral Quadrature (SQ) method for real-space O(N) Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In this approach, all quantities of interest are expressed as bilinear forms or sums over bilinear forms, which are then approximated by spatially localized Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature rules. This technique is identically applicable to both insulating and metallic systems, and in conjunction with local reformulation of the electrostatics, enables the O(N) evaluation of the electronic density, energy, and atomic forces. The SQ approach also permits infinite-cell calculations without recourse to Brillouin zone integration or large supercells. We employ a finite difference representation in order to exploit the locality of electronic interactions in real space, enable systematic convergence, and facilitate large-scale parallel implementation. In particular, we derive expressions for the electronic density, total energy, and atomic forces that can be evaluated in O(N) operations. We demonstrate the systematic convergence of energies and forces with respect to quadrature order as well as truncation radius to the exact diagonalization result. In addition, we show convergence with respect to mesh size to established O(N3) planewave results. In conclusion, we establish the efficiency of the proposed approach for high temperature calculations and discuss its particular suitability for large-scale parallel computation.

  15. Pulsed laser interferometry with sub-picometer resolution using quadrature detection

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lei; Gorman, Jason J.

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond pulsed laser interferometry has important applications in measuring picometer-level displacements on sub-nanosecond time scales. In this paper, we experimentally examine its achievable displacement resolution, as well as the relationship between the laser’s optical spectrum and the interferometer’s effective wavelength. The resulting broadband displacement noise and noise floor of the pulsed laser Michelson interferometer are equivalent to that achieved with a stabilized continuous wave HeNe laser, where values of 1.01 nm RMS and 27.75 fm/√Hz have been demonstrated. It is also shown that a single effective wavelength can accurately describe the fringes of the pulsed laser interferometer but the effective wavelength value can only be determined from the optical spectrum under certain conditions. These results will be used for time-resolved displacement metrology with picosecond temporal resolution in the future. PMID:27464192

  16. Improving Low Order, Linear, Positive Spatial Quadratures for the Partial Current Neutron Transport Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    an integro - differential equation that is not directly solvable except in the simplest cases; therefore it requires a numerical approximation...AFIT researchers have developed a new approach to solving Discrete Ordinates equations , which approximate the linear Boltzmann Transport Equation ...linear equation . Positive, linear methods are available, but are only first-order accurate. The latter can achieve needed accuracy by using optically

  17. Pulsed laser interferometry with sub-picometer resolution using quadrature detection.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lei; Gorman, Jason J

    2016-07-25

    Femtosecond pulsed laser interferometry has important applications in measuring picometer-level displacements on sub-nanosecond time scales. In this paper, we experimentally examine its achievable displacement resolution, as well as the relationship between the laser's optical spectrum and the interferometer's effective wavelength. The resulting broadband displacement noise and noise floor of the pulsed laser Michelson interferometer are equivalent to that achieved with a stabilized continuous wave HeNe laser, where values of 1.01 nm RMS and 27.75 fm/√Hz have been demonstrated. It is also shown that a single effective wavelength can accurately describe the fringes of the pulsed laser interferometer but the effective wavelength value can only be determined from the optical spectrum under certain conditions. These results will be used for time-resolved displacement metrology with picosecond temporal resolution in the future.

  18. Optimized perfect reconstruction quadrature mirror filter (PR-QMF) based codes for multi-user communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetling, Kenneth J.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Das, Pankaj K.

    1995-04-01

    In communications systems, the message signal is sometimes spread over a large bandwidth in order to realize performance gains in the presence of narrowband interference, multipath propagation, and multiuser interference. The extent to which performance is improved is highly dependent upon the spreading code implemented. Traditionally, the spreading codes have consisted of pseudo-noise (PN) sequences whose chip values are limited to bipolar values. Recently, however, alternatives to the PN sequences have been studied including wavelet based and PR-QMF based spreading codes. The spreading codes implemented are the basis functions of a particular wavelet transform or PR-QMF bank. Since the choice of available basis functions is much larger than that of PN sequences, it is hoped that better performance can be achieved by choosing a basis tailored to the system requirements mentioned above. In this paper, a design method is presented to construct a PR-QMF bank which will generate spreading codes optimized for operating in a multiuser interference environment. Objective functions are developed for the design criteria and a multivariable constrained optimization problem is employed to generate the coefficients used in the filter bank. Once the filter bank is complete, the spreading codes are extracted and implemented in the spread spectrum system. System bit error rate (BER) curves are generated from computer simulation for analysis. Curves are generated for both the single user and the CDMA environment and performance is compared to that attained using gold codes.

  19. Studying collisions in the general physics laboratory with quadrature light emitting diode sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, P. A.; Mulder, B.

    2002-12-01

    We have developed the means to measure position rapidly and precisely as a function of time in the general physics laboratory. These measurements are of sufficient quality that velocities and accelerations can be calculated from the position data using numerical derivatives. The precision of the measurements is such that any disagreement between theoretical expectations and experimental measurements is less than a few percent. Measurements of the system under study can be made as rapidly as every 200 μs, which is faster than the typical time scales over which the system changes. Measuring rapidly also allows one to investigate additional phenomena not previously accessible and to see features of the physics previously unobserved. The measurement system is based on commercially available sensors, computer hardware, and computer software (LABVIEW™). Many general physics laboratories based on this system have been developed but only an investigation of Newton's second law will be described here.

  20. Recent developments in Bayesian inference of tokamak plasma equilibria and high-dimensional stochastic quadratures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nessi, G. T.; Hole, M. J.; The MAST Team

    2014-11-01

    We present recent results and technical breakthroughs for the Bayesian inference of tokamak equilibria using force-balance as a prior constraint. Issues surrounding model parameter representation and posterior analysis are discussed and addressed. These points motivate the recent advancements embodied in the Bayesian Equilibrium Analysis and Simulation Tool (BEAST) software being presently utilized to study equilibria on the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) experiment in the UK (von Nessi et al 2012 J. Phys. A 46 185501). State-of-the-art results of using BEAST to study MAST equilibria are reviewed, with recent code advancements being systematically presented though out the manuscript.

  1. A Simple Algorithm for Obtaining Nearly Optimal Quadrature Rules for NURBS-based Isogeometric Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-05

    Università degli Studi di Pavia bIstituto di Matematica Applicata e Tecnologie Informatiche “E. Magenes” del CNR, Pavia cDAEIMI, Università degli Studi di...Cassino d Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, University of Texas at Austin eDipartimento di Matematica , Università degli Studi di

  2. A computational approach for hypersonic nonequilibrium radiation utilizing space partition algorithm and Gauss quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J. S.; Andrienko, D. A.; Huang, P. G.; Surzhikov, S. T.

    2014-06-01

    An efficient computational capability for nonequilibrium radiation simulation via the ray tracing technique has been accomplished. The radiative rate equation is iteratively coupled with the aerodynamic conservation laws including nonequilibrium chemical and chemical-physical kinetic models. The spectral properties along tracing rays are determined by a space partition algorithm of the nearest neighbor search process, and the numerical accuracy is further enhanced by a local resolution refinement using the Gauss-Lobatto polynomial. The interdisciplinary governing equations are solved by an implicit delta formulation through the diminishing residual approach. The axisymmetric radiating flow fields over the reentry RAM-CII probe have been simulated and verified with flight data and previous solutions by traditional methods. A computational efficiency gain nearly forty times is realized over that of the existing simulation procedures.

  3. A computational approach for hypersonic nonequilibrium radiation utilizing space partition algorithm and Gauss quadrature

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, J.S.; Andrienko, D.A.; Huang, P.G.; Surzhikov, S.T.

    2014-06-01

    An efficient computational capability for nonequilibrium radiation simulation via the ray tracing technique has been accomplished. The radiative rate equation is iteratively coupled with the aerodynamic conservation laws including nonequilibrium chemical and chemical–physical kinetic models. The spectral properties along tracing rays are determined by a space partition algorithm of the nearest neighbor search process, and the numerical accuracy is further enhanced by a local resolution refinement using the Gauss–Lobatto polynomial. The interdisciplinary governing equations are solved by an implicit delta formulation through the diminishing residual approach. The axisymmetric radiating flow fields over the reentry RAM-CII probe have been simulated and verified with flight data and previous solutions by traditional methods. A computational efficiency gain nearly forty times is realized over that of the existing simulation procedures.

  4. Calculation of Radau?Kronrod and Lobatto?Kronrod quadrature formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Dirk

    2007-08-01

    We show how to apply routines from the software package OPQ by Walter Gautschi in order to compute the optimal extension of an n-point generalized Radau or Lobatto formula. The method is applicable to any weight function for which enough three-term recursion coefficients are known. The idea on which the method is based was first shown by Paola Baratella in 1979. Program code in the format of M-files conforming to the conventions of OPQ is given.

  5. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) using binary-driven coupling-modulated rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimelahi, Samira; Sheikholeslami, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We propose and fully analyze a compact structure for DAC-free pure optical QAM modulation. The proposed structure is the first ring resonator-based DAC-free QAM modulator reported in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. The device consists of two segmented add-drop Mach Zehnder interferometer-assisted ring modulators (MZIARM) in an IQ configuration. The proposed architecture is investigated based on the parameters from SOI technology where various key design considerations are discussed. We have included the loss in the MZI arms in our analysis of phase and amplitude modulation using MZIARM for the first time and show that the imbalanced loss results in a phase error. The output level linearity is also studied for both QAM-16 and QAM-64 not only based on optimizing RF segment lengths but also by optimizing the number of segments. In QAM-16, linearity among levels is achievable with two segments while in QAM-64 an additional segment may be required.

  6. Spherical-earth Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Modeling by Gauss-legendre Quadrature Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Luca, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The anomalous potential of gravity and magnetic fields and their spatial derivatives on a spherical Earth for an arbitrary body represented by an equivalent point source distribution of gravity poles or magnetic dipoles were calculated. The distribution of equivalent point sources was determined directly from the coordinate limits of the source volume. Variable integration limits for an arbitrarily shaped body are derived from interpolation of points which approximate the body's surface envelope. The versatility of the method is enhanced by the ability to treat physical property variations within the source volume and to consider variable magnetic fields over the source and observation surface. A number of examples verify and illustrate the capabilities of the technique, including preliminary modeling of potential field signatures for Mississippi embayment crustal structure at satellite elevations.

  7. Exponential Characteristic Spatial Quadrature for Discrete Ordinates Neutral Particle Transport in Slab Geometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    neutron energy distribution function Va1 = fission neutrons produced = scalar neutron flux Functional dependence of each variable is...an albedo ac times the outbound flux of neutrons passing across the surface of the boundary return back into the boundary in an isotropic distribution ...8217)O(7, E’, t) where 4 v = neutron speed xV = angular neutron flux = unit vector in direction of particle motion ; = coordinate location in space

  8. Linear Characteristic Spatial Quadrature for Discrete Ordinates Neutral Particle Transport on Arbitrary Triangles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    density of particles from sources that are independent of the flux distribution emitted at position F with energies in dE about E and directions in dfl...current j can be produced. Scalar fluxes are needed to determine reaction rates such as fission and neutron activation rates. Vector currents are...scalar flux distribution on the spatial mesh. This guess might be zero throughout or some informed initial guess. The guess would be used to construct

  9. Atom-assisted quadrature squeezing of a mechanical oscillator inside a dispersive cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chauhan, Anil Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of position of a mesoscopic harmonic oscillator below standard quantum limit in cavity optomechanics has seen a growing interest in recent times. If the oscillator is suspended inside the cavity (with both the mirrors fixed) at a position where the cavity frequency becomes extremum (a membrane-in-the-middle setup), large squeezing can be achieved by conditional measurement of thermal photons; however the cavity decay degrades such squeezing. Here we propose an atom-cavity-oscillator hybrid scheme, in which the effect of cavity decay is eliminated via dispersive coupling of the cavity mode. The atom in Λ configuration is considered to be trapped on either side of the membrane inside the cavity. We show that a considerable amount of squeezing (far beyond the 3 dB limit) can be achieved that is not affected by spontaneous emission of the atom. The squeezing depends upon the initial preparation of the atomic states. Further, the external classical fields, that drive the atomic transition and the cavity mode, control the degree of squeezing and can also lead to a strong effective atom-oscillator coupling. Effect of thermal phonon bath on squeezing is studied in terms of the squeezing spectrum. The results are supported by the detailed analytical calculations.

  10. Cascade photonic integrated circuit architecture for electro-optic in-phase quadrature/single sideband modulation or frequency conversion.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hall, Trevor

    2015-11-01

    A photonic integrated circuit architecture for implementing frequency upconversion is proposed. The circuit consists of a 1×2 splitter and 2×1 combiner interconnected by two stages of differentially driven phase modulators having 2×2 multimode interference coupler between the stages. A transfer matrix approach is used to model the operation of the architecture. The predictions of the model are validated by simulations performed using an industry standard software tool. The intrinsic conversion efficiency of the proposed design is improved by 6 dB over the alternative functionally equivalent circuit based on dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators known in the prior art. A two-tone analysis is presented to study the linearity of the proposed circuit, and a comparison is provided over the alternative. The proposed circuit is suitable for integration in any platform that offers linear electro-optic phase modulation such as LiNbO(3), silicon, III-V, or hybrid technology.

  11. Coarse-grained computation for particle coagulation and sintering processes by linking Quadrature Method of Moments with Monte-Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Yu; Kavousanakis, Michail E.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Fox, Rodney O.

    2010-07-20

    The study of particle coagulation and sintering processes is important in a variety of research studies ranging from cell fusion and dust motion to aerosol formation applications. These processes are traditionally simulated using either Monte-Carlo methods or integro-differential equations for particle number density functions. In this paper, we present a computational technique for cases where we believe that accurate closed evolution equations for a finite number of moments of the density function exist in principle, but are not explicitly available. The so-called equation-free computational framework is then employed to numerically obtain the solution of these unavailable closed moment equations by exploiting (through intelligent design of computational experiments) the corresponding fine-scale (here, Monte-Carlo) simulation. We illustrate the use of this method by accelerating the computation of evolving moments of uni- and bivariate particle coagulation and sintering through short simulation bursts of a constant-number Monte-Carlo scheme.

  12. Liquid crystal free energy relaxation by a theoretically informed Monte Carlo method using a finite element quadrature approach.

    PubMed

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; de Pablo, Juan J

    2015-12-28

    A theoretically informed Monte Carlo method is proposed for Monte Carlo simulation of liquid crystals on the basis of theoretical representations in terms of coarse-grained free energy functionals. The free energy functional is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. A piecewise finite element discretization is used to approximate the alignment field, thereby providing an excellent geometrical representation of curved interfaces and accurate integration of the free energy. The method is suitable for situations where the free energy functional includes highly non-linear terms, including chirality or high-order deformation modes. The validity of the method is established by comparing the results of Monte Carlo simulations to traditional Ginzburg-Landau minimizations of the free energy using a finite difference scheme, and its usefulness is demonstrated in the context of simulations of chiral liquid crystal droplets with and without nanoparticle inclusions.

  13. Coherent detection of frequency-hopped quadrature modulations in the presence of jamming. I - QPSK and QASK modulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Polydoros, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of coherent QPSK and QASK systems combined with FH or FH/PN spread spectrum techniques in the presence of partial-band multitone or noise jamming. The worst-case jammer and worst-case performance are determined as functions of the signal-to-background noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-jammer power ratio (SJR). Asymptotic results for high SNR are shown to have a linear dependence between the jammer's optimal power allocation and the system error probability performance.

  14. Study of higher order correlation functions and photon statistics using multiphoton-subtracted states and quadrature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Katamadze, K. G.; Avosopyants, G. V.; Belinsky, L. V.; Bogdanova, N. A.; Kulik, S. P.; Lukichev, V. F.

    2016-12-01

    The estimation of high order correlation function values is an important problem in the field of quantum computation. We show that the problem can be reduced to preparation and measurement of optical quantum states resulting after annihilation of a set number of quanta from the original beam. We apply this approach to explore various photon bunching regimes in optical states with gamma-compounded Poisson photon number statistics. We prepare and perform measurement of the thermal quantum state as well as states produced by subtracting one to ten photons from it. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimation. The goal of this research is the development of highly accurate procedures for generation and quality control of optical quantum states.

  15. Efficient Second Harmonic Conversion of Broadband High-Peak-Power Nd:Glass Laser Radiation Using Large-Aperture KDP Crystals in Quadrature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-23

    pp. 3633-3643, October 1982. 16. W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo , R. Boni, and R. S. Craxton, ’Demonstration of High Efficiency Third Harmonic...2156-2170, November 1980. 26. N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics. New York: Benjamin , 1965. 27. J. F. Reintjes, Naval Research Laboratory, private comm

  16. Real-time structural integrity monitoring using a passive quadrature demodulated, localised Michelson optical fibre interferometer capable of simultaneous strain and acoustic emission sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapanes, Edward

    1991-12-01

    A Michelson Fiber optic sensor (MFOS) is described for in-situ strain and vibration monitoring as well as acoustic emission detection in composite material structures. The phase sensitive fiber optic sensor is localized, all-fiber, and intrinsic. The MFOS was successfully embedded in Kevlar/epoxy and graphite/epoxy thermosets as well as graphite/PEEK thermoplastic in order to perform local strain and vibration measurements at the lamina level. A technique allowing acoustic emission detection in parallel with strain and vibration monitoring is illustrated.

  17. [Operational costs and control of performance in surgical clinics between marketing and planning economics. Risk or perhaps quadrature of the circle].

    PubMed

    Kraus, T W; Weber, W; Mieth, M; Funk, H; Klar, E; Herfarth, C

    2000-03-01

    Surgical hospitals can be seen as operational or even industrial production systems. Doctors have a major impact on both medical performance and costs. For active participation in the management process, knowledge of industrial controlling mechanisms is required. German hospitals currently receive no procedure-related financial revenues, such as prices or tariffs for defined medical treatment activities. Maximum clinical revenues are, furthermore, limited by principles of planned economy and can be increased only slightly by greater medical performance. Costs are the only target that can be autonomously influenced by the management. Operative controlling in hospitals aims at horizontal and vertical coordination of subunits and decentralization of process regulations. Hospital medical performance is not clearly defined, its quantitative measurement very problematic. Process-orientated clinical activities are not taken into account. A high percentage of hospital costs are fixed and can be influenced only by major structural interventions in the long term. Variable costs are primarily dependent on the quantity of clinical activities, but also heavily influenced by patient structure (comorbidity and risk profile). The various forms of industrial cost calculations, such as internal budgeting, internal markets or flexible plan-cost balancing, cannot be directly applied in hospital management. Based on these analyses, current operational concepts and strategic trends are listed to describe cost-management options in hospitals with focus on the German health reforms.

  18. Study of error correcting codes for Hertzian channels with a large number of states. Application to Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) 64

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamanou, Pierre-Francois

    1988-05-01

    Error correcting codes applicable to high reliability systems are studied. The main statistical characteristics of these codes are discussed. The analysis includes Ungerboeck, self orthogonal convolutive and Lee Nakamura block coding procedures. In all cases the choice of code and their parameters is guided by the available band width and by the conditions imposed by the frame structure.

  19. Demodulation of OFDM Signals in the Presence of Deep Fading Channels and Signal Clipping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Power Ratio QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QPSK Quadrature Phase-Shift-Keying RF Radio Frequency RMS Root Mean Square SER Symbol Error...transmitted symbols (in general a quadrature phase-shift keyed (QPSK) or a quadrature amplitude modulation (M- QAM ) signal) with observations made by...53 C. NECESSITY FOR DATA RECOVERY IN MARITIME OPERATIONAL APPLICATIONS

  20. Performance of Complex Spreading MIMO Systems With Interference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    16- QAM ) and 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (64- QAM ). We also investigate the performances of the previous systems for multiple-input...such as quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16- QAM ) and 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (64- QAM ). We also...the equivalent constellation diagrams. In [9], a study of adaptive quadrature amplitude modulation ( QAM ) with complex spreading for high-speed

  1. On the Differentiation Matrix for Daubechies-Based Wavelets on an Interval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    wavelet systems defined on an interval. In particular, the differentiation accuracy of the dif- ferentiation matrices constructed from the currently...the product of three ma- trices: E) = CDC. The three matrices are defined as follows: "* The first matrix C is a quadrature matrix mapping from...quadrature matrices and ill- conditioned 3-point quadrature matrices . 6. Quadrature Matrix C Using Samples: C performs the mapping, C : g --+ f. For the D4

  2. Extraction of a Weak Co-Channel Interfering Communication Signal Using Complex Independent Component Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Decomposition FFT Fast Fourier Transform ICA Independent Component Analysis IID Independent and Identically Distributed INR Interference-to-Noise Ratio OFDM ...the DVB-T broadcast is an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexed ( OFDM ) four-level rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (4-QAM), 16-level...rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM), or 64-level rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (64-QAM) signal. The 4-QAM OFDM option

  3. Analysis of an Hp-Non-conforming Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Element Method for Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    on hexahedral meshes using either exact integration with Legendre-Gauss quadrature or inexact integration with Legendre-Gauss- Lobatto quadrature. A...inexact integration with Legendre-Gauss- Lobatto quadrature. A mortar-based non-conforming approximation is developed to treat both h and p non...Legendre-Gauss- Lobatto ; consistency, stability, convergence. AMS subject classifications. 65N35, 65N12, 65N15 1. Introduction. The discontinuous Galerkin

  4. Comparison of numerical techniques for the evaluation of the Doppler broadening functions psi(x,theta) and chi(x,theta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, R. B., Jr.; Semler, T. T.

    1972-01-01

    Several approximations to the Doppler broadening functions psi(x, theta) and chi(x, theta) are compared with respect to accuracy and speed of evaluation. A technique, due to A. M. Turning (1943), is shown to be at least as accurate as direct numerical quadrature and somewhat faster than Gaussian quadrature. FORTRAN 4 listings are included.

  5. An Interpolation Approach to Optimal Trajectory Planning for Helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Armament Data Line DOF Degree of Freedom PS Pseudospectral LGL Legendre-Gauss- Lobatto quadrature nodes ODE Ordinary Differential Equation xiv...Gauss- Lobatto (LGL) quadrature nodes [14]. The trajectory solution, a function f(t) is approximated by Nth order Lagrange polynomials using the an

  6. Computer Simulation of Digital Signal Modulation Techniques in Satellite Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    SUBROUTINE QPSK..................88 G.SUBROUTINE OQPSK . ..... .............. 88 H. SUBROUTINE MPSK ................................ 9 I. SUBROUTINE MASK...Quadrature Phase Shift Keying . . . .72 5.15 Phasor Diagram of OQPSK . . .. .. .... . . . .. 73 5.16 Phasor Diagram cf FFSK or IISK.............70...Shift Keying ( OQPSK ) In Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, Loth bits of the two baseband waveforms, which are to be modulated onto the carrier, change at

  7. A generalized framework for nodal first derivative summation-by-parts operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey Fernández, David C.; Boom, Pieter D.; Zingg, David W.

    2014-06-01

    A generalized framework is presented that extends the classical theory of finite-difference summation-by-parts (SBP) operators to include a wide range of operators, where the main extensions are (i) non-repeating interior point operators, (ii) nonuniform nodal distribution in the computational domain, (iii) operators that do not include one or both boundary nodes. Necessary and sufficient conditions are proven for the existence of nodal approximations to the first derivative with the SBP property. It is proven that the positive-definite norm matrix of each SBP operator must be associated with a quadrature rule; moreover, given a quadrature rule there exists a corresponding SBP operator, where for diagonal-norm SBP operators the weights of the quadrature rule must be positive. The generalized framework gives a straightforward means of posing many known approximations to the first derivative as SBP operators; several are surveyed, such as discontinuous Galerkin discretizations based on the Legendre-Gauss quadrature points, and shown to be SBP operators. Moreover, the new framework provides a method for constructing SBP operators by starting from quadrature rules; this is illustrated by constructing novel SBP operators from known quadrature rules. To demonstrate the utility of the generalization, the Legendre-Gauss and Legendre-Gauss-Radau quadrature points are used to construct SBP operators that do not include one or both boundary nodes.

  8. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Nonclassical State of a Massive Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, F.; Clark, J. B.; Simmonds, R. W.; Aumentado, J.; Teufel, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    By coupling a macroscopic mechanical oscillator to two microwave cavities, we simultaneously prepare and monitor a nonclassical steady state of mechanical motion. In each cavity, correlated radiation pressure forces induced by two coherent drives engineer the coupling between the quadratures of light and motion. We, first, demonstrate the ability to perform a continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of a single mechanical quadrature at a rate that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rate, while avoiding measurement backaction by more than 13 dB. Second, we apply this measurement technique to independently verify the preparation of a squeezed state in the mechanical oscillator, resolving quadrature fluctuations 20% below the quantum noise.

  9. Noiseless Quantum Measurement and Squeezing of Microwave Fields Utilizing Mechanical Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockeloen-Korppi, C. F.; Damskägg, E.; Pirkkalainen, J.-M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Massel, F.; Sillanpää, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    A process which strongly amplifies both quadrature amplitudes of an oscillatory signal necessarily adds noise. Alternatively, if the information in one quadrature is lost in phase-sensitive amplification, it is possible to completely reconstruct the other quadrature. Here we demonstrate such a nearly perfect phase-sensitive measurement using a cavity optomechanical scheme, characterized by an extremely small noise less than 0.2 quanta. The device also strongly squeezes microwave radiation by 8 dB below vacuum. A source of bright squeezed microwaves opens up applications in manipulations of quantum systems, and noiseless amplification can be used even at modest cryogenic temperatures.

  10. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Nonclassical State of a Massive Object

    PubMed Central

    Lecocq, F.; Clark, J. B.; Simmonds, R.W.; Aumentado, J.; Teufel, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    By coupling a macroscopic mechanical oscillator to two microwave cavities, we simultaneously prepare and monitor a nonclassical steady state of mechanical motion. In each cavity, correlated radiation pressure forces induced by two coherent drives engineer the coupling between the quadratures of light and motion. We, first, demonstrate the ability to perform a continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of a single mechanical quadrature at a rate that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rate, while avoiding measurement backaction by more than 13 dB. Second, we apply this measurement technique to independently verify the preparation of a squeezed state in the mechanical oscillator, resolving quadrature fluctuations 20% below the quantum noise. PMID:27057422

  11. One-step block method for solving Volterra integro-differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Nurul Atikah binti; Majid, Zanariah Abdul

    2015-10-01

    One-step block method for solving linear Volterra integro-differential equations (VIDEs) is presented in this paper. In VIDEs, the unknown function appears in the form of derivative and under the integral sign. The popular methods for solving VIDEs are the method of quadrature or quadrature method combined with numerical method. The proposed block method will solve the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) part and Newton-Cotes quadrature rule is applied to calculate the integral part of VIDEs. Numerical problems are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  12. Quantum nondemolition measurement of a nonclassical state of a massive object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Florent; Clark, Jeremy; Simmonds, Raymond; Aumentado, Jose; Teufel, John

    By coupling a macroscopic mechanical oscillator to two microwave cavities, we simultaneously prepare and monitor a nonclassical steady state of mechanical motion. In each cavity, correlated radiation pressure forces induced by two coherent drives engineer the coupling between the quadratures of light and motion. We first demonstrate the ability to perform a continuous quantum nondemolition measurement of a single mechanical quadrature at a rate that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rate, while avoiding measurement backaction by more than 13dB. Second, we apply this measurement technique to independently verify the preparation of a squeezed state in the mechanical oscillator, resolving quadrature fluctuations 20% below the quantum noise.

  13. Noiseless Quantum Measurement and Squeezing of Microwave Fields Utilizing Mechanical Vibrations.

    PubMed

    Ockeloen-Korppi, C F; Damskägg, E; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Heikkilä, T T; Massel, F; Sillanpää, M A

    2017-03-10

    A process which strongly amplifies both quadrature amplitudes of an oscillatory signal necessarily adds noise. Alternatively, if the information in one quadrature is lost in phase-sensitive amplification, it is possible to completely reconstruct the other quadrature. Here we demonstrate such a nearly perfect phase-sensitive measurement using a cavity optomechanical scheme, characterized by an extremely small noise less than 0.2 quanta. The device also strongly squeezes microwave radiation by 8 dB below vacuum. A source of bright squeezed microwaves opens up applications in manipulations of quantum systems, and noiseless amplification can be used even at modest cryogenic temperatures.

  14. Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.

  15. Asronomical refraction: Computational methods for all zenith angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, L. H.; Standish, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of computing astronomical refraction for any value of the zenith angle may be reduced to a simple, nonsingular, numerical quadrature when the proper choice is made for the independent variable of integration.

  16. A Tandem Coupler for Terahertz Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Theodore J.; Deal, William; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide 3 dB quadrature coupler operating from 500 to 700 GHz is designed, fabricated and measured. On-wafer measurements demonstrate an amplitude balance of +/-2 dB and phase balance of +/-20 deg.

  17. Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.

  18. Macroscopic test of quantum mechanics versus stochastic electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Drummond, Peter D.

    1997-02-01

    We identify a test of quantum mechanics versus macroscopic local realism in the form of stochastic electrodynamics. The test uses the steady-state triple quadrature correlations of a parametric oscillator below threshold.

  19. A generalization of Cesàro's relation for plane finite deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiskis, Alexander

    1995-09-01

    Using a new representation for the gradient of the rotation angle, the construction of a displacement field via the stretch tensor is reduced to quadrature for plane finite deformations. The compatibility equation is written in a very brief new form.

  20. Research on numerical algorithms for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, E. D.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical algorithms for analysis and design of large space structures are investigated. The sign algorithm and its application to decoupling of differential equations are presented. The generalized sign algorithm is given and its application to several problems discussed. The Laplace transforms of matrix functions and the diagonalization procedure for a finite element equation are discussed. The diagonalization of matrix polynomials is considered. The quadrature method and Laplace transforms is discussed and the identification of linear systems by the quadrature method investigated.

  1. Flexible Data Link

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    continuously-interleaved Reed- Solomon scheme with 8% overhead has the best trade-off of performance (net coding gain) and overhead. Therefore, this is...disparity between attenuation at sea level versus at a 9150 meter altitude. As the Flexible Data Link system is an airborne asset which may operate...Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Key RF Radio Frequency RS Reed- Solomon S&E Scientist & Engineers SFP Small Form-factor

  2. Solution of acoustic workshop problems by a spectral multidomain method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopriva, Davis A.; Kolias, John H.

    1995-01-01

    We use a new staggered grid Chebyshev spectral multidomain method to solve three of the Workshop benchmark problems. The method defines solution unknowns at the nodes of the Chebyshev Gauss quadrature, and the fluxes at the nodes of the Chebyshev Gauss-Lobatto quadrature. The Chebyshev spectral method gives exponentially convergent phase and dissipation errors. The multidomain approximation gives the method flexibility. Using the method, we solve problems in Categories 1 and 5 of the benchmark problems.

  3. Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-06-15

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.

  4. Applying Frequency-Domain Equalization to Code-Division Multiple Access and Transform-Domain Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/08-33 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio...research examined the theory and application of using orthogonal fre- quency division multiplexing ( OFDM ), or discrete multi-tone (DMT), frequency...1 OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing . . . . . . . . 4 QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 QAM Quadrature

  5. On Gautschi's conjecture for generalized Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulak, Hédi; Beckermann, Bernhard

    2009-12-01

    Recently, Gautschi introduced so-called generalized Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto formulae which are quadrature formulae of Gaussian type involving not only the values but also the derivatives of the function at the endpoints. In the present note we show the positivity of the corresponding weights; this positivity has been conjectured already by Gautschi. As a consequence, we establish several convergence theorems for these quadrature formulae.

  6. Some remarks on the numerical computation of integrals on an unbounded interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, M.; Criscuolo, G.

    2007-08-01

    An account of the error and the convergence theory is given for Gauss?Laguerre and Gauss?Radau?Laguerre quadrature formulae. We develop also truncated models of the original Gauss rules to compute integrals extended over the positive real axis. Numerical examples confirming the theoretical results are given comparing these rules among themselves and with different quadrature formulae proposed by other authors (Evans, Int. J. Comput. Math. 82:721?730, 2005; Gautschi, BIT 31:438?446, 1991).

  7. Moment-Prserving Computational Approach for High Energy Charged Particle Transport Second Interim Performance Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-06

    orthogonal polynomials to coefficients of polynomials for an arbitrary weight function. 2. If using Radau quadrature (fixes one endpoint at 1), update...the discrete points and the first entry of the eigenvectors squared corresponds to the discrete weights. If a Radau set is to be used the matrix...since Radau quadrature can integrate polynomials up to order 2N-1. The following table gives moments of the analog cross section, moments calculated

  8. High-order generalized Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto formulae for Jacobi and Laguerre weight functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautschi, Walter

    2009-06-01

    The generation of generalized Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature formulae by methods developed by us earlier breaks down in the case of Jacobi and Laguerre measures when the order of the quadrature rules becomes very large. The reason for this is underflow resp. overflow of the respective monic orthogonal polynomials. By rescaling of the polynomials, and other corrective measures, the problem can be circumvented, and formulae can be generated of orders as high as 1,000.

  9. A Computational Approach for Near-Optimal Path Planning and Guidance for Systems with Nonholonomic Contraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    novel methods for discretization based on Legendre-Gauss and Legendre-Gauss- Radau quadrature points. Using this approach, the finite-dimensional...Gauss- Radau quadrature points. Using this approach, the finite-dimensional approximation is kept low-dimensional, potentially enabling near real...Costate Estimation of Finite-Horizon and Infinite-Horizon Optimal Control Problems Using a Radau Pseudospectral Method,” Computational Optimization and

  10. Multi-rate demodulator architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Michael A.; Caso, Gregory S.

    1991-01-01

    A unique digital multi-rate demodulator (MRD) architecture is presented for onboard satellite communications processing. The multi-rate feature enables the same demodulator hardware to process either one wideband channel (WBC), or process up to thirty-two independent narrowband channels (NBC) that are time division multiplexed (TDM). The MRD can process many quadrature modulation format such as offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK). Possible applications include voice and data transmission for commercial or military users.

  11. Telemetry Systems Radio Frequency (RF) Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    1-11 Figure 1-9. OQPSK block diagram...space OQPSK offset quadrature phase-shift keying p-p peak-to-peak PAM pulse-amplitude modulation PCM pulse-code modulation PLD path length difference...11 Figure 1-8. QPSK block diagram. 1.3.2.2.3 Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying ( OQPSK ) Systems. The OQPSK transmission system, also known as

  12. An Analysis of Coherent and Differentially Coherent Digital Receivers in the Presence of Colored Noise Interference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying ( OQPSK ) and Minimum Shift Keying (MSK). The analysis presented here ser\\as only to highlight 11 iJ-’J^’iM...SHIFT KEYING Quadrature Phase Shift Keyed (QPSK) modulation is a special case of MPSK modulation where M = 4. Offset QPSK ( OQPSK ) is a special case...furthermore a special case of OQPSK in which sinusoidal pulse weighting prior to carrier modulation produces a more compact signal spectrum making

  13. Multi-rate demodulator architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, Michael A.; Caso, Gregory S.

    1991-11-01

    A unique digital multi-rate demodulator (MRD) architecture is presented for onboard satellite communications processing. The multi-rate feature enables the same demodulator hardware to process either one wideband channel (WBC), or process up to thirty-two independent narrowband channels (NBC) that are time division multiplexed (TDM). The MRD can process many quadrature modulation format such as offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK). Possible applications include voice and data transmission for commercial or military users.

  14. Updated version of the DOT 4 one- and two-dimensional neutron/photon transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    DOT 4 is designed to allow very large transport problems to be solved on a wide range of computers and memory arrangements. Unusual flexibilty in both space-mesh and directional-quadrature specification is allowed. For example, the radial mesh in an R-Z problem can vary with axial position. The directional quadrature can vary with both space and energy group. Several features improve performance on both deep penetration and criticality problems. The program has been checked and used extensively.

  15. Graphical rule of transforming continuous-variable graph states by local homodyne detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jing

    2010-09-15

    Graphical rule, describing that any single-mode homodyne detection turns a given continuous-variable (CV) graph state into a new one, is presented. Employing two simple graphical rules--local complement operation and vertex deletion (single quadrature-amplitude x measurement)--the graphical rule for any single-mode quadrature component measurement can be obtained. The shape of CV weighted graph state may be designed and constructed easily from a given larger graph state by applying this graphical rule.

  16. (DURIP) MIMO Radar Testbed for Waveform Adaptive Sensing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-17

    to implement image suppression and channel selection. Heterodyne receivers can achieve high sensitivity and channel selectivity, DC offset is...common to receivers with intermediate frequency conversion stages. However, significant DC offsets at the output of quadrature mixers as a result of LO...practice. In addition low-IF bandpass sampling system enables us to use a DC - blocker at the output of quadrature mixer output, eliminating the DC

  17. Nonclassicality in the statistics of noncommuting observables: Nonclassical states are more compatible than classical states

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo

    2011-07-15

    We study nonclassicality in the product of the probabilities of noncommuting observables. We show that within the quantum theory, nonclassical states can provide larger probability product than classical states, so that nonclassical states approach the nonfluctuating states of the classical theory more closely than classical states. This is particularized to relevant complementary observables such as conjugate quadratures, phase and number, quadrature and number, and orthogonal angular momentum components.

  18. Full-wave Characterization of Rough Terrain Surface Effects for Forward-looking Radar Applications: A Scattering and Imaging Study from the Electromagnetic Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    transformed into a matrix system with Gauss -Legendre quadrature as the underlying quadrature rule of the LCN method. In the present formulation, the far...1234–1237. 30. Johnson, J. T. A Numerical Study of Low-Grazing Angle Backscatter From Ocean-Like Impedance Surfaces With the Canonical Grid...Using the Physics-Based Two-Grid Method and the Canonical -Grid method,‖ IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. April 1999, 47 (4), 752–763. 33. Chan, C. H

  19. Analysis of and Techniques for Adaptive Equalization for Underwater Acoustic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Keyed QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keyed 19 continued from last page. . . Acronym Definition RF Radio Frequency...rate was 2400 samples per second and the data packet was 60000 4- QAM modulated symbols. The results again confirm that the proposed method outperforms...communication is quickly becoming a necessity for applications in ocean science, defense, and homeland security. Acoustics remains the only prac- tical means

  20. Automatic Modulation Classification of Common Communication and Pulse Compression Radar Waveforms using Cyclic Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    from estimated duty cycle, cyclic spectral correlation, and cyclic cumulants. The modulations considered in this research are BPSK, QPSK, 16- QAM , 64- QAM ...spectral density PSK phase shift keying QAM quadrature amplitude modulation QPSK quadrature phase shift keying RADAR radio detection and ranging RF radio...spectrum sensing research, automatic modulation recognition has emerged as an important process in cognitive spectrum management and EW applications

  1. Analysis and Simulation of Disadvantaged Receivers for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    47 Figure 23. Simulated BER performance of a 2x2 MIMO-OFDM system with Alamouti space-time coding and 16 QAM modulation ...Spectral Density xiv PDF Probability Density Function QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QPSK Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying RF Radio...of possible received symbols in a given modulation scheme (i.e., M- QAM ). It is clear that this will significantly reduce computational time

  2. Fast Dual Analog-to-Digital Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, D. E.; Green, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Unit delivers blocks of quadrature data to computer memory. Contains 105 integrated circuit packages in 19 by 3 1/2 inch (48.26 by 8.39 cm) rack mounted drawer with internal force air blower. Intended for synchronous sampling of quadrature pairs of data, samples with minimal skew (about 10 nanoseconds) using video-type high-speed sampling technology. Unit equipped for computer controlled self-testing. Originally developed for planetary radar data-acquisition system.

  3. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di

    2016-04-08

    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  4. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range. PMID:27070616

  5. Characterization of high order spatial discretizations and lumping techniques for discontinuous finite element SN transport

    SciTech Connect

    Maginot, P. G.; Ragusa, J. C.; Morel, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    We examine several possible methods of mass matrix lumping for discontinuous finite element discrete ordinates transport using a Lagrange interpolatory polynomial trial space. Though positive outflow angular flux is guaranteed with traditional mass matrix lumping in a purely absorbing 1-D slab cell for the linear discontinuous approximation, we show that when used with higher degree interpolatory polynomial trial spaces, traditional lumping does yield strictly positive outflows and does not increase in accuracy with an increase in trial space polynomial degree. As an alternative, we examine methods which are 'self-lumping'. Self-lumping methods yield diagonal mass matrices by using numerical quadrature restricted to the Lagrange interpolatory points. Using equally-spaced interpolatory points, self-lumping is achieved through the use of closed Newton-Cotes formulas, resulting in strictly positive outflows in pure absorbers for odd power polynomials in 1-D slab geometry. By changing interpolatory points from the traditional equally-spaced points to the quadrature points of the Gauss-Legendre or Lobatto-Gauss-Legendre quadratures, it is possible to generate solution representations with a diagonal mass matrix and a strictly positive outflow for any degree polynomial solution representation in a pure absorber medium in 1-D slab geometry. Further, there is no inherent limit to local truncation error order of accuracy when using interpolatory points that correspond to the quadrature points of high order accuracy numerical quadrature schemes. (authors)

  6. TEM transmission line coil with double nuclear capability.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Matthew G; Kurpad, Krishna N; Holmes, James H; Fain, Sean B

    2007-10-01

    MR imaging and spectroscopy requires RF fields of high homogeneity. Quadrature volume coils meeting this requirement include the birdcage coil and the TEM resonator. We describe here a quadrature volume coil designed around a modified coaxial transmission line in which multiple inner conductors are arrayed on a circular perimeter and surrounded by a common shield. Current antinodes are established at appropriate points on the inner conductors by series transmission line stubs, either open circuit or short circuit, which terminate the line. Quadrature phasing is generated by a novel circuit constructed from a pair of high-performance current baluns and a commercial quadrature hybrid. The coil is a "pure" TEM coil as it is simply a resonant transmission line. There is no mode structure to consider. The construction of a prototype quadrature four-element coil is described and preliminary test results from this coil in a 4.7T horizontal bore magnet are reported. A related double nuclear coil design for (3)He and (1)H in which two linear transmission line coils are arrayed on a circular perimeter and simultaneously tuned and matched to their respective frequencies is also described. Preliminary tests from this coil in a 1.5T clinical scanner are reported.

  7. Nonclassical-state generation in macroscopic systems via hybrid discrete-continuous quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milburn, T. J.; Kim, M. S.; Vanner, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Nonclassical-state generation is an important component throughout experimental quantum science for quantum information applications and probing the fundamentals of physics. Here, we investigate permutations of quantum nondemolition quadrature measurements and single quanta addition or subtraction to prepare quantum superposition states in bosonic systems. The performance of each permutation is quantified and compared using several different nonclassicality criteria including Wigner negativity, nonclassical depth, and optimal fidelity with a coherent-state superposition. We also compare the performance of our protocol using squeezing instead of a quadrature measurement and find that the purification provided by the quadrature measurement can significantly increase the nonclassicality generated. Our approach is ideally suited for implementation in light-matter systems such as quantum optomechanics and atomic spin ensembles, and offers considerable robustness to initial thermal occupation.

  8. Low-loss high-speed silicon IQ modulator for QPSK/DQPSK in C and L bands.

    PubMed

    Goi, Kazuhiro; Oka, Akira; Kusaka, Hiroyuki; Terada, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Kensuke; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Tu, Xiaoguang; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2014-05-05

    A low-loss high-speed silicon in-phase (I) quadrature (Q) modulator is designed, fabricated and characterized. The fabricated IQ modulator has a low passive optical loss of 9 dB in C and L bands. Using the modulator, differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) transmission at 44.6 Gb/s with differential detection is confirmed with an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of 16.3 dB for a bit error rate (BER) of 10(-3) and a dispersion tolerance of -96 to 107 ps/nm. Moreover, in digital coherent detection, quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) up to 64 Gb/s are achieved with an OSNR of 11.6-11.8 dB for a BER of 10(-2) at 1530, 1550, and 1610 nm.

  9. Waveform Synthesizer For Imaging And Ranging Applications

    DOEpatents

    DUDLEY, PETER A.; [et al

    2004-11-30

    Frequency dependent corrections are provided for quadrature imbalance. An operational procedure filters imbalance effects without prior calibration or equalization. Waveform generation can be adjusted/corrected in a synthetic aperture radar system (SAR), where a rolling phase shift is applied to the SAR's QDWS signal where it is demodulated in a receiver; unwanted energies, such as imbalance energy, are separated from a desired signal in Doppler; the separated energy is filtered from the receiver leaving the desired signal; and the separated energy in the receiver is measured to determine the degree of imbalance that is represented by it. Calibration methods can also be implemented into synthesis. The degree of quadrature imbalance can be used to determine calibration values that can then be provided as compensation for frequency dependent errors in components, such as the QDWS and SSB mixer, affecting quadrature signal quality.

  10. Data acquisition system for Doppler radar vital-sign monitor.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander M; Lubecke, Victor M

    2007-01-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) units increase the dynamic range of a system to compensate for the limited dynamic range of analog to digital converters. This problem is compounded in wireless systems in which large changes in signal strength are effects of a changing environment. These issues are evident in the direct-conversion Doppler radar vital-sign monitor. Utilizing microwave radar signals reflecting off a human subject, a two-channel quadrature receiver can detect periodic movement resulting from cardio-pulmonary activity. The quadrature signal is analyzed using an arctangent demodulation that extracts vital phase information. A data acquisition (DAQ) system is proposed to deal with issues inherent in arctangent demodulation of a quadrature radar signal.

  11. Polarization quantum properties in a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Zambrini, Roberta; Miguel, Maxi San; Gatti, Alessandra; Lugiato, Luigi

    2003-12-01

    We study the far-field spatial distribution of the quantum fluctuations in the transverse profile of the output light beam generated by a type-II optical parametric oscillator below threshold, including the effects of transverse walk-off. We study how quadrature field correlations depend on the polarization. We find spatial Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in quadrature-polarization components. For the far-field points not affected by walk-off there is almost complete noise suppression in the proper quadratures difference of any orthogonal polarization components. We show the entanglement of the state of symmetric, intense, or macroscopic, spatial light modes. We also investigate nonclassical polarization properties in terms of the Stokes operators. We find perfect correlations in all Stokes parameters measured in opposite far-field points in the direction orthogonal to the walk-off, while locally the field is unpolarized and we find no polarization squeezing.

  12. Land clutter statistical model for millimeter-wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulemin, Gennady P.

    2003-08-01

    The main computation relations for determination o MMW radar land clutter statistical characteristics are analyzed. Expressions for normalized RCS determination of different surface types and polarization features of backscattering signals are discussed. Spatial and temporal statistical characteristics of the quadrature components and the amplitudes of scattered signals are analyzed; the influence of spatial characteristics of real land terrain on the quadrature component and amplitude distributions is discussed. It is shown that the amplitude pdf is approximated by the Weibull's law and the distribution of quadrature components is described by the compound Gaussian law. The spatial distributions for different terrain types are presented. As result, the algorithms for radar clutter modeling at millimeter band of radiowaves are obtained taking into consideration the spatial statistics of natural land surface.

  13. QPSK-to-2×BPSK wavelength and modulation format conversion through phase-sensitive four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Da Ros, Francesco; Dalgaard, Kjeld; Lei, Lei; Xu, Jing; Peucheret, Christophe

    2013-11-18

    A phase-sensitive four-wave mixing (FWM) scheme enabling the simultaneous conversion of the two orthogonal quadratures of an optical signal to different wavelengths is demonstrated for the first time under dynamic operation using a highly nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF) as the nonlinear medium. The scheme is first optimized with respect to the power levels and phases of the four phase-coherent pumps. The successful modulation and wavelength conversion of the two complex quadratures of a quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal to two binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signals is then demonstrated experimentally with no power penalty at a bit-error-ratio (BER) of 10(-9) compared to direct interferometric demodulation of the QPSK signal.

  14. Bimodal score distributions and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: fact or artifact?

    PubMed

    Bess, Tammy L; Harvey, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    We examined Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) score distributions computed using item response theory (IRT) to assess the generalizability of earlier bimodality reports that have been cited in support of the "type" versus "trait" view of personality. Using the BILOG IRT program to score a sample of approximately 12,000 individuals who participated in leadership development programs, theta score distributions for the 4 dimensions of the MBTI computed using 10 (the BILOG default) versus 50 quadrature points were compared. Results indicated that past reports of bimodality were artifacts caused by BILOG's default use of a small number of quadrature points; when larger numbers of points were used, score distributions became strongly center-weighted. Although our findings are not supportive of the "type"-based hypothesis, the extremely high correlations between theta scores (rs > .996) suggest that no practical differences would be expected as a function of the number-of-quadrature-points decision.

  15. Ka-Band SiGe Receiver Front-End MMIC for Transponder Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, Jaikrishna; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Hashemi, Hassein; Aflatouni, Firooz

    2010-01-01

    A fully integrated, front-end Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) was developed that houses an LNA (low noise amplifier) stage, a down-conversion stage, and output buffer amplifiers. The MMIC design employs a two-step quadrature down-conversion architecture, illustrated in the figure, which results in improved quality of the down-converted IF quadrature signals. This is due to the improved sensitivity of this architecture to amplitude and phase mismatches in the quadrature down-conversion process. Current sharing results in reduced power consumption, while 3D-coupled inductors reduce the chip area. Improved noise figure is expected over previous SiGe-based, frontend designs

  16. Optimal Signal Filtration in Optical Sensors with Natural Squeezing of Vacuum Noises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusev, A. V.; Kulagin, V. V.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of optimal receiver is discussed for optical sensor measuring a small displacement of probe mass. Due to nonlinear interaction of the field and the mirror, a reflected wave is in squeezed state (natural squeezing), two quadratures of which are correlated and therefore one can increase signal-to-noise ratio and overcome the SQL. A measurement procedure realizing such correlation processing of two quadratures is clarified. The required combination of quadratures can be produced via mixing of pump field reflected from the mirror with local oscillator phase modulated field in duel-detector homodyne scheme. Such measurement procedure could be useful not only for resonant bar gravitational detector but for laser longbase interferometric detectors as well.

  17. Two-dimensional discrete wavelets transform for optical phase extraction: application on speckle correlation fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghlaifan, Abdulatef; Tounsi, Yassine; Zada, Sara; Muhire, Desire; Nassim, Abdelkrim

    2016-12-01

    A method for optical phase extraction based on two-dimensional discrete wavelets transform (2-DWT) decomposition is shown. From modulated fringe pattern, phase distribution is extracted by the ratio between detail and approximation. Modulation process is realized digitally by introducing high-frequency spatial carrier, and this process needs two π/2-shifted fringe patterns. We propose to use only single fringe and generate its quadrature by spiral phase transform (SPT). After validation by computer simulation, we apply the 2-DWT algorithm on experimental speckle fringe correlation taken for hard disk surface. The extracted phase using SPT quadrature was compared with that given using this time experimental quadrature, and we show a good performance by multiscale structural similarity metric.

  18. Flexible digital modulation and coding synthesis for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderaar, Mark; Budinger, James; Hoerig, Craig; Tague, John

    1991-01-01

    An architecture and a hardware prototype of a flexible trellis modem/codec (FTMC) transmitter are presented. The theory of operation is built upon a pragmatic approach to trellis-coded modulation that emphasizes power and spectral efficiency. The system incorporates programmable modulation formats, variations of trellis-coding, digital baseband pulse-shaping, and digital channel precompensation. The modulation formats examined include (uncoded and coded) binary phase shift keying (BPSK), quatenary phase shift keying (QPSK), octal phase shift keying (8PSK), 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM), and quadrature quadrature phase shift keying (Q squared PSK) at programmable rates up to 20 megabits per second (Mbps). The FTMC is part of the developing test bed to quantify modulation and coding concepts.

  19. Application of Multi-Frequency Modulation (MFM) for high-speed data communications to a voice frequency channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsman, Charles P.

    1990-06-01

    Multi-Frequency Modulation (MFM) has been developed at NPS using both differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying (DQPSK) and differential-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (DQAM) encoding formats. Previous applications of these encoding formats were on industry standard computers (PC) over a 16 to 20 kHz channel. This report discusses the implementation of MFM to a voice frequency channel of 200 to 3400 Hz, for possible future use with high-speed modems over switched telephone networks. Research and testing for this report included the DQPSK and differential 16 quadrature-amplitude-modulation (D16-QAM) encoding formats implemented on PCs. Experimental results of the implemented MFM signal were comparable to theory with acceptable bit error rates for input signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of 15 dB and higher.

  20. All-optical, ultra-wideband microwave I/Q mixer and image-reject frequency down-converter.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongsheng; Wen, Aijun; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-15

    An all-optical and ultra-wideband microwave in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) mixer, based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and a wavelength division multiplexer, is proposed. Due to the simultaneous frequency down-conversion and 360-deg tunable phase shifting in the optical domain, the proposed I/Q mixer has the advantages of high conversion gain and excellent quadrature phase balance (<±1.3 deg⁡) with a wide operating frequency from 10 to 40 GHz. Assisted by an analog or digital intermediate-frequency quadrature coupler, an image-reject frequency down-converter is then implemented, with an image rejection exceeding 50 dB over the working band.

  1. Update of an Efficient Computer Code (NLTE) to Calculate Emission and Transmission of Radiation through Non-Equilibrium Atmospheres.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-20

    SQUARE OF ZERO FIXED BY 2-PT GAUSS-HERMITE QUADRATURE C U-U3 = SQUARES OF ZEROES FIXED BY 6-PT GAUSS-HERMITE QUADRATURE C PISQ = 2/SQRT(PI); SL = SQRT...3974252722665E-73, .7095717391818E-75, .1244665977389E-76/ C DATA SLP /.4697186393498/ DATA PISQ ,SL /1.128379167096, .8325546111577/ DATA Wl,W2,W3...FPR*T SER = SER + FNR*AN(N+1) SEI = SEI + FNI*AN(N+l) FPR = FNR 100 FPI = FNI VGT(K) = SLP*EXP(-S)*(COS(T)*(1.0- PISQ *SER) .SIN(T)* PISQ *Sz:) C C C

  2. Calculation of the response of cylindrical targets to collimated beams of particles using one-dimensional adjoint transport techniques. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S. A.

    1980-06-01

    The use of adjoint techniques to determine the interaction of externally incident collimated beams of particles with cylindrical targets is a convenient means of examining a class of problems important in radiation transport studies. The theory relevant to such applications is derived, and a simple example involving a fissioning target is discussed. Results from both discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo transport-code calculations are presented, and comparisons are made with results obtained from forward calculations. The accuracy of the discrete ordinates adjoint results depends on the order of angular quadrature used in the calculation. Reasonable accuracy by using EQN quadratures can be expected from order S/sub 16/ or higher.

  3. Metrological resolution and minimum uncertainty states in linear and nonlinear signal detection schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado-Mundo, Daniel; Luis, Alfredo

    2009-12-15

    We study the performance of linear and nonlinear optical schemes for the detection of weak signals for two classes of probe states. These are quadrature coherent squeezed states and the minimum uncertainty states of the generator of the transformation and the measured observable. Both for linear and nonlinear schemes we show that the generator-measurement minimum uncertainty states are far from being optimum, while the quadrature coherent squeezed states can reach maximum accuracy almost for the same amount of squeezing in both cases. The analysis is largely based on a suitable approximation treating the photon number as a continuous variable.

  4. Integrated frequency comb source based Hilbert transformer for wideband microwave photonic phase analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thach G; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate a photonic RF Hilbert transformer for broadband microwave in-phase and quadrature-phase generation based on an integrated frequency optical comb, generated using a nonlinear microring resonator based on a CMOS compatible, high-index contrast, doped-silica glass platform. The high quality and large frequency spacing of the comb enables filters with up to 20 taps, allowing us to demonstrate a quadrature filter with more than a 5-octave (3 dB) bandwidth and an almost uniform phase response.

  5. Strategies for Evaluation of Rys Roots and Weights.

    PubMed

    King, Harry F

    2016-11-23

    The Rys quadrature method for evaluating molecular integrals requires accurate numerical values of the nodes of a Rys polynomial and associated weight factors. The numerical value of a Rys polynomial for a specified value of its argument can be evaluated by three-term recursion using α and β coefficients. We review existing integration schemes for computing these recurrence parameters, discuss issues related to computational efficiency and numerical precision, and propose a slightly new integration method using Gauss-Rys quadrature. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using Golub's matrix method for the computation of roots and weights.

  6. Transmission and reception of Quad-Carrier QPSK-OFDM signal with blind equalization and overhead-free operation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Junwen; Cao, Zizheng; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Chen, Lin; Xia, Yan; Chen, Yufei

    2013-12-16

    Quad-Carrier Quadrature Phase Shift Keyed orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (QPSK-OFDM) signal transmission and reception is successfully demonstrated with blind equalization like a 25-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (25-QAM) signal with cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization. The phase recovery can be realized with simple Viterbi algorithm and the frequency offset estimation (FOE) should be done with 25-QAM signal before 4-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). 48-Gbit/s Quad-Carrier QPSK-OFDM signal is successfully transmitted over 80-km SMF-28 without penalty.

  7. Simplified coherent receiver with heterodyne detection of eight-channel 50 Gb/s PDM-QPSK WDM signal after 1040 km SMF-28 transmission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwen; Dong, Ze; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Tao, Li; Li, Xinying; Shao, Yufeng

    2012-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simplified coherent receiver based on heterodyne detection with only two balanced photodetectors and two analog-to-digital converters. The polarization diversity hybrid can be simplified relative to the conventional one. The detected intermediate frequency signals are first downconverted to baseband with inphase and quadrature separation. Using this scheme, we successfully demonstrated the eight-channel 50 Gb/s polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying WDM signal with heterodyne detection based on digital signal processing over 1040 km single-mode fiber 28 with erbium-doped fiber amplifier only amplification.

  8. Acquisition Performances Of QPSK Carrier-Tracking Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami M.; Shah, Biren N.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents comparative study of acquisition performances of several types of carrier-signal-tracking loops for reception of quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals. Loops classified into three types: maximum a-posteriori, (MAP) estimation loop, Costas cross-over loop, and generalized Costas loop. Mathematical models developed. In-phase and quadrature signals generated numerically and processed according to loop algorithms. Results show though MAP loop produces smallest squaring loss at all signal-to-noise ratios, others sometimes exhibit shorter acquisition time and greater probability of acquisition.

  9. Optical performance monitoring of QPSK data channels by use of neural networks trained with parameters derived from asynchronous constellation diagrams.

    PubMed

    Jargon, Jeffrey A; Wu, Xiaoxia; Choi, Hyeon Yeong; Chung, Yun C; Willner, Alan E

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate a technique for performance monitoring of quadrature phase-shift keying data channels by simultaneously identifying optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), chromatic dispersion (CD), and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) using neural networks trained with parameters derived from asynchronous constellation diagrams. A correlation coefficient of 0.987 is reported for a set of testing data from a 40 Gbps return-to-zero, quadrature phase-shift keying (RZ-QPSK) system. The root-mean-square (RMS) errors are 0.77 dB for OSNR, 18.71 ps/nm for CD, and 1.17 ps for DGD.

  10. Design considerations for a monolithic, GaAs, dual-mode, QPSK/QASK, high-throughput rate transceiver. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kot, R. A.; Oliver, J. D.; Wilson, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A monolithic, GaAs, dual mode, quadrature amplitude shift keying and quadrature phase shift keying transceiver with one and two billion bits per second data rate is being considered to achieve a low power, small and ultra high speed communication system for satellite as well as terrestrial purposes. Recent GaAs integrated circuit achievements are surveyed and their constituent device types are evaluated. Design considerations, on an elemental level, of the entire modem are further included for monolithic realization with practical fabrication techniques. Numerous device types, with practical monolithic compatability, are used in the design of functional blocks with sufficient performances for realization of the transceiver.

  11. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Correlations via Dissociation of a Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Kheruntsyan, K.V.; Drummond, P.D.; Olsen, M.K.

    2005-10-07

    Recent experimental measurements of atomic intensity correlations through atom shot noise suggest that atomic quadrature phase correlations may soon be measured with a similar precision. We propose a test of local realism with mesoscopic numbers of massive particles based on such measurements. Using dissociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules into bosonic atoms, we demonstrate that strongly entangled atomic beams may be produced which possess Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations in field quadratures in direct analogy to the position and momentum correlations originally considered by EPR.

  12. ForQint

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-13

    ForQint is a Fortran software library to adaptively integrate multivariable functions versus well known probability distributions (e.g. normal, lognormal, etc.) using quadrature rules. Such integration is known to be more efficient and accurate especially when the function evaluation is expensive. The library also FQint enables the creation of both full and sparse anisotropic multi-dimensional quadrature rules. These latter encompass different such as Gauss-Hermite, Gauss-Legendre, etc. The functions Maher Salloum, Bert Debusschere, Kenny Chowdhary and subroutines rely on the C++ Stokhos package of Trilinos (trilinos.sandia.gov) where the appropriate classes were wrapped into Fortran.

  13. An amplitude modulated laser system for distance and displacement measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.; Heyman, Joseph S.; Holben, Milford S., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A laser distance and displacement measurement system is being developed to monitor small displacements in large space structures for strain analysis and structural control. The reflected laser beam is focused on a detector and the detected signal is mixed with the reference. Small displacements are indicated by a change in modulation frequency which is adjusted to maintain quadrature between the received signal and the reference signal from the voltage-controlled oscillator in a phase-locked loop. Measurement of absolute distance is accomplished by sweeping the modulation frequency from a quadrature lock point to an adjacent lock point.

  14. Blind equalization for dual-polarization two-subcarrier coherent QPSK-OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying

    2014-01-15

    Dual-polarization two-subcarrier coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) transmission and reception is successfully demonstrated with blind equalization. A two-subcarrier quadrature phase shift keyed OFDM (QPSK-OFDM) signal can be equalized as a 9-ary quadrature amplitude modulation signal in the time domain with the cascaded multimodulus algorithm equalization method. The nonlinear effect resistance and transmission distance can be enhanced compared with the traditional CO-OFDM transmission system based on frequency equalization with training sequence.

  15. A Discontiuous Galerkin Method for the Shallow Water Equations in Spherical Triangular Coordinates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    quadrature rules of order 2k are applied given in [24], [7], [19], [6]. On each edge of E standard Gauss- Lobatto rules of order 2k − 1 are applied, since...Fekete points are in fact Gauss- Lobatto points along the edges, see [2]. Although [5] indicates, that quadrature rules of order 2k + 1 along the edges...simulation. Ocean Modelling, 10:171–183, 2005. [2] L. Bos, M. A. Taylor, and B. A. Wingate. Tensor product Gauss- Lobatto points are Fekete points for the

  16. A Heterogeneous Medium Analytical Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1999-09-27

    A benchmark, called benchmark BLUE, has been developed for one-group neutral particle (neutron or photon) transport in a one-dimensional sub-critical heterogeneous plane parallel medium with surface illumination. General anisotropic scattering is accommodated through the Green's Function Method (GFM). Numerical Fourier transform inversion is used to generate the required Green's functions which are kernels to coupled integral equations that give the exiting angular fluxes. The interior scalar flux is then obtained through quadrature. A compound iterative procedure for quadrature order and slab surface source convergence provides highly accurate benchmark qualities (4- to 5- places of accuracy) results.

  17. Interaction of a quantum well with squeezed light: Quantum-statistical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sete, Eyob A.; Eleuch, H.

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the quantum statistical properties of the light emitted by a quantum well interacting with squeezed light from a degenerate subthreshold optical parametric oscillator. We obtain analytical solutions for the pertinent quantum Langevin equations in the strong-coupling and low-excitation regimes. Using these solutions we calculate the intensity spectrum, autocorrelation function, and quadrature squeezing for the fluorescent light. We show that the fluorescent light exhibits bunching and quadrature squeezing. We also show that the squeezed light leads to narrowing of the width of the spectrum of the fluorescent light.

  18. Single-Bit All Digital Frequency Synthesis Using Homodyne Sigma-Delta Modulation.

    PubMed

    Sotiriadis, Paul

    2016-10-05

    All-digital frequency synthesis using band-pass sigma-delta modulation to achieve spectrally clean single-bit output is presented and mathematically analyzed resulting in a complete model to predict stability and output spectrum. The quadrature homodyne filter architecture is introduced resulting in efficient implementations of carrier-frequency centred bandpass filters for the modulator. A multiplier-less version of the quadrature homodyne filter architecture is also introduced to reduce complexity maintaining clean in-band spectrum. MATLAB and SIMULINK simulation results present the potential capabilities of the synthesizer architectures and validate the accuracy of the developed theoretical framework.

  19. Geometrically constrained isogeometric parameterized level-set based topology optimization via trimmed elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingjun; Benson, David J.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an approach based on the fast point-in-polygon (PIP) algorithm and trimmed elements is proposed for isogeometric topology optimization (TO) with arbitrary geometric constraints. The isogeometric parameterized level-set-based TO method, which directly uses the non-uniform rational basis splines (NURBS) for both level set function (LSF) parameterization and objective function calculation, provides higher accuracy and efficiency than previous methods. The integration of trimmed elements is completed by the efficient quadrature rule that can design the quadrature points and weights for arbitrary geometric shape. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and flexibility of the method.

  20. Self-referenced continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    DOEpatents

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Sarovar, Mohan; Camacho, Ryan

    2017-01-24

    Various technologies for continuous-variable quantum key distribution without transmitting a transmitter's local oscillator are described herein. A receiver on an optical transmission channel uses an oscillator signal generated by a light source at the receiver's location to perform interferometric detection on received signals. An optical reference pulse is sent by the transmitter on the transmission channel and the receiver computes a phase offset of the transmission based on quadrature measurements of the reference pulse. The receiver can then compensate for the phase offset between the transmitter's reference and the receiver's reference when measuring quadratures of received data pulses.

  1. Optical communication with two-photon coherent states. III - Quantum measurements realizable with photoemissive detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Homodyne detection is shown to achieve the same signal-to-noise ratio as the quantum field quadrature measurement, thus providing a receiver which realizes linear modulation TCS performance gain. The full equivalence of homodyne detection and single-quadrature field measurement is established. A heterodyne configuration which uses a TCS image-band oscillator in addition to the usual coherent state local oscillator is studied. Results are obtained by means of a representation theorem which shows that photoemissive detection realizes the photon flux density measurement.

  2. Telemetry Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    signal and spectral mask (frequency span = 5 MHz) A-17 A-8 Unfiltered 1000 kbps RNRZ PCM/FM signal and spectral mask A-17 A-9 1000 kbps OQPSK ...INITIALISMS N newton NNT notch noise test NPR noise power ratio NPRF noise power ratio floor NRZ-L non return to zero-level OQPSK offset quadrature...0.7ft 1.50 ft PSK, no filter 19.30 ft Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), no filter 9.65 ft Offset QPSK ( OQPSK ), sinusoidal weighting 1.18 ft 5I

  3. Optical homodyne tomography of information carrying laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinwei; Lam, Ping Koy; Gray, Malcolm; Bachor, Hans Albert

    1998-08-01

    Optical homodyne tomography (OHT) is a tool that allows the reconstruction of Wigner functions for each detection frequency of a propagating optical beam. It can measure probability distribution functions (PDF's) of the field amplitude for any given quadrature of interest. We demonstrate OHT for a range of classical optical states with constant and time varying modulations and show the advantage of OHT over conventional homodyne detection. The OHT simultaneously determines the signal to noise ratio in both amplitude and phase quadratures. We show that highly non-Gaussian Wigner functions can be obtained from incoherent superpositions of optical states.

  4. A radial basis function Galerkin method for inhomogeneous nonlocal diffusion

    DOE PAGES

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Rowe, Stephen T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a discretization for a nonlocal diffusion problem using a localized basis of radial basis functions. The stiffness matrix entries are assembled by a special quadrature routine unique to the localized basis. Combining the quadrature method with the localized basis produces a well-conditioned, sparse, symmetric positive definite stiffness matrix. We demonstrate that both the continuum and discrete problems are well-posed and present numerical results for the convergence behavior of the radial basis function method. As a result, we explore approximating the solution to anisotropic differential equations by solving anisotropic nonlocal integral equations using the radial basis function method.

  5. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Correlations via Dissociation of a Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheruntsyan, K. V.; Olsen, M. K.; Drummond, P. D.

    2005-10-01

    Recent experimental measurements of atomic intensity correlations through atom shot noise suggest that atomic quadrature phase correlations may soon be measured with a similar precision. We propose a test of local realism with mesoscopic numbers of massive particles based on such measurements. Using dissociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules into bosonic atoms, we demonstrate that strongly entangled atomic beams may be produced which possess Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations in field quadratures in direct analogy to the position and momentum correlations originally considered by EPR.

  6. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  7. Application of Multi-Frequency Modulation (MFM) facsimile machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickerson, James T.

    1990-09-01

    Multi-Frequency Modulation (MFM) has been developed at NPS using both differential quadrature-amplitude-modulation (DQAM) and differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying (DQPSK) encoding formats. This report discusses the use of each of these formats in transmitting a facsimile encoded message over a voice frequency channel. The satisfactory transmission and receipt of facsimile messages was achieved using both DQPSK and D16-QAM encoding formats. Research and testing for this report included the use of variable facsimile transmission rates in an attempt to optimize MFM operating parameters. Experimental results revealed a higher error rate when decoding messages contained similar contiguous characters.

  8. Impact of Channel Statistics and Correlation on Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    16- QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation ). The transmit array consisted of two transducers located at 25 ∼ 75 m deep from the sea surface. Two receive...in May 2009. The symbol period was 0.2 ms and the carrier frequency was 17 kHz. Modulations included QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying), 8-PSK, and...the symbols sent. 8PSK was used as the modulation technique of all estimations. The symbol alphabet used is S = [1, 1√ 2 (1+j), j, 1√ 2 (−1+j),−1, 1√ 2

  9. Collocation and Galerkin Time-Stepping Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, H. T.

    2011-01-01

    We study the numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations by one-step methods where the solution at tn is known and that at t(sub n+1) is to be calculated. The approaches employed are collocation, continuous Galerkin (CG) and discontinuous Galerkin (DG). Relations among these three approaches are established. A quadrature formula using s evaluation points is employed for the Galerkin formulations. We show that with such a quadrature, the CG method is identical to the collocation method using quadrature points as collocation points. Furthermore, if the quadrature formula is the right Radau one (including t(sub n+1)), then the DG and CG methods also become identical, and they reduce to the Radau IIA collocation method. In addition, we present a generalization of DG that yields a method identical to CG and collocation with arbitrary collocation points. Thus, the collocation, CG, and generalized DG methods are equivalent, and the latter two methods can be formulated using the differential instead of integral equation. Finally, all schemes discussed can be cast as s-stage implicit Runge-Kutta methods.

  10. Modulation for terrestrial broadcasting of digital HDTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Elliott S.

    1991-12-01

    The digital modulation methods used by the DigiCipher, DSC-HDTV, ADTV, and ATVA-P digital high-definition television (HDTV) systems are discussed. Three of the systems use a quadrature amplitude modulation method, and the fourth uses a vestigial sideband modulation method. The channel equalization and spectrum sharing of the digital HDTV systems is discussed.

  11. Modulation for terrestrial broadcasting of digital HDTV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohn, Elliott S.

    1991-01-01

    The digital modulation methods used by the DigiCipher, DSC-HDTV, ADTV, and ATVA-P digital high-definition television (HDTV) systems are discussed. Three of the systems use a quadrature amplitude modulation method, and the fourth uses a vestigial sideband modulation method. The channel equalization and spectrum sharing of the digital HDTV systems is discussed.

  12. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  13. Polarization squeezing and nonclassical properties of light

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo; Korolkova, Natalia

    2006-10-15

    We formulate polarization uncertainty relations and polarization squeezing criteria in a SU(2) invariant manner. In this formulation the SU(2) coherent states are the only minimum uncertainty states. We show that polarization squeezing is a nonclassical property. We analyze the relation between polarization squeezing and other nonclassical properties such as entanglement and quadrature squeezing.

  14. Two-fold transmission reach enhancement enabled by transmitter-side digital backpropagation and optical frequency comb-derived information carriers.

    PubMed

    Temprana, E; Myslivets, E; Liu, L; Ataie, V; Wiberg, A; Kuo, B P P; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a two-fold reach extension of 16 GBaud 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system based on erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-only amplified standard and single mode fiber -based link. The result is enabled by transmitter-side digital backpropagation and frequency referenced carriers drawn from a parametric comb.

  15. Interferometer for the measurement of plasma density

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Abram R.

    1980-01-01

    An interferometer which combines the advantages of a coupled cavity interferometer requiring alignment of only one light beam, and a quadrature interferometer which has the ability to track multi-fringe phase excursions unambiguously. The device utilizes a Bragg cell for generating a signal which is electronically analyzed to unambiguously determine phase modulation which is proportional to the path integral of the plasma density.

  16. Nonlinear fiber gyroscope for quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, Alfredo; Morales, Irene; Rivas, Ángel

    2016-07-01

    We examine the performance of a nonlinear fiber gyroscope for improved signal detection beating the quantum limits of its linear counterparts. The performance is examined when the nonlinear gyroscope is illuminated by practical field states, such as coherent and quadrature squeezed states. This is compared with the case of more ideal probes such as photon-number states.

  17. Salt intrusion at a submarine spring in a fringing reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Sabrina M.; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Mariño-Tapia, Ismael; Enriquez, Cecilia

    2015-04-01

    Variations in discharge and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) were studied at a point-source submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), within a fringing reef lagoon, from quadrature (neap) to syzygy (spring) tides. The principal factors affecting discharge and TKE variations were tides and waves. Field data indicated discharge, and TKE varied with high and low tides, and with quadrature and syzygy. Maximum discharge and TKE values were observed during low tides when the hydrostatic pressure over the jet was minimal, while the lowest discharge and TKE values were found at high tides. Syzygy tides produced consistent saltwater intrusion during high tides, while quadrature tides produced the greatest TKE values. In general, as the discharge intensified during low tides, jet temperatures decreased suggesting that waters originated further within the aquifer. At the same time jet salinities increased, suggesting a mixing of aquifer and seawater. To reconcile these two seemingly opposing views, it is proposed that the jet conduit is connected to a stratified chamber with seawater below brackish water. The greatest subtidal discharge occurred during quadrature tides. Syzygy produced low subtidal discharge driven by flow reversals (flow into the aquifer) observed throughout syzygy high tides in conjunction with the peak wave setup (>5 cm) observed during a storm. While tides were the primary driving force of the discharge, waves played a nonnegligible role. Wave effects on the discharge were most evident during syzygy high tides combined with a storm, when the subtidal spring discharge was weakest and salt intrusion developed.

  18. Multiple bit differential detection of offset QPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analogous to multiple symbol differential detection of quadrature phase-shift-keying, a multiple bit differential detection scheme is described for offset QPSK that also exhibits continuous improvement in performance with increasing observation interval. Being derived from maximum-likelihood (ML) considerations, the proposed scheme is purported to be the most power efficient scheme for such a modulation and detection method.

  19. QPSK loop lock detection in the advanced receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileant, A.; Hinedi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Receiver (ARX 2) currently being developed uses a Costas crossover loop to acquire and track the phase of an incoming quadrature phase-shift-keyed (QPSK) signal. The performance is described for the QPSK lock detector to be implemented, taking into account the phase jitter in the tracking loop. Simulations are used to verify the results of the analysis.

  20. On the effects of phase jitter on QPSK lock detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileant, A.; Hinedi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a QPSK (quadrature phase-shift keying) lock detector is described, taking into account the degradation due to carrier phase jitter. Such an analysis is necessary for accurate performance prediction purposes in scenarios where both the loop SNR is low and the estimation period is short. The derived formulas are applicable to several QPSK loops and are verified using computer simulations.

  1. QPSK 3R regenerator using a phase sensitive amplifier.

    PubMed

    Perentos, A; Fabbri, S; Sorokina, M; Phillips, I D; Turitsyn, S K; Ellis, A D; Sygletos, S

    2016-07-25

    A black box phase sensitive amplifier based 3R regeneration scheme is proposed for non-return to zero quadrature phase shift keyed formatted signals. Performance improvements of more than 2 dB are achieved at the presence of input phase distortion.

  2. 112-Gb/s monolithic PDM-QPSK modulator in silicon.

    PubMed

    Dong, Po; Xie, Chongjin; Chen, Long; Buhl, Lawrence L; Chen, Young-Kai

    2012-12-10

    We present a monolithic dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulator based on a silicon photonic integrated circuit (PIC). This PIC consists of four high-speed silicon modulators, a polarization rotator, and a polarization beam combiner. A 112-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) QPSK modulation is successfully demonstrated.

  3. Rectangular QPSK for generation of optical eight-ary phase-shift keying.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guo-Wei; Sakamoto, Takahide; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2011-09-12

    Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) is usually generated using an in-phase/quadrature (IQ) modulator in a balanced driving-condition, showing a square-shape constellation in complex plane. This conventional QPSK is referred to as square QPSK (S-QPSK) in this paper. On the other hand, when an IQ modulator is driven in an un-balanced manner with different amplitudes in in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) branches, a rectangular QPSK (R-QPSK) could be synthesized. The concept of R-QPSK is proposed for the first time and applied to optical eight-ary phase-shift keying (8PSK) transmitter. By cascading an S-QPSK and an R-QPSK, an optical 8PSK could be synthesized. The transmitter configuration is based on two cascaded IQ modulators, which also could be used to generate other advanced multi-level formats like quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) when different driving and bias conditions are applied. Therefore, the proposed transmitter structure has potential to be deployed as a versatile transmitter for synthesis of several different multi-level modulation formats for the future dynamic optical networks. A 30-Gb/s optical 8PSK is experimentally demonstrated using the proposed solution.

  4. Satellite Motion in an Axi-Symmetric Gravitational Field. Part 2. Perturbations due to an Arbitrary J sub l

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Fortran program (by Alfred Odell) that computes the functions for arbitrary values of Z., k and Kaula’s q , by quadrature. We can now use the identity (34...j 19 J.B. Lundberg Recursion formulas of Legendre functions for use with B.E. Schutz nonsingular geopotential models. j. Guidance, 11, 31-38 (1988

  5. Software Package on Integrated Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Field Oriented Control (FOC) of Permanent Magnet (PM) Motor for High Performance Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    current [A] iqN = zeros(1,Nt); % Quadrature current [A] phiN = zeros(1,Nt); % Torque angle [rad] LdN = zeros(1,Nt); LdN (1...A] iqN(nt) = iq; % [A] % Store inductances. LdN (nt) = Ld; % [H] LqN(nt) = Lq; % [H] % Store voltages

  6. Experimental investigation of nonlinear noise in long-haul 100-Gb/s DP-QPSK communication systems using real-time DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkin, N. V.; Mikhailov, V.; Nanii, O. E.; Novikov, A. G.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.

    2014-09-01

    Nonlinear noise in 100-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying transmission has been investigated using a straight-line test bed. The optimal signal power and OSNR margin have been measured in up to 4000 km of G.652-fiber. The results have a good agreement with previously reported models.

  7. Real-Time Motion Planning and Safe Navigation in Dynamic Multi-Robot Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    ARM7 core handles communication, runs the PD control calculations, and monitors onboard systems. The FPGA implements the quadrature decoders, PWM gener ...4.6.1 Simple General Path Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 4.6.2 Robust Planning... generations of Carnegie Mellon robots: (from left) 1997, 1998-99, 2001, 2002-03, 2006

  8. Toward a Reduced-Wire Readout System for Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply. PMID:25571135

  9. Development of a Digital Tracking Array with Single- Channel RSNS and Monopulse Digital Beamforming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Phased Array Radar Tracking .........................................................26 B. ANGLE TRACKING TECHNIQUES...School NTSC National Television Standards Committee PGF Path Gain Factor PLL Phased Locked Loop Q Quadrature RCS Radar Cross...Third, it is easier to control beam shapes and half-power beamwidth (HPBW) in digital processing. Fourth, with a proper design, a lower radar

  10. Detection of quantum steering in multipartite continuous-variable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Xiang, Yu; He, Qiongyi; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    The multipartite entangled state has drawn broad attention for both foundations of quantum mechanics and applications in quantum information processing. Here, we study the spatially separated N -partite continuous-variable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like states, which can be produced by a linear optical network with squeezed light and N -1 beamsplitters. We investigate the properties of multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering possessed by those states, and find that the steering of a given quantum mode is allowed when not less than half of the modes within the states take part in the steering group. This is certified by the detection of the correlation between position and momentum quadratures of the steered mode and a combination of quadratures of other modes inside the steering group. The steering is evidenced by the high correlation where the steering group can infer the quadratures of the steered mode to high precision, i.e., below the quantum limit for the position and momentum quadratures of the steered quantum mode. We also examine the influence of inefficiency on the multipartite steering, and derive the threshold of the loss tolerance. Furthermore, we discuss the collective N -partite steering induced by the asymmetric loss on beams, which exists when a given quantum mode can only be steered by all the remaining N -1 modes collaboratively. The present multipartite steering correlation may have potential applications in certain quantum information tasks where the issue of trust is important, such as one-sided device-independent quantum secret sharing.

  11. Carrier recovery techniques on satellite mobile channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vucetic, B.; Du, J.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical method and a stored channel model were used to evaluate error performance of uncoded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) trellis coded modulation (TCM) over shadowed satellite mobile channels in the presence of phase jitter for various carrier recovery techniques.

  12. Phase-space noncommutative extension of the Robertson-Schrödinger formulation of Ozawa's uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, João Nuno

    2015-03-01

    We revisit Ozawa's uncertainty principle (OUP) in the framework of noncommutative (NC) quantum mechanics. We derive a matrix version of OUP accommodating any NC structure in the phase space, and compute NC corrections to lowest order for two measurement interactions, namely the backaction evading quadrature amplifier and noiseless quadrature transducers. These NC corrections alter the nature of the measurement interaction, as a noiseless interaction may acquire noise, and an interaction of independent intervention may become dependent on the object system. However the most striking result is that noncommutativity may lead to a violation of the OUP itself. The NC corrections for the backaction evading quadrature amplifier reveal a new term which may potentially be amplified in such a way that the violation of the OUP becomes experimentally testable. On the other hand, the NC corrections to the noiseless quadrature transducer shows an incompatibility of this model with NC quantum mechanics. We discuss the implications of this incompatibility for NC quantum mechanics and for Ozawa's uncertainty principle.

  13. Effects of parasitic Fabry-Perot cavities in fiber-optic interferometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, D M; Koo, K P; Bucholtz, F

    1993-03-01

    We show theoretical and experimental evidence for increased quadrature point fluctuations and amplitude and phase noise in interferometric fiber sensors owing to the presence of parasitic Fabry-Perot cavities. We demonstrate greater than 2 orders of magnitude reduction of such effects.

  14. Nonclassical states of the second optical harmonic in the presence of self-action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirkin, A. S.; Korolkova, N. V.

    1993-01-01

    The quantum theory of coherent radiation frequency doubling in crystals with quadratic and cubic optical nonlinearities is developed. The possibility of producing the quadrature-squeezed state of the second harmonic (SH) field is shown. The nonclassical SH states arise due to self-action effect.

  15. Quantum cryptography without switching.

    PubMed

    Weedbrook, Christian; Lance, Andrew M; Bowen, Warwick P; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-10-22

    We propose a new coherent state quantum key distribution protocol that eliminates the need to randomly switch between measurement bases. This protocol provides significantly higher secret key rates with increased bandwidths than previous schemes that only make single quadrature measurements. It also offers the further advantage of simplicity compared to all previous protocols which, to date, have relied on switching.

  16. Safe Operations of Unmanned Systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments Army Technology Objective (SOURCE ATO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-25

    Interface Module (AMI) RS232 / TTL Converter Vehicle Motion Sensor (VMS) RS232 to RS422 converter Differential GPS receiver E-stop E-Stop Radio...Heater Color LWIR Heater IPM IPM Front LIPM (GEN VI) CAN 2.0, channels A,B RS-170/S-Video RS232 /422 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Legend Quadrature Signal Audio

  17. WIRELESS MINE-WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2003-01-01

    We added data transmission to the through-the-earth communications system using quadrature synchronous detection. The results are adequate for computer-to-computer communication as well as for sensor data transmission. We added a feature to the in-mine communications system that allows a person to call an individual, rather than broadcasting, by dialing an identification number before speaking.

  18. A Lagrange-type projector on the real line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, G.; Notarangelo, I.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an interpolation process based on some of the zeros of the m th generalized Freud polynomial. Convergence results and error estimates are given. In particular we show that, in some important function spaces, the interpolating polynomial behaves like the best approximation. Moreover the stability and the convergence of some quadrature rules are proved.

  19. Applications of Bonner sphere detectors in neutron field dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Awschalom, M.; Sanna, R.S.

    1983-09-01

    The theory of neutron moderation and spectroscopy are briefly reviewed, and moderators that are useful for Bonner sphere spectrometers are discussed. The choice of the neutron detector for a Bonner sphere spectrometer is examined. Spectral deconvolution methods are briefly reviewed, including derivative, parametric, quadrature, and Monte Carlo methods. Calibration is then discussed. (LEW)

  20. Operator Factorization and the Solution of Second-Order Linear Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, W.

    2007-01-01

    The theory and application of second-order linear ordinary differential equations is reviewed from the standpoint of the operator factorization approach to the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODE). Using the operator factorization approach, the general second-order linear ODE is solved, exactly, in quadratures and the resulting…

  1. Linearity optimization in a class of analog phase modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the ultimate modulating linearity attainable with a phase modulation technique based on the linear addition of quadrature phase carrier signals which have been multiplied by precisely defined nonlinear transformations of the modulating signal. Optimum gain coefficients are derived and plotted to permit implementation of analog phase modulators capable of exceptionally good linearity of phase deviations as large as 5 radians.

  2. Optical Field-Strength Polarization of Two-Mode Single-Photon States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.; Barral, D.; Moreno, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of…

  3. Lord-Wingersky Algorithm Version 2.0 for Hierarchical Item Factor Models with Applications in Test Scoring, Scale Alignment, and Model Fit Testing. CRESST Report 830

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lord and Wingersky's (1984) recursive algorithm for creating summed score based likelihoods and posteriors has a proven track record in unidimensional item response theory (IRT) applications. Extending the recursive algorithm to handle multidimensionality is relatively simple, especially with fixed quadrature because the recursions can be defined…

  4. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... this paragraph. (4) Modulation. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) shall be used. 64-QAM is feasible under many propagation conditions; others such as 32-, 16- and 8-QAM are specified for use when needed. (5) RF protection ratio values....

  5. Performance Analysis of Different Modulation Formats in Optical Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kulwinder; Singh, Maninder; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh; Ryait, Hardeep Singh

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated the variation of different parameters with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and differential phase shift key (DPSK) sequence generator, which generates modulated signals, in data transmission for communication and analysed that how the difference of these sequence generators effect its resonant frequency (RF) value, eye diagram and electrical constellation representation of the system.

  6. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this paragraph. (4) Modulation. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) shall be used. 64-QAM is feasible under many propagation conditions; others such as 32-, 16- and 8-QAM are specified for use when needed. (5) RF protection ratio values....

  7. Auto Bias Control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroto; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Miyamoto, Yutaka

    2011-12-12

    ABC (Auto Bias Control) technique for QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) transmitter is demonstrated. 16-QAM (10G baud) is generated and controlled using a single IQ modulator and asymmetric bias dithering technique. Measured penalty is 0.3 dB.

  8. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this paragraph. (4) Modulation. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) shall be used. 64-QAM is feasible under many propagation conditions; others such as 32-, 16- and 8-QAM are specified for use when needed. (5) RF protection ratio values....

  9. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this paragraph. (4) Modulation. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) shall be used. 64-QAM is feasible under many propagation conditions; others such as 32-, 16- and 8-QAM are specified for use when needed. (5) RF protection ratio values....

  10. Versatile offset-free 16-QAM single dual-drive IQ modulator driven by binary signals.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Antonio; Fresi, Francesco; Klamkin, Jonathan; Potì, Luca

    2012-10-01

    A customized IQ modulator driven by equal-amplitude binary signals for generating offset-free 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is proposed and validated through simulations. The incorporation of tunable splitters demonstrates the feasibility of the transmitter and enables more efficient constellations such as hexagonal 16-QAM.

  11. Receiver System Analysis and Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    True Top-Down Design Methodology .................................. 5 Figure 4. Generic 16- QAM direct-conversion receiver...ADC 16- QAM decoder Figure 4. Generic 16- QAM direct-conversion receiver Complex digitally generated signals defy traditional spreadsheet...Intercept Point Three QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio USAF USR VCO United States Air Force Upsampling Ratio Voltage Controlled Oscillator

  12. Shaping Transmitted Pulses To Provide Synchronizing Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, Edgar H.; Mulligan, James J.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents theoretical analysis of relationships among: shapes and bandwidths of data pulses in pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM); pulse-repetition rates (baud rates); and presence or absence of sinusoidal baud-frequency components in envelopes (magnitudes) of overall received signals.

  13. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... this paragraph. (4) Modulation. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) shall be used. 64-QAM is feasible under many propagation conditions; others such as 32-, 16- and 8-QAM are specified for use when needed. (5) RF protection ratio values....

  14. A Linear Subspace Approach to Burst Communication Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    190 62 α = 1 Ts component of the Spectral Correlation Function . . . 191 63 MMSE Filter for an OQPSK Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 64 BFSK...MMSE Minimum Mean Square Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 MSK Minimum Shift Keying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 OQPSK Offset Quadrature...the real portion of its complex argument. 5Appendix C extends this model to Offset QPSK ( OQPSK ) signals and Minimum Shift Keyed (MSK) signals. 7 t

  15. Multi-Channel and Multi-Dimensional Sensors Parametric Statistics Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    other variations such as OQPSK , MSK, GMSK, etc. 8.2.5 Least Squares Approach An intuitive approach was used in deriving the alphaCAF method in Section...interference 151 Name Definition MCT Monte Carlo testing ML Maximum Likelihood MSK Minimum shift keyed OQPSK Offset quadrature phase shift keyed PHAT

  16. Modulation Characterization Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    34energy-detection" class of rules. The focus of this paper is on the detection of Quadrature digital modulations, such as QPSK, Offset-QPSK ( OQPSK ... OQPSK retains only the even harmonics at baseband and the odd harmonics around 2/c. The optimal delay A and the resulting maximum SNRout are also

  17. Resolution Of Phase Ambiguities In QPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses several techniques for resolution of phase ambiguities in detection and decoding of radio signals modulated by coherent quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and offset QPSK (OQPSK). Eight ambiguities: four associated with phase of carrier signal in absence of ambiguity in direction of rotation of carrier phase, and another four associated with carrier phase in presence of phase-rotation ambiguity.

  18. Test and Evaluation of Reduced Rate Multiplexers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    modems. However, recognizing the potential economics that could result from operating at data rates lower than 64 KB/S, this T&E program is structured to...modulation transmitted as a vestigial . sideband line signal, -16 dB carrier 2853 Hz added in quadrature, 4 level 4800 baud 9600 BIS, 4800/7200/9600 B

  19. Approximation of Bit Error Rates in Digital Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and Technology Organisation DSTO—TN—0761 ABSTRACT This report investigates the estimation of bit error rates in digital communi- cations, motivated by...recent work in [6]. In the latter, bounds are used to construct estimates for bit error rates in the case of differentially coherent quadrature phase

  20. Toward a reduced-wire readout system for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply.

  1. Eigenchannel decomposition for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, L.; Imre, S.

    2015-03-01

    We develop a singular layer transmission model for continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). In CVQKD, the transmit information is carried by continuous-variable (CV) quantum states, particularly by Gaussian random distributed position and momentum quadratures. The reliable transmission of the quadrature components over a noisy link is a cornerstone of CVQKD protocols. The proposed singular layer uses the singular value decomposition of the Gaussian quantum channel, which yields an additional degree of freedom for the phase space transmission. This additional degree of freedom can further be exploited in a multiple-access scenario. The singular layer defines the eigenchannels of the Gaussian physical link, which can be used for the simultaneous reliable transmission of multiple user data streams. We demonstrate the results through the adaptive multicarrier quadrature division-multiuser quadrature allocation (AMQD-MQA) CVQKD multiple-access scheme. We define the singular model of AMQD-MQA and characterize the properties of the eigenchannel interference. The singular layer transmission provides improved simultaneous transmission rates for the users with unconditional security in a multiple-access scenario, particularly in crucial low signal-to-noise ratio regimes.

  2. How Can Multivariate Item Response Theory Be Used in Reporting of Susbcores? Research Report. ETS RR-10-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in reporting diagnostic scores. This paper examines reporting of subscores using multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) models. An MIRT model is fitted using a stabilized Newton-Raphson algorithm (Haberman, 1974, 1988) with adaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature (Haberman, von Davier, & Lee, 2008).…

  3. Generation of two types of nonclassical optical states using an optical parametric oscillator with a PPKTP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Meiru; Qin, Jiliang; Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-11-01

    As important members of nonclassical states of light, squeezed states and entangled states are basic resources for realizing quantum measurements and constructing quantum information networks. We experimentally demonstrate that the two types of nonclassical optical states can be generated from an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) involving a periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal with a domain-inversion period of 51.7 μm, by changing the polarization of the pump laser. When a vertically polarized 671 nm laser is used to pump the OPO, the intra-cavity frequency-down-conversion with type-0 quasi-phase matching is realized and the output optical beam is a quadrature amplitude squeezed state of light at the wavelength of 1342 nm with the fluctuation of quadrature component of 3.17 dB below the quantum noise limit (QNL). If the pump laser is horizontally polarized, the condition of the type-II quasi-phase matching is satisfied and the output optical beam becomes Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state of light with correlation variances of both quadrature amplitude-sum and quadrature phase-difference of 2.2 dB below the corresponding QNL.

  4. Error analysis for a sinh transformation used in evaluating nearly singular boundary element integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David; Johnston, Peter R.

    2007-06-01

    In the two-dimensional boundary element method, one often needs to evaluate numerically integrals of the form where j2 is a quadratic, g is a polynomial and f is a rational, logarithmic or algebraic function with a singularity at zero. The constants a and b are such that -1[less-than-or-equals, slant]a[less-than-or-equals, slant]1 and 0quadrature can give large truncation errors. By making the transformation x=a+bsinh([mu]u-[eta]), where the constants [mu] and [eta] are chosen so that the interval of integration is again [-1,1], it is found that the truncation errors arising, when the same Gauss-Legendre quadrature is applied to the transformed integral, are much reduced. The asymptotic error analysis for Gauss-Legendre quadrature, as given by Donaldson and Elliott [A unified approach to quadrature rules with asymptotic estimates of their remainders, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 9 (1972) 573-602], is then used to explain this phenomenon and justify the transformation.

  5. Modeling and Prediction of the Effects of Collisions in a Gas-Solid Turbulent Channel Flow Using Moment Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Dennis; Squires, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Modeling dispersions of particles in multiphase flows is especially challenging in gas-solid suspensions. Lagrangian methods are suitable for dilute particle mediums, but are not cost effective at denser concentrations and impose additional modeling challenges. A moderately dense particle phase is neither sufficiently dense for a continuum limit assumption (collisional equilibrium) nor sufficiently dilute for a Lagrangian method, and resides in the intermediate regime under consideration in the current work. A quadrature-based moment method (QBMM) is chosen to simulate a particle-laden turbulent channel flow considering inter-particle collision effects. In quadrature-based approaches similarly behaving particles may be grouped together and treated in a stochastic manner within an Eulerian framework. Specifically, the Conditional Quadrature Method of Moments (CQMOM) is implemented to discretize a fully 3-D velocity space and capture particle trajectory crossing (PTC). This has the potential for large computational savings as compared to Lagrangian methods, especially when dense collisions are prominent. The probability density function is discretized with a two-point-quadrature in each dimension - the minimum requirement to capture PTC and enforce collisions. Predictions of the channel flow demonstrate that the collision treatment leads to the expected effects (e.g., redistribution of kinetic energy) and also offer improved accuracy relative to simpler approaches.

  6. Theory of Induced Spatial Incoherence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-16

    28 DISTRIBUTION................................................................................. 53 I- Acpr ~lon For A1;’S (rA&I...been frustrated by the inherent imperfections in high- power multistage laser systems. The cumulative effect of numerous small amplitude and phase...profiles at a single point, or (by slightly tilting adjacent echelon steps in opposite directions) centering them equally around four nearby quadrature

  7. Signal Reception via Multi-Platform Receivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    interference cancellation, multi-platform receivers, signal collection, signal interception 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 71 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY ...CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified...Quadrature Phase Shift Keying SIC Successive Interference Cancellation SNR Signal-To-Noise Ratio SOI Signal Of Interest WLAN Wireless Local Area

  8. Results of AEROSAT Channel Simulation Tests Q-M/PSK Voice/Data Modem TSC Ranging Modem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    Two modems which are candidates for the Aeronautical Satellite (AEROSAT) Test and Evaluation Program have been tested by the Transportation Systems Center channel...encoded phase-shift keying and voice using quadrature modulation (on a single carrier.) The other modem tested was the Transportation Systems Center developed

  9. Data-aided carrier tracking loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.

    1973-01-01

    Power in composite signal sidebands is used to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in carrier tracking loop, thereby reducing radio loss and decreasing probability of receiver error. By adding quadrature channel to phase-lock-loop detector circuit of receiver, dc component can be fed back into carrier tracking loop.

  10. Vacuum fluctuations and the conditional homodyne detection of squeezed light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, H. J.; Nha, Hyunchul

    2004-08-01

    Conditional homodyne detection of quadrature squeezing is compared with standard nonconditional detection. Whereas the latter identifies nonclassicality in a quantitative way, as a reduction of the noise power below the shot noise level, conditional detection makes a qualitative distinction between vacuum state squeezing and squeezed classical noise. Implications of this comparison for the realistic interpretation of vacuum fluctuations (stochastic electrodynamics) are discussed.

  11. On the Calculation of Uncertainty Statistics with Error Bounds for CFD Calculations Containing Random Parameters and Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the ongoing development of combined uncertainty and error bound estimates for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations subject to imposed random parameters and random fields. An objective of this work is the construction of computable error bound formulas for output uncertainty statistics that guide CFD practitioners in systematically determining how accurately CFD realizations should be approximated and how accurately uncertainty statistics should be approximated for output quantities of interest. Formal error bounds formulas for moment statistics that properly account for the presence of numerical errors in CFD calculations and numerical quadrature errors in the calculation of moment statistics have been previously presented in [8]. In this past work, hierarchical node-nested dense and sparse tensor product quadratures are used to calculate moment statistics integrals. In the present work, a framework has been developed that exploits the hierarchical structure of these quadratures in order to simplify the calculation of an estimate of the quadrature error needed in error bound formulas. When signed estimates of realization error are available, this signed error may also be used to estimate output quantity of interest probability densities as a means to assess the impact of realization error on these density estimates. Numerical results are presented for CFD problems with uncertainty to demonstrate the capabilities of this framework.

  12. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo

    2011-12-15

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  13. Optimal cloning for finite distributions of coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, P.T.; Ralph, T.C.; Dolinska, A.

    2004-04-01

    We derive optimal cloning limits for finite Gaussian distributions of coherent states and describe techniques for achieving them. We discuss the relation of these limits to state estimation and the no-cloning limit in teleportation. A qualitatively different cloning limit is derived for a single-quadrature Gaussian quantum cloner.

  14. NAVSTAR/GPS satellite selection for sequential receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noe, P. S.; Parsiani, H.

    1979-01-01

    Derivation of a satellite in-view procedure and two satellite selection procedures are obtained and comparisons to previous procedures are presented. Two suboptimal satellite selection procedures - Quadrature System (QS) and Flexible Orthogonal System (FOS) - are compared to a suboptimal and optimum procedures, taking into account the execution time and Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) of each.

  15. Cross-Layer Design for Robust and Scalable Video Transmission in Dynamic Wireless Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    CNR for Several Beta Values 64- QAM ........................................... 47 Table 19 Illustrate the Calculations for the Different Modulation ... modulation at the physical layer to the bit streams with different QoS requirements at the application layer. Unfortunately, for most non-binary...quadrature amplitude modulation ( QAM ) and hierarchical phase shift keying (PSK) modulation schemes in terms of exponential and complementary error

  16. Optimal grids for generalized finite basis and discrete variable representations: definition and method of calculation.

    PubMed

    Szalay, Viktor

    2006-10-21

    The method of optimal generalized finite basis and discrete variable representations (FBR and DVR) generalizes the standard, Gaussian quadrature grid-classical orthonormal polynomial basis-based FBR/DVR method to general sets of grid points and to general, nondirect product, and/or nonpolynomial bases. Here, it is shown how an optimal set of grid points can be obtained for an optimal generalized FBR/DVR calculation with a given truncated basis. Basis set optimized and potential optimized grids are defined. The optimized grids are shown to minimize a function of grid points derived by relating the optimal generalized FBR of a Hamiltonian operator to a non-Hermitian effective Hamiltonian matrix. Locating the global minimum of this function can be reduced to finding the zeros of a function in the case of one dimensional problems and to solving a system of D nonlinear equations repeatedly in the case of D>1 dimensional problems when there is an equal number of grid points and basis functions. Gaussian quadrature grids are shown to be basis optimized grids. It is demonstrated by a numerical example that an optimal generalized FBR/DVR calculation of the eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian operator with potential optimized grids can have orders of magnitude higher accuracy than a variational calculation employing the same truncated basis. Nevertheless, for numerical integration with the optimal generalized FBR quadrature rule basis optimized grids are the best among grids of the same number of points. The notions of Gaussian quadrature and Gaussian quadrature accuracy are extended to general, multivariable basis functions.

  17. On the consistency between nearest-neighbor peridynamic discretizations and discretized classical elasticity models

    SciTech Connect

    Seleson, Pablo; Du, Qiang; Parks, Michael L.

    2016-08-16

    The peridynamic theory of solid mechanics is a nonlocal reformulation of the classical continuum mechanics theory. At the continuum level, it has been demonstrated that classical (local) elasticity is a special case of peridynamics. Such a connection between these theories has not been extensively explored at the discrete level. This paper investigates the consistency between nearest-neighbor discretizations of linear elastic peridynamic models and finite difference discretizations of the Navier–Cauchy equation of classical elasticity. While nearest-neighbor discretizations in peridynamics have been numerically observed to present grid-dependent crack paths or spurious microcracks, this paper focuses on a different, analytical aspect of such discretizations. We demonstrate that, even in the absence of cracks, such discretizations may be problematic unless a proper selection of weights is used. Specifically, we demonstrate that using the standard meshfree approach in peridynamics, nearest-neighbor discretizations do not reduce, in general, to discretizations of corresponding classical models. We study nodal-based quadratures for the discretization of peridynamic models, and we derive quadrature weights that result in consistency between nearest-neighbor discretizations of peridynamic models and discretized classical models. The quadrature weights that lead to such consistency are, however, model-/discretization-dependent. We motivate the choice of those quadrature weights through a quadratic approximation of displacement fields. The stability of nearest-neighbor peridynamic schemes is demonstrated through a Fourier mode analysis. Finally, an approach based on a normalization of peridynamic constitutive constants at the discrete level is explored. This approach results in the desired consistency for one-dimensional models, but does not work in higher dimensions. The results of the work presented in this paper suggest that even though nearest

  18. A fast high-order method to calculate wakefields in an electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad; Ryne, Robert D.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate wakefields in an electron beam given a wake function model. This method is based on a Newton-Cotes quadrature rule for integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation that results in an O(N log(N)) computational cost, where N is the number of grid points. Using the Simpson quadrature rule with an accuracy of O(h4), where h is the grid size, we present numerical calculation of the wakefields from a resonator wake function model and from a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake model. Besides the fast speed and high numerical accuracy, the calculation using the direct line density instead of the first derivative of the line density avoids numerical filtering of the electron density function for computing the CSR wakefield.

  19. Communication: An efficient algorithm for evaluating the Breit and spin-spin coupling integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Toru

    2013-03-01

    We present an efficient algorithm for evaluating a class of two-electron integrals of the form {r}_{12}⊗ {r}_{12}/r_{12}^n over one-electron Gaussian basis functions. The full Breit interaction in four-component relativistic theories beyond the Gaunt term is such an operator with n = 3. Another example is the direct spin-spin coupling term in the quasi-relativistic Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian (n = 5). These integrals have been conventionally evaluated by expensive derivative techniques. Our algorithm is based on tailored Gaussian quadrature, similar to the Rys quadrature for electron repulsion integrals (ERIs), and can utilize the so-called horizontal recurrence relation to reduce the computational cost. The CPU time for computing all six Cartesian components of the Breit or spin-spin coupling integrals is found to be only 3 to 4 times that of the ERI evaluation.

  20. Demonstration of optical multicasting using Kerr frequency comb lines.

    PubMed

    Bao, Changjing; Liao, Peicheng; Kordts, Arne; Karpov, Maxim; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Zhang, Lin; Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Almaiman, Ahmed; Ziyadi, Morteza; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Wilkinson, Steven R; Tur, Moshe; Fejer, Martin M; Kippenberg, Tobias J; Willner, Alan E

    2016-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate optical multicasting using Kerr frequency combs generated from a Si3N4 microresonator. We obtain Kerr combs in two states with different noise properties by varying the pump wavelength in the resonator and investigate the effect of Kerr combs on multicasting. Seven-fold multicasting of 20 Gbaud quadrature phase-shift-keyed signals and four-fold multicasting of 16-quadrature amplitude modulation signals have been achieved when low-phase-noise combs are input into a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. In addition, we find that the wavelength conversion efficiency in the PPLN waveguide for chaotic combs with high noise is similar to that for low-noise combs, while the signal quality of the multicast copy is significantly degraded.

  1. Optomechanical dual-beam backaction-evading measurement beyond the rotating-wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malz, Daniel; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    We present the exact analytical solution of the explicitly time-periodic quantum Langevin equation describing the dual-beam backaction-evading measurement of a single mechanical oscillator quadrature due to V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, and K. S. Thorne [Science 209, 547 (1980), 10.1126/science.209.4456.547] beyond the commonly used rotating-wave approximation. We show that counterrotating terms lead to extra sidebands in the optical and mechanical spectra and to a modification of the main peak. Physically, the backaction of the measurement is due to periodic coupling of the mechanical resonator to a light-field quadrature that only contains cavity-filtered shot noise. Since this fact is independent of other degrees of freedom the resonator might be coupled to, our solution can be generalized, including to dissipatively or parametrically squeezed oscillators, as well as recent two-mode backaction-evading measurements.

  2. Double reference pulsed phase locked loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A double reference pulse phase locked loop is described which measures the phase shift between tone burst signals initially derived from the same periodic signal source (voltage controlled oscillator) and delayed by different amounts because of two different paths. A first path is from the transducer to the surface of a sample and back. A second path is from the transducer to the opposite surface and back. A first pulse phase locked loop including a phase detector and a phase shifter forces the tone burst signal delayed by the second path in phase quadrature with the periodic signal source. A second pulse phase locked loop including a second phase detector forces the tone burst signals delayed by the first path into phase quadrature with the phase shifted periodic signal source.

  3. Non-contact displacement estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaomeng; Singh, Aditya; Yavari, Ehsan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Non-contact Doppler radar has been used extensively for detection of physiological motion. Most of the results published to date have been focused on estimation of the physiological rates, such as respiratory rate and heart rate, with CW and modulated waveforms in various settings. Accurate assessment of chest displacement may take this type of monitoring to the new level, by enabling the estimation of associated cardiopulmonary volumes, and possibly pulse pressure. To obtain absolute chest displacement with highest precision, full nonlinear phase demodulation of the quadrature radar outputs must be performed. The accuracy of this type of demodulation is limited by the drifting received RF power, varying dc offset, and channel quadrature imbalance. In this paper we demonstrate that if relatively large motion is used to calibrate the system, smaller motion displacement may be acquired with the accuracy on the order of 30 µm.

  4. Photon number squeezed states in semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Machida, Susumu; Richardson, Wayne H.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, with the noise on one quadrature component reduced to below the quantum mechanical zero-point fluctuation level and the noise on the other quadrature component enhanced to above it, are currently of great interest in quantum optics because of their potential applications to various precision measurements. Such squeezed states of light are usually produced by imposing nonlinear unitary evolution on coherent (or vacuum) states. On the other hand, squeezed states with reduced photon number noise and enhanced phase noise are generated directly by a constant current-driven semiconductor laser. This is the simplest scheme for the generation of nonclassical light, and so far it has yielded the largest quantum noise reduction. The mutual coupling between a lasing junction and an external electrical circuit provides opportunities for exploring the macroscopic and microscopic quantum effects in open systems.

  5. A fast high-order method to calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad; Ryne, Robert D.

    2012-03-22

    In this paper we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam given a wake function model. This method is based on a Newton-Cotes quadrature rule for integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation that results in an O(Nlog(N)) computational cost, where N is the number of grid points. Using the Simpson quadrature rule with an accuracy of O(h4), where h is the grid size, we present numerical calculation of the wakefields from a resonator wake function model and from a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake model. Besides the fast speed and high numerical accuracy, the calculation using the direct line density instead of the first derivative of the line density avoids numerical filtering of the electron density function for computing the CSR wakefield force. I. INTRODUCTION

  6. Feedback-Enhanced Parametric Squeezing of Mechanical Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinante, A.; Falferi, P.

    2013-11-01

    We present a single-quadrature feedback scheme able to overcome the conventional 3 dB limit on parametric squeezing. The method is experimentally demonstrated in a micromechanical system based on a cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is detected at low temperature by a SQUID susceptometer, while parametric pumping is obtained by modulating the magnetic field gradient at twice the cantilever frequency. A maximum squeezing of 11.5 dB and 11.3 dB is observed, respectively, in the response to a sinusoidal test signal and in the thermomechanical noise. So far, the maximum squeezing factor is limited only by the maximum achievable parametric modulation. The proposed technique might be used to squeeze one quadrature of a mechanical resonator below the quantum noise level, even without the need for a quantum limited detector.

  7. Power optimized OSSB modulation to support multi-band OFDM services along hybrid long-reach WDM-PONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Paulo; Silva, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, optical single sideband (OSSB) transmission of multi-services based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with different signal constellations is investigated through numerical simulation, when the modulation efficiency obtained with a dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (DE-MZM) is optimized by biasing it below its quadrature point. Furthermore, in order to overcome the intermodulation distortion resulting from modulation efficiency optimization, it is demonstrated that driving each electrical signal with a different electrical power is an effective solution for the signals considered. As result of the optimization, successful delivery after 130 km of a hybrid OSSB signal composed by a custom 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM gigabit Ethernet (GbE) signal, a 20 MHz 64-QAM LTE signal and three independent OFDM-UWB channels of the first group of ECMA-386 is demonstrated, with negligible power penalty.

  8. Transmission of mixed 260-Gb/s PDM-16QAM and 130-Gb/s PDM-QPSK over 960-km and 4160-km dispersion-managed SSMF spans.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chongjin; Raybon, Gregory

    2012-12-10

    We transmit a mix of 260-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed 16-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (PDM-16QAM) and 130-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) channels at a 50-GHz channel spacing in a dispersion-managed (DM) system with standard single-mode-fiber (SSMF) spans. We study the impact of pulse shaping, time interleaving of polarizations and maximum likelihood (ML) detection techniques on the performance of the system. We show that the pulse shaping and ML detection can increase the transmission distances of the PDM-16QAM channels and PDM-QPSK channels by 50% and 10%, respectively. With 20% overhead hard-decision forward-error-correction (FEC) coding, we successfully transmit the 260-Gb/s PDM-16QAM and 130-Gb/s PDM-QPSK channels over 960-km and 4,160-km, respectively, in the DM system.

  9. White light-emitting diode based wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing link with improved transmission capacity using Bayesian compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Seo, Dong-Sun; Yoon, Sang Min

    2016-04-01

    We propose a technique that improves the channel capacity of an optical wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission, which employs a visible light-emitting diode. An OFDM waveform encoded by quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or 16-quadrature amplitude modulation is compressed and then transformed into a sparse waveform using a proposed advanced systematic sampling. At the optical wireless receiver, the original waveform is recovered by L1-minimization based on a Bayesian compressive sensing. Our experimental results show the significant increase in the channel capacity from 31.12 to 51.87 Mbit/s at forward error correction limit (i.e., error vector magnitude of 32%) in case of QPSK symbols.

  10. A high precision method for mapping phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis and its hardware implementation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhang; Song, Wei; Peng, Zhicong; Xu, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    There exist a number of algorithms to map the phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis (DDS). For DDS with more than 14 output bits, the Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm is well known for its high precision. Also, it is effective in solutions where there is the need of in-phase and quadrature components simultaneously because the algorithm calculates both. In this paper, a Taylor expansion based method was proposed to calculate both in-phase and quadrature at the same time. Numerical simulations for different data format, e.g., double and finite bits, were carried out in Matlab and Quartus, which were followed by the hardware implementation in Field Programmable Gate Array. The results demonstrated that the proposed method possessed higher precision and exhausted less logic elements than the CORDIC algorithm.

  11. Phase-space noncommutative formulation of Ozawa's uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Costa Dias, Nuno; Prata, João Nuno

    2014-08-01

    Ozawa's measurement-disturbance relation is generalized to a phase-space noncommutative extension of quantum mechanics. It is shown that the measurement-disturbance relations have additional terms for backaction evading quadrature amplifiers and for noiseless quadrature transducers. Several distinctive features appear as a consequence of the noncommutative extension: measurement interactions which are noiseless, and observables which are undisturbed by a measurement, or of independent intervention in ordinary quantum mechanics, may acquire noise, become disturbed by the measurement, or no longer be an independent intervention in noncommutative quantum mechanics. It is also found that there can be states which violate Ozawa's universal noise-disturbance trade-off relation, but verify its noncommutative deformation.

  12. A code-aided carrier synchronization algorithm based on improved nonbinary low-density parity-check codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Cheng-lin; Cheng, Zhi-hui

    2016-09-01

    In order to further improve the carrier synchronization estimation range and accuracy at low signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR), this paper proposes a code-aided carrier synchronization algorithm based on improved nonbinary low-density parity-check (NB-LDPC) codes to study the polarization-division-multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) system performance in the cases of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) modes. The simulation results indicate that this algorithm can enlarge frequency and phase offset estimation ranges and enhance accuracy of the system greatly, and the bit error rate ( BER) performance of the system is improved effectively compared with that of the system employing traditional NB-LDPC code-aided carrier synchronization algorithm.

  13. A full-duplex optical access system with hybrid 64/16/4QAM-OFDM downlink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Tan, Ze-fu; Shao, Yu-feng; Cai, Li; Pu, He-sheng; Zhu, Yun-le; Huang, Si-si; Liu, Yu

    2016-09-01

    A full-duplex optical passive access scheme is proposed and verified by simulation, in which hybrid 64/16/4-quadrature amplitude modulation (64/16/4QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) optical signal is for downstream transmission and non-return-to-zero (NRZ) optical signal is for upstream transmission. In view of the transmitting and receiving process for downlink optical signal, in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) modulation based on Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and homodyne coherent detection technology are employed, respectively. The simulation results show that the bit error ratio ( BER) less than hardware decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold is successfully obtained over transmission path with 20-km-long standard single mode fiber (SSMF) for hybrid downlink modulation OFDM optical signal. In addition, by dividing the system bandwidth into several subchannels consisting of some continuous subcarriers, it is convenient for users to select different channels depending on requirements of communication.

  14. Simple and reconfigured single-sideband OFDM RoF system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuming; Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2016-10-03

    We propose a simple and reconfigured dispersion-tolerant single sideband (SSB) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radio over fiber (RoF) system enabled by digital signal processing (DSP), one in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulator and direct-detection. The generated radio frequency (RF) is based on DSP and the frequency can be flexibly adjusted, which can be employed in the future software-defined radio access network (RAN). Based on our proposed system, we have experimentally demonstrated 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) 21.87-Gb/s 21-GHz and 38-GHz SSB-OFDM RoF signal generation and transmission over 80-km single-mode fiber (SMF), respectively.

  15. Differentially coherent detection of QASK for frequency-hopping systems. I - Performance in the presence of a Gaussian noise environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Huth, G. K.; Polydoros, A.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth-conserving modulation techniques, which trade average power for bandwidth in a favorable exchange, have recently found widespread application in digital radio and satellite communication systems. Quadrature amplitude-shift-keying (QASK) is a particular type of the considered techniques. QASK makes use of multilevel signals to amplitude modulate the in-phase and quadrature components of a carrier. Frequency hopping (FH) is used to protect a conventional communication system from radio frequency interference (RFI) or jamming. Differentially coherent detection provides a possible solution to the effect of phase discontinuities introduced by FH. The application of such a detection technique to QASK signals is discussed. A receiver structure is proposed and its symbol error probability performance for an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) background is investigated.

  16. q -deformed noncommutative cat states and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib

    2015-02-01

    We study several classical-like properties of q -deformed nonlinear coherent states as well as nonclassical behaviors of q -deformed version of the Schrödinger cat states in noncommutative space. Coherent states in q -deformed space are found to be minimum uncertainty states together with the squeezed photon distributions unlike the ordinary systems, where the photon distributions are always Poissonian. Several advantages of utilizing cat states in noncommutative space over the standard quantum mechanical spaces have been reported here. For instance, the q -deformed parameter has been utilized to improve the squeezing of the quadrature beyond the ordinary case. Most importantly, the parameter provides an extra degree of freedom by which we achieve both quadrature squeezed and number squeezed cat states at the same time in a single system, which is impossible to achieve from ordinary cat states.

  17. The effects of arctic stratus clouds on the solar energy budget in the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Zak, B.D.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes a comprehensive radiative transfer model pertinent to the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system. The main features of the model include: The atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean each represented by a sufficient number of layers to resolve the change in the optical properties of each stratum; An appropriate quadrature structure to take into account the total reflection at the air-ice or air-water interface, as well as to solve the radiative transfer equation in the coupled system consistently; Provision for a different number of streams (quadrature points) in the atmosphere, ice, and ocean, chosen based on the optical properties in each stratum and the computational accuracy method.

  18. Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Lauermann, M; Palmer, R; Koeber, S; Schindler, P C; Korn, D; Wahlbrink, T; Bolten, J; Waldow, M; Elder, D L; Dalton, L R; Leuthold, J; Freude, W; Koos, C

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators that enable quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) with high signal quality and record-low energy consumption. SOH integration combines highly efficient electro-optic organic materials with conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) slot waveguides, and allows to overcome the intrinsic limitations of silicon as an optical integration platform. We demonstrate QPSK and 16QAM signaling at symbol rates of 28 GBd with peak-to-peak drive voltages of 0.6 V(pp). For the 16QAM experiment at 112 Gbit/s, we measure a bit-error ratio of 5.1 × 10⁻⁵ and a record-low energy consumption of only 19 fJ/bit.

  19. Moment-Preserving SN Discretizations for the One-Dimensional Fokker-Planck Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Warsa, James S.; Prinja, Anil K.

    2012-06-14

    The Fokker-Planck equation: (1) Describes the transport and interactions of charged particles, (2) Many small-angle scattering collisions, (3) Asymptotic limit of the Boltzmann equation (Pomraning, 1992), and (4) The Boltzmann collision operator becomes the angular Laplacian. SN angular discretization: (1) Angular flux is collocated at the SN quadrature points, (2) The second-order derivatives in the Laplacian term must be discretized, and (3) Weighted finite-difference method preserves zeroth and first moments (Morel, 1985). Moment-preserving methods: (1) Collocate the Fokker-Planck operator at the SN quadrature points, (2) Develop several related and/or equivalent methods, and (3) Motivated by discretizations for the angular derivative appearing in the transport equation in one-dimensional spherical coordinates.

  20. Mitigation of Discrete Spectral Components in Filtered BPSK and OQPSK Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Lee, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    Telemetry received from deep-space or near-Earth spacecraft often contains strong discrete spectral components extending far beyond the main lobe of the continuous spectrum. This is attributed to filtering of the data-modulated phase in the spacecraft transmitter, which generates discrete spectral components in the spectra of transmitted binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), and offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) modulations. The theoretical development and simulations in this article focus on BPSK and OQPSK modulations, due to the underlying compatibility in the techniques used to mitigate discrete spectral components. The reasons for the appearance of spectral lines in BPSK and OQPSK modulations are examined, and methods designed to eliminate discrete spectral components are proposed and evaluated. Finally, the practical limits imposed by finite-phase modulator bandwidth are addressed, and its impact on achievable data rate examined.

  1. Method for characterizing bulk recombination using photoinduced absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Nora M.; Sandén, Simon; Sandberg, Oskar J.; Österbacka, Ronald

    2017-03-01

    The influence of reaction order and trap-assisted recombination on continuous-wave photoinduced absorption measurements is clarified through analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The results reveal the characteristic influence of different trap distributions and enable distinguishing between shallow exponential and Gaussian distributions and systems dominated by direct recombination by analyzing the temperature dependence of the in-phase and quadrature signals. The identifying features are the intensity dependence of the in-phase at high intensity, P A I ∝ I γ HI , and the frequency dependence of the quadrature at low frequency, P A Q ∝ ω γ LF . For direct recombination, γHI and γLF are temperature independent, and for an exponential distribution, they depend on the characteristic energy Ech as γ HI = 1 / ( 1 + E ch / k T ) and γ LF = k T / E ch , while a Gaussian distribution shows γHI and γLF as functions of I and ω, respectively.

  2. State-constrained booster trajectory solutions via finite elements and shooting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, Robert R.; Hodges, Dewey H.; Seywald, Hans

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of a FEM formulation based on variational principles. A general formulation for handling internal boundary conditions and discontinuities in the state equations is presented, and the general formulation is modified for optimal control problems subject to state-variable inequality constraints. Solutions which only touch the state constraint and solutions which have a boundary arc of finite length are considered. Suitable shape and test functions are chosen for a FEM discretization. All element quadrature (equivalent to one-point Gaussian quadrature over each element) may be done in closed form. The final form of the algebraic equations is then derived. A simple state-constrained problem is solved. Then, for a practical application of the use of the FEM formulation, a launch vehicle subject to a dynamic pressure constraint (a first-order state inequality constraint) is solved. The results presented for the launch-vehicle trajectory have some interesting features, including a touch-point solution.

  3. Robust 9-QAM digital recovery for spectrum shaped coherent QPSK signal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Dong, Ze; Li, Xinying; Ou, Haiyan; Chi, Nan; Liu, Wen

    2013-03-25

    We propose 9-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (9-QAM) data recovery for polarization multiplexing-quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) signal in presence of strong filtering to approach Nyquist bandwidth. The decision-directed least radius distance (DD-LRD) algorithm for blind equalization is used for 9-QAM recovery and intersymbol interference (ISI) compression. It shows the robustness under strong filtering to recover 9-QAM signal rather than QPSK. We demonstrate 112 Gb/s spectrum shaped PM-QPSK signal by wavelength selective switch (WSS) in a 25-GHz channel spacing Nyquist wavelength division multiplexing (NWDM). The final equalized signal is detected by maximum likelihood sequence decision (MLSD) for data bit-error-ratio (BER) measurement. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) tolerance is improved by 0.5 dB at a BER of 1x10(-3) compared to constant modulus algorithm (CMA) plus post-filter algorithm.

  4. Symbol rate identification for auxiliary amplitude modulation optical signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junyu; Dong, Zhi; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we creatively propose and demonstrate a method for symbol rate identification (SRI) of auxiliary amplitude modulation (AAM) optical signal based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling (ADTS) and average magnitude difference function (AMDF). The method can accurately estimate symbol rate and has large transmission impairments tolerance. Furthermore, it can be realized in the digital signal processor (DSP) with low logical resources because of multiplication-free. In order to improve the accuracy of SRI, the peak to valley ratio (PTVR) of AMDF is introduced into our method for blind chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation. The results of the numerical simulations show that the overall maximum SRI error is smaller 0.079% for return-to-zero (RZ) on-off keying (OOK), RZ differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), RZ differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) and RZ 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with 50% duty cycles.

  5. Reconfigurable multilevel transmitter using monolithically integrated quad Mach-Zehnder IQ modulator for optical 16-QAM and 8-PSK generation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guo-Wei; Sakamoto, Takahide; Chiba, Akito; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Miyazaki, Tetsuya; Higuma, Kaoru; Sudo, Masaaki; Ichikawa, Junichiro

    2011-03-14

    We propose and demonstrate a reconfigurable multilevel transmitter using a monolithically-integrated quad Mach-Zehnder in-phase/quadrature (QMZ-IQ) modulator with binary driving electronics. Different from previous parallel-integrated quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) transmitter solutions, only one electrode is required to adjust the relative phase offset among embedded sub-Mach-Zehnder modulators in the proposed IQ superstructure. By feeding different RF driving electronics and operating the integrated modulator as different bias conditions, different advanced multilevel modulation formats, such as QAM and 8-ary phase-shift keying (8-PSK), could be synthesized. In this paper, a 40-Gb/s 16-QAM and a 30-Gb/s 8-PSK are generated using the proposed multilevel transmitter, respectively. Offline digital processing is employed for bit-error rates estimation and constellation reconstruction.

  6. Transmission and reception of PDM dual-subcarrier coherent 16QAM-OFDM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, 16-Gbaud polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) dual-subcarrier coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) transmission and reception are successfully demonstrated without overhead. The in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) components of dual-subcarrier 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM signal are both seven-level signals in time domain, and thus can be equalized like a 49 QAM signal in time domain with cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization method. The experimental results show that there is no power penalty observed between optical back to back (OBTB) and after 80-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) with time domain CMMA equalization method. A 0.4 dB optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty in OBTB is observed when the bandwidth of channel is set at 26 GHz at the BER of 2.0 × 10-2.

  7. 16-QAM optical packet switching and real-time self-homodyne detection using polarization-multiplexed pilot-carrier.

    PubMed

    Shinada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Moriya; Kamio, Yukiyoshi; Wada, Naoya

    2012-12-10

    We demonstrated 20-Gbit/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) optical packet switching and real-time detection using self-homodyne. A prototype modulator consisting of an in-phase and quadrature (I-Q) modulator and monolithically integrated polarization beam splitters generated modulated signals and polarization-multiplexed pilot-carriers simultaneously. Self-homodyne detection using the pilot-carrier was resilient to phase noise and self-phase modulation, and the constellation was obtained in real time without digital signal processing. A low-polarization-dependent (Pb,La)(Zr,La)O(3) (PLZT) optical switch in the optical packet switch handled both 16-QAM optical packets and the polarization multiplexed pilot-carrier. Even after packet switching, a clear constellation diagram was obtained, and error-free operation was confirmed in real-time using a packet bit-error rate tester (BERT).

  8. Demonstration of reconfigurable optical generation of higher-order modulation formats up to 64 QAM using optical nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Khaleghi, Salman; Bakhtiari, Zahra; Ziyadi, Morteza; Gerstel, Ori; Paraschis, Loukas; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a reconfigurable optical transmitter of higher-order modulation formats including pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) signals and quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) signals. We generated six different modulation formats by multiplexing 10 Gbit/s on-off-keying (OOK) signals (10 Gbaud binary phase-shift keying, 4-PAM, 8-PAM quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 16-QAM and 16-star-QAM with error-vector magnitudes (EVMs) of 8.1%, 7.5%, 7.8%, 8.2%, 7.2%, and 6.9%, respectively) and 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM with an EVM of 8.5%, as well as 120 Gbit/s 64-QAM with an EVM of 7.1%, using two or three 40 Gbit/s QPSK signals, respectively. We also successfully transmitted the generated 16-QAM signals through a 100 km transmission line with negligible power penalty.

  9. Numerical calculation of mean intensity and radiative flux in plane-parallel stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nariai, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    The four-point Gaussian-quadrature formulas of Kegel (1962) for the evaluation of the intensity and flux (F) integrals is improved by using Bessel's interpolation technique and by subdividing the integral range. Steps in the analysis include the calculation of the Gaussian points of division and weightings for the interval (y, z), for a small (y, z), and for (O, z); determination of the precision of n-point formulas in calculating intensity and F; and the derivation of a four-point version of the two-point quadrature method of Cayrel (1960) and Norton (Mihalas, 1967). The numerical results are presented and compared with those of other models. The gray-model delta-F/F ratio calculated by this method is found to be less than 0.01 percent.

  10. On Accuracy Order of Fourier Coefficients Computation for Periodic Signal Processing Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korytov, I. V.; Golosov, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    The article is devoted to construction piecewise constant functions for modelling periodic signal. The aim of the paper is to suggest a way to avoid discontinuity at points where waveform values are obtained. One solution is to introduce shifted step function whose middle points within its partial intervals coincide with points of observation. This means that large oscillations of Fourier partial sums move to new jump discontinuities where waveform values are not obtained. Furthermore, any step function chosen to model periodic continuous waveform determines a way to calculate Fourier coefficients. In this case, the technique is certainly a weighted rectangular quadrature rule. Here, the weight is either unit or trigonometric. Another effect of the solution consists in following. The shifted function leads to application midpoint quadrature rules for computing Fourier coefficients. As a result the formula for zero coefficient transforms into trapezoid rule. In the same time, the formulas for other coefficients remain of rectangular type.

  11. High-sensitivity fiber optic acoustic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ping; Liu, Deming; Liao, Hao

    2016-11-01

    Due to the overwhelming advantages compared with traditional electronicsensors, fiber-optic acoustic sensors have arisen enormous interest in multiple disciplines. In this paper we present the recent research achievements of our group on fiber-optic acoustic sensors. The main point of our research is high sensitivity interferometric acoustic sensors, including Michelson, Sagnac, and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In addition, some advanced technologies have been proposed for acoustic or acoustic pressure sensing such as single-mode/multimode fiber coupler, dual FBGs and multi-longitudinal mode fiber laser based acoustic sensors. Moreover, our attention we have also been paid on signal demodulation schemes. The intensity-based quadrature point (Q-point) demodulation, two-wavelength quadrature demodulation and symmetric 3×3 coupler methodare discussed and compared in this paper.

  12. 50 Gbit/s real-time test environment for integrated photonic DQPSK receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föhn, T.; Fischer, C.; Berroth, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper an FPGA-based test system for high-speed transmission experiments with integrated photonic receivers is presented. Pseudorandom binary sequences are generated inside the FPGA and encoded as either differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) or quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signals. The DQPSK encoder uses a 64-fold parallel-prefix-layers architecture for real-time operation which allows for a maximum internal encoder data rate of 64 Gbit/s. Two-fold parallel data streams of I and Q signals suitable for driving an optical IQ-modulator can be transmitted and received by four 12.5 Gbit/s transceivers. Integrated bit error testers are used to determine bit error rates in real-time.

  13. Two-color continuous-variable quantum entanglement in a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuozzo, Domenico; Oppo, Gian-Luca

    2011-10-15

    We apply the input-output theory of optical cavities to formulate a quantum treatment of a continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator. This case is mainly relevant to highly nondegenerate signal and idler modes. We show that both intensity and quadrature squeezing are present and that the maximum noise reduction below the standard quantum limit is the same at the signal and idler frequencies as in the doubly resonant case. As the threshold of oscillation is approached, however, the intensity-difference and quadrature spectra display a progressive line narrowing which is absent in the balanced doubly resonant case. By use of the separability criterion for continuous variables, the signal-idler state is found to be entangled over wide ranges of the parameters. We show that attainable levels of squeezing and entanglement make singly resonant configurations ideal candidates for two-color quantum information processes, because of their ease of tuning in experimental realizations.

  14. Multiple sensor estimation using a high-degree cubature information filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bin; Xin, Ming; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a high-degree cubature information filter (CIF) is proposed for multiple sensor estimation. Astatistical linear error propagation method incorporates the high-degree cubature integration rule into the extended information filtering (EIF) framework such that more accurate estimation can be achieved than the extended information filter as well as the unscented information filter (UIF). In addition, the high-degree CIF maintains close performance to the Gauss-Hermite Quadrature information filter (GHQIF) but uses significantly fewer quadrature points. As a result, the curse of dimensionality problem existing in the tensor product based GHQIF can be greatly alleviated. Besides the improved estimation accuracy and computational efficiency, the high-degree CIF also exhibits the desirable robustness under unknown noise statistics. The proposed CIF is compared with other information filters (e.g., EIF, UIF, GHQIF) via a target tracking problem and demonstrates the best performance.

  15. Free vibration analysis of a robotic fish based on a continuous and non-uniform flexible backbone with distributed masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coral, W.; Rossi, C.; Curet, O. M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a Differential Quadrature Element Method for free transverse vibration of a robotic fish based on a continuous and non-uniform flexible backbone with distributed masses (fish ribs). The proposed method is based on the theory of a Timoshenko cantilever beam. The effects of the masses (number, magnitude and position) on the value of natural frequencies are investigated. Governing equations, compatibility and boundary conditions are formulated according to the Differential Quadrature rules. The convergence, efficiency and accuracy are compared to other analytical solution proposed in the literature. Moreover, the proposed method has been validate against the physical prototype of a flexible fish backbone. The main advantages of this method, compared to the exact solutions available in the literature are twofold: first, smaller computational cost and second, it allows analysing the free vibration in beams whose section is an arbitrary function, which is normally difficult or even impossible with other analytical methods.

  16. A novel demodulator/detector for digital and analog signals on LMR channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1990-02-01

    The design, implementation, and performance of an all-digital demodulator/detector suitable for differentially encoded phase-shift keying (DPSK), continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK), frequency-shift keying (FSK), and analog FM are discussed. In this demodulator/detector, two detectors, one noncoherent and another differentially coherent, operate simultaneously to provide data detection and automatic frequency control (AFC). Test results indicate that the system provides improved performance over the conventional analog quadrature detector for two-period raised-cosine (2RC) CPFSK modulation in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading channels. Being all-digital, the demodulator/detector is well suited for integrated circuit implementation. In addition, the system performs as well as the analog quadrature detector for analog FM voice transmissions, thereby maintaining full compatibility with analog land mobile radio (LMR) transmissions.

  17. Cryptographie quantique à variables continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencheikh, K.; Jankovic, A.; Symul, T.; Levenson, J. A.

    2002-06-01

    Nous avons élaboré un protocole de cryptographie quantique qui permet de générer et de distribuer une clé secrète aléatoire. Le protocole repose sur l'utilisation de paires de champs électromagnétiques dont les quadratures présentent des corrélations quantiques de type Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen. Les fluctuations quantiques instantanése constituent les bits aléatoires de la clé secrète, et la dégradation irréversible des corrélations quantiques des quadratures causée par une tierce personne permet de la détecter et de garantir la sécurité d'échange.

  18. Unsteady two dimensional airloads acting on oscillating thin airfoils in subsonic ventilated wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromme, J.; Golberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The numerical calculation of unsteady two dimensional airloads which act upon thin airfoils in subsonic ventilated wind tunnels was studied. Neglecting certain quadrature errors, Bland's collocation method is rigorously proved to converge to the mathematically exact solution of Bland's integral equation, and a three way equivalence was established between collocation, Galerkin's method and least squares whenever the collocation points are chosen to be the nodes of the quadrature rule used for Galerkin's method. A computer program displayed convergence with respect to the number of pressure basis functions employed, and agreement with known special cases was demonstrated. Results are obtained for the combined effects of wind tunnel wall ventilation and wind tunnel depth to airfoil chord ratio, and for acoustic resonance between the airfoil and wind tunnel walls. A boundary condition is proposed for permeable walls through which mass flow rate is proportional to pressure jump.

  19. Nonclassical properties of odd and even elliptical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueyuan; Liao, Qinghong; Liu, Zhengjun; Wang, Jicheng; Liu, Shutian

    2011-01-01

    As a generalization of the optical circular states, elliptical states which are quantum superposition of coherent states on an ellipse in the α plane are constructed. The statistical properties of the states are investigated by using sub-Poissonian photon statistics, quadrature squeezing, Wigner function and phase distribution. It is shown that the elliptical states exhibit stronger quadrature squeezing. The interference fringes between the coherent states form the elliptic annuli of Fock states in the Wigner function picture. The phase distribution is no longer uniform as the circular states. An experimental scheme is proposed for generating equidistant coherent-state superpositions on an ellipse for the motion of the center of mass of a trapped ion.

  20. New canonic lossy inductor using a single CDBA and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, J. K.; Singh, A. K.; Senani, R.

    2016-01-01

    A new lossy inductor (parallel R-L type) using single current differencing buffered amplifier (CDBA) is presented, which employs only two resistors and a grounded capacitor. The proposed lossy inductor is shown to be useful in realizing an oscillator circuit, which provides quadrature voltage outputs using only two CDBAs, three resistors and two grounded capacitors and offers independent control on condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation up to a frequency of 61 MHz. Detailed non-ideal analysis including single-pole model for voltage and current gain has also been carried out. SPICE simulation results and experimental results based upon the CDBA constructed from commercially available IC AD844 have been included which confirm the practical workability of the proposed lossy inductor and quadrature oscillator circuit.