Sample records for quadriceps strengthening exercises

  1. A new isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise using EMG-biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Sarman, Hakan; Baran, Tuncay; Memisoglu, Kaya; Binbir, Ismail; Savas, Yilmaz; Isik, Cengiz; Boyraz, Ismail; Koc, Bunyamin

    2014-01-01

    A new isometric contraction quadriceps-strengthening exercise was developed to restore the quadriceps strength lost after knee surgery more rapidly. This study evaluated the results of this new method. Patients were taught to perform the isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise in the unaffected knee in the supine position, and then they performed it in the affected knee. First, patients were taught the classical isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise, and then they were taught our new alternative method: "pull the patella superiorly tightly and hold the leg in the same position for 10 seconds". Afterward, the quadriceps contraction was evaluated using a non-invasive Myomed 932 EMG-biofeedback device (Enraf-Nonius, The Netherlands) with gel-containing 48 mm electrodes (Türklab, The Turkey) placed on both knees. The isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise performed using our new method had stronger contraction than the classical method (P < 0.01). The new method involving pulling the patella superiorly appears to be a better choice, which can be applied easily, leading to better patient compliance and greater quadriceps force after arthroscopic and other knee surgeries.

  2. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

  3. Posterolateral hip muscle strengthening versus quadriceps strengthening for patellofemoral pain: a comparative control trial.

    PubMed

    Khayambashi, Khalil; Fallah, Alireza; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Bagwell, Jennifer; Powers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of posterolateral hip muscle strengthening versus quadriceps strengthening in reducing pain and improving health status in persons with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Comparative control trial. Rehabilitation facility. Persons with a diagnosis of PFP (N=36; 18 men, 18 women). Patients were alternately assigned to a posterolateral hip muscle strengthening group (9 men and 9 women) or a quadriceps strengthening group (9 men and 9 women). The posterolateral hip muscle strengthening group performed hip abductor and external rotator strengthening exercises, whereas the quadriceps strengthening group performed quadriceps strengthening exercises (3 times a week for 8wk). Pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and health status (Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]) were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Significant improvements in VAS and WOMAC scores were observed in both groups from baseline to postintervention and baseline to 6-month follow-up (P<.001). Improvements in VAS and WOMAC scores in the posterolateral hip exercise group were superior to those in the quadriceps exercise group postintervention and at 6-month follow-up (P<.05). Although both intervention programs resulted in decreased pain and improved function in persons with PFP, outcomes in the posterolateral hip exercise group were superior to the quadriceps exercise group. The superior outcomes obtained in the posterolateral hip exercise group were maintained 6 months postintervention. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of physical therapist-guided quadriceps-strengthening exercises for the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kooiker, Laura; Van De Port, Ingrid G L; Weir, Adam; Moen, Maarten H

    2014-06-01

    Systematic literature review. To summarize the evidence for physical therapist-guided quadriceps-strengthening exercises as a treatment for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although quadriceps strengthening is often included in the plan of care for patellofemoral pain syndrome, a systematic review published in 2003 found only limited evidence that exercise was more effective than no exercise for this common condition. The PubMed, Embase/MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, from inception to January 9, 2014, were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing the use of quadriceps-strengthening exercises to interventions consisting of advice/information or a placebo. Outcomes of interest were pain measures and function, as measured with self-report questionnaires. The methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Results were summarized using a best-evidence synthesis and graphically illustrated using forest plots without meta-analysis. Seven studies were included in the literature review. These studies reported strong evidence that isolated quadriceps strengthening is more effective in reducing pain and improving function than advice and information alone. In addition, compared to advice and information or placebo, there was strong evidence that quadriceps-strengthening exercises combined with other interventions may be more effective in reducing pain immediately postintervention and after 12 months, but not in improving function. The literature provides strong evidence for the use of quadriceps-strengthening exercises, with or without other interventions, for the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  5. Quadriceps combined with hip abductor strengthening versus quadriceps strengthening in treating knee osteoarthritis: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujie; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Juan; Xu, Lili; Pang, Guoyin; Tang, Haiyan; Chen, Ruyan; Yu, Jihua; Guo, Shengmin; Xu, Fangyuan; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-15

    Lower limb strengthening, especially the quadriceps training, is of much necessity for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Previous studies suggest that strengthening of the hip muscles, especially the hip abductor, can potentially relieve the KOA-associated symptoms. Nevertheless, the effects of quadriceps combined with hip abductor strengthening remain unclear. Therefore, the current randomized controlled trial is designed aiming to observe whether quadriceps in combination with hip abductor strengthening can better improve the function and reduce pain in KOA patients than quadriceps training alone. A total of 80 subjects with symptomatic KOA will be recruited from the communities and hospital outpatient, and will be randomly assigned to the experiment group (Quadriceps-plus-hip-abductor-strengthening) or the control group (Quadriceps-strengthening). Specifically, participants in the experiment group will complete 4 exercises to train the quadriceps and hip abductor twice a day for 6 weeks at home, while those in the control group will only perform 2 exercises to strengthen the quadriceps. Besides, all patients will also receive usual care management, including health education and physical agent therapy when necessary. Knee pain will be measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline, in every week during the course of treatment, as well as 8 and 12 weeks after randomization. Furthermore, knee function will be measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scale, and the quality of life will be measured using the MOS Item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). In this study, several simple tests will be applied to assess the objective function. All the assessments except for VAS will be carried out at baseline, and in the 6th, 8th and 12th weeks respectively. Our findings will provide more evidence for the effects of hip abductor strengthening on relieving pain and improving function in KOA patients. Hip

  6. Comparative study of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening treatments in the management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohesn; Alanezi, Aqeel M

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50-65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  7. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim L; Egerton, Thorlene; Wrigley, Tim V; Hodges, Paul W; Hunt, Michael; Roos, Ewa M; Kyriakides, Mary; Metcalf, Ben; Forbes, Andrew; Ageberg, Eva; Hinman, Rana S

    2011-12-05

    Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function measured at baseline and

  8. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function

  9. Knee flexion with quadriceps cocontraction: A new therapeutic exercise for the early stage of ACL rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Contemori, Samuele; Busti, Daniele; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2016-12-08

    Quadriceps strengthening exercises designed for the early phase of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation should limit the anterior tibial translation developed by quadriceps contraction near full knee extension, in order to avoid excessive strain on the healing tissue. We hypothesize that knee-flexion exercises with simultaneous voluntary contraction of quadriceps (voluntary quadriceps cocontraction) can yield considerable levels of quadriceps activation while preventing the tibia from translating forward relative to the femur. Electromyographic activity in quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured in 20 healthy males during isometric knee-flexion exercises executed near full knee extension with maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction and external resistance (R) ranging from 0% to 60% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Biomechanical modeling was applied to derive the shear (anterior/posterior) tibiofemoral force developed in each exercise condition. Isometric knee-flexion exercises with small external resistance (R=10% 1RM) and maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction yielded a net posterior (ACL-unloading) tibial pull (P=0.005) and levels of activation of 32%, 50%, and 45% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction, for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis, respectively. This exercise might potentially rank as one of the most appropriate quadriceps strengthening interventions in the early phase of ACL rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuromuscular versus quadriceps strengthening exercise in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim L; Kyriakides, Mary; Metcalf, Ben; Egerton, Thorlene; Wrigley, Tim V; Hodges, Paul W; Hunt, Michael A; Roos, Ewa M; Forbes, Andrew; Ageberg, Eva; Hinman, Rana S

    2014-04-01

    To compare the effects of neuromuscular exercise (NEXA) and quadriceps strengthening (QS) on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral distribution of knee load), pain, and physical function in patients with medial knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment. One hundred patients with medial knee pain, mostly moderate-to-severe radiographic medial knee OA, and varus malalignment were randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs. Each program involved 14 individually supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus a home exercise component. Primary outcomes were peak external knee adduction moment (3-dimensional gait analysis), pain (visual analog scale), and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index). Eighty-two patients (38 [76%] of 50 in the NEXA group and 44 [88%] of 50 in the QS group) completed the trial. There was no significant between-group difference in the change in the peak knee adduction moment (mean difference 0.13 Nm/[body weight × height]% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.08, 0.33]), pain (mean difference 2.4 mm [95% CI -6.0, 10.8]), or physical function (mean difference -0.8 units [95% CI -4.0, 2.4]). Neither group showed a change in knee moments following exercise, whereas both groups showed similar significant reductions in pain and improvement in physical function. Although comparable improvements in clinical outcomes were observed with both neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in patients with moderate varus malalignment and mostly moderate-to-severe medial knee OA, these forms of exercise did not affect the knee adduction moment, a key predictor of structural disease progression. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Kinesiotape and quadriceps strengthening with elastic band in women with knee osteoarthritis and overweight or obesity. A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    León-Ballesteros, Saúl; Espinosa-Morales, Rolando; Clark-Peralta, Patricia; Gómez-Pineda, Ascención Guadalupe; Guadarrama-Becerril, Jaime Horacio

    2018-04-07

    The beneficial effects of exercise in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee have been verified in several studies. Kinesiotaping (KT) has been popularized due to its reducing local pressure and increasing circulation, resulting in decreased pain. Determine the clinical effectiveness of strengthening therapy with KT in women with knee OA for pain reduction. Thirty two women with knee OA, aged 50-70 years, with overweight or obesity grade I, who were randomized into two groups: one with exercise and KT, and the other, with exercise and placebo technique. Both groups performed stretching and quadriceps strengthening exercise with the elastic band 3 days weekly for 6 weeks. Measurement of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale was taken as primary outcome. Stiffness and functionality of the same index and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain intensity were measured. At the end of the study, there were no significant differences between the groups. Both groups had a difference of 2.7 points with respect to the baseline measurement, change percentage of 32.2% and 31.1% for placebo and experimental respectively (p=0.2). KT plus quadriceps strengthening exercise does not offer advantages for improvement of pain compared with quadriceps strengthening exercise alone in knee OA. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Espaola de Reumatologa y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatologa. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Addition of transcranial direct current stimulation to quadriceps strengthening exercise in knee osteoarthritis: A pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Ju; Bennell, Kim L.; Hodges, Paul W.; Hinman, Rana S.; Young, Carolyn L.; Buscemi, Valentina; Liston, Matthew B.

    2017-01-01

    A randomised, assessor- and participant-blind, sham-controlled trial was conducted to assess the safety and feasibility of adding transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to quadriceps strengthening exercise in knee osteoarthritis (OA), and provide data to inform a fully powered trial. Participants were randomised to receive active tDCS+exercise (AT+EX) or sham tDCS+exercise (ST+EX) twice weekly for 8 weeks whilst completing home exercises twice per week. Feasibility, safety, patient-perceived response, pain, function, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were assessed before and after treatment. Fifty-seven people were screened for eligibility. Thirty (52%) entered randomisation and 25 (84%) completed the trial. One episode of headache in the AT+EX group was reported. Pain reduced in both groups following treatment (AT+EX: p<0.001, partial η2 = 0.55; ST+EX: p = 0.026, partial η2 = 0.18) but no between-group differences were observed (p = 0.18, partial η2 = 0.08). Function improved in the AT+EX (p = 0.01, partial η2 = 0.22), but not the ST+EX (p = 0.16, partial η2 = 0.08) group, between-group differences did not reach significance (p = 0.28, partial η2 = 0.052). AT+EX produced greater improvements in PPTs than ST+EX (p<0.05) (superolateral knee: partial η2 = 0.17; superior knee: partial η2 = 0.3; superomedial knee: partial η2 = 0.26). CPM only improved in the AT+EX group but no between-group difference was observed (p = 0.054, partial η2 = 0.158). This study provides the first feasibility and safety data for the addition of tDCS to quadriceps strengthening exercise in knee OA. Our data suggest AT+EX may improve pain, function and pain mechanisms beyond that of ST+EX, and provides support for progression to a fully powered randomised controlled trial. PMID:28665989

  13. Quadriceps strengthening with and without blood flow restriction in the treatment of patellofemoral pain: a double-blind randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Giles, Lachlan; Webster, Kate E; McClelland, Jodie; Cook, Jill L

    2017-12-01

    Quadriceps strengthening exercises are part of the treatment of patellofemoral pain (PFP), but the heavy resistance exercises may aggravate knee pain. Blood flow restriction (BFR) training may provide a low-load quadriceps strengthening method to treat PFP. Seventy-nine participants were randomly allocated to a standardised quadriceps strengthening (standard) or low-load BFR. Both groups performed 8 weeks of leg press and leg extension, the standard group at 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and the BFR group at 30% of 1RM. Interventions were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance for Kujala Patellofemoral Score, Visual Analogue Scale for 'worst pain' and 'pain with daily activity', isometric knee extensor torque (Newton metre) and quadriceps muscle thickness (cm). Subgroup analyses were performed on those participants with painful resisted knee extension at 60°. Sixty-nine participants (87%) completed the study (standard, n=34; BFR, n=35). The BFR group had a 93% greater reduction in pain with activities of daily living (p=0.02) than the standard group. Participants with painful resisted knee extension (n=39) had greater increases in knee extensor torque with BFR than standard (p<0.01). No between-group differences were found for change in Kujala Patellofemoral Score (p=0.31), worst pain (p=0.24), knee extensor torque (p=0.07) or quadriceps thickness (p=0.2). No difference was found between interventions at 6 months. Compared with standard quadriceps strengthening, low load with BFR produced greater reduction in pain with daily living at 8 weeks in people with PFP. Improvements were similar between groups in worst pain and Kujala score. The subgroup with painful resisted knee extension had larger improvements in quadriceps strength from BFR. 12614001164684. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Contribution of hamstring fatigue to quadriceps inhibition following lumbar extension exercise.

    PubMed

    Hart, Joseph M; Kerrigan, D Casey; Fritz, Julie M; Saliba, Ethan N; Gansneder, Bruce; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of hamstrings and quadriceps fatigue to quadriceps inhibition following lumbar extension exercise. Regression models were calculated consisting of the outcome variable: quadriceps inhibition and predictor variables: change in EMG median frequency in the quadriceps and hamstrings during lumbar fatiguing exercise. Twenty-five subjects with a history of low back pain were matched by gender, height and mass to 25 healthy controls. Subjects performed two sets of fatiguing isometric lumbar extension exercise until mild (set 1) and moderate (set 2) fatigue of the lumbar paraspinals. Quadriceps and hamstring EMG median frequency were measured while subjects performed fatiguing exercise. A burst of electrical stimuli was superimposed while subjects performed an isometric maximal quadriceps contraction to estimate quadriceps inhibition after each exercise set. Results indicate the change in hamstring median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the exercise sets in the history of low back pain group only. Change in quadriceps median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the first exercise set in the control group only. In conclusion, persons with a history of low back pain whose quadriceps become inhibited following lumbar paraspinal exercise may be adapting to the fatigue by using their hamstring muscles more than controls. Key PointsA neuromuscular relationship between the lumbar paraspinals and quadriceps while performing lumbar extension exercise may be influenced by hamstring muscle fatigue.QI following lumbar extension exercise in persons with a history of LBP group may involve significant contribution from the hamstring muscle group.More hamstring muscle contribution may be a necessary adaptation in the history of LBP group due to weaker and more fatigable lumbar extensors.

  15. Predictors of treatment response to strengthening and stretching exercises for patellofemoral pain: An examination of patellar alignment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsien-Te; Song, Chen-Yi

    2015-12-01

    Closed kinetic chain and quadriceps strengthening, combined with flexibility exercises of the lower limb musculature, is a common treatment for patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The effectiveness has been well documented; however, very little is known about which factors predict treatment success. A total of 43 female subjects with PFPS participated in an eight-week progressive leg press (LP) strengthening and stretching exercise program. A decrease of 1.5 cm on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) score was used as an indicator for treatment success. The baseline patellar tilt angle difference (PTA-d) due to quadriceps contraction prior to treatment was evaluated as a predictor of treatment success. The logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis were performed to investigate the predictive value of PTA-d. PTA-d could significantly predict the treatment success of LP strengthening and stretching exercises. The odds ratio (OR) for having an unsuccessful outcome was 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.39, P<0.021) per degree increment of PTA-d. The most optimal cut-off value for the clinical discrimination of treatment success after LP strengthening and stretching exercise was -1.5° of PTA-d (sensitivity=0.74, specificity=0.71). The area under the ROC curve was 0.73 (standard error=0.08). Female patients with PFPS whose quadriceps contraction reduced the lateral patellar tilt prior to LP strengthening and stretching exercise treatment are more likely to experience pain relief. It seems clinically important to check dynamic patellar tilt characteristics before treatment to aid in clinical decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of home exercise of quadriceps on knee osteoarthritis compared with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Doi, Tokuhide; Akai, Masami; Fujino, Keiji; Iwaya, Tsutomu; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Marui, Eiji

    2008-04-01

    To examine the effect of home-based exercise on knee osteoarthritis among Japanese in comparison with that of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). An open-labeled, randomized, controlled, multiclinic trial compared home-based quadriceps exercise with NSAIDs. Treatments were basically evaluated after 8 wks and compared with the baseline scores. Outcomes were evaluated with a set of psychometric measurements including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM), and pain with the visual analog scale. A total of 142 patients entered this trial to provide the baseline data. After 21 cases withdrew, the final number analyzed was 121 cases: 63 for the exercise group and 58 for the NSAIDs group. Between these two groups, there was no significant difference in gender, age, body height and weight, body mass index, or each score at baseline. The subjects in both groups showed improvements in all scores at the end of intervention. The difference in improvement rate of each score between the two groups was not statistically significant, though the mean rank score measured with JKOM in the exercise was slightly better than that of the NSAIDs. Home-based exercise using quadriceps strengthening improves knee osteoarthritis no less than NSAIDs.

  17. Quadriceps oxygenation during isometric exercise in sailing.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, I; Tzineris, D; Athanasopoulos, D; Georgiadou, O; Geladas, N

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate why blood lactate after prolonged quadriceps contraction during hiking is only marginally increased. Eight sailors performed five 3-min hiking bouts interspersed with 5-s recovery periods. Whole body oxygen uptake, heart rate and lactate were recorded, along with continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy measures of quadriceps oxygenation. The time for 50% re-oxygenation was also assessed as an indication of the degree of localized oxygen delivery stress. Hiking elicited a significant (p = 0.001) increase in mean (+/- SD) heart rate (124 +/- 10 beats . min (-1)) which was accompanied by a disproportionately low oxygen uptake (12 +/- 2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Lactate was significantly (p = 0.001) increased throughout hiking manoeuvres, though post-exercise it remained low (3.2 +/- 0.9 mmol.l(-1)). During the hiking bouts mean quadriceps oxygenation was significantly (p = 0.001) reduced compared to baseline (by 33 +/- 5%), indicating an imbalance between muscle oxygen accessibility and oxygen demand. During rest intervals quadriceps oxygenation was partially restored. After the end of the final bout the time for 50 % re-oxygenation was only 8 +/- 2 s, whereas recovery of quadriceps oxygenation and oxygen uptake was completed within 3 min. We conclude that the observed low lactate could be attributed to the small oxygen and energy deficits during hiking as the muscles' oxygen accessibility is presumably partially restored during the brief rest intervals.

  18. Is hip strengthening the best treatment option for females with patellofemoral pain? A randomized controlled trial of three different types of exercises.

    PubMed

    Saad, Marcelo Camargo; Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes de; Mancinelli, Letícia Villani de Oliveira; Munno, Matheus Soares de Barros; Liporaci, Rogério Ferreira; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua

    2018-04-04

    To evaluate the effect of three types of exercise intervention in patients with patellofemoral pain and to verify the contributions of each intervention to pain control, function, and lower extremity kinematics. A randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted. Forty women with patellofemoral pain were randomly allocated into four groups: hip exercises, quadriceps exercises, stretching exercises and a control group (no intervention). Pain (using a visual analog scale), function (using the Anterior Knee Pain Scale), hip and quadriceps strength (using a handheld isometric dynamometer) and measuring lower limb kinematics during step up and down activities were evaluated at baseline and 8 weeks post intervention. All treatment groups showed significant improvements on pain and Anterior Knee Pain Scale after intervention with no statistically significant differences between groups except when compared to the control group. Only hip and quadriceps groups demonstrated improvements in muscle strength and knee valgus angle during the step activities. Hip strengthening exercises were not more effective for pain relief and function compared to quadriceps or stretching exercises in females with patellofemoral pain. Only hip and quadriceps groups were able to decrease the incidence of dynamic valgus during step-down activity. This study was approved by Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry registration number: RBR-6tc7mj (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-6tc7mj/). Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise-induced quadriceps muscle fatigue in men and women: effects of arterial oxygen content and respiratory muscle work.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Griesdale, Donald E G; Peters, Carli M; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Sekhon, Mypinder; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Foster, Glen E; Romer, Lee M; Koehle, Michael S; Sheel, A William

    2017-08-01

    High work of breathing and exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) can decrease O 2 delivery and exacerbate exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue in healthy men. Women have a higher work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles and develop EIAH. Despite a greater reduction in men's work of breathing, the attenuation of quadriceps fatigue was similar between the sexes. The degree of EIAH was similar between sexes, and regardless of sex, those who developed the greatest hypoxaemia during exercise demonstrated the most attenuation of quadriceps fatigue. Based on our previous finding that women have a greater relative oxygen cost of breathing, women appear to be especially susceptible to work of breathing-related changes in quadriceps muscle fatigue. Reducing the work of breathing or eliminating exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) during exercise decreases the severity of quadriceps fatigue in men. Women have a greater work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles, and demonstrate EIAH, suggesting women may be especially susceptible to quadriceps fatigue. Healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) completed three constant load exercise tests over 4 days. During the first (control) test, subjects exercised at ∼85% of maximum while arterial blood gases and work of breathing were assessed. Subsequent constant load exercise tests were iso-time and iso-work rate, but with EIAH prevented by inspiring hyperoxic gas or work of breathing reduced via a proportional assist ventilator (PAV). Quadriceps fatigue was assessed by measuring force in response to femoral nerve stimulation. For both sexes, quadriceps force was equally reduced after the control trial (-27 ± 2% baseline) and was attenuated with hyperoxia and PAV (-18 ± 1 and -17 ± 2% baseline, P < 0.01, respectively), with no sex difference. EIAH was similar between

  20. Effect of a lateral step-up exercise protocol on quadriceps and lower extremity performance.

    PubMed

    Worrell, T W; Borchert, B; Erner, K; Fritz, J; Leerar, P

    1993-12-01

    Closed kinetic chain exercises have been promoted as more functional and more appropriate than open kinetic chain exercises. Limited research exists demonstrating the effect of closed kinetic chain exercise on quadriceps and lower extremity performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a lateral step-up exercise protocol on isokinetic quadriceps peak torque and the following lower extremity activities: 1) leg press, 2) maximal step-up repetitions with body weight plus 25%, 3) hop for distance, and 4) 6-m timed hop. Twenty subjects participated in a 4-week training period, and 18 subjects served as controls. For the experimental group, a repeated measure ANOVA comparing pretest and posttest values revealed significant improvements in the leg press (p < or = .05), step-ups (p < or = .05), hop for distance (p < or = .05), and hop for time (p < or = .05) and no significant increase in isokinetic quadriceps peak torque (p > or = .05). Over the course of the training period, weight used for the step-up exercise increased (p < or = .05), repetitions decreased (p < or = .05), and step-up work did not change (p > or = .05). For the control group, no significant change (p > or = .05) occurred in any variable. The inability of the isokinetic dynamometer to detect increases in quadriceps performance is important because the isokinetic values are frequently used as criteria for return to functional activities. We conclude that closed kinetic chain testing and exercise provide additional means to assess and rehabilitate the lower extremity.

  1. Does the Addition of Hip Strengthening to a Knee-Focused Exercise Program Improve Outcomes in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Ben A; Durall, Chris J

    2015-11-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common disorders affecting the lower extremities. To improve function and decrease pain, affected individuals often undergo a guided rehabilitation program. Traditional programs have concentrated on quadriceps strengthening and other knee-focused exercises, but recent literature suggests that adding hip-muscle strengthening may improve outcomes. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which current evidence supports the addition of hip-muscle strengthening to a knee-focused strengthening and stretching program in the treatment of PFPS. Focused Clinical Question: Does the addition of hip-muscle strengthening to a knee-focused strengthening and stretching program improve outcomes in patients with PFPS?

  2. Effect of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40-65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (p<0.05). [Conclusion] The 5-week isometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  3. Effect of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia on quadriceps muscle fatigue in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Romer, Lee M; Haverkamp, Hans C; Lovering, Andrew T; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2006-02-01

    The effect of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) on quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed in 11 male endurance-trained subjects [peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak) = 56.4 +/- 2.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean +/- SE]. Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer at >or=90% VO2 peak) to exhaustion (13.2 +/- 0.8 min), during which time arterial O2 saturation (Sa(O2)) fell from 97.7 +/- 0.1% at rest to 91.9 +/- 0.9% (range 84-94%) at end exercise, primarily because of changes in blood pH (7.183 +/- 0.017) and body temperature (38.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C). On a separate occasion, subjects repeated the exercise, for the same duration and at the same power output as before, but breathed gas mixtures [inspired O2 fraction (Fi(O2)) = 0.25-0.31] that prevented EIAH (Sa(O2) = 97-99%). Quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed via supramaximal paired magnetic stimuli of the femoral nerve (1-100 Hz). Immediately after exercise at Fi(O2) 0.21, the mean force response across 1-100 Hz decreased 33 +/- 5% compared with only 15 +/- 5% when EIAH was prevented (P < 0.05). In a subgroup of four less fit subjects, who showed minimal EIAH at Fi(O2) 0.21 (Sa(O2) = 95.3 +/- 0.7%), the decrease in evoked force was exacerbated by 35% (P < 0.05) in response to further desaturation induced via Fi(O2) 0.17 (Sa(O2) = 87.8 +/- 0.5%) for the same duration and intensity of exercise. We conclude that the arterial O2 desaturation that occurs in fit subjects during high-intensity exercise in normoxia (-6 +/- 1% DeltaSa(O2) from rest) contributes significantly toward quadriceps muscle fatigue via a peripheral mechanism.

  4. Impact of exercise on the functional capacity and pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aline Mizusaki Imoto de; Peccin, Maria Stella; Silva, Kelson Nonato Gomes da; Teixeira, Lucas Emmanuel Pedro de Paiva; Trevisani, Virgínia Fernandes Moça

    2012-12-01

    Muscle weakness, especially of the quadriceps muscle, is one of the major musculoskeletal effects of knee osteoarthritis. Exercises are considered one of the main interventions in the conservative treatment of those patients. To assess the effectiveness of quadriceps strengthening exercises on functional capacity and symptoms related of knee osteoarthritis by use of the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Lequesne Index. One hundred patients were randomized into two groups: 1) Exercise Group (n = 50), which included stationary bicycle, hamstrings stretching, and quadriceps strengthening; 2) Instruction Group (n = 50), which received a manual with information about knee osteoarthritis and instructions on how to deal with knee symptoms in daily activities. The manual did not include exercise instructions. The Exercise Group showed statistically significant improvement regarding the TUG test, the WOMAC aspects of pain, function, and stiffness, and the Lequesne Index, as compared with the Instruction Group. Quadriceps strengthening exercises for eight weeks are effective to improve pain, function, and stiffness in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  5. Does the addition of hip strengthening exercises improve outcomes following total knee arthroplasty? A study protocol for a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Schache, Margaret B; McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E

    2016-06-13

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is effective in reducing pain and improving function for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. However, muscle weakness and functional limitations persist despite assistance from post-operative rehabilitation programs that traditionally focus on quadriceps strengthening and range of movement exercises. Hip abductor muscle weakness is evident in knee osteoarthritis and hip muscle strengthening reduces knee pain in this group. Following TKA, people with weak hip abductor strength perform more poorly on measures of physical function. However, very little is known of the effectiveness of including hip abductor strengthening exercises in post-operative rehabilitation. The aim of this trial is to compare the effects of targeted hip abductor strengthening to those of traditional care in a TKA rehabilitation program on muscle strength, patient reported outcomes and functional performance measures. This protocol describes a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, where 104 participants referred for inpatient rehabilitation following TKA will be recruited. Participants will be randomized using computer-generated numbers to one of two groups: usual care or usual care with additional hip strengthening exercises. Participants will attend physiotherapy daily during their inpatient length of stay, and will then attend between six and eight physiotherapy sessions as an outpatient. Primary outcomes are isometric hip abductor strength and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Secondary outcomes are stair climb test, 6 min walk test, timed up and go, 40 m fast-paced walk test, 30 second chair stand test, isometric quadriceps strength, Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and SF-12. Outcome measures will be recorded at baseline (admission to inpatient rehabilitation), and then 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 6 months post admission to rehabilitation. The findings of this study will determine whether the addition of targeted hip strengthening

  6. Quadriceps muscle function after exercise in men and women with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kuenze, Christopher M; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in lower extremity neuromuscular function have been reported after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Research evidence supports different levels of fatigability in men and women and between patients with ACLR and healthy controls. The influence of sex on the response to continuous exercise in patients with ACLR is not clear. To compare quadriceps neuromuscular function after exercise between men and women with ACLR. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. Twenty-six active volunteers (13 men [50%]: age = 24.1 ± 4.4 years, height = 179.1 ± 9.8 cm, mass = 80.1 ± 9.4 kg, months since surgery = 43.5 ± 37.0; 13 women [50%]: age = 24.2 ± 5.6 years, height = 163.0 ± 5.9 cm, mass = 62.3 ± 8.3 kg, months since surgery = 45.8 ± 42.7) with a history of unilateral primary ACLR at least 6 months earlier. Thirty minutes of continuous exercise comprising 5 separate 6-minute cycles, including 5 minutes of uphill walking and 1 minute of body-weight squatting and step-ups. Normalized knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, quadriceps superimposed-burst torque, and quadriceps central activation ratio before and after exercise. We performed separate 2 (sex: men, women) × 2 (time: preexercise, postexercise) repeated-measures analyses of variance for the 3 variables. Separate, independent-samples t tests were calculated to compare preexercise with postexercise change in all dependent variables between sexes. A significant group-by-time interaction was present for knee-extension torque (P = .04). The percentage reduction in knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (men = 1.94%, women = -10.32%; P = .02) and quadriceps central activation ratio (men = -1.45%, women = -8.69%; P = .03) experienced by men was less than that observed in women. In the presence of quadriceps dysfunction, female participants experienced greater-magnitude reductions in quadriceps function after 30 minutes of exercise than male

  7. Changes in transverse relaxation time of quadriceps femoris muscles after active recovery exercises with different intensities.

    PubMed

    Mukaimoto, Takahiro; Semba, Syun; Inoue, Yosuke; Ohno, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in the metabolic state of quadriceps femoris muscles using transverse relaxation time (T2), measured by muscle functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, after inactive or active recovery exercises with different intensities following high-intensity knee-extension exercise. Eight healthy men performed recovery sessions with four different conditions for 20 min after high-intensity knee-extension exercise on separate days. During the recovery session, the participants conducted a light cycle exercise for 20 min using a cycle (50%, 70% and 100% of the lactate threshold (LT), respectively: active recovery), and inactive recovery. The MR images of quadriceps femoris muscles were taken before the trial and after the recovery session every 30 min for 120 min. The percentage changes in T2 for the rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles after the recovery session in 50% LT and 70% LT were significantly lower than those in either inactive recovery or 100% LT. There were no significant differences in those for vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles among the four trials. The percentage changes in T2 of rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles after the recovery session in 50% LT and 70% LT decreased to the values before the trial faster than those in either inactive recovery or 100% LT. Those of vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles after the recovery session in 50% LT and 70% LT decreased to the values before the trial faster than those in 100% LT. Although the changes in T2 after active recovery exercises were not uniform in exercised muscles, the results of this study suggest that active recovery exercise with the intensities below LT are more effective to recover the metabolic state of quadriceps femoris muscles after intense exercise than with either intensity at LT or inactive recovery.

  8. Quadriceps muscle use in the flywheel and barbell squat.

    PubMed

    Norrbrand, Lena; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Vargas, Roberto; Tesch, Per A

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been proposed as an aid to counteract quadriceps muscle atrophy in astronauts during extended missions in orbit. While space authorities have advocated the squat exercise should be prescribed, no exercise system suitable for in-flight use has been validated with regard to quadriceps muscle use. We compared muscle involvement in the terrestrial "gold standard" squat using free weights and a nongravity dependent flywheel resistance exercise device designed for use in space. The subjects were 10 strength-trained men who performed 5 sets of 10 repetitions using the barbell squat (BS; 10 repetition maximum) or flywheel squat (FS; each repetition maximal), respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface electromyography (EMG) techniques assessed quadriceps muscle use. Exercise-induced contrast shift of MR images was measured by means of transverse relaxation time (T2). EMG root mean square (RMS) was measured during concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) actions and normalized to EMG RMS determined during maximal voluntary contraction. The quadriceps muscle group showed greater exercise-induced T2 increase following FS compared with BS. Among individual muscles, the rectus femoris displayed greater T2 increase with FS (+24 +/- 14%) than BS (+8 +/- 4%). Normalized quadriceps EMG showed no difference across exercise modes. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that quadriceps muscle use in the squat is comparable, if not greater, with flywheel compared with free weight resistance exercise. Data appear to provide support for use of flywheel squat resistance exercise as a countermeasures adjunct during spaceflight.

  9. Open versus closed kinetic chain exercises for patellar chondromalacia.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary, A H; Fatemi, E

    2008-02-01

    Conservative treatment of patellar chondromalacia has been the subject of several studies. One recommended treatment is a strengthening exercise of the quadriceps muscle, which may be performed in closed or open kinetic chains. This study was designed to compare the effect of straight leg raise (SLR) and semi-squat exercises on the treatment of patellar chondromalacia, which has not been done to date. 32 female university students with a diagnosis of patellar chondromalacia were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: SLR and semi-squat exercise. Before starting exercise protocols, Q angle, maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MIVCF) of quadriceps, crepitation, circumference of thigh 5 and 10 cm above the patella and patellofemoral pain according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed. Both groups then followed a 3-week programme of quadriceps muscle strengthening exercises (SLR or semi-squat) starting with 20 exercises twice a day and increasing each session by 5 exercises every 2 days. All measurements were repeated at the end of each week and then again 2 weeks after the 3-week exercise programme. Reduced Q angle (mean differences (SD) 0.8 (0.3), p = 0.016) and crepitation (19.9 (8.5), p = 0.04), and an increase in the MIVCF of the quadriceps (15.8 (5.6), p = 0.01) and thigh circumference (1.5 (0.3), p = 0.001) were found in semi-squat group compared with SLR group. However, patellofemoral pain was decreased significantly in both groups. The results of this study indicate that semi-squat exercises (closed kinetic chain) are more effective than SLR exercise (open kinetic chain) in the treatment of patellar chondromalacia. More studies are needed to investigate the long-term effect of these types of exercise.

  10. EXERCISES THAT FACILITATE OPTIMAL HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEPS CO-ACTIVATION TO HELP DECREASE ACL INJURY RISK IN HEALTHY FEMALES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed Central

    Dedinsky, Rachel; Baker, Lindsey; Imbus, Samuel; Bowman, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common among females due to many anatomic, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors. One modifiable risk factor that places females at increased risk of ACL injury is a poor hamstrings: quadriceps (H:Q) co-activation ratio, which should be 0.6 or greater in order to decrease the stress placed on the ACL. Exercises that produce more quadriceps dominant muscle activation can add to the tension placed upon the ACL, potentially increasing the risk of ACL injury. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to compare quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation during common closed kinetic chain therapeutic exercises in healthy female knees to determine what exercises are able to produce adequate H:Q co-activation ratios. Study Design Systematic Review Methods Multiple online databases were systematically searched and screened for inclusion. Eight articles were identified for inclusion. Data on mean electromyography (EMG) activation of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and H:Q co-activation ratios were extracted from the studies. Quality assessment was performed on all included studies. Results Exercises analyzed in the studies included variations of the double leg squat, variations of the single leg squat, lateral step-up, Fitter, Stairmaster® (Core Health and Fitness, Vancouver, WA), and slide board. All exercises, except the squat machine with posterior support at the level of the scapula and feet placed 50 cm in front of the hips, produced higher quadriceps muscle activation compared to hamstring muscle activation. Conclusion Overall, two leg squats demonstrate poor H:Q co-activation ratios. Single leg exercises, when performed between 30 and 90 degrees of knee flexion, produce adequate H:Q ratios, thereby potentially reducing the risk of tensile stress on the ACL and ACL injury. Level of Evidence 2a- Systematic Review of Cohort Studies PMID

  11. The effects of aerobic exercise and strengthening exercise on pain pressure thresholds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Suk

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the effects of aerobic exercise and strengthening exercise on pain pressure thresholds (PPTs) over time. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy participants were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, and control. The subjects in the aerobic group walked on a treadmill for 40 min at 6.5 km/h. The subjects in the strength group performed circuit training that included bench press, lat pull down, biceps curl, triceps extension, and shoulder press based on the perceived exertion for 40 min. The subjects in the control group rested without any exercise in a quiet room for 40 min. The PPTs of 5 potential muscle trigger points before exercise, and immediately after 10 and 40 min of exercise or rest were measured using an electronic algometer (JTECH Medical, USA). The Friedman's, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests were performed using SPSS 18.0 (IBM, Korea). [Results] The PPTs of all subjects decreased after 10 min of exercise, but the difference was not statistically significant. The PPTs of the control group decreased after 40 min. Furthermore, the PPTs of 3 muscles increased after 40 min of aerobic exercise and of 6 muscles after 40 min of strengthening exercise. No significant difference in PPTs was noted among the groups. [Conclusion] The results show that 40 min is a more appropriate exercise time, although the efficacy of controlling pain did not differ between strengthening exercise and aerobic exercise.

  12. Which Treatment is More Effective for Functional Ankle Instability: Strengthening or Combined Muscle Strengthening and Proprioceptive Exercises?

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Young-Eok; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Jin-Su; Ji, Sung-Ha; Ji, Sang-Goo; Seo, Tae-Hwa; Kim, Young-Ok

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to implement combined muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises to examine the effects of combined exercises on functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Experiments were conducted with 30 adult males and females. The study subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group (Group A), a muscle strengthening exercise group (Group B), or a combined muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercise group (Group C) consisting of 10 subjects each. In Group A, measurements were only conducted before and after the experiment without any intervention, whereas the exercise programs for Group B and Group C were implemented three days per week for four weeks. [Results] Muscle strength showed significant increases in Groups B and C compared with the control group during plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion. The Cumberland ankle instability tool showed significant increases in Group B and Group C compared with Group A and significant increases in Group C compared with Group B. [Conclusion] Applying combined muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises to those who have functional ankle instability is more effective than applying only muscle strengthening exercises.

  13. Efficacy of Hip Strengthening Exercises Compared With Leg Strengthening Exercises on Knee Pain, Function, and Quality of Life in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lun, Victor; Marsh, Andrew; Bray, Robert; Lindsay, David; Wiley, Preston

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of hip and leg strengthening exercise programs on knee pain, function, and quality of life (QOL) of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. Patients with KOA. Male and female subjects were recruited from patients referred to the University of Calgary Sport Medicine Center and from newspaper advertisements. Thirty-seven and 35 patients with KOA were randomly assigned to either a 12-week hip or leg strengthening exercise program, respectively. Both exercise programs consisted of strengthening and flexibility exercises, which were completed 3 to 5 days a week. The first 3 weeks of exercise were supervised and the remaining 9 weeks consisted of at-home exercise. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Score (KOOS) and Western Ontario McMaster Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaires, 6-minute walk test, hip and knee range of motion (ROM), and hip and leg muscle strength. Statistically and clinically significant improvements in the KOOS and WOMAC pain subscale scores were observed in both the hip and leg strengthening programs. There was no statistical difference in the change in scores observed between the 2 groups. Equal improvements in the KOOS and WOMAC function and QOL subscales were observed for both programs. There was no change in hip and knee ROM or hip and leg strength in either group. Isolated hip and leg strengthening exercise programs seem to similarly improve knee pain, function, and QOL in patients with KOA. The results of this study show that both hip and leg strengthening exercises improve pain and QOL in patients with KOA and should be incorporated into the exercise prescription of patients with KOA.

  14. Central and peripheral quadriceps fatigue in congestive heart failure☆

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Dayer, Mark J.; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Swallow, Elisabeth B.; Porcher, Raphael; Vazir, Ali; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Polkey, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The clinical syndrome of heart failure includes exercise limitation that is not directly linked to measures of cardiac function. Quadriceps fatigability may be an important component of this and this may arise from peripheral or central factors. Methods and results We studied 10 men with CHF and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Compared with a rest condition, 10 min after incremental maximal cycle exercise, twitch quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation fell in both groups (CHF 14.1% ± 18.1%, p = 0.037; Control: 20.8 ± 11.0%, p < 0.001; no significant difference between groups). There was no significant change in quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction voluntary force. The difference in the motor evoked potential (MEP) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex between rest and exercise conditions at 10 min, normalised to the peripheral action potential, also fell significantly in both groups (CHF: 27.3 ± 38.7%, p = 0.037; Control: 41.1 ± 47.7%, p = 0.024). However, the fall in MEP was sustained for a longer period in controls than in patients (p = 0.048). Conclusions The quadriceps is more susceptible to fatigue, with a similar fall in TwQ occurring in CHF patients at lower levels of exercise. This is associated with no change in voluntary activation but a lesser degree of depression of quadriceps motor evoked potential. PMID:22795722

  15. The 12-week progressive quadriceps resistance training improves muscle strength, exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Ewa A; Wegrzynowska, Kinga; Superlak, Malgorzata; Nowakowska, Katarzyna; Lazorczyk, Malgorzata; Biel, Bartosz; Kustrzycka-Kratochwil, Dorota; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Banasiak, Waldemar; Wozniewski, Marek; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2008-10-30

    Abnormalities in the skeletal musculature underlie exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (CHF). We investigated, whether in CHF selective resistance training without accompanying aerobic regime favourably affects muscle strength, muscle mass and improves exercise capacity. Ten patients with stable ischaemic CHF in NYHA class III (9 men, age: 70+/-6 years [mean+/-SD], left ventricular ejection fraction: 30+/-5%, peak oxygen consumption [peak VO(2)]: 12.4+/-3.0 mL/min/kg) underwent the rehabilitation programme which consisted of a 12-week training phase (progressive resistance exercises restricted to the quadriceps muscles) followed by a 12-week detraining phase. All subjects completed a training phase of the programme with no adverse events. Resistance training markedly increased quadriceps strength (right leg: 260+/-34 vs. 352+/-28 N, left leg: 264+/-38 vs. 342+/-30 N, both p<0.01 - all comparisons: baseline vs. after training), but did not affect lean tissue mass of lower extremities (both p>0.2). It was accompanied by an improvement in clinical status (all NYHA III vs. all NYHA II, p<0.01), quality of life (Minnesota questionnaire: 44+/-15 vs. 33+/-18 points, p<0.05), exercise capacity assessed using a distance during 6-minute walk test (6MWT: 362+/-83 vs. 455+/-71 m, p<0.01), but not peak VO(2) (p>0.2). Plasma NT-proBNP remained unchanged during the training. At the end of detraining phase, only a partial improvement in quadriceps strength (p<0.05), a 6MWT distance (p<0.05) and NYHA class (p=0.07 vs. baseline) persisted. Applied resistance quadriceps training is safe in patients with CHF. It increases muscle strength, improves clinical status, exercise capacity, and quality of life.

  16. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  17. Quadriceps Muscle Function After Rehabilitation With Cryotherapy in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Joseph M.; Kuenze, Christopher M.; Diduch, David R.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Persistent muscle weakness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may be due to underlying activation failure and arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). Knee-joint cryotherapy has been shown to improve quadriceps function transiently in those with AMI, thereby providing an opportunity to improve quadriceps muscle activation and strength in patients with a reconstructed ACL. Objective: To compare quadriceps muscle function in patients with a reconstructed ACL who completed a 2-week intervention including daily cryotherapy (ice bag), daily exercises, or both. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 30 patients with reconstructed ACLs who were at least 6 months post-index surgery and had measurable quadriceps AMI. Intervention(s): The patients attended 4 supervised visits over a 2-week period. They were randomly assigned to receive 20 minutes of knee-joint cryotherapy, 1 hour of therapeutic rehabilitation exercises, or cryotherapy followed by exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured quadriceps Hoffmann reflex, normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, central activation ratio using the superimposed-burst technique, and patient-reported outcomes before and after the intervention period. Results: After the 2-week intervention period, patients who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy had higher normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torques (P = .002, Cohen d effect size = 1.4) compared with those who received cryotherapy alone (P = .16, d = 0.58) or performed exercise alone (P = .16, d = 0.30). Conclusions: After ACL reconstruction, patients with AMI who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy experienced greater strength gains than those who performed cryotherapy or exercises alone. PMID:25299442

  18. Effect of eccentric exercise with reduced muscle glycogen on plasma interleukin-6 and neuromuscular responses of musculus quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Gavin, James P; Myers, Stephen D; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-07-01

    Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart. Muscle glycogen was reduced using an established cycling protocol until exhaustion and dietary manipulation the evening before the morning run. Physiological responses were measured up to 48 h after the downhill runs. During recovery, force deficits of musculus quadriceps femoris by maximal isometric contractions were similar. Changes in low-frequency fatigue were larger with RG. Voluntary activation and plasma IL-6 levels were similar in recovery between conditions. It is concluded that unaccustomed, damaging eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen of the m. quadriceps femoris 1) exacerbated low-frequency fatigue but 2) had no additional effect on IL-6 secretion. Neuromuscular impairment after eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen appears to have a greater peripheral component in early recovery. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. A mathematical model of forces in the knee under isometric quadriceps contractions.

    PubMed

    Huss, R A; Holstein, H; O'Connor, J J

    2000-02-01

    To predict the knee's response to isometric quadriceps contractions against a fixed tibial restraint.Design. Mathematical modelling of the human knee joint. Isometric quadriceps contraction is commonly used for leg muscle strengthening following ligament injury or reconstruction. It is desirable to know the ligament forces induced but direct measurement is difficult. The model, previously applied to the Lachmann or 'drawer' tests, combines an extensible fibre-array representation of the cruciate ligaments with a compressible 'thin-layer' representation of the cartilage. The model allows the knee configuration and force system to be calculated, given flexion angle, restraint position and loading. Inclusion of cartilage deformation increases relative tibio-femoral translation and decreases the ligament forces generated. For each restraint position, a range of flexion angles is found in which no ligament force is required, as opposed to a single flexion angle in the case of incompressible cartilage layers. Knee geometry and ligament elasticity are found to be the most important factors governing the joint's response to isometric quadriceps contractions, but cartilage deformation is found to be more important than in the Lachmann test. Estimation of knee ligament forces is important when devising exercise regimes following ligament injury or reconstruction. The finding of a 'neutral zone' of zero ligament force may have implications for rehabilitation of the ligament-injured knee.

  20. Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Nimon, Joseph P; Westen, Sarah C

    2010-11-01

    While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who engaged in such exercise showed significantly improved scores on Digits Backward and Stroop C tasks when compared to 16 participants who were on an exercise waiting list. Positive benefits of strengthening exercise on cognition are supported. Additional research is needed to clarify the generalizability of these findings.

  1. Exercises with partial vascular occlusion in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bryk, Flavio Fernandes; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Fingerhut, Deborah; Araujo, Thomas; Schutzer, Marcela; Cury, Ricardo de Paula Leite; Duarte, Aires; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether women with knee osteoarthritis performing a rehabilitation programme consisting of low-load exercises combined with PVO exhibited the same results in changes in quadriceps strength, pain relief, and functional improvement when compared to women receiving a programme consisting of high-load exercises without PVO. Thirty-four women (mean age, 61 years) with a diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to a conventional or occlusion group. The women in the conventional group (n = 17) performed a 6-week quadriceps strengthening and stretching programme using a load around 70 % of the 1-repetition maximum (RM). The women in the occlusion group (n = 17) performed the same programme, however, only using a load around 30 % of the 1-RM, while PVO was induced. The PVO was achieved using a pressure cuff applied to the upper third of the thigh and inflated to 200 mmHg during the quadriceps exercise. An 11-point Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), the Lequesne questionnaire, the Timed-Up and Go (TUG) test, and muscle strength measurement using a hand-held dynamometer were used as outcome measures at baseline (pretreatment) and at the end of the 6-week of treatment. Pain, using the NPRS, was also assessed when performing the quadriceps exercises during the exercise sessions. At baseline, demographic, strength, pain, and functional assessment data were similar between groups. Patients from both the conventional and occlusion groups had a higher level of function (Lequesne and TUG test), less pain (NPRS), and higher quadriceps strength at the 6-week evaluation when compared to baseline (all P < 0.05). However, the between-group analysis showed no differences for all outcomes variables at posttreatment (n.s.). Patients in the occlusion group experienced less anterior knee discomfort during the treatment sessions than those in the high-load exercise group (P < 0.05). A rehabilitation programme that combined

  2. Effects of electromyographic biofeedback on quadriceps strength: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lepley, Adam S; Gribble, Phillip A; Pietrosimone, Brian G

    2012-03-01

    Quadriceps strength is a vital component to lower extremity function and is often the focus in resistance training interventions and injury rehabilitation. Electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) is frequently used to supplement strength gains; however, the true effect remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to determine the magnitude of the treatment effect for EMGBF on quadriceps strength compared with that of placebo and traditional exercise interventions in both healthy and pathological populations. Web of Science and ProQuest databases were searched, and bibliographies of relevant articles were crossreferenced. Six articles measuring isometric quadriceps strength in response to EMGBF training were included and methodologically assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Standardized effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from preintervention and postintervention measures for EMGBF, placebo, and exercise-only interventions. Separate comparisons were made between studies assessing different intervention length (<4 and ≥4 weeks) and patient populations (pathological and healthy). Articles included received an average PEDro score of 6.5 ± 0.84. Homogeneous EMGBF effect sizes were found in all 6 studies (d = 0.01-5.56), with 4 studies reporting CI that crossed 0. A heterogeneous collection of effect sizes was found for exercise alone (d = -0.12 to 1.18) and placebo (d = -0.2 to 1.38), with 4 and 1 studies having a CI that crossed 0, respectively. The greatest EMGBF effects were found in pathological populations (d = 0.01-5.56), with the strongest effect found in the subjects with knee osteoarthritis (d = 5.56, CI = 4.26-6.68). As a group, effects were the strongest for EMGBF compared with that of placebo and exercise-only interventions, yet definitive evidence that EMGBF is beneficial for increasing quadriceps strength could not be concluded because of the 4 studies demonstrating a wide CI.

  3. Feasibility of ballistic strengthening exercises in neurologic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gavin; Clark, Ross A; Hansson, Jessica; Paterson, Kade

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods for strength training in neurologic rehabilitation are not task specific for walking. Ballistic strength training was developed to improve the functional transfer of strength training; however, no research has investigated this in neurologic populations. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying ballistic principles to conventional leg strengthening exercises in individuals with mobility limitations as a result of neurologic injuries. Eleven individuals with neurologic injuries completed seated and reclined leg press using conventional and ballistic techniques. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare power measures (peak movement height and peak velocity) between exercises and conditions. Peak jump velocity and peak jump height were greater when using the ballistic jump technique rather than the conventional concentric technique (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that when compared with conventional strengthening exercises, the incorporation of ballistic principles was associated with increased peak height and peak velocities.

  4. Neck strength recovery after a single bout of specific strengthening exercise.

    PubMed

    Netto, Kevin; Carstairs, Greg; Kidgell, Dawson; Aisbett, Brad

    2010-08-01

    To determine the level of neck strength decrement and the rate of strength recovery of the neck muscles after a single bout of specific neck conditioning exercise in both males and females. A decrement in neck strength may be evident after a bout of strengthening exercise. Intervention study with pre-and-post design. Biomechanics laboratory. Twenty healthy participants (10 male and 10 female, mean +/- standard deviation age 22 +/- 1.2 years). Participants performed a single bout of neck strengthening exercise. Neck strength testing using an isokinetic dynamometer was performed pre and at five time points (1 h, one, three, five and seven days) post-exercise to assess the level of neck strength decrement and neck strength recovery rate from pre-exercise levels. Statistically significant (p > or = 0.036) decreases in neck extension strength were recorded in all participants 1 h and one day post-exercise. The level of neck extension strength returned to pre-exercise levels three days post-exercise and surpassed pre-exercise levels five and seven days post-exercise. The male participants' neck flexion strength decrement and recovery followed a similar pattern to that displayed in neck extension but more variability in neck flexion strength recovery rates were recorded in the female participants in this study. The consistent strength recovery times for the male participants recorded in this study idealise the prescription of neck strengthening exercises in a periodised fashion. More investigation needs to be instigated for the female neck musculature as consistent strength recovery rates were not identified in this study. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electromyography of the quadriceps in patellofemoral pain with patellar subluxation.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Karen J; Kvitne, Ronald S; Pink, Marilyn M; Fideler, Bradley; Perry, Jacquelin

    2003-10-01

    This study compared muscle activity and timing of gait phases during functional activities in 13 subjects with patellofemoral pain associated with lateral subluxation and in 11 subjects with healthy knees. Fine wire electromyography recorded activity in the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique during walking and ascending and descending stairs. Subjects were filmed to divide the activities into phases and determine timing. The vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis had similar patterns during all activities. Subjects with patellofemoral pain had significantly increased activity in the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis compared with the healthy subjects during the most demanding phases of the gait cycle, suggesting a generalized quadriceps weakness in the patients with patellofemoral pain. Timing differences were seen in walking and stair ascending with the subjects with patellofemoral pain spending significantly more time in stance compared with the healthy subjects. This may be an attempt to reduce the load on weak quadriceps. These data reflect a generalized quadriceps muscle weakness, rather than the prevailing theory of quadriceps muscle imbalance as an etiology of patellofemoral pain. Therefore, we support the practice of strengthening the entire quadriceps muscle group, rather than attempting to specifically target the vastus medialis oblique.

  6. [Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon].

    PubMed

    Karahasanoğlu, İlker; Yoloğlu, Osman; Kerimoğlu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome.

  7. Closed kinetic chain exercises with or without additional hip strengthening exercises in management of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M M; Gamaleldein, M H; Hassa, K A

    2013-10-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common musculoskeletal pain condition, especially in females. Decreased hip muscle strength has been implicated as a contributing factor. Isolated open kinetic chain hip abductors and lateral rotators exercises were added by many authors to the rehabilitation program. However, Closed Kinetic Chain (CKC) exercises focusing on hip and knee muscles were not investigated if they can produce similar effect of hip strengthening and decreasing pain without the need of isolated exercises for hip musculature. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a CKC exercises program with or without additional hip strengthening exercises on pain and hip abductors and lateral rotators peak torque. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome referred to the outpatient physical therapy clinic of the faculty of physical therapy, cairo university. Thirty two patients who had patellofemoral pain syndrome with age ranged from eighteen to thirty years. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: CKC group and CKC with hip muscles strengthening exercises as a control (CO) group. Treatment was given 3 times/week, for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment for their pain severity using VAS, function of knee joint using Kujala questionnaire, hip abductors and external rotators concentric/eccentric peak torque. There were significant improvements in pain, function and hip muscles peak torque in both groups (P<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups in hip muscles torque (P<0.05) but pain and function improvements were significantly greater in the CO group (P<0.05). Six weeks CKC program focusing on knee and hip strengthening has similar effect in improving hip muscles torque in patients with PFPS as a CKC exercises with additional hip strengthening exercises. However, adding isolated hip strengthening exercises has the advantage of more

  8. Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100° · s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the

  9. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part two: strengthening exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Mizusaki Imoto, Aline; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Álvarez Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; De Angelis, Gino; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective strengthening exercise programs and provide rehabilitation teams and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with strengthening exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+ or D-) was based on statistical significance ( p < 0.5) and clinical importance (⩾15% improvement). The 26 high-quality studies identified demonstrated that various strengthening exercise programs with/without other types of therapeutic exercises are generally effective for improving knee osteoarthritis management within a six-month period. Strengthening exercise programs demonstrated a significant improvement for pain relief (four Grade A, ten Grade B, two Grade C+), physical function (four Grade A, eight Grade B) and quality of life (three Grade B). Strengthening in combination with other types of exercises (coordination, balance, functional) showed a significant improvement in pain relief (three Grade A, 11 Grade B, eight Grade C+), physical function (two Grade A, four Grade B, three Grade C+) and quality of life (one Grade A, one Grade C+). There are a variety of choices for strengthening exercise programs with positive recommendations for healthcare professionals and knee osteoarthritis patients. There is a need to develop combined behavioral and muscle-strengthening strategies to improve long-term maintenance of regular strengthening exercise programs.

  10. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Man, F S; Handoko, M L; Groepenhoff, H; van 't Hul, A J; Abbink, J; Koppers, R J H; Grotjohan, H P; Twisk, J W R; Bogaard, H-J; Boonstra, A; Postmus, P E; Westerhof, N; van der Laarse, W J; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A

    2009-09-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained. 6-min walk distance and peak exercise capacity did not change after training. However, endurance capacity improved significantly after training, demonstrated by a shift of the anaerobic threshold to a higher workload (from 32+/-5 to 46+/-6 W; p = 0.003) together with an increase in exercise endurance time (p<0.001). Moreover, exercise training increased quadriceps strength by 13% (p = 0.005) and quadriceps endurance by 34% (p = 0.001). Training enhanced aerobic capacity of the quadriceps, by increasing capillarisation (1.36+/-0.10 to 1.78+/-0.13 capillaries per muscle fibre; p<0.001) and oxidative enzyme activity, especially of the type-I (slow) muscle fibres. No changes were found in cross-sectional area and fibre type distribution. Exercise training in iPAH improves exercise endurance and quadriceps muscle function, which is also reflected by structural changes of the quadriceps.

  11. Effectiveness of Hip External Rotator Strengthening Exercise in Korean Postural Bowleg Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hoon; Lee, Jun Won; Kim, Joo Hyun; Tak, Kyoung Seok; Lee, Byeong Ho; Suh, In Suck

    2017-08-01

    Postural bowleg is a subclinical entity with both aesthetic and functional outcomes and appears to be common in East Asian countries. Internal rotation of the hip joint is associated with varus alignment at the knee joint of the bowleg. Strengthening exercise for the hip external rotator muscles seems to be effective in improving varus alignment of bowleg, but no standardized exercise program exists. A standardized active resistance strengthening exercise for hip external rotator muscles could improve varus alignment of the lower limb in bowlegged Korean women. In this article, a case series study was conducted to observe changes following a standardized 3-month program using equipment designed for strengthening of the hip external rotator muscles. Photogrammetric and radiographic data were used to compare the gap between knees and tibiofemoral (TF) angles before and after the exercise program. As a result, on average, the knee gap decreased by 1.6 cm. The TF angle decreased by 1.5°. Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between changes in knee gap and TF angle. The standardized 3-month active resistance strengthening exercise program of hip external rotator muscles was effective in improving postural deviation and cosmetic outcomes in bowlegged Korean women. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-12-01

    While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (p<0.01) in RF and VM when performing knee extensions using the training machine. In VL and VM the EMG-angle pattern was different between the two training modalities (significant angle by exercise interaction). When using elastic resistance, the EMG-angle pattern peaked towards full knee extension (0°), whereas angle at peak EMG occurred closer to knee flexion position (90°) during the machine exercise. Perceived loading (Borg CR10) was similar during knee extensions performed with elastic tubing (5.7±0.6) compared with knee extensions performed in training machine (5.9±0.5). Knee extensions performed with elastic tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic

  13. Electromyographic analysis of a modified maneuver for quadriceps femoris muscle setting with co-contraction of the hamstrings.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masaaki; Kawamura, Kenji; Takeda, Isao

    2003-05-01

    A "quadriceps femoris muscle setting" is isometric quadriceps femoris exercise which can be widely used in early knee rehabilitation. However this exercise cannot obtain enough co-contraction of the hamstrings. Isolated quadriceps femoris contraction in knee extension imposes severe strain to anterior cruciate ligament. We succeeded in developing a simple training maneuver that is effective in obtaining co-contraction of the hamstrings--a modified maneuver for the quadriceps femoris muscle setting with the contralateral lower limb raised (MQS). In this study, we analyzed the effect of this maneuver by EMG quantification. Twenty-eight healthy young adult men performed sequential trials consisting of normal quadriceps femoris muscle setting (NQS) and MQS. Electromyographic activity was recorded from surface electrodes on the gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus and biceps femoris (long head), and normalized to values derived from maximal isometric trials. The % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris did not vary in the each maneuver. However, the %MVIC of the hamstrings varied significantly in the MQS. This study suggests that effective co-contraction of the hamstrings can be obtained in MQS by adjusting the load to the raised lower limb.

  14. Strengthening the Gluteus Medius Using Various Bodyweight and Resistance Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Tufano, James J.; Golas, Artur; Petr, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT THE GLUTEUS MEDIUS (Gmed) IS AN IMPORTANT MUSCLE AND, IF WEAK, CAN CAUSE KNEE, HIP, OR LOWER-BACK PATHOLOGIES. THIS ARTICLE REVIEWS METHODS OF Gmed STRENGTH ASSESSMENT, PROVIDES EXERCISES THAT TARGET THE Gmed BASED ON ELECTROMYOGRAPHY, PRESENTS HOW TO IMPLEMENT Gmed STRENGTHENING IN HEAVY RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS, AND EXPLAINS THE IMPORTANCE OF INCLUDING THESE EXERCISES IN THESE PROGRAMS. PMID:27340373

  15. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette; Døssing, Simon; Crameri, Regina M; Welling, Rasmus J; Langberg, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kjaer, Michael; Babraj, John A; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studied over 72 h after 1 h of one-legged kicking exercise at 67% of maximum workload (Wmax). To label tissue proteins in muscle and tendon primed, constant infusions of [1-13C]leucine or [1-13C]valine and flooding doses of [15N] or [13C]proline were given intravenously, with estimation of labelling in target proteins by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Patellar tendon and quadriceps biopsies were taken in exercised and rested legs at 6, 24, 42 or 48 and 72 h after exercise. The fractional synthetic rates of all proteins were elevated at 6 h and rose rapidly to peak at 24 h post exercise (tendon collagen (0.077% h−1), muscle collagen (0.054% h−1), myofibrillar protein (0.121% h−1), and sarcoplasmic protein (0.134% h−1)). The rates decreased toward basal values by 72 h although rates of tendon collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis remained elevated. There was no tissue damage of muscle visible on histological evaluation. Neither tissue microdialysate nor serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4) or procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide changed from resting values. Thus, there is a rapid increase in collagen synthesis after strenuous exercise in human tendon and muscle. The similar time course of changes of protein synthetic rates in different cell types supports the idea of coordinated musculotendinous adaptation. PMID:16002437

  16. Effects of strengthening and aerobic exercises on pain severity and function in patients with knee rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Nader; Mazloum, Vahid

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of rehabilitation techniques, including aerobic and strengthening exercises on patients with knee rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 48 male patients with knee RA were randomly assigned into 3 groups, including aerobic exercises, strengthening exercise, and control. The two first groups completed their treatment protocol for 8 weeks, 3 days per week. Visual Analogue Scale, WOMAC questionnaire, 6-minute walking test, standard goniometer were used to assess pain severity, functional ability, walking ability, knee joint ROM respectively at baseline and after applying therapeutic interventions. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P < 0.05 significant level. Participants had a mean ± SD age of 58.6 ± 7.8 years (height 1.72 ± 0.07 m, weight 81.0 ± 6.4 kg) with no significant difference between three groups. Both therapeutic interventions reduced pain significantly (P < 0.001) compared to the control group, without significant difference between the two experimental groups. The patients fulfilled aerobic exercise attained higher levels of function and walking ability compared to strengthening group significantly (P < 0.001). The knee range of motion (ROM)wassignificantly (P < 0.001) improved in the two experimental groups in comparison to controls, the strengthening group had more significant (P < 0.001) improvement. It can be concluded that an aerobic exercise program improves functional and walking ability in patients with knee RA, and strengthening exercise has more efficient effect on knee ROM, both aerobic and strengthening exercises can equally relieve pain.

  17. Effects of Lumbar Strengthening Exercise in Lower-Limb Amputees With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Kyung; Yang, Hee Seung; Yang, Hea-Eun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Ahn, Bo Ram; Kwon, Hyup; Lee, Ju Hwan; Jung, Suk; Choi, Hyun Chul; Yun, Sun Keaung; Ahn, Dong Young; Sim, Woo Sob

    2018-02-01

    To analyze the effect of lumbar strengthening exercise in lower-limb amputees with chronic low back pain. We included in this prospective study 19 lower-limb amputees who had experienced low back pain for longer than 6 months. Participants were treated with 30-minute lumbar strengthening exercises, twice weekly, for 8 weeks. We used the visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire, and measured parameters such as iliopsoas length, abdominal muscle strength, back extensor strength, and back extensor endurance. In addition, we assessed the isometric peak torque and total work of the trunk flexors and extensors using isokinetic dynamometer. The pre- and post-exercise measurements were compared. Compared with the baseline, abdominal muscle strength (from 4.4±0.7 to 4.8±0.6), back extensor strength (from 2.6±0.6 to 3.5±1.2), and back extensor endurance (from 22.3±10.7 to 46.8±35.1) improved significantly after 8 weeks. The VAS decreased significantly from 4.6±2.2 to 2.6±1.6 after treatment. Furthermore, the peak torque and total work of the trunk flexors and extensors increased significantly (p<0.05). Lumbar strengthening exercise in lower-limb amputees with chronic low back pain resulted in decreased pain and increased lumbar extensor strength. The lumbar strengthening exercise program is very effective for lower-limb amputees with chronic low back pain.

  18. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: tongue strengthening exercises in head and neck cancer patients, does exercise load matter?

    PubMed

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Van Rompaey, Diane; Guns, Cindy; Mariën, Steven; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vanderwegen, Jan; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Reduced tongue strength is an important factor contributing to early and late dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients previously treated with chemoradiotherapy. The evidence is growing that tongue strengthening exercises can improve tongue strength and swallowing function in both healthy and dysphagic subjects. However, little is known about the impact of specific features of an exercise protocol for tongue strength on the actual outcome (strength or swallowing function). Previous research originating in the fields of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation shows that the degree of exercise load is an influential factor for increasing muscle strength in the limb skeletal muscles. Since the tongue is considered a muscular hydrostat, it remains to be proven whether the same concepts will apply. This ongoing randomized controlled trial in chemoradiotherapy-treated patients with head and neck cancer investigates the effect of three tongue strengthening exercise protocols, with different degrees of exercise load, on tongue strength and swallowing. At enrollment, 51 patients whose dysphagia is primarily related to reduced tongue strength are randomly assigned to a training schedule of 60, 80, or 100% of their maximal tongue strength. Patients are treated three times a week for 8 weeks, executing 120 repetitions of the assigned exercise once per training day. Exercise load is progressively adjusted every 2 weeks. Patients are evaluated before, during and after treatment by means of tongue strength measurements, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and quality-of-life questionnaires. This randomized controlled trial is the first to systematically investigate the effect of different exercise loads in tongue strengthening exercise protocols. The results will allow the development of more efficacious protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14447678.

  19. Mechanisms of force depression caused by different types of physical exercise studied by direct electrical stimulation of human quadriceps muscle.

    PubMed

    Skurvydas, Albertas; Mamkus, Gediminas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Dudoniene, Vilma; Valanciene, Dovile; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-12-01

    Force production frequently remains depressed for several hours or even days after various types of strenuous physical exercise. We hypothesized that the pattern of force changes during the first hour after exercise can be used to reveal muscular mechanisms likely to underlie the decline in muscle performance during exercise as well as factors involved in the triggering the prolonged force depression after exercise. Nine groups of recreationally active male volunteers performed one of the following types of exercise: single prolonged or repeated short maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs); single or repeated all-out cycling bouts; repeated drop jumps. The isometric force of the right quadriceps muscle was measured during stimulation with brief 20 and 100 Hz trains of electrical pulses given before and at regular intervals for 60 min after exercise. All exercises resulted in a prolonged force depression, which was more marked at 20 Hz than at 100 Hz. Short-lasting (≤2 min) MVC and all-out cycling exercises showed an initial force recovery (peak after ~ 5 min) followed by a secondary force depression. The repeated drop jumps, which involve eccentric contractions, resulted in a stable force depression with the 20 Hz force being markedly more decreased after 100 than 10 jumps. In accordance with our hypothesis, the results propose at least three different mechanisms that influence force production after exercise: (1) a transiently recovering process followed by (2) a prolonged force depression after metabolically demanding exercise, and (3) a stable force depression after mechanically demanding contractions.

  20. Recruitment order of quadriceps motor units: femoral nerve vs. direct quadriceps stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Place, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    To investigate potential differences in the recruitment order of motor units (MUs) in the quadriceps femoris when electrical stimulation is applied over the quadriceps belly versus the femoral nerve. M-waves and mechanical twitches were evoked using femoral nerve stimulation and direct quadriceps stimulation of gradually increasing intensity from 20 young, healthy subjects. Recruitment order was investigated by analysing the time-to-peak twitch and the time interval from the stimulus artefact to the M-wave positive peak (M-wave latency) for the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. During femoral nerve stimulation, time-to-peak twitch and M-wave latency decreased consistently (P < 0.05) with increasing stimulus intensity, whereas, during graded direct quadriceps stimulation, time-to-peak twitch and VL M-wave latency did not show a clear trend (P > 0.05). For the VM muscle, M-wave latency decreased with increasing stimulation level for both femoral nerve and direct quadriceps stimulation, whereas, for the VL muscle, the variation of M-wave latency with stimulus intensity was different for the two stimulation geometries (P < 0.05). Femoral nerve stimulation activated MUs according to the size principle, whereas the recruitment order during direct quadriceps stimulation was more complex, depending ultimately on the architecture of the peripheral nerve and its terminal branches below the stimulating electrodes for each muscle. For the VM, MUs were orderly recruited for both stimulation geometries, whereas, for the VL muscle, MUs were orderly recruited for femoral nerve stimulation, but followed no particular order for direct quadriceps stimulation.

  1. The development and evaluation of a program for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Kinect.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, a program was developed for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Microsoft Kinect. [Subjects and Methods] The program consists of three leg-strengthening exercises (knee flexion, hip flexion, and hip extension) and the one-leg standing test (OLST). The program recognizes the correct exercise posture by comparison with the range of motion of the hip and knee joints and provides a number of correct action examples to improve training. The program measures the duration of the OLST and presents this as the balance-age. The accuracy of the program was analyzed using the data of five male adults. [Results] In terms of the motion recognition accuracy, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.3% and 100%, respectively. For the balance assessment, the time measured using the existing method with a stopwatch had an absolute error of 0.37 sec. [Conclusion] The developed program can be used to enable users to conduct leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessments at home.

  2. Duration Dependent Effect of Static Stretching on Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Force.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Ebadi, Leyla; Çetin, Ebru

    2018-03-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of static stretching on hamstring and quadriceps muscles' isokinetic strength when applied for various durations to elite athletes, to investigate the effect of different static stretching durations on isokinetic strength, and finally to determine the optimal stretching duration. Fifteen elite male athletes from two different sport branches (10 football and five basketball) participated in this study. Experimental protocol was designed as 17 repetitive static stretching exercises for hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups according to the indicated experimental protocols; ((A) 5 min jogging; (B) 5 min jogging followed by 15 s static stretching; (C) 5 min jogging followed by 30 s static stretching; (D) 5 min jogging, followed by static stretching for 45 s). Immediately after each protocol, an isokinetic strength test consisting of five repetitions at 60°/s speed and 20 repetitions at 180°/s speed was recorded for the right leg by the Isomed 2000 device. Friedman variance analysis test was employed for data analysis. According to the analyzes, it was observed that 5 min jogging and 15 s stretching exercises increased the isokinetic strength, whereas 30 and 45 s stretching exercises caused a decrease.

  3. Duration Dependent Effect of Static Stretching on Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Force

    PubMed Central

    Çetin, Ebru

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of static stretching on hamstring and quadriceps muscles’ isokinetic strength when applied for various durations to elite athletes, to investigate the effect of different static stretching durations on isokinetic strength, and finally to determine the optimal stretching duration. Fifteen elite male athletes from two different sport branches (10 football and five basketball) participated in this study. Experimental protocol was designed as 17 repetitive static stretching exercises for hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups according to the indicated experimental protocols; ((A) 5 min jogging; (B) 5 min jogging followed by 15 s static stretching; (C) 5 min jogging followed by 30 s static stretching; (D) 5 min jogging, followed by static stretching for 45 s). Immediately after each protocol, an isokinetic strength test consisting of five repetitions at 60°/s speed and 20 repetitions at 180°/s speed was recorded for the right leg by the Isomed 2000 device. Friedman variance analysis test was employed for data analysis. According to the analyzes, it was observed that 5 min jogging and 15 s stretching exercises increased the isokinetic strength, whereas 30 and 45 s stretching exercises caused a decrease.

  4. Phototherapy during treadmill training improves quadriceps performance in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Paolillo, F R; Corazza, A V; Paolillo, A R; Borghi-Silva, A; Arena, R; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of infrared-light-emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on functional performance. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups and successfully completed the full study. The three groups were: (1) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n = 10); (2) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n = 10); and (3) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n = 10). Training was performed over a period of 6 months, twice a week for 45 min per session at 85-90% of maximal heart rate, which was obtained during progressive exercise testing. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2) and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. Quadriceps performance was measured during isokinetic exercise testing at 60°/s and 300°/s. Peak torque did not differ amongst the groups. However, the results showed significantly higher values of power and total work for the LED group (∆ = 21 ± 6 W and ∆ = 634 ± 156 J, p < 0.05) when compared to both the exercise group (∆ = 13 ± 10 W and = 410 ± 270 J) and the sedentary group (∆ = 10 ± 9 W and ∆ = 357 ± 327 J). Fatigue was also significantly lower in the LED group (∆ = -7 ± 4%, p < 0.05) compared to both the exercise group (∆ = 3 ± 8%) and the sedentary group (∆ = -2 ± 6%). Infrared-LED during treadmill training may improve quadriceps power and reduce peripheral fatigue in postmenopausal women.

  5. Preferential reduction of quadriceps over respiratory muscle strength and bulk after lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pinet, C; Scillia, P; Cassart, M; Lamotte, M; Knoop, C; Mélot, C; Estenne, M

    2004-09-01

    In the absence of complications, recipients of lung transplants for cystic fibrosis have normal pulmonary function but the impact of the procedure on the strength and bulk of respiratory and limb muscles has not been studied. Twelve stable patients who had undergone lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis 48 months earlier (range 8-95) and 12 normal subjects matched for age, height, and sex were studied. The following parameters were measured: standard lung function, peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometry, diaphragm surface area by computed tomographic (CT) scanning, diaphragm and abdominal muscle thickness by ultrasonography, twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, quadriceps isokinetic strength, and quadriceps cross section by CT scanning, and lean body mass. Diaphragm mass was computed from diaphragm surface area and thickness. Twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, diaphragm mass, and abdominal muscle thickness were similar in the two groups but quadriceps strength and cross section were decreased by nearly 30% in the patients. Patients had preserved quadriceps strength per unit cross section but reduced quadriceps cross section per unit lean body mass. The cumulative dose of corticosteroids was an independent predictor of quadriceps atrophy. Peak oxygen uptake showed positive correlations with quadriceps strength and cross section in the two groups, but peak oxygen uptake per unit quadriceps strength or cross section was reduced in the patient group. The diaphragm and abdominal muscles have preserved strength and bulk in patients transplanted for cystic fibrosis but the quadriceps is weak due to muscle atrophy. This atrophy is caused in part by corticosteroid therapy and correlates with the reduction in exercise capacity.

  6. Efficacy of strengthening or aerobic exercise on pain relief in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryo; Ozawa, Junya; Kito, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to investigate the differences in the efficacies between strengthening and aerobic exercises for pain relief in people with knee osteoarthritis. This search was applied to Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. All literature published from each source's earliest date to March 2013 was included. Trials comparing the effects of exercise intervention with those of either non-intervention or psycho-educational intervention were collected. Meta-analysis was performed for trials in which therapeutic exercise was carried out with more than three sessions per week up to eight weeks, for pain in people with knee osteoarthritis. All trials were categorised into three subgroups (non-weight-bearing strengthening exercise, weight-bearing strengthening exercise, and aerobic exercise). Subgroup analyses were also performed. Data from eight studies were integrated. Overall effect of exercise was significant with a large effect size (standardised mean difference (SMD): -0.94; 95% confidence interval -1.31 to -0.57). Subgroup analyses showed a larger SMD for non-weight-bearing strengthening exercise (-1.42 [-2.09 to -0.75]) compared with weight-bearing strengthening exercise (-0.70 [-1.05 to -0.35]), and aerobic exercise (-0.45 [-0.77 to -0.13]). Muscle strengthening exercises with or without weight-bearing and aerobic exercises are effective for pain relief in people with knee osteoarthritis. In particular, for pain relief by short-term exercise intervention, the most effective exercise among the three types is non-weight-bearing strengthening exercise.

  7. Quadriceps muscle blood flow and oxygen availability during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Spetsioti, Stavroula; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we wished to determine whether the observed reduction in quadriceps muscle oxygen availability, reported during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing efforts (i.e. hiking), is because of restricted muscle blood flow. Six national-squad Laser sailors initially performed three successive 3-min hiking bouts followed by three successive 3-min cycling tests sustained at constant intensities reproducing the cardiac output recorded during each of the three hiking bouts. The blood flow index (BFI) was determined from assessment of the vastus lateralis using near-infrared spectroscopy in association with the light-absorbing tracer indocyanine green dye, while cardiac output was determined from impedance cardiography. At equivalent cardiac outputs (ranging from 10.3±0.5 to 14.8±0.86 L · min(-1)), the increase from baseline in vastus lateralis BFI across the three hiking bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 3.1±0.6 nM · s(-1)) was lower (P = 0.036) than that seen during the three cycling bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 7.2±1.4 nM · s(-1)) (Cohen's d: 3.80 nM · s(-1)), whereas the increase from baseline in deoxygenated haemoglobin (by ∼17.0±2.9 μM) (an index of tissue oxygen extraction) was greater (P = 0.006) during hiking than cycling (by ∼5.3±2.7 μM) (Cohen's d: 4.17 μM). The results suggest that reduced vastus lateralis muscle oxygen availability during hiking arises from restricted muscle blood flow in the isometrically acting quadriceps muscles.

  8. The effects of gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises for four weeks on navicular drop and lower extremity muscle activity during gait with flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of abductor hallucis and gluteus maximus strengthening exercises on pronated feet. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was conducted with 18 adults without no history of surgery on the foot or ankle. One group performed both gluteus maximus strengthening exercises and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises, while the other group performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] The group that performed both gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises showed smaller values in the height of navicular drop than the group that performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises. The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus and the vastus medialis increased during heel-strike in the group that added gluteus maximus exercises, and the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis significantly increased in both groups. [Conclusion] Given the results of the present study, it can be suggested that strengthening the gluteus maximus while also performing exercises to correct the pronated foot is an effective method for achieving normal gait.

  9. Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-21

    Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p < 0.05). The effects were retained for a period of three months after program termination for the Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.

  10. A randomised controlled feasibility study investigating the use of eccentric and concentric strengthening exercises in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a feasibility study to compare concentric and eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Methods: A total of 11 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy who were on the waiting list for arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery were randomised to perform eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises, concentric strengthening exercises or no exercises. Patients were evaluated in terms of levels of pain and function using the Oxford Shoulder Score and a Visual Analogue Scale initially, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Results: The study design was found to be acceptable to patients and achieved a high level of 86% compliance. The drop-out rate was 0%. Two patients performing eccentric strengthening exercises improved sufficiently to cancel their planned surgery. Conclusion: Further research in this area is recommended. The study design was feasible and power calculations have been conducted to aid future research planning. PMID:26770702

  11. Evaluation of supraspinatus strengthening exercises based on fiber bundle architectural changes.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, R; Farthing, J P; Kim, S Y

    2017-07-01

    Supraspinatus strengthening is an integral part of rehabilitation programs. However, there is disparity regarding the best exercise. Thus, we investigated the effects of supraspinatus strengthening exercises on muscle fiber bundle architecture using real-time ultrasound. Participants were randomized into full-can (FC; n = 12), empty-can (EC; n = 11,) and prone horizontal abduction (PHA; n = 11) groups and performed three sessions/week for 8 weeks. Each session involved four sets of exercise for weeks 1-4 and six sets for weeks 5-8 with eight repetitions/set. Images of supraspinatus were captured in 0° (relaxed) and 60° (contracted) glenohumeral abduction. Fiber bundle length (FBL), pennation angle, and muscle thickness were measured at beginning, mid, and end of training. Maximum isometric abduction strength was measured in full-can, empty-can, and prone horizontal abduction positions using a hand-held dynamometer. FBL decreased after 4 weeks in FC [relaxed: Δ = -0.54 cm, P = 0.001, d = 0.92; contracted: Δ = -0.27 cm, P = 0.008, d = 0.27] and EC [relaxed: Δ = -0.59 cm, P = 0.008, d = 0.86; contracted: Δ = -0.36 cm, P = 0.013, d = 0.59], but not in PHA [relaxed: Δ = -0.11, P = 0.121, d = 0.31; contracted: Δ = -0.06 cm, P = 0.486, d = 0.13]. Strength increased significantly from week 4-8 only in PHA (Δ = +0.96 kg, P = 0.004, d = 0.47) when tested in prone horizontal abduction position. Maintenance of FBL with increased strength indicates prone horizontal abduction may be a better exercise to strengthen supraspinatus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Yoga Is as Good as Stretching–Strengthening Exercises in Improving Functional Fitness Outcomes: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background. Despite yoga’s popularity, few clinical trials have employed rigorous methodology to systematically explore its functional benefits compared with more established forms of exercise. The objective of this study was to compare the functional benefits of yoga with the conventional stretching–strengthening exercises recommended for adults. Methods. Sedentary healthy adults ( N = 118; Mage = 62.0) participated in an 8-week (three times a week for 1 hour) randomized controlled trial, which consisted of a Hatha yoga group ( n = 61) and a stretching–strengthening exercise group ( n = 57). Standardized functional fitness tests assessing balance, strength, flexibility, and mobility were administered at baseline and postintervention. Results. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant time effect for measures of balance [ F (3,18) = 4.88, p < .01, partial η 2 = .45], strength [ F (2,19) = 15.37, p < .001, partial η 2 = .62], flexibility [ F (4,17) = 8.86, p < .001, partial η 2 = .68], and mobility [ F (2,19) = 8.54, p < .002, partial η 2 = .47]. Both groups showed significant improvements on measures of balance (left–right leg and four square step); strength (chair stands and arm curls); flexibility (back scratch and sit-and-reach); and mobility (gait speed and 8-feet up and go), with partial η 2 ranging from .05 to .47. Conclusions. These data suggest that regular yoga practice is just as effective as stretching–strengthening exercises in improving functional fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine functional benefits of yoga in comparison with stretching–strengthening exercises in sedentary, healthy, community-dwelling older adults. These findings have clinical implications as yoga is a more amenable form of exercise than strengthening exercises as it requires minimal equipment and can be adapted for individuals with lower levels of functioning or disabilities. PMID:26297940

  13. Shear-Wave Elastography Assessments of Quadriceps Stiffness Changes prior to, during and after Prolonged Exercise: A Longitudinal Study during an Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon.

    PubMed

    Andonian, Pierre; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; de Bourguignon, Charles; Tourel, Charline; Morel, Jérome; Giardini, Guido; Gergelé, Laurent; Millet, Grégoire P; Croisille, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In sports medicine, there is increasing interest in quantifying the elastic properties of skeletal muscle, especially during extreme muscular stimulation, to improve our understanding of the impact of alterations in skeletal muscle stiffness on resulting pain or injuries, as well as the mechanisms underlying the relationships between these parameters. Our main objective was to determine whether real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) can monitor changes in quadriceps muscle elasticity during an extreme mountain ultra-marathon, a powerful mechanical stress model. Our study involved 50 volunteers participating in an extreme mountain marathon (distance: 330 km, elevation: +24,000 m). Quantitative SWE velocity and shear modulus measurements were performed in most superficial quadriceps muscle heads at the following 4 time points: before the race, halfway through the race, upon finishing the race and after recovery (+48 h). Blood biomarker levels were also measured. A significant decrease in the quadriceps shear modulus was observed upon finishing the race (3.31±0.61 kPa) (p<0.001) compared to baseline (3.56±0.63 kPa), followed by a partial recovery +48 h after the race (3.45±0.6 kPa) (p = 0.002) across all muscle heads, as well as for each of the following three muscle heads: the rectus femoris (p = 0.003), the vastus medialis (p = 0.033) and the vastus lateralis (p = 0.001). Our study is the first to assess changes in muscle stiffness during prolonged extreme physical endurance exercises based on shear modulus measurements using non-invasive SWE. We concluded that decreases in stiffness, which may have resulted from quadriceps overuse in the setting of supra-physiological stress caused by the extreme distance and unique elevation of the race, may have been responsible for the development of inflammation and muscle swelling. SWE may hence represent a promising tool for monitoring physiologic or pathological variations in muscle stiffness and may be useful for

  14. Shear-Wave Elastography Assessments of Quadriceps Stiffness Changes prior to, during and after Prolonged Exercise: A Longitudinal Study during an Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Andonian, Pierre; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; de Bourguignon, Charles; Tourel, Charline; Morel, Jérome; Giardini, Guido; Gergelé, Laurent; Millet, Grégoire P.; Croisille, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In sports medicine, there is increasing interest in quantifying the elastic properties of skeletal muscle, especially during extreme muscular stimulation, to improve our understanding of the impact of alterations in skeletal muscle stiffness on resulting pain or injuries, as well as the mechanisms underlying the relationships between these parameters. Our main objective was to determine whether real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) can monitor changes in quadriceps muscle elasticity during an extreme mountain ultra-marathon, a powerful mechanical stress model. Our study involved 50 volunteers participating in an extreme mountain marathon (distance: 330 km, elevation: +24,000 m). Quantitative SWE velocity and shear modulus measurements were performed in most superficial quadriceps muscle heads at the following 4 time points: before the race, halfway through the race, upon finishing the race and after recovery (+48 h). Blood biomarker levels were also measured. A significant decrease in the quadriceps shear modulus was observed upon finishing the race (3.31±0.61 kPa) (p<0.001) compared to baseline (3.56±0.63 kPa), followed by a partial recovery +48 h after the race (3.45±0.6 kPa) (p = 0.002) across all muscle heads, as well as for each of the following three muscle heads: the rectus femoris (p = 0.003), the vastus medialis (p = 0.033) and the vastus lateralis (p = 0.001). Our study is the first to assess changes in muscle stiffness during prolonged extreme physical endurance exercises based on shear modulus measurements using non-invasive SWE. We concluded that decreases in stiffness, which may have resulted from quadriceps overuse in the setting of supra-physiological stress caused by the extreme distance and unique elevation of the race, may have been responsible for the development of inflammation and muscle swelling. SWE may hence represent a promising tool for monitoring physiologic or pathological variations in muscle stiffness and may be useful for

  15. The effect of adding whole body vibration training to strengthening training in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bokaeian, Hamid Reza; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Moghimi, Jamile

    2016-04-01

    Strengthening training (ST) and whole body vibration training (WBV) alone may improve symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. In this study, we investigated the effect of adding WBV training to quadriceps and hamstring muscles strengthening training on functional activity, pain, quality of life and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis. 28 volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups; 1) quadriceps and hamstring muscles strengthening training (ST group, 13 patients) and 2) quadriceps and hamstring muscles strengthening training along with WBV training (ST + WBV group, 15 patients). The treatment protocol for both groups involved 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. All measurements were performed before and after intervention. The measurements included: pain by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS), quality of life by means of the WOMAC scale, functional activity by the 2 min walking test (2MWT), time up & go test (TUGT) and 50-foot walking test (50FWT) and the muscle peak torque (MPT), total work (TW) and muscle power (MP) as muscle performance of quadriceps and hamstring muscles by an Isokinetic Biodex machine. After intervention, the comparison of mean changes between two groups showed improvement in the WBV + ST group in terms of 2MWT, MPT, TW and MP variables (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the experimental groups in term of pain, quality of life, TUGT and 50FWT. These results suggest that adding whole body vibration training to strengthening training may provide better treatment effects for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Yoga Is as Good as Stretching-Strengthening Exercises in Improving Functional Fitness Outcomes: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; McAuley, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Despite yoga's popularity, few clinical trials have employed rigorous methodology to systematically explore its functional benefits compared with more established forms of exercise. The objective of this study was to compare the functional benefits of yoga with the conventional stretching-strengthening exercises recommended for adults. Sedentary healthy adults (N = 118; M age = 62.0) participated in an 8-week (three times a week for 1 hour) randomized controlled trial, which consisted of a Hatha yoga group (n = 61) and a stretching-strengthening exercise group (n = 57). Standardized functional fitness tests assessing balance, strength, flexibility, and mobility were administered at baseline and postintervention. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant time effect for measures of balance [F(3,18) = 4.88, p < .01, partial η(2) = .45], strength [F(2,19) = 15.37, p < .001, partial η(2) = .62], flexibility [F(4,17) = 8.86, p < .001, partial η(2) = .68], and mobility [F(2,19) = 8.54, p < .002, partial η(2) = .47]. Both groups showed significant improvements on measures of balance (left-right leg and four square step); strength (chair stands and arm curls); flexibility (back scratch and sit-and-reach); and mobility (gait speed and 8-feet up and go), with partial η(2) ranging from .05 to .47. These data suggest that regular yoga practice is just as effective as stretching-strengthening exercises in improving functional fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine functional benefits of yoga in comparison with stretching-strengthening exercises in sedentary, healthy, community-dwelling older adults. These findings have clinical implications as yoga is a more amenable form of exercise than strengthening exercises as it requires minimal equipment and can be adapted for individuals with lower levels of functioning or disabilities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological

  17. Voluntary enhanced cocontraction of hamstring muscles during open kinetic chain leg extension exercise: its potential unloading effect on the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Botti, Fabio M; Brunetti, Antonella; Brunetti, Orazio; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2014-09-01

    significantly enhanced (up to 2, 3, and 4 times, respectively) by a voluntary hamstring cocontraction effort. The enhanced coactivation levels obtained for R≤ 30% 1RM can completely suppress the anterior TF shear force developed by the quadriceps during the exercise. This laboratory study suggests that leg extension exercise with intentional hamstring cocontraction may have the potential to be a safe and effective quadriceps-strengthening intervention in the early stages of rehabilitation programs for anterior cruciate ligament injury or reconstruction recovery. Further studies, including clinical trials, are needed to investigate the relevance of this therapeutic exercise in clinical practice. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Quadriceps Contusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... An intramuscular contusion , which is when a muscle tears within the sheath (lining) that surrounds it. An ... the muscle and the sheath surrounding it both tear. Quadriceps contusions are common in sports that involve ...

  19. No effect of forearm band and extensor strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Luginbühl, Rolf; Brunner, Florian; Schneeberger, Alberto G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective randomised study was to analyse the effect of the forearm support band and of strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow. Twenty-nine patients with 30 tennis elbows were randomised into 3 groups of treatment: (I) forearm support band, (II) strengthening exercises and (III) both methods. The patients had a standardised examination at their first visit, and then after 6 weeks, 3 months and 1 year. At the latest follow-up, there was a significant improvement of the symptoms compared to before treatment (p<0.0001), considering all patients independently of the methods of treatment. However, no differences in the scores were found between the 3 groups of treatment (p=0.27), indicating that no beneficial influence was found either for the strengthening exercises or for the forearm support band. Improvement seems to occur with time, independent of the method of treatment used.

  20. Exercise for haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Strike, Karen; Mulder, Kathy; Michael, Rojer

    2016-12-19

    the interventions. None of the studies reported outcomes regarding bleed frequency, quality of life or aerobic activity. Overall risk of bias across all studies was assessed as unclear.Very few studies provided sufficient information for comparison. None of the studies reported data that favoured the control group. One study reported that six weeks of resistance training improved joint health status (Colorado score) compared to controls. The addition of pulsed electromagnetic fields also improved ankle scores compared to exercises alone, but this was not seen in the elbows or knees.Two studies reported statistically significant improvements in pain intensity after exercise interventions compared to controls. Hydrotherapy exercises produced significant decreases in pain compared to controls and land-based exercise groups.Two studies found improvement in joint motion in the exercise group compared to controls. One study compared land- and water-based exercises; there was no difference in the range of motion between the two groups; however, the water-based exercise group did show improvement over the control group.One study, comparing joint traction and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation for the elbow to a control group, showed no differences in biceps girth or strength after 12 weeks of intervention.Some studies reported comparisons between interventions. In one study, treadmill training significantly improved balance in children compared to bicycle ergometry. Another study added partial weight bearing exercises to quadriceps exercises and showed improved walking tolerance.Four studies evaluated quadriceps or hamstring strength (or both). The addition of bicycle ergometry and exercises with weights was more effective than static exercises and treadmill walking for strengthening knee flexors and extensors. Partial weight-bearing exercises through range were more effective than static and short arc exercises for improving knee extensor strength. The addition of

  1. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to ∼ 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow. PMID:20507965

  2. Motoneuron excitability of the quadriceps decreases during a fatiguing submaximal isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Finn, Harrison T; Rouffet, David M; Kennedy, David S; Green, Simon; Taylor, Janet L

    2018-04-01

    During fatiguing voluntary contractions, the excitability of motoneurons innervating arm muscles decreases. However, the behavior of motoneurons innervating quadriceps muscles is unclear. Findings may be inconsistent because descending cortical input influences motoneuron excitability and confounds measures during exercise. To overcome this limitation, we examined effects of fatigue on quadriceps motoneuron excitability tested during brief pauses in descending cortical drive after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Participants ( n = 14) performed brief (~5-s) isometric knee extension contractions before and after a 10-min sustained contraction at ~25% maximal electromyogram (EMG) of vastus medialis (VM) on one ( n = 5) or two ( n = 9) days. Electrical stimulation over thoracic spine elicited thoracic motor evoked potentials (TMEP) in quadriceps muscles during ongoing voluntary drive and 100 ms into the silent period following TMS (TMS-TMEP). Femoral nerve stimulation elicited maximal M-waves (M max ). On the 2 days, either large (~50% M max ) or small (~15% M max ) TMS-TMEPs were elicited. During the 10-min contraction, VM EMG was maintained ( P = 0.39), whereas force decreased by 52% (SD 13%) ( P < 0.001). TMEP area remained unchanged ( P = 0.9), whereas large TMS-TMEPs decreased by 49% (SD 28%) ( P = 0.001) and small TMS-TMEPs by 71% (SD 22%) ( P < 0.001). This decline was greater for small TMS-TMEPs ( P = 0.019; n = 9). Therefore, without the influence of descending drive, quadriceps TMS-TMEPs decreased during fatigue. The greater reduction for smaller responses, which tested motoneurons that were most active during the contraction, suggests a mechanism related to repetitive activity contributes to reduced quadriceps motoneuron excitability during fatigue. By contrast, the unchanged TMEP suggests that ongoing drive compensates for altered motoneuron excitability. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We provide evidence that the excitability of quadriceps

  3. Strengthening exercises improve symptoms and quality of life but do not change autonomic modulation in fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gavi, Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira; Vassalo, Dalton Valentin; Amaral, Fabian Tadeu; Macedo, Danielle Constância Felício; Gava, Pablo Lúcio; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Valim, Valéria

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM). Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE) on autonomic modulation, pain perception and the quality of life (QOL) of FM patients. Eighty sedentary women with FM (ACR 1990) were randomly selected to participate in STRE or flexibility (FLEX) exercises in a blinded controlled trial. The intensity of STRE was set at 45% of the estimated load of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM) in 12 different exercises. Outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis, treadmill test, the sit and reach test (Wells and Dillon's Bench), maximal repetitions test and handgrip dynamometry; and quality of life by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck and Idate Trait-State Inventory (IDATE), a short-form health survey (SF-36). The STRE group was more effective to strength gain for all muscles and pain control after 4 and 16 weeks (p<0.05). The FLEX group showed higher improvements in anxiety (p<0.05). Both groups showed improvements in the QOL, and there was no significant difference observed between the groups. There was no change in the HRV of the STRE and FLEX groups. Strengthening exercises show greater and more rapid improvements in pain and strength than flexibility exercises. Despite the benefits in fitness, pain, depression, anxiety and quality of life, no effect was observed on the autonomic modulation in both groups. This observation suggests that changes in autonomic modulation are not a target tobe clinically achieved in fibromyalgia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02004405.

  4. Targeted spine strengthening exercise and posture training program to reduce hyperkyphosis in older adults: results from the study of hyperkyphosis, exercise, and function (SHEAF) randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Katzman, W B; Vittinghoff, E; Lin, F; Schafer, A; Long, R K; Wong, S; Gladin, A; Fan, B; Allaire, B; Kado, D M; Lane, N E

    2017-10-01

    A 6-month randomized controlled trial of spine-strengthening exercise and posture training reduced both radiographic and clinical measures of kyphosis. Participants receiving the intervention improved self-image and satisfaction with their appearance. Results suggest that spine-strengthening exercise and postural training may be an effective treatment option for older adults with hyperkyphosis. The purpose of the present study is to determine in a randomized controlled trial whether spine-strengthening exercises improve Cobb angle of kyphosis in community-dwelling older adults. We recruited adults ≥60 years with kyphosis ≥40° and enrolled 99 participants (71 women, 28 men), mean age 70.6 ± 0.6 years, range 60-88, with baseline Cobb angle 57.4 ± 12.5°. The intervention included group spine-strengthening exercise and postural training, delivered by a physical therapist, 1-h, three times weekly for 6 months. Controls received four group health education meetings. The primary outcome was change in the gold standard Cobb angle of kyphosis measured from standing lateral spine radiographs. Secondary outcomes included change in kyphometer-measured kyphosis, physical function (modified Physical Performance Test, gait speed, Timed Up and Go, Timed Loaded Standing, 6-Min Walk), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (PROMIS global health and physical function indexes, SRS-30 self-image domain). ANCOVA was used to assess treatment effects on change from baseline to 6 months in all outcomes. There was a -3.0° (95% CI -5.2, -0.8) between-group difference in change in Cobb angle, p = 0.009, favoring the intervention and approximating the magnitude of change from an incident vertebral fracture. Kyphometer-measured kyphosis (p = 0.03) and SRS-30 self-esteem (p < 0.001) showed favorable between-group differences in change, with no group differences in physical function or additional HRQoL outcomes, p > 0.05. Spine-strengthening exercise and posture

  5. Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain.

  6. Early exercise in critically ill patients enhances short-term functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Burtin, Chris; Clerckx, Beatrix; Robbeets, Christophe; Ferdinande, Patrick; Langer, Daniel; Troosters, Thierry; Hermans, Greet; Decramer, Marc; Gosselink, Rik

    2009-09-01

    : To investigate whether a daily exercise session, using a bedside cycle ergometer, is a safe and effective intervention in preventing or attenuating the decrease in functional exercise capacity, functional status, and quadriceps force that is associated with prolonged intensive care unit stay. A prolonged stay in the intensive care unit is associated with muscle dysfunction, which may contribute to an impaired functional status up to 1 yr after hospital discharge. No evidence is available concerning the effectiveness of an early exercise training intervention to prevent these detrimental complications. : Randomized controlled trial. : Medical and surgical intensive care unit at University Hospital Gasthuisberg. : Ninety critically ill patients were included as soon as their cardiorespiratory condition allowed bedside cycling exercise (starting from day 5), given they still had an expected prolonged intensive care unit stay of at least 7 more days. : Both groups received respiratory physiotherapy and a daily standardized passive or active motion session of upper and lower limbs. In addition, the treatment group performed a passive or active exercise training session for 20 mins/day, using a bedside ergometer. : All outcome data are reflective for survivors. Quadriceps force and functional status were assessed at intensive care unit discharge and hospital discharge. Six-minute walking distance was measured at hospital discharge. No adverse events were identified during and immediately after the exercise training. At intensive care unit discharge, quadriceps force and functional status were not different between groups. At hospital discharge, 6-min walking distance, isometric quadriceps force, and the subjective feeling of functional well-being (as measured with "Physical Functioning" item of the Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire) were significantly higher in the treatment group (p < .05). : Early exercise training in critically ill intensive care unit

  7. Altered Energetics of Exercise Explain Risk of Rhabdomyolysis in Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Diekman, E. F.; Visser, G.; Schmitz, J. P. J.; Nievelstein, R. A. J.; de Sain-van der Velden, M.; Wardrop, M.; Van der Pol, W. L.; Houten, S. M.; van Riel, N. A. W.; Takken, T.; Jeneson, J. A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is common in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and other metabolic myopathies, but its pathogenic basis is poorly understood. Here, we show that prolonged bicycling exercise against a standardized moderate workload in VLCADD patients is associated with threefold bigger changes in phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in quadriceps muscle and twofold lower changes in plasma acetyl-carnitine levels than in healthy subjects. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that muscle ATP homeostasis during exercise is compromised in VLCADD. However, the measured rates of PCr and Pi recovery post-exercise showed that the mitochondrial capacity for ATP synthesis in VLCADD muscle was normal. Mathematical modeling of oxidative ATP metabolism in muscle composed of three different fiber types indicated that the observed altered energy balance during submaximal exercise in VLCADD patients may be explained by a slow-to-fast shift in quadriceps fiber-type composition corresponding to 30% of the slow-twitch fiber-type pool in healthy quadriceps muscle. This study demonstrates for the first time that quadriceps energy balance during exercise in VLCADD patients is altered but not because of failing mitochondrial function. Our findings provide new clues to understanding the risk of rhabdomyolysis following exercise in human VLCADD. PMID:26881790

  8. Predicting maximal strength of quadriceps from submaximal performance in individuals with knee joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    McNair, Peter J; Colvin, Matt; Reid, Duncan

    2011-02-01

    To compare the accuracy of 12 maximal strength (1-repetition maximum [1-RM]) equations for predicting quadriceps strength in people with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint. Eighteen subjects with OA of the knee joint attended a rehabilitation gymnasium on 3 occasions: 1) a familiarization session, 2) a session where the 1-RM of the quadriceps was established using a weights machine for an open-chain knee extension exercise and a leg press exercise, and 3) a session where the subjects performed with a load at which they could lift for approximately 10 repetitions only. The data were used in 12 prediction equations to calculate 1-RM strength and compared to the actual 1-RM data. Data were examined using Bland and Altman graphs and statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and typical error values between the actual 1-RM and the respective 1-RM prediction equation data. Difference scores (predicted 1-RM--actual 1-RM) across the injured and control legs were also compared. For the knee extension exercise, the Brown, Brzycki, Epley, Lander, Mayhew et al, Poliquin, and Wathen prediction equations demonstrated the greatest levels of predictive accuracy. All of the ICCs were high (range 0.96–0.99), and typical errors were between 3% and 4%. For the knee press exercise, the Adams, Berger, Kemmler et al, and O'Conner et al equations demonstrated the greatest levels of predictive accuracy. All of the ICCs were high (range 0.95-0.98), and the typical errors ranged from 5.9-6.3%. This study provided evidence supporting the use of prediction equations to assess maximal strength in individuals with a knee joint with OA.

  9. Systemic Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Following Isometric Exercise Reduces Conditioned Pain Modulation.

    PubMed

    Alsouhibani, Ali; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Hoeger Bement, Marie

    2018-04-03

    Physically active individuals show greater conditioned pain modulation (CPM) compared with less active individuals. Understanding the effects of acute exercise on CPM may allow for a more targeted use of exercise in the management of pain. This study investigated the effects of acute isometric exercise on CPM. In addition, the between-session and within-session reliability of CPM was investigated. Experimental, randomized crossover study. Laboratory at Marquette University. Thirty healthy adults (19.3±1.5 years, 15 males). Subjects underwent CPM testing before and after isometric exercise (knee extension, 30% maximum voluntary contraction for three minutes) and quiet rest in two separate experimental sessions. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the quadriceps and upper trapezius muscles were assessed before, during, and after ice water immersions. PPTs increased during ice water immersion (i.e., CPM), and quadriceps PPT increased after exercise (P < 0.05). CPM decreased similarly following exercise and quiet rest (P > 0.05). CPM within-session reliability was fair to good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-0.70), and the between-session reliability was poor (ICC = 0.20-0.35). Due to the variability in the systemic exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) response, participants were divided into systemic EIH responders (N = 9) and nonresponders (N = 21). EIH responders experienced attenuated CPM following exercise (P = 0.03), whereas the nonresponders showed no significant change (P > 0.05). Isometric exercise decreased CPM in individuals who reported systemic EIH, suggesting activation of shared mechanisms between CPM and systemic EIH responses. These results may improve the understanding of increased pain after exercise in patients with chronic pain and potentially attenuated CPM.

  10. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength. This systematic review investigates the current evidence regarding the effects of WBV training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PEDro, and Science citation index for research articles published prior to March 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, strength and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading 'Osteoarthritis knee'. This meta-analysis was limited to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by two independent evaluators using the PEDro scale and criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (ISMNI) for reporting WBV intervention studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool for domain-based evaluation. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. Eighteen studies were identified in the search. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of these four studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Out of the four studies, only one study found significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength gains following WBV compared to the control group. In three of the four studies that compared a control group performing the same exercise as the WBV groups, no additional effect of WBV on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee OA was indicated. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hip Strength in Patients with Quadriceps Strength Deficits after ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Post, Eric G; Walden, Courtney E

    2016-10-01

    Quadriceps strength deficits persist for years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and patients with these deficits often shift torque demands away from the knee extensors to the hip during functional tasks. However, it is not clear how quadriceps strength deficits may affect hip strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in lower extremity strength in individuals with ACL reconstruction with differing levels of quadriceps strength asymmetry. Isometric strength was recorded bilaterally in 135 participants (73 control and 62 with unilateral ACL reconstruction, time from surgery = 30.9 ± 17.6 months) from the knee extensors and flexors, hip extensors and abductors, and hip internal and external rotator muscle groups. Symmetry indices (limb symmetry index (LSI)) were created based on quadriceps strength, and subjects with ACL reconstruction were subdivided (high quadriceps (LSI ≥ 90%), n = 37; low quadriceps (LSI < 85%), n = 18). Individual group (control vs high quadriceps vs low quadriceps) by limb (reconstructed/nondominant vs healthy/dominant) repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare strength (%BW) for each of the six joint motions of interest (knee extensors/flexors, hip abductors/extensors/external, and internal rotators) while controlling for time from surgery. An interaction was observed for quadriceps strength (P < 0.001), and the reconstructed limb in the low quadriceps group was weaker than all other limbs. A main effect for group was observed with the low quadriceps group having greater hip extension (P = 0.007) strength in both limbs compared with the other groups. Knee flexion strength was weaker in the reconstructed limb of the high quadriceps group (P = 0.047) compared with all other groups and limbs. Individuals with ACL reconstruction and involved limb quadriceps weakness have greater hip extension strength in both limbs compared with patients with bilateral strength symmetry and controls.

  12. Effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hoon; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] Thirty women over 65 years of age diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis participated in the present study. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10), a progressive resistance training group (n=10), or a Russian electrical stimulation group (n=10). [Methods] Each group was treated 3 times weekly for 8 weeks, and each session lasted 45 minutes. Muscle strength was assessed by measuring the peak torque of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and at the fourth and eighth weeks of the treatment period. [Results] All groups showed significant intragroup differences in the quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque after the treatment intervention. There were significant intergroup differences between the Russian electrical stimulation group and the other groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation can be effective in strengthening the quadriceps femoris muscle in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

  13. An Evidence-Based Framework for Strengthening Exercises to Prevent Hamstring Injury.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Matthew N; Timmins, Ryan G; Opar, David A; Pizzari, Tania; Ruddy, Joshua D; Sims, Casey; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    Strength training is a valuable component of hamstring strain injury prevention programmes; however, in recent years a significant body of work has emerged to suggest that the acute responses and chronic adaptations to training with different exercises are heterogeneous. Unfortunately, these research findings do not appear to have uniformly influenced clinical guidelines for exercise selection in hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programmes. The purpose of this review was to provide the practitioner with an evidence-base from which to prescribe strengthening exercises to mitigate the risk of hamstring injury. Several studies have established that eccentric knee flexor conditioning reduces the risk of hamstring strain injury when compliance is adequate. The benefits of this type of training are likely to be at least partly mediated by increases in biceps femoris long head fascicle length and improvements in eccentric knee flexor strength. Therefore, selecting exercises with a proven benefit on these variables should form the basis of effective injury prevention protocols. In addition, a growing body of work suggests that the patterns of hamstring muscle activation diverge significantly between different exercises. Typically, relatively higher levels of biceps femoris long head and semimembranosus activity have been observed during hip extension-oriented movements, whereas preferential semitendinosus and biceps femoris short head activation have been reported during knee flexion-oriented movements. These findings may have implications for targeting specific muscles in injury prevention programmes. An evidence-based approach to strength training for the prevention of hamstring strain injury should consider the impact of exercise selection on muscle activation, and the effect of training interventions on hamstring muscle architecture, morphology and function. Most importantly, practitioners should consider the effect of a strength training programme on

  14. Effects of ankle strengthening exercise program on an unstable supporting surface on proprioception and balance in adults with functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sun-Young; Han, Jun-Ho; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2018-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of ankle strengthening exercise applied on unstable supporting surfaces on the proprioceptive sense and balance in adults with functional ankle instability. As for the study method, 30 adults with functional ankle instability were randomly assigned to an ankle strengthening exercise group and a stretching group on unstable supporting surfaces, and the interventions were implemented for 40 min. Before and after the interventions, a digital dual inclinometer was used to measure the proprioceptive sense of the ankle, the Balancia program was used to measure static balance ability, and the functional reach test was used to measure dynamic balance ability. In the results, both proprioceptive sense and static dynamic balance ability were significantly different between before and after the intervention in the experimental group ( P <0.05). When such results are put together, it can be seen that ankle strengthening exercise applied on unstable supporting surfaces may be presented as an effective treatment method for enhancing the proprioceptive sense and balance ability in adults with functional ankle instability.

  15. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios.

    PubMed

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-10-18

    To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). Similarly, static stretching also decreased eccentric and concentric hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). On the other hand, when the functional H/Q strength ratios were taken into consideration, the pre-intervention values were not significant different between the groups both during the entire and end range of knee extension (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static

  16. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    PubMed Central

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). Similarly, static stretching also decreased eccentric and concentric hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). On the other hand, when the functional H/Q strength ratios were taken into consideration, the pre-intervention values were not significant different between the groups both during the entire and end range of knee extension (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension

  17. Effect of bilateral lower limb strengthening exercise on balance and walking in hemiparetic patients after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hye Joo; Hwang, Byong Yong

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the effect of bilateral lower limb strengthening designed to improve balance and walking in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty hemiparetic stroke patients were divided into two groups: a unilateral therapy group (UTG) (n=10) and a bilateral therapy group (BTG) (n=10). The UTG completed strength training only in the paretic lower limb. The BTG completed strength training in the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs. Assessment tools included the functional reach test (FRT), the Berg balance scale (BBS), the timed up and go (TUG) test, and a 10-meter walk test (10MWT). [Results] In both groups, the lower limb strengthening exercise for balance and walking significantly improved the FRT, BBS, TUG, and 10MWT scores. Compared with UTG, the BTG attained significantly improved FRT and BBS scores. [Conclusion] Bilateral therapy using this lower limb strengthening exercise effectively promotes balance in hemiparetic stroke patients.

  18. Effect of bilateral lower limb strengthening exercise on balance and walking in hemiparetic patients after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hye Joo; Hwang, Byong Yong

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the effect of bilateral lower limb strengthening designed to improve balance and walking in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty hemiparetic stroke patients were divided into two groups: a unilateral therapy group (UTG) (n=10) and a bilateral therapy group (BTG) (n=10). The UTG completed strength training only in the paretic lower limb. The BTG completed strength training in the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs. Assessment tools included the functional reach test (FRT), the Berg balance scale (BBS), the timed up and go (TUG) test, and a 10-meter walk test (10MWT). [Results] In both groups, the lower limb strengthening exercise for balance and walking significantly improved the FRT, BBS, TUG, and 10MWT scores. Compared with UTG, the BTG attained significantly improved FRT and BBS scores. [Conclusion] Bilateral therapy using this lower limb strengthening exercise effectively promotes balance in hemiparetic stroke patients. PMID:29545693

  19. Effect of Individual Strengthening Exercises for Anterior Pelvic Tilt Muscles on Back Pain, Pelvic Angle, and Lumbar ROMs of a LBP Patient with Flat Back.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of individual strengthening exercises for the anterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with flat back. [Subject] A 37 year-old male, who complained of LBP pain at L3-5 levels with flat back, participated. [Methods] He performed the individual strengthening exercises for anterior pelvic tilt muscles (erector spinae,iliopsoas, rectus femoris). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles of the right and left sides were recovered to normal ranges. His lumbar ROMs increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that individual resistance exercises are a necessary approach for effective and fast strengthening of pelvic anterior tilt muscles in LBP with flat back.

  20. Follistatin-like 3 is a mediator of exercise-driven bone formation and strengthening

    PubMed Central

    Nam, J; Perera, P; Gordon, R; Jeong, Y; Blazek, AD; Kim, DG; Tee, BC; Sun, Z; Eubank, TD; Zhao, Y; Lablebecioglu, B; Liu, S; Litsky, A; Weisleder, NL; Lee, BS; Butterfield, T; Schneyer, AL; Agarwal, S

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is vital for maintaining bone strength and architecture. Follistatin like 3 (FSTL3), a member of Follistatin family, is a mechanosensitive protein upregulated in response to exercise and is involved in regulating musculoskeletal health, we investigated the potential role of FSTL3 in exercise-driven bone remodeling. Exercise-dependent regulation of bone structure and functions was compared in mice with global Fstl3 gene deletion (Fstl3−/−) and their age-matched Fstl3+/+ littermates. Mice were exercised by low-intensity treadmill walking. The mechanical properties and mineralization were determined by μCT, three-point bending test and sequential incorporation of calcein and alizarin complexone. ELISA, Western-blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the regulation of FSTL3 and associated molecules in the serum specimens and tissues. Daily exercise significantly increased circulating FSTL3 levels in mice, rats and humans. Compared to age-matched littermates, Fstl3−/− mice exhibited significantly lower fracture tolerance, having greater stiffness, but lower strain at fracture and yield energy. Furthermore, increased levels of circulating FSTL3 in young mice paralleled greater strain at fracture compared to the lower levels of FSTL3 in older mice. More significantly, Fstl3−/− mice exhibited loss of mechanosensitivity and irresponsiveness to exercise-dependent bone formation as compared to their Fstl3+/+ littermates. In addition, FSTL3 gene deletion resulted in loss of exercise-dependent sclerostin regulation in osteocytes and osteoblasts, as compared to Fstl3+/+ osteocytes and osteoblasts, in vivo and in vitro. The data identifies FSTL3 as a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation and strengthening and point to its potential role in bone health and in musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:25937185

  1. Randomized pilot trial of yoga versus strengthening exercises in breast cancer survivors with cancer-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Stan, Daniela L; Croghan, Katrina A; Croghan, Ivana T; Jenkins, Sarah M; Sutherland, Stephanie J; Cheville, Andrea L; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and bothersome refractory symptoms experienced by cancer survivors. Mindful exercise interventions such as yoga improve cancer-related fatigue; however, studies of yoga have included heterogeneous survivorship populations, and the effect of yoga on fatigued survivors remains unclear. We randomly assigned 34 early-stage breast cancer survivors with cancer-related fatigue (≥4 on a Likert scale from 1-10) within 1 year from diagnosis to a 12-week intervention of home-based yoga versus strengthening exercises, both presented on a DVD. The primary endpoints were feasibility and changes in fatigue, as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF). Secondary endpoint was quality of life, assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapies-Breast (FACT-B). We invited 401 women to participate in the study; 78 responded, and we enrolled 34. Both groups had significant within-group improvement in multiple domains of the fatigue and quality of life scores from baseline to post-intervention, and these benefits were maintained at 3 months post-intervention. However, there was no significant difference between groups in fatigue or quality of life at any assessment time. Similarly, there was no difference between groups in adherence to the exercise intervention. Both DVD-based yoga and strengthening exercises designed for cancer survivors may be good options to address fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Both have reasonable uptake, are convenient and reproducible, and may be helpful in decreasing fatigue and improving quality of life in the first year post-diagnosis in breast cancer patients with cancer-related fatigue.

  2. Different Muscle Action Training Protocols on Quadriceps-Hamstrings Neuromuscular Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Ruas, Cassio V; Brown, Lee E; Lima, Camila D; Gregory Haff, G; Pinto, Ronei S

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three specific concentric and eccentric muscle action training protocols on quadriceps-hamstrings neuromuscular adaptations. Forty male volunteers performed 6 weeks of training (two sessions/week) of their dominant and non-dominant legs on an isokinetic dynamometer. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups; concentric quadriceps and concentric hamstrings (CON/CON, n=10), eccentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (ECC/ECC, n=10), concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (CON/ECC, n=10), or no training (CTRL, n=10). Intensity of training was increased every week by decreasing the angular velocity for concentric and increasing it for eccentric groups in 30°/s increments. Volume of training was increased by adding one set every week. Dominant leg quadriceps and hamstrings muscle thickness, muscle quality, muscle activation, muscle coactivation, and electromechanical delay were tested before and after training. Results revealed that all training groups similarly increased MT of quadriceps and hamstrings compared to control (p<0.05). However, CON/ECC and ECC/ECC training elicited a greater magnitude of change. There were no significant differences between groups for all other neuromuscular variables (p>0.05). These findings suggest that different short-term muscle action isokinetic training protocols elicit similar muscle size increases in hamstrings and quadriceps, but not for other neuromuscular variables. Nevertheless, effect sizes indicate that CON/ECC and ECC/ECC may elicit the greatest magnitude of change in muscle hypertrophy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Unique Positioning for Using Elastic Resistance Band in Providing Strengthening Exercise to the Muscles Surrounding the Ankle

    PubMed Central

    Bandy, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Ankle sprains are among the most common injuries incurred by participants in athletics. Conservative management of the patient after an ankle sprain includes a comprehensive rehabilitation program of which the resistance exercises are a part and are frequently advised by the clinician, many times as part of a home exercise program. The purpose of this Clinical Suggestion is to present a unique method of using elastic resistance band to provide strengthening activities to the inverters, ever-tors, plantarflexors, and dorsiflexors of the ankle. The method is unique, as well as convenient and efficient, as it allows the subject to perform all four exercises with a minimum of change in position, while staying seated in a chair. PMID:21522203

  4. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio.

    PubMed

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J; Sargeant, Anthony J

    2003-08-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also investigated whether, apart from CSA, MVA and MRR were determinants of muscle strength. Polio subjects had significantly less strength, CSA, and MRR in the more-affected quadriceps than control subjects. MVA was reduced in 18 polio subjects and normal in all controls. PPS subjects differed from non-PPS subjects only in that the MVA of the more-affected quadriceps was significantly lower. Both CSA and MVA were found to be associated with muscle strength. Quadriceps strength in polio subjects was dependent not only on muscle mass, but also on the ability to activate the muscles. Since impaired activation was more pronounced in PPS subjects, the new muscle weakness and functional decline in PPS may be due not only to a gradual loss of muscle fibers, but also to an increasing inability to activate the muscles.

  5. Efficacy of core muscle strengthening exercise in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Kumar, Suraj; Nezamuddin, Md; Sharma, V P

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a common health problem in human being and about 5 to 15% will develop chronic low back pain (CLBP). The clinical findings of CLBP suggest that lumbar mobility is decreased and recruitment order of core muscles is altered. In literature, there is no data about the effect of core muscles strengthening in the chronicity (short duration, long duration) of CLBP. This study evaluated the effect of core muscle strengthening intervention on chronicity of chronic low back pain. Thirty patients were recruited from the outpatient department of the National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped. These 30 patients divided into two groups: A and B on the basis of duration of low back pain. Group-A patients complain about pain duration for more than twelve months and Group B complains about pain duration from three to twelve months. Both the groups were received same intervention for six weeks. Assessment was done pre intervention and post intervention after six weeks for both the groups. %For both the groups the assessment was done after six weeks for pre and post intervention. The result described both the groups showed improvement in all the outcome measures including pain as well as in function using Numerical pain rating scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Sorensen test, Gluteus Maximus Strength, Activation of transversus abdominis and Modified-Modified Schober's Test. The improvement was statistically non-significant with inter groups and significant within group. This study concludes that core muscle strengthening exercise along with lumbar flexibility and gluteus maximus strengthening is an effective rehabilitation technique for all chronic low back pain patients irrespective of duration (less than one year and more than one year) of their pain.

  6. High-intensity exercise training induces morphological and biochemical changes in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Toti, L; Bartalucci, A; Ferrucci, M; Fulceri, F; Lazzeri, G; Lenzi, P; Soldani, P; Gobbi, P; La Torre, A; Gesi, M

    2013-12-01

    IN THE PRESENT STUDY WE INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT EXERCISE PROTOCOLS ON FIBRE COMPOSITION AND METABOLISM OF TWO SPECIFIC MUSCLES OF MICE: the quadriceps and the gastrocnemius. Mice were run daily on a motorized treadmill, at a velocity corresponding to 60% or 90% of the maximal running velocity. Blood lactate and body weight were measured during exercise training. We found that at the end of training the body weight significantly increased in high-intensity exercise mice compared to the control group (P=0.0268), whereas it decreased in low-intensity exercise mice compared to controls (P=0.30). In contrast, the food intake was greater in both trained mice compared to controls (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a progressive reduction in blood lactate levels at the end of training in both the exercised mice compared with controls (P=0.03 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively); in particular, blood lactate levels after high-intensity exercise were significantly lower than those measured in low-intensity exercise mice (P=0.0044). Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that high-intensity exercise training produced a significant increase in the expression of mitochondrial enzymes contained within gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. These changes were associated with an increase in the amount of slow fibres in both these muscles of high-intensity exercise mice, as revealed by the counts of slow fibres stained with specific antibodies (P < 0.0001 for the gastrocnemius; P=0.0002 for the quadriceps). Our results demonstrate that high-intensity exercise, in addition to metabolic changes consisting of a decrease in blood lactate and body weight, induces an increase in the mitochondrial enzymes and slow fibres in different skeletal muscles of mice, which indicates an exercise-induced increase in the aerobic metabolism.

  7. Quadriceps Function and Knee Joint Ultrasonography after ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pamukoff, Derek N; Montgomery, Melissa M; Moffit, Tyler J; Vakula, Michael N

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are at greater risk for knee osteoarthritis, partially because of chronic quadriceps dysfunction. Articular cartilage is commonly assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and radiography, but these methods are expensive and lack portability. Ultrasound imaging may provide a cost-effective and portable alternative for imaging the femoral cartilage. The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonography of the femoral cartilage between the injured and uninjured limbs of individuals with unilateral ACLR, and to examine the association between quadriceps function and ultrasonographic measures of femoral cartilage. Bilateral femoral cartilage thickness and quadriceps function were assessed in 44 individuals with unilateral ACLR. Quadriceps function was assessed using peak isometric strength, and early (RTD100) and late (RTD200) rate of torque development. Cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (P < 0.001) and femoral cartilage cross-sectional area (P = 0.007) were smaller in the injured compared with the uninjured limb. After accounting for time since ACLR, quadriceps peak isometric strength was associated with cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (r = 0.35, P = 0.02) and femoral cartilage cross-sectional area (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). RTD100 and RTD200 were not associated with femoral cartilage thickness or cross-sectional area. Individuals with ACLR have thinner cartilage in their injured limb compared with uninjured limb, and cartilage thickness is associated with quadriceps function. These results indicate that ultrasonography may be useful for monitoring cartilage health and osteoarthritis progression after ACLR.

  8. Effect of eccentric isokinetic strengthening in the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis: Isogo, a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Femorotibial knee osteoarthritis is associated with muscle weakness in the lower limbs, particularly in the quadriceps, which results in disease progression. The interest of having muscular strengthening as part of the therapeutic arsenal for the medical treatment of knee osteoarthritis is now well established. The functional disability induced by knee osteoarthritis manifests itself principally when walking, notably downhill, during which the muscles are called upon to contract eccentrically. We can therefore think that eccentric muscular strengthening could bring a functional benefit that is superior to concentric muscular strengthening. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomized, bicenter, parallel-group, international study. Eighty patients aged from 40 to 75 years old, suffering from medical-stage knee osteoarthritis, will undertake 6 weeks of isokinetic muscular strengthening. Randomization determines the mode of muscular strengthening: either exclusively eccentric or exclusively concentric. The principal objective is to demonstrate the superiority of the improvement in the quadriceps isokinetic torque after isokinetic muscular strengthening by the eccentric mode compared to the concentric mode. The following parameters are also evaluated: the variations in the level of pain, the parameters of walking (maximum speed over 10 and 200 meters, analysis on a computerized Gaitrite™ treadmill), static equilibrium (on a FUSYO™ force platform), and the functional status of the patient using the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) questionnaire after the strengthening period and at 6 months. Discussion A better knowledge of the most effective mode of muscular strengthening is needed to optimize the functional benefits to the patients. In case of superiority in terms of efficacy of the eccentric mode, the latter could be given priority in the rehabilitation treatment of knee osteoarthritis patients. Trial

  9. Effect of eccentric isokinetic strengthening in the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis: Isogo, a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jegu, Anne-Gaëlle; Pereira, Bruno; Andant, Nicolas; Coudeyre, Emmanuel

    2014-04-02

    Femorotibial knee osteoarthritis is associated with muscle weakness in the lower limbs, particularly in the quadriceps, which results in disease progression. The interest of having muscular strengthening as part of the therapeutic arsenal for the medical treatment of knee osteoarthritis is now well established.The functional disability induced by knee osteoarthritis manifests itself principally when walking, notably downhill, during which the muscles are called upon to contract eccentrically.We can therefore think that eccentric muscular strengthening could bring a functional benefit that is superior to concentric muscular strengthening. This is a prospective, randomized, bicenter, parallel-group, international study. Eighty patients aged from 40 to 75 years old, suffering from medical-stage knee osteoarthritis, will undertake 6 weeks of isokinetic muscular strengthening. Randomization determines the mode of muscular strengthening: either exclusively eccentric or exclusively concentric.The principal objective is to demonstrate the superiority of the improvement in the quadriceps isokinetic torque after isokinetic muscular strengthening by the eccentric mode compared to the concentric mode.The following parameters are also evaluated: the variations in the level of pain, the parameters of walking (maximum speed over 10 and 200 meters, analysis on a computerized Gaitrite™ treadmill), static equilibrium (on a FUSYO™ force platform), and the functional status of the patient using the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) questionnaire after the strengthening period and at 6 months. A better knowledge of the most effective mode of muscular strengthening is needed to optimize the functional benefits to the patients. In case of superiority in terms of efficacy of the eccentric mode, the latter could be given priority in the rehabilitation treatment of knee osteoarthritis patients. Clinical trials.gov number: NCT01586130.

  10. Effect of Tibial Posterior Slope on Knee Kinematics, Quadriceps Force, and Patellofemoral Contact Force After Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shigetoshi; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Hamai, Satoshi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-08-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model validated with in vivo data to evaluate the effect of tibial posterior slope on knee kinematics, quadriceps force, and patellofemoral contact force after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The maximum quadriceps force and patellofemoral contact force decreased with increasing posterior slope. Anterior sliding of the tibial component and anterior impingement of the anterior aspect of the tibial post were observed with tibial posterior slopes of at least 5° and 10°, respectively. Increased tibial posterior slope contributes to improved exercise efficiency during knee extension, however excessive tibial posterior slope should be avoided to prevent knee instability. Based on our computer simulation we recommend tibial posterior slopes of less than 5° in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Running exercise strengthens the intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    Belavý, Daniel L.; Quittner, Matthew J.; Ridgers, Nicola; Ling, Yuan; Connell, David; Rantalainen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    There is currently no evidence that the intervertebral discs (IVDs) can respond positively to exercise in humans. Some authors have argued that IVD metabolism in humans is too slow to respond anabolically to exercise within the human lifespan. Here we show that chronic running exercise in men and women is associated with better IVD composition (hydration and proteoglycan content) and with IVD hypertrophy. Via quantitative assessment of physical activity we further find that accelerations at fast walking and slow running (2 m/s), but not high-impact tasks, lower intensity walking or static positions, correlated to positive IVD characteristics. These findings represent the first evidence in humans that exercise can be beneficial for the IVD and provide support for the notion that specific exercise protocols may improve IVD material properties in the spine. We anticipate that our findings will be a starting point to better define exercise protocols and physical activity profiles for IVD anabolism in humans. PMID:28422125

  12. Suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Won B; Kamath, Atul F; Israelite, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication, usually requiring surgical repair. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for repair of the ruptured native knee quadriceps tendon, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in quadriceps repair after TKA. We present an illustrative case of successful suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps mechanism after TKA. The procedure has been performed in a total of 3 patients. A surgical technique and brief review of the literature follows. Suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps tendon is a viable option in the setting of rupture after TKA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christian; Steensen, Robert; Gföller, Peter; Lawton, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Critically evaluate the published literature related to quadriceps tendon (QT) medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Hamstring tendon (HT) MPFL reconstruction techniques have been shown to successfully restore patella stability, but complications including patella fracture are reported. Quadriceps tendon (QT) reconstruction techniques with an intact graft pedicle on the patella side have the advantage that patella bone tunnel drilling and fixation are no longer needed, reducing risk of patella fracture. Several QT MPFL reconstruction techniques, including minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches, have been published with promising clinical results and fewer complications than with HT techniques. Parallel laboratory studies have shown macroscopic anatomy and biomechanical properties of QT are more similar to native MPFL than hamstring (HS) HT, suggesting QT may more accurately restore native joint kinematics. Quadriceps tendon MPFL reconstruction, via both open and MIS techniques, have promising clinical results and offer valuable alternatives to HS grafts for primary and revision MPFL reconstruction in both children and adults.

  14. Quadriceps tendon injuries in national football league players.

    PubMed

    Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There

  15. Effect of 3 Different Applications of Kinesio Taping Denko® on Electromyographic Activity: Inhibition or Facilitation of the Quadriceps of Males During Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Serrão, Júlio C.; Mezêncio, Bruno; Claudino, João G.; Soncin, Rafael; Miyashiro, Pedro L. Sampaio; Sousa, Eric P.; Borges, Eduardo; Zanetti, Vinícius; Phillip, Igor; Mochizuki, Luiz; Amadio, Alberto C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio taping consists of a technique which uses the application of an elastic adhesive tape. It has become a widely used rehabilitation modality for the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the application of Kinesio Taping Denko® in three conditions (facilitation, inhibition, and placebo) on the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles on facilitating or inhibiting the muscle function and on the perceived exertion during the barbell back squat exercise in healthy male subjects. Methods: It was a randomized, single-blinded and controlled study in which 18 males (28.0 ± 6.7 years old; 85.8 ± 8.2 kg mass; 1.80 ± 0.07 m tall; 0.97 ± 0.04 m lower limb length) performed barbell back squat exercise with different conditions of Kinesio Taping Denko® applications: Facilitation, inhibition and placebo. Previous to the mentioned conditions, all individuals were assessed without applying kinesio Taping Denko® during the exercise. OMNI scale was used after each set for perceived exertion evaluation. No differences (p < 0.05) in the electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis or OMNI scale were recorded under any conditions. The results show that the kinesio taping denko®may not alter the magnitude of the electromyography activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris during the squat exercise. Furthermore, the perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesio taping denko® application. Key points Researchers involved in collecting data in this study have no financial or personal interest in the outcome of results or the sponsor. The perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesiology taping application. Kinesiology taping application may not alter the magnitude of EMG activity of vastuslateralis, vastusmedialis, and biceps femoris during the barbell back squat exercise. Electromyographic activity of

  16. Neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during isometric maximal, submaximal and submaximal fatiguing voluntary contractions in knee osteoarthrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Jacksteit, Robert; Jackszis, Mario; Feldhege, Frank; Weippert, Matthias; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer; Skripitz, Ralf; Behrens, Martin

    2017-01-01

    .049). Conclusion KOA is not only associated with a deterioration of IMVT and neuromuscular activation, but also with an impaired position and torque control at submaximal torque levels, an altered EMG-torque relationship and a higher performance fatigability of the quadriceps muscle. It is recommended that the rehabilitation includes strengthening and fatiguing exercises at maximal and submaximal force levels. PMID:28505208

  17. Therapeutic Effect Evaluation of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation With or Without Strengthening Exercise on Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ya-Chao; Niu, Xiao-Li; Gao, Ya-Ran; Wang, He-Bo; Hu, Ming; Dong, Li-Peng; Li, Ya-Zhou

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) combined with strengthening exercise on movement in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). One hundred children with spastic CP were randomly divided into a treatment group (NMES and strengthening exercise, n = 50) and a control group (only NMES, n = 50). We compared the Comprehensive Spasticity Scale (CSS) score, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) score, and walking speed before treatment and 6 weeks and 3 months after treatment between the 2 groups. There was no difference in CSS score between the treatment and control groups before the therapy (12.0 ± 3.4 vs 12.3 ± 3.6), which decreased much more in the treatment group after 6 weeks (7.6 ± 3.0 vs 9.5 ± 2.8) and 3 months (7.4 ± 2.4 vs 9.4 ± 2.6) with significant differences ( P < .05). No difference in GMFM score was observed between the treatment and control groups before the therapy (44.5 ± 13.2 vs 44.0 ± 12.6), which increased much more in the treatment group after 6 weeks (70.6 ± 15.2 vs 56.7 ± 14.3) and 3 months (71.0 ± 16.4 vs 58.0 ± 15.6) with significant differences ( P < .05). The walking speed improved over time, which was the same before the treatment (0.43 ± 0.13 m/s vs 0.45 ± 0.14 m/s), and was significantly greater in the treatment group than that in the control group (6 weeks: 0.69 ± 0.15 m/s vs 0.56 ± 0.12 m/s, P < .05; 3 months: 0.72 ± 0.17 m/s vs 0.57 ± 0.18 m/s, P < .05). NMES combined with strengthening exercise was more effective than NMES alone in the recovery of spastic CP.

  18. Comparison of hamstring and quadriceps femoris electromyographic activity between men and women during a single-limb squat on both a stable and labile surface.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H; Hitchcock, James R; Hoyme, Gregory J; Johnsen, Jeremiah J

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of a partial single-leg squat (SLS) on both a stable and labile ground surface against body weight resistance. Thirty healthy participants (15 men and 15 women) performed an SLS on both a stable surface and a 6.4-cm-thick vinyl pad. Surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles during the extension phase of the SLS. Statistical analysis revealed that women produced 14% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their quadriceps than the men during the SLS on a stable surface, whereas the men generated 18% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their hamstrings than the women during the SLS on a labile surface. Additionally, we found a statistically significant sex effect (p = 0.048) for the hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) EMG ratio, which was 2.25 and 0.62, respectively, for men and women on the stable surface and 2.52 and 0.71, respectively, on the labile surface. We concluded that women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of SLS against body weight resistance on either a stable or labile surface condition. During an SLS, men showed an H/Q ratio approximately 3.5 times larger than their female counterparts, suggesting that men activate their hamstrings more effectively than women during an SLS. According to our data, the SLS may not be an ideal exercise for activating the hamstring muscles in women without additional neuromuscular training techniques, because women are quadriceps dominant during the SLS.

  19. Disruption of quadriceps tendon after total knee arthroplasty: Case report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Soong, J W; Silva, A N; Andrew, Tan Hc

    2017-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but dire complication. It is associated with adverse outcomes and morbidities. Studies on such complications are scarce in the literature. In this study, we share our experience in the management of four patients who sustained quadriceps tendon rupture in the early postoperative period. Efforts should be focused on prevention. Meticulous surgical techniques during the medial parapatellar approach to preserve the integrity of quadriceps can reduce the risk of rupture. The importance of prompt diagnosis is emphasized as delayed treatment may lead to poor outcomes. However, making a diagnosis can be challenging, as worsening of the quadriceps strength after TKA is expected because of the surgical approach that violates the quadriceps muscle. In an event of postoperative trauma with resultant extensor weakness, an ultrasound evaluation to exclude a quadriceps tendon rupture should be promptly performed after a fracture is excluded.

  20. Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance: effects of ballistic vs controlled contractions.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-02-01

    The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG. Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. The following results were obtained. Loading intensity affected EMG amplitude in the order: lowquadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude during medium-load ballistic contractions exceeded that recorded during high-load controlled contractions. Quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude increased at flexed knee positions. In contrast, hamstrings EMG amplitude remained constant throughout ROM during dumbbell lunge, but increased at more extended knee joint positions during lunges using elastic resistance. Based on these results, it can be concluded that lunges performed using medium-load ballistic muscle contractions may induce similar or even higher leg muscle activity than lunges using high-load slow-speed contractions. Consequently, lunges using elastic resistance appear to be equally effective in inducing high leg muscle activity as traditional lunges using isoinertial resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. −1.45%, p < 0.001), RF (37.5% vs. −8.33%, p < 0.001), VM (12% vs. −12%, p < 0.018), and VL EMG activity (20% vs. −6.67%, p < 0.001) after dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching. PMID:24511339

  2. Electromyographic Analysis of Single-Leg, Closed Chain Exercises: Implications for Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, Anthony I.; Cooper, Leslie W.; Kirkendall, Don T.; Garrett, William E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Many knee rehabilitation studies have examined open and closed kinetic chain exercises. However, most studies focus on 2-legged, closed chain exercise. The purpose of our study was to characterize 1-legged, closed chain exercise in young, healthy subjects. Subjects: Eighteen normal subjects (11 men, 7 women; age, 24.6 ± 1.6 years) performed unsupported, 1-legged squats and step-ups to approximately tibial height. Measurements: Knee angle data and surface electromyographic activity from the thigh muscles were recorded. Results: The maximum angle of knee flexion was 111 ± 23° for squats and 101 ± 16° for step-ups. The peak quadriceps activation was 201 ± 66% maximum voluntary isometric contraction, occurring at an angle of 96 ± 16° for squats. Peak quadriceps activation was 207 ± 50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction and occurred at 83 ± 12° for step-ups. Conclusions: The high and sustained levels of quadriceps activation indicate that 1-legged squats and step-ups would be effective in muscle rehabilitation. As functional, closed chain activities, they may also be protective of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. Because these exercises involve no weights or training equipment, they may prove more cost effective than traditional modes of rehabilitation. PMID:12937438

  3. A system for evaluation and exercise-conditioning of paralyzed leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Gruner, J A; Glaser, R M; Feinberg, S D; Collins, S R; Nussbaum, N S

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop instrumentation and protocols in which electrical stimulation is used to induce exercise in paralyzed quadriceps muscles strength and endurance evaluation and conditioning. A computer-controlled electrical stimulation system, using surface electrodes, automatically regulates the bouts of leg extension exercise. Load weights attached just above the ankles can be progressively increased over a number of training sessions in such a manner that a measure of the fitness of the legs can be obtained. With three exercise sessions per week for 9 weeks, the strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscles of two paraplegic and four quadriplegic subjects were gradually and safely increased. During exercise at a means load weight of 5.4 kg, means heart rate did not rise above rest, whereas systolic blood pressure increased about 20 mm Hg, and skin temperature above the active muscles increased about 1.75 degrees C. Such exercise conditioning appears to be safe and may provide important health benefits, including improved fitness of the muscles and bones, better circulation in the paralyzed limbs, and enhanced self-image. Conditioned electrically stimulated paralyzed leg muscles may be used for locomotion in conjunction with special vehicles.

  4. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis--a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme.

    PubMed

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-12-01

    To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group.

  5. Quadriceps intramuscular fat fraction rather than muscle size is associated with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; MacLeod, Toran D.; Lin, Wilson; Nardo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila; Souza, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare thigh muscle intramuscular fat (intraMF) fractions and area between people with and without knee radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA); and to evaluate the relationships of quadriceps adiposity and area with strength, function and knee MRI lesions. Methods Ninety six subjects (ROA: KL >1; n = 30, control: KL = 0,1; n = 66) underwent 3-Tesla MRI of the thigh muscles using chemical shift-based water/fat MR imaging (fat fractions) and the knee (clinical grading). Subjects were assessed for isometric/isokinetic quadriceps/hamstrings strength, function (KOOS, stair climbing test [SCT], and 6-minute walk test [(6MWT]. Thigh muscle intraMF fractions, muscle area and strength, and function were compared between controls and ROA subjects, adjusting for age. Relationships between measures of muscle fat/area with strength, function, KL and lesion scores were assessed using regression and correlational analyses. Results The ROA group had worse KOOS scores but SCT and 6MWT were not different. The ROA group had greater quadriceps intraMF fraction but not for other muscles. Quadriceps strength was lower in ROA group but the area was not different. Quadriceps intraMF fraction but not area predicted self-reported disability. Aging, worse KL, and cartilage and meniscus lesions were associated with higher quadriceps intraMF fraction. Conclusion Quadriceps intraMF is higher in people with knee OA and is related to symptomatic and structural severity of knee OA, where as the quadriceps area is not. Quadriceps fat fraction from chemical shift-based water/fat MR imaging may have utility as a marker of structural and symptomatic severity of knee OA disease process. PMID:24361743

  6. Cardiovascular fitness strengthening using portable device.

    PubMed

    Alqudah, Hamzah; Kai Cao; Tao Zhang; Haddad, Azzam; Su, Steven; Celler, Branko; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes a reliable and valid Portable Exercise Monitoring system developed using TI eZ430-Chronos watch, which can control the exercise intensity through audio stimulation in order to increase the Cardiovascular fitness strengthening.

  7. Effect of the Individual Strengthening Exercises for Posterior Pelvic Tilt Muscles on Back Pain, Pelvic Angle, and Lumbar ROM of a LBP Patient with Excessive Lordosis: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to document the effect of individual strengthening exercises for posterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with excessive lordosis. [Subjects] The subject was a 28 year-old male with excessive lordosis who complained of severe LBP at the L3 level. [Methods] He performed individual strengthening exercises for the posterior pelvic tilt muscles (rectus abdominis, gluteus maximus, hamstring). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles on the right and left sides recovered to his normal ranges. Limited lumbar ROM increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that an approach of individual resistance exercises is necessary for the effective and fast strengthening of the pelvic posterior tilt muscles in case of LBP with excessive lordosis.

  8. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems.

  9. Interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate determined with MSNA during exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLean, D. A.; Imadojemu, V. A.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use the microdialysis technique to simultaneously measure the interstitial concentrations of several putative stimulators of the exercise pressor reflex during 5 min of intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans (n = 7). Exercise resulted in approximately a threefold (P < 0.05) increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and 13 +/- 3 beats/min (P < 0.05) and 20 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate and blood pressure, respectively. During recovery, all reflex responses quickly returned to baseline. Interstitial lactate levels were increased (P < 0.05) from rest (1.1 +/- 0.1 mM) to exercise (1. 6 +/- 0.2 mM) and were further increased (P < 0.05) during recovery (2.0 +/- 0.2 mM). Dialysate phosphate concentrations were 0.55 +/- 0. 04, 0.71 +/- 0.05, and 0.48 +/- 0.03 mM during rest, exercise, and recovery, respectively, and were significantly elevated during exercise. At the onset of exercise, dialysate K(+) levels rose rapidly above resting values (4.2 +/- 0.1 meq/l) and continued to increase during the exercise bout. After 5 min of contractions, dialysate K(+) levels had peaked with an increase (P < 0.05) of 0.6 +/- 0.1 meq/l and subsequently decreased during recovery, not being different from rest after 3 min. In contrast, H(+) concentrations rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) from resting levels (69.4 +/- 3.7 nM) during quadriceps exercise and continued to decrease with a mean decline (P < 0.05) of 16.7 +/- 3.8 nM being achieved after 5 min. During recovery, H(+) concentrations rapidly increased and were not significantly different from baseline after 1 min. This study represents the first time that skeletal muscle interstitial pH, K(+), lactate, and phosphate have been measured in conjunction with MSNA, heart rate, and blood pressure during intermittent static quadriceps exercise in humans. These data suggest that interstitial K(+) and phosphate, but not lactate and H(+), may contribute to the stimulation

  10. Quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Tra, Yolande; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Egan, Josephine M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Brancati, Frederick L

    2013-05-01

    To examine the independent association between diabetes mellitus (and its duration and severity) and quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in a national population of older adults. Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. United States. Two thousand five hundred seventy-three adults aged 50 and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 who had assessment of quadriceps strength. Diabetes mellitus was ascertained according to questionnaire. Measurement of isokinetic knee extensor (quadriceps) strength was performed at 60º/s. Gait speed was assessed using a 20-foot walk test. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between diabetes mellitus status and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders or mediators. Older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus had significantly slower gait speed (0.96 ± 0.02 m/s) than those without (1.08 ± 0.01 m/s; P < .001). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, weight, and height, diabetes mellitus was also associated with significantly lower quadriceps strength (-4.6 ± 1.9 Nm; P = .02) and power (-4.9 ± 2.0 W; P = .02) and slower gait speed (-0.05 ± 0.02 m/s; P = .002). Associations remained significant after adjusting for physical activity and C-reactive protein. After accounting for comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, amputation, cancer, arthritis, fracture, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), diabetes mellitus was independently associated only with gait speed (-0.04 ± 0.02 m/s; P = .02). Diabetes mellitus duration in men and women was negatively associated with age-adjusted quadriceps strength (-5.7 and -3.5 Nm/decade of diabetes mellitus, respectively) and power (-6.1 and -3.8 W/decade of diabetes mellitus, respectively) (all P ≤ .001, no significant interactions according to sex). Glycosylated hemoglobin was not associated with outcomes after accounting for body weight. Older U.S. adults with diabetes

  11. Exercise and Quality of Life: Strengthening the Connections

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed. PMID:19193547

  12. Exercise and quality of life: strengthening the connections.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen

    2009-02-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed.

  13. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

  14. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis—a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme

    PubMed Central

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. Subjects: 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Methods: Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). Results: In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Conclusion: Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group. PMID:14644853

  15. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LONG-TERM QUADRICEPS WEAKNESS AND EARLY WALKING MUSCLE CO-CONTRACTION AFTER TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yuri; Mizner, Ryan L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Quadriceps weakness is one of the primary post-operative impairments that persist long term for patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesized that early gait muscle recruitment patterns of the quadriceps and hamstrings with diminished knee performance at 3 months after surgery would be related to long-term quadriceps strength at one year after TKA. METHODS Twenty-one subjects who underwent primary unilateral TKA and 14 age-matched healthy controls were analyzed. At three months after TKA, the maximum voluntary isometric contraction of quadriceps and a comprehensive gait analysis were performed. Quadriceps strength was assessed again at one year after surgery. RESULTS Quadriceps muscle recruitment of the operated limb was greater than the non-operated limb during the loading response of gait (p=0.03), but there were no significant differences in hamstring recruitment or co-contraction between limbs (p>0.05). There were significant differences in quadriceps muscle recruitment during gait between the non-operated limb of TKA group and healthy control group (p<0.05). The TKA group showed a significant inverse relationship between one year quadriceps strength and co-contraction (r = −0.543) and hamstring muscle recruitment (r = −0.480) during loading response at 3 months after TKA. CONCLUSIONS The results revealed a reverse relationship where stronger patients tended to demonstrate lower quadriceps recruitment at 3 months post-surgery that was not observed in the healthy peer group. The altered neuromuscular patterns of quadriceps and hamstrings during gait may influence chronic quadriceps strength in individuals after TKA. PMID:23352711

  16. Simultaneous Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture in Patient with Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunseok; Kim, Byounggook; Chung, Ju-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a very rare condition and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The etiology is not clear yet. But it occurs infrequently in patients with chronic metabolic disorders. A 30-year-old female patient with simultaneous bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture visited our hospital. She had chronic renal failure and her parathyroid hormone level was elevated due to parathyroid adenoma. We report a surgical repair of both quadriceps tendons of a patient with chronic renal failure as well as management of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:22570843

  17. Gear Shifting of Quadriceps during Isometric Knee Extension Disclosed Using Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Huang, Weijian; Zeng, Yu; Shi, Wenxiu; Diao, Xianfen; Wei, Xiguang; Ling, Shan

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been widely employed to estimate the morphological changes of muscle during contraction. To further investigate the motion pattern of quadriceps during isometric knee extensions, we studied the relative motion pattern between femur and quadriceps under ultrasonography. An interesting observation is that although the force of isometric knee extension can be controlled to change almost linearly, femur in the simultaneously captured ultrasound video sequences has several different piecewise moving patterns. This phenomenon is like quadriceps having several forward gear ratios like a car starting from rest towards maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and then returning to rest. Therefore, to verify this assumption, we captured several ultrasound video sequences of isometric knee extension and collected the torque/force signal simultaneously. Then we extract the shapes of femur from these ultrasound video sequences using video processing techniques and study the motion pattern both qualitatively and quantitatively. The phenomenon can be seen easier via a comparison between the torque signal and relative spatial distance between femur and quadriceps. Furthermore, we use cluster analysis techniques to study the process and the clustering results also provided preliminary support to the conclusion that, during both ramp increasing and decreasing phases, quadriceps contraction may have several forward gear ratios relative to femur.

  18. Effects of loaded voluntary wheel exercise on performance and muscle hypertrophy in young and old male C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Soffe, Z; Radley-Crabb, H G; McMahon, C; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Effect of Core Muscle Strengthening Exercises (Including Plank and Side Plank) on Injury Rate in Male Adult Soccer Players: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Blasimann, Angela; Eberle, Simon; Scuderi, Manuel Markus

    2018-03-01

     Soccer is seen as highly intensive sport with an increased injury rate. Male adults are the players with the highest injury incidence. Accordingly, the importance of core muscle strengthening to prevent injury has increased in the past few years. Up to date, core muscle strengthening plays an important role in different prevention programs, such as the "FIFA 11 +". The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of core muscle strengthening on injury rate in male adult soccer players, including at least the known and easy exercises "plank" and "side plank", on injury rate in male adult soccer players.  The databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane Library, SPORTDiscus and Cinahl were searched systematically. Included studies had to comprise exercises for core muscles as an intervention (as a part of a prevention program) for adult male soccer players. The control group had to continue their usual exercise routine. The exercises "plank" and "side plank" were mandatory elements of the training program. The number of injuries and/or the injury rate (per 1000 hours) were defined as outcomes. The quality of the included studies was assessed with the PEDro scale and the Risk of Bias tool.  Seven studies with 2491 participants in total could be included. Two studies found a significant decrease in the injury rate in the intervention group (p < 0.05, p < 0.001 respectively). In two studies, no significance level was reported, but the training showed preventive effects in the intervention group. In the other three studies, no significant changes in the injury rate were found (p > 0.05).  The seven included studies differed greatly with respect to the applied methods, the chosen interventions and the obtained results. Furthermore, core muscles were never trained separately but were always part of a program containing other preventive elements. Therefore, it was difficult to compare the studies. However, prevention programs including

  20. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001) and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001) lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001). Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  1. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001) and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001) lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001). Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees. PMID:26745808

  2. Association of Quadriceps Strength and Psychosocial Factors With Single-Leg Hop Performance in Patients With Meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; George, Steven Z; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians use the single-leg hop test to assess readiness for return to sports after knee injury. Few studies have reported the results of single-leg hop testing after meniscectomy. Additionally, the contributions of impairments in quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors to single-leg hop performance are unknown. To compare single-leg hop performance (distance and landing mechanics) between limbs and to examine the association of single-leg hop performance with quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors in patients with meniscectomy. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 22 subjects who underwent meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears received either standard rehabilitation alone or with additional quadriceps strengthening. Testing was conducted immediately postrehabilitation and at 1 year postsurgery. A single-leg hop test was performed bilaterally, and hop distance was used to create a hop symmetry index. Landing mechanics (peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, and peak vertical ground-reaction force) were analyzed with a motion-capture system and a force plate. An isokinetic dynamometer (60 deg/s) assessed knee extensor peak torque and rate of torque development (RTD 0-200ms and RTD 0-peak torque ). Questionnaires assessed fear of reinjury (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and self-efficacy (Knee Activity Self-Efficacy [KASE]). Rehabilitation groups did not significantly differ in single-leg hop performance; therefore, groups were combined for further analyses. The mean hop symmetry index was 88.6% and 98.9% at postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery, respectively. Compared with the nonsurgical limb, the surgical limb showed decreased peak knee flexion angle at postrehabilitation and decreased knee extension moment at 1 year postsurgery. The hop symmetry index was positively associated with peak torque, RTD 0-200ms , and the KASE score at postrehabilitation. Moreover, at postrehabilitation, the peak knee flexion angle was

  3. Association of Quadriceps Strength and Psychosocial Factors With Single-Leg Hop Performance in Patients With Meniscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; George, Steven Z.; Chmielewski, Terese L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinicians use the single-leg hop test to assess readiness for return to sports after knee injury. Few studies have reported the results of single-leg hop testing after meniscectomy. Additionally, the contributions of impairments in quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors to single-leg hop performance are unknown. Purpose: To compare single-leg hop performance (distance and landing mechanics) between limbs and to examine the association of single-leg hop performance with quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors in patients with meniscectomy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: A total of 22 subjects who underwent meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears received either standard rehabilitation alone or with additional quadriceps strengthening. Testing was conducted immediately postrehabilitation and at 1 year postsurgery. A single-leg hop test was performed bilaterally, and hop distance was used to create a hop symmetry index. Landing mechanics (peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, and peak vertical ground-reaction force) were analyzed with a motion-capture system and a force plate. An isokinetic dynamometer (60 deg/s) assessed knee extensor peak torque and rate of torque development (RTD0-200ms and RTD0–peak torque). Questionnaires assessed fear of reinjury (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and self-efficacy (Knee Activity Self-Efficacy [KASE]). Results: Rehabilitation groups did not significantly differ in single-leg hop performance; therefore, groups were combined for further analyses. The mean hop symmetry index was 88.6% and 98.9% at postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery, respectively. Compared with the nonsurgical limb, the surgical limb showed decreased peak knee flexion angle at postrehabilitation and decreased knee extension moment at 1 year postsurgery. The hop symmetry index was positively associated with peak torque, RTD0-200ms, and the KASE score at postrehabilitation. Moreover, at

  4. Quadriceps strength and weight acceptance strategies continue to improve two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roewer, Ben D.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly-injured knee ligament during sporting activities. After injury, most individuals experience episodes of the knee giving way during daily activities (non-copers). Non-copers demonstrate asymmetrical quadriceps strength and movement patterns which could have long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if non-copers resolve their strength and movement asymmetries within two years after surgery. 26 non-copers were recruited to undergo pre-operative quadriceps strength testing and 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects underwent surgery to reconstruct the ligament followed by physical therapy focused on restoring normal range of motion, quadriceps strength, and function. Subjects returned for quadriceps strength testing and gait analysis six months and two years after surgery. Acutely after injury, quadriceps strength was asymmetric between limbs, but resolved six months after surgery. Asymmetric knee angles, knee moments, and knee and hip power profiles were also observed acutely after injury and persisted six months after surgery despite subjects achieving symmetrical quadriceps strength. Two years after surgery, quadriceps strength in the involved limb continued to improve and most kinematic and kinetic asymmetries resolved. These findings suggest that adequate quadriceps strength does not immediately resolve gait asymmetries in non-copers. They also suggest that non-copers have the capacity to improve their quadriceps strength and gait symmetry long after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21592482

  5. Variability of Measurement of Patellofemoral Indices with Knee Flexion and Quadriceps Contraction: An MRI-Based Anatomical Study

    PubMed Central

    Laugharne, Edward; Bali, Navi; Purushothamdas, Sanjay; Almallah, Faris; Kundra, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of varying knee flexion and quadriceps activity on patellofemoral indices measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods MRI of the knee was performed in 20 patients for indications other than patellar or patellofemoral pathology. Axial and sagittal sequences were performed in full extension of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, full extension of the knee with the quadriceps contracted, 30° flexion of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, and 30° flexion with the quadriceps contracted. Bisect offset, patella tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were measured. Results With the knee flexed to 30° and quadriceps relaxed, the mean values of patellar tilt angle, bisect offset, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were all within normal limits. With the knee extended and quadriceps contracted, the mean patellar tilt angle (normal value, <15°) was 14.6° and the bisect offset (normal value, <65%) was 65%, while the Caton-Deschamps index was 1.34 (normal range, 0.6 to 1.3). With the knee extended and quadriceps relaxed, the mean Caton-Deschamps index was 1.31. Conclusions MRI scanning of the knee in extension with the quadriceps contracted leads to elevated patellofemoral indices. MRI taken with the knee in 30° of flexion allows more reliable assessment of the patellofemoral joint and minimises the confounding effect of quadriceps contraction. PMID:27894177

  6. Spatial distribution of motor units recruited during electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle versus the femoral nerve.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Place, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    In this study we investigated differences in the spatial recruitment of motor units (MUs) in the quadriceps when electrical stimulation is applied over the quadriceps belly versus the femoral nerve. M-waves and mechanical twitches were evoked using over-the-quadriceps and femoral nerve stimulation of gradually increasing intensity from 22 young, healthy subjects. Spatial recruitment was investigated using recruitment curves of M-waves recorded from the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) and of twitches recorded from the quadriceps. At maximal stimulation intensity (Imax), no differences were found between nerve and over-the-quadriceps stimulation. At submaximal intensities, VL M-wave amplitude was higher for over-the-quadriceps stimulation at 40% Imax, and peak twitch force was greater for nerve stimulation at 60% and 80% Imax. For the VM, MU spatial recruitment during nerve and over-the-quadriceps stimulation of increasing intensity occurred in a similar manner, whereas significant differences were observed for the VL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A randomised clinical trial of the efficacy of drop squats or leg extension/leg curl exercises to treat clinically diagnosed jumper's knee in athletes: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, L; Taunton, J; Clement, D; Smith, C; Khan, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To compare the therapeutic effect of two different exercise protocols in athletes with jumper's knee. Methods—Randomised clinical trial comparing a 12 week programme of either drop squat exercises or leg extension/leg curl exercises. Measurement was performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain (visual analogue scale 1–10) and return to sport. Secondary outcome measures included quadriceps and hamstring moment of force using a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/second. Differences in pain response between the drop squat and leg extension/curl treatment groups were assessed by 2 (group) x 3 (time) analysis of variance. Two by two contingency tables were used to test differences in rates of return to sport. Analysis of variance (2 (injured versus non-injured leg) x 2 (group) x 3 (time)) was also used to determine differences for secondary outcome measures. Results—Over the 12 week intervention, pain diminished by 2.3 points (36%) in the leg extension/curl group and 3.2 points (57%) in the squat group. There was a significant main effect of both exercise protocols on pain (p<0.01) with no interaction effect. Nine of 10 subjects in the drop squat group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks, but five of those subjects still had low level pain. Six of nine of the leg extension/curl group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks and four patients had low level pain. There was no significant difference between groups in numbers returning to sporting activity. There were no differences in the change in quadriceps or hamstring muscle moment of force between groups. Conclusions—Progressive drop squats and leg extension/curl exercises can reduce the pain of jumper's knee in a 12 week period and permit a high proportion of patients to return to sport. Not all patients, however, return to sport by that time. Key Words: knee; patellar tendon; tendinopathy; tendinosis; eccentric strengthening; strength training

  8. Effect of cooling during inter-exercise periods on subsequent intramuscular water movement and muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, O; Otsuka, S; Fukubayashi, T

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of cooling between exercise sessions on intramuscular water movement and muscle performance, the lower extremities of nine untrained men were assigned to either a cooling protocol (20-min water immersion, 15 °C) or a noncooling protocol. Each subject performed two exercise sessions involving maximal concentric knee extension and flexion (three repetitions, 60°/s; followed by 50 repetitions, 180°/s). The peak torque at 60°/s and total work, mean power, and decrease rate of torque value at 180°/s were evaluated. Axial magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of the mid-thigh were obtained before and after each exercise session. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for the quadriceps and hamstrings were calculated for evaluating intramuscular water movement. Both groups exhibited significantly increased ADC values for the quadriceps and hamstrings after each exercise session. These ADC values returned to the pre-exercise level after water immersion. No significant difference was observed in muscle performance from first exercise session to the next in either group, except for increased total work and mean power in knee flexion in the cooled group. Cooling intervention between exercise sessions decreased exercise-induced elevation of intramuscular water movement and had some beneficial effects on muscle endurance of knee flexors, but not knee extensors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30-60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5-10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake.

  10. Position of the quadriceps actuator influences knee loads during simulated squat testing.

    PubMed

    Hast, Michael W; Piazza, Stephen J

    2018-05-17

    The "Oxford Rig" cadaveric simulator permits researchers and clinicians to study knee mechanics during a simulated squatting motion. The motion of the lower limb in the Oxford Rig is typically controlled by a single actuator that applies tension to the quadriceps tendon. The location of the quadriceps actuator, however, has differed across published descriptions of the Oxford Rig. Actuators have been placed on the femur and pelvis, and on "grounded" locations external to the specimen, but the consequences of this placement for knee kinematics and kinetics are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine these effects using a validated computational musculoskeletal model. When the actuator was placed on the femur or pelvis, forces realistically increased with knee flexion, with quadriceps and patellofemoral contact forces exceeding 2000 N and 3000 N, respectively, at 100° flexion. When the actuator was grounded, however, forces were substantially reduced and did not monotonically increase with flexion. Articular joint contact forces were not strongly influenced by changing the location of the actuator from the femur to the pelvis, with small RMS differences in quadriceps forces (48.2 N), patellofemoral forces (83.6 N), and tibiofemoral forces (58.9 N) between these conditions. The location of the actuator did not substantially affect knee kinematics. The results of this study suggest that the quadriceps actuator of the Oxford Rig should be attached to either the femur or the pelvis when the goal is to make realistic estimates of quadriceps forces and articular contact forces within the knee joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PGC-1α and exercise intensity dependent adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dethlefsen, Maja Munk; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of PGC-1α in intensity dependent exercise and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle. Whole body PGC-1α knockout (KO) and littermate wildtype (WT) mice performed a single treadmill running bout at either low intensity (LI) for 40 min or moderate intensity (MI) for 20 min. Blood and quadriceps muscles were removed either immediately after exercise or at 3h or 6h into recovery from exercise and from resting controls. In addition PGC-1α KO and littermate WT mice were exercise trained at either low intensity (LIT) for 40 min or at moderate intensity (MIT) for 20 min 2 times pr. day for 5 weeks. In the first and the last week of the intervention period, mice performed a graded running endurance test. Quadriceps muscles were removed before and after the training period for analyses. The acute exercise bout elicited intensity dependent increases in LC3I and LC3II protein and intensity independent decrease in p62 protein in skeletal muscle late in recovery and increased LC3II with exercise training independent of exercise intensity and volume in WT mice. Furthermore, acute exercise and exercise training did not increase LC3I and LC3II protein in PGC-1α KO. In addition, exercise-induced mRNA responses of PGC-1α isoforms were intensity dependent. In conclusion, these findings indicate that exercise intensity affected autophagy markers differently in skeletal muscle and suggest that PGC-1α regulates both acute and exercise training-induced autophagy in skeletal muscle potentially in a PGC-1α isoform specific manner. PMID:29049322

  12. Static stretching vs. dynamic warm-ups: a comparison of their effects on torque and electromyography output of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles.

    PubMed

    Williams, N; Coburn, J; Gillum, T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if two different warm-up protocols differently affect torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings, and electromyography (EMG) output of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) when completing 30 maximal leg extensions and curls. Twenty-one healthy male (N.=8) and female (N.=13) subjects volunteered to participate in a familiarization session and three testing sessions. The three testing sessions control, dynamic, and static were completed in a counterbalanced order on non-consecutive days. First, subjects warmed-up on a treadmill for five minutes before completing six dynamic movements, six static-stretches, or no stretches. They then rested for five minutes before completing 30 maximal leg extensions and curls at a speed of 60 s-1. A significant decrease in quadriceps torque output over time was determined for the dynamic protocol when compared to the control (P<0.01) and static (P<0.05) protocols. A significant decrease was found in peak quadriceps torque for the dynamic protocol (P<0.01) when compared to the static, and a significant increase was found for the static protocol (P<0.05) when compared to the control. A significant decrease in average quadriceps torque was found for the dynamic protocol when compared to the static (P<0.05) and control (P<0.01) protocols. No difference was found in hamstring torque or EMG output of the RF and VL. Short duration static-stretching has the ability to increase peak and average torque of the leg extensors, while some types of anaerobic exercise involving maximal contractions to fatigue may be hindered by performing dynamic movements as part of the warm-up.

  13. Quadriceps tendon autograft for arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction: use it now, use it often.

    PubMed

    Sheean, Andrew J; Musahl, Volker; Slone, Harris S; Xerogeanes, John W; Milinkovic, Danko; Fink, Christian; Hoser, Christian

    2018-04-28

    Traditional bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon ACL grafts are not without limitations. A growing body of anatomic, biomechanical and clinical data has demonstrated the utility of quadriceps tendon autograft in arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction. The quadriceps tendon autograft provides a robust volume of tissue that can be reliably harvested, mitigating the likelihood of variably sized grafts and obviating the necessity of allograft augmentation. Modern, minimally invasive harvest techniques offer the advantages of low rates of donor site morbidity and residual extensor mechanism strength deficits. New data suggest that quadriceps tendon autograft may possess superior biomechanical characteristics when compared with bone-patella tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft. However, there have been very few direct, prospective comparisons between the clinical outcomes associated with quadriceps tendon autograft and other autograft options (eg, hamstring tendon and bone-patellar tendon-bone). Nevertheless, quadriceps tendon autograft should be one of the primary options in any knee surgeon's armamentarium. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. A 6-week hip muscle strengthening and lumbopelvic-hip core stabilization program to improve pain, function, and quality of life in persons with patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a feasibility pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hoglund, Lisa T; Pontiggia, Laura; Kelly, John D

    2018-01-01

    Patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent in middle-aged and older adults. Despite this, there are minimal studies which have examined conservative interventions for PFJ OA. Weakness of proximal lower extremity muscles is associated with PFJ OA. It is unknown if a hip muscle strengthening and lumbopelvic-hip core stabilization program will improve symptoms and function in persons with PFJ OA. This study examined the feasibility and impact of a 6-week hip muscle strengthening and core stabilization program on pain, symptoms, physical performance, peak muscle torques, and quality of life in persons with PFJ OA. Ten females with PFJ OA and ten age- and sex-matched controls participated in baseline tests. PFJ OA participants attended ten twice-a-week hip strengthening and core stabilization exercise sessions. Outcome measures included questionnaires, the Timed-Up-and-Go, and peak isometric torque of hip and quadriceps muscles. Data were tested for normality; parametric and non-parametric tests were used as appropriate. At baseline, the PFJ OA group had significantly worse symptoms, slower Timed-Up-and-Go performance, and lower muscle torques than control participants. PFJ OA group adherence to supervised exercise sessions was adequate. All PFJ OA participants attended at least nine exercise sessions. Five PFJ OA participants returned 6-month follow-up questionnaires, which was considered fair retention. The PFJ OA participants' self-reported pain, symptoms, function in daily living, function in sport, and quality of life all improved at 6 weeks ( P  < 0.05). Timed-Up-and-Go time score improved at 6 weeks ( P  = 0.005). Peak hip external rotator torque increased ( P  = 0.01). Improvements in pain and self-reported function were no longer significant 6 months following completion of the intervention. PFJ OA participants were adherent to the supervised sessions of the intervention. Improvement in symptoms, physical performance, and muscle

  15. Epidemiology of Quadriceps Strains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes, 2009–2010 Through 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Eckard, Timothy G.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Padua, Darin A.; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2017-01-01

    Context:  Few researchers have examined the rates and patterns of quadriceps strains in student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Objective:  To describe the epidemiology of quadriceps strains in 25 NCAA sports during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Design:  Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting:  Convenience sample of NCAA programs from 25 sports during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Patients or Other Particpants:  Collegiate student-athletes participating in men's and women's NCAA athletics during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Aggregate quadriceps strain injury and exposure data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years were analyzed. Quadriceps strain injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results:  Overall, 517 quadriceps strains were reported, resulting in an injury rate of 1.07/10 000 athlete-exposures (AEs). The sports with the highest overall quadriceps strain rates were women's soccer (5.61/10 000 AEs), men's soccer (2.52/10 000 AEs), women's indoor track (2.24/10 000 AEs), and women's softball (2.15/10 000 AEs). Across sex-comparable sports, women had a higher rate of quadriceps strains than men overall (1.97 versus 0.65/10 000 AEs; IRR = 3.03; 95% CI = 2.45, 3.76). The majority of quadriceps strains were sustained during practice (77.8%). However, the quadriceps strain rate was higher during competition than during practice (1.29 versus 1.02/10 000 AEs; IRR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.56). Most quadriceps strains occurred in the preseason (57.8%), and rates were higher during the preseason compared with the regular season (2.29 versus 0.63/10 000 AEs; IRR = 3.60; 95% CI = 3.02, 4.30). Common injury mechanisms were noncontact (63.2%) and overuse (21.9%). Most quadriceps strains restricted

  16. Performance on a Clinical Quadriceps Activation Battery Is Related to a Laboratory Measure of Activation and Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bade, Michael; Struessel, Tamara; Paxton, Roger; Winters, Joshua; Baym, Carol; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relation between performance on a clinical quadriceps activation battery with (1) activation measured by doublet interpolation and (2) recovery of quadriceps strength and functional performance after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Planned secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. University research laboratory. Patients (N=162; mean age, 63±7y; 89 women) undergoing TKA. Patients were classified as high (quadriceps activation battery ≥4/6) or low (quadriceps activation battery ≤3/6) based on performance on the quadriceps activation battery measured 4 days after TKA. Differences between groups in activation and recovery at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after TKA were compared using a repeated-measures maximum likelihood model. The low quadriceps activation battery group demonstrated poorer quadriceps activation via doublet interpolation (P=.01), greater quadriceps strength loss (P=.01), and greater functional performance decline (all P<.001) at 1 month after TKA compared with the high quadriceps activation battery group. Differences between low and high quadriceps activation battery groups on all measures did not persist at 3 and 12 months (all P>.05). Poor performance on the quadriceps activation battery early after TKA is related to poor quadriceps activation and poor recovery in the early postoperative period. Patients in the low quadriceps activation battery group took 3 months to recover to the same level as the high quadriceps activation battery group. The quadriceps activation battery may be useful in identifying individuals who need specific interventions to target activation deficits or different care pathways in the early postoperative period to speed recovery after TKA. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations for Change in Physical and Psychological Factors and Treatment Response Following Exercise in Knee Osteoarthritis: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; White, Daniel K.; Piva, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Understanding how changes in physical and psychological factors following therapeutic exercise are associated with treatment outcome could have important implications for refining rehabilitation programs for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). The objective of the study was to examine the association of changes in these factors with changes in pain and function after an exercise program for people with (KOA). Methods 152 people with KOA completed an exercise program consisting of lower extremity strengthening, stretching, range of motion, balance and agility, and aerobic exercises. Change from baseline to the 2-month follow-up was calculated for physical and psychological factors including self-reported knee instability, quadriceps strength, knee range of motion, lower extremity muscle flexibility, fear of physical activity, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Treatment response was defined as a minimum of a 20% improvement from baseline in BOTH the Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NKPR) and the WOMAC physical function scale. The association of each factor with treatment response was examined with logistic regression mutually adjusted for age, sex, BMI, radiographic severity and exercise group. Results Change in self-reported knee instability (odds ratio (95%CI) = 1.67 (1.13, 2.47) and fear of physical activity (odds ratio (95%CI) = 0.93 (0.88, 1.00) were the only two factors that were significantly associated with treatment response after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion Improvement in knee instability and fear of physical activity were associated with an increased odds of a positive treatment response following therapeutic exercise in subjects with KOA. PMID:22674892

  18. Low- Versus High-Intensity Plyometric Exercise During Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Terese L; George, Steven Z; Tillman, Susan M; Moser, Michael W; Lentz, Trevor A; Indelicato, Peter A; Trumble, Troy N; Shuster, Jonathan J; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2016-03-01

    Plyometric exercise is used during rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to facilitate the return to sports participation. However, clinical outcomes have not been examined, and high loads on the lower extremity could be detrimental to knee articular cartilage. To compare the immediate effect of low- and high-intensity plyometric exercise during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction on knee function, articular cartilage metabolism, and other clinically relevant measures. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-four patients who underwent unilateral ACL reconstruction (mean, 14.3 weeks after surgery; range, 12.1-17.7 weeks) were assigned to 8 weeks (16 visits) of low- or high-intensity plyometric exercise consisting of running, jumping, and agility activities. Groups were distinguished by the expected magnitude of vertical ground-reaction forces. Testing was conducted before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes were self-reported knee function (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] subjective knee form) and a biomarker of articular cartilage degradation (urine concentrations of crosslinked C-telopeptide fragments of type II collagen [uCTX-II]). Secondary outcomes included additional biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism (urinary concentrations of the neoepitope of type II collagen cleavage at the C-terminal three-quarter-length fragment [uC2C], serum concentrations of the C-terminal propeptide of newly formed type II collagen [sCPII]) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α), functional performance (maximal vertical jump and single-legged hop), knee impairments (anterior knee laxity, average knee pain intensity, normalized quadriceps strength, quadriceps symmetry index), and psychosocial status (kinesiophobia, knee activity self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing). The change in each measure was compared between groups. Values before and after the intervention were compared with the groups

  19. Strengthening quitter self-identity: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van Laar, Colette; van den Putte, Bas; Evers, Andrea W M

    2018-06-10

    Smoking-related self-identity processes are important for smoking cessation. We examined whether quitter self-identity (i.e. identification with quitting smoking) could be strengthened through a writing exercise, and whether expected social support for quitting, manipulated through vignettes, could facilitate identification with quitting. Participants (N = 339 daily smokers) were randomly assigned to a 2 (identity: strengthened quitter self-identity vs. control) × 3 (social support: present vs. absent vs. neutral control) between-participants design. The main outcome was post-test quitter self-identity. Post-test quitter self-identity was not strengthened successfully. Only a small and marginally significant intervention effect was found on quitter self-identity, which did not generalise to positively influence quit-intention or behaviour. The social support manipulation did not facilitate quitter self-identity. Secondary content analyses showed that quitter self-identity was strengthened among participants who linked quitting smoking to their lifestyle, wanted to become quitters for health reasons, and whose reasons for becoming quitters included approach of positive aspects of quitting, but not among participants who linked quitter self-identity to their self-perceptions. Results provide insight into the content of smokers' self-conceptualizations as quitters. Writing exercises should be improved and tested to eventually successfully strengthen quitter identities.

  20. The effects of therapeutic exercises on pain, muscle strength, functional capacity, balance and hemodynamic parameters in knee osteoarthritis patients: a randomized controlled study of supervised versus home exercises.

    PubMed

    Kuru Çolak, Tuğba; Kavlak, Bahar; Aydoğdu, Onur; Şahin, Emir; Acar, Gönül; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Sarı, Zübeyir; Çolak, İlker; Bulut, Güven; Polat, M Gülden

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of low-intensity exercise programs for lower extremities, either supervised or at home, on pain, muscle strength, balance and the hemodynamic parameters of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This randomized study included 78 patients with knee OA in 2 groups of supervised and home-based exercise program. Exercises were applied to the first group in the clinic as a group exercise program and were demonstrated to the second group to be performed at home. Before and after the 6-week exercise program, assessment was made of pain, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths, 6-min walk test (6MWT), and non-invasive hemodynamic parameters. Results of the 78 patients, 56 completed the study. Pain, muscle strength, and 6MWT scores showed significant improvements in both groups. There were also significant differences in the amount of change in pain and muscle strength (pain: p = 0.041, Rqdc: 0.009, Lqdc: 0.013, Rhms: 0.04) which indicated greater improvements in the supervised group. The balance scores of supervised group showed a significant improvement (p = 0.009). No significant change was determined in hemodynamic parameters of either group. Conclusion according to the results of this study showed that low-intensity lower extremity exercises conducted in a clinic under the supervision of a physiotherapist were more effective than home-based exercises in reducing post-activity pain levels and improving quadriceps and right hamstring muscle strength. Both the supervised and home exercise programs were seen to be effective in reducing rest pain and increasing 6 MW distance in knee osteoarthritis patients.

  1. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30–60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5–10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake. PMID:24303141

  2. STRENGTHENING THE GLUTEUS MAXIMUS IN SUBJECTS WITH SACROILIAC DYSFUNCTION.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio N; de Freitas, Diego G; Kasawara, Karina T; Martin, Robroy L; Fukuda, Thiago Y

    2018-02-01

    Case series. The literature has emphasized the use of exercise as an intervention for individuals with lumbopelvic pain. However, there is limited information to guide clinicians in exercise selection for those with sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction. Altered function of the gluteus maximus has been found in those with SI joint dysfunction. The objective of this case series was to assess the effectiveness of an exercise program directed at increasing gluteus maximus strength in those with clinical tests positive for SI joint dysfunction. The eight subjects in this series presented with lumbopelvic pain and clinical evidence of SI joint dysfunction. Each subject underwent 10 treatments over five weeks consisting of five exercises directed at strengthening the gluteus maximus. Radiological assessment and clinical examination were performed to rule out potential concurrent pathologies. Visual analog pain scale, the Oswestry Disability Index, and strength assessed via hand held dynamometry were measured pre- and post-intervention. A significant (p<0.001) weakness in gluteus maximus was noted when comparing the uninvolved and involved sides pre-intervention. After completing the strengthening exercise program over 10 visits, statistically significant (p<0.002) increases in gluteus maximus strength and function were found, as well as a decrease in pain. All subjects were discharged from physical therapy and able to return to their normal daily activities. The results of this case series support the use of gluteus maximus strengthening exercises in those with persistent lumbopelvic pain and clinical tests positive for SI joint dysfunction.

  3. The associations between quadriceps muscle strength, power, and knee joint mechanics in knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Amanda M; Thomas, Abbey C; Armstrong, Charles W; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Tevald, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal knee joint mechanics have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Deficits in muscle function (i.e., strength and power) may contribute to abnormal knee joint loading. The associations between quadriceps strength, power and knee joint mechanics remain unclear in knee osteoarthritis. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to collect peak knee joint angles and moments during the first 50% of stance phase of gait in 33 participants with knee osteoarthritis. Quadriceps strength and power were assessed using a knee extension machine. Strength was quantified as the one repetition maximum. Power was quantified as the peak power produced at 40-90% of the one repetition maximum. Quadriceps strength accounted for 15% of the variance in peak knee flexion angle (P=0.016). Quadriceps power accounted for 20-29% of the variance in peak knee flexion angle (P<0.05). Quadriceps power at 90% of one repetition maximum accounted for 9% of the variance in peak knee adduction moment (P=0.05). These data suggest that quadriceps power explains more variance in knee flexion angle and knee adduction moment during gait in knee osteoarthritis than quadriceps strength. Additionally, quadriceps power at multiple loads is associated with knee joint mechanics and therefore should be assessed at a variety of loads. Taken together, these results indicate that quadriceps power may be a potential target for interventions aimed at changing knee joint mechanics in knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry Following ACL Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri-Smith, RM; Lepley, LK

    2016-01-01

    Background Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically following anterior cruciate injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. Purpose To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry, as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Study Design Cross-Sectional study. Methods Seventy-three patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity following ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Results Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared to patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P<0.05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry was higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared to those with low symmetry (P<0.05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. PMID:25883169

  5. Effect of time-dependent cryotherapy on redox balance of quadriceps injuries.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marco Aurélio dos Santos; Carvalho, Taiara Ramos de; Cruz, Amanda Cristina Marques Barros da; Jesus, Lennon Rafael Guedine de; Silva Neto, Larissa Alexsandra da; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Bezerra, Frank Silva

    2016-02-01

    Muscle trauma represents a high number of injuries in professional sport and recreation and may occur through several mechanisms. This study aims at analyzing time-dependent effects of cryotherapy on the redox balance in lesioned quadriceps muscles in F1 mice. Twenty male F1 mice were divided into five groups: (a) animals were not subjected to muscle lesioning or treatment (CTR); (b) quadriceps muscle was lesioned without treatment (L); (c) quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 5 min (LC5); (d) quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 20 min (LC20); and quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 40 min (LC40). The mice were euthanized; the quadriceps muscles were collected and subjected to analyses for levels of protein, hydroperoxides, nitrite, catalase (CAT) activity, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Protein levels were reduced in L (-39%; p < 0.05), LC5 (-54%; p < 0.05), LC20 (-40%; p < 0.05) and LC40 (-50%; p < 0.05) compared to CTR. There was an increase in lipid peroxidation in L (158%; p < 0.05), LC5 (300%; p < 0.01), LC20 (292%; p < 0.01) and LC40 (362%; p < 0.01) compared to CTR. We observed a significant increase in CAT activity in L (164%; p < 0.05) and LC5 (193%; p < 0.01) compared to CTR; a significant reduction in GSH in L (-60%; p < 0.05) and LC20 (-61%; p < 0.05) compared to CTR; and a significant increase in GSSG in LC5 (171%; p < 0.05) compared to CTR. In addition, GSH/GSSG was reduced in L (-89%; p < 0.01), LC5 (-95%; p < 0.01), LC20 (-59%; p < 0.05), and LC40 (-82%; p < 0.01) compared to CTR. This study showed that the cryotherapy does not improve the oxidative stress in lesioned muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Total Knee Arthroplasty Augmented With Synthetic Mesh.

    PubMed

    Ormaza, Amaia; Moreta, Jesús; Mosquera, Javier; de Ugarte, Oskar Sáez; Mozos, José Luis Martinez-de Los

    2017-01-01

    Tear of the quadriceps tendon after revision or primary total knee arthroplasty is a rare complication, but when it occurs, this injury has serious functional consequences. In complete tears, the outcome of direct repair is unpredictable, and several authors recommend that the suture should be reinforced. Several techniques have been described, including the use of autografts, allografts, and synthetic mesh. The goal of this study was to assess the outcomes of a reconstruction technique augmented with synthetic mesh. A retrospective study was performed involving 3 patients who had chronic partial quadriceps tendon tear after total knee revision. In 2 cases, proximal quadriceps release was performed. When conservative management failed, surgical reconstruction with suture reinforced with synthetic mesh was attempted. The knee was immobilized in full extension for 6 weeks after the surgical procedure. A minimum follow-up of 12 months was required to assess results. All reconstructions showed clinical success at a mean follow-up of 19 months. Mean Knee Society Score improved from 55.7 to 87.3, with average postoperative extensor lag of 3.3° (range, 0°-10°). The mean visual analog scale pain score was 2.3 (range, 0-4). No complications were reported. Synthetic mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for patellar tendon repairs after total knee replacement, but there have been few articles on quadriceps rupture. Surgical reconstruction with synthetic mesh is a viable option that provides good functional outcomes in chronic quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):38-42.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production is not ...

  8. Aerobic exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  9. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  10. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, P<0.001), but were similar to preoperative level at six months (18.4 N∙m, 7.4 N∙m P<0.001) and were maintained for up to one year (15.9 N∙m, 4.1 N∙m P<0.001). The pooled mean differences in changes in quadriceps and hamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength. PMID:26849808

  11. The role of active muscle mass in determining the magnitude of peripheral fatigue during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Matthew J; Garten, Ryan S; Venturelli, Massimo; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-06-15

    Greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue at the voluntary termination of single-leg knee-extensor exercise (KE), compared with whole-body cycling, has been attributed to confining group III and IV skeletal muscle afferent feedback to a small muscle mass, enabling the central nervous system (CNS) to tolerate greater peripheral fatigue. However, as task specificity and vastly differing systemic challenges may have complicated this interpretation, eight males were studied during constant workload trials to exhaustion at 85% of peak workload during single-leg and double-leg KE. It was hypothesized that because of the smaller muscle mass engaged during single-leg KE, a greater magnitude of peripheral quadriceps fatigue would be present at exhaustion. Vastus lateralis integrated electromyogram (iEMG) signal relative to the first minute of exercise, preexercise to postexercise maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the quadriceps, and twitch-force evoked by supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (Qtw,pot) quantified peripheral quadriceps fatigue. Trials performed with single-leg KE (8.1 ± 1.2 min; 45 ± 4 W) resulted in significantly greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue than double-leg KE (10 ± 1.3 min; 83 ± 7 W), as documented by changes in the iEMG signal (147 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 13%), MVC (-25 ± 3 vs. -12 ± 3%), and Qtw,pot (-44 ± 6 vs. -33 ± 7%), for single-leg and double-leg KE, respectively. Therefore, avoiding concerns over task specificity and cardiorespiratory limitations, this study reveals that a reduction in muscle mass permits the development of greater peripheral muscle fatigue and supports the concept that the CNS tolerates a greater magnitude of peripheral fatigue when the source of group III/IV afferent feedback is limited to a small muscle mass.

  12. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Contributions of neural excitability and voluntary activation to quadriceps muscle strength following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lepley, Adam S; Ericksen, Hayley M; Sohn, David H; Pietrosimone, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Persistent quadriceps weakness is common following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). Alterations in spinal-reflexive excitability, corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation have been hypothesized as underlying mechanisms contributing to quadriceps weakness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive capabilities of spinal-reflexive excitability, corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation on quadriceps strength in healthy and ACLr participants. Quadriceps strength was measured using maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). Voluntary activation was quantified via the central activation ratio (CAR). Corticospinal and spinal-reflexive excitability were measured using active motor thresholds (AMT) and Hoffmann reflexes normalized to maximal muscle responses (H:M), respectively. ACLr individuals were also split into high and low strength subsets based on MVIC. CAR was the only significant predictor in the healthy group. In the ACLr group, CAR and H:M significantly predicted 47% of the variance in MVIC. ACLr individuals in the high strength subset demonstrated significantly higher CAR and H:M than those in the low strength subset. Increased quadriceps voluntary activation, spinal-reflexive excitability and corticospinal excitability relates to increased quadriceps strength in participants following ACLr. Rehabilitation strategies used to target neural alterations may be beneficial for the restoration of muscle strength following ACLr. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Joint awareness after total knee arthroplasty is affected by pain and quadriceps strength.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Y; Wada, O; Nakakita, S; Mizuno, K

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of patient-reported outcomes to provide a more patient-centered view on treatment. Forgetting the artificial joint can be regarded as the goal in joint arthroplasty. The goals of the study were to describe changes in joint awareness in the artificial joint after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to determine which factors among pain, knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, and functional ability affect joint awareness after TKA. Patients undergoing TKA demonstrate changes in joint awareness and joint awareness is associated with pain, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. This prospective cohort study comprised 63 individuals undergoing TKA, evaluated at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Outcomes included joint awareness assessed using the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), pain score, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. Fifty-eight individuals completed all postoperative assessments. All measures except for knee extension ROM improved from 1 to 6 months. However, there were no differences in any measures from 6 to 12 months. FJS was affected most greatly by pain at 1 month and by quadriceps strength at 6 and 12 months. Patients following TKA demonstrate improvements in joint awareness and function within 6 months after surgery, but reach a plateau from 6 to 12 months. Quadriceps strength could contribute to this plateau of joint awareness. Prospective cohort study, IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Do interindividual differences in cardiac output during submaximal exercise explain differences in exercising muscle oxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion?

    PubMed

    Bentley, Robert F; Jones, Joshua H; Hirai, Daniel M; Zelt, Joel T; Giles, Matthew D; Raleigh, James P; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J; Neder, J Alberto; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    Considerable interindividual differences in the Q˙-V˙O2 relationship during exercise have been documented but implications for submaximal exercise tolerance have not been considered. We tested the hypothesis that these interindividual differences were associated with differences in exercising muscle deoxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) across a range of submaximal exercise intensities. A total of 31 (21 ± 3 years) healthy recreationally active males performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 24 h following a resting muscle biopsy. Cardiac output (Q˙ L/min; inert gas rebreathe), oxygen uptake (V˙O2 L/min; breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange), quadriceps saturation (near infrared spectroscopy) and exercise tolerance (6-20; Borg Scale RPE) were measured. The Q˙-V˙O2 relationship from 40 to 160 W was used to partition individuals post hoc into higher (n = 10; 6.3 ± 0.4) versus lower (n = 10; 3.7 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) responders. The Q˙-V˙O2 difference between responder types was not explained by arterial oxygen content differences (P = 0.5) or peripheral skeletal muscle characteristics (P from 0.1 to 0.8) but was strongly associated with stroke volume (P < 0.05). Despite considerable Q˙-V˙O2 difference between groups, no difference in quadriceps deoxygenation was observed during exercise (all P > 0.4). Lower cardiac responders had greater leg (P = 0.027) and whole body (P = 0.03) RPE only at 185 W, but this represented a higher %peak V˙O2 in lower cardiac responders (87 ± 15% vs. 66 ± 12%, P = 0.005). Substantially lower Q˙-V˙O2 in the lower responder group did not result in altered RPE or exercising muscle deoxygenation. This suggests substantial recruitment of blood flow redistribution in the lower responder group as part of protecting matching of exercising muscle oxygen delivery to demand. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of Rating of Perceived Exertion and Agreement With 1-Repetition Maximum in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; DePaul, Samantha M; Terhorst, Lauren; Irrgang, James J; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background It has been suggested that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) may be a useful alternative to 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to determine proper resistance exercise dosage. However, the test-retest reliability of RPE for resistance exercise has not been determined. Additionally, prior research regarding the relationship between 1RM and RPE is conflicting. Objectives The purpose of this study was to (1) determine test-retest reliability of RPE related to resistance exercise and (2) assess agreement between percentages of 1RM and RPE during quadriceps resistance exercise. Methods A sample of participants with and without knee pathology completed a series of knee extension exercises and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale, then repeated the procedure 1 to 2 weeks later for test-retest reliability. To determine agreement between RPE and 1RM, participants completed knee extension exercises at various percentages of their 1RM (10% to 130% of predicted 1RM) and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale. Percent agreement was calculated between the 1RM and RPE at each resistance interval. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated excellent test-retest reliability of RPE for quadriceps resistance exercises (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.895; 95% confidence interval: 0.866, 0.918). Overall percent agreement between RPE and 1RM was 60%, but agreement was poor within the ranges that would typically be used for training (50% 1RM for muscle endurance, 70% 1RM and greater for strength). Conclusion Test-retest reliability of perceived exertion during quadriceps resistance exercise was excellent. However, agreement between the RPE and 1RM was poor, especially in common training zones for knee extensor strengthening. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):768-774. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6498.

  17. Quadriceps force and anterior tibial force occur obviously later than vertical ground reaction force: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Ryo; Ishida, Tomoya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Taniguchi, Shohei; Ikuta, Ryohei; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2017-11-18

    Although it is well known that quadriceps force generates anterior tibial force, it has been unclear whether quadriceps force causes great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the quadriceps force induced great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. Fourteen young, healthy, female subjects performed a single-leg landing task. Muscle force and anterior tibial force were estimated from motion capture data and synchronized force data from the force plate. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance and the post hoc Bonferroni test were conducted to compare the peak time of the vertical ground reaction force, quadriceps force and anterior tibial force during the single-leg landing. In addition, we examined the contribution of vertical and posterior ground reaction force, knee flexion angle and moment to peak quadriceps force using multiple linear regression. The peak times of the estimated quadriceps force (96.0 ± 23.0 ms) and anterior tibial force (111.9 ± 18.9 ms) were significantly later than that of the vertical ground reaction force (63.5 ± 6.8 ms) during the single-leg landing. The peak quadriceps force was positively correlated with the peak anterior tibial force (R = 0.953, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the peak knee flexion moment contributed significantly to the peak quadriceps force (R 2  = 0.778, P < 0.001). The peak times of the quadriceps force and the anterior tibial force were obviously later than that of the vertical ground reaction force for the female athletes during successful single-leg landings. Studies have reported that the peak time of the vertical ground reaction force was close to the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption in ACL injury cases. It is possible that early contraction of the quadriceps during landing might induce ACL disruption as a result of

  18. Muscle activation levels of the gluteus maximus and medius during standing hip-joint strengthening exercises using elastic-tubing resistance.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Nelson, Meghan M; Hollman, John H

    2014-02-01

    No published studies have compared muscle activation levels simultaneously for the gluteus maximus and medius muscles of stance and moving limbs during standing hip-joint strengthening while using elastic-tubing resistance. To quantify activation levels bilaterally of the gluteus maximus and medius during resisted lower-extremity standing exercises using elastic tubing for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercise conditions. Repeated measures. Laboratory. 26 active and healthy people, 13 men (25 ± 3 y) and 13 women (24 ± 1 y). Subjects completed 3 consecutive repetitions of lower-extremity exercises in random order. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. Magnitudes of EMG recruitment were analyzed with a 2 × 4 repeated-measures ANOVA for each muscle (α = .05). For the gluteus maximus an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F3,75 = 21.5; P < .001). The moving-limb gluteus maximus was activated more than the stance limb's during the back-pull exercise (P < .001), and moving-limb gluteus maximus muscle recruitment was greater for the back-pull exercise than for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, and front-pull exercises (P < .001). For the gluteus medius an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F3,75 = 3.7; P < .03). Gluteus medius muscle recruitment (% MVIC) was greater in the stance limb than moving limb when performing the front-pull exercise (P < .001). Moving-limb gluteus medius muscle recruitment was greater for the reverse cross-over exercise than for the cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercises (P < .001). From a clinical standpoint there is no therapeutic benefit to selectively activate the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles on the stance limb by resisting sagittal- and frontal-plane hip movements on the moving limb using resistance

  19. Efficacy of kinesio taping on isokinetic quadriceps torque in knee osteoarthritis: a double blinded randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Sudarshan, Shobhalakshmi; Nagpal, Pratima

    2014-08-01

    Double blind pre-test post-test control group design. To compare the isokinetic quadriceps torque, standardized stair-climbing task (SSCT) and pain during SSCT between subjects diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis pre and post kinesio tape (KT) application with and without tension. Strength of the quadriceps and torque producing capability is frequently found to be compromised in knee osteoarthritis. The efficacy of KT in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque in knee osteoarthritis is unknown, forming the basis for this study. Forty subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental (therapeutic KT with tension) or control group (sham KT without tension) with the allocation being concealed. Pre and post test measurements of isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and pain during SSCT were carried out by a blinded assessor. A large effect size with significant improvements in the peak quadriceps torque (concentric and eccentric at angular velocities of 90° per second and 120° per second), SSCT and pain were obtained in the experimental group when compared to the control group. Application of therapeutic KT is effective in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis.

  20. Improved Inflammatory Balance of Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise after Supplementations of the Ginseng-Based Steroid Rg1

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L.; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge. PMID:25617625

  1. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  2. Atrophy of the quadriceps muscle in children with a painful hip.

    PubMed

    Robben, S G; Lequin, M H; Meradji, M; Diepstraten, A F; Hop, W C

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree of muscle wasting of various components of the quadriceps muscle in children with a painful hip. Between January 1994 and September 1997, 327 consecutive children with a unilateral painful hip and/or limping were evaluated prospectively with ultrasonography. Quadriceps thickness was measured on both sides. Moreover, muscle thickness was measured in 59 control subjects. The patients were divided into eight groups; transient synovitis (n = 134), Perthes' disease (n = 35), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (n = 5), osteomyelitis (n = 4), aspecific synovitis (n = 5), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 3) and miscellaneous (n = 16). In 125 patients, no sonographic and radiological abnormalities were found and during follow-up the symptoms disappeared ('no pathology' group). Ipsilateral muscle wasting was present in all patient groups, whereas the control subjects showed no significant difference in muscle thickness between legs. The degree of muscle wasting was compared between transient synovitis, the 'no pathology' group, Perthes' disease and control subjects. For both quadriceps and vastus intermedius muscles, there was a significant difference between these groups, except between control subjects and the 'no pathology' group. For the rectus femoris muscle, there was a significant difference between these groups, except between transient synovitis and 'no pathology'. Muscle wasting showed a positive correlation with duration of symptoms and pre-existing muscle mass. In conclusion, different diseases show different degrees of muscle wasting, and there are different patterns of muscle wasting of various components of the quadriceps femoris muscle.

  3. Four Weeks of Nordic Hamstring Exercise Reduce Muscle Injury Risk Factors in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Alvares, João Breno; Marques, Vanessa B; Vaz, Marco A; Baroni, Bruno M

    2018-05-01

    Ribeiro-Alvares, JB, Marques, VB, Vaz, MA, and Baroni, BM. Four weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise reduce muscle injury risk factors in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1254-1262, 2018-The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a field-based exercise designed for knee-flexor eccentric strengthening, aimed at prevention of muscle strains. However, possible effects of NHE programs on other hamstring injury risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a NHE training program on multiple hamstring injury risk factors. Twenty physically active young adults were allocated into 2 equal-sized groups: control group (CG) and training group (TG). The TG was engaged in a 4-week NHE program, twice a week, 3 sets of 6-10 repetitions; while CG received no exercise intervention. The knee flexor and extensor strength were assessed through isokinetic dynamometry, the biceps femoris long head muscle architecture through ultrasound images, and the hamstring flexibility through sit-and-reach test. The results showed that CG subjects had no significant change in any outcome. TG presented higher percent changes than CG for hamstring isometric peak torque (9%; effect size [ES] = 0.27), eccentric peak torque (13%; ES = 0.60), eccentric work (18%; ES = 0.86), and functional hamstring-to-quadriceps torque ratio (13%; ES = 0.80). The NHE program led also to increased fascicle length (22%; ES = 2.77) and reduced pennation angle (-17%; ES = 1.27) in biceps femoris long head of the TG, without significant changes on muscle thickness. In conclusion, a short-term NHE training program (4 weeks; 8 training sessions) counteracts multiple hamstring injury risk factors in physically active young adults.

  4. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity.

    PubMed

    Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; Lepley, Lindsey K

    2015-07-01

    Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 73 patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity after ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared with patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P < .05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry were higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared with those with low symmetry (P < .05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P < .05). Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Quadriceps muscle injury in trans-femoral amputees.

    PubMed

    Alsindi, Z; Datta, D

    1998-12-01

    Two male trans-femoral amputees using modular trans-femoral prostheses lost control and fell to the ground when their prosthetic knees gave way. The semi-automatic knee lock malfunctioned in the first case while the free knee stabilising mechanics gave way in the second case. This resulted in a high tensile force acting on the contralateral quadriceps muscle causing it to rupture. As there are a significant number of patients with both kinds of prostheses it is important to be aware of this possibility so that necessary actions can be taken to minimise its occurrence. Even with the currently available weight activated stance phase control, the prosthetic knee will give way if the knee is flexed more than 20 degrees on weight bearing. Good power and control of hip extensors on the amputation side is needed to control the prosthetic knee joint, especially in the early stage of the walking cycle, i.e., from heel strike to mid-stance. Quadriceps muscle injury in amputees, as far as the authors are aware, has not been reported previously.

  6. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  7. The effects of exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a 3-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Yocheved; Shtraker, Haim; Elboim Gabyzon, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening exercises of the quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) are beneficial for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Studies reporting short-term effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the QFM in this population support the use of this modality as an adjunct treatment. The objectives of this follow-up study are to compare the effects of an exercise program with and without NMES of the QFM on pain, functional performance, and muscle strength immediately posttreatment and 12 weeks after completion of the intervention. Sixty-three participants with knee OA were randomly assigned into two groups receiving 12 biweekly treatments: An exercise-only program or an exercise program combined with NMES. A significantly greater reduction in knee pain was observed immediately after treatment in the NMES group, which was maintained 12 weeks postintervention in both groups. Although at this stage NMES had no additive effect, both groups demonstrated an immediate increase in muscle strength and in functional abilities, with no differences between groups. Although the improvements in gait velocity and in self-report functional ability were maintained at the follow-up session, the noted improvements in muscle strength, time to up and go, and stair negotiation were not maintained. Supplementing an exercise program with NMES to the QFM increased pain modulation immediately after treatment in patients with knee OA. Maintenance of the positive posttreatment effects during a 12-week period was observed only for pain, self-reported functional ability, and walk velocity, with no difference between groups. The effects of a comprehensive group exercise program with or without NMES are partially maintained 12 weeks after completion of the intervention. The addition of NMES is recommended primarily for its immediate effect on pain. Further studies are necessary to determine the effects of repeated bouts of exercise with and without NMES in this population.

  8. No Influence of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Exercise-Induced Pain and 5-Km Cycling Time-Trial Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hibbert, Andrew W.; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C.; Polman, Remco C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Afferent information from exercising muscle contributes to the sensation of exercise-induced muscle pain. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivers low–voltage electrical currents to the skin, inhibiting nociceptive afferent information. The use of TENS in reducing perceptions of exercise-induced pain has not yet been fully explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TENS on exercise-induced muscle pain, pacing strategy, and performance during a 5-km cycling time trial (TT). Methods: On three separate occasions, in a single-blind, randomized, and cross-over design, 13 recreationally active participants underwent a 30-min TENS protocol, before performing a 5-km cycling TT. TENS was applied to the quadriceps prior to exercise under the following conditions; control (CONT), placebo with sham TENS application (PLAC), and an experimental condition with TENS application (TENS). Quadriceps fatigue was assessed with magnetic femoral nerve stimulation assessing changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch force at baseline, pre and post exercise. Subjective scores of exertion, affect and pain were taken every 1-km. Results: During TTs, application of TENS did not influence pain perceptions (P = 0.68, ηp2 = 0.03). There was no significant change in mean power (P = 0.16, ηp2 = 0.16) or TT duration (P = 0.17, ηp2 = 0.14), although effect sizes were large for these two variables. Changes in power output were not significant but showed moderate effect sizes at 500-m (ηp2 = 0.10) and 750-m (ηp2 = 0.10). Muscle recruitment as inferred by electromyography data was not significant, but showed large effect sizes at 250-m (ηp2 = 0.16), 500-m (ηp2 = 0.15), and 750-m (ηp2 = 0.14). This indicates a possible effect for TENS influencing performance up to 1-km. Discussion: These findings do not support the use of TENS to improve 5-km TT performance. PMID:28223939

  9. Quadriceps tendon rupture - treatment results.

    PubMed

    Popov, Iva; Ristić, Vladimir; Maljanović, Mirsad; Milankov, Vukadin

    2013-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare but rather serious injury. If this injury is not promptly recognized and early operated, it may lead to disability. This research was aimed at pointing out the results and complications of the quadriceps tendon rupture surgical treatment. This retrospective multicentric study was conducted in a group of 29 patients (mostly elderly men). Lysholm knee scoring scale was used to evaluate the surgical results. The post-operative results were compared in relation to the type of tendon rupture reconstructions (acute or chronic), various surgical techniques, type of injuries (unilateral or bilateral) as well as the presence or absence of comorbid risk factors in the patients. The average value of a Lysholm score was 87.6. Excellent and satisfactory Lysholm score results dominated in our sample of patients. Better post-operative results were recorded in the group of patients without risk factors, in case of a bilateral injury, and in case of an acute injury. The best result was obtained after performing the reconstruction using anchors, and the worst result came after using Codivilla technique. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment are an absolute imperative in management of this injury. We have not proven that a certain surgical technique has an advantage over the others. A comorbid risk factor is related to a lower Lysholm score. Despite a few cases of complications, we can conclude that the surgical treatment yields satisfactory results.

  10. Young Athletes With Quadriceps Femoris Strength Asymmetry at Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Demonstrate Asymmetric Single-Leg Drop-Landing Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ithurburn, Matthew P; Paterno, Mark V; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E; Schmitt, Laura C

    2015-11-01

    Young athletes who have had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction demonstrate suboptimal rates of return to sport, high rates of second ACL injuries, and persistent movement asymmetries. Therefore, the influence of musculoskeletal impairments on movement mechanics in this population needs to be further evaluated. The primary hypothesis was that among young athletes who have had ACL reconstruction, those with greater quadriceps strength asymmetry would demonstrate altered single-leg drop-landing mechanics at return to sport compared with individuals with more symmetric quadriceps strength and also compared with healthy controls (ie, those with no ACL reconstruction). A second hypothesis was that quadriceps strength symmetry would predict single-leg drop-landing symmetry in individuals who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. The study entailed a total of 103 participants (age, 17.4 years) at the time of return to sport after ACL reconstruction and 47 control participants (age, 17.0 years). The quadriceps index (QI) was calculated for isometric quadriceps strength, which was then used to divide the ACL reconstruction participants into high-quadriceps (QI ≥90%; n = 52) and low-quadriceps (QI <85%; n = 41) subgroups. Biomechanical data were collected by use of 3-dimensional motion analysis during a single-leg drop-landing task. The LSI was calculated for kinematic and kinetic sagittal-plane variables of interest during landing. Group differences were compared by use of 1-way analysis of variance and linear regression analyses (α < .05). Both the low- and high-quadriceps groups demonstrated greater limb asymmetry during landing compared with the control group in knee flexion excursion (mean LSI ± SD: low quadriceps, 85.8% ± 15.5% [P < .001]; high quadriceps, 94.2% ± 15.6% [P = .019]; control, 102.7% ± 14.1%), peak trunk flexion angle (low quadriceps, 129.2% ± 36.6% [P < .001]; high quadriceps, 110.5% ± 22.6% [P = .03

  11. The effects of short-term exercise training on peak-torque are time- and fiber-type dependent.

    PubMed

    Ureczky, Dóra; Vácz, Gabriella; Costa, Andreas; Kopper, Bence; Lacza, Zsombor; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, József

    2014-08-01

    We examined the susceptibility of fast and slow twitch muscle fibers in the quadriceps muscle to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Nine healthy men (age: 22.5 ± 1.6 years) performed maximal eccentric quadriceps contractions at 120°·s-1 over a 120° of knee joint range of motion for 6 consecutive days. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on the third and seventh day. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to determine fiber composition and fibronectin activity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined in serum. Average torque was calculated in each day for each subject. Relative to baseline, average torque decreased 37.4% till day 3 and increased 43.0% from the day 3 to day 6 (p < 0.001). Creatine kinase and LDH were 70.6 and 1.5 times higher on day 3 and 75.5 and 1.4 times higher on day 6. Fibronectin was found in fast fibers in subjects with high CK level on day 3 and 7 after exercise, but on day 7, fibronectin seemed in both slow and fast fibers except in muscles of 2 subjects with high fast fiber percentage. Peak torque and muscle fiber-type composition measured at baseline showed a strong positive association on day 3 (r = 0.76, p < 0.02) and strong negative association during recovery between day 3 and day 6 (r = -0.76, p < 0.02), and day 1 and day 6 (r = 0.84, p < 0.001). We conclude that the damage of fast fibers preceded the damage of slow fibers, and muscles with slow fiber dominance were more susceptible to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise than fast fiber dominance muscles. The data suggest that the responses to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise are fiber-type-dependent in the quadriceps muscle, which can be the basis for the design of individualized strength training protocols.

  12. Effects of functional stabilization training on pain, function, and lower extremity biomechanics in women with patellofemoral pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Baldon, Rodrigo de Marche; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna; Scattone Silva, Rodrigo; Piva, Sara Regina

    2014-04-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To compare the effects of functional stabilization training (FST) versus standard training on knee pain and function, lower-limb and trunk kinematics, trunk muscle endurance, and eccentric hip and knee muscle strength in women with patellofemoral pain. A combination of hip- and knee-strengthening exercise may be more beneficial than quadriceps strengthening alone to improve pain and function in individuals with patellofemoral pain. However, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of these exercise programs on the biomechanics of the lower extremity. Thirty-one women were randomized to either the FST group or standard-training group. Patients attended a baseline assessment session, followed by an 8-week intervention, and were reassessed at the end of the intervention and at 3 months after the intervention. Assessment measures were a 10-cm visual analog scale for pain, the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, and the single-leg triple-hop test. A global rating of change scale was used to measure perceived improvement. Kinematics were assessed during the single-leg squat. Outcome measures also included trunk endurance and eccentric hip and knee muscle strength assessment. The patients in the FST group had less pain at the 3-month follow-up and greater global improvement and physical function at the end of the intervention compared to those in the standard-training group. Lesser ipsilateral trunk inclination, pelvis contralateral depression, hip adduction, and knee abduction, along with greater pelvis anteversion and hip flexion movement excursions during the single-leg squat, were only observed in the FST group after the intervention. Only those in the FST group had greater eccentric hip abductor and knee flexor strength, as well as greater endurance of the anterior, posterior, and lateral trunk muscles, after training. An intervention program consisting of hip muscle strengthening and lower-limb and trunk movement control exercises was

  13. Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(‒1), 3.14 rad · s(‒1) and 5.24 rad · s(‒1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length.

  14. Effect of shoulder girdle strengthening on trunk alignment in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Awad, Amina; Shaker, Hussien; Shendy, Wael; Fahmy, Manal

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of shoulder girdle strengthening, particularly the scapular muscles, on poststroke trunk alignment. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 30 patients with residual hemiparesis following cerebrovascular stroke. Patient assessment included measuring shoulder muscle peak torque, scapular muscles peak force, spinal lateral deviation angle, and motor functional performance. Patients were randomly allocated either to the control group or the study group and received an 18-session strengthening program including active resisted exercises for shoulder abductors and external rotators in addition to trunk control exercises. The study group received additional strengthening exercises for the scapular muscles. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvement in strength of all shoulder and scapular muscles, with higher improvement in the study group. Similarly, the lateral spinal deviation angles significantly improved in both groups, with significantly higher improvement in the study group. Transfer activity, sitting balance, upper limb functions, and hand movements significantly improved in the two groups, with higher improvement in the latter two functions in the study group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of shoulder girdle muscles, particularly scapular muscles, can significantly contribute to improving the postural alignment of the trunk in patients with poststroke hemiparesis.

  15. Oral Administration of Polymer Hyaluronic Acid Alleviates Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study over a 12-Month Period

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Toshiyuki; Seino, Satoshi; Sato, Toshihide; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Masuda, Yasunobu; Fukui, Naoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of oral hyaluronic acid (HA) administration for osteoarthritis (OA) in knee joints. Sixty osteoarthritic subjects (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3) were randomly assigned to the HA or placebo group. The subjects in the HA group were given 200 mg of HA once a day everyday for 12 months, while the subjects in the placebo group were given placebo. The subjects in both groups were requested to conduct quadriceps strengthening exercise everyday as part of the treatment. The subjects' symptoms were evaluated by the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) score. The symptoms of the subjects as determined by the JKOM score improved with time in both the HA and placebo groups. This improvement tended to be more obvious with the HA group, and this trend was more obvious with the subjects aged 70 years or less. For these relatively younger subjects, the JKOM score was significantly better than the one for the placebo group at the 2nd and 4th months after the initiation of administration. Oral administration of HA may improve the symptoms of knee OA in patients aged 70 years or younger when combined with the quadriceps strengthening exercise. PMID:23226979

  16. Selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after 14 weeks of isokinetic and conventional resistance training.

    PubMed

    Matta, Thiago Torres; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier; Trajano, Gabriel S; Simão, Roberto; Willardson, Jeffrey Michael; Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    One of the fundamental adaptations observed with resistance training (RT) is muscle hypertrophy. Conventional and isokinetic machines provide different forms of mechanical stress, and it is possible that these two training modes could promote differing degrees of hypertrophic adaptations. There is a lack of data comparing the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after training with a conventional knee extension machine versus an isokinetic machine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature and knee extension maximal isometric torque after 14 weeks of conventional versus isokinetic RT. Thirty-five men were assigned to three groups: control group and training groups (conventional and isokinetic) performed three sets of unilateral knee extensions per session with a progressive loading scheme twice a week. Prior to and following the intervention, maximal isometric knee extensor torque was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer, and muscle thickness (MT) of quadriceps femoris muscles was assessed via ultrasound. The results indicated non-uniform changes in MT between the muscles that comprise the quadriceps femoris group. For the conventional group, significantly greater increases in rectus femoris thickness were evident versus all other quadriceps muscles (14%). For the isokinetic group, increases in RF thickness (11%) were significantly greater in comparison with the vastus intermedius only. Although the muscle thickness did not increase for all the quadriceps femoris muscles, the relative rectus femoris adaptation suggested a selective hypertrophy favouring this portion. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Polypropylene mesh augmentation for complete quadriceps rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nodzo, Scott R; Rachala, Sridhar R

    2016-01-01

    Polypropylene mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for failed patellar tendon repairs after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but there have been few reports of this synthetic mesh used in complete quadriceps rupture after TKA. We retrospectively reviewed seven consecutive cases in six patients with complete quadriceps tears after TKA who had their quadriceps tendon repaired with suture and polypropylene mesh augmentation. All but two patients had previously failed primary suture repair. Patient outcomes were evaluated using the Knee Society Score. Standardized anterior-posterior (AP), lateral and merchant radiographs were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up. Seven knees in six patients were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 34±10 (range 24 to 49months) months. There were only four clinical successes defined as an extensor lag less than 30°. Of the functioning knees at final follow-up (n=5) the overall extensor lag in this group did significantly improve from 50±13° to 20±15° (range 5 to 40°) (p=.01). Mean postoperative flexion at final follow-up was 115±8°. Mean Knee Society Score for function improved from 20±30 to 45±54 (p=.03) as did the mean Knee Society Score for pain (44±18 vs. 74±78, p=.02). Polypropylene mesh offered limited postoperative functional results when used as an augment to the multiply operated knee that sustains a complete quadriceps rupture after TKA, but did allow for significant improvement in postoperative pain outcomes. IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Superimposed Electromyostimulation on Back Extensor Strengthening: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Kwan Sik; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2016-09-01

    Park, JH, Seo, KS, and Lee, S-U. Effect of superimposed electromyostimulation on back extensor strengthening: a pilot study. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2470-2475, 2016-Electromyostimulation (EMS) superimposed on voluntary contraction (VC) can increase muscle strength. However, no study has examined the effect of superimposing EMS on back extensor strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of superimposed EMS on back extensor strengthening in healthy adults. Twenty healthy men, 20-29 years of age, without low-back pain were recruited. In the EMS group, electrodes were attached to bilateral L2 and L4 paraspinal muscles. Stimulation intensity was set for maximally tolerable intensity. With VC, EMS was superimposed for 10 seconds followed by a 20-second rest period. The same protocol was used in the sham stimulation (SS) group, except that the stimulation intensity was set at the lowest intensity (5 mA). All subjects performed back extension exercise using a Swiss ball, with 10 repetitions per set, 2 sets each day, 5 times a week for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in isokinetic strength of the back extensor using an isokinetic dynamometer. Additionally, endurance was measured using the Sorensen test. After 2 weeks of back extension exercise, the peak torque and endurance increased significantly in both groups (p ≤ 0.05). Effect size between the EMS group and the SS group was medium in strength and endurance. However, there was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups. In conclusion, 2 weeks of back extensor strengthening exercise was effective for strength and endurance. Superimposing EMS on back extensor strengthening exercise could provide an additional effect on increasing strength.

  19. Chronic exercise preserves lean muscle mass in masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Andrew P; Amati, Francesca; Smiley, Mark A; Goodpaster, Bret; Wright, Vonda

    2011-09-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a loss of muscle mass and strength, resulting in falls, functional decline, and the subjective feeling of weakness. Exercise modulates the morbidities of muscle aging. Most studies, however, have examined muscle-loss changes in sedentary aging adults. This leaves the question of whether the changes that are commonly associated with muscle aging reflect the true physiology of muscle aging or whether they reflect disuse atrophy. This study evaluated whether high levels of chronic exercise prevents the loss of lean muscle mass and strength experienced in sedentary aging adults. A cross-section of 40 high-level recreational athletes ("masters athletes") who were aged 40 to 81 years and trained 4 to 5 times per week underwent tests of health/activity, body composition, quadriceps peak torque (PT), and magnetic resonance imaging of bilateral quadriceps. Mid-thigh muscle area, quadriceps area (QA), subcutaneous adipose tissue, and intramuscular adipose tissue were quantified in magnetic resonance imaging using medical image processing, analysis, and visualization software. One-way analysis of variance was used to examine age group differences. Relationships were evaluated using Spearman correlations. Mid-thigh muscle area (P = 0.31) and lean mass (P = 0.15) did not increase with age and were significantly related to retention of mid-thigh muscle area (P < 0.0001). This occurred despite an increase in total body fat percentage (P = 0.003) with age. Mid-thigh muscle area (P = 0.12), QA (P = 0.17), and quadriceps PT did not decline with age. Specific strength (strength per QA) did not decline significantly with age (P = 0.06). As muscle area increased, PT increased significantly (P = 0.008). There was not a significant relationship between intramuscular adipose tissue (P = 0.71) or lean mass (P = 0.4) and PT. This study contradicts the common observation that muscle mass and strength decline as a function of aging alone. Instead, these

  20. Atrophy of the Quadriceps Is Not Isolated to the Vastus Medialis Oblique in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Giles, Lachlan S; Webster, Kate E; McClelland, Jodie A; Cook, Jill

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional. Objectives To determine if quadriceps atrophy was present in people with patellofemoral pain (PFP), and whether the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) was selectively involved. Despite the lack of research investigating individual quadriceps muscle size in individuals with PFP, it has been suggested that selective atrophy of the VMO relative to the vastus lateralis could be associated with PFP. The quadriceps muscle sizes of 35 participants with PFP (22 with unilateral and 13 with bilateral symptoms) and 35 asymptomatic control participants matched for age and sex were measured using real-time ultrasound. The thicknesses of the VMO, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus intermedius were measured. Paired-samples t tests were used to compare muscle thickness between limbs in those with unilateral PFP, and independent t tests were used to compare muscle thickness between groups with and without PFP. Results In those with unilateral PFP, the thickness of all portions of the quadriceps muscle was statistically smaller in the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic limb: VMO (P = .038), vastus medialis (P<.001), vastus lateralis (P = .005), vastus intermedius (P = .013), and rectus femoris (P = .045). No difference was found in thickness of any of the portions of the quadriceps on the affected side of people with PFP compared to asymptomatic controls: VMO (P = .148), vastus medialis (P = .474), vastus lateralis (P = .122), vastus intermedius (P = .466), and rectus femoris (P = .508). Atrophy of all portions of the quadriceps muscles is present in the affected limb of people with unilateral PFP. There was no atrophy of the quadriceps in individuals with PFP compared to those without pathology. Selective atrophy of the VMO relative to the vastus lateralis was not identified in people with PFP.

  1. Influence of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation on quadriceps activation in individuals with knee joint injury.

    PubMed

    Glaviano, Neal R; Langston, William T; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation is a common intervention to address muscle weakness, however presents with many limitations such as fatigue, muscle damage, and patient discomfort that may influence its effectiveness. One novel form of electrical stimulation purported to improve neuromuscular re-education is Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (PENS), which is proposed to mimic muscle-firing patterns of healthy individuals. PENS provides patterned stimulating to the agonist muscle, antagonist muscle and then agonist muscle again in an effort to replicate firing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a single PENS treatment on knee extension torque and quadriceps activation in individuals with quadriceps inhibition. 18 subjects (10 males and 8 females: 24.2±3.4 years, 175.3±11.8cm, 81.8±12.4kg) with a history of knee injury/pain participated in this double-blinded randomized controlled laboratory trial. Participants demonstrated quadriceps inhibition with a central activation ratio of ≤90%. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps and central activation ratio were measured before and after treatment. The treatment intervention was a 15-minute patterned electrical stimulation applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles with a strong motor contraction or a sham group, who received an identical set up as the PENS group, but received a 1mA subsensory stimulation. A 2×2 (group × time) ANCOVA was used to determine differences in maximal voluntary isometric contraction and central activation ratio between groups. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was selected as a covariate due to baseline differences. There were no differences in change scores between pre- and post-intervention for maximal voluntary isometric contraction: (PENS: 0.09±0.32Nm/kg and Sham 0.15±0.18Nm/kg, p=0.713), or central activation ratio:(PENS: -1.22±6.06 and Sham: 1.48±3.7, p=0.270). A single Patterned Electrical

  2. Comparative effects of proprioceptive and isometric exercises on pain intensity and difficulty in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomised control study.

    PubMed

    Ojoawo, Adesola O; Olaogun, Matthew O B; Hassan, Mariam A

    2016-11-14

    The study compared the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise and proprioceptive exercise on pain, joint stiffness and physical difficulties of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Forty-five patients with history of knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated into two groups; A with 23 subjects and B with 22 subjects. All subjects received infrared radiation for 20 minutes and kneading massage with methyl salicylate ointment. Group A underwent proprioceptive exercises while Group B had isometric quadriceps exercise. Each exercise session lasted for 10 minutes according to standard protocol, twice in a week for six weeks. Pre-treatment, 3rd week and 6th week pain intensity, joint stiffness and physical difficulties were assessed using Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17 was used to analyse the data while descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarise the result. Proprioceptive exercises reduced pain intensity significantly (F = 4.76; p = 0.00) at 6th week with effect size of 2.79, and physical difficulty (F = 3.69; p < 0.04) with effect size of 7.53 better than isometric exercises. There was a significant reduction in the pain intensity (F = 12.08; p < 0.001), and physical difficulties (F = 3.69, p = 0.04) in pre-treatment, 3rd week and 6th week in both Group A and B. Both exercises are effective but proprioceptive exercises may be more effective in the management of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) than isometric exercises.

  3. Adaptive force regulation of muscle strengthening rehabilitation device with magnetorheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

    2006-03-01

    In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home.

  4. Epidemiological investigation of muscle-strengthening activities and cognitive function among older adults.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities and executive cognitive function among older adults, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were employed (N = 2157; 60-85 years). Muscle-strengthening activities were assessed via self-report, with cognitive function assessed using the digit symbol substitution test. After adjusting for age, age-squared, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, C-reactive protein, smoking, comorbid illness and physical activity, muscle-strengthening activities were significantly associated with cognitive function (βadjusted = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-5.1; P < 0.001). Compared to those not engaging in aerobic exercise and not meeting muscle-strengthening activity guidelines, those doing 1 (βadjusted = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.9-5.4; P < 0.001) and both (βadjusted = 6.6; 95% CI: 4.8-8.3; P < 0.001) of these behaviors had a significantly higher executive cognitive function score. In conclusion, muscle-strengthening activities are associated with executive cognitive function among older U.S. adults, underscoring the importance of promoting both aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening activities to older adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Exercise After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and push-ups. There also are special Kegel exercises that help tone the muscles of the pelvic floor. Muscle-strengthening activities should be done in addition to your aerobic activity on at least 2 days a week. When can I start exercising after pregnancy? If you had a healthy pregnancy and a ...

  6. Quadriceps force during knee extension in different replacement scenarios with a modular partial prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Calliess, Tilman; Schado, Ssuheib; Richter, Berna I; Becher, Christoph; Ezechieli, Marco; Ostermeier, Sven

    2014-02-01

    Previous biomechanical studies have shown that bi-cruciate retaining knee replacement does not significantly alter normal knee kinematics, however, there are no data on the influence of a combined medial and patellofemoral bi-compartimental arthroplasty. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different replacement scenarios with a modular partial knee replacement system on the amount of quadriceps force required to extend the knee during an isokinetic extension cycle. Ten human knee specimens were tested in a kinematic knee simulator under (1) physiologic condition and after subsequent implantation of (2) a medial unicondylar and (3) a trochlear replacement. An isokinetic extension cycle of the knee with a constant extension moment of 31 Nm was simulated. The resulting quadriceps extension force was measured from 120° to full knee extension. The quadriceps force curve described a typically sinusoidal characteristic before and after each replacement scenario. The isolated medial replacement resulted in a slightly, but significantly higher maximum quadriceps force (1510 N vs. 1585 N, P = 0.006) as well as the subsequent trochlear replacement showed an additional increase (1801 N, P = 0.008). However, for both replacements no significant difference to the untreated condition could be detected in mid-flexion (10-50°). When considering a bi-compartimental replacement an increase of required maximum quadriceps force needed to extend the knee has to keep in mind. However, the close to physiological movement in mid-flexion suggests that patients with a bi-crutiate retaining arthroplasty might have an advantage in knee stability compared to total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quadriceps Weakness, Patella Alta and Structural Features of Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Stefanik, Joshua J.; Guermazi, Ali; Zhu, Yanyan; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Gross, K. Douglas; Clancy, Margaret; Lynch, John A.; Segal, Neil A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Roemer, Frank W.; Powers, Christopher M.; Felson, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between quadriceps weakness and cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ), and if this relationship is modified by patella alta. Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is a cohort study of persons aged 50–79 years with or at risk for knee OA. Concentric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Patella alta was measured using the Insall-Salvati ratio (ISR) on the lateral radiograph, and cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) were graded on MRI in the PFJ. We determined the association between quadriceps weakness with cartilage damage and BMLs in the PFJ among those knees with (ISR≥1.2) and without patella alta (ISR<1.2) using multiple binomial regression. Results 807 knees were studied (mean age 62 years, BMI 30, ISR 1.10), 64% from female subjects. Compared with knees in the highest strength tertile, those in the lowest had 10.2% {95% Confidence Interval (CI) 3–18}, 9.1% (95% CI 2–16), and 7.1% (95% CI 1–13) higher prevalence of lateral PFJ cartilage damage, medial PFJ cartilage damage, and lateral PFJ BMLs, respectively. The association between quadriceps weakness with cartilage damage and BMLs was not different between knees with and with out patella alta in the lateral PFJ. Conclusion Quadriceps weakness was associated with PFJ cartilage damage and BMLs. While both patella alta and quadriceps weakness are associated with PFJ damage, the combination of the two was not associated with more damage than either of these factors alone. PMID:21702087

  8. Relative Distribution of Quadriceps Head Anatomical Cross-Sectional Areas and Volumes – Sensitivity to Pain and to Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, M; Dannhauer, T; Ring-Dimitriou, S; Sänger, AM; Wirth, W; Hudelmaier, M; Eckstein, F

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Quadriceps heads are important in biomechanical stabilization and in the pathogenesis osteoarthritis of the knee. This is the first study to explore the relative distribution of quadriceps head anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSA) and volumes, and their response to pain and to training intervention. Methods The relative proportions of quadriceps heads were determined in 48 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants with unilateral pain (65% women; age 45–78y). Quadriceps head volumes were also measured in 35 untrained women (45–55y) before and after 12 week training intervention. Cross-sectional areas of the vastus medialis (VM), inter-medius (VIM), and lateralis (VL), and of the rectus femoris (RF) were determined from axial T1-weighted MR images. Results The proportion of the VM on the total quadriceps ACSA increased from proximal to distal. The difference in quadriceps ACSA of painful (vs. pain-free) limbs was −5.4% for the VM (p<0.001), −6.8% for the VL (p<0.01), −2.8% for the VIM (p=0.06), and +3.4% for the RF (p=0.67) but the VM/VL ratio was not significantly altered. The muscle volume increase during training intervention was +4.2% (p<0.05) for VM, +1.3% for VL, +2.0% for VIM (p<0.05) and +1.6% for RF. Conclusion The proportion of quadriceps head relative to total muscle ACSA and volume depends on the anatomical level studied. The results suggest that there may be a differential response of the quadriceps heads to pain-induced atrophy and to training-related hypertrophy. Studies in larger samples are needed to ascertain whether the observed differences in response to pain and training are statistically and clinically significant. PMID:25153247

  9. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ick Keun; Kim, You Lim; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (p < 0.05). But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles.

  10. Hip posterolateral musculature strengthening in sedentary women with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Melo, William Pagotti; Zaffalon, Bruno Marcos; Rossetto, Flavio Marcondes; Magalhães, Eduardo; Bryk, Flavio Fernandes; Martin, Robroy L

    2012-10-01

    Randomized controlled trial. To determine if adding hip-strengthening exercises to a conventional knee exercise program produces better long-term outcomes than conventional knee exercises alone in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Recent studies have shown that a hip-strengthening program reduces pain and improves function in individuals with PFPS. However, there are no clinical trials evaluating long-term outcomes of this type of program compared to conventional knee-strengthening and -stretching exercises. Fifty-four sedentary women between 20 and 40 years of age, with a diagnosis of unilateral PFPS, were randomly assigned knee exercise (KE) or knee and hip exercise (KHE). The women in the KE group (n = 26; mean age, 23 years) performed a 4-week conventional knee-stretching and -strengthening program. The women in the KHE group (n = 28; mean age, 22 years) performed the same exercises as those in the KE group, as well as strengthening exercises for the hip abductors, lateral rotators, and extensors. An 11-point numeric pain rating scale, the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale, and a single-hop test were used as outcome measures at baseline (pretreatment) and 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment. At baseline, demographic, pain, and functional assessment data were similar between groups. Those in the KHE group had a higher level of function and less pain at 3, 6, and 12 months compared to baseline (P<.05). In contrast, the KE group had reduced pain only at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups (P<.05), without any changes in Lower Extremity Functional Scale, Anterior Knee Pain Scale, or hop testing (P>.05) through the course of the study. Compared to the KE group, the KHE group had less pain and better function at 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment (P<.05). For the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, the between-group difference in change scores from baseline at 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment favored the KHE group by 22.0, 22.0, and

  11. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    PubMed Central

    Balsamo, Sandor; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; de Farias, Gleyverton Landim; Petruccelli, Zeno; de Santana, Frederico dos Santos; Martins, Otávio Vanni; de Aguiar, Fernando; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; de Souza, Jéssica Cardoso; Prestes, Jonato

    2012-01-01

    The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension) + hamstrings (leg curl) (QH) or hamstrings (leg curl) + quadriceps (leg extension) (HQ). Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02) with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04). These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl order. PMID:22371654

  12. The evaluation of muscle recovery after anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft.

    PubMed

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Okano, Tatsumasa; Suruga, Makoto; Aizawa, Shin; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the degree of muscle recovery and report the clinical results of anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft. Twenty subjects undergoing anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft were included in this study. A 5-mm-wide, 8-cm-long graft, involving the entire layer of the quadriceps tendon, was harvested without bone block. The average graft diameter was 8.1 ± 1.4 mm. An initial tension of 30 N was applied. The femoral tunnel was created from the far-medial portal. Each femoral and tibial tunnel was created close to the antero-medial bundle insertion site. For the evaluation of muscle recovery (quadriceps and hamstring), a handheld dynamometer was used. The evaluation of muscle recovery was performed pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Muscle recovery data were calculated as a percentage of leg strength in the non-operated leg. Anterior tibial translation (ATT), pivot shift test, and IKDC score were evaluated. The average quadriceps strength pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ACL reconstruction was 90.5 ± 19, 67.8 ± 21.4, 84 ± 17.5, and 85.1 ± 12.6 %, respectively. The average hamstring strength pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ACL reconstruction was 99.5 ± 13.7, 78.7 ± 11.4, 90.5 ± 19, and 96.7 ± 13.8 %, respectively. ATT pre-operatively and at 12 months after surgery was 5.4 ± 1.3 and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. No subjects exhibited positive pivot shift after surgery. Within 6 months following surgery, quadriceps hypotrophy was observed in all subjects. However, the hypotrophy had recovered at 12 months following surgery. No subjects complained of donor site pain after surgery. Anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft resulted in equivalent level of muscle recovery and knee stability when compared with previously reported ACL

  13. Biomechanical Evaluation of Suture Anchor Versus Transosseous Tunnel Quadriceps Tendon Repair Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Seth L; Copeland, Marilyn E; Milles, Jeffrey L; Flood, David A; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical fixation strength of suture anchor and transosseous tunnel repair of the quadriceps tendon in a standardized cadaveric repair model. Twelve "patella-only" specimens were used. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurement was performed to ensure equal bone quality amongst groups. Specimens were randomly assigned to either a suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon group (n = 6) or a transosseous tunnel repair group (n = 6). Suture type and repair configuration were equivalent. After the respective procedures were performed, each patella was mounted into a gripping jig. Tensile load was applied at a rate of 0.1 mm/s up to 100 N after which cyclic loading was applied at a rate of 1 Hz between magnitudes of 50 to 150 N, 50 to 200 N, 50 to 250 N, and tensile load at a rate of 0.1 mm/s until failure. Outcome measures included load to failure, displacement at 1st 100 N load, and displacement after each 10th cycle of loading. The measured cyclic displacement to the first 100 N, 50 to 150 N, 50 to 200 N, and 50 to 250 N was significantly less for suture anchors than transosseous tunnels. There was no statistically significant difference in ultimate load to failure between the 2 groups (P = .40). Failure mode for all suture anchors except one was through the soft tissue. Failure mode for all transosseous specimens but one was pulling the repair through the transosseous tunnel. Suture anchor quadriceps tendon repairs had significantly decreased gapping during cyclic loading, but no statistically significant difference in ultimate load to failure when compared with transosseous tunnel repairs. Although suture anchor quadriceps tendon repair appears to be a biomechanically superior construct, a clinical study is needed to confirm this technique as a viable alternative to gold standard transosseous techniques. Although in vivo studies are needed, these results support the suture anchor technique as a viable alternative to

  14. Short-term effects of hip abductors and lateral rotators strengthening in females with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Rossetto, Flavio Marcondes; Magalhães, Eduardo; Bryk, Flavio Fernandes; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; de Almeida Aparecida Carvalho, Nilza

    2010-11-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the influence of strengthening the hip abductor and lateral rotator musculature on pain and function of females with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Hip muscle weakness in women athletes has been the focus of many recent studies and is suggested as an important impairment to address in the conservative treatment of women with PFPS. However, it is still not well established if strengthening these muscles is associated with clinical improvement in pain and function in sedentary females with PFPS. Seventy females (average±SD age, 25±07 years), with a diagnosis of unilateral PFPS, were distributed randomly into 3 groups: 22 females in the knee exercise group, who received a conventional treatment that emphasized stretching and strengthening of the knee musculature; 23 females in the knee and hip exercise group, who performed exercises to strengthen the hip abductors and external rotators in addition to the same exercises performed by those in the knee exercise group; and of the 25 females who did not receive any treatment. The females of the nontreatment group (control) were instructed to maintain their normal daily activities. An 11-point numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) was used to assess pain during stair ascent and descent. The lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and the anterior knee pain scale (AKPS) were used to assess function. The single-limb single hop test was also used as a functional outcome to measure preintervention and 4-week postintervention function. The 3 groups were homogeneous prior to treatment in respect to demographic, pain, and functional scales data. Both the knee exercise and the knee and hip exercise groups showed significant improvement in the LEFS, the AKPS, and the NPRS, when compared to the control group (P<.05 and P<.001, respectively). But, when we considered minimal clinically important differences, only the knee and hip exercise group demonstrated mean improvements in AKPS and

  15. Effect of Upper-Extremity Strengthening Exercises on the Lumbar Strength, Disability and Pain of Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Erdem; Akova, Bedrettin; Gür, Hakan; Sekir, Ufuk

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the impacts of a low back rehabilitation program accompanied with neck, shoulder and upper back exercises on pain, disability, and physical characteristics of patients with chronic low back pain. Twenty sedentary male patients with chronic low back pain participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: a conventional low back exercise group (CE) and a supported exercise group (SE; CE plus upper back, neck, and shoulder exercises). The Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ) was used to evaluate the disability status and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to identify the pain states of the patients. In addition, neck, lumbar and shoulder isokinetic and isometric strengths of the patients were evaluated. The CE group performed lumbar stretching, mobilization and stabilization exercises in addition to low-back and abdominal isometric and concentric strengthening exercises. The SE group performed static stretching and isotonic exercises for the neck, upper-back, and shoulder muscles, in addition to the exercises performed in CE group. The exercises were implemented 3 days a week for 6 weeks in both groups. Following the 6-week exercise periods in both groups, statistically significant (p < 0.01) improvements were observed in the patients' levels of pain and the scores of MODQ reflecting an easing of disability. With respect to the levels of pain and disability, the improvements observed in the SE group was significantly (p < 0.01) greater than the improvement observed in the CE group. Based on the findings of this study, we can conclude that a low back exercise program used in combination with neck, shoulder and upper back exercises reduces the level of pain and disability in patients with chronic low back pain more prominently than conventional low back exercises.

  16. ACL deficient potential copers and non-copers reveal different isokinetic quadriceps strength profiles in the early stage after injury

    PubMed Central

    Eitzen, I; Eitzen, TJ; Holm, I; Snyder-Mackler, L; Risberg, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background Isokinetic muscle strength tests using the peak torque value is the most frequently included quadriceps muscle strength measurement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured subjects. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate quadriceps muscle performance during the whole isokinetic curve in ACL deficient subjects classified as potential copers or non-copers, and investigate whether these curve profiles were associated with single-leg hop performance. We hypothesized that quadriceps muscle torque at other knee flexion angles than peak torque would give more information about quadriceps muscle strength deficits. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be significant torque differences between potential copers and non-copers, and a significant relationship between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2 Methods Seventy-six individuals with a complete unilateral ACL rupture within the last 3 months were included. The subjects were classified into potential copers and non-copers according to the criteria from Fitzgerald et al12. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests were performed at 60°/sec (Biodex 6000). Mean torque values were calculated for peak torque as well as for specific knee flexion angles. The one-leg hop and the 6 meter timed hop tests were included and symmetry indices were used. Results The peak torque value did not identify the largest quadriceps muscle strength deficit. Rather, these were established at knee flexion angles of less than 40°. There were significant differences in angle specific torque values between potential copers and non-copers (p<0.05). Moderate to strong associations were disclosed between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance, but only for non-copers (r≥0.32– 0.58). Conclusions Angle specific quadriceps muscle torque values of less than 40° of knee flexion provide more information on the quadriceps

  17. The outcome of hip exercise in patellofemoral pain: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Catherine; Krouwel, Oliver; Kuisma, Raija; Hebron, Clair

    2016-12-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most common lower extremity conditions seen in clinical practice. Current evidence shows that there are hip strength deficits, delayed onset and shorter activation of gluteus medius in people with PFP. The aim of this review was to systematically review the literature to investigate the outcome of hip exercise in people with PFP. AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, PEDro, Pubmed, Science direct and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception to November 2014 for RCTs, non-randomised studies and case studies. Two independent reviewers assessed each paper for inclusion and quality. Twenty one papers were identified; eighteen investigating strengthening exercise, two investigating the effect of neuromuscular exercise and one study investigated the effect of hip exercise for the prevention of PFP. Hip and knee strengthening programmes were shown to be equally effective. Limited evidence indicates that the addition of hip exercise to an exercise programme is beneficial. Limited evidence demonstrates that motor skill retraining in a participant group who displayed abnormal hip alignment in running improves pain. The evidence consistently demonstrated that both hip strengthening and neuromuscular exercise has a beneficial effect on pain and function in people with PFP. Strengthening exercise predominantly addressed abductor and external rotator muscle groups. A consensus from PFP researchers for standardisation of methodology is recommended to enable meaningful comparison between trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of motor unit size and quadriceps strength over 10 years in post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaffe, A; van Dijk, J P; Beelen, A; Zwarts, M J; Nollet, F

    2014-06-01

    To investigate whether strength decline in post-polio syndrome (PPS) results from excessive distal axonal degeneration of enlarged motor units. We assessed changes over 10 years in isometric quadriceps strength, mean motor unit action potential (MUAP) size, root mean squared (RMS) amplitude, and level of interference (LOI) in 47 patients with PPS and 12 healthy controls, using high density surface EMG. At baseline, all patients had symptomatic quadriceps dysfunction, evidenced by transmission defects on single-fibre EMG. MU size and strength declined significantly by 20% and 15%, respectively in patients with PPS. Those with the largest initial MU sizes exhibited the greatest losses of mean MU size (27%) and proportional decreases in quadriceps strength (23%). Initial strength, change in LOI and change in RMS amplitude together explained 35% of the variability in strength changes in patients. MU size of controls did not change, although they lost 29% strength. MU size and strength declined concomitantly in a homogeneous cohort of patients with PPS and quadriceps dysfunction. This long term follow-up study provides evidence that size diminution of enlarged MUs combined with a reduced number of active MUs contributes to the gradual strength decline in PPS. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of estradiol on muscle damage and leg strength after intense eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Minahan, Clare; Joyce, Sarah; Bulmer, Andrew C; Cronin, Neil; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2015-07-01

    To examine the influence of estradiol on muscle damage and leg strength after intense eccentric exercise. Eight men (MEN), eight normally menstruating women (WomenNM), and eight women using oral contraceptives (WomenOC) participated in this study. Subjects performed 240 maximal-effort bilateral eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscle groups designed to elicit exercise-induced muscle damage (EiMD). Serum creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) concentrations were measured before (pre-) EiMD, as well as 0, 6, 24, and 48 h post-EiMD. Peak isometric quadriceps torque (i.e., leg strength) was measured pre-EiMD, as well as 24 and 48 h post-EiMD. The increases in CK, Mb, and FABP concentrations from pre- to post-EiMD were greater in MEN (10-fold, 15-fold, and fourfold, respectively) and WomenOC (sevenfold, 11-fold, and ninefold) compared with WomenNM (five-, six-, and threefold; p < 0.05). The decline in leg strength was about 10 % pre- to 24 h post-EiMD in all groups and decreased a further 10-15 % by 48 h post-EiMD in the MEN and WomenOC only. Our findings suggest an important role of estradiol in blunting the muscle damage response to intense eccentric exercise and preserving muscle function after EiMD.

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Orthosis Augmented by Either Stretching or Stretching and Strengthening for Stage II Tibialis Posterior Tendon Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Houck, Jeff; Neville, Christopher; Tome, Josh; Flemister, Adolph

    2015-09-01

    The value of strengthening and stretching exercises combined with orthosis treatment in a home-based program has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of augmenting orthosis treatment with either stretching or a combination of stretching and strengthening in participants with stage II tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction (TPTD). Participants included 39 patients with stage II TPTD who were recruited from a medical center and then randomly assigned to a strengthening or stretching treatment group. Excluding 3 dropouts, there were 19 participants in the strengthening group and 17 in the stretching group. The stretching treatment consisted of a prefabricated orthosis used in conjunction with stretching exercises. The strengthening treatment consisted of a prefabricated orthosis used in conjunction with the stretching and strengthening exercises. The main outcome measures were self-report (ie, Foot Function Index and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment) and isometric deep posterior compartment strength. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between groups at 6 and 12 weeks after starting the exercise programs. Both groups significantly improved in pain and function over the 12-week trial period. The self-report measures showed minimal differences between the treatment groups. There were no differences in isometric deep posterior compartment strength. A moderate-intensity, home-based exercise program was minimally effective in augmenting orthosis wear alone in participants with stage II TPTD. Level I, prospective randomized study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Muscle fiber type-specific response of Hsp70 expression in human quadriceps following acute isometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Tupling, A R; Bombardier, E; Stewart, R D; Vigna, C; Aqui, A E

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the time course of fiber type-specific heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in human skeletal muscle after acute exercise, 10 untrained male volunteers performed single-legged isometric knee extensor exercise at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with a 50% duty cycle (5-s contraction and 5-s relaxation) for 30 min. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before (Pre) exercise in the rested control leg (C) and immediately after exercise (Post) in the exercised leg (E) only and on recovery days 1 (R1), 2 (R2), 3 (R3), and 6 (R6) from both legs. As demonstrated by Western blot analysis, whole muscle Hsp70 content was unchanged (P > 0.05) immediately after exercise (Pre vs. Post), was increased (P < 0.05) by approximately 43% at R1, and remained elevated throughout the entire recovery period in E only. Hsp70 expression was also assessed in individual muscle fiber types I, IIA, and IIAX/IIX by immunohistochemistry. There were no fiber type differences (P > 0.05) in basal Hsp70 expression. Immediately after exercise, Hsp70 expression was increased (P < 0.05) in type I fibers by approximately 87% but was unchanged (P > 0.05) in type II fibers (Pre vs. Post). At R1 and throughout recovery, Hsp70 content in E was increased above basal levels (P < 0.05) in all fiber types, but Hsp70 expression was always highest (P < 0.05) in type I fibers. Hsp70 content in C was not different from Pre at any time throughout recovery. Glycogen depletion was observed at Post in all type II, but not type I, fibers, suggesting that the fiber type differences in exercise-induced Hsp70 expression were not related to glycogen availability. These results demonstrate that the time course of exercise-induced Hsp70 expression in human skeletal muscle is fiber type specific.

  2. Evaluation of Electromyographic Biofeedback for the Quadriceps Femoris: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J.; Parker, Tonya M.; Kotsko, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of electromyographic biofeedback (EMGB) of the quadriceps femoris muscle in treating various knee conditions. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials included PubMed (1980–2010), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, 1995–2007), Web of Science (1986–2010), SPORTDiscus (1990–2007), and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Key words were knee and biofeedback. Study Selection: The criteria for selection were clinical randomized controlled trials in which EMGB of the quadriceps femoris was used for various knee conditions of musculoskeletal origin. Trials were excluded because of research designs other than randomized controlled trials, articles published in a non-English language, inclusion of healthy research participants, inability to identify EMGB as the source of clinical improvement, and lack of pain, functional outcome, or quadriceps torque as outcome measures. Data Extraction: Twenty specific data points were abstracted from each clinical trial under the broad categories of attributes of the patient and injury, treatment variables for the EMGB group, treatment variables for the control group, and attributes of the research design. Data Synthesis: Eight trials yielded a total of 319 participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome (n = 86), anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (n = 52), arthroscopic surgery (n = 91), or osteoarthritis (n = 90). The average methodologic score of the included studies was 4.6/10 based on PEDro criteria. Pooled analyses demonstrated heterogeneity of the included studies, rendering the interpretation of the pooled data inappropriate. The EMGB appeared to benefit short-term postsurgical pain or quadriceps strength in 3 of 4 postsurgical investigations but was ineffective for chronic knee conditions such as patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis in all 4 studies. Because the findings are based on limited

  3. Isokinetic and isometric strength in osteoarthrosis of the knee. A comparative study with healthy women.

    PubMed

    Tan, J; Balci, N; Sepici, V; Gener, F A

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic stability of the knee joint depends on the appropriate strength ratio of quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the maximum peak torque (MPT) and MPT ratios of hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Two groups of patients were included in the study. The first group consisted of 30 patients (Group A) with the clinical and radiologic findings of knee OA. The second group consisted of 30 patients (Group B) exhibiting knee joint pain without roentgenologic findings of knee OA. The findings of two patient groups were compared with each other and also with 30 healthy subjects (Group C). Isokinetic (at 60 degrees/s and at 180 degrees/s) and isometric (at 30 degrees and at 60 degrees of knee flexion) tests were performed by the rate-limiting isokinetic dynamometer system. Isokinetic and isometric MPT loss of knee flexors and extensors was found in both patient groups with respect to controls, but MPT ratios of H/Q muscles did not show a statistically significant difference compared with the control group. This may be related to the equal strength loss of knee flexors and knee extensors in patients with knee OA. It is concluded that strengthening exercises of hamstring muscles is as important as quadriceps strengthening in rehabilitation of knee OA.

  4. [Amino acid composition of the rat quadriceps femoris muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Poliakov, V V; Murugova, T P

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the quadriceps muscle of rats flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-936 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous control experiment was studied. The weightless rats showed changes in the amino acid concentration in the quadriceps muscle. The centrifuged flight and synchronous rats displayed an accumulation of free amino acids in the above muscle.

  5. Influence of Step Rate and Quadriceps Load Distribution on Patellofemoral Cartilage Contact Pressures during Running

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Rachel L.; Smith, Colin R.; Vignos, Michael F.; Kaiser, Jarred; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2015-01-01

    Interventions used to treat patellofemoral pain in runners are often designed to alter patellofemoral mechanics. This study used a computational model to investigate the influence of two interventions, step rate manipulation and quadriceps strengthening, on patellofemoral contact pressures during running. Running mechanics were analyzed using a lower extremity musculoskeletal model that included a knee with six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. An elastic foundation model was used to compute articular contact pressures. The lower extremity model was scaled to anthropometric dimensions of 22 healthy adults, who ran on an instrumented treadmill at 90%, 100% and 110% of their preferred step rate. Numerical optimization was then used to predict the muscle forces, secondary tibiofemoral kinematics and all patellofemoral kinematics that would generate the measured hip, knee and ankle joint accelerations. Mean and peak patella contact pressures reached 5.0 and 9.7 MPa during the midstance phase of running. Increasing step rate by 10% significantly reduced mean contact pressures by 10.4% and contact area by 7.4%, but had small effects on lateral patella translation and tilt. Enhancing vastus medialis strength did not substantially affect pressure magnitudes or lateral patella translation, but did shift contact pressure medially toward the patellar median ridge. Thus, the model suggests that step rate tends to primarily modulate the magnitude of contact pressure and contact area, while vastus medialis strengthening has the potential to alter mediolateral pressure locations. These results are relevant to consider in the design of interventions used to prevent or treat patellofemoral pain in runners. PMID:26070646

  6. The relationship between quadriceps muscle force, knee flexion, and anterior cruciate ligament strain in an in vitro simulated jump landing.

    PubMed

    Withrow, Thomas J; Huston, Laura J; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2006-02-01

    An instrumented cadaveric knee construct was used to quantify the association between impact force, quadriceps force, knee flexion angle, and anterior cruciate ligament relative strain in simulated unipedal jump landings. Anterior cruciate ligament strain will correlate with impact force, quadriceps force, and knee flexion angle. Descriptive laboratory study. Eleven cadaveric knees (age, 70.8 [19.3] years; 5 male; 6 female) were mounted in a custom fixture with the tibia and femur secured to a triaxial load cell. Quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle forces were simulated using pretensioned steel cables (stiffness, 7 kN/cm), and the quadriceps tendon force was measured using a load cell. Mean strain on the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a DVRT. With the knee in 25 degrees of flexion, the construct was vertically loaded by an impact force initially directed 4 cm posterior to the knee joint center. Tibiofemoral kinematics was measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system. The increase in anterior cruciate ligament relative strain was proportional to the increase in quadriceps force (r(2) = 0.74; P < .00001) and knee flexion angle (r(2) = 0.88; P < .00001) but was not correlated with the impact force (r(2) = 0.009; P = .08). The increase in knee flexion and quadriceps force during this simulated 1-footed landing strongly influenced the relative strain on the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament. These results suggest that even in the presence of knee flexor muscle forces, the increase in quadriceps force required to prevent the knee from flexing during landing can place the anterior cruciate ligament at risk for large strains.

  7. [Simultaneous Traumatic Rupture of Patellar Ligament and Contralateral Rupture of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle].

    PubMed

    Hladký, V; Havlas, V

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a unique case of a 64-year-old patient after a fall, treated with oral antidiabetic drugs for type II diabetes mellitus. Following a series of examinations, a bilateral injury was diagnosed - patellar ligament tear on the right side and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle on the left side. It is a rare injury, complicated by simultaneous involvement of both knee joints. The used therapy consisted of a bilateral surgery followed by gradual verticalisation, first with the support of a walking frame and later with the use of forearm crutches. During the final examination, the patient demonstrated full flexion at both knees, while an extension deficit of approx. 5 degrees was still present on the left side. The right knee X-ray showed a proper position of the patella after the removal of temporary tension band wire. Although the clinical results of operative treatment of both the patellar ligament rupture and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle are in most cases good, early operative treatment, proper technique and post-operative rehabilitation are a prerequisite for success. Key words: knee injuries, patellar ligament, quadriceps muscle, rupture.

  8. The Time Course of Knee Swelling Post Total Knee Arthroplasty and Its Associations with Quadriceps Strength and Gait Speed.

    PubMed

    Pua, Yong-Hao

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the time course of knee swelling post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and its associations with quadriceps strength and gait speed. Eighty-five patients with unilateral TKA participated. Preoperatively and on post-operative days (PODs) 1, 4, 14, and 90, knee swelling was measured using bioimpedance spectrometry. Preoperatively and on PODs 14 and 90, quadriceps strength was measured using isokinetic dynamometry while fast gait speed was measured using the timed 10-meter walk. On POD1, knee swelling increased ~35% from preoperative levels after which, knee swelling reduced but remained at ~11% above preoperative levels on POD90. In longitudinal, multivariable analyses, knee swelling was associated with quadriceps weakness (P<0.01) and slower gait speed (P=0.03). Interventions to reduce post-TKA knee swelling may be indicated to improve quadriceps strength and gait speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Repair of insertional achilles tendinosis with a bone-quadriceps tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Philippot, Rémi; Wegrzyn, Julien; Grosclaude, Sophie; Besse, Jean Luc

    2010-09-01

    While conservative treatment may be successful in most cases, partial rupture at the calcaneal insertion point is a significant concern with insertional Achilles tendinopathy. We report on the outcomes of a surgical technique for Achilles tendon augmentation using a bone-tendon graft harvested from the knee extensor system. Our retrospective case series includes 25 surgical procedures performed in 24 patients, 19 males and five females, with a mean age of 47 (range, 30 to 59) years, 18 of whom were athletes. The mean followup period was 52 (range, 12 to 156) months. All patients underwent MRI examination prior to surgery which showed partial Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon was debrided through a posterolateral approach. The bone-quadriceps tendon graft was harvested, then the bone plug of the graft was inserted into a blind tunnel drilled into the calcaneus and fixed with an interference screw. The fibers of the quadriceps tendon were sutured to the residual part of the Achilles tendon with the foot at an angle of 90 degrees. Patients were able to resume their sporting activity after an average of 6.7 months. At last followup examination, physical activity was scored 5.2 on the 10-point Tegner Scale; the mean AOFAS score was 98.4. MRI examination showed good graft integration 1 year postoperatively. The bone-quadriceps tendon grafting technique was a good alternative for the insertional Achilles lesions with partial detachment which we felt required augmentation.

  10. Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.

    PubMed

    McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2014-12-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue on Stiff-Knee Gait in Patients with Hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Delouf, Eric; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between neuromuscular fatigue and locomotion has never been investigated in hemiparetic patients despite the fact that, in the clinical context, patients report to be more spastic or stiffer after walking a long distance or after a rehabilitation session. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on the biomechanical gait parameters of patients with a stiff-knee gait (SKG). Thirteen patients and eleven healthy controls performed one gait analysis before a protocol of isokinetic quadriceps fatigue and two after (immediately after and after 10 minutes of rest). Spatiotemporal parameters, sagittal knee and hip kinematics, rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity were analyzed. The results showed that quadriceps muscle weakness, produced by repetitive concentric contractions of the knee extensors, induced an improvement of spatiotemporal parameters for patients and healthy subjects. For the patient group, the increase in gait velocity and step length was associated with i) an increase of sagittal hip and knee flexion during the swing phase, ii) an increase of the maximal normalized length of the RF and VL and of the maximal VL lengthening velocity during the pre-swing and swing phases, and iii) a decrease in EMG activity of the RF muscle during the initial pre-swing phase and during the latter 2/3 of the initial swing phase. These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue did not alter the gait of patients with hemiparesis walking with a SKG and that neuromuscular fatigue may play the same functional role as an anti-spastic treatment such as botulinum toxin-A injection. Strength training of knee extensors, although commonly performed in rehabilitation, does not seem to be a priority to improve gait of these patients. PMID:24718087

  12. Validity and reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for the assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lienhard, K; Lauermann, S P; Schneider, D; Item-Glatthorn, J F; Casartelli, N C; Maffiuletti, N A

    2013-12-01

    Reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for quadriceps strength evaluation, and the relation between quadriceps strength and physical function was investigated in 29 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients, with an average age of 63 years. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque, isokinetic peak torque, and isoinertial one-repetition maximum load of the involved and uninvolved quadriceps were evaluated as well as objective (walking parameters) and subjective physical function (WOMAC). Reliability was good and comparable for the isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial strength outcomes on both sides (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.947-0.966; standard error of measurement range: 5.1-9.3%). Involved quadriceps strength was significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.641-0.710), step length (r range: 0.685-0.820) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.575-0.663), independent from the modality (P < 0.05). Uninvolved quadriceps strength was also significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.413-0.539), step length (r range: 0.514-0.608) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.374-0.554) (P < 0.05), except for WOMAC function/isokinetic peak torque (P > 0.05). In conclusion, isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial modalities ensure valid and reliable assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in TKA patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  14. Pain level after ACL reconstruction: A comparative study between free quadriceps tendon and hamstring tendons autografts.

    PubMed

    Buescu, Cristian Tudor; Onutu, Adela Hilda; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald; Todor, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels and analgesic consumption after single bundle ACL reconstruction with free quadriceps tendon autograft versus hamstring tendon autograft. A total of 48 patients scheduled for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction were randomized into two groups: the free quadriceps tendon autograft group (24 patients) and the hamstring tendons autograft group (24 patients). A basic multimodal analgesic postoperative program was used for all patients and rescue analgesia was provided with tramadol, at pain scores over 30 on the Visual Analog Scale. The time to the first rescue analgesic, the number of doses of tramadol and pain scores were recorded. The results within the same group were compared with the Wilcoxon signed test. Supplementary analgesic drug administration proved significantly higher in the group of subjects with hamstring grafts, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1.3) dose, compared to the group of subjects treated with a quadriceps graft, median = 0.5 (0.1.25) (p = 0.009). A significantly higher number of subjects with a quadriceps graft did not require any supplementary analgesic drug (50%) as compared with subjects with hamstring graft (13%; Z-statistics = 3.01, p = 0.002). The percentage of subjects who required a supplementary analgesic drug was 38% higher in the HT group compared with the FQT group. The use of the free quadriceps tendon autograft for ACL reconstruction leads to less pain and analgesic consumption in the immediate postoperative period compared with the use of hamstrings autograft. Level I Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations Among Quadriceps Strength and Rate of Torque Development 6 Weeks Post Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Future Hop and Vertical Jump Performance: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Clark, Ross A; Ho, Jia-Ying

    2017-11-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort. Background Quadriceps strength is associated with hop distance and jump height in persons who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, it is unknown whether the ability to rapidly generate quadriceps torque in the early phase of recovery is associated with future hopping and jumping performance in this population. Objective To evaluate the prospective associations among quadriceps strength and rate of torque development (RTD) and single-leg hop for distance, vertical jump height, vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), and vertical force loading rate during a landing task in persons who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Methods Seventy patients with unilateral ACL reconstruction participated. At 6 weeks post ACL reconstruction, isometric quadriceps strength and RTD were measured using a dynamometer. At 6 months following ACL reconstruction, patients performed the single-leg hop for distance test. Patients also performed the single-leg vertical jump test on a force plate that measured maximum jump height, vGRF, and average loading rate during landing. Results Both quadriceps strength and RTD at 6 weeks post ACL reconstruction were associated with all hopping and jumping measures at 6 months post ACL reconstruction (P≤.04). Single-leg hop distance was associated more closely with quadriceps strength than with quadriceps RTD (P = .05), and vertical jump height and vGRF measures were associated more closely with quadriceps RTD than with quadriceps strength (P = .05 and P<.01, respectively). Both quadriceps measures were associated with loading rate. Conclusion Quadriceps strength and RTD are complementary but distinct predictors of future hopping and jumping performance in persons who have undergone ACL reconstruction. These findings may contribute to improved rehabilitation of patients who are at risk for poor jumping/hopping performance and abnormal knee loading. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017

  16. Effects of resistance exercise training and nandrolone decanoate on body composition and muscle function among patients who receive hemodialysis: A randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kirsten L; Painter, Patricia L; Sakkas, Giorgos K; Gordon, Patricia; Doyle, Julie; Shubert, Tiffany

    2006-08-01

    Patients who are on hemodialysis commonly experience muscle wasting and weakness, which have a negative effect on physical functioning and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether anabolic steroid administration and resistance exercise training induce anabolic effects among patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis. A randomized 2 x 2 factorial trial of anabolic steroid administration and resistance exercise training was conducted in 79 patients who were receiving maintenance hemodialysis at University of California, San Francisco-affiliated dialysis units. Interventions included double-blinded weekly nandrolone decanoate (100 mg for women; 200 mg for men) or placebo injections and lower extremity resistance exercise training for 12 wk during hemodialysis sessions three times per week using ankle weights. Primary outcomes included change in lean body mass (LBM) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and knee extensor muscle strength. Secondary outcomes included changes in physical performance, self-reported physical functioning, and physical activity. Sixty-eight patients completed the study. Patients who received nandrolone decanoate increased their LBM by 3.1 +/- 2.2 kg (P < 0.0001). Exercise did not result in a significant increase in LBM. Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased in patients who were assigned to exercise (P = 0.01) and to nandrolone (P < 0.0001) in an additive manner. Patients who exercised increased their strength in a training-specific fashion, and exercise was associated with an improvement in self-reported physical functioning (P = 0.04 compared with nonexercising groups). Nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise produced anabolic effects among patients who were on hemodialysis. Further studies are needed to determine whether these interventions improve survival.

  17. Manual therapy directed at the knee or lumbopelvic region does not influence quadriceps spinal reflex excitability.

    PubMed

    Grindstaff, Terry L; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Sauer, Lindsay D; Kerrigan, D Casey; Patrie, James T; Hertel, Jay; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2014-08-01

    Manual therapies, directed to the knee and lumbopelvic region, have demonstrated the ability to improve neuromuscular quadriceps function in individuals with knee pathology. It remains unknown if manual therapies may alter impaired spinal reflex excitability, thus identifying a potential mechanism in which manual therapy may improve neuromuscular function following knee injury. To determine the effect of local and distant mobilisation/manipulation interventions on quadriceps spinal reflex excitability. Seventy-five individuals with a history of knee joint injury and current quadriceps inhibition volunteered for this study. Participants were randomised to one of five intervention groups: lumbopelvic manipulation (grade V), lumbopelvic manipulation positioning (no thrust), grade IV patellar mobilisation, grade I patellar mobilisation, and control (no treatment). Changes in spinal reflex excitability were quantified by assessing the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), presynaptic, and postsynaptic excitability. A hierarchical linear-mixed model for repeated measures was performed to compare changes in outcome variables between groups over time (pre, post 0, 30, 60, 90 min). There were no significant differences in H-reflex, presynaptic, or postsynaptic excitability between groups across time. Manual therapies directed to the knee or lumbopelvic region did not acutely change quadriceps spinal reflex excitability. Although manual therapies may improve impairments and functional outcomes the underlying mechanism does not appear to be related to changes in spinal reflex excitability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of step rate and quadriceps load distribution on patellofemoral cartilage contact pressures during running.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Rachel L; Smith, Colin R; Vignos, Michael F; Kaiser, Jarred; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-08-20

    Interventions used to treat patellofemoral pain in runners are often designed to alter patellofemoral mechanics. This study used a computational model to investigate the influence of two interventions, step rate manipulation and quadriceps strengthening, on patellofemoral contact pressures during running. Running mechanics were analyzed using a lower extremity musculoskeletal model that included a knee with six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. An elastic foundation model was used to compute articular contact pressures. The lower extremity model was scaled to anthropometric dimensions of 22 healthy adults, who ran on an instrumented treadmill at 90%, 100% and 110% of their preferred step rate. Numerical optimization was then used to predict the muscle forces, secondary tibiofemoral kinematics and all patellofemoral kinematics that would generate the measured primary hip, knee and ankle joint accelerations. Mean and peak patella contact pressures reached 5.0 and 9.7MPa during the midstance phase of running. Increasing step rate by 10% significantly reduced mean contact pressures by 10.4% and contact area by 7.4%, but had small effects on lateral patellar translation and tilt. Enhancing vastus medialis strength did not substantially affect pressure magnitudes or lateral patellar translation, but did shift contact pressure medially toward the patellar median ridge. Thus, the model suggests that step rate tends to primarily modulate the magnitude of contact pressure and contact area, while vastus medialis strengthening has the potential to alter mediolateral pressure locations. These results are relevant to consider in the design of interventions used to prevent or treat patellofemoral pain in runners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, A H; Anwer, S; Zafar, H; Al-Eisa, E S

    2017-09-01

    The present study compared the effect of quadriceps and hamstring muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men. Thirty healthy young men (18-30 years) participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10 each): quadriceps cooling (QC), hamstring cooling (HC), or control group (no cooling). Participants in the QC and HC groups received 20 minutes of cooling using a cold pack (gel pack), placed on the anterior thigh (from the apex of the patella to the mid-thigh) and the posterior thigh (from the base of the popliteal fossa to the mid-thigh), respectively. Balance score including unilateral stance was measured at baseline and immediately after the application of the cold pack. No significant difference in the balance score was noted in any group after the application of the cold pack (p⟩0.05). Similarly, no significant differences in post-test balance score were noted among the three groups (p⟩0.05). Cooling of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles has no immediate effect on standing balance in healthy young men. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the long-term effects of cooling these muscles on standing balance.

  20. Nandrolone decanoate and physical activity affect quadriceps in peripubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Sretenovic, Jasmina; Ajdzanovic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Srejovic, Ivan; Corbic, Milena; Milosevic, Verica; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Milosavljevic, Zoran

    2018-07-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic analogs of testosterone often used by athletes to increase the skeletal muscle mass. Our goal was to examine the effects of physical activity and physical activity combined with supraphysiological doses of nandrolone on functional morphology of the quadriceps muscle. The study included 32 peripubertal Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups: control (T-N-), nandrolone (T-N+), physical activity (T+N-) and physical activity plus nandrolone (T+N+) groups. The T+N- and T+N+ group swam for 4 weeks, 1 h/day, 5 days/week. The T-N+ and T+N+ groups received nandolone decanoate (20 mg/kg b.w.) once per week, subcutaneously. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed and muscle specimens were prepared for the processing. Tissue sections were histochemically and immunohistochemically stained, while the image analysis was used for quantification. Longitudinal diameter of quadriceps muscle cells was increased for 21% in T-N+, for 57% in T+N- and for 64% in T+N+ group while cross section muscle cell area was increased in T-N+ for 19%, in T+N- for 47% and in T+N+ group for 59%, compared to the control. Collagen fibers covered area was increased in T-N+ group for 36%, in T+N- for 109% and in T+N+ group for 159%, compared to the control. Erythrocyte depots were decreased in T-N+ group and increased in T+N- and T+N+ group, in comparison with T-N-. VEGF depots were increased in all treated groups. Chronic administration of supraphysiological doses of AASs alone or in combination with physical activity induces hypertrophy and significant changes in the quadriceps muscle tissue structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Long term effect of selective muscle strengthening in athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramazzina, Ileana; Pogliacomi, Francesco; Bertuletti, Silvia; Costantino, Cosimo

    2016-04-15

    The purpose of the study was to examine the long term effects of a selective muscle strengthening program in reducing pain and improving knee function and strength in athletes with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. A total of one hundred and thirty four athletes were enrolled in the study. All patients were evaluated with Isokinetic Test, Cincinnati Knee Rating System and Visual Analogue Scale. The selective muscle strengthening consisted of 8 weeks of exercises performed 3 times in the first 4 weeks and twice in the last 4 weeks. The muscle strengthening program was performed between 30-90° of knee flexion. During the first 4-weeks treatment we used closed kinetic chain exercises with 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% of maximum load. In the last 4-weeks we added open kinetic chain exercises at 70% of maximum load with 3 sets and 10 repetitions to improve the resistance. Analyzing data at the beginning and at the end of the treatment for Isokinetic test, Cincinnati and Visual Analogue Scale we observed a significant scores improvement. At 1 year follow-up the clinical improvements were maintained and everyone followed the recommended program because did not perform the maintenance program. At 2 years follow-up no athletes presented relapses; only four patients were excluded from program. We believe that our program of selective muscle strengthening should resolve pain and improve knee function and strength as results in obtained scores and could be critical to avoid painful relapses.

  2. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs and physical condition. If you're at high risk of heart disease , your doctor may conduct an exercise stress test to identify any potential problems. Arm Raise Purpose: Strengthen shoulder muscles. Starting ...

  3. Eight weeks of exercise training increases aerobic capacity and muscle mass and reduces fatigue in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zenith, Laura; Meena, Neha; Ramadi, Ailar; Yavari, Milad; Harvey, Andrea; Carbonneau, Michelle; Ma, Mang; Abraldes, Juan G; Paterson, Ian; Haykowsky, Mark J; Tandon, Puneeta

    2014-11-01

    Patients with cirrhosis have reduced exercise tolerance, measured objectively as decreased peak exercise oxygen uptake (peak VO2). Reduced peak VO2 is associated with decreased survival time. The effect of aerobic exercise training on peak VO2 has not been well studied in patients with cirrhosis. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of 8 weeks of supervised exercise on peak VO2, quadriceps muscle thickness, and quality of life. In a prospective pilot study, stable patients (79% male, 57.6 ± 6.7 years old) with Child-Pugh class A or B cirrhosis (mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, 10 ± 2.2) were randomly assigned to groups that received exercise training (n = 9) or usual care (controls, n = 10) at the University of Alberta Hospital in Canada from February through June 2013. Supervised exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer 3 days/week for 8 weeks at 60%-80% of baseline peak VO2. Peak VO2, quadriceps muscle thickness (measured by ultrasound), thigh circumference, answers from Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaires, EQ-visual analogue scales, 6-minute walk distance, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were evaluated at baseline and at week 8. Analysis of covariance was used to compare variables. At week 8, peak VO2 was 5.3 mL/kg/min higher in the exercise group compared with controls (95% confidence interval, 2.9-7.8; P = .001). Thigh circumference (P = .001), thigh muscle thickness (P = .01), and EQ-visual analogue scale determined self-perceived health status (P = .01) was also significantly higher in the exercise group compared with controls at week 8; fatigue subscores of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaires were lower in the exercise group compared with controls (P = .01). No adverse events occurred during cardiopulmonary exercise testing or training. In a controlled prospective pilot trial, 8 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise training increased peak VO2 and muscle mass and reduced fatigue in patients with cirrhosis. No

  4. Effect of ageing on hypoxic exercise cardiorespiratory, muscle and cerebral oxygenation responses in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Puthon, Lara; Bouzat, Pierre; Robach, Paul; Favre-Juvin, Anne; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Verges, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? This study aimed to determine the effect of ageing on cardiorespiratory and tissue oxygenation responses to hypoxia during maximal incremental exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? Older healthy subjects had preserved hypoxic cardiorespiratory and tissue oxygenation responses at rest and during moderate exercise. At maximal exercise, they had a reduced hypoxic ventilatory response but similar maximal power output reduction compared with young individuals. This study suggests that until moderate exercise, hypoxic responses are preserved until the age of 70 years and therefore that ageing is not a contraindication for high-altitude sojourn. This study assessed the effects of ageing on cardiorespiratory and tissue oxygenation responses to hypoxia both at rest and during incremental maximal exercise. Sixteen young (20-30 years old) and 15 older healthy subjects (60-70 years old) performed two maximal incremental cycling tests in normoxia and hypoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction 12%). Cardiorespiratory responses, prefrontal cortex and quadriceps tissue oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured during exercise as well as during hypercapnia at rest. The hypoxic ventilatory response was similar in young compared with older individuals at rest and during moderate-intensity exercise (50% maximal power output: young 0.9 ± 0.2 versus older 1.1 ± 0.8 l min -1  % -1 ; P > 0.05) but larger in young subjects during high-intensity exercise (maximal power output: 2.2 ± 0.8 versus 1.8 ± 1.1 l min -1  % -1 ; P < 0.05). The hypoxic cardiac response did not differ between groups both at rest and during exercise. During exercise in hypoxia, young subjects showed greater deoxygenation than older subjects, at both the prefrontal cortex and quadriceps levels. The hypoxia-induced reduction in maximal power output (young -32 ± 5% versus older -30 ± 6%; P > 0.05) and the hypercapnic

  5. Recovery of gait after quadriceps muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Beretta, Stephannie Spiandor; Pereira, Vinicius A I; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; van Dieën, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recovery time after quadriceps muscle fatigue on gait in young adults. Forty young adults (20-40 years old) performed three 8-m gait trials at preferred velocity before and after muscle fatigue, and after 5, 10 and 20min of passive rest. In addition, at each time point, two maximal isometric voluntary contractions were preformed. Muscle fatigue was induced by repeated sit-to-stand transfers until task failure. Spatio-temporal, kinetic and muscle activity parameters, measured in the central stride of each trial, were analyzed. Data were compared between before and after the muscle fatigue protocol and after the recovery periods by one-way repeated measures ANOVA. The voluntary force was decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and after 5, 10 and 20min of recovery compared to before the fatigue protocol. Step width (p<0.001) and RMS of biceps femoris (p<0.05) were increased immediately after the fatigue protocol and remained increased after the recovery periods. In addition, stride duration was decreased immediately after the fatigue protocol compared to before and to after 10 and 20min of rest (p<0.001). The anterior-posterior propulsive impulse was also decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and remained low after 5, 10 and 20min of rest. We conclude that 20min is not enough to see full recovery of gait after exhaustive quadriceps muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood flow occlusion-related O2 extraction "reserve" is present in different muscles of the quadriceps but greater in deeper regions after ramp-incremental test.

    PubMed

    Iannetta, Danilo; Okushima, Dai; Inglis, Erin Calaine; Kondo, Narihiko; Murias, Juan M; Koga, Shunsaku

    2018-05-03

    It was recently demonstrated that an O 2 extraction reserve, as assessed by the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived deoxygenation signal ([HHb]), exists in the superficial region of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle during an occlusion performed at the end of a ramp-incremental test. However, it is unknown whether this reserve is present and/or different in magnitude in other portions and depths of the quadriceps muscles. We tested the hypothesis that O 2 extraction would exist in other regions of this muscle but greater in deep compared to more superficial portions. Superficial and deep VL (VL-s and VL-d, respectively) as well as superficial rectus femoris (RF-s) were monitored by a combination of low- and high- power time resolved (TRS) NIRS. During the occlusion immediately post ramp-incremental test there was a significant overshoot in the [HHb] signal (P<0.05). However, the magnitude of this increase was greater in VL-d (93.2{plus minus}42.9%) compared to VL-s (55.0{plus minus}19.6%) and RF-s (47.8{plus minus}14.0%) (P<0.05). The present study demonstrated that an O2 extraction reserve exists in different pools of active muscle fibers of the quadriceps at the end of a ramp exercise to exhaustion. The greater magnitude in the reserve observed in the deeper portion of VL, however, suggests that this portion of muscle may present a greater surplus of oxygenated blood, likely due to a greater population of slow-twitch fibers. These findings add to the notion that the plateau in the [HHb] signal towards the end of a ramp-incremental exercise does not indicate the upper limit of O 2 extraction.

  7. Effects of neck exercise on high-school students' neck-shoulder posture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Hyo; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise on the neck-shoulder posture, and the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles of high-school students. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 seventeen-year-old female high-school students who complained about bad posture and chronic neck-shoulder pain. They were randomly divided into an experimental group of 15 subjects, who performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise and a control group of 15 subjects, who performed a basic stretching exercise. [Methods] The experimental group of 15 subjects performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise consisting of low-load training of the cranio-cervical flexor muscle, and the control group of 15 subjects performed a basic stretching exercise consisting of seven motions. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant changes in head tilt angle, neck flexion angle, forward shoulder angle, and the result of the cranio-cervical flexion test after the training. In contrast, the control group showed no statistically significant changes in these measures following the training. When the results of the groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found for all items between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Strengthening cranio-cervical flexor muscles is important for the adjustment of neck posture, and maintaining their stability is required to improve neck-shoulder posture.

  8. Effects of contraction duration on low-frequency fatigue in voluntary and electrically induced exercise of quadriceps muscle in humans.

    PubMed

    Ratkevicius, A; Skurvydas, A; Povilonis, E; Quistorff, B; Lexell, J

    1998-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate if low-frequency fatigue (LFF) dependent on the duration of repeated muscle contractions and to compare LFF in voluntary and electrically induced exercise. Male subjects performed three 9-min periods of repeated isometric knee extensions at 40% maximal voluntary contraction with contraction plus relaxation periods of 30 plus 60 s, 15 plus 30 s and 5 plus 10 s in protocols 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The same exercise protocols were repeated using feedback-controlled electrical stimulation at 40% maximal tetanic torque. Before and 15 min after each exercise period, knee extension torque at 1, 7, 10, 15, 20, 50 and 100 Hz was assessed. During voluntary exercise, electromyogram root mean square (EMGrms) of the vastus lateralis muscle was evaluated. The 20-Hz torque:100-Hz torque (20:100 Hz torque) ratio was reduced more after electrically induced than after voluntary exercise (P < 0.05). During electrically induced exercise, the decrease in 20:100 Hz torque ratio was gradually (P < 0.05) reduced as the individual contractions shortened. During voluntary exercise, the decrease in 20:100 Hz torque ratio and the increase in EMGrms were greater in protocol 1 (P < 0.01) than in protocols 2 and 3, which did not differ from each other. In conclusion, our results showed that LFF is dependent on the duration of individual muscle contractions during repetitive isometric exercise and that the electrically induced exercise produced a more pronounced LFF compared to voluntary exercise of submaximal intensity. It is suggested that compensatory recruitment of faster-contracting motor units is an additional factor affecting the severity of LFF during voluntary exercise.

  9. Neglected rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with chronic renal failure (case report and review of the literature).

    PubMed

    Hassani, Zouhir Ameziane; Boufettal, Moncef; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Elyaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the quadriceps tendon are infrequent injuries, it is seen primarily in patients with predisposing diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic renal failure. A 32-year-old man had a history of end stage renal disease and received regular hemodialysis treatment for more than 5 years. He was admitted in our service for total functional impotence of the right lower limb with knee pain after a common fall two months ago. The radiogram showed a ''patella baja" with suprapatellar calcifications. The ultrasound and MRI showed an aspect of rupture of the quadriceps tendon in its proximal end with retraction of 3 cm. Quadriceps tendon repair was performed with a lengthening plasty, and the result was satisfactory after a serial rehabilitation program. The diagnosis of quadriceps tendon ruptures needs more attention in patients with predisposing diseases. They should not be unknown because the treatment of neglected lesions is more difficult. We insist on the early surgical repair associated with early rehabilitation that can guarantee recovery of good active extension.

  10. Managing knee osteoarthritis with yoga or aerobic/strengthening exercise programs in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Corjena; Wyman, Jean F; Bronas, Ulf; McCarthy, Teresa; Rudser, Kyle; Mathiason, Michelle A

    2017-03-01

    Although exercise is often recommended for managing osteoarthritis (OA), limited evidence-based exercise options are available for older adults with OA. This study compared the effects of Hatha yoga (HY) and aerobic/strengthening exercises (ASE) on knee OA. Randomized controlled trial with three arms design was used: HY, ASE, and education control. Both HY and ASE groups involved 8 weekly 45-min group classes with 2-4 days/week home practice sessions. Control group received OA education brochures and weekly phone calls from study staff. Standardized instruments were used to measure OA symptoms, physical function, mood, spiritual health, fear of falling, and quality of life at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. HY/ASE adherences were assessed weekly using class attendance records and home practice video recordings. Primary analysis of the difference in the change from baseline was based on intent-to-treat and adjusted for baseline values. Eight-three adults with symptomatic knee OA completed the study (84% female; mean age 71.6 ± 8.0 years; mean BMI 29.0 ± 7.0 kg/m 2 ). Retention rate was 82%. Compared to the ASE group at 8 weeks, participants in the HY group had a significant improvement from baseline in perception of OA symptoms (-9.6 [95% CI -15.3, -4]; p = .001), anxiety (-1.4 [95% CI -2.7, -0]; p = .04), and fear of falling (-4.6 [-7.5, -1.7]; p = .002). There were no differences in class/home practice adherence between HY and ASE. Three non-serious adverse events were reported from the ASE group. Both HY and ASE improved symptoms and function but HY may have superior benefits for older adults with knee OA. Trial registration The full trial protocol is available at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02525341).

  11. Free Bone Plug Quadriceps Tendon Harvest and Suspensory Button Attachment for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Khallouki, Youssef

    2016-06-01

    The most commonly used autografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are the bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendons. Each has its advantages and limitations. The bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft can lead to more donor-site morbidity, and the hamstring autograft can be unpredictable in size. The quadriceps tendon, with or without a bone block, has been described as an alternative graft source and has been used especially in revision cases, but in recent years, it has attracted attention even for primary cases. We report a technique for harvesting a free bone quadriceps tendon graft and attaching an extracortical button for femoral fixation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  12. Effect of a physiotherapy rehabilitation program on knee osteoarthritis in patients with different pain intensities.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Soliman, Elsadat Saad; Mosaad, Dalia Mohammed; Draz, Amira Hussin

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effect of physiotherapy rehabilitation program on moderate knee osteoarthritis in patients with different pain intensities. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty subjects (37 men and 23 women) with moderate knee osteoarthritis participated in the current study. Randomization software was used to select the participating subjects' numbers from the clinic records. They were classified into three groups according to pain intensity: mild, moderate, and severe pain groups. All groups underwent a standard set of pulsed electromagnetic field, ultrasound, stretching exercises, and strengthening exercises. Pain intensity, knee range of motion, knee function, and isometric quadriceps strength were evaluated using the visual analogue scale, universal goniometer, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, and Jamar hydraulic dynamometer, respectively. The evaluation was performed before and after a 4-week rehabilitation program. [Results] All groups showed significant differences in pain intensity, knee range of motion, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. The score change in moderate pain group was significantly greater than those in mild and severe pain groups. [Conclusion] Pain intensity is one of the prominent factors that are responsible for the improvement of knee osteoarthritis. Consequently, pain intensity should be considered during rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis.

  13. Augmentation of Deglutitive Thyrohyoid Muscle Shortening by the Shaker Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mepani, Rachel; Antonik, Stephen; Massey, Benson; Kern, Mark; Logemann, Jerilyn; Pauloski, Barbara; Rademaker, Alfred; Easterling, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies of the effect of 6 weeks of the Shaker Exercise have shown significant increase in UES opening and anterior excursion of larynx and hyoid during swallowing in patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, resulting in elimination of aspiration and resumption of oral intake. This effect is attributed to strengthening of the suprahyoid muscles, as evidenced by comparison of electromyographic changes in muscle fatigue before and after completion of the exercise regime. The effect of this exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening is unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening. We studied 11 dysphagic patients with UES dysfunction. Six were randomized to traditional swallowing therapy and five to the Shaker Exercise. Videofluoroscopy was used to measure deglutitive thyrohyoid shortening before and after completion of assigned therapy regimen. Maximum thyrohyoid muscle shortening occurred at close temporal proximity to the time of maximal thyroid cartilage excursion. The percent change in thyrohyoid distance from initiation of deglutition to maximal anterior/superior hyoid excursion showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups prior to either therapy (p = 0.54). In contrast, after completion of therapy, the percent change in thyrohyoid distance in the Shaker Exercise group was significantly greater compared to the traditional therapy (p = 0.034). The Shaker Exercise augments the thyrohyoid muscle shortening in addition to strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. The combination of increased thyrohyoid shortening and suprahyoid strengthening contributes to the Shaker Exercise outcome of deglutitive UES opening augmentation. PMID:18685891

  14. Meta-analysis of the effect of strengthening interventions in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the evidence that strengthening interventions can improve muscle strength and activity in individuals with cerebral palsy. The search focused on studies that employed strength training for children with cerebral palsy for which six electronic databases were used to extract literature published from 2001 to 2012. The key terms used in these searches were combined strength training, strengthening, weight training, weight lifting, resistance, and cerebral palsy. The quality of each study was assessed using the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) scale. Thirteen randomized controlled trial studies were selected and divided into categories according to program type, mode, and outcome measures. The overall effect sizes of each study and types of strengthening were large. Strengthening exercise improved muscle strength to a greater degree, when practiced 3 times per week in 40-50 min sessions than in other categories of session length, and greater improvement was observed in younger children than in older. The effect size of the activities and variables related to gait, except for gait endurance, were medium to large. The effect size of individual muscles was large, but the effect sizes for ankle plantar flexor, hip abductor/adductor, and extensor were insignificant. Strengthening interventions are useful for increasing muscle strength in individuals with cerebral palsy, specifically in youth and children, and optimal exercise consisted of 40- to 50-min sessions performed 3 times per week. Although strengthening interventions may improve activities, including gait, more studies that are rigorous are needed to determine the contributions to gross motor function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do exercises used in injury prevention programmes modify cutting task biomechanics? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Evangelos; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Simic, Milena; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-05-01

    Some injury prevention programmes aim to reduce the risk of ACL rupture. Although the most common athletic task leading to ACL rupture is cutting, there is currently no consensus on how injury prevention programmes influence cutting task biomechanics. To systematically review and synthesise the scientific literature regarding the influence of injury prevention programme exercises on cutting task biomechanics. The three largest databases (Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL) were searched for studies that investigated the effect of injury prevention programmes on cutting task biomechanics. When possible meta-analyses were performed. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, a total of 100 participants received exercises that are part of ACL injury prevention programmes and 76 participants served in control groups. Most studies evaluated variables associated with the quadriceps dominance theory. The meta-analysis revealed decreased lateral hamstrings electromyography activity (p ≤ 0.05) while single studies revealed decreased quadriceps and increased medial hamstrings activity and decreased peak knee flexion moment. Findings from single studies reported that ACL injury prevention exercises reduce neuromuscular deficits (knee valgus moment, lateral trunk leaning) associated with the ligament and trunk dominance theories, respectively. The programmes we analysed appear most effective when they emphasise individualised biomechanical technique correction and target postpubertal women. The exercises used in injury prevention programmes have the potential to improve cutting task biomechanics by ameliorating neuromuscular deficits linked to ACL rupture, especially when they emphasise individualised biomechanical technique correction and target postpubertal female athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Reduction of O2 slow component by priming exercise: novel mechanistic insights from time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki; Poole, David C; Barstow, Thomas J; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiwaki, Masato; Okushima, Dai; Koga, Shunsaku

    2015-01-01

    Novel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS), with adipose tissue thickness correction, was used to test the hypotheses that heavy priming exercise reduces the V̇O2 slow component (V̇O2SC) (1) by elevating microvascular [Hb] volume at multiple sites within the quadriceps femoris (2) rather than reducing the heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation kinetics. Twelve subjects completed two 6-min bouts of heavy work rate exercise, separated by 6 min of unloaded cycling. Priming exercise induced faster overall V̇O2 kinetics consequent to a substantial reduction in the V̇O2SC (0.27 ± 0.12 vs. 0.11 ± 0.09 L·min−1, P < 0.05) with an unchanged primary V̇O2 time constant. An increased baseline for the primed bout [total (Hb + Mb)] (197.5 ± 21.6 vs. 210.7 ± 22.5 μmol L−1, P < 0.01), reflecting increased microvascular [Hb] volume, correlated significantly with the V̇O2SC reduction. At multiple sites within the quadriceps femoris, priming exercise reduced the baseline and slowed the increase in [deoxy (Hb + Mb)]. Changes in the intersite coefficient of variation in the time delay and time constant of [deoxy (Hb + Mb)] during the second bout were not correlated with the V̇O2SC reduction. These results support a mechanistic link between priming exercise-induced increase in muscle [Hb] volume and the reduced V̇O2SC that serves to speed overall V̇O2 kinetics. However, reduction in the heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation kinetics does not appear to be an obligatory feature of the priming response. PMID:26109190

  17. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  18. Quadriceps rate of torque development and disability in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Davis, Hope C; Troy Blackburn, J; Ryan, Eric D; Luc-Harkey, Brittney A; Harkey, Matthew S; Padua, Darin A; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self-reported function (International Knee Documentation Committee Index), isometric quadriceps strength and rate of torque development in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Forty-one individuals [31% male, BMI mean 25 (SD 4) kg/m 2 , months post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction mean 49 (SD 40)] completed the self-reported function and isometric quadriceps function testing. Rate of torque development was assessed at 0-100ms (early), 100-200ms (late) ms, and peak following the onset of contraction. Associations were examined between rate of torque development, strength, and self-reported function. Linear regression was used to determine the unique amount of variance explained by the combination of rate of torque development and strength. Higher rate of torque development 100-200ms is weakly associated with higher self-reported function in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (r=0.274, p=0.091); however, rate of torque development 100-200ms does not predict a significant amount of variance in self-reported function after accounting for strength (ΔR 2 =0.003, P=0.721). Quadriceps strength has a greater influence on self-reported function compared to rate of torque development in individuals with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with time from surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isometric quadriceps strength determines sailing performance and neuromuscular fatigue during an upwind sailing emulation.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, Jan G; Callewaert, Margot; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Boone, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the physiological responses to upwind sailing on a laser emulation ergometer and analyses the components of the physical profile that determine the physiological responses related to sailing level. Ten male high-level laser sailors performed an upwind sailing test, incremental cycling test and quadriceps strength test. During the upwind sailing test, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate concentration were measured, combined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electromyography (EMG) registration of the M. Vastus lateralis. Repeated measures ANOVA showed for the cardio-respiratory, metabolic and muscles responses (mean power frequency [MPF], root mean square [RMS], deoxy[Hb+Mb]) during the upwind sailing test an initial significant increase followed by a stabilisation, despite a constant increase in RPE. Stepwise regression analysis showed that better sailing level was for 46.5% predicted by lower MPF decrease. Lower MPF decrease was for 57.8% predicted by a higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength. In conclusion, this study indicates that higher sailing level was mainly determined by a lower rate of neuromuscular fatigue during the upwind sailing test (as indicated by MPF decrease). Additionally, the level of neuromuscular fatigue was mainly determined by higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength stressing the importance of resistance training in the planning of training.

  20. Benefits of combined aerobic/resistance/inspiratory training in patients with chronic heart failure. A complete exercise model? A prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Laoutaris, Ioannis D; Adamopoulos, Stamatis; Manginas, Athanassios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kallistratos, Manolis S; Doulaptsis, Costas; Kouloubinis, Alexandros; Voudris, Vasilis; Pavlides, Gregory; Cokkinos, Dennis V; Dritsas, Athanasios

    2013-09-01

    We hypothesised that combined aerobic training (AT) with resistance training (RT) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) could result in additional benefits over AT alone in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Twenty-seven patients, age 58 ± 9 years, NYHA II/III and LVEF 29 ± 7% were randomly assigned to a 12-week AT (n=14) or a combined AT/RT/IMT (ARIS) (n=13) exercise program. AT consisted of bike exercise at 70-80% of max heart rate. ARIS training consisted of AT with RT of the quadriceps at 50% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and upper limb exercises using dumbbells of 1-2 kg as well as IMT at 60% of sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SPI(max)). At baseline and after intervention patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography, evaluation of dyspnea, muscle function and quality of life (QoL) scores. The ARIS program as compared to AT alone, resulted in additional improvement in quadriceps muscle strength (1RM, p=0.005) and endurance (50%1 RM × number of max repetitions, p=0.01), SPI(max) (p<0.001), exercise time (p=0.01), circulatory power (peak oxygen consumption × peak systolic blood pressure, p=0.05), dyspnea (p=0.03) and QoL (p=0.03). ARIS training was safe and resulted in incremental benefits in both peripheral and respiratory muscle weakness, cardiopulmonary function and QoL compared to that of AT. The present findings may add a new prospective to cardiac rehabilitation programs of heart failure patients whilst the clinical significance of these outcomes need to be addressed in larger randomised studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in two cohorts of US women.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Anders; Pan, An; Mekary, Rania A; Stampfer, Meir; Willett, Walter C; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that aerobic physical activity can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether muscle-strengthening activities are beneficial for the prevention of T2D is unclear. This study examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities with the risk of T2D in women. We prospectively followed up 99,316 middle-aged and older women for 8 years from the Nurses' Health Study ([NHS] aged 53-81 years, 2000-2008) and Nurses' Health Study II ([NHSII] aged 36-55 years, 2001-2009), who were free of diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Participants reported weekly time spent on resistance exercise, lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (yoga, stretching, toning), and aerobic moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and in 2004/2005. Cox regression with adjustment for major determinants for T2D was carried out to examine the influence of these types of activities on T2D risk. During 705,869 person years of follow-up, 3,491 incident T2D cases were documented. In multivariable adjusted models including aerobic MVPA, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2D for women performing 1-29, 30-59, 60-150, and >150 min/week of total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities was 0.83, 0.93, 0.75, and 0.60 compared to women reporting no muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities (p<0.001 for trend). Furthermore, resistance exercise and lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises were each independently associated with lower risk of T2D in pooled analyses. Women who engaged in at least 150 min/week of aerobic MVPA and at least 60 min/week of muscle-strengthening activities had substantial risk reduction compared with inactive women (pooled RR = 0.33 [95% CI 0.29-0.38]). Limitations to the study include that muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity and other types of physical activity were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire and that the study population consisted of registered

  2. Noninvasive detection of change in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Luo, Qingming; Xu, Guodong; Li, Pengcheng

    2003-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed as a non-invasive method to assess O2 delivery, O2 consumption and blood flow, in diverse local muscle groups at rest and during exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate local O2 consumption in exercising muscle by use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Ten elite athletes of different sport items were tested in rest and during step incremental load exercise. Local variations of quadriceps muscles were investigated with our wireless NIRS blood oxygen monitor system. The results show that the changes of blood oxygen relate on the sport items, type of muscle, kinetic capacity et al. These results indicate that NIRS is a potential useful tool to detect local muscle oxygenation and blood flow profiles; therefore it might be easily applied for evaluating the effect of athletes training.

  3. Plasma Actin, Gelsolin and Orosomucoid Levels after Eccentric Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tékus, Éva; Váczi, Márk; Horváth-Szalai, Zoltán; Ludány, Andrea; Kőszegi, Tamás; Wilhelm, Márta

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the acute effect of eccentric exercise on blood plasma actin, gelsolin (GSN) and orosomucoid (AGP) levels in untrained and moderately trained individuals, and their correlation with exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) markers (CK, intensity of muscle soreness and maximal voluntary contraction torque deficit). Healthy physical education students (6 untrained, 12 moderately trained) participated in this research. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK levels were measured in blood plasma at baseline, immediately, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h post-exercise comprising 90 eccentric quadriceps contractions performed on a dynamometer. There was significant time main effect for GSN, AGP, CK and significant difference was found between baseline and the lowest value of post-exercise GSN (p < 0.05), as well as baseline and the highest value of post-exercise AGP (p < 0.05). Relationships were found between GSN levels and other indirect EIMD markers (between all GSN levels at post-exercise and CK activity at 6 h, p < 0.05; GSNMIN and muscle soreness at post-exercise, p < 0.04), GSN and AGP; however, actin did not correlate at any time points with GSN. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK responses after eccentric exercise do not seem sensitive to training status. The plasma actin level is used as an indicator of injury, however, our results suggest that it is not an accurate marker of EIMD, while plasma GSN concentrations show a better relationship with EIMD and the post-exercise inflammatory process. The elevated plasma AGP and the correlation between GSN and AGP seem to be promising for assessment of exercise-induced muscle injury.

  4. Plasma Actin, Gelsolin and Orosomucoid Levels after Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Váczi, Márk; Horváth-Szalai, Zoltán; Ludány, Andrea; Kőszegi, Tamás; Wilhelm, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the acute effect of eccentric exercise on blood plasma actin, gelsolin (GSN) and orosomucoid (AGP) levels in untrained and moderately trained individuals, and their correlation with exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) markers (CK, intensity of muscle soreness and maximal voluntary contraction torque deficit). Healthy physical education students (6 untrained, 12 moderately trained) participated in this research. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK levels were measured in blood plasma at baseline, immediately, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h post-exercise comprising 90 eccentric quadriceps contractions performed on a dynamometer. There was significant time main effect for GSN, AGP, CK and significant difference was found between baseline and the lowest value of post-exercise GSN (p < 0.05), as well as baseline and the highest value of post-exercise AGP (p < 0.05). Relationships were found between GSN levels and other indirect EIMD markers (between all GSN levels at post-exercise and CK activity at 6 h, p < 0.05; GSNMIN and muscle soreness at post-exercise, p < 0.04), GSN and AGP; however, actin did not correlate at any time points with GSN. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK responses after eccentric exercise do not seem sensitive to training status. The plasma actin level is used as an indicator of injury, however, our results suggest that it is not an accurate marker of EIMD, while plasma GSN concentrations show a better relationship with EIMD and the post-exercise inflammatory process. The elevated plasma AGP and the correlation between GSN and AGP seem to be promising for assessment of exercise-induced muscle injury. PMID:28469748

  5. Relationship between quadriceps strength and patellofemoral joint chondral lesions after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Ao, Ying-Fang; Jiang, Dong; Gong, Xi; Wang, Yong-Jian; Wang, Jian; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of the patellofemoral joint chondral lesions after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is disturbingly high. Few studies have assessed the factors affecting patellofemoral joint chondral lesions postoperatively. The recovery of quadriceps strength after ACLR could be associated with patellofemoral joint cartilage damage. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 88 patients who underwent arthroscopic anatomic double-bundle ACLR with hamstring autografts received second-look arthroscopy at the time of metal staple removal at an average of 24.1 months (range, 12-51 months) postoperatively. All patients underwent standardized isokinetic strength testing for bilateral quadriceps and hamstrings 1 to 2 days before second-look arthroscopy. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Patients in group 1 had a ≥20% deficit on the peak torque measures for quadriceps compared with that of the contralateral knee, whereas those in group 2 had a <20% deficit on peak torque. Cartilage status at the patellofemoral joint and tibiofemoral joint were evaluated by second-look arthroscopy and the Outerbridge classification. Other assessments included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Tegner and Lysholm scores, side-to-side difference on KT-2000 arthrometer, and range of motion. There were 42 patients included in group 1 and 46 patients in group 2. The mean postoperative quadriceps peak torque of the involved knee compared with the contralateral knee was 70% (range, 57%-80%) in group 1 and 95% (range, 81%-116%) in group 2. For all patients, a significant worsening was seen in the patellar and trochlear cartilage (P = .030 and <.001, respectively) but not at the medial or lateral tibiofemoral joint after ACLR. A significant worsening in the status of both patellar and trochlear cartilage was seen after ACLR in group 1 (P = .013 and =.011, respectively) and of trochlear cartilage in group 2 (P = .006). Significantly fewer severe

  6. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001) above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037) 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7%) (P<0.001) after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  7. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part three: aerobic exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Mizusaki Imoto, Aline; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Álvarez Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; De Angelis, Gino; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective aerobic exercise programs and provide clinicians and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with strengthening exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+, or D-) was used, based on statistical significance ( P < 0.5) and clinical importance (⩾15% improvement). The five high-quality studies included demonstrated that various aerobic training exercises are generally effective for improving knee osteoarthritis within a 12-week period. An aerobic exercise program demonstrated significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B), physical function (Grade B) and quality of life (Grade C+). Aerobic exercise in combination with strengthening exercises showed significant improvement for pain relief (3 Grade A) and physical function (2 Grade A, 2 Grade B). A short-term aerobic exercise program with/without muscle strengthening exercises is promising for reducing pain, improving physical function and quality of life for individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

  8. Quadriceps Muscles O2 Extraction and EMG Breakpoints during a Ramp Incremental Test

    PubMed Central

    Iannetta, Danilo; Qahtani, Ahmad; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Murias, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle deoxygenated breakpoint ([HHb]BP) has been found to be associated with other indices of exercise tolerance in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle but not in the vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF). Purpose: To investigate whether the [HHb]BP occurs also in the VM and RF muscles and whether or not it is associated with other physiological indices of exercise tolerance, such as the EMG threshold (EMGt) and the respiratory compensation point (RCP). Methods: Twelve young endurance trained participants performed maximal ramp incremental (RI) cycling tests (25–30 W·min−1 increments). Muscle oxygen extraction and activity as well as ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were measured. After accounting for the mean response time, the oxygen uptake (V·O2) corresponding to the RCP, [HHb]BP, and the EMGt was determined. Results: Peak power output (POpeak) was 359 ± 48 W. Maximal oxygen consumption (V·O2max) was 3.87 ± 0.46 L·min−1. The V·O2 at the RCP was 3.39 ± 0.41 L·min−1. The V·O2 (L·min−1) corresponding to the [HHb]BP and EMGt were: 3.49 ± 0.46 and 3.40 ± 0.44; 3.44 ± 0.61 and 3.43 ± 0.49; 3.59 ± 0.52, and 3.48 ± 0.46 for VL, VM, and RF, respectively. Pearson's correlation between these thresholds ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 (P < 0.05). No difference was found for the absolute V·O2 and the normalized PO (%) at which the thresholds occurred in all three muscles investigated (P > 0.05). Although in eight out of 12 participants, the [HHb]BP in the RF led to a steeper increase instead of leading to a plateau-like response as observed in the VL and VM, the V·O2 at the breakpoints still coincided with that at the RCP. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that local indices of exercise tolerance derived from different portions of the quadriceps are not different to the systemic index of the RCP. PMID:28970805

  9. Comparative effectiveness of lumbar stabilization, dynamic strengthening, and Pilates on chronic low back pain: randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bhadauria, Esha A.; Gurudut, Peeyoosha

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare three different forms of exercises namely lumbar stabilization, dynamic strengthening, and Pilates on chronic low back pain (LBP) in terms of pain, range of motion, core strength and function. In this study, 44 subjects suffering from non-specific LBP for more than 3 months were randomly allocated into the lumbar stabilization group, the dynamic strengthening group, and the Pilates group. Ten sessions of exercises for 3 weeks were prescribed along with interferential current and hot moist pack. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale, functional affection by modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, range of motion by assessing lumbar flexion and extension by modified Schober test and core strength was assessed by pressure biofeedback on day 1 and day 10 of the treatment. There was reduction of pain, improvement in range of motion, functional ability and core strength in all the 3 exercise groups. The improvement was significantly greater in the lumbar stabilization group for all the outcome measures, when compared the posttreatment after 10th session. Pairwise comparison showed that there was greater reduction of disability in the Pilates group than the dynamic strengthening group. It was concluded that the lumbar stabilization is more superior compared to the dynamic strengthening and Pilates in chronic nonspecific LBP. However, long-term benefits need to be assessed and compared with prospective follow-up studies. PMID:29114516

  10. Comparative effectiveness of lumbar stabilization, dynamic strengthening, and Pilates on chronic low back pain: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Esha A; Gurudut, Peeyoosha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare three different forms of exercises namely lumbar stabilization, dynamic strengthening, and Pilates on chronic low back pain (LBP) in terms of pain, range of motion, core strength and function. In this study, 44 subjects suffering from non-specific LBP for more than 3 months were randomly allocated into the lumbar stabilization group, the dynamic strengthening group, and the Pilates group. Ten sessions of exercises for 3 weeks were prescribed along with interferential current and hot moist pack. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale, functional affection by modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, range of motion by assessing lumbar flexion and extension by modified Schober test and core strength was assessed by pressure biofeedback on day 1 and day 10 of the treatment. There was reduction of pain, improvement in range of motion, functional ability and core strength in all the 3 exercise groups. The improvement was significantly greater in the lumbar stabilization group for all the outcome measures, when compared the posttreatment after 10th session. Pairwise comparison showed that there was greater reduction of disability in the Pilates group than the dynamic strengthening group. It was concluded that the lumbar stabilization is more superior compared to the dynamic strengthening and Pilates in chronic nonspecific LBP. However, long-term benefits need to be assessed and compared with prospective follow-up studies.

  11. Are flexibility and muscle-strengthening activities associated with a higher risk of developing low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Robert D.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Beattie, Paul F.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between participation in flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities with the development of low back pain (LBP). Design Observational cohort study. Methods The cohort included 4,610 adults, 17% female, between 20 and 81 years of age (mean 46.6, s.d. 4.96). The cohort was followed for a mean of 4.9 years for self-reported LBP. All participants reported at baseline whether they performed flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities, including specific sub-types. Results Neither general performance of flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities were associated with a higher incidence of LBP compared to those who did not perform these activities. Those who reported stretching, as a specific flexibility activity were at a higher risk of developing LBP compared with those who performed no flexibility exercises, reported calisthenic flexibility activities, or attended exercise classes. Those who reported using weight training machines, as part of muscle-strengthening activities, had a higher risk of reporting LBP, compared with those who did not perform muscle-strengthening activities or performed calisthenic or free weight activities. Conclusion In this sample, stretching or use of weight training machines is associated with increased risk of developing LBP compared to use of free weights, calisthenics or flexibility classes. PMID:23988784

  12. AN UPDATE FOR THE CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FROM 2000 TO 2010

    PubMed Central

    Boling, Michelle C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common and clinically challenging knee pathologies. Historically, clinicians have used a myriad of interventions, many of which have benefited some but not all patients. Suboptimal outcomes may reflect the need for an evidence-based approach for the treatment of PFPS. The authors believe that integrating clinical expertise with the most current scientific data will enhance clinical practice. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide an update on the evidence for the conservative treatment of PFPS. Methods: The PubMed, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for studies published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Studies used were any that utilized interventions lasting a minimum of 4 weeks for subjects with PFPS. Data were examined for subject sample, intervention duration, intervention type, and pain outcomes. Results: General quadriceps strengthening continues to reduce pain in patients with PFPS. Data are inconclusive regarding the use of patellar taping, patellar bracing, knee bracing, and foot orthosis. Although emerging data suggest the importance of hip strengthening exercise, ongoing investigations are needed to better understand its effect on PFPS. Conclusions: Current evidence supports the continued use of quadriceps exercise for the conservative management of PFPS. However, inconsistent or limited data regarding the other interventions precluded the authors' ability to make conclusive recommendations about their use. Future investigations should focus on identifying cohorts of patients with PFPS who may benefit from the other treatment approaches included in this systematic review. PMID:21713229

  13. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  14. Atorvastatin Increases Exercise Leg Blood Flow in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Augeri, Amanda L.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to examine the effect of atorvastatin therapy on exercise leg blood flow in healthy middle-aged and older, men and women. BACKGROUND The vasodilatory response to exercise decreases in humans with aging and disease and this reduction may contribute to reduced exercise capacity. METHODS We used a double-blind, randomly assigned, placebo-controlled protocol to assess the effect of atorvastatin treatment on exercising leg hemodynamics. We measured femoral artery blood flow (FBF) using Doppler ultrasound and calculated femoral vascular conductance (FVC) from brachial mean arterial pressure (MAP) before and during single knee-extensor exercise in healthy adults (ages 40–71) before (PRE) and after (POST) 6 months of 80 mg atorvastatin (A: 14 men, 16 women) or placebo (P: 14 men, 22 women) treatment. FBF and FVC were normalized to exercise power output and estimated quadriceps muscle mass. RESULTS Atorvastatin reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 50%, but not in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Atorvastatin also increased exercise FBF from 44.2 ± 19.0 to 51.4 ± 22.0 mL/min/W/kg muscle whereas FBF in the placebo group was unchanged (40.1 ± 16.0 vs 39.5 ± 16.1) (p <0.01). FVC also increased with atorvastatin from 0.5 ± 0.2 to. 0.6 ± 0.2 mL/min/mmHg/W/kg muscle, but not in the placebo subjects (P: 0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.4 ± 0.2) ( p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS High-dose atorvastatin augments exercising leg hyperemia. Statins may mitigate reductions in the exercise vasodilatory response in humans that are associated with aging and disease. PMID:22018642

  15. A Pilot Study of the Head Extension Swallowing Exercise: New Method for Strengthening Swallowing-Related Muscle Activity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong-Chi

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the effect of a new head extension swallowing exercise (HESE) on submental muscle activity and tongue strength in healthy volunteers. Fifteen young adults (10 females and 5 males) were instructed to extend their head backwards as much as possible, and while watching the ceiling, swallowed their saliva every 10 s for a duration of 20 min. Twenty-four treatments were performed over 8 weeks. The outcome variables evaluated at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks of training, and 12-week follow-up included mean and peak submental muscle activation amplitudes during normal and effortful swallowing measured via surface electromyography, and anterior and posterior isometric tongue pressures were measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Results indicated that the muscle activation amplitudes during effortful swallowing increased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). However, the increases in amplitudes during normal swallowing were minor (nonsignificant) after 8 weeks compared to baseline. The isometric pressures of the tongue tip and the posterior part of the oral tongue were significantly higher at 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). Thus, the 8-week HESE protocol significantly improved suprahyoid muscle activity during effortful swallowing as well as the isometric tongue pressures. The HESE appears effective in exercising and strengthening the suprahyoid muscles and tongue muscles in healthy participants. Although encouraging, these results need to be replicated in clinical trials for testing the therapeutic effects of the HESE in older adults and patients with dysphagia who present with decreased hyolaryngeal elevation.

  16. Muscle and liver glycogen utilization during prolonged lift and carry exercise: male and female responses.

    PubMed

    Price, Thomas B; Sanders, Kimberly

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the use of carbohydrates by men and women during lift/carry exercise. Effects of menstrual cycle variation were examined in women. Twenty-five subjects (15 M, 10 F) were studied; age 25 ± 2y M, 26 ± 3y F, weight 85 ± 3 kg* M, 63 ± 3 kg F, and height 181 ± 2 cm* M, 161 ± 2 cm F (* P  < 0.0001). During exercise subjects squatted to floor level and lifted a 30 kg box, carried it 3 m, and placed it on a shelf 132 cm high 3X/min over a 3-hour period (540 lifts) or until they could not continue. Males were studied in a single session, females were studied on separate occasions (during the luteal (L) and follicular (F) menstrual phases). The protocol was identical for both sexes and on both occasions in the female group. Glycogen utilization was tracked with natural abundance C-13 NMR of quadriceps femoris and biceps brachialis muscles, and in the liver at rest and throughout the exercise period. Males completed more of the 180 min protocol than females [166 ± 9 min M, 112 ± 16 min* F (L), 88 ± 16 min** F (F) (* P  = 0.0036, ** P  < 0.0001)]. Quadriceps glycogen depletion was similar between sexes and within females in L/F phases [4.7 ± 0.8 mmol/L-h M, 4.5 ± 2.4 mmol/L-h F (L), 10.3 ± 3.5 mmol/L-h F (F)]. Biceps glycogen depletion was greater in females [2.7 ± 0.9 mmol/L-h M, 10.3 ± 1.3 mmol/L-h* F (L), 16.8 ± 4.8 mmol/L-h** F (F) (* P  = 0.0004, ** P  = 0.0122)]. Resting glycogen levels were higher in females during the follicular phase ( P  = 0.0077). Liver glycogen depletion increased during exercise, but was not significant. We conclude that with non-normalized lift/carry exercise: (1) Based on their smaller size, women are less capable of completing and work their upper body harder than men. (2) Women and men work their lower body at similar levels. (3) Women store more quadriceps carbohydrate during the follicular phase. (4) The liver is not significantly challenged by

  17. Elevated Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyl Transferase in Skeletal Muscle Augments Exercise Performance and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity Following Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, Bram; Stephens, Natalie A.; Costford, Sheila R.; Hopf, Meghan E.; Ayala, Julio E.; Yi, Fanchao; Xie, Hui; Li, Jian-Liang; Gardell, Stephen J.; Sparks, Lauren M.; Smith, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Mice overexpressing NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg mice) develop higher exercise endurance and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) following voluntary exercise training compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Here, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying by determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity in NamptTg and WT mice. Body weight and body composition, tissue weight (gastrocnemius, quadriceps, soleus, heart, liver, and epididymal white adipose tissue), skeletal muscle and liver glycogen content, VO2max, skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity (measured by high-resolution respirometry), skeletal muscle gene expression (measured by microarray and qPCR), and skeletal muscle protein content (measured by Western blot) were determined following 6 weeks of voluntary exercise training (access to running wheel) in 13-week-old male NamptTg (exercised NamptTg) mice and WT (exercised WT) mice. Daily running distance and running time during the voluntary exercise training protocol were recorded. Daily running distance (p = 0.51) and running time (p = 0.85) were not significantly different between exercised NamptTg mice and exercised WT mice. VO2max was higher in exercised NamptTg mice compared to exercised WT mice (p = 0.02). Body weight (p = 0.92), fat mass (p = 0.49), lean mass (p = 0.91), tissue weight (all p > 0.05), and skeletal muscle (p = 0.72) and liver (p = 0.94) glycogen content were not significantly different between exercised NamptTg mice and exercised WT mice. Complex I oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) respiratory capacity supported by fatty acid substrates (p < 0.01), maximal (complex I+II) OXPHOS respiratory capacity supported by glycolytic (p = 0.02) and fatty acid (p < 0.01) substrates, and maximal uncoupled respiratory capacity supported by fatty acid substrates (p < 0.01) was higher in exercised NamptTg mice compared to exercised WT mice. Transcriptomic analyses revealed differential expression for genes involved in

  18. Effect of stretching with and without muscle strengthening exercises for the foot and hip in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled single-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kamonseki, Danilo H; Gonçalves, Geiseane A; Yi, Liu C; Júnior, Império Lombardi

    2016-06-01

    To compare the effect of stretching with and without muscle strengthening of the foot alone or foot and hip on pain and function in patients with plantar fasciitis. Single blind randomized controlled trial. Eighty-three patients with plantar fasciitis were allocated to one of three treatment options for an eight-week period: Foot Exercise Group (FEG - extrinsic and intrinsic foot muscles), Foot and Hip Exercise Group (FHEG - abductor and lateral rotator muscles) and Stretching Alone Exercise Group (SAEG). A visual analog scale for pain, the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score and the Star Excursion Balance Test. All evaluations were performed before treatment and after the last treatment session. Improvements were found in all groups regarding the visual analog scale, the pain, activities of daily living, sports and recreation, quality of life (p < 0.001) and other symptoms (p < 0.01) subscales of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score as well as posterolateral movement, posteromedial movement and composite score (p < 0.001) on the Star Excursion Balance Test. No time-group interactions were found for any of the variables (p > 0.05). All three exercise protocols analyzed led to improvements at eight-week follow-up in pain, function and dynamic lower limb stability in patients with plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Removal of an Infected Loose Body from the Quadriceps Muscle.

    PubMed

    Razdan, Rishi N; Dube, Tiffany; Specht, Neil

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 35 year-old male with pain and swelling in his right thigh. By CT and sonography, an abscess was localized to the deep, anteromedial, mid-thigh within the quadriceps muscle, along with a 1.3 cm loose body. The infected loose body was removed under ultrasound guidance without complications.

  20. Prospective multicentre study of the clinical and functional outcomes following quadriceps tendon repair with suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Mille, F; Adam, A; Aubry, S; Leclerc, G; Ghislandi, X; Sergent, P; Garbuio, P

    2016-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon avulsions are typically treated by reattaching the tendon through bone tunnels, with or without tendon or hardware augmentation. The operated knee joint can be moved right away; however, tendon grafting or tension banding will be required to protect the repair, and the hardware must be removed later on. The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes when suture anchors are used to reattached torn quadriceps tendon, and also to assess tendon healing using MRI. Thirteen consecutive patients with avulsed quadriceps tendons were operated and then followed prospectively. The surgical technique consisted of tendon reattachment using at least three anchors, in addition to intratendinous weaving of the sutures. Weight bearing was allowed while using a splint. Rehabilitation was initiated immediately after surgery according to a set protocol. Eleven patients were followed for a mean of 14.7 months. Two retears occurred in patients who did not wear the splint. Eighty-two per cent of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the outcome. The mean knee flexion was 124.5°. All patients were able to return to their pre-injury activity levels. The mean time for clinical and functional recovery was 3 months. MRI performed 6 months after the surgical repair revealed good tendon healing. This was the first prospective study performed on quadriceps avulsion patients undergoing suture anchor repair. Prior clinical case reports have shown that this method leads to predictable clinical and functional results. Our results were comparable to those in published cases. The procedure is simpler when only suture anchors are used. Tendon healing was observed on MRI in all cases. This simple, reproducible technique is free of the drawbacks associated with the typical repair augmentation.

  1. Dynamics of thermographic skin temperature response during squat exercise at two different speeds.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Damiano; Ludwig, Nicola; Trecroci, Athos; Gargano, Marco; Michielon, Giovanni; Caumo, Andrea; Alberti, Giampietro

    2016-07-01

    Low intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation has been shown to create blood flow restriction within muscles that may affect thermoregulation through the skin. We aimed to investigate the influence of two speeds of exercise execution on skin temperature dynamics using infrared thermography. Thirteen active males performed randomly two sessions of squat exercise (normal speed, 1s eccentric/1s concentric phase, 1s; slow speed, 5s eccentric/5s concentric phase, 5s), using ~50% of 1 maximal repetition. Thermal images of ST above muscles quadriceps were recorded at a rate of 0.05Hz before the exercise (to determine basal ST) and for 480s following the initiation of the exercise (to determine the nonsteady-state time course of ST). Results showed that ST changed more slowly during the 5s exercise (p=0.002), whereas the delta (with respect to basal) excursions were similar for the two exercises (p>0.05). In summary, our data provided a detailed nonsteady-state portrait of ST changes following squat exercises executed at two different speeds. These results lay the basis for further investigations entailing the joint use of infrared thermography and Doppler flowmetry to study the events taking place both at the skin and the muscle level during exercises executed at slow speed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of fluid ingestion on neuromuscular function during prolonged cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Vallier, J-M; Grego, F; Basset, F; Lepers, R; Bernard, T; Brisswalter, J

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the effects of fluid ingestion on neuromuscular function during prolonged cycling exercise. Eight well trained subjects exercised for 180 minutes in a moderate environment at a workload requiring approximately 60% maximal oxygen uptake. Two conditions, fluid (F) and no fluid (NF) ingestion, were investigated. During maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), prolonged cycling exercise reduced (p<0.05) the maximal force generating capacity of quadriceps muscles (after three hours of cycling) and root mean square (RMS) values (after two hours of cycling) with no difference between the two conditions despite greater body weight loss (p<0.05) in NF. The mean power frequency (MPF) for vastus lateralis muscle was reduced (p<0.05) and the rate of force development (RFD) was increased (p<0.05) only during NF. During cycling exercise, integrated electromyographic activity and perceived exertion were increased in both conditions (p<0.05) with no significant effect of fluid ingestion. The results suggest that fluid ingestion did not prevent the previously reported decrease in maximal force with exercise duration, but seems to have a positive effect on some indicators of neuromuscular fatigue such as mean power frequency and rate of force development during maximal voluntary contraction. Further investigations are needed to assess the effect of change in hydration on neural mechanisms linked to the development of muscular fatigue during prolonged exercise.

  3. Ultrasonographic assessment of the quadriceps muscle and femoral cartilage in transtibial amputees using different prostheses.

    PubMed

    Şahin Onat, Şule; Malas, Fevziye Ünsal; Öztürk, Gökhan Tuna; Akkaya, Nuray; Kara, Murat; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-08-01

    In patients with lower limb amputations, gait alteration, increased loading on the intact extremity, and use of prosthesis may lead to joint degeneration. To explore the effects of prosthesis type on quadriceps muscle and distal femoral cartilage thicknesses in transtibial amputees. A cross-sectional study. A total of 38 below-knee amputees were enrolled in the study, of which 13 patients were using vacuum system type prosthesis and 25 patients were using silicon liner pin system prosthesis. Patients' femoral cartilage and quadriceps muscle thickness measurements were performed using musculoskeletal ultrasound. When compared with the intact sides, cartilage and rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscle thickness values were significantly decreased on the amputee sides (all p < 0.05). Clinical characteristics and ultrasound measurements were similar between the two groups except the lateral and medial femoral condyle thicknesses, thinner in the silicon liner pin system users (both p < 0.05). The distal femoral cartilage and quadriceps muscle thicknesses were found to be decreased on the amputated sides, and the negative impact on the cartilage seemed to be worse in the silicon liner pin system users. This study might provide another argument as regards the preference of vacuum system type prosthesis to prevent possible knee osteoarthritis due to cartilage thinning in adult transtibial amputees. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  4. Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

  5. Current ISS Exercise Countermeasures: Where are we now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. C.; Loerch, L.; Davis-Street, J.; Haralson, Cortni; Sams, C.

    2006-01-01

    Current International Space Station (ISS) crew schedules include 1.5 h/d for completion of resistive exercise and 1 h/d of aerobic exercise , 6 d/wk. While ISS post flight decrements in muscle strength, bone m ineral density, and aerobic capacity improved in some crewmembers, de conditioning was still evident even with this volume of exercise. Res ults from early ISS expeditions show maximum loss in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and pelvis in excess of 1.5% per month, with all crewmembers demonstrating significant bone loss in one or more re gions. Similarly, post flight muscle strength losses in the hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups exceeded 30% in the immediate post miss ion period in some crewmembers. Measures of aerobic capacity early in the mission show average decrements of 15%, but with onboard aerobic exercise capability, the crew has been able to "train up" over the co urse of the mission. These findings are highly variable among crewmem bers and appear to be correlated with availability and reliability of the inflight resistive exercise device (RED), cycle ergometer, and t readmill. This suite of hardware was installed on ISS with limited op erational evaluation in groundbased test beds. As a result, onorbit hardware constraints have resulted in inadequate physical stimulus, d econditioning, and increased risk for compromised performance during intra and extravehicular activities. These issues indicate that the c urrent ISS Countermeasures System reliability or validity are not ade quate for extendedduration exploration missions. Learning Objective: A better understanding of the status of ISS exercise countermeasures , their ability to protect physiologic systems, and recommendations for exploration exercise countermeasures.

  6. Quadriceps tendon rupture: a biomechanical comparison of transosseous equivalent double-row suture anchor versus transosseous tunnel repair.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan D; Wallace, Matthew K; Scovell, J Field; Krupp, Ryan J; Cook, Chad; Wyland, Douglas J

    2012-09-01

    Quadriceps rupture off the patella is traditionally repaired by a transosseous tunnel technique, although a single-row suture anchor repair has recently been described. This study biomechanically tested a new transosseous equivalent (TE) double-row suture anchor technique compared with the transosseous repair for quadriceps repair. After simulated quadriceps-patella avulsion in 10 matched cadaveric knees, repairs were completed by either a three tunnel transosseous (TT = 5) or a TE suture anchor (TE = 5) technique. Double-row repairs were done using two 5.5 Bio-Corkscrew FT (fully threaded) (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) and two 3.5 Bio-PushLock anchors (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) with all 10 repairs done with #2 FiberWire suture (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL). Cyclic testing from 50 to 250 N for 250 cycles and pull to failure load (1 mm/s) were undertaken. Gap formation and ultimate tensile load (N) were recorded and stiffness data (N/mm) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney U test and survival characteristics examined with Kaplan-Meier test. No significant difference was found between the TE and TT groups in stiffness (TE = 134 +/- 15 N/mm, TT = 132 +/- 26 N/mm, p = 0.28). The TE group had significantly less ultimate tensile load (N) compared with the TT group (TE = 447 +/- 86 N, TT = 591 +/- 84 N, p = 0.04), with all failures occurring at the suture eyelets. Although both quadriceps repairs were sufficiently strong, the transosseous repairs were stronger than the TE suture anchor repairs. The repair stiffness and gap formation were similar between the groups.

  7. Exercise therapy for office workers with nonspecific neck pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sihawong, Rattaporn; Janwantanakul, Prawit; Sitthipornvorakul, Ekalak; Pensri, Praneet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various types of exercise for prevention and cure of nonspecific neck pain in office workers. Publications between 1980 and April 2010 were systematically searched in various databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus with full text, The Cochrane Library, Science Direct, PEDro, ProQuest, PsycNet, and Scopus). The following key words were used: neck pain, cervical pain, exercise, strengthening, stretching, endurance, office workers, visual display unit, visual display terminal, and computer users. A hand search of relevant journals was also carried out. Relevant randomized controlled trials were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality by 2 independent reviewers. The strength of the evidence was based on methodological quality and consistency of the results. Nine randomized controlled trials were included in this review, of which 6 were rated as high-quality studies. No exercise type was identified as being effective in the prevention of nonspecific neck pain in office workers. Strong evidence was found for the effectiveness of muscle strengthening and endurance exercises in treating neck pain. Moderate evidence supported the use of muscle endurance exercise in reducing disability attributed to neck pain. Literature investigating the efficacy of exercise in office workers with nonspecific neck pain was heterogeneous. Within the limitations, for treatment of neck pain, either muscle strengthening or endurance exercise is recommended, whereas for reduction of pain-related disability, muscle endurance exercise is suggested. Further research is needed before any firm conclusions regarding the most effective exercise programs for office workers can be reached. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    PubMed

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p < 0.001), also when normalized to body mass (4.1%) (p = 0.012), but not for weight-adjusted hamstring muscle strength. The H:Q ratio was higher on the dominant compared with the nondominant leg for handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p < 0.02). These normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion torques of healthy, elite, female handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be

  9. The Effects of Local Vibration on Balance, Power, and Self-Reported Pain After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Custer, Lisa; Peer, Kimberly S; Miller, Lauren

    2017-05-01

    Muscle fatigue and acute muscle soreness occur after exercise. Application of a local vibration intervention may reduce the consequences of fatigue and soreness. To examine the effects of a local vibration intervention after a bout of exercise on balance, power, and self-reported pain. Single-blind crossover study. Laboratory. 19 healthy, moderately active subjects. After a 30-min bout of full-body exercise, subjects received either an active or a sham vibration intervention. The active vibration intervention was performed bilaterally over the muscle bellies of the triceps surae, quadriceps, hamstrings, and gluteals. At least 1 wk later, subjects repeated the bout, receiving the other vibration intervention. Static balance, dynamic balance, power, and self-reported pain were measured at baseline, after the vibration intervention, and 24 h postexercise. After the bout of exercise, subjects had reduced static and dynamic balance and increased self-reported pain regardless of vibration intervention. There were no differences between outcome measures between the active and sham vibration conditions. The local vibration intervention did not affect balance, power, or self-reported pain.

  10. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Cryotherapy for Increasing Quadriceps Activation in Patients With Knee Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Conrad M; Lepley, Adam S; Uhl, Tim L; Mattacola, Carl G

    2016-08-01

    Proper neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle is essential for maintaining quadriceps (quad) strength and lower-extremity function. Quad activation (QA) failure is a common characteristic observed in patients with knee pathologies, defined as an inability to voluntarily activate the entire alpha-motor-neuron pool innervating the quad. One of the more popular techniques used to assess QA is the superimposed burst (SIB) technique, a force-based technique that uses a supramaximal, percutaneous electrical stimulation to activate all of the motor units in the quad during a maximal, voluntary isometric contraction. Central activation ratio (CAR) is the formula used to calculate QA level (CAR = voluntary force/SIB force) with the SIB technique. People who can voluntarily activate 95% or more (CAR = 0.95-1.0) of their motor units are defined as being fully activated. Therapeutic exercises aimed at improving quad strength in patients with knee pathologies are limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to fully activate the muscle. Within the past decade, several disinhibitory interventions have been introduced to treat QA failure in patients with knee pathologies. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are sensory-targeted modalities traditionally used to treat pain, but they have been shown to be 2 of the most successful treatments for increasing QA levels in patients with QA failure. Both modalities are hypothesized to positively affect voluntary QA by disinhibiting the motor-neuron pool of the quad. In essence, these modalities provide excitatory afferent stimuli to the spinal cord, which thereby overrides the inhibitory afferent signaling that arises from the involved joint. However, it remains unknown whether 1 is more effective than the other for restoring QA levels in patients with knee pathologies. By knowing the capabilities of each disinhibitory modality, clinicians can tailor treatments based on the rehabilitation goals

  11. Muscle-Strengthening and Conditioning Activities and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study in Two Cohorts of US Women

    PubMed Central

    Grøntved, Anders; Pan, An; Mekary, Rania A.; Stampfer, Meir; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well established that aerobic physical activity can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether muscle-strengthening activities are beneficial for the prevention of T2D is unclear. This study examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities with the risk of T2D in women. Methods and Findings We prospectively followed up 99,316 middle-aged and older women for 8 years from the Nurses' Health Study ([NHS] aged 53–81 years, 2000–2008) and Nurses' Health Study II ([NHSII] aged 36–55 years, 2001–2009), who were free of diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Participants reported weekly time spent on resistance exercise, lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (yoga, stretching, toning), and aerobic moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and in 2004/2005. Cox regression with adjustment for major determinants for T2D was carried out to examine the influence of these types of activities on T2D risk. During 705,869 person years of follow-up, 3,491 incident T2D cases were documented. In multivariable adjusted models including aerobic MVPA, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2D for women performing 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, and >150 min/week of total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities was 0.83, 0.93, 0.75, and 0.60 compared to women reporting no muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities (p<0.001 for trend). Furthermore, resistance exercise and lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises were each independently associated with lower risk of T2D in pooled analyses. Women who engaged in at least 150 min/week of aerobic MVPA and at least 60 min/week of muscle-strengthening activities had substantial risk reduction compared with inactive women (pooled RR = 0.33 [95% CI 0.29–0.38]). Limitations to the study include that muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity and other types of physical activity were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire and

  12. Effect of gender on strength gains after isometric exercise coupled with electromyographic biofeedback in knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Anwer, S; Equebal, A; Nezamuddin, M; Kumar, R; Lenka, P K

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of gender on strength gains after five week training programme that consisted of isometric exercise coupled with electromyographic biofeedback to the quadriceps muscle. Forty-three (20 men and 23 women) patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), were placed into two groups based on their gender. Both groups performed isometric exercise coupled with electromyographic biofeedback for five days a week for five weeks. Both groups reported gains in muscle strength after five week training. However, the difference was found to be statistically insignificant between the two groups (P=0.224). The results suggest that gender did not affect gains in muscle strength by isometric exercise coupled with electromyographic biofeedback in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of hip strengthening on early outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Garrison, J Craig; Bothwell, Jim; Cohen, Kiley; Conway, John

    2014-04-01

    It is not clear whether the addition of hip strengthening exercises will improve outcomes during the early stages of ACL rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the addition of isolated hip strengthening exercises to traditional rehabilitation on early outcomes (within the first 3 months) after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 43 subjects (18.8±6.9, 21 females, 22 males) who were in the process of rehabilitation following ACLR participated. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two different treatment groups (1= traditional rehabilitation [NoHip], 2= traditional plus isolated hip strengthening rehabilitation [Hip]). Assessment included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain during activities of daily living, and knee extension range of motion (ROM) side to side difference taken at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. In addition, dynamic balance was assessed with the Y Balance Test™ at 8 and 12 weeks. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was performed for IKDC, VAS, and ROM. A one-way ANOVA was used to assess mean group differences for Y Balance Test - Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) side to side difference scores at 8 and 12 weeks. There was no significant interaction for group by time across VAS (p = .463), IKDC (p = .819), or ROM (p = .513) side to side differences A significant difference was found between groups for YBT-LQ Anterior Reach (ANT) side to side difference at 12 weeks (p = .008) with the Hip group demonstrating smaller side to side reach differences than the NoHip group. No significant side to side differences were seen between groups for YBT-LQ Posteromedial (PM) or Posterolateral (PL) at 12 weeks (PM: p = .254; PL: p = .617). Rehabilitation including hip strengthening exercises appears to improve sagittal plane dynamic balance at three months post ACLR as compared to traditional rehabilitation. No differences were seen between groups for pain, ROM, and

  14. Knee joint laxity does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps strength and physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Altubasi, Ibrahim M

    2018-06-07

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common and a disabling musculoskeletal disorder. Patients with knee osteoarthritis have activity limitations which are linked to the strength of the quadriceps muscle. Previous research reported that the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function is moderated by the level of knee joint frontal plane laxity. The purpose of the current study is to reexamine the moderation effect of the knee joint laxity as measured by stress radiographs on the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function. One-hundred and sixty osteoarthritis patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Isometric quadriceps muscle strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Self-rated and performance-based physical function were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and Get Up and Go test, respectively. Stress radiographs which were taken while applying varus and valgus loads to knee using the TELOS device. Knee joint laxity was determined by measuring the distance between joint surfaces on the medial and lateral sides. Hierarchical multiple regression models were constructed to study the moderation effect of laxity on the strength function relationship. Two regression models were constructed for self-rated and performance-based function. After controlling for demographics, strength contributed significantly in the models. The addition of laxity and laxity-strength interaction did not add significant contributions in the regression models. Frontal plane knee joint laxity measured by stress radiographs does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of muscle-strengthening activity with knee and low back pain, falls, and health-related quality of life among Japanese older adults: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of muscle-strengthening activity with knee and low back pain, falls, and health-related quality of life among Japanese older adults. A cross-sectional survey targeted 3,000 people. The response rate was 52% and 208 respondents did not meet the inclusion criteria. Therefore, 1,351 individuals were analyzed. Muscle-strengthening activity (exercise using equipment and body weight, lifestyle activities), knee and low back pain, falls over the past year, health-related quality of life (SF-8), and potential confounders were assessed. Individuals engaging in exercise using body weight and lifestyle activity (≥ 2 days/week) were more likely to have knee pain. Engaging in exercise using equipment and body weight was associated with higher scores of general health. These results indicate that exercise using equipment and body weight might have a positive effect on health-related quality of life, but muscle-strengthening activities are associated with knee pain in older people.

  16. Conservative treatment of patellofemoral subluxation.

    PubMed

    Henry, J H

    1989-04-01

    As pointed out in the preface of this book, patellofemoral subluxation is probably the most common knee problem seen in many orthopedists' offices today. Whereas the other authors have emphasized the anatomy and diagnosis, this article should serve as a dry but basic instruction on the exercise program that has been used in our clinic. We have had a success rate with this program of approximately 80 per cent. Certainly not all of the 20 per cent that fail require surgery. The classic exercises are quadricep sets, straight leg raises, hip abductors, hip adductors, hip flexors, and hamstring stretches, which have endured the test of time. The prevention of flexion extension activity, such as running the stadium stairs in order to strengthen the quadriceps of the patient with patellofemoral subluxation should be emphasized. Complications of conservative treatment, such as low back pain, iliopsoas tendinitis, and muscle soreness and the treatment of these is described. Finally, the importance of stretching the hamstring muscles is a cornerstone in the treatment of patellofemoral problems. Likewise, a tight IT band can put abnormal stress on the lateral aspect of the patella. In this article I have tried to point out our approach to conservative treatment of patellofemoral subluxation.

  17. COMPARISON OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING HIGH-SPEED RUNNING AND VARIOUS HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Solheim, Jens Asmund Brevik; Bencke, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Background Several studies have examined the effect of hamstring strength exercises upon hamstring strains in team sports that involve many sprints. However, there has been no cross comparison among muscle activation of these hamstring training exercises with actual sprinting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine different hamstring exercises and compare the muscle activity in the hamstring muscle group during various exercises with the muscular activity produced during maximal sprints. Methods Twelve male sports students (age 25 ± 6.2 years, 1.80 ± 7.1 m, body mass 81.1 ± 15.6 kg) participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris to measure muscle activity during seven hamstrings exercises and sprinting together with 3D motion capture to establish at what hip and knee angles maximal muscle activation (EMG) occurs. Maximal EMG activity during sprints for each muscle was used in order to express each exercise as a percentage of max activation during sprinting. Results The main findings were that maximal EMG activity of the different hamstring exercises were on average between 40-65% (Semitendinosus), 18-40% (biceps femoris) and 40-75% (Semimembranosus) compared with the max EMG activity in sprints, which were considered as 100%. The laying kick together with the Nordic hamstring exercises and its variations had the highest muscle activations, while the cranes showed the lowest muscle activation (in all muscles) together with the standing kick for the semimembranosus. In addition, angles at which the peak EMG activity of the hamstring muscle occurs were similar for the Nordic hamstring exercises and different for the two crane exercises (hip angle), standing kick (hip angle) and the laying kick (knee angle) compared with the sprint. Conclusions Nordic hamstring exercises with its variation together with the laying kick activates the hamstrings at high levels and

  18. Mechanisms of quadriceps muscle weakness in knee joint osteoarthritis: the effects of prolonged vibration on torque and muscle activation in osteoarthritic and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Rice, David A; McNair, Peter J; Lewis, Gwyn N

    2011-01-01

    A consequence of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is an inability to fully activate the quadriceps muscles, a problem termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). AMI leads to marked quadriceps weakness that impairs physical function and may hasten disease progression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether γ-loop dysfunction contributes to AMI in people with knee joint OA. Fifteen subjects with knee joint OA and 15 controls with no history of knee joint pathology participated in this study. Quadriceps and hamstrings peak isometric torque (Nm) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were collected before and after 20 minutes of 50 Hz vibration applied to the infrapatellar tendon. Between-group differences in pre-vibration torque were analysed using a one-way analysis of covariance, with age, gender and body mass (kg) as the covariates. If the γ-loop is intact, vibration should decrease torque and EMG levels in the target muscle; if dysfunctional, then torque and EMG levels should not change following vibration. One-sample t tests were thus undertaken to analyse whether percentage changes in torque and EMG differed from zero after vibration in each group. In addition, analyses of covariance were utilised to analyse between-group differences in the percentage changes in torque and EMG following vibration. Pre-vibration quadriceps torque was significantly lower in the OA group compared with the control group (P = 0.005). Following tendon vibration, quadriceps torque (P < 0.001) and EMG amplitude (P ≤0.001) decreased significantly in the control group but did not change in the OA group (all P > 0.299). Hamstrings torque and EMG amplitude were unchanged in both groups (all P > 0.204). The vibration-induced changes in quadriceps torque and EMG were significantly different between the OA and control groups (all P < 0.011). No between-group differences were observed for the change in hamstrings torque or EMG (all P > 0.554). γ-loop dysfunction may

  19. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  20. Surgical Treatment for Failure of Repair of Patellar and Quadriceps Tendon Rupture With Ipsilateral Hamstring Tendon Graft.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Tears of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are common in the active population, especially in athletes. At present, several techniques for surgical repair and reconstruction are available. When reruptures occur, a reconstruction is mandatory. In the present paper, we describe a surgical technique for patellar and quadriceps tendon reconstruction using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. After routine hamstring tendon harvesting, the tendon ends are prepared using a whip stitch. A transverse tunnel is drilled in the midportion of the patella, the hamstring graft is passed through the patella, and firmly secured to the patellar tunnel openings with sutures. The details of the technique are fully described. Autologous ipsilateral hamstring tendon grafts provide a secure sound means to manage these challenging injuries.

  1. Relationship between quadriceps strength and rate of loading during gait in women.

    PubMed

    Mikesky, A E; Meyer, A; Thompson, K L

    2000-03-01

    One function of skeletal muscle is to serve as the body's shock absorbers and thus dampen rates of loading during activity. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the significance of muscle strength on rates of loading during gait. Thirty-seven women (mean age: 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) were solicited by advertisement and placed into one of two groups-strength-trained or sedentary-on the basis of training history. They walked (10 trials) over a 10-m walkway at a controlled speed of 1.22-1.35 m/s while the rate of loading was sampled with a 1,000-Hz force platform. Quadriceps and hamstring strength was measured at 90 degrees/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. Statistical analyses (p < 0.05) included descriptive statistics and unpaired t tests for comparison between groups. The women in the sedentary group weighed more and had significantly less concentric and eccentric strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings relative to body weight than did those in the strength-trained group. In addition, they demonstrated significantly higher rates of loading (2.21 +/- 0.15 compared with 1.75 +/- 0.08%wt/ms) than those in the strength-trained group.

  2. Static postural sway, proprioception, and maximal voluntary quadriceps contraction in patients with knee osteoarthritis and normal control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, B; Mockett, S; Doherty, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) have reduced static postural control, knee proprioceptive acuity, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the quadriceps compared with normal controls, and to determine possible independent predictors of static postural sway.
METHODS—77 subjects with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA (58 women, 19 men; mean age 63.4 years, range 36-82) and 63 controls with asymptomatic and clinically normal knees (45 women, 18 men; mean age 63 years, range 46-85) underwent assessment of static postural sway. 108 subjects (59 patients, 49 controls) also underwent assessment of knee proprioceptive activity and MVC (including calculation of quadriceps activation). In patients with knee OA knee pain, stiffness, and functional disability were assessed using the WOMAC Index. The height (m) and weight (kg) of all subjects was assessed.
RESULTS—Compared with controls, patients with knee OA were heavier (mean difference 15.3 kg, p<0.001), had increased postural lateral sway (controls: median 2.3, interquartile (IQ) range 1.8-2.9; patients: median 4.7, IQ range 1.9-4.7, p<0.001), reduced proprioceptive acuity (controls: mean 7.9, 95% CI 6.9 to 8.9; patients: mean 12.0, 95% CI 10.5 to 13.6, p<0.001), weaker quadriceps strength (controls: mean 22.5, 95% CI 19.9 to 24.6; patients: mean 14.7, 95% CI 12.5 to 16.9, p<0.001), and less percentage activation of quadriceps (controls: mean 87.4, 95% CI 80.7 to 94.2; patients: mean 66.0, 95% CI 58.8 to 73.2, p<0.001). The significant predictors of postural sway were knee pain and the ratio of MVC/body weight.
CONCLUSIONS—Compared with age and sex matched controls, subjects with symptomatic knee OA have quadriceps weakness, reduced knee proprioception, and increased postural sway. Pain and muscle strength may particularly influence postural sway. The interaction between physiological, structural, and functional abnormalities in knee OA

  3. The quadriceps muscle of knee joint modelling Using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization-Neural Network (PSO-NN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin Ahmad; Marponga Tolos, Siti; Hee, Pah Chin; Ghani, Nor Azura Md; Ramli, Norazan Mohamed; Nasir, Noorhamizah Binti Mohamed; Ksm Kader, Babul Salam Bin; Saiful Huq, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Neural framework has for quite a while been known for its ability to handle a complex nonlinear system without a logical model and can learn refined nonlinear associations gives. Theoretically, the most surely understood computation to set up the framework is the backpropagation (BP) count which relies on upon the minimization of the mean square error (MSE). However, this algorithm is not totally efficient in the presence of outliers which usually exist in dynamic data. This paper exhibits the modelling of quadriceps muscle model by utilizing counterfeit smart procedures named consolidated backpropagation neural network nonlinear autoregressive (BPNN-NAR) and backpropagation neural network nonlinear autoregressive moving average (BPNN-NARMA) models in view of utilitarian electrical incitement (FES). We adapted particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach to enhance the performance of backpropagation algorithm. In this research, a progression of tests utilizing FES was led. The information that is gotten is utilized to build up the quadriceps muscle model. 934 preparing information, 200 testing and 200 approval information set are utilized as a part of the improvement of muscle model. It was found that both BPNN-NAR and BPNN-NARMA performed well in modelling this type of data. As a conclusion, the neural network time series models performed reasonably efficient for non-linear modelling such as active properties of the quadriceps muscle with one input, namely output namely muscle force.

  4. Comparing conventional physical therapy rehabilitation with neuromuscular electrical stimulation after TKA.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; McElroy, Karen; Stakich, Valerie; Cicco, Jodie

    2013-03-01

    Rehabilitation following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a costly, cumbersome, and often painful process. Physical therapy contributes to the successful outcome of TKA but can be expensive. Alternative methods of obtaining good functional results that help minimize costs are desirable. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a potential option. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has been shown to increase quadriceps muscle strength and activation following TKA. Functional scores also improve following TKA when NMES is added to conventional therapy protocols vs therapy alone. The authors hypothesized that rehabilitation managed by a physical therapist would not result in a functional advantage for patients undergoing TKA when compared with NMES and an unsupervised at-home range of motion exercise program and that patient satisfaction would not differ between the 2 groups. Seventy patients were randomized into a postoperative protocol of conventional physical therapy with a licensed therapist, including range of motion exercises and strengthening exercises, or into a program of NMES and range of motion exercises performed at home without therapist supervision. Noninferiority of the NMES program was obtained 6 weeks postoperatively (Knee Society pain/function scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, flexion). Noninferiority was shown 6 months postoperatively for all parameters. The results suggest that rehabilitation managed by a physical therapist results in no functional advantage or difference in patient satisfaction when compared with NMES and an unsupervised at-home range of motion program. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and unsupervised at-home range of motion exercises may provide an option for reducing the cost of the postoperative TKA recovery process without compromising quadriceps strength or patient satisfaction. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods/Design A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. Discussion The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index – normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle

  6. Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; El-Hage, Yasmin; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues; Frigero, Marcelo; Antonialli, Fernanda Colella; Vanin, Adriane Aver; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo

    2014-04-09

    Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index - normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle performance in Individuals with DM-2

  7. The effects of joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection on flexion reflex excitability, quadriceps strength and pain in individuals with knee synovitis: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Rice, David Andrew; McNair, Peter John; Lewis, Gwyn Nancy; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2015-07-28

    Substantial weakness of the quadriceps muscles is typically observed in patients with arthritis. This is partly due to ongoing neural inhibition that prevents the quadriceps from being fully activated. Evidence from animal studies suggests enhanced flexion reflex excitability may contribute to this weakness. This prospective observational study examined the effects of joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection on flexion reflex excitability, quadriceps muscle strength and knee pain in individuals with knee synovitis. Sixteen patients with chronic arthritis and clinically active synovitis of the knee participated in this study. Knee pain flexion reflex threshold, and quadriceps peak torque were measured at baseline, immediately after knee joint aspiration alone and 5 ± 2 and 15 ± 2 days after knee joint aspiration and the injection of 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate. Compared to baseline, knee pain was significantly reduced 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p = 0.009) post intervention. Flexion reflex threshold increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.009) and 5 (p = 0.01) and 15 days (p = 0.002) post intervention. Quadriceps peak torque increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.004) and 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p <0.001) post intervention. The findings from this study suggest that altered sensory output from an inflamed joint may increase flexion reflex excitability in humans, as has previously been shown in animals. Joint aspiration and corticosteroid injection may be a clinically useful intervention to reverse quadriceps muscle weakness in individuals with knee synovitis.

  8. Exercise Prescriptions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara

    2014-01-01

    Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises – concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661

  9. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis--treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Kosek, E; Roos, E M; Ageberg, E; Nilsdotter, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters. The dataset consisted of knee (n = 66) and hip (n = 47) OA patients assigned for total joint replacement at Lund University Hospital undergoing pre-operative neuromuscular exercise and 43 matched controls. Sensitivity to pressure pain was assessed by pressure algometry at 10 sites. Subjects were then instructed to perform a standardized static knee extension. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at the contracting quadriceps muscle (Q) and at the resting deltoid muscle (D) before and during contraction. The relative increase in PPTs during contraction was taken as a measure of localized (Q) or generalized (D) EIA. Patients were assessed at baseline, following on average 12 weeks of neuromuscular exercise and 3 months following surgery. We found a normal function of EIA in OA patients at baseline. Previous studies have reported beneficial effects of physical exercise on pain modulation in healthy subjects. However, no treatment effects on EIA were seen in OA patients despite the increase in muscle strength following neuromuscular exercise and reduced pain following surgery. Compared to controls, OA patients had increased pain sensitivity and no beneficial effects on pain sensitivity were seen following treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of EIA in OA patients. Despite increased pain sensitivity, OA patients had a normal function of EIA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Skeletal muscle bioenergetics during all-out exercise: mechanistic insight into the oxygen uptake slow component and neuromuscular fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Layec, Gwenael; Hureau, Thomas J.; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S.

    2017-01-01

    Although all-out exercise protocols are commonly used, the physiological mechanisms underlying all-out exercise performance are still unclear, and an in-depth assessment of skeletal muscle bioenergetics is lacking. Therefore, phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) was utilized to assess skeletal muscle bioenergetics during a 5-min all-out intermittent isometric knee-extensor protocol in eight healthy men. Metabolic perturbation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates, ATP cost of contraction, and mitochondrial capacity were determined from intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4−), and pH. Peripheral fatigue was determined by exercise-induced alterations in potentiated quadriceps twitch force (Qtw) evoked by supramaximal electrical femoral nerve stimulation. The oxidative ATP synthesis rate (ATPOX) attained and then maintained peak values throughout the protocol, despite an ~63% decrease in quadriceps maximal force production. ThusATPOX normalized to force production (ATPOX gain) significantly increased throughout the exercise (1st min: 0.02 ± 0.01, 5th min: 0.04 ± 0.01 mM·min−1·N−1), as did the ATP cost of contraction (1st min: 0.048 ± 0.019, 5th min: 0.052 ± 0.015 mM·min−1·N−1). Additionally, the pre- to postexercise change in Qtw (−52 ± 26%) was significantly correlated with the exercise-induced change in intramuscular pH (r = 0.75) and H2PO4− concentration (r = 0.77). In conclusion, the all-out exercise protocol utilized in the present study elicited a “slow component-like” increase in intramuscular ATPOX gain as well as a progressive increase in the phosphate cost of contraction. Furthermore, the development of peripheral fatigue was closely related to the perturbation of specific fatigue-inducing intramuscular factors (i.e., pH and H2PO4− concentration). NEW & NOTEWORTHY The physiological mechanisms and skeletal muscle bioenergetics

  11. Skeletal muscle bioenergetics during all-out exercise: mechanistic insight into the oxygen uptake slow component and neuromuscular fatigue.

    PubMed

    Broxterman, Ryan M; Layec, Gwenael; Hureau, Thomas J; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-05-01

    Although all-out exercise protocols are commonly used, the physiological mechanisms underlying all-out exercise performance are still unclear, and an in-depth assessment of skeletal muscle bioenergetics is lacking. Therefore, phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) was utilized to assess skeletal muscle bioenergetics during a 5-min all-out intermittent isometric knee-extensor protocol in eight healthy men. Metabolic perturbation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates, ATP cost of contraction, and mitochondrial capacity were determined from intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (P i ), diprotonated phosphate ([Formula: see text]), and pH. Peripheral fatigue was determined by exercise-induced alterations in potentiated quadriceps twitch force (Q tw ) evoked by supramaximal electrical femoral nerve stimulation. The oxidative ATP synthesis rate (ATP OX ) attained and then maintained peak values throughout the protocol, despite an ~63% decrease in quadriceps maximal force production. ThusATP OX normalized to force production (ATP OX gain) significantly increased throughout the exercise (1st min: 0.02 ± 0.01, 5th min: 0.04 ± 0.01 mM·min -1 ·N -1 ), as did the ATP cost of contraction (1st min: 0.048 ± 0.019, 5th min: 0.052 ± 0.015 mM·min -1 ·N -1 ). Additionally, the pre- to postexercise change in Q tw (-52 ± 26%) was significantly correlated with the exercise-induced change in intramuscular pH ( r = 0.75) and [Formula: see text] concentration ( r = 0.77). In conclusion, the all-out exercise protocol utilized in the present study elicited a "slow component-like" increase in intramuscular ATP OX gain as well as a progressive increase in the phosphate cost of contraction. Furthermore, the development of peripheral fatigue was closely related to the perturbation of specific fatigue-inducing intramuscular factors (i.e., pH and [Formula: see text] concentration). NEW & NOTEWORTHY The physiological mechanisms

  12. Exercise capacity, muscle strength and fatigue in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marcellis, R G J; Lenssen, A F; Elfferich, M D P; De Vries, J; Kassim, S; Foerster, K; Drent, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the prevalence of exercise intolerance, muscle weakness and fatigue in sarcoidosis patients. Additionally, we evaluated whether fatigue can be explained by exercise capacity, muscle strength or other clinical characteristics (lung function tests, radiographic stages, prednisone usage and inflammatory markers). 124 sarcoidosis patients (80 males) referred to the Maastricht University Medical Centre (Maastricht, the Netherlands) were included (mean age 46.6±10.2 yrs). Patients performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and handgrip force (HGF), elbow flexor muscle strength (EFMS), quadriceps peak torque (QPT) and hamstring peak torque (HPT) tests. Maximal inspiratory pressure (P(I,max)) was recorded. All patients completed the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) questionnaire. The 6MWT was reduced in 45% of the population, while HGF, EFMS, QPT and HPT muscle strength were reduced in 15, 12, 27 and 18%, respectively. P(I,max) was reduced in 43% of the population. The majority of the patients (81%) reported fatigue (FAS ≥22). Patients with reduced peripheral muscle strength of the upper and/or lower extremities were more fatigued and demonstrated impaired lung functions, fat-free mass, P(I,max), 6MWT and quality of life. Fatigue was neither predicted by exercise capacity, nor by muscle strength. Besides fatigue, exercise intolerance and muscle weakness are frequent problems in sarcoidosis. We therefore recommend physical tests in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis patients, even in nonfatigued patients.

  13. Impact of pain reported during isometric quadriceps muscle strength testing in people with knee pain: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Daniel L; Stratford, Paul W

    2011-10-01

    Muscle force testing is one of the more common categories of diagnostic tests used in clinical practice. Clinicians have little evidence to guide interpretations of muscle force tests when pain is elicited during testing. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of isometric quadriceps muscle strength tests by determining whether the relationship between maximal isometric quadriceps muscle strength and functional status was influenced by pain during isometric testing. A cross-sectional design was used. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used to identify 1,344 people with unilateral knee pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale scores of 1 or higher on the involved side. Measurements of maximal isometric quadriceps strength and ratings of pain during isometric testing were collected. Outcome variables were WOMAC physical function subscale, 20-m walk test, 400-m walk test, and a repeated chair stand test. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether pain during testing modified or confounded the relationship between strength and functional status. Pearson r correlations among the isometric quadriceps strength measures and the 4 outcome measures ranged from -.36 (95% confidence interval=-.41, -.31) for repeated chair stands to .36 (95% confidence interval=.31, .41) for the 20-m walk test. In the final analyses, neither effect modification nor confounding was found for the repeated chair stand test, the 20-m walk test, the 400-m walk test, or the WOMAC physical function subscale. Moderate or severe pain during testing was weakly associated with reduced strength, but mild pain was not. The disease spectrum was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms, and the pain measurement scale used during muscle force testing was not ideal. Given that the spectrum of the sample was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms and disease, the data suggest that isometric quadriceps muscle

  14. Impact of Pain Reported During Isometric Quadriceps Muscle Strength Testing in People With Knee Pain: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Stratford, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Muscle force testing is one of the more common categories of diagnostic tests used in clinical practice. Clinicians have little evidence to guide interpretations of muscle force tests when pain is elicited during testing. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of isometric quadriceps muscle strength tests by determining whether the relationship between maximal isometric quadriceps muscle strength and functional status was influenced by pain during isometric testing. Design A cross-sectional design was used. Methods Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used to identify 1,344 people with unilateral knee pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale scores of 1 or higher on the involved side. Measurements of maximal isometric quadriceps strength and ratings of pain during isometric testing were collected. Outcome variables were WOMAC physical function subscale, 20-m walk test, 400-m walk test, and a repeated chair stand test. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether pain during testing modified or confounded the relationship between strength and functional status. Results Pearson r correlations among the isometric quadriceps strength measures and the 4 outcome measures ranged from −.36 (95% confidence interval=−.41, −.31) for repeated chair stands to .36 (95% confidence interval=.31, .41) for the 20-m walk test. In the final analyses, neither effect modification nor confounding was found for the repeated chair stand test, the 20-m walk test, the 400-m walk test, or the WOMAC physical function subscale. Moderate or severe pain during testing was weakly associated with reduced strength, but mild pain was not. Limitations The disease spectrum was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms, and the pain measurement scale used during muscle force testing was not ideal. Conclusions Given that the spectrum of the sample was skewed toward mild or moderate

  15. Effect of Capacitive and Resistive electric transfer on changes in muscle flexibility and lumbopelvic alignment after fatiguing exercise.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yuki; Sonoda, Takuya; Tashiro, Yuto; Suzuki, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Yu; Zeidan, Hala; Nakayama, Yasuaki; Kawagoe, Mirei; Shimoura, Kanako; Tatsumi, Masataka; Nakai, Kengo; Nishida, Yuichi; Bito, Tsubasa; Yoshimi, Soyoka; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the effects of Capacitive and Resistive electric transfer (CRet) on changes in muscle flexibility and lumbopelvic alignment after fatiguing exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy males were assigned into either the CRet (n=11) or control (n=11) group. Fatiguing exercise and CRet intervention were applied at the quadriceps muscle of the participants' dominant legs. The Ely test, pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis, and superficial temperature were measured before and after exercise and for 30 minutes after intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, with Tukey's post-hoc multiple comparison test to clarify within-group changes and Student's t-test to clarify between-group differences. [Results] The Ely test and pelvic tilt were significantly different in both groups after exercise, but there was no difference in the CRet group after intervention. Superficial temperature significantly increased in the CRet group for 30 minutes after intervention, in contrast to after the exercise and intervention in the control group. There was no significant between-group difference at any timepoint, except in superficial temperature. [Conclusion] CRet could effectively improve muscle flexibility and lumbopelvic alignment after fatiguing exercise.

  16. Effect of Capacitive and Resistive electric transfer on changes in muscle flexibility and lumbopelvic alignment after fatiguing exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Yuki; Sonoda, Takuya; Tashiro, Yuto; Suzuki, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Yu; Zeidan, Hala; Nakayama, Yasuaki; Kawagoe, Mirei; Shimoura, Kanako; Tatsumi, Masataka; Nakai, Kengo; Nishida, Yuichi; Bito, Tsubasa; Yoshimi, Soyoka; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the effects of Capacitive and Resistive electric transfer (CRet) on changes in muscle flexibility and lumbopelvic alignment after fatiguing exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy males were assigned into either the CRet (n=11) or control (n=11) group. Fatiguing exercise and CRet intervention were applied at the quadriceps muscle of the participants’ dominant legs. The Ely test, pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis, and superficial temperature were measured before and after exercise and for 30 minutes after intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, with Tukey’s post-hoc multiple comparison test to clarify within-group changes and Student’s t-test to clarify between-group differences. [Results] The Ely test and pelvic tilt were significantly different in both groups after exercise, but there was no difference in the CRet group after intervention. Superficial temperature significantly increased in the CRet group for 30 minutes after intervention, in contrast to after the exercise and intervention in the control group. There was no significant between-group difference at any timepoint, except in superficial temperature. [Conclusion] CRet could effectively improve muscle flexibility and lumbopelvic alignment after fatiguing exercise. PMID:29765189

  17. Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus

  18. A randomised trial into the effect of an isolated hip abductor strengthening programme and a functional motor control programme on knee kinematics and hip muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kathryn; Hebron, Clair; Williams, Jonathan M

    2015-05-03

    Dynamic knee valgus and internal femoral rotation are proposed to be contributory risk factors for patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Multimodal interventions including hip abductor strengthening or functional motor control programmes have a positive impact of pain, however their effect on knee kinematics and muscle strength is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of isolated hip abductor strengthening and a functional motor control exercise on knee kinematics and hip abductor strength. This prospective, randomised, repeated measures design included 29 asymptomatic volunteers presenting with increase knee valgus and femoral internal rotation. Participants completed either isolated hip abductor strengthening or a functional motor control exercise for 5 weeks. Knee kinematics were measured using inertial sensors during 2 functional activities and hip abductor strength measured using a load cell during isometric hip abduction. There were no significant differences in dynamic knee valgus and internal rotation following the isolated hip abductor or functional motor control intervention, and no significant differences between the groups for knee angles. Despite this, the actual magnitude of reduction in valgus was 10° and 5° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. The actual magnitude of reduction in internal rotation was 9° and 18° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. Therefore there was a tendency towards clinically significant improvements in knee kinematics in both exercise groups. A statistically significant improvement in hip abductor strength was evident for the functional motor control group (27% increase; p = 0.008) and strengthening group (35% increase; p = 0.009) with no significant difference between the groups being identified (p = 0.475). Isolated hip strengthening and functional motor control exercises resulted in

  19. Immediate effects of kinesiotaping on quadriceps muscle strength: a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Stefano; Sartorio, Francesco; Foti, Calogero; Colletto, Lorenzo; Virton, Domenico; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Ferriero, Giorgio

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the immediate effects on maximal muscle strength of kinesiotaping (KT) applied to the dominant quadriceps of healthy subjects. Single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. "Salvatore Maugeri" Foundation. With ethical approval and informed consent, a convenience sample of 36 healthy volunteers were recruited. Two subjects did not complete the sessions and were excluded from the analysis. Subjects were tested across 3 different sessions, randomly receiving 2 experimental KT conditions applied with the aim of enhancing and inhibiting muscle strength and a sham KT application. Quadriceps muscle strength was measured by means of an isokinetic maximal test performed at 60 and 180 degrees per second. Two secondary outcome measures were performed: the single-leg triple hop for distance to measure limb performance and the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRCS) to calculate agreement between KT application and subjective perception of strength. Compared with baseline, none of the 3 taping conditions showed a significant change in muscle strength and performance (all P > 0.05). Effect size was very low under all conditions (≤0.08). Very few subjects showed an individual change greater than the minimal detectable change. Global Rating of Change Scale scores demonstrated low to moderate agreement with the type of KT applied, but some placebo effects were reported independently of condition. Our findings indicated no significant effect in the maximal quadriceps strength immediately after the application of inhibition, facilitation, or sham KT. These results do not support the use of KT applied in this way to change maximal muscle strength in healthy people.

  20. Calculation of Resistive Loads for Elastic Resistive Exercises.

    PubMed

    Picha, Kelsey; Uhl, Tim

    2018-03-14

    What is the correct resistive load to start resistive training with elastic resistance to gain strength? This question is typically answered by the clinician's best estimate and patient's level of discomfort without objective evidence. To determine the average level of resistance to initiate a strengthening routine with elastic resistance following isometric strength testing. Cohort. Clinical. 34 subjects (31 ± 13 y, 73 ± 17 kg, 170 ± 12 cm). The force produced was measured in Newtons (N) with an isometric dynamometer. The force distance was the distance from center of joint to location of force applied was measured in meters to calculate torque that was called "Test Torque" for the purposes of this report. This torque data was converted to "Exercise Load" in pounds based on the location where the resistance was applied, specifically the distance away from the center of rotation of the exercising limb. The average amount of exercise load as percentage of initial Test Torque for each individual for each exercise was recorded to determine what the average level of resistance that could be used for elastic resistance strengthening program. The percentage of initial test torque calculated for the exercise was recorded for each exercise and torque produced was normalized to body weight. The average percentage of maximal isometric force that was used to initiate exercises was 30 ± 7% of test torque. This provides clinicians with an objective target load to start elastic resistance training. Individual variations will occur but utilization of a load cell during elastic resistance provides objective documentation of exercise progression.

  1. Effects of exercise training on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in skeletal muscle and heart of rats post myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heow Won; Ahmad, Monir; Wang, Hong-Wei; Leenen, Frans H H

    2017-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Exercise training increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, which depends on a myokine, fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). Whether exercise training after myocardial infarction induces parallel increases in FNDC5 and BDNF expression in skeletal muscle and the heart has not yet been studied. What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training after myocardial infarction increases BDNF protein in skeletal muscle and the non-infarct area of the LV without changes in FNDC5 protein, suggesting that BDNF is not regulated by FNDC5 in skeletal muscle and heart. An increase in cardiac BDNF may contribute to the improvement of cardiac function by exercise training. Exercise training after myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates progressive left ventricular (LV) remodelling and dysfunction, but the peripheral stimuli induced by exercise that trigger these beneficial effects are still unclear. We investigated as possible mediators fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the skeletal muscle and heart. Male Wistar rats underwent either sham surgery or ligation of the left descending coronary artery, and surviving MI rats were allocated to either a sedentary (Sed-MI) or an exercise group (ExT-MI). Exercise training was done for 4 weeks on a motor-driven treadmill. At the end, LV function was evaluated, and FNDC5 and BDNF mRNA and protein were assessed in soleus muscle, quadriceps and non-, peri- and infarct areas of the LV. At 5 weeks post MI, FNDC5 mRNA was decreased in soleus muscle and all areas of the LV, but FNDC5 protein was increased in the soleus muscle and the infarct area. Mature BDNF (mBDNF) protein was decreased in the infarct area without a change in mRNA. Exercise training attenuated the decrease in ejection fraction and the increase in LV end-diastolic pressure post MI. Exercise training had no

  2. [Quadriceps tendon insufficiency and rupture : Treatment options in total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Thiele, K; von Roth, P; Pfitzner, T; Preininger, B; Perka, C

    2016-05-01

    Quadriceps tendon injuries and insufficiencies in total knee arthroplasty are rare, but are followed by a devastating complication that left untreated leads to a complete loss of function of the knee. This review article summarizes the functional anatomy, risk factors, and the prevalence and diagnosis of quadriceps tendon injuries, in addition to the possible management options for partial and complete ruptures. The treatment options are adapted according to the extent of the loss of function (partial, complete) and the duration of the injury (acute vs chronic). Furthermore, the choice of treatment should take into account the quality and availability of primary tissue, the patient's general health, along with their likely functional requirements. Conservative treatment is often justified in partial ruptures with good results. Complete ruptures require surgical intervention and multiple operative techniques are described. Treatment options for acute ruptures include direct primary repair with autogenous or synthetic tissue augmentation. In the case of chronic insufficiency and a lack of soft-tissue surroundings, reconstruction with the aid of a muscle flap or allograft tissue can be considered. All surgical intervention techniques used so far have been fraught with complications and rarely lead to satisfactory results. A new surgical approach to the reconstruction and augmentation of the extensor mechanism consists of the use of a synthetic mesh. The technique is described here in detail.

  3. Sensory and motor peripheral nerve function and lower-extremity quadriceps strength: the health, aging and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Strotmeyer, Elsa S; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Ann V; Resnick, Helaine E; Goodpaster, Bret H; Faulkner, Kimberly A; Shorr, Ronald I; Vinik, Aaron I; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether sensory and motor nerve function is associated cross-sectionally with quadriceps or ankle dorsiflexion strength in an older community-based population. Cross-sectional analyses within a longitudinal cohort study. Two U.S. clinical sites. Two thousand fifty-nine Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (Health ABC) participants (49.5% male, 36.7% black, aged 73-82) in 2000/01. Quadriceps and ankle strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in the legs and feet was assessed using 10-g and 1.4-g monofilaments, vibration threshold, and peroneal motor nerve conduction amplitude and velocity. Monofilament insensitivity, poorest vibration threshold quartile (>60 mu), and poorest motor nerve conduction amplitude quartile (<1.7 mV) were associated with 11%, 7%, and 8% lower quadriceps strength (all P<.01), respectively, than in the best peripheral nerve function categories in adjusted linear regression models. Monofilament insensitivity and lowest amplitude quartile were both associated with 17% lower ankle strength (P<.01). Multivariate analyses were adjusted for demographic characteristics, diabetes mellitus, body composition, lifestyle factors, and chronic health conditions and included all peripheral nerve measures in the same model. Monofilament insensitivity (beta=-7.19), vibration threshold (beta=-0.097), and motor nerve conduction amplitude (beta=2.01) each contributed independently to lower quadriceps strength (all P<.01). Monofilament insensitivity (beta=-5.29) and amplitude (beta=1.17) each contributed independently to lower ankle strength (all P<.01). Neither diabetes mellitus status nor lean mass explained the associations between peripheral nerve function and strength. Reduced sensory and motor peripheral nerve function is related to poorer lower extremity strength in older adults, suggesting a mechanism for the relationship with lower extremity disability.

  4. Exercise may decrease further destruction in the adult haemophilic joint.

    PubMed

    Harris, S; Boggio, L N

    2006-05-01

    The effect of exercise on adult haemophilic joints was investigated. Forty-six subjects with existing joint disease were evaluated and range of motion (ROM) in joints was measured. The effect of exercise of large joint ROM in haemophilia was evaluated by comparing the ranges of motion in subjects who exercised at least three times weekly against those subjects who did not exercise. The exercise group showed improvement in the majority of joint ranges of motion compared with the non-exercise group (P = 0.003). Thus regular exercise may help reduce further destruction in haemophilic joints by strengthening muscle ligaments and tendons surrounding the joint thereby protecting them from damage caused by recurrent haemarthrotic events.

  5. Mechanisms of quadriceps muscle weakness in knee joint osteoarthritis: the effects of prolonged vibration on torque and muscle activation in osteoarthritic and healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A consequence of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is an inability to fully activate the quadriceps muscles, a problem termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). AMI leads to marked quadriceps weakness that impairs physical function and may hasten disease progression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether γ-loop dysfunction contributes to AMI in people with knee joint OA. Methods Fifteen subjects with knee joint OA and 15 controls with no history of knee joint pathology participated in this study. Quadriceps and hamstrings peak isometric torque (Nm) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were collected before and after 20 minutes of 50 Hz vibration applied to the infrapatellar tendon. Between-group differences in pre-vibration torque were analysed using a one-way analysis of covariance, with age, gender and body mass (kg) as the covariates. If the γ-loop is intact, vibration should decrease torque and EMG levels in the target muscle; if dysfunctional, then torque and EMG levels should not change following vibration. One-sample t tests were thus undertaken to analyse whether percentage changes in torque and EMG differed from zero after vibration in each group. In addition, analyses of covariance were utilised to analyse between-group differences in the percentage changes in torque and EMG following vibration. Results Pre-vibration quadriceps torque was significantly lower in the OA group compared with the control group (P = 0.005). Following tendon vibration, quadriceps torque (P < 0.001) and EMG amplitude (P ≤0.001) decreased significantly in the control group but did not change in the OA group (all P > 0.299). Hamstrings torque and EMG amplitude were unchanged in both groups (all P > 0.204). The vibration-induced changes in quadriceps torque and EMG were significantly different between the OA and control groups (all P < 0.011). No between-group differences were observed for the change in hamstrings torque or EMG (all P > 0

  6. Core strengthening and synchronized swimming: TRX® suspension training in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Tinto, Amalia; Campanella, Marta; Fasano, Milena

    2017-06-01

    Developing muscle strength and full body stability is essential for the efficient execution of technical moves in synchronized swimming. However, many swimmers find it difficult to control body stability while executing particular figures in water. We evaluated the effects of TRX® suspension training (2 sessions weekly for 6 months on core strength and core stability in young female. Twenty synchronized swimmers (Beginners A category, mean age 10±1 years) are divided in experimental group (EG; N.=10 athletes) and control group (CG; N.=10 athletes). EG received suspension training twice weekly (each session lasting about 15 min) as dryland exercises for 6 months in addition to routine training. CG completed routine training with conventional dryland exercises. Before (T1) and after (T2) completion of the study oblique and transversus abdominis muscle force was measured using a Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback unit, in prone and supine positions, and isotonic muscle endurance was evaluated with the McGill Test. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed a significant increase (P<0.0001) in the majority of the parameters in the experimental group. The study results provide evidence for the benefit of integrating TRX® suspension training in dryland exercises for muscle strengthening in young athletes practicing synchronized swimming, and in general reiterates the importance of strengthening the core area to ensure stability and specific adaptations, improve the quality of the movement and prevent against injury.

  7. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    El-Shamy, S

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia. Thirty children with hemophilia with age ranging from 9 to 13 years were selected and randomly assigned to either the study group that received whole body vibration training (30-40 Hz, 2-4 mm of peak-to-peak vertical plate displacement for 15 minutes/day, 3 days/week/ 12 weeks) plus the conventional physical therapy program or the control group that performed a conventional physical therapy program only. Outcomes included quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and the functional capacity. Children in the study group showed a significant improvement in all outcomes compared with the control group. The quadriceps peak torque after treatment was 70.26 and 56.46 Nm for the study and control group, respectively (p⟨0.001). The lumbar spine bone mineral density after treatment was 0.85 and 0.72 g/cm 2 for the study and control group, respectively (p⟨0.001). The functional capacity after treatment was 325 and 290 m for the study and control group, respectively (p=0.006). Whole body vibration training is an effective modality in increasing quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia.

  8. FE Furukawa exercising with the ARED

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-30

    ISS028-E-019507 (30 July 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses the short bar for the advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) equipment to perform upper body strengthening pull-ups in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  9. Muscle ultrastructural changes from exhaustive exercise performed after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.

  10. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. Purpose: To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m2) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm2). Results: Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3

  11. An aerobic walking programme versus muscle strengthening programme for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shnayderman, Ilana; Katz-Leurer, Michal

    2013-03-01

    To assess the effect of aerobic walking training as compared to active training, which includes muscle strengthening, on functional abilities among patients with chronic low back pain. Randomized controlled clinical trial with blind assessors. Outpatient clinic. Fifty-two sedentary patients, aged 18-65 years with chronic low back pain. Patients who were post surgery, post trauma, with cardiovascular problems, and with oncological disease were excluded. Experimental 'walking' group: moderate intense treadmill walking; control 'exercise' group: specific low back exercise; both, twice a week for six weeks. Six-minute walking test, Fear-Avoidance Belief Questionnaire, back and abdomen muscle endurance tests, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, Low Back Pain Functional Scale (LBPFS). Significant improvements were noted in all outcome measures in both groups with non-significant difference between groups. The mean distance in metres covered during 6 minutes increased by 70.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.3-127.7) in the 'walking' group and by 43.8 (95% CI 19.6-68.0) in the 'exercise' group. The trunk flexor endurance test showed significant improvement in both groups, increasing by 0.6 (95% CI 0.0-1.1) in the 'walking' group and by 1.1 (95% CI 0.3-1.8) in the 'exercise' group. A six-week walk training programme was as effective as six weeks of specific strengthening exercises programme for the low back.

  12. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p < .001), HDL-C (p = .010) and waist circumference (p = .016). Triglyceride and waist circumference was significantly decreased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. PMID:25566424

  13. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p < .001), HDL-C (p = .010) and waist circumference (p = .016). Triglyceride and waist circumference was significantly decreased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity.

  14. Reliability of quadriceps surface electromyography measurements is improved by two vs. single site recordings.

    PubMed

    Balshaw, T G; Fry, A; Maden-Wilkinson, T M; Kong, P W; Folland, J P

    2017-06-01

    The reliability of surface electromyography (sEMG) is typically modest even with rigorous methods, and therefore further improvements in sEMG reliability are desirable. This study compared the between-session reliability (both within participant absolute reliability and between-participant relative reliability) of sEMG amplitude from single vs. average of two distinct recording sites, for individual muscle (IM) and whole quadriceps (WQ) measures during voluntary and evoked contractions. Healthy males (n = 20) performed unilateral isometric knee extension contractions: voluntary maximum and submaximum (60%), as well as evoked twitch contractions on two separate days. sEMG was recorded from two distinct sites on each superficial quadriceps muscle. Averaging two recording sites vs. using single site measures improved reliability for IM and WQ measurements during voluntary (16-26% reduction in within-participant coefficient of variation, CV W ) and evoked contractions (40-56% reduction in CV W ). For sEMG measurements from large muscles, averaging the recording of two distinct sites is recommended as it improves within-participant reliability. This improved sensitivity has application to clinical and research measurement of sEMG amplitude.

  15. Improved Exercise Tolerance with Caffeine Is Associated with Modulation of both Peripheral and Central Neural Processes in Human Participants.

    PubMed

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Mohr, Magni; Fulford, Jonathan; Jackman, Sarah R; Ermidis, Georgios; Krustrup, Peter; Mileva, Katya N

    2018-01-01

    Caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise performance and capacity. The mechanisms remain unclear but are suggested to relate to adenosine receptor antagonism, resulting in increased central motor drive, reduced perception of effort, and altered peripheral processes such as enhanced calcium handling and extracellular potassium regulation. Our aims were to investigate how caffeine (i) affects knee extensor PCr kinetics and pH during repeated sets of single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure and (ii) modulates the interplay between central and peripheral neural processes. We hypothesized that the caffeine-induced extension of exercise capacity during repeated sets of exercise would occur despite greater disturbance of the muscle milieu due to enhanced peripheral and corticospinal excitatory output, central motor drive, and muscle contractility. Nine healthy active young men performed five sets of intense single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure on four separate occasions: for two visits (6 mg·kg -1 caffeine vs placebo), quadriceps 31 P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans were performed to quantify phosphocreatine kinetics and pH, and for the remaining two visits (6 mg·kg -1 caffeine vs placebo), femoral nerve electrical and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the quadriceps cortical motor area were applied pre- and post exercise. The total exercise time was 17.9 ± 6.0% longer in the caffeine (1,225 ± 86 s) than in the placebo trial (1,049 ± 73 s, p  = 0.016), and muscle phosphocreatine concentration and pH ( p < 0.05) were significantly lower in the latter sets of exercise after caffeine ingestion. Voluntary activation (VA) (peripheral, p  = 0.007; but not supraspinal, p  = 0.074), motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude ( p  = 0.007), and contractility (contraction time, p  = 0.009; and relaxation rate, p  = 0.003) were significantly higher after caffeine consumption, but at task failure MEP

  16. Recovery of damaged skeletal muscle in mdx mice through low-intensity endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Frinchi, M; Macaluso, F; Licciardi, A; Perciavalle, V; Coco, M; Belluardo, N; Morici, G; Mudò, G

    2014-01-01

    The lack of dystrophin in mdx mice leads to cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration processes. Various strategies have been proposed in order to reduce the muscle-wasting component of muscular dystrophy, including implementation of an exercise programme. The aim of this study was to examine how low-intensity endurance exercise affects the degeneration-regeneration process in dystrophic muscle of male mdx mice. Mice were subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise by running on a motorized Rota-Rod for 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Histomorphological analysis showed a significant reduction of measured inflammatory-necrotic areas in both gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscle of exercised mdx mice as compared to matched sedentary mdx mice. The degenerative-regenerative process was also evaluated by examining the protein levels of connexin 39 (Cx39), a specific gene expressed in injured muscles. Cx39 was not detected in sedentary wild type mice, whereas it was found markedly increased in sedentary mdx mice, revealing active muscle degeneration-regeneration process. These Cx39 protein levels were significantly reduced in muscles of mdx mice exercised for 30 and 40 days, revealing together with histomorphological analysis a strong reduction of degeneration process in mice subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise. Muscles of exercised mdx mice did not show significant changes in force and fatigue resistance as compared to sedentary mdx mice. Overall in this study we found that specific low-intensity endurance exercise induces a beneficial effect probably by reducing the degeneration of dystrophic muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. NATO: What It Is, How the U.S. Is Helping Strengthen It | DoDLive

    Science.gov Websites

    and Operation Atlantic Resolve, the ongoing response to Russian intervention in Ukraine. Carter will headquarters in Brussells, Belgium, on June 24, 2015. Photo courtesy of Department of Defense Operation allied airspace several times. The operation helps strengthen NATO through military exercises and

  18. THE EFFECTS OF VARIED TENSIONS OF KINESIOLOGY TAPING ON QUADRICEPS STRENGTH AND LOWER LIMB FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Yuri Rafael dos Santos; Nannini, Stella Bispo; Nakaoka, Gustavo Bezerra; dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bryk, Flavio Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Background Kinesiology Taping (KT) may promote changes in muscle strength and motor performance, topics of great interest in the sports-medicine sciences. These characteristics are purported to be associated with the tension generated by the KT on the skin. However, the most suitable tension for the attainment of these strength and performance effects has not yet been confirmed. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of different tensions of KT on the isometric contraction of the quadriceps and lower limb function of healthy individuals over a period of seven days. Study Design Blind, randomized, clinical trial. Methods One hundred and thirty healthy individuals were distributed into the following five groups: control (without KT); KT0 (KT without tension); KT50; KT75 and KT100 (approximately 50%, 75% and 100% tension applied to the tape, respectively). Assessments of isometric quadriceps strength were conducted using a hand held dynamometer. Lower limb function was assessed through Single Hop Test for Distance, with five measurement periods: baseline; immediately after KT application; three days after KT; five days after KT; and 72h after KT removal (follow-up). Results There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) at any of the studied periods on participants’ quadriceps strength nor in the function of the lower dominant limb, based on comparisons between the control group and the experimental groups. Conclusion KT applied with different tensions did not produce modulations, in short or long-term, on quadriceps’ strength or lower limb function of healthy individuals. Therefore, this type of KT application, when seeking these objectives, should be reconsidered. Level of Evidence 1b PMID:28217419

  19. Effects of pre- or post-exercise low-level laser therapy (830 nm) on skeletal muscle fatigue and biochemical markers of recovery in humans: double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Filipe Abdalla; da Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato; Laraia, Erica Martinho Salvador; de Melo, Rhaiza Marques; Silva, Patrícia Henrique; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before and after exercise on quadriceps muscle performance, and to evaluate the changes in serum lactate and creatine kinase (CK) levels. The study was randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled. A sample of 27 healthy volunteers (male soccer players) were divided into three groups: placebo, pre-fatigue laser, and post-fatigue laser. The experiment was performed in two sessions, with a 1 week interval between them. Subjects performed two sessions of stretching followed by blood collection (measurement of lactate and CK) at baseline and after fatigue of the quadriceps by leg extension. LLLT was applied to the femoral quadriceps muscle using an infrared laser device (830 nm), 0.0028 cm(2) beam area, six 60 mW diodes, energy of 0.6 J per diode (total energy to each limb 25.2 J (50.4 J total), energy density 214.28 J/cm(2), 21.42 W/cm(2) power density, 70 sec per leg. We measured the time to fatigue and number and maximum load (RM) of repetitions tolerated. Number of repetitions and time until fatigue were primary outcomes, secondary outcomes included serum lactate levels (measured before and 5, 10, and 15 min after exercise), and CK levels (measured before and 5 min after exercise). The number of repetitions (p=0.8965), RM (p=0.9915), and duration of fatigue (p=0.8424) were similar among the groups. Post-fatigue laser treatment significantly decreased the serum lactate concentration relative to placebo treatment (p<0.01) and also within the group over time (after 5 min vs. after 10 and 15 min, p<0.05 both). The CK level was lower in the post-fatigue laser group (p<0.01). Laser application either before or after fatigue reduced the post-fatigue concentrations of serum lactate and CK. The results were more pronounced in the post-fatigue laser group.

  20. β2-Adrenergic stimulation enhances Ca2+ release and contractile properties of skeletal muscles, and counteracts exercise-induced reductions in Na+–K+-ATPase Vmax in trained men

    PubMed Central

    Hostrup, M; Kalsen, A; Ørtenblad, N; Juel, C; Mørch, K; Rzeppa, S; Karlsson, S; Backer, V; Bangsbo, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of β2-adrenergic stimulation on skeletal muscle contractile properties, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) rates of Ca2+ release and uptake, and Na+–K+-ATPase activity before and after fatiguing exercise in trained men. The study consisted of two experiments (EXP1, n = 10 males, EXP2, n = 20 males), where β2-adrenoceptor agonist (terbutaline) or placebo was randomly administered in double-blinded crossover designs. In EXP1, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of m. quadriceps was measured, followed by exercise to fatigue at 120% of maximal oxygen uptake (). A muscle biopsy was taken after MVC (non-fatigue) and at time of fatigue. In EXP2, contractile properties of m. quadriceps were measured with electrical stimulations before (non-fatigue) and after two fatiguing 45 s sprints. Non-fatigued MVCs were 6 ± 3 and 6 ± 2% higher (P < 0.05) with terbutaline than placebo in EXP1 and EXP2, respectively. Furthermore, peak twitch force was 11 ± 7% higher (P < 0.01) with terbutaline than placebo at non-fatigue. After sprints, MVC declined (P < 0.05) to the same levels with terbutaline as placebo, whereas peak twitch force was lower (P < 0.05) and half-relaxation time was prolonged (P < 0.05) with terbutaline. Rates of SR Ca2+ release and uptake at 400 nm [Ca2+] were 15 ± 5 and 14 ± 5% (P < 0.05) higher, respectively, with terbutaline than placebo at non-fatigue, but declined (P < 0.05) to similar levels at time of fatigue. Na+–K+-ATPase activity was unaffected by terbutaline compared with placebo at non-fatigue, but terbutaline counteracted exercise-induced reductions in maximum rate of activity (Vmax) at time of fatigue. In conclusion, increased contractile force induced by β2-adrenergic stimulation is associated with enhanced rate of Ca2+ release in humans. While β2-adrenergic stimulation elicits positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on non-fatigued m. quadriceps, these effects are blunted when

  1. Impact of Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue Development and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Husmann, Florian; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Bruhn, Sven; Zschorlich, Volker; Behrens, Martin

    2018-03-01

    The present study was designed to provide mechanistic insight into the time course and etiology of muscle fatigue development and recovery during and after low-intensity exercise when it is combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). Seventeen resistance-trained males completed four sets of low-intensity isotonic resistance exercise under two experimental conditions: knee extension exercise (i) with BFR and (ii) without BFR (CON). Neuromuscular tests were performed before, during (immediately after each set of knee extension exercise), and 1, 2, 4, and 8 min after each experimental condition. Maximal voluntary torque, quadriceps twitch torque in response to paired electrical stimuli at 10 Hz (PS10) and 100 Hz (PS100), PS10·PS100 ratio as an index of low-frequency fatigue, and voluntary activation were measured under isometric conditions. Perceptual and EMG data were recorded during each exercise condition. After the first set of exercise, BFR induced significantly greater reductions in maximal voluntary torque, PS100, and PS10·PS100 ratio compared with CON. These parameters progressively declined throughout the BFR protocol but recovered substantially within 2 min postexercise when blood flow was restored. Neither a progressive decline in the course of the exercise protocol nor a substantial recovery of these parameters occurred during and after CON. Only at exercise termination, voluntary activation differed significantly between BFR and CON with greater reductions during BFR. At the early stage of exercise, BFR exacerbated the development of muscle fatigue mainly due to a pronounced impairment in contractile function. Despite the high level of muscle fatigue during BFR exercise, the effect of BFR on muscle fatigue was diminished after 2 min of reperfusion, suggesting that BFR has a strong but short-lasting effect on neuromuscular function.

  2. Hip Abductor Strengthening Improves Physical Function Following Total Knee Replacement: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Harikesavan, Karvannan; Chakravarty, Raj D; Maiya, Arun G; Hegde, Sanjay P; Y Shivanna, Shivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is the commonest surgical procedure for patients with severe pain and impaired physical function following end stage knee osteoarthritis. The hip abductors are well renowned in stabilization of the trunk and hip during walking, maintaining the lower limb position, and transferring the forces from the lower limbs to the pelvis. To assess the efficacy of hip abductor strengthening exercise on functional outcome using performance based outcome measures following total knee replacement. An observer blinded randomized pilot trial design was conducted at Manipal hospital, Bangalore, India. Participants designated for elective TKR were randomized to experimental group hip abductor strengthening along with standard rehabilitation (n=10) or control group standard rehabilitation alone (n=10). Participants followed for one year to assess physical function using performance based outcomes, such as timed up and go test, single leg stance test, six minute walk test, knee extensor strength and hip abductor strength. Eighteen participants with a mean age of 63.1 ± 5.5 years (8 Males and 10 Females) completed the study. Improvement in hip abduction strength, single leg stand test was superior in hip abductor strengthening group at 3 months and 1 year when compared to standard rehabilitation alone. Hip abductor strengthening showed superior improvements in single leg stance test and six minute walk test. Hip abductor strengthening exercises has the potential to improve physical function following total knee replacement.

  3. Dispersion Strengthening.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-27

    June 1979. 22. p - V S~* ~~ " 17. " Strengthening Mechanisms in Martensitic Steels ", Peking University Institute for Iron and Steel Technology...directed towards studying the strengthening behavior of nickel-base superalloys, the strengthening behavior of ferrous martensite , and the kinetics of...coherency strain is not a dominant strengthening mechanism in nickel-base super- alloys with low volume fractions of -y The important conclusions

  4. Effects of a cross-training exercise program in persons with osteoarthritis of the knee a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Péloquin, L; Bravo, G; Gauthier, P; Lacombe, G; Billiard, J S

    1999-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate, by means of a randomized controlled trial, the effects of a physical activity program incorporating aerobic, strength, and stretching exercises in individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. We randomly assigned 137 volunteers ages >/=50 to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in three 1-hour sessions of supervised exercises per week over a 3-month period. The control participants were instructed to continue their usual daily activities, and they attended 1-hour education sessions twice a month. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated using repeated measurements of parameters related to self-reported health status, physical capacity, and joint tenderness.After 3 months, significantly greater improvements were observed in the experimental group than the control group in terms of: arthritis pain (p = 0.02), ability to walk and bend (p = 0.03), aerobic capacity (p < 0.0001), hamstring and low back flexibility (p = 0.003), quadriceps and hamstring strength (p <0.01), and the perception of changes relating to osteoarthritis of the knee and general condition (p < 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the groups in isokinetic strength of the quadriceps (all p's >== 0.05), joint tenderness (p = 0.18), and health perception (p = 0.7). The overall results suggest that this program is effective for older persons with osteoarthritis of the knee and that it could contribute to maintaining their independence and improving their quality of life.

  5. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Shamy, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia. Methods: Thirty children with hemophilia with age ranging from 9 to 13 years were selected and randomly assigned to either the study group that received whole body vibration training (30-40 Hz, 2-4 mm of peak-to-peak vertical plate displacement for 15 minutes/day, 3 days/week/ 12 weeks) plus the conventional physical therapy program or the control group that performed a conventional physical therapy program only. Outcomes included quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and the functional capacity. Results: Children in the study group showed a significant improvement in all outcomes compared with the control group. The quadriceps peak torque after treatment was 70.26 and 56.46 Nm for the study and control group, respectively (p<0.001). The lumbar spine bone mineral density after treatment was 0.85 and 0.72 g/cm2 for the study and control group, respectively (p<0.001). The functional capacity after treatment was 325 and 290 m for the study and control group, respectively (p=0.006). Conclusions: Whole body vibration training is an effective modality in increasing quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia. PMID:28574408

  6. Quadriceps exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the potential role of altered skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Jayson R; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael; Garten, Ryan S; Park, Song-Young; Rossman, Matthew J; Larsen, Steen; Dela, Flemming; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-10-15

    This study sought to determine if qualitative alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration, associated with decreased mitochondrial efficiency, contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using permeabilized muscle fibers from the vastus lateralis of 13 patients with COPD and 12 healthy controls, complex I (CI) and complex II (CII)-driven State 3 mitochondrial respiration were measured separately (State 3:CI and State 3:CII) and in combination (State 3:CI+CII). State 2 respiration was also measured. Exercise tolerance was assessed by knee extensor exercise (KE) time to fatigue. Per milligram of muscle, State 3:CI+CII and State 3:CI were reduced in COPD (P < 0.05), while State 3:CII and State 2 were not different between groups. To determine if this altered pattern of respiration represented qualitative changes in mitochondrial function, respiration states were examined as percentages of peak respiration (State 3:CI+CII), which revealed altered contributions from State 3:CI (Con 83.7 ± 3.4, COPD 72.1 ± 2.4%Peak, P < 0.05) and State 3:CII (Con 64.9 ± 3.2, COPD 79.5 ± 3.0%Peak, P < 0.05) respiration, but not State 2 respiration in COPD. Importantly, a diminished contribution of CI-driven respiration relative to the metabolically less-efficient CII-driven respiration (CI/CII) was also observed in COPD (Con 1.28 ± 0.09, COPD 0.81 ± 0.05, P < 0.05), which was related to exercise tolerance of the patients (r = 0.64, P < 0.05). Overall, this study indicates that COPD is associated with qualitative alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondria that affect the contribution of CI and CII-driven respiration, which potentially contributes to the exercise intolerance associated with this disease.

  7. Evaluation of the Combined Application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Volitional Contractions on Thigh Muscle Strength, Knee Pain and Physical Performance in Women at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Kaitlin G; Matsuse, Hiroo; Jackson, Anthony; Segal, Neil A

    2018-05-28

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability that is associated with quadriceps weakness. However, strengthening in people with or with risk factors for knee OA can be poorly tolerated. To assess the efficacy of a twelve-week low-load exercise program, using a hybrid training system (HTS) that utilizes the combination of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and volitional contractions, for improving thigh muscle strength, knee pain and physical performance in women with or with risk factors for knee OA. Randomized, single-blind, controlled trial SETTING: Exercise training laboratory PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two women, age 44-85 years, with risk factors for knee OA INTERVENTIONS: Participants randomized to 12 weeks of biweekly low-load resistance training either with HTS or on an isokinetic dynamometer (control). Maximum isokinetic knee extensor torque. Secondary measures included: maximum isokinetic knee flexor torque, knee pain (KOOS), and timed 20-meter walk and chair-stand tests. HTS and control both resulted in muscle strengthening, reduced knee pain and improved physical performance. HTS group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.06±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.05±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.02), respectively. Control group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.03±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.06±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.009), respectively. Knee pain improved by 11.9±11.5 points (p<.001) for the HTS group and 14.1±15.4 points (p=.001) for the control group. 20-meter walk time decreased by 1.60±2.04 seconds (p=.005) and 0.95±1.2 seconds (p=.004), and chair stand time decreased by 4.8±10.0 seconds (p>.05) and 1.9±4.7 seconds (p>.05) in the HTS and control groups, respectively. These results did not differ statistically between HTS and control groups. These results suggest HTS is effective for improving pain and physical performance in women with risk factors for knee OA. However, HTS does not appear to be superior to low-load resistance training for

  8. Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Staresinic, Mario; Petrovic, Igor; Novinscak, Tomislav; Jukic, Ivana; Pevec, Damira; Suknaic, Slaven; Kokic, Neven; Batelja, Lovorka; Brcic, Luka; Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Zoric, Zdenka; Ivanovic, Domagoj; Ajduk, Marko; Sebecic, Bozidar; Patrlj, Leonardo; Sosa, Tomislav; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-05-01

    We report complete transection of major muscle and the systemic peptide treatment that induces healing of quadriceps muscle promptly and then maintains the healing with functional restoration. Initially, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736 Pliva, Croatia; in trials for inflammatory bowel disease; wound treatment; no toxicity reported; effective alone without carrier) also superiorly accelerates the healing of transected Achilles tendon. Regularly, quadriceps muscle completely transected transversely 1.0 cm proximal to patella presents a definitive defect that cannot be compensated in rat. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg) is given intraperitoneally, once daily; the first application 30 min posttransection, the final 24 h before sacrifice. It consistently improves muscle healing throughout the whole 72-day period. Improved are: (i) biomechanic (load of failure increased); (ii) function (walking recovery and extensor postural thrust/motor function index returned toward normal healthy values); (iii) microscopy/immunochemistry [i.e., mostly muscle fibers connect muscle segments; absent gap; significant desmin positivity for ongoing regeneration of muscle; larger myofibril diameters on both sides, distal and proximal (normal healthy rat-values reached)]; (iv) macroscopic presentation (stumps connected; subsequently, atrophy markedly attenuated; finally, presentation close to normal noninjured muscle, no postsurgery leg contracture). Thus, posttransection healing-consistently improved-may suggest this peptide therapeutic application in muscle disorders. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  9. Muscle fibre characteristics and lactate responses to exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lane, R J; Barrett, M C; Woodrow, D; Moss, J; Fletcher, R; Archard, L C

    1998-03-01

    To examine the proportions of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibres and the degree of muscle fibre atrophy and hypertrophy in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in relation to lactate responses to exercise, and to determine to what extent any abnormalities found might be due to inactivity. Quadriceps needle muscle biopsies were obtained from 105 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and the proportions of type 1 and 2 fibres and fibre atrophy and hypertrophy factors were determined from histochemical preparations, using a semiautomated image analysis system. Forty one randomly selected biopsies were also examined by electron microscopy. Lactate responses to exercise were measured in the subanaerobic threshold exercise test (SATET). Inactivity would be expected to result in a shift to type 2 fibre predominance and fibre atrophy, but type 1 predominance (23%) was more common than type 2 predominance (3%), and fibre atrophy was found in only 10.4% of cases. Patients with increased lactate responses to exercise did have significantly fewer type 1 muscle fibres (p<0.043 males, p<0.0003 females), but there was no evidence that this group was less active than the patients with normal lactate responses. No significant ultrastructural abnormalities were found. Muscle histometry in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome generally did not show the changes expected as a result of inactivity. However, patients with abnormal lactate responses to exercise had a significantly lower proportion of mitochondria rich type 1 muscle fibres.

  10. Manual therapy in joint and nerve structures combined with exercises in the treatment of recurrent ankle sprains: A randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Vergara-Vila, Marta; Val-Otero, Sandra; Rivera-Prieto, Cristina; Pecos-Martin, Daniel; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Romero-Franco, Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent ankle sprains often involve residual symptoms for which subjects often perform proprioceptive or/and strengthening exercises. However, the effectiveness of mobilization to influence important nerve structures due to its anatomical distribution like tibial and peroneal nerves is unclear. To analyze the effects of proprioceptive/strengthening exercises versus the same exercises and manual therapy including mobilizations to influence joint and nerve structures in the management of recurrent ankle sprains. A randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial. Fifty-six patients with recurrent ankle sprains and regular sports practice were randomly assigned to experimental or control group. The control group performed 4 weeks of proprioceptive/strengthening exercises; the experimental group performed 4 weeks of the same exercises combined with manual therapy (mobilizations to influence joint and nerve structures). Pain, self-reported functional ankle instability, pressure pain threshold (PPT), ankle muscle strength, and active range of motion (ROM) were evaluated in the ankle joint before, just after and one month after the interventions. The within-group differences revealed improvements in all of the variables in both groups throughout the time. Between-group differences revealed that the experimental group exhibited lower pain levels and self-reported functional ankle instability and higher PPT, ankle muscle strength and ROM values compared to the control group immediately after the interventions and one month later. A protocol involving proprioceptive and strengthening exercises and manual therapy (mobilizations to influence joint and nerve structures) resulted in greater improvements in pain, self-reported functional joint stability, strength and ROM compared to exercises alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of lower body specific resistance training on the hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios in men and women.

    PubMed

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional and functional H:Q ratios were calculated. Hamstring strength improved similarly in men and women, but improvement in quadriceps strength was significantly greater in men, while women showed only modest improvements. For the conventional and functional H:Q ratios, women showed significantly greater improvements than men. Both men and women were able to exceed the commonly recommended 0.6 conventional and 1.0 functional H:Q ratios after the 12-week lower-body resistance training program.

  12. Recovery from cycling exercise: effects of carbohydrate and protein beverages.

    PubMed

    Goh, Qingnian; Boop, Christopher A; Luden, Nicholas D; Smith, Alexia G; Womack, Christopher J; Saunders, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO(2peak): 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285-300 kcal) in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage), high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat), or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat). After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO(2peak) + 20 km time-trial). Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion) differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05), and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min), HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min) and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min). Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists.

  13. Recovery from Cycling Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Qingnian; Boop, Christopher A.; Luden, Nicholas D.; Smith, Alexia G.; Womack, Christopher J.; Saunders, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285–300 kcal) in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage), high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat), or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat). After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO2peak + 20 km time-trial). Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion) differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05), and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min), HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min) and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min). Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists. PMID:22852050

  14. Improving the Q:H strength ratio in women using plyometric exercises.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kavin K W; DiPasquale, Angela A

    2011-10-01

    Plyometric training programs have been implemented in anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs. Plyometric exercises are designed to aid in the improvement of muscle strength and neuromuscular control. Our purpose was to examine the effects of plyometric training on lower leg strength in women. Thirty (age = 20.3 ± 1.9 years) recreationally active women were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group performed a plyometric training program for 6 weeks, 3 d·wk(-1). All subjects attended 4 testing sessions: before the start of the training program and after weeks 2, 4, and 6. Concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength (dominant leg) was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60 and 120°·s(-1). Peak torque, average peak torque, and average power (AvgPower) were measured. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) interaction between time and group for flexion PkTq and AvgPower at 120°·s(-1). Post hoc analysis further revealed that PkTq at 120°·s(-1) was greater in the plyometric group than in the control group at testing session 4 and that AvgPower was greater in the plyometric group than in the control group in testing sessions 2-4. Our results indicate that the plyometric training program increased hamstring strength while maintaining quadriceps strength, thereby improving the Q:H strength ratio.

  15. Exercise for people with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    White, C M; Pritchard, J; Turner-Stokes, L

    2004-10-18

    heterogeneity of diagnostic groups and outcome measures. The results of the included trials failed to show any effect of strengthening and endurance exercise programmes on functional ability in people with peripheral neuropathy. However, there is some evidence that strengthening exercise programmes were moderately effective in increasing the strength of tested muscles. There is inadequate evidence to evaluate the effect of exercise on functional ability in people with peripheral neuropathy. The results suggest that progressive resisted exercise may improve muscle strength in affected muscles.

  16. Dynamic inter-limb resistance exercise device for long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwandt, Douglas F.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    Essential for fitness on Earth, resistive exercise is even more important for astronauts, who must maintain muscle and bone strength in the absence of gravity. To meet this need, designers and scientists at NASA Ames Research Center, Life Science Division, have worked to develop more effective exercise devices for long-duration exposure to microgravity. One of these concepts is the Inter-Limb Resistance Device which allows the subject to exercise one limb directly against another, strengthening muscle groups in the arms, legs, and back. It features a modular harness with an inelastic cable and instrumented pulley. Forces similar to other high resistance exercise equipment are generated. Sensors in the pulley measure force and velocity for performance feedback display and data acquisition. This free-floating apparatus avoids vibration of sensitive experiments on board spacecraft. Compact with low mass, this hardware is also well suited for a 'safe haven' from radiation on board Space Station Freedom, and may prove useful in confined environments on Earth, such as Antarctic stations, submarines, and other underwater habitats. Potential spin-offs of this technology include products for personal strengthening and cardiovascular conditioning, rehabilitation of hospital patients, fitness exercise for the disabled, and retraining after sports injuries.

  17. Protection of muscle membrane excitability during prolonged cycle exercise with glucose supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R D; Duhamel, T A; Foley, K P; Ouyang, J; Smith, I C; Green, H J

    2007-07-01

    To determine if exercise-induced depressions in neuromuscular function are altered with oral glucose supplementation, 15 untrained participants (Vo2 peak = 45 +/- 2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), mean +/- SE) performed prolonged cycle exercise at approximately 60% Vo2 peak on two occasions: without glucose supplementation (NG) and with oral glucose supplementation (G). The oral G began at 30 min of exercise and was administered every 15 min (total ingested = 1.23 +/- 0.11 g carbohydrate/kg body mass). Quadriceps isometric properties and membrane excitability were assessed prior to exercise, after 90 min of exercise, and at fatigue. Cycle time to fatigue was greater (P < 0.05) in G compared with NG (137 +/- 7 vs. 115 +/- 6 min). Progressive reductions (P < 0.05) in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, N) were observed for NG at 90 min (441 +/- 29) and at fatigue (344 +/- 33) compared with pre-exercise (666 +/- 30). At fatigue in G, the reduction in MVC was not as pronounced (P < 0.05) as in NG. Motor unit activation assessed with the interpolated twitch technique during an MVC following exercise was not different between conditions. During cycling, the G condition also resulted in a higher (P < 0.05) muscle compound potential (M-wave) amplitude (mV) at both 90 min (+50%) and at fatigue (+87%) compared with NG. Similar effects were also found M-wave area (mV/ms). These results suggest that the ergogenic effect of glucose supplementation occurs not as a result of decreased neural activation but to improved muscle function, possibly as a consequence of protection of muscle membrane excitability.

  18. Complexity of Exercise Behavior Among Older African American Women.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Maria; Buchanan, David; Hondzinski, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Despite the exercise benefits, disparities among diverse older adults continue to exist, where African American women have the lowest percentage of any population group in meeting national recommended activity guidelines. Drawing on the philosophical tradition of phronesis (practical reasoning) introduced by Aristotle, we studied perceptions of the exercise value among 14 older African American women. Three themes included: (1) exercise goals (e.g., effort exerted), (2) exercise reasons (e.g., health benefits, enjoyment and convenience, and activity recommendation), and (3) inactivity reasons (e.g., health issues, lack of motivation, and family responsibilities/priorities). Although most women reported being active, only three participants met the Healthy People 2020 guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities, while two individuals were inactive. Exercise promoters should consider the values that motivate older African American women to exercise, such as the provision of accessible, nondiscriminatory exercise facilities, and not to exercise, such as concerns about neighborhood safety, in designing programs.

  19. Hip Abductor Strengthening Improves Physical Function Following Total Knee Replacement: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Harikesavan, Karvannan; Chakravarty, Raj D.; Maiya, Arun G; Hegde, Sanjay P.; Y. Shivanna, Shivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Total knee replacement (TKR) is the commonest surgical procedure for patients with severe pain and impaired physical function following end stage knee osteoarthritis. The hip abductors are well renowned in stabilization of the trunk and hip during walking, maintaining the lower limb position, and transferring the forces from the lower limbs to the pelvis. Objective: To assess the efficacy of hip abductor strengthening exercise on functional outcome using performance based outcome measures following total knee replacement. Methods: An observer blinded randomized pilot trial design was conducted at Manipal hospital, Bangalore, India. Participants designated for elective TKR were randomized to experimental group hip abductor strengthening along with standard rehabilitation (n=10) or control group standard rehabilitation alone (n=10). Participants followed for one year to assess physical function using performance based outcomes, such as timed up and go test, single leg stance test, six minute walk test, knee extensor strength and hip abductor strength. Result: Eighteen participants with a mean age of 63.1 ± 5.5 years (8 Males and 10 Females) completed the study. Improvement in hip abduction strength, single leg stand test was superior in hip abductor strengthening group at 3 months and 1 year when compared to standard rehabilitation alone. Conclusion: Hip abductor strengthening showed superior improvements in single leg stance test and six minute walk test. Hip abductor strengthening exercises has the potential to improve physical function following total knee replacement. PMID:28567148

  20. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    PubMed

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratios diverge between sexes with increasing isokinetic angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Zazulak, Bohdanna T

    2008-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine if females demonstrate decreased hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque (H/Q) ratios compared to males and if H/Q ratios increase with increased isokinetic velocity in both sexes. Maturation disproportionately increases hamstrings peak torque at high velocity in males, but not females. Therefore, we hypothesised that mature females would demonstrate decreased H/Q ratios compared to males and the difference in H/Q ratio between sexes would increase as isokinetic velocity increased. Studies that analysed the H/Q ratio with gravity corrected isokinetic strength testing reported between 1967 and 2004 were included in our review and analysis. Keywords were hamstrings/quadriceps, isokinetics, peak torque and gravity corrected. Medline and Smart databases were searched combined with cross-checked bibliographic reference lists of the publications to determine studies to be included. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 1568 subjects (1145 male, 423 female). Males demonstrated a significant correlation between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R=0.634, p<0.0001), and a significant difference in the isokinetic H/Q ratio at the lowest angular velocity (47.8+/-2.2% at 30 degrees /s) compared to the highest velocity (81.4+/-1.1% at 360 degrees /s, p<0.001). In contrast, females did not demonstrate a significant relationship between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R=0.065, p=0.77) or a change in relative hamstrings strength as the speed increased (49.5+/-8.8% at 30 degrees /s; 51.0+/-5.7% at 360 degrees /s, p=0.84). Gender differences in isokinetic H/Q ratios were not observed at slower angular velocities. However, at high knee flexion/extension angular velocities, approaching those that occur during sports activities, significant gender differences were observed in the H/Q ratio. Females, unlike males, do not increase hamstrings to quadriceps torque ratios at velocities that approach those of functional activities.

  2. Focal vibration of quadriceps muscle enhances leg power and decreases knee joint laxity in female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, O; Botti, F M; Roscini, M; Brunetti, A; Panichi, R; Filippi, G M; Biscarini, A; Pettorossi, V E

    2012-12-01

    This double-blind randomized controlled study aims at determining the effect of repeated muscle vibration (rMV) on explosive and reactive leg power and on knee laxity of female volleyball players. Eighteen voluntary volleyball athletes, belonging to the same senior regional level team (age=22.7 ± 3 years, height=180.3 ± 5 cm, mass= 64 ± 4 kg) were assigned to three groups (N.=6) for vibration on contracted quadriceps (VC), vibration on relaxed muscle (VR), and sham vibration (NV), respectively. Intervention consisted in 3 rMV sessions performed in 3 consecutive days. In each session, 100 Hz, 300-500 μm amplitude vibratory stimuli were bilaterally delivered to the quadriceps in three consecutive 10-minutes applications. Explosive and reactive leg power and knee joint laxity were evaluated 1 day before, and 1, 30, and 240 days after intervention. In VC group, explosive and reactive leg power increased respectively by ~16% and ~9% at 1 day, by ~19% and ~11% at 30 days and by ~26% and ~13% at 240 days, concomitantly knee laxity decreased by ~6%, ~15% and ~18% at the same times. These changes were significantly larger than in the other groups, in which leg power increment and knee joint laxity reduction remained close to ~3%, ~5% and ~10% at 1, 30 and 240 days, respectively. Combined bilateral voluntary contraction and rMV of the quadriceps muscles is a short-lasting, non-invasive technique that can significantly and persistently improve muscle performance and knee laxity in volleyball women players.

  3. Pediatric endurance and limb strengthening for children with cerebral palsy (PEDALS) – a randomized controlled trial protocol for a stationary cycling intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Eileen G; Knutson, Loretta M; DeMuth, Sharon K; Sugi, Mia; Siebert, Kara; Simms, Victoria; Azen, Stanley P; Winstein, Carolee J

    2007-01-01

    Background In the past, effortful exercises were considered inappropriate for children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) due to concern that they would escalate abnormalities including spasticity and abnormal movement patterns. Current scientific evidence indicates that these concerns were unfounded and that therapeutic interventions focused on muscle strengthening can lead to improved functional ability. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness exercises in this patient population. Methods/design The rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of a stationary cycling intervention for children with CP are outlined here. Sixty children with spastic diplegic CP between the ages of 7 and 18 years and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels of I, II, or III will be recruited for this study. Participants will be randomly assigned to either an intervention (cycling) or a control (no cycling) group. The cycling intervention will be divided into strengthening and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise phases. During the strengthening phase, the resistance to lower extremity cycling will be progressively increased using a uniquely designed limb-loaded mechanism. The cardiorespiratory endurance phase will focus on increasing the intensity and duration of cycling. Children will be encouraged to exercise within a target heart rate (HR) range (70 – 80% maximum HR). Thirty sessions will take place over a 10–12 week period. All children will be evaluated before (baseline) and after (follow-up) the intervention period. Primary outcome measures are: knee joint extensor and flexor moments, or torque; the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM); the 600 Yard Walk-Run test and the Thirty-Second Walk test (30 sec WT). Discussion This paper presents the rationale, design and protocol for Pediatric Endurance and Limb Strengthening (PEDALS); a Phase I randomized controlled trial evaluating the

  4. Exercise Increases and Browns Muscle Lipid in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Morton, Tiffany L; Galior, Kornelia; McGrath, Cody; Wu, Xin; Uzer, Gunes; Uzer, Guniz Bas; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Tyson, David; Rubin, Janet; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete's paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance. HFD mice weighed more than CTL after 18 weeks (p < 0.01). Quadriceps muscle TG was increased in running animals and in sedentary mice fed HFD for 18 weeks (p < 0.05). In exercised animals, markers of fat, Plin1, aP2, FSP27, and Fasn, were increased significantly in HFD groups. Ucp1 and Pgc1a, markers for brown fat, increased with exercise in the setting of high fat feeding. Fndc5, which encodes irisin, and CytC were sensitive to exercise regardless of diet. Plin5 was increased with HFD and unaffected by exercise; the respiratory exchange ratio was 15% lower in the 18-week HFD group compared with CTL (p < 0.001) and 10% lower in 18 weeks HFD-E compared with CTL-E (p < 0.001). Increased Ucp1 and Pgc1a in exercised muscle of running mice suggests that a beige/brown fat phenotype develops, which differs from the fat phenotype that induces insulin resistance in high fat feeding. This suggests that increased muscle lipid may develop a "brown" phenotype in the setting of endurance exercise training, a shift that is further promoted by HFD.

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise in Epilepsy and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise in Epilepsy Scales.

    PubMed

    Dustin, Irene; Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Michael, Kathleen; Wiggs, Edythe

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the revised Self-Efficacy for Exercise With Epilepsy (SEE-E) and Outcome Expectations for Exercise with Epilepsy (OEE-E) when used with people with epilepsy. The SEE-E and OEE-E were given in face-to-face interviews to 26 persons with epilepsy in an epilepsy clinic. There was some evidence of validity based on Rasch analysis INFIT and OUTFIT statistics. There was some evidence of reliability for the SEE-E and OEE-E based on person and item separation reliability indexes. These measures can be used to identify persons with epilepsy who have low self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise and guide design of interventions to strengthen these expectations and thereby improve exercise behavior.

  6. A comparison of respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living and physical fitness in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Hulya; Yatar, İlker; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Aribas, Zeynep; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Ozcelik, Ugur; Kiper, Nural

    2015-01-01

    There are limited reports that compare muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and parameters of physical fitness of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with healthy peers in the literature. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL and physical fitness in patients with CF and healthy subjects. Nineteen patients with CF (mean forced expiratory volume in one second-FEV1: 86.56±18.36%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Respiratory (maximal inspiratory pressure-MIP and maximal expiratory pressure-MEP) and peripheral muscle strength (quadriceps, shoulder abductors and hand grip strength) were evaluated. Functional exercise capacity was determined with 6min walk test (6MWT). ADL was assessed with Glittre ADL test and physical fitness was assessed with Munich fitness test (MFT). There were not any statistically significant difference in MIP, %MIP, MEP and %MEP values between two groups (p>0.05). %Peripheral muscle strength (% quadriceps and shoulder abductors strength), 6MWT distance and %6MWT distance were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Glittre ADL-test time was significantly longer in patients with CF than healthy subjects (p<0.05). According to Munich fitness test, the number of bouncing a ball, hanging score, distance of standing vertical jumping and standing vertical jumping score were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL performance and speed, coordination, endurance and power components of physical fitness are adversely affected in mild-severe patients with CF compared to healthy peers. Evaluations must be done in comprehensive manner in patients with CF with all stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological Correlates of Endurance Time Variability during Constant-Workrate Cycling Exercise in Patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Gagnon, Philippe; Pepin, Véronique; Saey, Didier; Laviolette, Louis; Brouillard, Cynthia; Maltais, François

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The endurance time (Tend) during constant-workrate cycling exercise (CET) is highly variable in COPD. We investigated pulmonary and physiological variables that may contribute to these variations in Tend. Methods Ninety-two patients with COPD completed a CET performed at 80% of peak workrate capacity (Wpeak). Patients were divided into tertiles of Tend [Group 1: <4 min; Group 2: 4–6 min; Group 3: >6 min]. Disease severity (FEV1), aerobic fitness (Wpeak, peak oxygen consumption [ peak], ventilatory threshold [ VT]), quadriceps strength (MVC), symptom scores at the end of CET and exercise intensity during CET (heart rate at the end of CET to heart rate at peak incremental exercise ratio [HRCET/HRpeak]) were analyzed as potential variables influencing Tend. Results Wpeak, peak, VT, MVC, leg fatigue at end of CET, and HRCET/HRpeak were lower in group 1 than in group 2 or 3 (p≤0.05). VT and leg fatigue at end of CET independently predicted Tend in multiple regression analysis (r = 0.50, p = 0.001). Conclusion Tend was independently related to the aerobic fitness and to tolerance to leg fatigue at the end of exercise. A large fraction of the variability in Tend was not explained by the physiological parameters assessed in the present study. Individualization of exercise intensity during CET should help in reducing variations in Tend among patients with COPD. PMID:21386991

  8. Manipulation and selective exercises decrease pelvic anteversion and low-back pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandre Carvalho; Martins, Fábio Luiz Mendonça; Barbosa, Michelle Cristina Sales Almeida; Dos Santos, Rúbia Tenile

    2013-01-01

    To study the effect of a protocol involving joint manipulation and specific exercises for pelvic stability to influence proprioceptive input to the spinal tissues and to observe the effects on sensorimotor function. Seven patients with pelvic anteversion and low back pain participated in an eight-week protocol (three sessions per week/nonconsecutive days). At each session, a high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulative thrust was applied to the sacroiliac joint, followed by quadriceps eccentric and hamstring concentric contractions. The perceived pain symptoms, pelvic anteversion as determined by photogrammetry analysis, and the electromyographic activity of the rectus femoris and lateral and medial hamstrings during flexion and extension exercises were assessed before and after treatment. Non-parametric tests were used to compare the groups before and after treatment with α=0.05. Perceived pain symptoms decreased after treatment (p=0.0007). The differences in the pelvis angles (p=0.0130) suggested significant differences between the assessments, and the electromyographic activities of all the muscles during isometric voluntary contraction increased. The eight-week manipulation/exercise protocol was effective for these subjects' needs. Further research should include a greater sample size to confirm the results and to determine the lead factors of pelvic stability.

  9. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; Jon Schoenfeld, Brad; Nardi, Priscyla Silva Monteiro; Pecoraro, Silvio Luis; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria; Hartigan, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140°) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only. PMID:27504484

  10. Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in elite karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Tan, Erik C H; Chaouachi, Anis; Carling, Christopher; Castagna, Carlo; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Behm, David G

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with deadlift (r = 0.86), leg press (r = 0.76), lunge (r = 0.86), and step-up (r = 0.92). Linear regression showed that the 6RM squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p < 0.001). The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Deadlift = squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population.

  11. Tani Exercises on the RED in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-06

    ISS016-E-027909 (6 Feb. 2008) --- Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, uses the short bar for the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED) to perform upper body strengthening pull-ups. The IRED hardware is located in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  12. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Bunion: Strengthening Foot Muscles to Reduce Pain and Improve Mobility.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Foot pain discourages physical activity, and less activity harms overall health. Bunion, extra bone and tissue at the base of the big toe, is a frequent cause of foot pain. More than 64 million Americans have bunions that can lead to painful walking. Bunions affect some 35% of women over the age of 65. Bunions can be removed by surgery, which can reduce pain and improve your ability to walk and exercise, but up to 15% of bunions return. Weak muscles may play a role in bunion-related pain and movement problems. In a review of prior research and commentary on this topic published in the July 2016 issue of JOSPT, the author identifies muscle-strengthening exercises that may help people with bunions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):606. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0504.

  14. Training Effects of Alternated and Pulsed Currents on the Quadriceps Muscles of Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro; Modesto, Karenina Arrais Guida; Bottaro, Martim; Babault, Nicolas; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti

    2018-05-22

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks training with different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) currents (medium alternated and low-frequency pulsed current) on muscle architecture and neuromuscular performance of competitive athletes. A double-blind controlled and randomized experimental study was carried out with 33 athletes (22.2±2.6 yrs, 74.7±9.8 kg, 176.8±6.0 cm), divided into 3 groups: mid-frequency current (MF, n=12), pulsed current (PC, n=11) and the control group (CG, n=10). Quadriceps maximal voluntary peak torque (PT) and corresponding vastus lateralis electromyographic activity, evoked torque (PT-NMES), vastus lateralis muscle thickness, fascicle length, pennation angle, and level of discomfort were assessed before and after the interventions. NMES training was performed 3 times per week and consisted of 18 sessions, 15 min/session, 6 s duration in each contraction interspersed with 18 s rest. After the training period, muscle thickness increased in the MF and PC groups (p<0.05). PT-NMES increased only in the PC group (p<0.05). All currents produced similar levels of discomfort (p>0.05). Quadriceps NMES training applied through alternated or pulsed currents produced similar effects in architecture and neuromuscular performance in competitive athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Evaluating the Training Effects of Two Swallowing Rehabilitation Therapies Using Surface Electromyography--Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise and the Shaker Exercise.

    PubMed

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yoon, Wai Lam; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of two dysphagia interventions, the Chin Tuck against Resistance (CTAR) and Shaker exercises, were evaluated based on two principles in exercise science-muscle-specificity and training intensity. Both exercises were developed to strengthen the suprahyoid muscles, whose contractions facilitate the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter, thereby improving bolus transfer. Thirty-nine healthy adults performed two trials of both exercises in counter-balanced order. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings were simultaneously collected from suprahyoid muscle group and sternocleidomastoid muscle during the exercises. Converging results using sEMG amplitude analyses suggested that the CTAR was more specific in targeting the suprahyoid muscles than the Shaker exercise. Fatigue analyses on sEMG signals further indicated that the suprahyoid muscle group were equally or significantly fatigued (depending on metric), when participants carried out CTAR compared to the Shaker exercise. Importantly, unlike during Shaker exercise, the sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly less activated and fatigued during CTAR. Lowering the chin against resistance is therefore sufficiently specific and intense to fatigue the suprahyoid muscles.

  16. Patellar tendon vibration reduces the increased facilitation from quadriceps to soleus in post-stroke hemiparetic individuals.

    PubMed

    Maupas, Eric; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Melo, Sibele de Andrade; Forget, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Stimulation of the femoral nerve in healthy people can facilitate soleus H-reflex and electromyography (EMG) activity. In stroke patients, such facilitation of transmission in spinal pathways linking the quadriceps and soleus muscles is enhanced and related to co-activation of knee and ankle extensors while sitting and walking. Soleus H-reflex facilitation can be depressed by vibration of the quadriceps in healthy people, but the effects of such vibration have never been studied on the abnormal soleus facilitation observed in people after stroke. To determine whether vibration of the quadriceps can modify the enhanced heteronymous facilitation of the soleus muscle observed in people with spastic stroke after femoral nerve stimulation and compare post-vibration effects on soleus facilitation in control and stroke individuals. Modulation of voluntary soleus EMG activity induced by femoral nerve stimulation (2×motor threshold) was assessed before, during and after vibration of the patellar tendon in 10 healthy controls and 17 stroke participants. Voluntary soleus EMG activity was facilitated by femoral nerve stimulation in 4/10 (40%) controls and 11/17 (65%) stroke participants. The level of facilitation was greater in the stroke than control group. Vibration significantly reduced early heteronymous facilitation in both groups (50% of pre-vibration values). However, the delay in recovery of soleus facilitation after vibration was shorter for the stroke than control group. The control condition with the vibrator turned off had no effect on the modulation. Patellar tendon vibration can reduce the facilitation between knee and ankle extensors, which suggests effective presynaptic inhibition but decreased post-activation depression in the lower limb of people after chronic hemiparetic stroke. Further studies are warranted to determine whether such vibration could be used to reduce the abnormal extension synergy of knee and ankle extensors in people after hemiparetic

  17. [The effect of an exercise program to strengthen pelvic floor muscles in multiparous women].

    PubMed

    Assis, Thaís Rocha; Sá, Ana Claudia Antonio Maranhão; Amaral, Waldemar Naves do; Batista, Elicéia Marcia; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto; Conde, Délio Marques

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of an individualized and supervised exercise program for the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) in the postpartum period of multiparous women, and to verify the correlation between two methods used to assess PFM strength. An open clinical trial was performed with puerperal, multiparous women aged 18 to 35 years. The sample consisted of 23 puerperal women divided into two groups: Intervention Group (IG, n=11) and Control Group (CG, n=12). The puerperal women in IG participated in an eight-week PFM exercise program, twice a week. The puerperal women in CG did not receive any recommendations regarding exercise. PFM strength was assessed using digital vaginal palpation and a perineometer. The statistical analysis was performed using the following tests: Fisher's exact, χ(2), Student's t, Kolmogorov-Smirnov for two samples, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Significance was defined as p<0.05. The participants' mean age was 24 ± 4.5 years in IG and 25.3 ± 4 years in CG (p=0.4). After the exercise program, a significant difference was found between the groups in both modalities of muscle strength assessment (p<0.001). The two muscle strength assessment methods showed a significant correlation in both assessments (1(st) assessment: r=0.889, p<0.001; 2(nd) assessment: r=0.925, p<0.001). The exercise program promoted a significant improvement in PFM strength. Good correlation was observed between digital vaginal palpation and a perineometer, which indicates that vaginal palpation can be used in clinical practice, since it is an inexpensive method that demonstrated significant correlation with an objective method, i.e. the use of a perioneometer.

  18. Effects of Neuromuscular Fatigue on Quadriceps Strength and Activation and Knee Biomechanics in Individuals Post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abbey C; Lepley, Lindsey K; Wojtys, Edward M; McLean, Scott G; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory-based experiment using a pretest/posttest design. To determine the effects of neuromuscular fatigue on quadriceps strength and activation and sagittal and frontal plane knee biomechanics during dynamic landing following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Impaired quadriceps central activation occurs post-ACLR, likely altering lower extremity biomechanics. Neuromuscular fatigue similarly reduces volitional muscle activation and impairs neuromuscular control. Upon return to full activity post-ACLR, individuals likely concurrently experience quadriceps central activation deficits and neuromuscular fatigue, though the effects of fatigue on muscle strength and activation and biomechanics post-ACLR are unknown. Seventeen individuals 7 to 10 months post-ACLR and 16 controls participated. Quadriceps strength and central activation ratio were recorded prefatigue and postfatigue, which was induced via sets of double-leg squats. Knee biomechanics were recorded during a dynamic landing activity prefatigue and postfatigue. Both groups demonstrated smaller knee flexion (initial contact, P = .017; peak, P = .004) and abduction (initial contact, P = .005; peak, P = .009) angles postfatigue. The ACLR group had smaller peak knee flexion angles (P<.001) prefatigue and postfatigue than controls. Knee flexion moment was smaller in those post-ACLR than controls prefatigue (P<.001), but not postfatigue (P = .103). Controls had smaller knee flexion moments postfatigue (P = .001). Knee abduction moment was smaller in both groups postfatigue (P = .003). All participants demonstrated significantly lower strength (P<.001) and activation (P = .003) postfatigue. Impaired strength, central activation, and biomechanics were present postfatigue in both groups, suggesting that neuromuscular fatigue may increase noncontact ACL injury risk. However, these changes were not exaggerated in those post-ACLR, likely because they already demonstrated a stiff-legged landing strategy

  19. β2-adrenergic stimulation enhances Ca2+ release and contractile properties of skeletal muscles, and counteracts exercise-induced reductions in Na+-K+-ATPase Vmax in trained men.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, M; Kalsen, A; Ortenblad, N; Juel, C; Mørch, K; Rzeppa, S; Karlsson, S; Backer, V; Bangsbo, J

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of β2-adrenergic stimulation on skeletal muscle contractile properties, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) rates of Ca(2+) release and uptake, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity before and after fatiguing exercise in trained men. The study consisted of two experiments (EXP1, n = 10 males, EXP2, n = 20 males), where β2-adrenoceptor agonist (terbutaline) or placebo was randomly administered in double-blinded crossover designs. In EXP1, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of m. quadriceps was measured, followed by exercise to fatigue at 120% of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2, max ). A muscle biopsy was taken after MVC (non-fatigue) and at time of fatigue. In EXP2, contractile properties of m. quadriceps were measured with electrical stimulations before (non-fatigue) and after two fatiguing 45 s sprints. Non-fatigued MVCs were 6 ± 3 and 6 ± 2% higher (P < 0.05) with terbutaline than placebo in EXP1 and EXP2, respectively. Furthermore, peak twitch force was 11 ± 7% higher (P < 0.01) with terbutaline than placebo at non-fatigue. After sprints, MVC declined (P < 0.05) to the same levels with terbutaline as placebo, whereas peak twitch force was lower (P < 0.05) and half-relaxation time was prolonged (P < 0.05) with terbutaline. Rates of SR Ca(2+) release and uptake at 400 nm [Ca(2+)] were 15 ± 5 and 14 ± 5% (P < 0.05) higher, respectively, with terbutaline than placebo at non-fatigue, but declined (P < 0.05) to similar levels at time of fatigue. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was unaffected by terbutaline compared with placebo at non-fatigue, but terbutaline counteracted exercise-induced reductions in maximum rate of activity (Vmax) at time of fatigue. In conclusion, increased contractile force induced by β2-adrenergic stimulation is associated with enhanced rate of Ca(2+) release in humans. While β2-adrenergic stimulation elicits positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on non-fatigued m. quadriceps, these effects

  20. Effect of resistance training on muscle use during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz, Lori L.; Tesch, Per A.; Biro, Ronald L.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effect of resistance training on exercise-induced contrast shift in magnetic resonance (MR) images. It was hypothesized that a given load could be lifted after training with less muscle showing contrast shift, thereby suggesting less muscle was used to perform the exercise. Nine males trained the left quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle 2 days/wk for 9 wk using 3-6 sets of 12 knee extensions each day. The right QF served as a control. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in MR images evoked by each of three bouts of exercise (5 sets of 10 knee extensions with a load equal to 50, 75, and 100% of the maximum pretraining load that could be lifted for 5 sets of 10 repetitions) were quantified pre- and posttraining. MR image contrast shift was quantified by determining QF cross-sectional area (CSA) showing increased spin-spin relaxation time. One repetition maximum increased 14% in the left trained QF and 7% in the right untrained QF. Left QF CSA increased 5%, with no change in right QSF CSA. Left QF CSA showing contrast shift was less after each bout of the exercise test posttraining. This was also true, to a lesser extent, for the right QF at the higher two loads. The results suggest that short-term resistance training reduces MR image contrast shift evoked by a given effort, thereby reflecting the use of less muscle to lift the load. Because this response was evident in both trained and contralateral untrained muscle, neural factors are suggested to be responsible. The consequence of this adaptation could be to increase 'stress' per unit area of active muscle during the course of training and thereby evoke hypertrophy.

  1. Practice Guidelines for Cardiovascular Fitness and Strengthening Exercise Prescription After Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Parry, Ingrid; Acharya, Hernish; Benavides, Lynne; Bills, Sara; Bucher, Janelle L; Cheal, Joanne; Chouinard, Annick; Crump, Donna; Duch, Sarah; Godleski, Matthew; Guenther, Jennifer; Knox, Catherine; LaBonte, Eric; Lorello, David; Lucio, J Xavier; Macdonald, Lori E; Kemp-Offenberg, Jennifer; Osborne, Candice; Pontius, Kara; Yelvington, Miranda; de Oliveira, Ana; Kloda, Lorie A

    The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the available clinical evidence for the prescription of strength training and cardiovascular endurance exercise programs for pediatric and adult burn survivors so that practice guidelines could be proposed. This review provides evidence-based recommendations specifically for rehabilitation professionals who are responsible for burn survivor rehabilitation. Summary recommendations were made after the literature was retrieved by systematic review, was critically appraised by multiple authors and the level of evidence determined in accordance with the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria. Although gaps in the literature persist and should be addressed in future research projects, currently, strong research evidence supports the prescription of strength training and aerobic conditioning exercise programs for both adult and pediatric burn survivors when in the presence of strength limitations and/or decreased cardiovascular endurance after evaluation.

  2. Oxidative Stress and COPD: The Impact of Oral Antioxidants on Skeletal Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Matthew J.; Groot, H. Jonathan; Van Reese; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Oxidative stress may contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study sought to determine the effect of an acute oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC: vitamins C, E, and alpha-lipoic acid) on skeletal muscle function during dynamic quadriceps exercise in COPD. METHODS Ten patients with COPD performed knee extensor exercise to exhaustion and isotime trials following either the AOC or placebo (PL). Pre- to post-exercise changes in quadriceps maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and potentiated twitch forces (Qtw,pot) quantified quadriceps fatigue. RESULTS Under PL conditions, the plasma electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy signal was inversely correlated with the forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC), an index of lung dysfunction (r=−0.61, p=0.02), and MVC force (r=−0.56, p=0.04). AOC consumption increased plasma ascorbate levels (10.1±2.2 to 24.1±3.8 ug/ml, p<0.05) and attenuated the area under the curve of the EPR spectroscopy free radical signal (11.6±3.7 to 4.8±2.2 AU, p<0.05), but did not alter endurance time or quadriceps fatigue. The ability of the AOC to decrease the EPR spectroscopy signal, however, was prominent in those with high basal free radicals (n=5, PL: 19.7±5.8 to AOC: 5.8±4.5 AU, p<0.05) with minimal effects in those with low levels (n=5, PL: 1.6±0.5 to AOC: 3.4±1.1 AU). DISCUSSION These data document a relationship between directly measured free radicals and lung dysfunction, and the ability of the AOC to decrease oxidative stress in COPD. Acute amelioration of free radicals, however, does not appear to impact dynamic quadriceps exercise performance. PMID:23299763

  3. Tani Exercises on the RED in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-06

    ISS016-E-027914 (6 Feb. 2008) --- Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, prepares to use the short bar for the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED) to perform upper body strengthening pull-ups. The IRED hardware is located in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  4. Reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon tear using Polyvinylidene fluoride sutures and patellar screw fixation: A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Sellei, R M; Bauer, E; Hofman, M; Kobbe, P; Lichte, P; Garrison, R L; Pape, H C; Horst, K

    2015-12-01

    Acute quadriceps tendon tears are infrequent injuries requiring surgical treatment. Improved stability after surgical repair may allow for earlier weight-bearing and range of motion. Therefore, a new implant was tested and compared with the "gold standard", using transosseous sutures. Quadriceps tendon tears were constructed using a cadaveric model of 12 fresh matched-pair specimens (aged 61-97; mean age: 82 years). The biomechanical testing compared non-absorbable suture anchors (Polyvinylidene fluoride) versus transosseous absorbable sutures (Polydioxanon). Following anatomic reconstruction, the repaired specimens were loaded until they failed (testing machine: Hounsfield H10KM, Redhill, United Kingdom; maximum force: 1000 N; load speed: 25 mm/min; maximum test length: 150 mm; pre-load: 5 N). Values for load until tear displacement, maximum load until complete failure of the construct (pullout or breakage of the sutures or anchors) and stiffness of the reconstruction were recorded. The stiffness found in the Polyvinylidene fluoride reconstruction (mean 9.83 N/mm) (standard deviation (SD) 7.75) showed a significant increase compared to the Polydioxanon reconstruction (mean 6.66 N/mm (SD 3.32); P=0.045). Transosseous fixation showed comparable results to the suture anchor system. There was no significant difference found in the maximum load to tear displacement (PVDF: 290.88 N (SD 106.01) vs. PDS: 266.75 N (SD 82.61); P=0.358). Using the Polyvinylidene fluoride thread showed comparable results to the established method in reconstruction of ruptured quadriceps tendon. Stiffness of the Polyvinylidene fluoride thread reconstruction was even greater than Polydioxanon thread. Improved stiffness may facilitate healing and is suggested as clinical relevance in reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F

    2006-10-01

    The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  6. Importance of Patella, Quadriceps Forces, and Depthwise Cartilage Structure on Knee Joint Motion and Cartilage Response During Gait.

    PubMed

    Halonen, K S; Mononen, M E; Jurvelin, J S; Töyräs, J; Klodowski, A; Kulmala, J-P; Korhonen, R K

    2016-07-01

    In finite-element (FE) models of the knee joint, patella is often omitted. We investigated the importance of patella and quadriceps forces on the knee joint motion by creating an FE model of the subject's knee. In addition, depthwise strains and stresses in patellar cartilage with different tissue properties were determined. An FE model was created from subject's magnetic resonance images. Knee rotations, moments, and translational forces during gait were recorded in a motion laboratory and used as an input for the model. Three material models were implemented into the patellar cartilage: (1) homogeneous model, (2) inhomogeneous (arcadelike fibrils), and (3) random fibrils at the superficial zone, mimicking early stages of osteoarthritis (OA). Implementation of patella and quadriceps forces into the model substantially reduced the internal-external femoral rotations (versus without patella). The simulated rotations in the model with the patella matched the measured rotations at its best. In the inhomogeneous model, maximum principal stresses increased substantially in the middle zone of the cartilage. The early OA model showed increased compressive strains in the superficial and middle zones of the cartilage and decreased stresses and fibril strains especially in the middle zone. The results suggest that patella and quadriceps forces should be included in moment- and force-driven FE knee joint models. The results indicate that the middle zone has a major role in resisting shear forces in the patellar cartilage. Also, early degenerative changes in the collagen network substantially affect the cartilage depthwise response in the patella during walking.

  7. Validation of Bedside Ultrasound of Muscle Layer Thickness of the Quadriceps in the Critically Ill Patient (VALIDUM Study).

    PubMed

    Paris, Michael T; Mourtzakis, Marina; Day, Andrew; Leung, Roger; Watharkar, Snehal; Kozar, Rosemary; Earthman, Carrie; Kuchnia, Adam; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Moisey, Lesley; Compher, Charlene; Martin, Niels; Nicolo, Michelle; White, Tom; Roosevelt, Hannah; Peterson, Sarah; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-02-01

    In critically ill patients, muscle atrophy is associated with long-term disability and mortality. Bedside ultrasound may quantify muscle mass, but it has not been validated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Here, we compared ultrasound-based quadriceps muscle layer thickness (QMLT) with precise quantifications of computed tomography (CT)-based muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Patients ≥18 years old with abdominal CT scans performed for clinical reasons were recruited from 9 ICUs for an ultrasound assessment of the quadriceps. CT scans of the third lumbar vertebra, performed <24 hours before or <72 hours after ICU admission, were analyzed for CSA. Low muscularity was defined as 170 cm 2 for men and 110 cm 2 for women. The ultrasound probe was maximally compressed against the skin and QMLT was measured on 2 sites of each quadriceps <72 hours of the CT scan. Mean CT-derived muscle CSA was 109 ± 25 cm 2 for women and 168 ± 37 cm 2 for men, where 58% of patients exhibited low muscularity; only 2.7% patients were underweight according to body mass index. QMLT was positively correlated with CT CSA ( r = 0.45, P < .001). Based on logistic regression to predict low muscularity, QMLT independently generated a concordance index ( c) of 0.67 ( P < .002), which increased to 0.77 ( P < .001) when age, sex, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and admission type (surgical vs medical) were added. Our results suggest that QMLT alone with our current protocol may not accurately identify patients with low muscle mass.

  8. Inhibition of α-adrenergic tone disturbs the distribution of blood flow in the exercising human limb.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Knuuti, Juhani; Scheinin, Mika; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2013-07-15

    The role of neuronal regulation of human cardiovascular function remains incompletely elucidated, especially during exercise. Here we, by positron emission tomography, monitored tissue-specific blood flow (BF) changes in nine healthy young men during femoral arterial infusions of norepinephrine (NE) and phentolamine. At rest, the α-adrenoceptor agonist NE reduced BF by ~40%, similarly in muscles (from 3.2 ± 1.9 to 1.4 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) in quadriceps femoris muscle), bone (from 1.1 ± 0.4 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)) and adipose tissue (AT) (from 1.2 ± 0.7 to 0.7 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)). During exercise, NE reduced exercising muscle BF by ~16%. BF in AT was reduced similarly as rest. The α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine increased BF similarly in the different muscles and other tissues of the limb at rest. During exercise, BF in inactive muscle was increased 3.4-fold by phentolamine compared with exercise without drug, but BF in exercising muscles was not influenced. Bone and AT (P = 0.055) BF were also increased by phentolamine in the exercise condition. NE increased and phentolamine decreased oxygen extraction in the limb during exercise. We conclude that inhibition of α-adrenergic tone markedly disturbs the distribution of BF and oxygen extraction in the exercising human limb by increasing BF especially around inactive muscle fibers. Moreover, although marked functional sympatholysis also occurs during exercise, the arterial NE infusion that mimics the exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity commonly seen in patients with cardiovascular disease was still capable of directly limiting BF in the exercising leg muscles.

  9. Effects of 12-week combined exercise therapy on oxidative stress in female fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Sarıfakıoğlu, Banu; Güzelant, Aliye Yıldırım; Güzel, Eda Celik; Güzel, Savaş; Kızıler, Ali Rıza

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise therapy on the oxidative stress in fibromyalgia patients and relationship between oxidative stress and fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria, and 23 healthy women whose age- and weight-matched women were enrolled the study. Pain intensity with visual analog scale (VAS), the number of tender points, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were evaluated. The oxidative stress parameters thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxide, and antioxidant parameters thiols and catalase were investigated in patients and control group. After, combined aerobic and strengthen exercise regimen was given to fibromyalgia group. Exercise therapy consisted of a warming period of 10 min, aerobic exercises period of 20 min, muscle strengthening exercises for 20 min, and 10 min cooling down period. Therapy was lasting 1 h three times per week over a 12-week period. All parameters were reevaluated after the treatment in the patient group. The oxidative stress parameters levels were significantly higher, and antioxidant parameters were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. VAS, FIQ, and BDI scores decreased significantly with exercise therapy. The exercise improved all parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters. Also, all clinical parameters were improved with exercise. We should focus on oxidative stress in the treatment for fibromyalgia with the main objective of reducing oxidative load.

  10. Pain Response after Maximal Aerobic Exercise in Adolescents across Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Stolzman, Stacy; Danduran, Michael; Hunter, Sandra K; Bement, Marie Hoeger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pain reports are greater with increasing weight status, and exercise can reduce pain perception. It is unknown however, whether exercise can relieve pain in adolescents of varying weight status. The purpose of this study was to determine if adolescents across weight status report pain relief following high intensity aerobic exercise (exercise-induced hypoalgesia [EIH]). Methods 62 adolescents (15.1±1.8 years, 29 males) participated in three sessions: 1) Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) before and after quiet rest, clinical pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire), and physical activity levels (self-report and ActiSleep Plus Monitors) were measured; 2) PPTs were measured with a computerized algometer at the 4th finger nailbed, middle deltoid muscle, and quadriceps muscle before and after maximal oxygen uptake test (VO2 max Bruce Treadmill Protocol); and 3) Body composition was measured with Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results All adolescents met criteria for VO2 max. Based on body mass index z-score, adolescents were categorized as normal weight (n=33) or overweight/obese (n=29). PPTs increased following exercise (EIH) and were unchanged with quiet rest (trial × session: p=0.02). EIH was similar across the 3 sites and between normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. Physical activity and clinical pain were not correlated with EIH. Overweight/obese adolescents had similar absolute VO2 max (L·min-1) but lower relative VO2 max (ml·kg-1·min-1) compared with normal weight adolescents. When adolescents were categorized using FitnessGram standards as unfit (n=15) and fit (n=46), the EIH response was similar between fitness levels. Conclusion This study is the first to establish that adolescents experience EIH in both overweight and normal weight youth. EIH after high intensity aerobic exercise was robust in adolescents regardless of weight status and not influenced by physical fitness. PMID:25856681

  11. Transcriptome Analysis in Venom Gland of the Predatory Giant Ant Dinoponera quadriceps: Insights into the Polypeptide Toxin Arsenal of Hymenopterans

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Cheong-Meng; Leung, Siu Wai; Prieto-da-Silva, Álvaro R. B.; Havt, Alexandre; Quinet, Yves P.; Martins, Alice M. C.; Lee, Simon M. Y.; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Background Dinoponera quadriceps is a predatory giant ant that inhabits the Neotropical region and subdues its prey (insects) with stings that deliver a toxic cocktail of molecules. Human accidents occasionally occur and cause local pain and systemic symptoms. A comprehensive study of the D. quadriceps venom gland transcriptome is required to advance our knowledge about the toxin repertoire of the giant ant venom and to understand the physiopathological basis of Hymenoptera envenomation. Results We conducted a transcriptome analysis of a cDNA library from the D. quadriceps venom gland with Sanger sequencing in combination with whole-transcriptome shotgun deep sequencing. From the cDNA library, a total of 420 independent clones were analyzed. Although the proportion of dinoponeratoxin isoform precursors was high, the first giant ant venom inhibitor cysteine-knot (ICK) toxin was found. The deep next generation sequencing yielded a total of 2,514,767 raw reads that were assembled into 18,546 contigs. A BLAST search of the assembled contigs against non-redundant and Swiss-Prot databases showed that 6,463 contigs corresponded to BLASTx hits and indicated an interesting diversity of transcripts related to venom gene expression. The majority of these venom-related sequences code for a major polypeptide core, which comprises venom allergens, lethal-like proteins and esterases, and a minor peptide framework composed of inter-specific structurally conserved cysteine-rich toxins. Both the cDNA library and deep sequencing yielded large proportions of contigs that showed no similarities with known sequences. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of the venom gland transcriptome of the New World giant ant D. quadriceps. The glandular venom system was dissected, and the toxin arsenal was revealed; this process brought to light novel sequences that included an ICK-folded toxins, allergen proteins, esterases (phospholipases and carboxylesterases), and lethal

  12. Workers' Extra-Nest Behavioral Changes During Colony Fission in Dinoponera quadriceps (Santschi).

    PubMed

    Medeiros, J; Araújo, A

    2014-04-01

    Ant colonies can reproduce by two strategies: independent foundation, wherein the queen starts a new colony alone, and dependent foundation, in which workers assist the queen. In the queenless species Dinoponera quadriceps (Santschi), the colony reproduces obligatorily by fission, a type of dependent foundation, but this process is not well understood. This study describes a colony fission event of D. quadriceps in the field and analyzes the influence of the fission process on workers' extra-nest behavior. Based on observations of workers outside the nest, five distinct stages were identified: monodomic stage, polydomic stage, split stage, conflict stage, and post-conflict stage. The colony was initially monodomic and then occupied a second nest before it split into two independent colonies, indicating a gradual and opportunistic dependent foundation. After the fission event, the daughter colony had aggressive conflicts with the parental colony, resulting in the latter's disappearance. Colony fission affected workers' extra-nest behavior by increasing the frequency of rubbing the gaster against the substrate (which probably has a chemical marking function) and by decreasing the frequency of foraging during the split stage. After the fission event, the number of foragers was halved and foragers remained nearer to the nest during extra-nest activity. The spatial closeness of the parental and daughter colonies led to competition that caused the extinction or migration of the parental colony. Intraspecific competition was indicated by foraging directionality at the colony level, whereby areas of neighbor colonies were avoided; this directionality was stronger while both colonies coexisted.

  13. Effect of very low calorie diet on body composition and exercise response in sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Eston, R G; Shephard, S; Kreitzman, S; Coxon, A; Brodie, D A; Lamb, K L; Baltzopoulos, V

    1992-01-01

    The effect of very low calorie diet (VLCD) on fat-free mass (FFM) and physiological response to exercise is a topic of current interest. Ten moderately obese women (aged 23-57 years) received VLCD (1695 kJ.day-1) for 6 weeks. FFM, estimated by four conventional techniques, and heart rate (fc), blood lactate (la(b)), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory exchange ratio (R) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during a submaximal cycle ergometry test 1 week before, in the 2nd and 6th week, and 1 week after VLCD treatment. Strength and muscular endurance of the quadriceps and hamstrings were tested by isokinetic dynamometry. The 11.5-kg reduction in body mass was approximately 63% fat and 37% FFM. The latter was attributed largely to the loss of water associated with glycogen. Whilst exercise fc increased by 9-14 beats.min-1 (P < 0.01), there were substantial decreases (P < 0.01) in submaximal MAP (1.07-1.73 kPa), la(b) (0.75-1.00 mmol.l-1 and R (0.07-0.09) during VLCD. R and fc returned to normal levels after VLCD. Gross strength decreased (P < 0.01) by 9 and 13% at 1.05 rad.s-1 and 3.14 rad.s-1, respectively. Strength expressed relative to body mass (Nm.kg-1) increased (P < 0.01) at the lower contraction velocity, but there was no change at the faster velocity. Muscular endurance also decreased (P < 0.01) by 62 and 82% for the hamstrings and quadriceps, respectively. We concluded that the strength decrease was a natural adaptation to the reduction in body mass as the ratio of strength to FFM was maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Self-efficacy, pain, and quadriceps capacity at baseline predict changes in mobility performance over 2 years in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Nicholas M; Gatti, Anthony A; Stratford, Paul W; Maly, Monica R

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the extent to which baseline measures of quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, knee pain and self-efficacy for functional tasks, and their interactions, predicted 2-year changes in mobility performance (walking, stair ascent, stair descent) in women with knee osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that lesser strength, power and self-efficacy, and higher pain at baseline would each be independently associated with reduced mobility over 2 years, and each of pain and self-efficacy would interact with strength and power in predicting 2-year change in stair-climbing performance. This was a longitudinal, observational study of women with clinical knee osteoarthritis. At baseline and follow-up, mobility was assessed with the Six-Minute Walk Test, and stair ascent and descent tasks. Quadriceps strength and power, knee pain, and self-efficacy for functional tasks were also collected at baseline. Multiple linear regression examined the extent to which 2-year changes in mobility performances were predicted by baseline strength, power, pain, and self-efficacy, after adjusting for covariates. Data were analyzed for 37 women with knee osteoarthritis over 2 years. Lower baseline self-efficacy predicted decreased walking (β = 1.783; p = 0.030) and stair ascent (β = -0.054; p < 0.001) performances over 2 years. Higher baseline pain intensity/frequency predicted decreased walking performance (β = 1.526; p = 0.002). Lower quadriceps strength (β = 0.051; p = 0.015) and power (β = 0.022; p = 0.022) interacted with lesser self-efficacy to predict worsening stair ascent performance. Strategies to sustain or improve mobility in women with knee osteoarthritis must focus on controlling pain and boosting self-efficacy. In those with worse self-efficacy, developing knee muscle capacity is an important target.

  15. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Douma, K W; Regterschot, G R H; Krijnen, W P; Slager, G E C; van der Schans, C P; Zijlstra, W

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various degrees of extension. Measurements between 110 and 130° extension present the highest values and the most significant increase after training. The objective of this study is to determine the test-retest reliability of muscle strength measurements by the Q Force in older adults in 110° extension. Forty-one healthy older adults, 13 males and 28 females were included in the study. Mean (SD) age was 81.9 (4.89) years. Isometric muscle strength of the Quadriceps muscle was assessed with the Q Force at 110° of knee extension. Participants were measured at two sessions with a three to eight day interval between sessions. To determine relative reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. To determine absolute reliability, Bland and Altman Limits of Agreement (LOA) were calculated and t-tests were performed. Relative reliability of the Q Force is good to excellent as all ICC coefficients are higher than 0.75. Generally a large 95 % LOA, reflecting only moderate absolute reliability, is found as exemplified for the peak torque left leg of -18.6 N to 33.8 N and the right leg of -9.2 N to 26.4 N was between 15.7 and 23.6 Newton representing 25.2 % to 39.9 % of the size of the mean. Small systematic differences in mean were found between measurement session 1 and 2. The present study shows that the Q Force has excellent relative test-retest reliability, but limited absolute test-retest reliability. Since the Q Force is relatively cheap and mobile it is suitable for

  16. Effect of a 6-week strengthening program on shoulder and scapular-stabilizer strength and scapular kinematics in division I collegiate swimmers.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Oyama, Saki; Spang, Jeffrey T; Prentice, William; Myers, Joseph B

    2012-08-01

    Shoulder injuries are common in swimmers because of the demands of the sport. Muscle imbalances frequently exist due to the biomechanics of the sport, which predispose swimmers to injury. To date, an effective shoulder-injury-prevention program for competitive swimmers has not been established. To assess the effectiveness of a 6-wk strengthening and stretching intervention program on improving glenohumeral and scapular muscle strength and scapular kinematics in collegiate swimmers. Randomized control trial. University biomechanics research laboratory. Forty-four Division I collegiate swimmers. The intervention program was completed 3 times per week for 6 wk. The program included strengthening exercises completed using resistance tubing-scapular retraction (Ts), scapular retraction with upward rotation (Ys), scapular retraction with downward rotation (Ws), shoulder flexion, low rows, throwing acceleration and deceleration, scapular punches, shoulder internal rotation at 90° abduction, and external rotation at 90° abduction-and 2 stretching exercises: corner stretch and sleeper stretch. Scapular kinematics and glenohumeral and scapular muscle strength assessed preintervention and postintervention. There were no significant between-groups differences in strength variables at pre/post tests, although shoulder-extension and internal-rotation strength significantly increased in all subjects regardless of group assignment. Scapular kinematic data revealed increased scapular internal rotation, protraction, and elevation in all subjects at posttesting but no significant effect of group on the individual kinematic variables. The current strengthening and stretching program was not effective in altering strength and scapular kinematic variables but may serve as a framework for future programs. Adding more stretching exercises, eliminating exercises that overlap with weight-room training and swim training, and timing of implementation may yield a more beneficial program for

  17. Return to sport after patellar dislocation or following surgery for patellofemoral instability.

    PubMed

    Ménétrey, Jacques; Putman, Sophie; Gard, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Patellofemoral instability may occur in a young population as a result of injury during sporting activities. This review focuses on return to sport after one episode of dislocation treated no operatively and as well after surgery for chronic patellofemoral instability. With or without surgery, only two-thirds of patients return to sports at the same level as prior to injury. A high-quality rehabilitation programme using specific exercises is the key for a safe return to sporting activities. To achieve this goal, recovery of muscle strength and dynamic stability of the lower limbs is crucial. The focus should be directed to strengthen the quadriceps muscle and pelvic stabilizers, as well as lateral trunk muscle training. Patient education and regularly performed home exercises are other key factors that can lead to a successful return to sports. The criteria for a safe return to sports include the absence of pain, no effusion, a complete range of motion, almost symmetrical strength, and excellent dynamic stability. Level of evidence IV.

  18. cAMP levels in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle after an acute bout of aerobic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, A.; Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    The present study examined whether exercise duration was associated with elevated and/or sustained elevations of postexercise adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by measuring cAMP levels in skeletal muscle for up to 4 h after acute exercise bouts of durations that are known to either produce (60 min) or not produce (10 min) mitochondrial proliferation after chronic training. Treadmill-acclimatized, but untrained, rats were run at 22 m/min for 0 (control), 10, or 60 min and were killed at various postexercise (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h) time points. Fast-twitch white and red (quadriceps) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles were quickly excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and assayed for cAMP with a commercial kit. Unexpectedly, cAMP contents in all three muscles were similar to control (nonexercise) at most (21 of 30) time points after a single 10- or 60-min run. Values at 9 of 30 time points were significantly different from control (P < 0.05); i.e., 3 time points were significantly higher than control and 6 were significantly less than control. These data suggest that the cAMP concentration of untrained skeletal muscle after a single bout of endurance-type exercise is not, by itself, associated with exercise duration.

  19. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  20. The effects of electrical stimulation and exercise therapy in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Yıldırım, Sibel A.; Tan, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of exercise therapy and electrical stimulation on muscle strength and functional activities in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Methods: This controlled clinical trial included 24 subjects who were diagnosed with LGMD by the Neurology Department of the Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey and were referred to the Physical Therapy Department between May 2013 and December 2014. Subjects were enrolled into an electrical stimulation (11 patients) group, or an exercise therapy (13 patients) group. Results: The mean age of patients was 31.62 years in the electrical stimulation group, and 30.14 years in the exercise therapy group. The most important results in this controlled clinical study were that the muscle strength in both groups was significantly decreased and post-treatment evaluation results indicated that muscle strength of the Deltoideus was higher in the electrical stimulation group, and the difference between the groups was maintained in the follow-up period (p<0.05). However, the muscle strength of quadriceps was similar in both groups, according to the post-treatment and follow-up evaluation results (p>0.05). Additionally, the electrical stimulation group presented more obvious overall improvements than the exercise therapy group according to muscle strength, endurance, and timed performance tests. Conclusions: Since no definitive treatments currently exist for patients with LGMD, these results provide important information on the role of exercise therapy and electrical stimulation for clinicians working in rehabilitation. PMID:26166595

  1. Carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Hamada, Hamada; Hussein Draz, Amira; Koura, Ghada Mohamed; Saab, Ibtissam M.

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was carried out to investigate the carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance (single legged hop test as functional performance test and Kujala score for functional activities). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A) consisted of 15 patients undergoing hip strengthening exercises for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of knee exercises program then measuring all variables again. Group (B): consisted of 15 patients undergoing knee exercises program for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of hip strengthening exercises then measuring all variables. Functional abilities and knee muscles performance were assessed using Kujala questionnaire and single legged hop test respectively pre and after the completion of the first 4 weeks then after 8 weeks for both groups. [Results] Significantly increase in Kujala questionnaire in group A compared with group B was observed. While, there were significant increase in single legged hop performance test in group B compared with group A. [Conclusion] Starting with hip exercises improve the performance of subjects more than functional activities while starting with knee exercises improve the functional activities of subjects more than performance. PMID:28878459

  2. Carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Hamada, Hamada; Hussein Draz, Amira; Koura, Ghada Mohamed; Saab, Ibtissam M

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was carried out to investigate the carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance (single legged hop test as functional performance test and Kujala score for functional activities). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A) consisted of 15 patients undergoing hip strengthening exercises for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of knee exercises program then measuring all variables again. Group (B): consisted of 15 patients undergoing knee exercises program for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of hip strengthening exercises then measuring all variables. Functional abilities and knee muscles performance were assessed using Kujala questionnaire and single legged hop test respectively pre and after the completion of the first 4 weeks then after 8 weeks for both groups. [Results] Significantly increase in Kujala questionnaire in group A compared with group B was observed. While, there were significant increase in single legged hop performance test in group B compared with group A. [Conclusion] Starting with hip exercises improve the performance of subjects more than functional activities while starting with knee exercises improve the functional activities of subjects more than performance.

  3. The dinoponeratoxin peptides from the giant ant Dinoponera quadriceps display in vitro antitrypanosomal activity.

    PubMed

    Lima, Dânya Bandeira; Mello, Clarissa Perdigão; Bandeira, Izabel Cristina Justino; Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Ramon Róseo Paula; Sampaio, Tiago Lima; Falcão, Cláudio Borges; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne R L; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Martins, Alice Maria Costa

    2018-01-26

    The crude venom of the giant ant Dinoponera quadriceps is a cocktail of polypeptides and organic compounds that shows antiparasitic effects against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. In order to investigate the venom-derived components responsible for such antitrypanosomal activity, four dinoponeratoxins (DnTxs) were identified, namely M-PONTX-Dq3a, -Dq3b, -Dq3c and -Dq4e, that are diverse in size, net charge, hydrophobicity and propensity to interact with eukaryote cell membranes. These peptides were tested against epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of benznidazole (Bz)-resistant Y strain of T. cruzi and in mammalian host cells. The M-PONTX-Dq3a and -Dq4e inhibited all developmental forms of T. cruzi, including amastigotes, the responsible form for the maintenance of infection on chronic phase of the disease. The M-PONTX-Dq3a showed the highest selectivity index (SI) (80) and caused morphological alterations in T. cruzi, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and induced cell death through necrosis, as seen by multiparametric flow cytometry analysis with specific biochemical markers. Altogether, the D. quadriceps venom appears as a source for the prospection of trypanocidal peptides and the M-PONTX-Dq3a arises as a candidate among the dinoponeratoxin-related peptides in the development of compounds against Chagas disease.

  4. Isokinetic Hamstrings:Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the differences in the concentric hamstrings:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at 3 velocities. Design and Setting: We measured the H:Q ratio of both knees using the Biodex Pro Isokinetic Device. Subjects: Eighty-one male and female collegiate athletes. Measurements: We performed analyses for sport, velocity, and side of body for each sex. To compare the means of the concentric H:Q ratios for mean peak torque and mean total work, a 2 × 3 × 4 mixed-factorial analysis of variance was computed for women and a 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial analysis of variance was computed for men. Results: We observed no significant interactions for men and women for the concentric H:Q ratio for mean peak torque. There was a significant mean difference among velocity conditions and a significant difference for men with respect to velocity. No significant differences were found for side of body or sport. Conclusions: The H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. PMID:12937479

  5. Model testing for reliability and validity of the Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale.

    PubMed

    Resnick, B; Zimmerman, S; Orwig, D; Furstenberg, A L; Magaziner, J

    2001-01-01

    Development of a reliable and valid measure of outcome expectations for exercise appropriate for older adults will help establish the relationship between outcome expectations and exercise. Once established, this measure can be used to facilitate the development of interventions to strengthen outcome expectations and improve adherence to regular exercise in older adults. Building on initial psychometrics of the Outcome Expectation for Exercise (OEE) Scale, the purpose of the current study was to use structural equation modeling to provide additional support for the reliability and validity of this measure. The OEE scale is a 9-item measure specifically focusing on the perceived consequences of exercise for older adults. The OEE scale was given to 191 residents in a continuing care retirement community. The mean age of the participants was 85 +/- 6.1 and the majority were female (76%), White (99%), and unmarried (76%). Using structural equation modeling, reliability was based on R2 values, and validity was based on a confirmatory factor analysis and path coefficients. There was continued evidence for reliability of the OEE based on R2 values ranging from .42 to .77, and validity with path coefficients ranging from .69 to .87, and evidence of model fit (X2 of 69, df = 27, p < .05, NFI = .98, RMSEA = .07). The evidence of reliability and validity of this measure has important implications for clinical work and research. The OEE scale can be used to identify older adults who have low outcome expectations for exercise, and interventions can then be implemented to strengthen these expectations and thereby improve exercise behavior.

  6. Effects of acute exercise on attenuated vagal baroreflex function during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Guell, Antonio; Marini, J.-F.

    1992-01-01

    We measured carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses in six healthy men, 24 h before and 24 h after a bout of leg exercise during 6 deg head-down bed rest to determine if depressed vagal baroreflex function associated with exposure to microgravity environments could be reversed by a single exposure to acute intense exercise. Baroreflex responses were measured before bed rest and on day 7 of bed rest. An exercise bout consisting of dynamic and isometric actions of the quadriceps at graded speeds and resistances was