Popov, Iva; Ristić, Vladimir; Maljanović, Mirsad; Milankov, Vukadin
Quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare but rather serious injury. If this injury is not promptly recognized and early operated, it may lead to disability. This research was aimed at pointing out the results and complications of the quadriceps tendon rupture surgical treatment. This retrospective multicentric study was conducted in a group of 29 patients (mostly elderly men). Lysholm knee scoring scale was used to evaluate the surgical results. The post-operative results were compared in relation to the type of tendon rupture reconstructions (acute or chronic), various surgical techniques, type of injuries (unilateral or bilateral) as well as the presence or absence of comorbid risk factors in the patients. The average value of a Lysholm score was 87.6. Excellent and satisfactory Lysholm score results dominated in our sample of patients. Better post-operative results were recorded in the group of patients without risk factors, in case of a bilateral injury, and in case of an acute injury. The best result was obtained after performing the reconstruction using anchors, and the worst result came after using Codivilla technique. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment are an absolute imperative in management of this injury. We have not proven that a certain surgical technique has an advantage over the others. A comorbid risk factor is related to a lower Lysholm score. Despite a few cases of complications, we can conclude that the surgical treatment yields satisfactory results.
Karahasanoğlu, İlker; Yoloğlu, Osman; Kerimoğlu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet Uğur
Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome.
Kim, Tae Won B; Kamath, Atul F; Israelite, Craig L
Disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication, usually requiring surgical repair. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for repair of the ruptured native knee quadriceps tendon, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in quadriceps repair after TKA. We present an illustrative case of successful suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps mechanism after TKA. The procedure has been performed in a total of 3 patients. A surgical technique and brief review of the literature follows. Suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps tendon is a viable option in the setting of rupture after TKA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Yunseok; Kim, Byounggook; Chung, Ju-Hwan
Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a very rare condition and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The etiology is not clear yet. But it occurs infrequently in patients with chronic metabolic disorders. A 30-year-old female patient with simultaneous bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture visited our hospital. She had chronic renal failure and her parathyroid hormone level was elevated due to parathyroid adenoma. We report a surgical repair of both quadriceps tendons of a patient with chronic renal failure as well as management of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:22570843
Ormaza, Amaia; Moreta, Jesús; Mosquera, Javier; de Ugarte, Oskar Sáez; Mozos, José Luis Martinez-de Los
Tear of the quadriceps tendon after revision or primary total knee arthroplasty is a rare complication, but when it occurs, this injury has serious functional consequences. In complete tears, the outcome of direct repair is unpredictable, and several authors recommend that the suture should be reinforced. Several techniques have been described, including the use of autografts, allografts, and synthetic mesh. The goal of this study was to assess the outcomes of a reconstruction technique augmented with synthetic mesh. A retrospective study was performed involving 3 patients who had chronic partial quadriceps tendon tear after total knee revision. In 2 cases, proximal quadriceps release was performed. When conservative management failed, surgical reconstruction with suture reinforced with synthetic mesh was attempted. The knee was immobilized in full extension for 6 weeks after the surgical procedure. A minimum follow-up of 12 months was required to assess results. All reconstructions showed clinical success at a mean follow-up of 19 months. Mean Knee Society Score improved from 55.7 to 87.3, with average postoperative extensor lag of 3.3° (range, 0°-10°). The mean visual analog scale pain score was 2.3 (range, 0-4). No complications were reported. Synthetic mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for patellar tendon repairs after total knee replacement, but there have been few articles on quadriceps rupture. Surgical reconstruction with synthetic mesh is a viable option that provides good functional outcomes in chronic quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):38-42.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Thiele, K; von Roth, P; Pfitzner, T; Preininger, B; Perka, C
Quadriceps tendon injuries and insufficiencies in total knee arthroplasty are rare, but are followed by a devastating complication that left untreated leads to a complete loss of function of the knee. This review article summarizes the functional anatomy, risk factors, and the prevalence and diagnosis of quadriceps tendon injuries, in addition to the possible management options for partial and complete ruptures. The treatment options are adapted according to the extent of the loss of function (partial, complete) and the duration of the injury (acute vs chronic). Furthermore, the choice of treatment should take into account the quality and availability of primary tissue, the patient's general health, along with their likely functional requirements. Conservative treatment is often justified in partial ruptures with good results. Complete ruptures require surgical intervention and multiple operative techniques are described. Treatment options for acute ruptures include direct primary repair with autogenous or synthetic tissue augmentation. In the case of chronic insufficiency and a lack of soft-tissue surroundings, reconstruction with the aid of a muscle flap or allograft tissue can be considered. All surgical intervention techniques used so far have been fraught with complications and rarely lead to satisfactory results. A new surgical approach to the reconstruction and augmentation of the extensor mechanism consists of the use of a synthetic mesh. The technique is described here in detail.
Hassani, Zouhir Ameziane; Boufettal, Moncef; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Elyaacoubi, Moradh
Spontaneous ruptures of the quadriceps tendon are infrequent injuries, it is seen primarily in patients with predisposing diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic renal failure. A 32-year-old man had a history of end stage renal disease and received regular hemodialysis treatment for more than 5 years. He was admitted in our service for total functional impotence of the right lower limb with knee pain after a common fall two months ago. The radiogram showed a ''patella baja" with suprapatellar calcifications. The ultrasound and MRI showed an aspect of rupture of the quadriceps tendon in its proximal end with retraction of 3 cm. Quadriceps tendon repair was performed with a lengthening plasty, and the result was satisfactory after a serial rehabilitation program. The diagnosis of quadriceps tendon ruptures needs more attention in patients with predisposing diseases. They should not be unknown because the treatment of neglected lesions is more difficult. We insist on the early surgical repair associated with early rehabilitation that can guarantee recovery of good active extension.
Maffulli, Nicola; Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Denaro, Vincenzo
Tears of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are common in the active population, especially in athletes. At present, several techniques for surgical repair and reconstruction are available. When reruptures occur, a reconstruction is mandatory. In the present paper, we describe a surgical technique for patellar and quadriceps tendon reconstruction using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. After routine hamstring tendon harvesting, the tendon ends are prepared using a whip stitch. A transverse tunnel is drilled in the midportion of the patella, the hamstring graft is passed through the patella, and firmly secured to the patellar tunnel openings with sutures. The details of the technique are fully described. Autologous ipsilateral hamstring tendon grafts provide a secure sound means to manage these challenging injuries.
Hart, Nathan D; Wallace, Matthew K; Scovell, J Field; Krupp, Ryan J; Cook, Chad; Wyland, Douglas J
Quadriceps rupture off the patella is traditionally repaired by a transosseous tunnel technique, although a single-row suture anchor repair has recently been described. This study biomechanically tested a new transosseous equivalent (TE) double-row suture anchor technique compared with the transosseous repair for quadriceps repair. After simulated quadriceps-patella avulsion in 10 matched cadaveric knees, repairs were completed by either a three tunnel transosseous (TT = 5) or a TE suture anchor (TE = 5) technique. Double-row repairs were done using two 5.5 Bio-Corkscrew FT (fully threaded) (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) and two 3.5 Bio-PushLock anchors (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) with all 10 repairs done with #2 FiberWire suture (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL). Cyclic testing from 50 to 250 N for 250 cycles and pull to failure load (1 mm/s) were undertaken. Gap formation and ultimate tensile load (N) were recorded and stiffness data (N/mm) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney U test and survival characteristics examined with Kaplan-Meier test. No significant difference was found between the TE and TT groups in stiffness (TE = 134 +/- 15 N/mm, TT = 132 +/- 26 N/mm, p = 0.28). The TE group had significantly less ultimate tensile load (N) compared with the TT group (TE = 447 +/- 86 N, TT = 591 +/- 84 N, p = 0.04), with all failures occurring at the suture eyelets. Although both quadriceps repairs were sufficiently strong, the transosseous repairs were stronger than the TE suture anchor repairs. The repair stiffness and gap formation were similar between the groups.
Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, 2006 Radiology Corner Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Contributors: CPT Michael...treatment of a 56-year-old man with complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon . The mechanism of injury, symptoms, and findings at physical...be used in pre-operative planning. Introduction Rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a relatively uncommon injury, but delayed diagnosis may
Bilateral patellar tendon rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, Volume 173, July, 2009...Radiology Corner Bilateral patellar tendon rupture (#37) Guarantor: 2dLt Ramon A. Riojas, USAF, MSC1 Contributors: 2dLt Ramon A. Riojas...with the abbreviated answer in the July 2009 issue. 1 The authors present a case of bilateral patellar tendon rupture in an active duty male exiting
Soong, J W; Silva, A N; Andrew, Tan Hc
Quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but dire complication. It is associated with adverse outcomes and morbidities. Studies on such complications are scarce in the literature. In this study, we share our experience in the management of four patients who sustained quadriceps tendon rupture in the early postoperative period. Efforts should be focused on prevention. Meticulous surgical techniques during the medial parapatellar approach to preserve the integrity of quadriceps can reduce the risk of rupture. The importance of prompt diagnosis is emphasized as delayed treatment may lead to poor outcomes. However, making a diagnosis can be challenging, as worsening of the quadriceps strength after TKA is expected because of the surgical approach that violates the quadriceps muscle. In an event of postoperative trauma with resultant extensor weakness, an ultrasound evaluation to exclude a quadriceps tendon rupture should be promptly performed after a fracture is excluded.
Fink, Christian; Steensen, Robert; Gföller, Peter; Lawton, Robert
Critically evaluate the published literature related to quadriceps tendon (QT) medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Hamstring tendon (HT) MPFL reconstruction techniques have been shown to successfully restore patella stability, but complications including patella fracture are reported. Quadriceps tendon (QT) reconstruction techniques with an intact graft pedicle on the patella side have the advantage that patella bone tunnel drilling and fixation are no longer needed, reducing risk of patella fracture. Several QT MPFL reconstruction techniques, including minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches, have been published with promising clinical results and fewer complications than with HT techniques. Parallel laboratory studies have shown macroscopic anatomy and biomechanical properties of QT are more similar to native MPFL than hamstring (HS) HT, suggesting QT may more accurately restore native joint kinematics. Quadriceps tendon MPFL reconstruction, via both open and MIS techniques, have promising clinical results and offer valuable alternatives to HS grafts for primary and revision MPFL reconstruction in both children and adults.
The knee is the most complex and largest joint in the body. Injuries to any part of this joint affect the entire body. There are multiple injuries that can occur to the knee, with the most common being ligament and meniscus tears. A not-so-common injury to the knee is a patellar tendon rupture. A bilateral patellar tendon rupture is extremely rare. A case study of a 43-year-old man who sustained a bilateral patellar tendon rupture while playing softball is used to present this devastating injury. This discussion includes the incidence and diagnosis of the tear, surgical repair, as well as a description of the comprehensive rehabilitation process necessary to allow the patient to return to normal physical activity. Risks and complications of this surgery and the expected outcomes are also presented.
Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D
Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There
Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H
The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques.
Cetinkaya, Engin; Aydin, Canan Gonen; Akman, Yunus Emre; Gul, Murat; Arikan, Yavuz; Aycan, Osman Emre; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz Selim
Quadriceps tendon injuries are rare. There is a limited number of studies in the literature, reporting partial quadriceps tendon ruptures. We did not find any study reporting an isolated vastus intermedius tendon injury in the literature. A 22 years old professional rugby player with the complaints of pain in the right lower limb, decreased range of motion in right knee and a mass in the mid-anterior of the right thigh applied following an overloading on his hyperflexed knee during a rugby match. T2 sequence magnetic resonance images revealed discontinuity in the vastus intermedius tendon and intramuscular hematoma. The patient has been conservatively treated. Quadriceps tendon ruptures generally occur after the 4th decade in the presence of degenerative changes. Our case is a young professional rugby player. Isolated vastus intermedius tendon rupture is unusual. Conservative treatment is performed as the intermedius tendon is in the deepest layer of the quadriceps muscle. We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Cetinkaya, Engin; Aydin, Canan Gonen; Akman, Yunus Emre; Gul, Murat; Arikan, Yavuz; Aycan, Osman Emre; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz Selim
Introduction Quadriceps tendon injuries are rare. There is a limited number of studies in the literature, reporting partial quadriceps tendon ruptures. We did not find any study reporting an isolated vastus intermedius tendon injury in the literature. Presentation of case A 22 years old professional rugby player with the complaints of pain in the right lower limb, decreased range of motion in right knee and a mass in the mid-anterior of the right thigh applied following an overloading on his hyperflexed knee during a rugby match. T2 sequence magnetic resonance images revealed discontinuity in the vastus intermedius tendon and intramuscular hematoma. The patient has been conservatively treated. Discussion Quadriceps tendon ruptures generally occur after the 4th decade in the presence of degenerative changes. Our case is a young professional rugby player. Isolated vastus intermedius tendon rupture is unusual. Conservative treatment is performed as the intermedius tendon is in the deepest layer of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy. PMID:26298093
Philippot, Rémi; Wegrzyn, Julien; Grosclaude, Sophie; Besse, Jean Luc
While conservative treatment may be successful in most cases, partial rupture at the calcaneal insertion point is a significant concern with insertional Achilles tendinopathy. We report on the outcomes of a surgical technique for Achilles tendon augmentation using a bone-tendon graft harvested from the knee extensor system. Our retrospective case series includes 25 surgical procedures performed in 24 patients, 19 males and five females, with a mean age of 47 (range, 30 to 59) years, 18 of whom were athletes. The mean followup period was 52 (range, 12 to 156) months. All patients underwent MRI examination prior to surgery which showed partial Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon was debrided through a posterolateral approach. The bone-quadriceps tendon graft was harvested, then the bone plug of the graft was inserted into a blind tunnel drilled into the calcaneus and fixed with an interference screw. The fibers of the quadriceps tendon were sutured to the residual part of the Achilles tendon with the foot at an angle of 90 degrees. Patients were able to resume their sporting activity after an average of 6.7 months. At last followup examination, physical activity was scored 5.2 on the 10-point Tegner Scale; the mean AOFAS score was 98.4. MRI examination showed good graft integration 1 year postoperatively. The bone-quadriceps tendon grafting technique was a good alternative for the insertional Achilles lesions with partial detachment which we felt required augmentation.
Ulmar, B; Simon, S; Eschler, A; Mittlmeier, T
The rupture of the Achilles tendon is the most frequent tendon rupture in humans and it is associated with increasing incidence. The main risk factor is intrinsic degeneration of the tendon. During the rupture the person feels a whiplash or dagger thrust-like pain, followed by restricted walking ability and decreased plantar flexion of the ankle. The positive Simmond/Thompson test and a palpable dent above the tendon rupture are pathognomical. Diagnostically, ultrasound of the tendon and lateral x-ray of the calcaneus (bony pull-out of the tendon insertion) are necessary. Regarding correct indication and treatment modalities, most established conservative and surgical therapies realize optimal functional results. Surgical treatment promises better primary stability and slightly earlier better functional results, but there is the potential for surgical complications. Conservative therapy is associated with higher rates of re-rupture and healing of the tendon under elongation. Therefore, therapy planning in Achilles tendon rupture should be determined based on each patient. We recommend surgical treatment in patients with higher sporting demands and in younger patients (< 50 years).
Lenschow, S; Herbort, M; Fink, C
Stabilization of the patella by medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Recurrent lateral patella instability with chronic weakening of the MPFL. Femoropatellar cartilage defects ICRS grade 3° or higher. Tuberositas Tibiae Trochlear Groove Index (TTTG) >20 mm. Lateral hypercompression of the patella without instability. A 3 cm transverse skin incision at the superomedial edge of the patella in 90° of flexion. Longitudinal incision of the prepatellar bursa and exposure of the quadriceps tendon. Preparation of a flat tendon strip with a length of 8 cm, a width of 10 mm, and a thickness of 3 mm, leaving the attachment at the patella intact. Flipping of the tendon strip and passing of the graft through a tunnel underneath the prepatellar tissue at the medial edge of the patella. Passing of the graft in layer two of the medial joint capsule just below the fascia (layer 1) and the vastus medialis. Fixation of the graft in a bone tunnel, drilled in the femoral insertion site of the native MPFL using a biodegradable interference screw. Patella centralizing brace for 4 weeks with range of motion (ROM) 0/0/90°, 20 kg of partial weight bearing for 3 weeks. Full weight-bearing according to pain starting from week 4 postoperatively. ROM up to 90° of flexion directly postoperatively. Free ROM starting from week 6 postoperatively. Stationary cycling 6 weeks postoperatively. Swimming and running after 10 months. Return to pivoting sports after 4-5 months. A total of 17 patients (7 men and 10 women; average age 21.5 years ±3.9 years, average BMI 22.6 ±3.9) were treated using this technique between March 2011 and November 2012. Only patients with at least one recurrent patella dislocation following conservative treatment were included. Patient satisfaction 12 months postoperatively was very high. Overall, 94.1 % would undergo the procedure again and 94.1 % were very satisfied with the cosmetic result. Significant improvement in Lysholm score 6, 12, and 24
... also help the muscle and tendon absorb more force and prevent injury. Vary your exercises. Alternate high-impact sports, such as running, with low-impact sports, such as walking, biking or swimming. Avoid activities that place excessive stress on your Achilles tendons, such as hill ...
Axibal, Derek P; Anderson, John G
Tendon ruptures are common findings in foot and ankle practice. The etiology of tendon ruptures tends to be multifactorial-usually due to a combination of trauma, effects of systemic diseases, adverse effects of medications, and obesity. We present an unusual case of right Achilles tendinitis, left Achilles tendon rupture, bilateral peroneus longus tendon rupture, and left peroneus brevis tendon rupture of unknown etiology. This case report highlights the need for research for other possible, lesser known etiologies of tendon pathology. Therapeutic, Level IV, Case Study.
Kannus, P; Natri, A
associated with sports activities (5). The rupture (avulsion) of the distal tendon of the biceps muscle is rare. In sports, gymnastics, body building and weight lifting have been said to be able to produce this injury (6). In general, complete ruptures of the quadriceps tendon and the patellar tendon occur most often in older individuals. In our study, the mean age of these patients was 65 years (5). However, these injuries do also occur in younger age groups, especially in athletes. In athletes, the rupture most frequently occurs in high-power sports events, such as high jump, basketball and weight lifting, at the age of 15-30 years. A chronic-patellar apicitis (jumper's knee) may predispose rupture of the tendon (7). As is the case with the rotator cuff complex, overuse inflammation and partial tears of the quadriceps and patellar tendons are one of the most characteristic athletic injuries. Complete spontaneous ruptures of other tendons in sports are rare, although the literature does provide case studies from almost every tendon the human body possesses (8-18).
Kaalund, S; Lass, P; Høgsaa, B; Nøhr, M
The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures. PMID:2605439
Background Acute patellar tendon ruptures with poor tissue quality. Ruptures that have been neglected are difficult to repair. Several surgical techniques for the repair of the patellar tendon have been reported, however, these techniques remain difficult because of contractures, adhesions, and atrophy of the quadriceps muscle after surgery. Case presentation We report the cases of 2 Japanese patients (Case 1: a 16-year-old male and Case 2: a 43-year-old male) with patellar tendon ruptures who were treated by reconstruction using semitendinosus-gracilis (STG) tendons with preserved distal insertions. Retaining the original insertion of the STG appears to preserve its viability and provide the revascularization necessary to accelerate healing. Both tendons were placed in front of the patella, in a figure-of-eight fashion, providing stability to the patella. Conclusion Both patients recovered near normal strength and stability of the patellar tendon as well as restoration of function after the operation. PMID:24010848
Bevilacqua, Nicholas J
Achilles tendon ruptures are best managed acutely. Neglected Achilles tendon ruptures are debilitating injuries and the increased complexity of the situation must be appreciated. Surgical management is recommended, and only in the poorest surgical candidate is conservative treatment entertained. Numerous treatment algorithms and surgical techniques have been described. A V-Y advancement flap and flexor halluces longus tendon transfer have been found to be reliable and achieve good clinical outcomes for defects ranging from 2 cm to 8 cm. This article focuses on the treatment options for the neglected Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buescu, Cristian Tudor; Onutu, Adela Hilda; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald; Todor, Adrian
The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels and analgesic consumption after single bundle ACL reconstruction with free quadriceps tendon autograft versus hamstring tendon autograft. A total of 48 patients scheduled for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction were randomized into two groups: the free quadriceps tendon autograft group (24 patients) and the hamstring tendons autograft group (24 patients). A basic multimodal analgesic postoperative program was used for all patients and rescue analgesia was provided with tramadol, at pain scores over 30 on the Visual Analog Scale. The time to the first rescue analgesic, the number of doses of tramadol and pain scores were recorded. The results within the same group were compared with the Wilcoxon signed test. Supplementary analgesic drug administration proved significantly higher in the group of subjects with hamstring grafts, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1.3) dose, compared to the group of subjects treated with a quadriceps graft, median = 0.5 (0.1.25) (p = 0.009). A significantly higher number of subjects with a quadriceps graft did not require any supplementary analgesic drug (50%) as compared with subjects with hamstring graft (13%; Z-statistics = 3.01, p = 0.002). The percentage of subjects who required a supplementary analgesic drug was 38% higher in the HT group compared with the FQT group. The use of the free quadriceps tendon autograft for ACL reconstruction leads to less pain and analgesic consumption in the immediate postoperative period compared with the use of hamstrings autograft. Level I Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann
We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nodzo, Scott R; Rachala, Sridhar R
Polypropylene mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for failed patellar tendon repairs after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but there have been few reports of this synthetic mesh used in complete quadriceps rupture after TKA. We retrospectively reviewed seven consecutive cases in six patients with complete quadriceps tears after TKA who had their quadriceps tendon repaired with suture and polypropylene mesh augmentation. All but two patients had previously failed primary suture repair. Patient outcomes were evaluated using the Knee Society Score. Standardized anterior-posterior (AP), lateral and merchant radiographs were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up. Seven knees in six patients were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 34±10 (range 24 to 49months) months. There were only four clinical successes defined as an extensor lag less than 30°. Of the functioning knees at final follow-up (n=5) the overall extensor lag in this group did significantly improve from 50±13° to 20±15° (range 5 to 40°) (p=.01). Mean postoperative flexion at final follow-up was 115±8°. Mean Knee Society Score for function improved from 20±30 to 45±54 (p=.03) as did the mean Knee Society Score for pain (44±18 vs. 74±78, p=.02). Polypropylene mesh offered limited postoperative functional results when used as an augment to the multiply operated knee that sustains a complete quadriceps rupture after TKA, but did allow for significant improvement in postoperative pain outcomes. IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hüfner, T; Gaulke, R; Imrecke, J; Krettek, C; Stübig, T
The conservative functional treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures has developed further over the last 20 years and is basically possible for 60-80% of patients. The treatment leads to success if the indications obtained by dynamic sonography are correctly interpreted (adaptation of the tendon ends up to 20 degrees plantar flexion), if the patient presents sufficient compliance and the physiotherapy is increasingly intensified depending on tendon healing. Modern ortheses allow an increased equinus position and therefore improved protection of the healing tendon. If these factors are present a relatively low re-rupture rate of only 7% can be achieved. The decisive advantage of conservative functional therapy is the avoidance of specific operative risks, such as infection and injury to the sural nerve. After removal of the orthesis the tendon should continue to be modeled using shoe insoles and raised heels.
Shelbourne, K D; Darmelio, M P; Klootwyk, T E
Ten patients underwent patellar tendon repair with end-to-end suture technique and medial and lateral retinacular repair, as well as reinforcement with a Dall-Miles cable through the patella and tibial tubercle. The cable was tensioned at 60 degrees of flexion to allow immediate range of motion to at least 100 degrees of flexion and to protect the repair from undue tension while healing. Accurate tendon length was obtained from a lateral radiograph of the noninvolved knee in 60 degrees of flexion. Patients were allowed to bear full weight as tolerated postoperatively. A knee immobilizer was worn for approximately 2 weeks when adequate muscular control of the leg was attained. The cable was removed 6-8 weeks postoperatively, at which time range of motion equal to the opposite extremity was sought. Full extension was obtained by 1 week postoperatively. Average postoperative knee flexion was 88 degrees at 2 weeks, 112 degrees at 1 month, 133 at 3 months, and 138 degrees at 6 months compared to flexion of 141 degrees in the noninvolved knee. Mean quadriceps muscle strength 1 year postoperatively was 72%+/-11% of the noninvolved leg. No patient had patella infera or rerupture after surgery. Repair of a patellar tendon rupture with end-to-end techniques reinforced with a Dall-Miles cable allows immediate rehabilitation without the need for prolonged immobilization. This technique allows restoration of full range of motion early postoperatively and enables patients to regain adequate quadriceps strength.
Sheean, Andrew J; Musahl, Volker; Slone, Harris S; Xerogeanes, John W; Milinkovic, Danko; Fink, Christian; Hoser, Christian
Traditional bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon ACL grafts are not without limitations. A growing body of anatomic, biomechanical and clinical data has demonstrated the utility of quadriceps tendon autograft in arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction. The quadriceps tendon autograft provides a robust volume of tissue that can be reliably harvested, mitigating the likelihood of variably sized grafts and obviating the necessity of allograft augmentation. Modern, minimally invasive harvest techniques offer the advantages of low rates of donor site morbidity and residual extensor mechanism strength deficits. New data suggest that quadriceps tendon autograft may possess superior biomechanical characteristics when compared with bone-patella tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft. However, there have been very few direct, prospective comparisons between the clinical outcomes associated with quadriceps tendon autograft and other autograft options (eg, hamstring tendon and bone-patellar tendon-bone). Nevertheless, quadriceps tendon autograft should be one of the primary options in any knee surgeon's armamentarium. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Alajoulin, Omar A.; Alsbou, Mohammed S.; Ja’afreh, Somayya O.; Kalbouneh, Heba M.
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis), early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations. PMID:26620992
Alajoulin, Omar A; Alsbou, Mohammed S; Ja'afreh, Somayya O; Kalbouneh, Heba M
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis), early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations.
Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S
Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus ruptures are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP ruptures is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hurley, Eoghan T; Calvo-Gurry, Manuel; Withers, Dan; Farrington, Shane K; Moran, Ray; Moran, Cathal J
To systematically review the current evidence to ascertain whether quadriceps tendon autograft (QT) is a viable option in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A literature review was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Cohort studies comparing QT with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft (BPTB) or hamstring tendon autograft (HT) were included. Clinical outcomes were compared, with all statistical analyses performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 22.0, with P < .05 being considered statistically significant. We identified 15 clinical trials with 1,910 patients. In all included studies, QT resulted in lower rates of anterior knee pain than BPTB. There was no difference in the rate of graft rupture between QT and BPTB or HT in any of the studies reporting this. One study found that QT resulted in greater knee stability than BPTB, and another study found increased stability compared with HT. One study found that QT resulted in improved functional outcomes compared with BPTB, and another found improved outcomes compared with HT, but one study found worse outcomes compared with BPTB. Current literature suggests QT is a viable option in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, with published literature showing comparable knee stability, functional outcomes, donor-site morbidity, and rerupture rates compared with BPTB and HT. Level III, systematic review of Level I, II, and III studies. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fazal, Muhammad Ali; Moonot, Pradeep; Haddad, Fares
The purpose of our study was to assess soft tissue features of acute patellar tendon rupture on lateral knee radiograph that would facilitate early diagnosis. The participants were divided into two groups of 35 patients each. There were 28 men and seven women with a mean age of 46 years in the control group and 26 men and nine women with a mean age of 47 years in the rupture group. The lateral knee radiograph of each patient was evaluated for Insall-Salvati ratio for patella alta, increased density of the infrapatellar fat pad, appearance of the soft tissue margin of the patellar tendon and bony avulsions. In the rupture group there were three consistent soft tissue radiographic features in addition to patellar alta. These were increased density of infrapatellar fat pad; loss of sharp, well-defined linear margins of the patellar tendon and angulated wavy margin of the patellar tendon while in the control group these features were not observed. The soft tissue radiographic features described in the rupture group are consistent and reliable. When coupled with careful clinical assessment, these will aid in early diagnosis and further imaging will be seldom required. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Gilman, Luke; Cage, Dori N; Horn, Adam; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P
Excessive use of smartphones has been associated with injuries. A 29-year-old, right hand-dominant man presented with chronic left thumb pain and loss of active motion from playing a Match-3 puzzle video game on his smartphone all day for 6 to 8 weeks. On physical examination, the left extensor pollicis longus tendon was not palpable, and no tendon motion was noted with wrist tenodesis. The thumb metacarpophalangeal range of motion was 10° to 80°, and thumb interphalangeal range of motion was 30° to 70°. The clinical diagnosis was rupture of the left extensor pollicis longus tendon. The patient subsequently underwent an extensor indicis proprius (1 of 2 tendons that extend the index finger) to extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer. During surgery, rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon was seen between the metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints. The potential for video games to reduce pain perception raises clinical and social considerations about excessive use, abuse, and addiction. Future research should consider whether pain reduction is a reason some individuals play video games excessively, manifest addiction, or sustain injuries associated with video gaming.
Amlang, M H; Zwipp, H
Tendinosis of the Achilles tendon is a degenerative-reparative structural change of the tendon with microdefects, increases in cross-section due to cicatricial tendon regeneration, neoangiogenesis and reduction of elasticity. The previously used term tendinitis is only rarely used for the chronic form since signs of inflammation such as redness and hyperthermia or elevated levels of inflammatory parameters on laboratory testing are generally absent. Duplex sonography with visualization of the neovascularization has become a valuable supplement not only for diagnostics but also for therapy planning. The classic, conservative therapy for painful tendinosis consists of oral anti-inflammatory drugs, pain-adapted load reduction, raising the heel, stretching the calf musculature, and various physiotherapeutic interventions. When conservative treatment over a period of 4 - 6 months fails to produce any or non-adequate pain relief, an indication for surgical treatment should be considered. In the therapy for fresh ruptures of the Achilles tendon further developments in minimally invasive techniques have led to a worldwide paradigm change over the past 10 years. The decisive advantage of minimally invasive surgical techniques is the lower risk of wound infection as compared to the sutures of the open technique. When compared with conservative functional therapy the minimally invasive repair has the advantage of being less dependent on the compliance of the patient since, in the early phase of tendon healing the suture prevents a separation of the tendon ends upon controlled movements. However, not every patient with a ruptured Achilles tendon should be treated with a minimally invasive repair. Open tendon reconstruction and functional conservative therapy are still justified when the correct indication is given. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Hladký, V; Havlas, V
Our paper presents a unique case of a 64-year-old patient after a fall, treated with oral antidiabetic drugs for type II diabetes mellitus. Following a series of examinations, a bilateral injury was diagnosed - patellar ligament tear on the right side and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle on the left side. It is a rare injury, complicated by simultaneous involvement of both knee joints. The used therapy consisted of a bilateral surgery followed by gradual verticalisation, first with the support of a walking frame and later with the use of forearm crutches. During the final examination, the patient demonstrated full flexion at both knees, while an extension deficit of approx. 5 degrees was still present on the left side. The right knee X-ray showed a proper position of the patella after the removal of temporary tension band wire. Although the clinical results of operative treatment of both the patellar ligament rupture and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle are in most cases good, early operative treatment, proper technique and post-operative rehabilitation are a prerequisite for success. Key words: knee injuries, patellar ligament, quadriceps muscle, rupture.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Franceschi, Francesco; Ruzzini, Laura; Rabitti, Carla; Morini, Sergio; Maffulli, Nicola; Forriol, Francisco; Denaro, Vincenzo
We analysed the morphological features of the human surgical specimens of supraspinatus tendon from patients with rotator cuff tears. Tendon samples were harvested from 31 subjects (21 men and 10 women; mean age 51 years, range 38-64) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear, and from five male patients who died of cardiovascular events (mean age, 69.6 years). Histological examination was performed using Haematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's Trichrome and Van Gieson's connective tissue stain. The specimens were examined twice by the same examiner under white light and polarized light microscopy. Particular effort was made to assess any evidence of the changes associated with tendinopathy. Within each specific category of tendon abnormalities, the chi-square test showed significant differences between the control and ruptured tendons (P < 0.05). Using the kappa statistics, the agreement between the two readings ranged from 0.57 to 0.84. We found thinning and disorientation of collagen fibres and chondroid metaplasia to be more pronounced on the articular side of the specimens from patients with rotator cuff tear (P < 0.05). The present study provides a description of the histological architecture of human surgical specimens of normal supraspinatus tendon from patients with rotator cuff tears and demonstrates more frequent tendon changes on the articular side of the rotator cuff.
Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Khallouki, Youssef
The most commonly used autografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are the bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendons. Each has its advantages and limitations. The bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft can lead to more donor-site morbidity, and the hamstring autograft can be unpredictable in size. The quadriceps tendon, with or without a bone block, has been described as an alternative graft source and has been used especially in revision cases, but in recent years, it has attracted attention even for primary cases. We report a technique for harvesting a free bone quadriceps tendon graft and attaching an extracortical button for femoral fixation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Mille, F; Adam, A; Aubry, S; Leclerc, G; Ghislandi, X; Sergent, P; Garbuio, P
Quadriceps tendon avulsions are typically treated by reattaching the tendon through bone tunnels, with or without tendon or hardware augmentation. The operated knee joint can be moved right away; however, tendon grafting or tension banding will be required to protect the repair, and the hardware must be removed later on. The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes when suture anchors are used to reattached torn quadriceps tendon, and also to assess tendon healing using MRI. Thirteen consecutive patients with avulsed quadriceps tendons were operated and then followed prospectively. The surgical technique consisted of tendon reattachment using at least three anchors, in addition to intratendinous weaving of the sutures. Weight bearing was allowed while using a splint. Rehabilitation was initiated immediately after surgery according to a set protocol. Eleven patients were followed for a mean of 14.7 months. Two retears occurred in patients who did not wear the splint. Eighty-two per cent of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the outcome. The mean knee flexion was 124.5°. All patients were able to return to their pre-injury activity levels. The mean time for clinical and functional recovery was 3 months. MRI performed 6 months after the surgical repair revealed good tendon healing. This was the first prospective study performed on quadriceps avulsion patients undergoing suture anchor repair. Prior clinical case reports have shown that this method leads to predictable clinical and functional results. Our results were comparable to those in published cases. The procedure is simpler when only suture anchors are used. Tendon healing was observed on MRI in all cases. This simple, reproducible technique is free of the drawbacks associated with the typical repair augmentation.
Sellei, R M; Bauer, E; Hofman, M; Kobbe, P; Lichte, P; Garrison, R L; Pape, H C; Horst, K
Acute quadriceps tendon tears are infrequent injuries requiring surgical treatment. Improved stability after surgical repair may allow for earlier weight-bearing and range of motion. Therefore, a new implant was tested and compared with the "gold standard", using transosseous sutures. Quadriceps tendon tears were constructed using a cadaveric model of 12 fresh matched-pair specimens (aged 61-97; mean age: 82 years). The biomechanical testing compared non-absorbable suture anchors (Polyvinylidene fluoride) versus transosseous absorbable sutures (Polydioxanon). Following anatomic reconstruction, the repaired specimens were loaded until they failed (testing machine: Hounsfield H10KM, Redhill, United Kingdom; maximum force: 1000 N; load speed: 25 mm/min; maximum test length: 150 mm; pre-load: 5 N). Values for load until tear displacement, maximum load until complete failure of the construct (pullout or breakage of the sutures or anchors) and stiffness of the reconstruction were recorded. The stiffness found in the Polyvinylidene fluoride reconstruction (mean 9.83 N/mm) (standard deviation (SD) 7.75) showed a significant increase compared to the Polydioxanon reconstruction (mean 6.66 N/mm (SD 3.32); P=0.045). Transosseous fixation showed comparable results to the suture anchor system. There was no significant difference found in the maximum load to tear displacement (PVDF: 290.88 N (SD 106.01) vs. PDS: 266.75 N (SD 82.61); P=0.358). Using the Polyvinylidene fluoride thread showed comparable results to the established method in reconstruction of ruptured quadriceps tendon. Stiffness of the Polyvinylidene fluoride thread reconstruction was even greater than Polydioxanon thread. Improved stiffness may facilitate healing and is suggested as clinical relevance in reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper proposes a powered ankle foot orthosis (AFO) for the treatment of a ruptured Achilles tendon. Usually, conservative orthosis treatment requires about two months, and a motionless ankle degrades activities of daily living (ADL). It is difficult to go to school or work on foot, and a pair of crutches is needed to go up and down stairs. In order to improve the ADL, an electric powered AFO has been designed to improve the ability to walk with a fixed ankle joint. The sole of the proposed AFO is equipped with an electric actuator. The prototype actuator consists of Nd magnets and electromagnets and is lightweight and battery driven. The actuator can switch the upright posture and the stepped forward posture of the patient. In an experiment, the use of this electric AFO made it possible to walk and to ascend and descend stairs with a fixed ankle joint.
Jin, Rihao; Jin, Yu; Fang, Xiulin
To discuss applied anatomy, biomechanics and surgical procedures of long peroneal muscles tendon transposition in repair of occlusive achilles tendon rupture. The blood supply and the morphology of long peroneal muscles tendon were observed in the lower extremity of 50 sides adult specimens and the mechanical tests which stretch load on the tendon were carried out. The methods were designed on the basis of the anatomical characteristics and morphology. Ten patients suffering occlusive Achilles tendon rupture were treated by using long peroneal muscles tendon transposition from March 2001 to July 2004. Among 10 patients, there were 7 males and 3 females, aging 32 to 54 years including 6 cases of jump injury, 2 cases of bruise, 1 case of step vacancy and 1 case of spontaneity injury. The interval between injury and surgery was 6 hours to 7 days in 7 fresh rupture and 21 days to 3 months in 3 old rupture. All cases belonged to occlusive Achilles tendon rupture (8 cases of complete rupture and 2 cases of incomplete rupture). The origin of long peroneal muscles was proximal tibia and fibular head, the end of them was base of first metatarsal bones and medial cuboid. The length of tendon was 13.5 +/- 2.5 cm. The width of origin tendon was 0.9 +/- 0.2 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm; the width on apex of lateral malleolus was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.4 +/- 0.1 cm, the width on head of cuboid was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm. The long peroneal muscles tendon had abundant blood supply. The results of mechanical test showed that the biggest load was 2,292.4 +/- 617.3 N on tendon calcaneus, 1,020.4 +/- 175.4 N on long peroneal muscles tendon, 752.0 +/- 165.4 N on peroneus brevis tendon and 938.2 +/- 216.7 N on tibialis posterior tendon. Ten cases of occlusive Achilles tendon rupture achieved healing by first intention and were followed up 18-24 months. No Achilles tendon re-rupture, necrosis of skin or other complications occurred
Lund, Bent; Nielsen, Torsten; Faunø, Peter; Christiansen, Svend Erik; Lind, Martin
The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to compare knee stability, kneeling pain, harvest site pain, sensitivity loss, and subjective clinical outcome after primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) or quadriceps tendon-bone (QTB) autografts in a noninferiority study design. From 2005 to 2009, a total of 51 patients were included in the present study. Inclusion criteria were isolated ACL injuries in adults. Twenty-five patients were randomized to BPTB grafts and 26 to QTB grafts. An independent examiner performed follow-up evaluations 1 and 2 years postoperatively. Anteroposterior knee laxity was measured with a KT-1000 arthrometer (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA). Anterior knee pain was assessed clinically and by knee-walking ability. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score were used for patient-evaluated outcome. Anterior knee laxity was equal between the 2 groups with KT-1000 values of 1.1 ± 1.4 mm and 0.8 ± 1.7 mm standard deviation (SD) at follow-up in QTB and BPTB groups, respectively (P = .65), whereas positive pivot shift test results were seen less frequently (14% compared with 38%, respectively; P = .03). Anterior kneeling pain, evaluated by the knee walking ability test, was significantly less in the QTB group, with only 7% of patients grading knee walking as difficult or impossible compared with 34% in the BPTB group. At 1 and 2 years' follow-up, there was no difference between the 2 groups in subjective patient-evaluated outcome. The IKDC score was 75 ± 13 patients and 76 ± 16 SD at 1-year follow-up in QTB and BPTB groups, respectively (P = .78). At 2 years, 12 patients were lost to follow-up, resulting in 18 in the BPTB group and 21 in the QTB group. The use of the QTB graft results in less kneeling pain, graft site pain, and sensitivity loss than seen with BPTB grafts; however, similar anterior knee
Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J
Tendons possess both viscous (rate-dependent) and elastic (rate-independent) properties that determine tendon function. During high-speed movements external loading increases both the magnitude (FT) and rate (RFDT) of tendon loading. The influence of external loading on muscle and tendon dynamics during maximal vertical jumping was explored. Ten resistance-trained men performed parallel-depth, countermovement vertical jumps with and without additional load (0%, 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum squat lift strength), while joint kinetics and kinematics, quadriceps tendon length (LT) and patellar tendon FT and RFDT were estimated using integrated ultrasound, motion analysis and force platform data and muscle tendon modelling. Estimated FT and RFDT, but not peak LT, increased with external loading. Temporal comparisons between 0% and 90% loads revealed that FT was greater with 90% loading throughout the majority of the movement (11%-81% and 87%-95% movement duration). However, RFDT was greater with 90% load only during the early movement initiation phase (8%-15% movement duration) but was greater in the 0% load condition later in the eccentric phase (27%-38% movement duration). LT was longer during the early movement (12%-23% movement duration) but shorter in the late eccentric and early concentric phases (48%-55% movement duration) with 90% load. External loading positively influenced peak FT and RFDT but tendon strain appeared unaffected, suggesting no additive effect of external loading on patellar tendon lengthening during human jumping. Temporal analysis revealed that external loading resulted in a large initial RFDT that may have caused dynamic stiffening of the tendon and attenuated tendon strain throughout the movement. These results suggest that external loading influences tendon lengthening in both a load- and movement-dependent manner.
Rolf, Christer G; Fu, Sai-Chuen; Hopkins, Chelsea; Luan, Ju; Ip, Margaret; Yung, Shu-Hang; Friman, Göran; Qin, Ling; Chan, Kai-Ming
The structural pathology of Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures resembles tendinopathy, but the causes remain unknown. Recently, a number of diseases were found to be attributed to bacterial infections, resulting in low-grade inflammation and progressive matrix disturbance. The authors speculate that spontaneous AT ruptures may also be influenced by the presence of bacteria. Bacteria are present in ruptured ATs but not in healthy tendons. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with spontaneous AT ruptures and patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction were recruited for this study. During AT surgical repair, excised tendinopathic tissue was collected, and healthy tendon samples were obtained as controls from hamstring tendon grafts used in ACL reconstruction. Half of every sample was reserved for DNA extraction and the other half for histology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using 16S rRNA gene universal primers, and the PCR products were sequenced for the identification of bacterial species. A histological examination was performed to compare tendinopathic changes in the case and control samples. Five of 20 AT rupture samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA, while none of the 23 hamstring tendon samples were positive. Sterile operating and experimental conditions and tests on samples, controlling for harvesting and processing procedures, ruled out the chance of postoperative bacterial contamination. The species identified predominantly belonged to the Staphylococcus genus. AT rupture samples exhibited histopathological features characteristic of tendinopathy, and most healthy hamstring tendon samples displayed normal tendon features. There were no apparent differences in histopathology between the bacterial DNA-positive and bacterial DNA-negative AT rupture samples. The authors have demonstrated the presence of bacterial DNA in ruptured AT samples. It may suggest the potential involvement of bacteria
Sherman, Seth L; Copeland, Marilyn E; Milles, Jeffrey L; Flood, David A; Pfeiffer, Ferris M
To evaluate the biomechanical fixation strength of suture anchor and transosseous tunnel repair of the quadriceps tendon in a standardized cadaveric repair model. Twelve "patella-only" specimens were used. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurement was performed to ensure equal bone quality amongst groups. Specimens were randomly assigned to either a suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon group (n = 6) or a transosseous tunnel repair group (n = 6). Suture type and repair configuration were equivalent. After the respective procedures were performed, each patella was mounted into a gripping jig. Tensile load was applied at a rate of 0.1 mm/s up to 100 N after which cyclic loading was applied at a rate of 1 Hz between magnitudes of 50 to 150 N, 50 to 200 N, 50 to 250 N, and tensile load at a rate of 0.1 mm/s until failure. Outcome measures included load to failure, displacement at 1st 100 N load, and displacement after each 10th cycle of loading. The measured cyclic displacement to the first 100 N, 50 to 150 N, 50 to 200 N, and 50 to 250 N was significantly less for suture anchors than transosseous tunnels. There was no statistically significant difference in ultimate load to failure between the 2 groups (P = .40). Failure mode for all suture anchors except one was through the soft tissue. Failure mode for all transosseous specimens but one was pulling the repair through the transosseous tunnel. Suture anchor quadriceps tendon repairs had significantly decreased gapping during cyclic loading, but no statistically significant difference in ultimate load to failure when compared with transosseous tunnel repairs. Although suture anchor quadriceps tendon repair appears to be a biomechanically superior construct, a clinical study is needed to confirm this technique as a viable alternative to gold standard transosseous techniques. Although in vivo studies are needed, these results support the suture anchor technique as a viable alternative to
Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Gayle D; Rabitti, Carla; Khanna, Anil; Denaro, Vincenzo
A laboratory study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features of the macroscopically intact portion of the Achilles tendon in patients undergoing surgery for an acute rupture of the Achilles tendon. Tendon samples were harvested from 29 individuals (21 men, 8 women; mean age: 46 ± 12) who underwent repair of an Achilles tendon tear tear, and from 11 male patients who died of cardiovascular events (mean age: 61). Three pieces of tendon were harvested: at the rupture site, 4 cm proximal to the site of rupture, 1 cm proximal to the insertion of the Achilles tendon on the calcaneum. Slides were assessed using a semiquantitative grading scale assessing fiber structure and arrangement, rounding of the nuclei, regional variations in cellularity, increased vascularity, decreased collagen stainability, and hyalinization. Intra-observer reliability of the subscore readings was calculated. The pathological features were significantly more pronounced in the samples taken from the site of rupture than in the samples taken proximally and distal to it (0.008 < P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the mean pathologic sum-scores in the samples taken proximally and distal to the site of rupture. Unruptured Achilles tendons, even at an advanced age, and ruptured Achilles tendons are clearly part of two distinct populations, with the latter demonstrating histopathological evidence of failed healing response even in areas macroscopically normal.
Hajipour, B; Navali, A M; Mohammad, S Ali; Mousavi, G; Akbari, M Gahvechi; Miyandoab, T Maleki; Roshangar, L; Saleh, B Mohammadi; Kermani, T Asvadi; Laleh, F Moutab; Ghabili, M
Tendons are vulnerable to various types of acute or chronic injures. Different methods have been investigated to achieve better healing. Phenytoin is a drug which could stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagen. This experimental study was performed to assess the effect of phenytoin on tendon healing in a rat model of tendon rupture. Thirty healthy rats were divided into 3 groups, 1) Sham group; 2) Tendon rupture; 3) Tendon rupture+phenytoin (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 21 days. On 21st day after tendon injury, the rats were anesthetized and tendon tissue was sampled for studying by light and electron microscopy. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic comparisons of the repair tissues of both groups were made on the 21st day. The results obtained from light and electron microscopy studies showed that tendon tissue healing was significantly better in phenytoin group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Systemic administration of phenytoin may have a positive effect on tendon healing by increasing fibroblast quantity, fibrillar collagen synthesis, vascularity, and suppressing inflammation (Tab. 2, Ref. 25).
Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Bing
Objective *These authors contributed equally to this work.To explore tendon-bundle technique for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. Methods Patients with full unilateral Achilles tendon rupture with no defects were included. The Achilles tendon medial edge surgical repair approach was used, revealing horsetail-like rupture bundles. Tendon bundles were anatomically realigned and repaired end-to-end using 5-0 sutures. Patients were followed-up for 1 year, and assessed for differences between the repaired versus healthy limb. Results Out of 24 patients (18 male, 6 female; aged 19–56 years) at 1 year following surgery, mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 92.4 ± 5.9; mean differences between the surgically repaired versus contralateral side in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were 3.5 ± 2.3° and 5.6 ± 3.2°, respectively; mean difference in calf circumference between the two sides was 0.9 ± 0.5 cm; and mean increase in Achilles tendon width versus the healthy side was 0.8 ± 0.2 cm. By 1 year post-surgery, there were no significant between-side differences in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle, or calf circumference. Conclusions Tendon-bundle surgery resulted in good ankle function restoration and low complication rates. Tendon-bundle surgery may reduce blood supply destruction and maximally preserve Achilles tendon length, and may be effective for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. PMID:28222622
Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette; Døssing, Simon; Crameri, Regina M; Welling, Rasmus J; Langberg, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kjaer, Michael; Babraj, John A; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J
We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studied over 72 h after 1 h of one-legged kicking exercise at 67% of maximum workload (Wmax). To label tissue proteins in muscle and tendon primed, constant infusions of [1-13C]leucine or [1-13C]valine and flooding doses of [15N] or [13C]proline were given intravenously, with estimation of labelling in target proteins by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Patellar tendon and quadriceps biopsies were taken in exercised and rested legs at 6, 24, 42 or 48 and 72 h after exercise. The fractional synthetic rates of all proteins were elevated at 6 h and rose rapidly to peak at 24 h post exercise (tendon collagen (0.077% h−1), muscle collagen (0.054% h−1), myofibrillar protein (0.121% h−1), and sarcoplasmic protein (0.134% h−1)). The rates decreased toward basal values by 72 h although rates of tendon collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis remained elevated. There was no tissue damage of muscle visible on histological evaluation. Neither tissue microdialysate nor serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4) or procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide changed from resting values. Thus, there is a rapid increase in collagen synthesis after strenuous exercise in human tendon and muscle. The similar time course of changes of protein synthetic rates in different cell types supports the idea of coordinated musculotendinous adaptation. PMID:16002437
Budovec, Joseph J; Sudakoff, Gary S; Dzwierzynski, William W; Matloub, Hani S; Sanger, James R
After the surgical repair of finger tendons finger range of motion may be limited by tendon rupture or adhesive scarring. Differentiating tendon rupture from adhesive scarring may be difficult clinically. Digital tendon sonography allows the evaluation of tendon integrity in a dynamic setting. Our objective was to determine if sonography could differentiate tendon rupture from adhesive scarring in patients who have had primary tendon repair. A retrospective review was performed of the radiographic, clinical, and surgical records of patients referred for finger sonography over a 2-year period. Twenty-eight digits in 21 patients were evaluated for finger tendon disruption after primary surgical repair. The diagnosis of complete tendon rupture was made when 1 or more of the following was identified: a gap separating the proximal and distal tendon margins, visualization of only the proximal tendon margin, or visualization of only the distal tendon margin. Adhesive scarring was diagnosed if the tendon appeared intact with abnormal peritendinous soft tissue abutting or partially encasing the tendon, with synovial sheath thickening, or with restricted tendon motion during dynamic evaluation. Sonography correctly identified tendon rupture or adhesive scarring in 27 of 28 digits with 1 false-positive case (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 93%; positive-predictive value, 93%; negative-predictive value, 100%; accuracy, 96%). Sonography is an accurate modality for differentiating tendon rupture from adhesive scarring in patients with prior surgical tendon repair. Diagnostic, Level I.
Maffulli, Nicola; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco
Tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon involves clinical conditions in and around the tendon and it is the result of a failure of a chronic healing response. Although several conservative therapeutic options have been proposed, few of them are supported by randomized controlled trials. The management is primarily conservative and many patients respond well to conservative measures. If clinical conditions do not improve after 6 months of conservative management, surgery is recommended. The management of chronic ruptures is different from that of acute ruptures. The optimal surgical procedure is still debated. In this article chronic Achilles tendon disorders are debated and evidence-based medicine treatment strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Achilles tendon rupture is a serious injury for which the best treatment is still controversial. Its primary goal should be to restore normal length and tension, thus obtaining an optimal function. Tendon elongation correlates significantly with clinical outcome; lengthening is an important cause of morbidity and may produce permanent functional impairment. In this article, we review all factors that may influence the repair, including the type of surgical technique, suture material, and rehabilitation program, among many others. PMID:21966048
Spoliti, Marco; Giai Via, Alessio; Padulo, Johnny; Oliva, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola
Patellar tendon rupture is a serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its reconstruction in patients with chronic ruptures is technically demanding. This article reports the results of surgical reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon rupture in TKA using autologous hamstring tendons. Nine TKA patients (six women and three men) (mean age at index surgery 68 years) with chronic patellar tendon tears underwent reconstruction with ipsilateral hamstrings tendon, leaving the distal insertion in situ. The clinical diagnosis was supported by imaging (anterior-posterior and 30° flexion lateral radiographs). Insall-Salvati index, range of motion, and leg extension test were recorded preoperatively and at last follow-up. The modified Cincinnati rating system and the Kujala score were administered. The patients sustained the patellar tendon tear an average of 8 weeks before the procedure. At final follow-up of 4 years (range 2-8 years), the median of extension lag was 5° (range 0°-15°; DS = 5). The median of post-operative Insall-Salvati index was 1.4 (range 1.3-1.8; SD = 0.15; p = 0.002) compared to the preoperative index of 1.7 (range 1.5-2.2; SD = 0.23). The mean modified Cincinnati and Kujala scores significantly increased compared with the preoperative ones (p < 0.01). At final follow-up, all patients were able to walk without brace or aids, and they were satisfied with the procedure. Based on our retrospective study of nine patients, reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon rupture in TKA with autologous hamstring tendons is feasible and safe, and provides good functional recovery. Case series, Level IV.
Holm, C; Kjaer, M; Eliasson, P
Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent injury with an increasing incidence. Until now, there is no consensus regarding optimal treatment. The aim of this review was to illuminate and summarize randomized controlled trials comparing surgical and non-surgical treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures during the last 10 years. Seven articles were found and they were all acceptable according to international quality assessment guidelines. Primary outcomes were re-ruptures, other complications, and functional outcomes. There was no significant difference in re-ruptures between the two treatments, but a tendency to favoring surgical treatment. Further, one study found an increased risk of soft-tissue-related complications after surgery. Patient satisfaction and time to return to work were significantly different in favor of surgery in one study, and there was also better functional outcome after surgery in some studies. These seven studies indicate that surgical patients have a faster rehabilitation. However, the differences between surgical and non-surgical treatment appear to be subtle and it could mean that rehabilitation is more important, rather than the actual initial treatment. Therefore, further studies will be needed in regard to understanding the interplay between acute surgical or non-surgical treatment, and the rehabilitation regimen for the overall outcome after Achilles tendon ruptures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dellaero, David T; Mallon, William J
We present the treatment and results of a consecutive series of 7 patients (mean age, 42.7 years) with partial ruptures of the distal biceps tendon. All injuries occurred as the result of either heavy labor or weightlifting. Diagnosis in all cases was made with magnetic resonance imaging. After failure of conservative therapy, the patients were treated with repair of the distal biceps tendon. Mean follow-up was 30.6 months (range, 25-39 months). Results were uniformly good, with all patients satisfied with the outcome. All patients maintained their preoperative range of motion, with none reporting significant postoperative pain. The only complication was transient neurapraxias of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve in 2 cases. We conclude that patients presenting with chronic pain in the cubital fossa should be evaluated for possible partial biceps tendon tear. If the diagnosis of partial tendon tear is made, surgical repair is a safe and effective method of treatment.
Sarman, Hakan; Atmaca, Halil; Cakir, Ozgur; Muezzinoglu, Umit Sefa; Anik, Yonca; Memisoglu, Kaya; Baran, Tuncay; Isik, Cengiz
Although pre- and postoperative imaging of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) has been well documented, radiographic evaluations of postoperative intratendinous healing and microstructure are still lacking. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an innovative technique that offers a noninvasive method for describing the microstructure characteristics and organization of tissues. DTI was used in the present study for quantitative assessment of fiber continuity postoperatively in patients with acute ATR. The data from 16 patients with ATR from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The microstructure of ART was evaluated using tendon fiber tracking, tendon continuity, fractional anisotropy, and apparent diffusion coefficient values by way of DTI. The distal and proximal portions were measured separately in both the ruptured and the healthy extremities of each patient. The mean patient age was 41.56 ± 8.49 (range 26 to 56) years. The median duration of follow-up was 21 (range 6 to 80) months. The tendon fractional anisotropy values of the ruptured Achilles tendon were significantly lower statistically than those of the normal side (p = .001). However, none of the differences between the 2 groups with respect to the distal and proximal apparent diffusion coefficient were statistically significant (p = .358 and p = .899, respectively). In addition, the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements were not significantly different in the proximal and distal regions of the ruptured tendons compared with the healthy tendons. The present study used DTI and fiber tracking to demonstrate the radiologic properties of postoperative Achilles tendons with respect to trajectory and tendinous fiber continuity. Quantifying DTI and fiber tractography offers an innovative and effective tool that might be able to detect microstructural abnormalities not appreciable using conventional radiologic techniques. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle
Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Todor, Adrian
Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction aims to restore the 2 functional bundles of the ACL in an attempt to better reproduce the native biomechanics of the injured knee and promote long-term knee health. However, this concept is not fully accepted and is not performed on a standard basis. In addition, the superiority of this technique over the conventional single-bundle technique has been questioned, especially the long-term clinical results. One of the down sides of the double-bundle reconstruction is the complexity of the procedure, with increased risks, operative time, and costs compared with the single-bundle procedure. Also, the revision procedure, if necessary, is more challenging. We propose a technique that has some advantages over the traditional double-bundle procedure, using a single femoral tunnel, 2 tibial tunnels, and a free quadriceps tendon autograft.
Minkwitz, Susann; Schmock, Aysha; Kurtoglu, Alper; Tsitsilonis, Serafeim; Manegold, Sebastian; Klatte-Schulz, Franka
A balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) is required to maintain tendon homeostasis. Variation in this balance over time might impact on the success of tendon healing. This study aimed to analyze structural changes and the expression profile of MMPs and TIMPs in human Achilles tendons at different time-points after rupture. Biopsies from 37 patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were taken at surgery and grouped according to time after rupture: early (2–4 days), middle (5–6 days), and late (≥7 days), and intact Achilles tendons served as control. The histological score increased from the early to the late time-point after rupture, indicating the progression towards a more degenerative status. In comparison to intact tendons, qRT-PCR analysis revealed a significantly increased expression of MMP-1, -2, -13, TIMP-1, COL1A1, and COL3A1 in ruptured tendons, whereas TIMP-3 decreased. Comparing the changes over time post rupture, the expression of MMP-9, -13, and COL1A1 significantly increased, whereas MMP-3 and -10 expression decreased. TIMP expression was not significantly altered over time. MMP staining by immunohistochemistry was positive in the ruptured tendons exemplarily analyzed from early and late time-points. The study demonstrates a pivotal contribution of all investigated MMPs and TIMP-1, but a minor role of TIMP-2, -3, and -4, in the early human tendon healing process. PMID:29053586
Dumbre Patil, Sampat Shivajirao; Dumbre Patil, Vaishali Sampat; Basa, Vikas Rajeshwarrao; Dombale, Ajay Birappa
Chronic Achilles tendon ruptures are associated with considerable functional morbidity. When treated operatively, debridement of degenerated tendon ends may create large defects. Various procedures to reconstruct large defects have been described. We present a simple technique in which an autologous semitendinosus tendon graft is used to reconstruct defects larger than 5 cm in chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to describe our operative technique and its functional outcome. Achilles ruptures of more than 6 weeks duration were considered for the study. We treated 35 patients (20 males, 15 females) with symptomatic chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. The mean age was 47.4 years (range, 30 to 59). The smallest defect that we had reconstructed was 5 cm, and the largest was 9 cm in length. The average follow-up duration was 30.7 months (range, 20 to 42). Postoperatively, the strength of gastrocsoleus was measured by manual muscle testing (MMT) in non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing positions. All operated patients showed satisfactory functional outcome, good soft tissue healing, and no reruptures. The preoperative weight-bearing MMT of 2/5 improved to 4/5 or 5/5 postoperatively. In all patients, postoperative non-weight-bearing MMT was 5/5. All patients returned to their prerupture daily activity. We present a technique that is simple, with low morbidity. We believe it is a valuable option especially when allografts are not available. It is inexpensive as suture anchors or tenodesis screws are not used. This can be a useful option if other tendons (flexor hallucis longus, peroneus brevis, etc) are not available for transfer. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hertel, G; Götz, J; Grifka, J; Willers, J
A superior life expectancy and an increased activity in the population result in an increase in degenerative diseases, such as Achilles tendon ruptures. The medical history and physical examinations are the methods of choice to diagnose Achilles tendon ruptures. Ultrasound and radiography represent reasonable extended diagnostic procedures. In order to decide on the medical indications for the therapy concept, the advantages and disadvantages of conservative and surgical treatment options have to be weighed up on an indivdual basis. There are explicit contraindications for both treatment options. For the surgical treatment concept open suture techniques, minimally invasive methods and reconstructive procedures are available. The postoperative management of the patient is as important as the choice of surgical technique. With the correct medical indications and supervision of the patient it is possible to achieve extremely satisfying results for the patient with both conservative and surgical treatment options.
Khan, W; Agarwal, M; Funk, L
Distal biceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries with only around 300 cases reported in the literature. Current management tends to favour anatomical reinsertion of the tendon into the radial tuberosity, especially in young and active individuals. These injuries are commonly repaired using either a single anterior incision with suture anchors or the Boyd-Anderson dual incision technique. We report the use of a bioabsorbable interference screw for the repair of distal biceps tendon rupture using a minimal incision technique. In this technique the avulsed tendon and a bioabsorbable screw are secured in a drill hole on the radial tuberosity using whip stitch and fibre wire sutures according to Biotenodesis system guidelines. The technique described requires minimal volar dissection that is associated with a reduced number of synostosis and posterior interosseous nerve injuries. The bioabsorbable interference screw has all the advantages of being biodegradable and has been shown to have greater pullout strength than suture anchors. It is also a reasonable alternative to titanium screws in terms of primary fixation strength. The strong fixation provided allows early active motion and return to previous activities as seen in our case.
Kubo, Keitaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of isometric training protocols with long- and short-duration contractions on the elasticity of human tendon structures in vivo. The elasticity was assessed through in vivo determination of the elongation (L) of the tendons and aponeuroses using ultrasonography, while the subjects performed ramp isometric exercise up to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC).Eight young males completed 12 weeks (4 days per week) of a unilateral isometric training programme on knee extensors, which consisted of two different combinations of contraction and relaxation times at 70 % MVC: one leg was trained using a short-duration protocol (3 sets of 50 repetitions of contraction for 1 s and relaxation for 2 s), and the other leg was trained using a long-duration protocol (4 sets of a combination of contraction for 20 s and relaxation for 1 min). The training volume per session, expressed as the integrated torque, was the same for the two protocols.Both protocols resulted in a significant increase in MVC: 31.8 ± 17.2 % for the short-duration protocol and 33.9 ± 14.4 % for the long-duration protocol. Moreover, the training produced significant increases in the muscle volume of the constituents of the quadriceps femoris, with similar relative gains for the two protocols: 7.4 ± 3.9 % for the short-duration protocol and 7.6 ± 4.3 % for the long-duration protocol.The short-duration protocol produced no significant change in L values at any of the force production levels. For the long-duration protocol, however, the L values above 550 N were significantly shorter after training. Analysis revealed that the group × test time interaction effect on tendon stiffness was significant. Stiffness increased significantly for the long-duration protocol, but not for the short-duration protocol.The present study demonstrates a greater increase in stiffness of human tendon structures following isometric training using longer duration contractions
Chong, Chew-Wei; Chen, Shih-Heng
Reconstruction of a tendon defect is a challenging task in hand surgery. Delayed repair of a ruptured flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon is often associated with tendon defect. Primary repair of the tendon is often not possible, particularly after debridement of the unhealthy segment of the tendon. As such, various surgical treatments have been described in the literature, including single-stage tendon grafting, 2-stage tendon grafting, flexor digitorum superficialis tendon transfer from ring finger, and interphalangeal joint arthrodesis. We describe step cut lengthening of FPL tendon for the reconstruction of FPL rupture. This is a single-stage reconstruction without the need for tendon grafting or tendon transfer. To our knowledge, no such technique has been previously described.
Miller, Kyle E; Solomon, Daniel J
Rupture of the long head of the biceps is usually seen in older adults, in conjunction with rotator cuff tears or tenosynovitis secondary to chronic subacromial impingement; it is rarely seen as a result of trauma. We present the case of a young active patient who denied prodromal symptoms but ruptured the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHB) while performing 25-pound biceps curls. Upon examination, the patient was noted to have a readily apparent biceps defect and decreased strength. He was brought to the operating room, where open subpectoral tenodesis of the LHB was performed. At the 6-week follow-up evaluation, the patient had regained full range of motion. By 6 months, he had regained his previous strength. This case demonstrates an unusual presentation of a LHB rupture in a young healthy man with no prodromal symptoms.
White, Brian D; Nydick, Jason A; Karsky, Dawnne; Williams, Bailee D; Hess, Alfred V; Stone, Jeffrey D
To evaluate the incidence of tendon rupture after nonoperative and operative management of distal radius fractures, report clinical outcomes after tendon repair or transfer, and examine volar plate and dorsal screw prominence as a predictor of tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective chart review on patients treated for tendon rupture after distal radius fracture. We evaluated active range of motion, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score, grip strength, and pain score, and performed radiographic evaluation of volar plate and dorsal screw prominence in both the study group and a matched control group. There were 6 tendon ruptures in 1,359 patients (0.4%) treated nonoperatively and 8 tendon ruptures in 999 patients (0.8%) treated with volar plate fixation. At the time of final follow-up, regardless of treatment, we noted that patients had minimal pain and excellent motion and grip strength. Mean Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm, and Hand scores were 6 for patients treated nonoperatively and 4 for those treated with volar plating. We were unable to verify volar plate or dorsal screw prominence as independent risk factors for tendon rupture after distal radius fractures. However, we recommend continued follow-up and plate removal for symptomatic patients who have volar plate prominence or dorsal screw prominence. In the event of tendon rupture, we report excellent clinical outcomes after tendon repair or tendon transfer. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carmont, Michael R; Highland, Adrian M; Blundell, Christopher M; Davies, Mark B
Ruptures of the Achilles tendon are common however simultaneous ruptures occur less frequently. Eccentric loading exercise programmes have been used to successfully treat Achilles tendinopathy. We report a case of simultaneous bilateral Achilles tendon rupture in a patient predisposed to rupture due to longstanding raised serum lipoprotein and recently introduced therapeutic statin medication. The patient was also a keen rock climber and had regularly undertaken loading exercise. This case illustrates that the therapeutic effect of mixed loading exercises for the Achilles tendon may not be adequate to overcome the predisposition to rupture caused by hyperlipidaemia and statin medication.
Tengberg, Peter Toft; Barfod, Kristoffer; Krasheninnikoff, Michael; Ebskov, Lars; Troelsen, Anders
There is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. This review of the literature on the subject shows a significantly higher rate of reruptures (RR) in the conservatively treated group compared to the surgically treated group when the foot is immobilised in the aftertreatment. Recent studies that used early dynamic mobilisation in the conservatively treated group did not show this difference in the RR rate. The latest literature on the subject indicates that non-operative treatment, followed by dynamic aftertreatment, results in the lowest complication rate and a good functional outcome.
Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Steele, Robert; Manal, Kurt
Whether an Achilles tendon rupture is treated surgically or not, complications such as muscle weakness, decrease in heel-rise height, and gait abnormalities persist after injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if side-to-side differences in maximal heel-rise height can be explained by differences in Achilles tendon length. Case series; level of evidence, 4. Eight patients (mean [SD] age of 46  years) with acute Achilles tendon rupture and 10 healthy subjects (mean [SD] age of 28  years) were included in the study. Heel-rise height, Achilles tendon length, and patient-reported outcome were measured 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Achilles tendon length was evaluated using motion analysis and ultrasound imaging. The Achilles tendon length test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97) was excellent. For the healthy subjects, there were no side-to-side differences in tendon length and heel-rise height. Patients with Achilles tendon ruptures had significant differences between the injured and uninjured side for both tendon length (mean [SD] difference, 2.6-3.1 [1.2-1.4] cm, P = .017-.028) and heel-rise height (mean [SD] difference, -4.1 to -6.1 [1.7-1.8] cm, P = .012-.028). There were significant negative correlations (r = -0.943, P = .002, and r = -0.738, P = .037) between the side-to-side difference in heel-rise height and Achilles tendon length at the 6- and 12-month evaluations, respectively. The side-to-side difference found in maximal heel-rise height can be explained by a difference in Achilles tendon length in patients recovering from an Achilles tendon rupture. Minimizing tendon elongation appears to be an important treatment goal when aiming for full return of function.
Herod, Tyler W; Chambers, Neil C; Veres, Samuel P
In this study we investigate relationships between the nanoscale structure of collagen fibrils and the macroscale functional response of collagenous tissues. To do so, we study two functionally distinct classes of tendons, positional tendons and energy storing tendons, using a bovine forelimb model. Molecular-level assessment using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), functional crosslink assessment using hydrothermal isometric tension (HIT) analysis, and ultrastructural assessment using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study undamaged, ruptured, and cyclically loaded samples from the two tendon types. HIT indicated differences in both crosslink type and crosslink density, with flexor tendons having more thermally stable crosslinks than the extensor tendons (higher TFmax of >90 vs. 75.1±2.7°C), and greater total crosslink density than the extensor tendons (higher t1/2 of 11.5±1.9 vs. 3.5±1.0h after NaBH4 treatment). Despite having a lower crosslink density than flexor tendons, extensor tendons were significantly stronger (37.6±8.1 vs. 23.1±7.7MPa) and tougher (14.3±3.6 vs. 6.8±3.4MJ/m(3)). SEM showed that collagen fibrils in the tougher, stronger extensor tendons were able to undergo remarkable levels of plastic deformation in the form of discrete plasticity, while those in the flexor tendons were not able to plastically deform. When cyclically loaded, collagen fibrils in extensor tendons accumulated fatigue damage rapidly in the form of kink bands, while those in flexor tendons did not accumulate significant fatigue damage. The results demonstrate that collagen fibrils in functionally distinct tendons respond differently to mechanical loading, and suggests that fibrillar collagens may be subject to a strength vs. fatigue resistance tradeoff. Collagen fibrils-nanoscale biological cables-are the fundamental load-bearing elements of all structural human tissues. While all collagen fibrils share common features, such as being composed of a
Ali Yousef, Mohamed Abdelhamid; Rosenfeld, Scott
Intact knee extensor mechanism is required for the normal function of the lower extremity. Patellar tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury with peak age incidence around 40 years and usually occurs midsubstance. The occurrence of pure patellar tendon rupture without bony avulsion is an extremely rare injury in the pediatric population with few cases reported in the literature with limited information regarding frequency, complications, and outcomes in children. However, due to increased participation in sports and high-energy recreational activities during childhood, the frequency of such injuries has progressively increased. To evaluate the frequency of pediatric patellar tendon rupture injuries and describe the radiological findings, treatment modalities, and outcome of such injuries. Demographic and clinical data on a series of patients who sustained patellar tendon rupture were reviewed. These data included age at time of injury, sex, laterality, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, complications, presence or absence of Osgood-Schlatter disease, diagnostic imaging such as plain radiographs and magnetic resonance images (MRI), surgical technique, method of fixation, period of postoperative immobilization, total duration of physiotherapy, time to return to sports activities and follow-up duration. Insall-Salvati ratio was calculated on the preoperative lateral x-ray. The functional outcome was evaluated with regard to final knee active range of motion (AROM), manual quadriceps muscle testing, and presence or the absence of terminal extension lag. Clinical outcome rating using knee society score (KSS) was performed and functional outcome was further classified according to the calculated score. Five male patients with patellar tendon rupture (7%) were identified among 71 pediatric patients who sustained acute traumatic injury of the knee extensor mechanism. The mean age at the time of injury was 13.6 years (range: 12-15 years). The injury occurred in
Yasuda, Toshito; Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Okuda, Ryuzo
The gap between the tendon stumps in chronic Achilles tendon rupture has reportedly been filled with interposed scar tissue. In the authors' clinical experience, this interposed tissue is often thick and resists tension, so they considered it was possible to use the interposed tissue for reconstruction of Achilles tendon rupture. Scar tissue interposed between the tendon stumps has the capacity to form tendon-like repair tissue in patients with chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Six patients with chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon underwent tendon reconstruction with the use of interposed tissue between the stumps. The average time from the primary injury to surgery was 22 weeks (range, 9 to 30 weeks). Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histology of the interposed tissue, and clinical results were evaluated. The average postoperative follow-up period was 31 months (range, 24 to 43 months). Preoperative T2-weighted MRI in all cases revealed that chronically ruptured Achilles tendons were thickened and fusiform-shaped with diffuse intratendinous high-signal alterations throughout. Longitudinal high-signal bands were seen throughout the tendon, except at the musculotendinous junction and insertion on the calcaneus. Histologically, scar tissue interposed between the tendon stumps consisted of dense collagen fibers, and degenerative changes were not seen. After surgery, no patient had difficulty in walking or stair climbing, and all were able to perform a single-limb toe raise. The mean preoperative and postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scores were 88.2 and 98.3 points, respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P = .0277). Interposed tissue between the tendon stumps is suitable for repair of chronic Achilles tendon rupture if preoperative MRI shows a thickened fusiform-shaped Achilles tendon with diffuse intratendinous high-signal alterations throughout.
Melvin, Alan J; Litsky, Alan S; Mayerson, Joel L; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia
Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to non-living materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1,400 ± 93 N (vs. 1,179 ± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33 ± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4 N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p=0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p=0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Maffulli, Nicola; Loppini, Mattia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Gayle D; Denaro, Vincenzo
Achilles tendon ruptures represent more than 40% of all tendon ruptures requiring surgical management. About 20% of acute Achilles tendon tears are not diagnosed at the time of injury and become chronic, necessitating more complicated management than fresh injuries. Several techniques for the reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon have been described, but the superiority of one technique over the others has not been demonstrated. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft will result in improvement of the overall function with a low rate of complications. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2008 and 2010, the authors prospectively enrolled 28 consecutive patients (21 men and 7 women; median age, 46 years) with chronic closed ruptures of the Achilles tendon who had undergone reconstruction with a free semitendinosus tendon graft. They assessed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), maximum calf circumference, and isometric plantarflexion strength before surgery and at the last follow-up. Outcome of surgery and rate of complications were also recorded. The median follow-up after surgery was 31.4 months. The overall result of surgery was excellent/good in 26 (93%) of 28 patients. The ATRS improved from 42 (range, 29-55) to 86 (range, 78-95) (P < .0001). In the operated leg, the maximum calf circumference and isometric plantarflexion strength were significantly improved after surgery (P < .0001); however, their values remained significantly lower than those of the opposite side (P < .0001). All patients were able to walk on tiptoes and returned to their preinjury working occupation. No infections were recorded. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft provides a significant improvement of symptoms and function, although calf
Kanayama, Gen; DeLuca, James; Meehan, William P.; Hudson, James I.; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Micheli, Lyle; Pope, Harrison G.
Background Accumulating case reports have described tendon rupture in men using anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). However no controlled study, to our knowledge, has assessed history of tendon rupture in a large cohort of AAS users and comparison nonusers. Hypothesis We hypothesized that men reporting long-term AAS abuse would report an elevated lifetime incidence of tendon rupture as compared to non-AAS-using bodybuilders. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods We obtained medical histories from 142 experienced male bodybuilders age 35–55, recruited in the course of two studies. Of these men, 88 reported at least two years of cumulative lifetime AAS use and 54 reported no history of AAS use. In men reporting a history of tendon rupture, we recorded circumstances of the injury, prodromal symptoms, concomitant drug or alcohol use, and details of current and lifetime AAS use if applicable. We also obtained surgical records for most participants. Results Nineteen (22%) of the AAS users, but only 3 (6%) of the nonusers reported at least one lifetime tendon rupture. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for a first ruptured tendon in AAS users versus nonusers was 9.0 (2.5, 32.3); P <.001. Several men reported two or more independent lifetime tendon ruptures. Interestingly, upper body tendon ruptures occurred exclusively in the AAS group (15 [17%] of the AAS users versus 0 non-users; risk difference 0.17 (0.09, 0.25); P < 0.001 [hazard ratio not estimable]), whereas we found no significant difference between users and nonusers in risk for lower body ruptures (6 [7%] AAS users, 3 [6%] nonusers; hazard ratio 3.1 (0.7, 13.8), P = 0.13). Of 31 individual tendon ruptures that we assessed, only 6 (19%) occurred while weightlifting, with the majority occurring during other sports activities. Eight (26%) ruptures followed prodromal symptoms of nonspecific pain in the region. Virtually all ruptures were treated surgically with complete or near
Alves, E M; Macieira, J C; Borba, E; Chiuchetta, F A; Santiago, M B
Tendon rupture has rarely been described in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. From observation of three cases of Jaccoud's arthropathy with tendon rupture, and considering that this arthropathy is more related to an inflammatory process of the tendon sheath than to synovitis per se, the intention of this study was to review the cases of tendon rupture in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, in the hope of determining the frequency of Jaccoud's arthropathy associated with this complication. Systematic review using MEDLINE, Scielo and LILACS databases (1966 to 2009) and the following keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus, tendon rupture, Jaccoud's arthropathy. Secondary references were additionally obtained. Additionally, three Brazilian systemic lupus erythematosus patients who developed tendon rupture are described. Only 40 articles obtained fulfilled the previously established criteria. They were all case reports; the number of cases reported was 52 which, together with the three cases presented herein add up to 55 cases. Forty-six patients were women aged between 19 and 71 years, with a mean age of 40.1 +/- 12.4 years, and the average duration of the disease was 10 years. The most frequently observed rupture sites were the patellar and Achilles' tendons. While almost all patients described were on various doses of corticosteroids, 16 patients concomitantly had Jaccoud's arthropathy (29%). In conclusion, the association between Jaccoud's arthropathy and tendon rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus has been underestimated. As almost one-third of the systemic lupus erythematosus patients with tendon rupture also have Jaccoud's arthropathy, this arthropathy may be recognized as risk marker for tendon rupture.
Christman-Skieller, Claudia; Merz, Michael K; Tansey, Joseph P
Tibialis anterior (TA) tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury that has been documented primarily in case reports. This article is the first large systematic review of the literature on treatment techniques for subcutaneous rupture of TA tendons. Studies for review were identified through a PubMed search. Eligible studies involved cases of closed tendon rupture. Of the 87 cases in the study, 72 were treated with surgery, 15 with conservative measures. Mean age was 63.9 years (surgery group) and 72.4 years (conservative treatment group). Primary repair was used most often for newer injuries, autograft most often for older injuries. Operative repair of subcutaneous TA tendon rupture leads to successful outcomes in many patients. A surgeon who is deciding which operative technique to use for a patient should consider the age of the injury and the findings of intraoperative assessment for tendon necrosis.
Turner, Kenrick; Sheppard, Nicholas N; Norton, Samuel E
Spontaneous flexor tendon rupture is rare and most common in the little finger. The pathogenesis of spontaneous tendon ruptures is unclear but may occur through attrition or mechanical abrasion over a bony prominence. Kienböck disease is avascular necrosis of the lunate, with an unknown etiology. We present a case of spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus due to Kienböck disease, which we believe is the first recorded case of flexor tendon rupture attributable to osteonecrosis of the lunate. The patient underwent single-stage reconstruction of FDP and regained a good range of motion at the affected DIPJ. This case illustrates the the importance of plain radiographs in the assessment of a patient presenting with spontaneous flexor tendon rupture in the hand to exclude bony pathology as a cause.
Kanayama, Gen; DeLuca, James; Meehan, William P; Hudson, James I; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Micheli, Lyle; Pope, Harrison G
Accumulating case reports have described tendon rupture in men who use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). However, no controlled study has assessed the history of tendon rupture in a large cohort of AAS users and comparison nonusers. Men reporting long-term AAS abuse would report an elevated lifetime incidence of tendon rupture compared with non-AAS-using bodybuilders. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Medical histories were obtained from 142 experienced male bodybuilders aged 35 to 55 years recruited in the course of 2 studies. Of these men, 88 reported at least 2 years of cumulative lifetime AAS use, and 54 reported no history of AAS use. In men reporting a history of tendon rupture, the circumstances of the injury, prodromal symptoms, concomitant drug or alcohol use, and details of current and lifetime AAS use (if applicable) were recorded. Surgical records were obtained for most participants. Nineteen (22%) of the AAS users, but only 3 (6%) of the nonusers, reported at least 1 lifetime tendon rupture. The hazard ratio for a first ruptured tendon in AAS users versus nonusers was 9.0 (95% CI, 2.5-32.3; P < .001). Several men reported 2 or more independent lifetime tendon ruptures. Interestingly, upper-body tendon ruptures occurred exclusively in the AAS group (15 [17%] AAS users vs 0 nonusers; risk difference, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.09-0.25]; P < .001 [hazard ratio not estimable]), whereas there was no significant difference between users and nonusers in risk for lower-body ruptures (6 [7%] AAS users, 3 [6%] nonusers; hazard ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 0.7-13.8]; P = .13). Of 31 individual tendon ruptures assessed, only 6 (19%) occurred while weightlifting, with the majority occurring during other sports activities. Eight (26%) ruptures followed prodromal symptoms of nonspecific pain in the region. Virtually all ruptures were treated surgically, with complete or near-complete ultimate restoration of function. AAS abusers, compared with otherwise similar bodybuilders, showed
Sode, Jacob; Obel, Niels; Hallas, Jesper; Lassen, Annmarie
Several case-control studies have reported that the use of fluoroquinolone increases the risk of rupture of the Achilles tendon. Our aim was to estimate this risk by means of a population-based cohort approach. Data on Achilles tendon ruptures and fluoroquinolone use were retrieved from three population-based databases that include information on residents of Funen County (population: 470,000) in primary and secondary care during the period 1991-1999. A study cohort of all 28,262 first-time users of fluoroquinolone and all incident cases of Achilles tendon ruptures were identified. The incidence rate of Achilles tendon ruptures among users and non-users of fluoroquinolones and the standardised incidence rate ratio associating fluoroquinolon use with Achilles tendon rupture were the main outcome measures. Between 1991 and 2002 the incidence of Achilles tendon rupture increased from 22.1 to 32.6/100,000 person-years. Between 1991 and 1999 the incidence of fluoroquinolone users was 722/100,000 person-years, with no apparent trend over time. Within 90 days of their first use of fluoroquinolone, five individuals had a rupture of the Achilles tendon; the expected number was 1.6, yielding an age- and sex-standardised incidence ratio of 3.1 [(95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.0-7.3). The 90-day cumulative incidence of Achilles tendon ruptures among fluoroquinolone users was 17.7/100,000 (95%CI: 5.7-41.3), which is an increase of 12.0/100,000 (95%CI: 0.0-35.6) compared to the background population. Fluoroquinolone use triples the risk of Achilles tendon rupture, but the incidence among users is low.
To report appositional augmentation of Achilles tendon rupture in a toy breed dog with an intact flexor digitorum lateralis (FDL) muscle tendon. Clinical case report. Two-year-old spayed female Toy Poodle with Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon was accidentally ruptured by hair clippers during grooming. The dog demonstrated a plantigrade stance without digital flexion of the right hind limb. The ruptured gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor tendons were sutured to their respective cut ends using a simple locking loop pattern under a surgical microscope. The repair site was appositionally augmented by the caudally retracted intact FDL. An aluminum splint was applied on the plantar aspect to immobilize the tarsal joint for the first 2 weeks, after which a soft bandage was applied for another 2 weeks. At the 7 month follow-up no lameness was detected during walking and no complications associated with decreased FDL function such as digital contracture were observed. The range of motion of the tarsal joint had improved and could be flexed to ∼60° and extended fully. Use of the FDL is feasible for augmenting Achilles tendon repair in toy breed dogs. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Hinchey, John W; Aronowitz, Jessica G; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Morrey, Bernard F
Distal biceps tendon rupture is a common injury, and primary repair results in excellent return of function and strength. Complications resulting from distal biceps tendon repairs are well reported, but the incidence of re-ruptures has never been investigated. A search of the Mayo Clinic's Medical/Surgical Index was performed, and all distal biceps tendon repairs from January 1981 through May 2009 were identified. All patients who completed 12 months or more of follow-up were included. All charts were reviewed and patients contacted as necessary to identify a re-rupture. We also investigated the situation causing the re-rupture. We identified a total of 190 distal biceps tendon ruptures that underwent repair and met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 190 repairs, 172 (90.5%) were performed by the Mayo modification of the Boyd-Anderson 2-incision technique. Bilateral ruptures occurred in 13 patients (7.3%). Six primary ruptures (3.2%) occurred in women, 4 of the 6 being partial ruptures. Partial ruptures were found to be statistically more common than complete ruptures in women (P = .05). We identified 3 re-ruptures (1.5%), all occurring within 3 weeks of the index surgery. The re-rupture rate after primary repair of the distal biceps tendon is low at 1.5% and occurs within 3 weeks of index repair. This appears to be due to patient compliance and excessive force placed on repairs. We also found the incidence of women who sustain a distal biceps tendon tear to be 3.2%, with partial tears being statistically more common than complete ruptures. Level IV, case series, treatment study Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chin, Kingsley R; Sodl, Jeffrey F
After knee trauma, radiographs showing patella alta supercede other signs that suggest patellar tendon rupture. However, without patella alta the diagnosis may be missed. A standard lateral radiograph with the knee flexed showed the infrapatellar fat pad as a dark band with a smooth contour. Our pilot study identified a disruption of the fat pad contour as a radiographic sign of tendon rupture. Two blinded reviewers independently analyzed randomly selected lateral radiographs of the knees of 14 patients with knee injuries. Seven patients had confirmed ruptures diagnosed at surgery, and the other patients had different diagnoses. There were 12 men and two women with an average age of 49 years (range, 20-81 years). One observer detected five of the seven disrupted tendons and six of the seven intact tendons. The other observer detected six of the seven disrupted tendons and all seven intact tendons. Disruption in the contour of the infrapatellar fat pad on routine lateral view radiographs was a reasonably reliable sign of patellar tendon rupture. Diagnostic accuracy should increase when used with the patient's history, physical examination, and other radiographic signs. Absence of this sign should not supersede other suggestive signs of patella tendon rupture. Diagnostic study, Level II (development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients--with universally applied reference "gold" standard). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Maupas, Eric; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Melo, Sibele de Andrade; Forget, Robert
Stimulation of the femoral nerve in healthy people can facilitate soleus H-reflex and electromyography (EMG) activity. In stroke patients, such facilitation of transmission in spinal pathways linking the quadriceps and soleus muscles is enhanced and related to co-activation of knee and ankle extensors while sitting and walking. Soleus H-reflex facilitation can be depressed by vibration of the quadriceps in healthy people, but the effects of such vibration have never been studied on the abnormal soleus facilitation observed in people after stroke. To determine whether vibration of the quadriceps can modify the enhanced heteronymous facilitation of the soleus muscle observed in people with spastic stroke after femoral nerve stimulation and compare post-vibration effects on soleus facilitation in control and stroke individuals. Modulation of voluntary soleus EMG activity induced by femoral nerve stimulation (2×motor threshold) was assessed before, during and after vibration of the patellar tendon in 10 healthy controls and 17 stroke participants. Voluntary soleus EMG activity was facilitated by femoral nerve stimulation in 4/10 (40%) controls and 11/17 (65%) stroke participants. The level of facilitation was greater in the stroke than control group. Vibration significantly reduced early heteronymous facilitation in both groups (50% of pre-vibration values). However, the delay in recovery of soleus facilitation after vibration was shorter for the stroke than control group. The control condition with the vibrator turned off had no effect on the modulation. Patellar tendon vibration can reduce the facilitation between knee and ankle extensors, which suggests effective presynaptic inhibition but decreased post-activation depression in the lower limb of people after chronic hemiparetic stroke. Further studies are warranted to determine whether such vibration could be used to reduce the abnormal extension synergy of knee and ankle extensors in people after hemiparetic
Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Finni, Taija
Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is the most common tendon rupture injury. The consequences of ATR on metabolic activity of the Achilles tendon and ankle plantarflexors are unknown. Furthermore, the effects of eccentric rehabilitation on metabolic activity patterns of Achilles tendon and ankle plantarflexors in ATR patients have not been reported thus far. We present a case study demonstrating glucose uptake (GU) in the Achilles tendon, the triceps surae, and the flexor hallucis longus of a post-surgical ATR patient before and after a 5-month eccentric rehabilitation. At baseline, three months post-surgery, all muscles and Achilles tendon displayed much higher GU in the ATR patient compared to a healthy individual despite lower plantarflexion force. After the rehabilitation, plantarflexion force increased in the operated leg while muscle GU was considerably reduced. The triceps surae muscles showed similar values to the healthy control. When compared to the healthy or a matched patient with Achilles tendon pain after 12 weeks of rehabilitation, Achilles tendon GU levels of ATR patient remained greater after the rehabilitation. Past studies have shown a shift in the metabolic fuel utilization towards glycolysis due to immobilization. Further research, combined with immuno-histological investigation, is needed to fully understand the mechanism behind excessive glucose uptake in ATR cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Bachelier, Felix; Fürst, Oliver Alexander; Kelm, Jens
We report three cases of anterior tibial tendon ruptures and the results of an anatomical study in regard to the tendon's insertion site and a literature review. Three patients were referred to our hospital with anterior tibial tendon ruptures. In the anatomical study, 53 feet were dissected, looking in particular for variants of the bony insertion of the tendon. Two patients had surgical treatment (one primary repair and one semimembranosus tendon graft) and one conservative treatment. After a mean followup of 14 weeks all patients had satisfactory outcomes. In the anatomical study, we noted three different insertion sites: in 36 feet the tendon inserted into the medial side of the cuneiform and the base of the first metatarsal bone and in 13 feet only into the medial side of the cuneiform bone. In the remaining four feet the tendon inserted into the cuneiform and the first metatarsal bone, but an additional tendon was noted taking its origin from the anterior tibial tendon near its insertion into the medial cuneiform and attaching to the proximal part of the first metatarsal. According to literature, surgical repair is the treatment of choice for acute ruptures and for patients with high activity levels. For chronic ruptures and patients with low demands, conservative management may lead to an equally good outcome. Knowledge of the anatomy in this region may be helpful for diagnosis and for the interpretation of intraoperative findings and choosing the most appropriate surgical procedure.
Carmont, Michael R; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina; Mei-Dan, Omer; Karlsson, Jon; Maffulli, Nicola
The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) was developed because of the need for a reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to evaluate symptoms and their effects on physical activity in patients following either conservative or surgical management of an Achilles tendon rupture. Prior to using the score in larger randomized trial in an English-speaking population, we decided to perform reliability, validity and responsiveness evaluations of the English version of the ATRS. Even though the score was published in English, the actual English version has not be validated and compared to the results of the Swedish version. From 2009 to 2010, all patients who received treatment for Achilles tendon rupture were followed up using the English version of the ATRS. Patients were asked to complete the score at 3, 6 and 12 months following treatment for Achilles tendon rupture. The ATRS was completed on arrival in the outpatient clinic and again following consultation. The outcomes of 49 (13 female and 36 male) patients were assessed. The mean (SD) age was 49 (12) years, and 27 patients had treatment for a left-sided rupture, 22 the right. All patients received treatment for ruptured Achilles tendons: 38 acute percutaneous repair, 1 open repair, 5 an Achilles tendon reconstruction using a Peroneus Brevis tendon transfer for delayed presentation, 1 gracilis augmented repair for re-rupture and 4 non-operative treatment for mid-portion rupture. The English version of ATRS was shown to have overall excellent reliability (ICC = 0.986). There was no significant difference between the results with the English version and the Swedish version when compared at the 6-month- or 12-month (n.s.) follow-up appointments. The effect size was 0.93. The minimal detectable change was 6.75 points. The ATRS was culturally adapted to English and shown to be a reliable, valid and responsive method of testing functional outcome following an Achilles tendon rupture.
Sarsilmaz, Aysegul; Varer, Makbule; Coskun, Gulten; Apaydın, Melda; Oyar, Orhan
In the young population, spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon is very rare. The big hematoma is also rare finding of the Achilles tendon partial rupture. It is usually seen with complete rupture. We presented imaging findings of 4 years follow up of the spontaneous partial rupture of Achilles tendon presenting with giant expanding hematoma and mimicking complete rupture radiologically. We discussed the alterations of tendon signal intensity and result of conservative therapy after partial rupture with big hematoma in the long term. A 29 year-old man, applied with pain and swelling in the retrocalcaneal region of left ankle. He did not have chronic metabolic disease. He was not active in physical activities. X-ray radiograms were normal. At magnetic resonance images (MRI), there was an intratendinous big hematoma, subcutanous fat planes were edematous around tendon. The diagnosis was partial rupture and giant hematoma. Hematoma was drained. The conservative treatment was applied and his complaints disappeared. After treatment, approximately 4 years later, control MRI showed thickened and hypointense tendon in all images. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patel, Arush; Ogawa, Brent; Charlton, Timothy; Thordarson, David
The use of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after an Achilles rupture is controversial. The rates of reported deep vein thrombosis (DVT) range from 6.3% to 34%. There is no agreement regarding prophylactic therapy after an Achilles tendon rupture. We determined the overall risk of DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE) after an Achilles tendon rupture and identified potential risk factors including surgery. We retrospectively reviewed a large healthcare management organization database and identified 1172 patients who had Achilles tendon ruptures. None of the patients routinely received anticoagulation. Patients were stratified into surgical versus nonsurgical group, age older than 40 years, history of congestive heart failure, previous history of DVT or PE, and BMI greater than 30. A patient was considered to have symptomatic DVT or PE related to the Achilles tendon rupture if diagnosed within 3 months from the injury or surgery. We used a multivariable analysis to identify risk factors. The overall rates for DVT and PE after Achilles tendon ruptures were 0.43% and 0.34%, respectively. Age older than 40 years, congestive heart failure, history of DVT or PE, obesity, and whether a patient had surgery did not predict occurrence of DVT or PE. We found the overall incidence of symptomatic DVT and PE to be low after an Achilles tendon rupture and believe routine use of anticoagulation might be unwarranted.
Vadalà, A; Iorio, R; Bonifazi, A M; Bolle, G; Ferretti, A
A 27-year-old professional martial arts athlete experienced recurrent right knee patellar tendon rupture on three occasions. He underwent two operations for complete patellar tendon rupture: an end-to-end tenorrhaphy the first time, and revision with a bone-patellar-tendon (BPT) allograft. After the third episode, he was referred to our department, where we performed a surgical reconstruction with the use of hamstring pro-patellar tendon, in a figure-of-eight configuration, followed by a careful rehabilitation protocol. Clinical and radiological follow-ups were realized at 1, 3, and 6 months and 1 and 2 years postop, with an accurate physical examination, the use of recognized international outcome scores, and radiograph and MRI studies. As far as we know, this is the first paper to report a re-revision of a patellar tendon rupture.
Collins, Ruaraidh; Sudlow, Alexis; Loizou, Constantinos; Loveday, David T; Smith, George
The relative benefits of surgical and conservative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture are widely debated. With modern conservative management protocols, the re-rupture risk appears to fall to one similar to surgical repair with negligible loss of function. Conservative management typically employs a period of time in an equinus cast with sequential ankle dorsiflexion in a functional orthosis. The optimal duration of immobilisation and rate of dorsiflexion is unknown. We aimed to quantify the change in Achilles tendon approximation achieved in common immobilisation techniques to assist the design of rehabilitation protocols. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens had 2.5cm of Achilles tendon excised. The gap between the tendon ends were measured via windowed full equinus casts and compared with functional boots with successively removed heel wedges. The greatest tendon apposition was achieved with the equinus cast. Each wedge removed decreased the reapproximation by approximately 5mm. This paper supports the early use of maximal equinus casting in early management of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Wada, Takuro; Iba, Kousuke; Yamashita, Toshihiko
We report a case of a partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon that was surgically treated using a palmaris longus tendon graft. A 58-year-old man complained of increasing pain with resisted elbow flexion and supination in the antecubital fossa. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the irregularity of a distal attachment of the biceps brachii and peripheral signal changes. We diagnosed a partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon. Because conservative treatment failed, surgical treatment was performed through a single anterior approach. The insertion of the tendon was partially ruptured at the radial tuberosity. After the involved site was debrided, the palmaris longus tendon was grafted with suture anchors to reinforce the remaining tendon. Postoperative immobilization was not performed, and all moves were freed after 3 weeks. At the 6-year postoperative follow-up, the patient no longer experienced pain and returned to his original job without any limitations. Copyright © 2018 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Monaco, Nathan A.; Dwyer, C. Liam; Ferikes, Alex J.; Lubahn, John D.
Background: Volar plate fixation with locked screws has become the preferred treatment of displaced distal radius fractures that cannot be managed nonoperatively. This treatment, however, is not without complication. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of hand surgeons, over a 12-month period, have experienced a tendon complication when using volar plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Methods: A total of 3022 hand surgeons were e-mailed a link to an online questionnaire regarding their observation and treatment of tendon injuries associated with volar plating of distal radius fractures. Responses were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 596 (20%) respondents, 199 (33%) surgeons reported encountering at least one flexor tendon injury after distal radius volar plating over the past year of practice. The flexor pollicis longus was the most commonly reported tendon injury (254, 75%). Palmaris longus grafting (118, 37%) and tendon transfer (114, 36%) were the most often reported treatments following this complication. A total of 216 respondents (36%) also encountered 324 cases of extensor tendon rupture after volar plating of distal radius fractures, with tendon transfer (88%) being the preferred treatment option. Conclusions: Both flexor and extensor tendon ruptures can be seen after volar plating of distal radius fractures. Surgeons should be aware of these complications. Critical assessment of hardware position at the time of index procedure is recommended to avoid complications. Long-term studies are needed to standardize approaches to managing tendon rupture following volar plating of distal radius fractures. PMID:27698628
Monaco, Nathan A; Dwyer, C Liam; Ferikes, Alex J; Lubahn, John D
Background: Volar plate fixation with locked screws has become the preferred treatment of displaced distal radius fractures that cannot be managed nonoperatively. This treatment, however, is not without complication. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of hand surgeons, over a 12-month period, have experienced a tendon complication when using volar plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Methods: A total of 3022 hand surgeons were e-mailed a link to an online questionnaire regarding their observation and treatment of tendon injuries associated with volar plating of distal radius fractures. Responses were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 596 (20%) respondents, 199 (33%) surgeons reported encountering at least one flexor tendon injury after distal radius volar plating over the past year of practice. The flexor pollicis longus was the most commonly reported tendon injury (254, 75%). Palmaris longus grafting (118, 37%) and tendon transfer (114, 36%) were the most often reported treatments following this complication. A total of 216 respondents (36%) also encountered 324 cases of extensor tendon rupture after volar plating of distal radius fractures, with tendon transfer (88%) being the preferred treatment option. Conclusions: Both flexor and extensor tendon ruptures can be seen after volar plating of distal radius fractures. Surgeons should be aware of these complications. Critical assessment of hardware position at the time of index procedure is recommended to avoid complications. Long-term studies are needed to standardize approaches to managing tendon rupture following volar plating of distal radius fractures.
Reito, Aleksi; Logren, Hanna-Liina; Ahonen, Katri; Nurmi, Heikki; Paloneva, Juha
The epidemiology of Achilles tendon ruptures and treatment strategies have undergone a major change in recent years. We investigated the incidence of acute Achilles tendon ruptures, the choice of treatment strategies and treatment implementation. The research material consisted of patients living in the catchment area of Central Finland Hospital District who had been diagnosed with an acute Achilles tendon rupture between 2010 and 2015. The final sample consisted of 266 patients. Conservative treatment was started for 207 patients, and the remaining 59 were referred for surgery. During the study period, the proportion of patients undergoing surgery fell from 41% to 10%. Three patients (1.4%) were referred for surgery during conservative treatment, and 10 patients (4.7%) developed deep vein thrombosis while wearing a cast or an orthosis. Twelve patients (5.8%) sustained a re-rupture after conservative treatment. Two surgically-treated patients (3.5%) sustained a re-rupture, and one patient (1.7%) developed deep vein thrombosis. The strategies for treating acute Achilles tendon ruptures have clearly become more conservative in our hospital. Conservative treatment is safe and rarely fails. However, it is important to bear in mind that surgery still has a role in the treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.
Miao, Xudong; Wu, Yongping; Tao, Huimin; Yang, Disheng
To evaluate the effectiveness of flexor hallucis longus tendon harvested using a minimally invasive technique in reconstruction of chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Between July 2006 and December 2009, 22 patients (22 feet) with chronic Achilles tendon rupture were treated, including 16 males and 6 females with a median age of 48 years (range, 28-65 years). The disease duration was 27-1,025 days (median, 51 days). Twenty-one patients had hooflike movement's history and 1 patient had no obvious inducement. The result of Thompson test was positive in 22 cases. The score was 53.04 +/- 6.75 according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle and hindfoot score system. MRI indicated that the gap of the chronic Achilles tendon rupture was 4.2-8.0 cm. A 3 cm-long incision was made vertically in the plantar aspect of the midfoot and a 1 cm-long transverse incision was made in a plantar flexor crease at the base of the great toe to harvest flexor hallucis longus tendon. The flexor hallucis longus tendon was 10.5-13.5 cm longer from tuber calcanei to the end of the Achilles tendon, and then the tendon was fixed to the tuber calcanei using interface screws or anchor nail after they were woven to form reflexed 3-bundle and sutured. Wound healed by first intention in all patients and no early complication occurred. Twenty-two patients were followed up 12-42 months (mean, 16.7 months). At 12 months after operation, The AOFAS ankle and hindfoot score was 92.98 +/- 5.72, showing significant difference when compared with that before operation (t= -40.903, P=0.000). The results were excellent in 18 cases, good in 2 cases, and fair in 2 cases with an excellent and good rate of 90.9%. No sural nerve injury, posterior tibial nerve injury, plantar painful scar, medial plantar nerve injury, and lateral plantar nerve injury occurred. Chronic Achilles tendon rupture reconstruction with flexor hallucis longus tendon harvested using a minimally invasive technique offers a
KOH, Bryan Thean Howe; SAYAMPANATHAN, Andrew A; LEE, Keng Thiam
We describe a rare case of a patellar tendon “re-rupture” at the opposite end of a previous proximal tendon repair. A 32-year-old male with a history of surgically repaired right proximal patellar tendon rupture presented with an acute non-traumatic right knee pain and instability during sports. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a complete rupture of his distal patellar tendon at the tibial tuberosity. The patellar tendon was repaired using two 5.5 mm BioCorkscrews (Arthrex) inserted into the tibial tuberosity; the tendon was stitched with the No. 2 fiberwires using Krackow technique. As the patellar tendon was degenerative, the repair was augmented with a semitendinosus tendon harvested using an open tendon stripper, leaving the distal attachment intact. At 2.6 years followup he had mild anterior knee pain, range of motion 0-130° and was able to squat. MRI scan done at followup revealed good healing of repaired patellar tendon. PMID:28566788
Ding, Wenge; Yan, Weihong; Zhu, Yaping; Liu, Zhiwei
Achilles tendon rupture is a common injury, and its complications can impair function. Numerous operations have been described for reconstructing the ruptured tendon, but these methods can compromise microcirculation in the tendon and can seriously impair its healing. Suturing with a minimally invasive tenocutaneous technique soon after the rupture and systematic functional exercise can greatly reduce the possibility of complications. Between June 1996 and February 2009, we treated 88 patients (54 males; age range, 21-66 years) with this method. After follow-up ranging from 1-7 years, the mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot score was 95 (range, 90-98), and the maximum length of postoperative scarring was 3 cm. One patient re-ruptured his Achilles tendon one year after surgery in an accident, but after 10 months, the repaired tendon was still intact. In another patient, the nervus suralis was damaged during surgery by piercing the tension suture at the near end, causing postoperative numbness and swelling. The tension suture was quickly removed, and the patient recovered well with conservative treatment. No large irregular scars, such as those sustained during immobilization, were present over the Achilles tendon. Minimally invasive percutaneous suturing can restore the original length and continuity of the Achilles tendon, is minimally invasive, and has fewer postoperative complications than other methods.
Tang, Kang-lai; Thermann, Hajo; Dai, Gang; Chen, Guang-xing; Guo, Lin; Yang, Liu
Achilles tendon ruptures are difficult to repair, and the healing rate is low due to this structure's anatomic and physiological characteristics. It is essential to develop new techniques to increase the healing rate and decrease the rate of complications. To propose and evaluate a new percutaneous method of repairing fresh closed Achilles tendon ruptures by Kessler's suture under arthroscopy. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty patients were followed at least 12 months in this study. First, the torn ends of the Achilles tendon were debrided during arthroscopy. Then percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon was performed using Kessler's suture by an inside-out technique. All cases were followed up for an average range of 21 months (range, 12-36 months). All patients were evaluated by clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and the Lindholm scale. The torn ends were well aligned and sutured after the debridement under arthroscopy. According to the Lindholm scale, excellent results were seen in 15 cases and good in 5 cases. No patients had complications such as nerve injury, infection, or re-rupture at follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging results showed that the ruptured Achilles tendons were repaired and remodeled very well in all patients. The present method is an effective surgical technique for repair of a closed rupture of the Achilles tendon. The short-term follow-up results were good, and recovery time was short. Few complications were found in our study cases.
He, Ze-yang; Chai, Ming-xiang; Liu, Yue-ju; Zhang, Xiao-ran; Zhang, Tao; Song, Lian-xin; Ren, Zhi-xin; Wu, Xi-rui
The aim of this study is to introduce a self-designed, minimally invasive technique for repairing an acute Achilles tendon rupture percutaneously. Comparing with the traditional open repair, the new technique provides obvious advantages of minimized operation-related lesions, fewer wound complications as well as a higher healing rate. However, a percutaneous technique without direct vision may be criticized by its insufficient anastomosis of Achilles tendon and may also lead to the lengthening of the Achilles tendon and a reduction in the strength of the gastrocnemius. To address the potential problems, we have improved our technique using a percutaneous Kirschner wire leverage process before suturing, which can effectively recover the length of the Achilles tendon and ensure the broken ends are in tight contact. With this improvement in technique, we have great confidence that it will become the treatment of choice for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Pinfildi, Carlos E; da Silva, Érika P Rampazo; Folha, Roberta A C; Turchetto, Paola C G; Monteiro, Paola Pkp; Antunes, Arainy; Hochman, Bernardo S
The aim of this study was to quantify mast cells at different time intervals after partial Achilles tendon rupture in rats treated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). There is a high incidence of lesions and ruptures in the Achilles tendon that can take weeks and even months to heal completely. As the mast cells help in the healing repair phase, and LLLT has favorable effects on this tissue repair process, study of this modality on the quantity of mastocytes in the ruptured tendon is relevant. Sixty Wistar rats were subjected to partial Achilles' tendon rupture by direct trauma, randomized into 10 groups, and then divided into the group treated with 80 mW aluminum gallium arsenide infrared laser diode, continuous wave, 2.8 W/cm(2) power density, 40 J/cm(2) energy density, and 1.12 J total energy, and the simulation group. Both the groups were subdivided according to the histological assessment period of the sample, either 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 2 days, or 3 days after the rupture, to quantify the mastocytes in the Achilles' tendon. The group subjected to LLLT presented a greater quantity of mastocytes in the periods of 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 2 days, and 3 days after rupture, compared with the simulation groups, but differences were detected between the sample assessment periods only in the simulation group. LLLT was shown to increase the quantity of mastocytes in the assessment periods compared with the simulation groups.
Wang, Ting; Mei, Guohua; Shi, Zhongmin; Chai, Yimin; Zhang, Changqing; Hou, Chunlin
To compare the effectiveness of the 3 methods (traditional open Achilles tendon anastomosis, minimally invasive percutaneous Achilles tendon anastomosis, and Achilles tendon anastomosis limited incision) for acute Achilles tendon rupture so as to provide a reference for the choice of clinical treatment plans. Between December 2007 and March 2010, 69 cases of acute Achilles tendon rupture were treated by traditional open Achilles tendon anastomosis (traditional group, n=23), by minimally invasive percutaneous Achilles tendon anastomosis (minimally invasive group, n=23), and by Achilles tendon anastomosis limited incision (limited incision group, n=23). There was no significant difference in gender, age, mechanism of injury, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score between 3 groups (P > 0.05). Minimally invasive group and limited incision group were significantly better than traditional group in hospitalization days and blood loss (P < 0.01). Incision infection occurred in 2 cases of traditional group, and healing of incision by first intention was achieved in all patients of the other 2 groups, showing significant difference in the complication rate (P < 0.05). Re-rupture of Achilles tendon occurred in 1 case (4.3%) of minimally invasive group and limited incision group respectively; no re-rupture was found in traditional group (0), showing significant difference when compared with the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). All cases were followed up 12-18 months with an average of 14.9 months. The function of the joint was restored. The AOFAS score was more than 90 points in 3 groups at 12 months after operation, showing no significant difference among 3 groups (P > 0.05). The above 3 procedures can be used to treat acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, minimally invasive percutaneous Achilles tendon anastomosis and Achilles tendon anastomosis limited incision have the advantages of less invasion, good healing, short hospitalization days
Beri, Abhimanyu; Dwamena, Francesca C; Dwamena, Ben A
Although case reports of a possible association between statin therapy and tendon rupture have been published, no analytical studies exploring this relationship have been reported. We conducted a case-control study using the electronic medical records at Michigan State University from 2002 to 2007 to assess whether statin use is a risk factor for tendon rupture. We compared exposure to statins in 93 cases of tendon rupture with similar exposure in 279 sex- and age-matched controls. Exposure to statins was defined as documentation in the electronic medical record of statin use in the 12 months preceding tendon rupture. For controls, the exposure period was defined as 1 year preceding the last office visit. We used a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for diabetes, renal disease, rheumatologic disease, and steroid use, to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs). There was no significant difference between cases and controls in the rates of statin use, with either univariate [OR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-1.84] or multivariate analyses (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.57-2.13). Based on predetermined subgroup analyses, statin exposure was found to be a significant risk factor for tendon rupture in women (adjusted OR = 3.76, 95% CI 1.11-12.75) but not in men (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.29-1.51). In conclusion, we found no overall association between statin use and tendon rupture, but subgroup analysis suggested that women with tendon rupture were more likely to be on statins.
Hüfner, Tobias; Wohifarth, Kai; Fink, Matthias; Thermann, H; Rollnik, Jens D
After surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture, neuromuscular changes may persist, even one year after surgery. We were interested whether these changes are also evident following a non-surgical functional therapy (Variostabil therapy boot/Adidas). Twenty-one patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture were enrolled in the study (mean age 38.5 years, range 24 to 60; 18 men, three women) and followed-up clinically and with surface EMG of the gastrocnemius muscles after four, eight, 12 weeks, and one year after rupture. EMG differences between the affected and non-affected side could only be observed at baseline and after four weeks following Achilles tendon rupture. The results from our study show that EMG changes are not found following non-surgical functional therapy.
Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Bozkurt, Murat; Turhan, Egemen; Dönmez, Gürhan; Demirel, Murat; Kaya, Defne; Ateşok, Kıvanç; Atay, Özgür Ahmet; Maffulli, Nicola
Although the Achilles tendon (AT) is the strongest tendon in the human body, rupture of this tendon is one of the most common sports injuries in the athletic population. Despite numerous nonoperative and operative methods that have been described, there is no universal agreement about the optimal management strategy of acute total AT ruptures. The management of AT ruptures should aim to minimize the morbidity of the injury, optimize rapid return to full function, and prevent complications. Since endoscopy-assisted percutaneous AT repair allows direct visualization of the synovia and protects the paratenon that is important in biological healing of the AT, this technique becomes a reasonable treatment option in AT ruptures. Furthermore, Achilles tendoscopy technique may decrease the complications about the sural nerve. Also, early functional postoperative physiotherapy following surgery may improve the surgical outcomes. PMID:24198562
Karkhanis, S; Mumtaz, H; Kurdy, N
Functional management of the ruptured Achilles tendon can be effective using orthoses like the removable walker boot (Foam Walker Boot, Air Cast UK Limited, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom). We conducted this study to look at the outcome of our protocol using this orthosis. We retrospectively reviewed 107 non-operatively managed Achilles tendon ruptures over the last 5 years. Case notes were analyzed for demographics and immediate outcomes. Long term outcomes were assessed by a postal questionnaire using the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS). Of the 107 tendons (male:female=71:36, mean age=50 years), 105 tendons (98%) healed with an average discharge time of 22 weeks. Six patients reported major complications and 6 reported minor complications. We received 56 questionnaires with a mean ATRS score of 21. Seventy-seven percent returned to pre-injury level of activity. Functional management of Achilles tendon rupture, under appropriate supervision, provides a viable option for non-operative management. Copyright 2009 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goren, David; Ayalon, Moshe; Nyska, Meir
Reports on complete spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures and associated treatment have become more frequent in the literature in the past two decades, as has the request for treatments that enable the finest possible functional recovery. The best available treatment is a matter of considerable controversy in the literature. The purpose of this study was to compare the isokinetic strength and endurance of the plantarflexor muscle-tendon unit in subjects who sustained rupture of the Achilles tendon and underwent either open surgery or closed percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon. Twenty patients (18 males, 2 females) with spontaneous ruptures of the Achilles tendon were included in this study. Ten patients were treated by open surgery, and 10 patients were treated percutaneously. All patients had ruptured their Achilles tendon more than 6 months before the study, and all of the ruptures occurred 3.5 years or less before the day of the testing. All patients underwent an oriented physical examination. An isokinetic Biodex dynamometer (Biodex Medical System, Shirley, NY) was used to measure ankle joint angle, and in plantarflexion to calculate the torque at the ankle joint (Newton/meter), and the average work (jouls) for both maximal power and endurance. Each measurement was compared to the normal ankle. Biodex dynamometer evaluations at 90 deg/sec demonstrated a significant difference of maximal voluntary plantarflexor torque, endurance performance and range of motion at the ankle joint between the involved and uninvolved sides in patients treated by either mode of treatment. Yet, no statistically significant differences were revealed for the parameters mentioned above between the subjects that were treated either percutaneously or by an open surgery. In functional terms, the biomechanical outcomes of open surgery and percutaneous repair for acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon are both effective.
Jandacka, Daniel; Silvernail, Julia Freedman; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Zahradnik, David; Farana, Roman; Hamill, Joseph
Over the past thirty years, there has been dramatic increase in incidence of Achilles tendon rupture in the athletic population. The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremity mechanics of Achilles tendon ruptured runners with healthy controls. The participants with a past history of an Achilles tendon repair ( n = 11) and healthy control ( n = 11) subgroups were matched on sex, age, type of regular physical activity, mass, height, footfall pattern and lateral dominancy. Running kinetics and kinematics of the ankle, knee and hip were recorded using a high-speed motion capture system interfaced with a force platform. Achilles tendon length was measured using ultrasonography. Main outcome measures were lower extremity joint angles and moments during stance phase of running and Achilles tendon lengths. Athletes from Achilles tendon group had an affected gastro-soleus complex. Athletes with history of Achilles tendon rupture had reduced ankle range of motion during second half of the stance phase of running (Δ7.6°), an overextended knee during initial contact (Δ5.2°) and increased affected knee range of motion (Δ4.4°) during the first half of stance phase on their affected limb compared to the healthy control group. There was a 22% increase in the maximal hip joint moment on contralateral side of the Achilles tendon group compared to the healthy controls. These results suggest a compensation mechanism, relatively extended knee at initial ground contact against the deficit in the muscle-tendon complex of the triceps surae. Overextension during sporting activities may place the knee at risk for further injury. Avoidance of AT lengthening and plantarflexion strength deficit after surgery and during rehabilitation might help to manage AT rupture since these factors may be responsible for altered running kinematics.
Jackson, Gillian; Sinclair, Victoria F; McLaughlin, Charles; Barrie, James
The introduction of functional rehabilitation for patients with Achilles tendon rupture has dramatically changed treatment programs for this condition. The authors introduced a functional weight-bearing protocol for patients with an acute Achilles tendon rupture treated operatively and nonoperatively in 2002. They hypothesized that no significant differences would exist in the rerupture rates and functional outcomes between the groups. Between 2002 and 2008, the authors collected data on 80 consecutive patients treated with a weight-bearing functional orthosis for complete Achilles tendon rupture. Following evidence-based counseling, 51 patients chose nonoperative treatment and 29 chose operative treatment. Outcome measures included rerupture rates, other complications, and functional scoring. The nonoperative group was a decade older (median age, 47 years [range, 27-80 years]) than the operative group (median age, 37 years [range, 24-55 years]). Rerupture was noted in 2 (4%) patients in the nonoperative treatment group and 1 (3%) patient in the operative group. Two (7%) patients in the operative group developed superficial wound infections and reported no nerve injuries. Median Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score was 82 points in the nonoperative group and 94 in the operative group. Median Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire scores were 60 and 91 for the nonoperative and operative groups, respectively. Both groups had low rerupture rates. Functional scores, using the newly validated Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score, were lower in the nonoperative group. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Contractor, Tahmeed; Beri, Abhimanyu; Gardiner, Joseph C; Tang, Xiaoqin; Dwamena, Francesca C
Previous case reports and small studies have suggested that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA-Is) may increase the risk of tendon rupture. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort evaluation to better assess this relationship. From approximately 800,000 enrollees of a private insurance database, those who were aged ≤64 years with at least 1 year of continuous enrollment were selected. Exposure was defined as initiation of HMG-CoA-I after the beginning of the study period. Each exposed person was matched with 2 controls of similar age and gender. Baseline characteristics, including known risk factors for tendon rupture, were compared between exposed and control cohorts with fidelity to the study's matched design. After adjusting for differences in follow-up and baseline characteristics, incidence rate ratios for tendon rupture was assessed in HMG-CoA-I users and nonusers. A total of 34,749 exposed patients were matched with 69,498 controls. There was no difference in the occurrence of tendon ruptures in HMG-CoA-I users versus nonusers. The results remained unchanged after adjustment for age and gender. In conclusion, this population-based retrospective cohort evaluation suggests that use of HMG-CoA-Is as a group are not associated with tendon rupture.
Poposka, A; Georgieva, D; Dzoleva-Tolevska, R
The aim of this study is to show the importance of ultrasound method in the diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture, the choice of method of treatment and monitoring of treatment using the same method. Between 1999 and 2009, 134 patients with Achilles tendon rupture were referred to our Clinic. 66 patients (with a mean age of 38 years) were treated with surgical suture followed by plaster immobilization for a period of 8 weeks. 68 patients (with a mean age of 42 years) were treated conservatively with plaster immobilization for a period of 8 weeks. The follow-up in both groups of patients was 2 years. During the clinical and ultrasound monitoring of the patients it was proved that repeated rupture of the same tendon occurs on average within 12 months. Return to sports activities showed in 57% of the conservatively treated patients and in 55% of surgically treated patients. The patients with Achilles tendon rupture were treated at our Clinic with previously standardized protocol which, besides the clinical examination, used the ultrasound method. Ultrasound examination is a very important method in the diagnosis and the choice of the method of treatment, as well as in the evaluation of results in patients with Achilles tendon rupture, either in operative or conservative treatment.
Yin, Liangjun; Wu, Yahong; Ren, Changsong; Wang, Yizhong; Fu, Ting; Cheng, Xiangjun; Li, Ruidong; Nie, Mao; Mu, Yuan
Although nonsurgical methods and many surgical techniques have been developed for repairing a ruptured Achilles tendon, there is no consensus on its best treatment. In this article, a novel minimally invasive technique called the Panda Rope Bridge Technique (PRBT) is described. Patient with acute Achilles tendon rupture was operated on in the prone position. The PRBT begin with making the proximal bridge anchor (Krackow sutures in the myotendinous junction), the distal bridge anchor (two suture anchors in the calcaneus bone) and the ropes (threads of the suture anchors) stretched between the anchor sites. Then a small incision was made to debride and reattach the stumps of ruptured tendon. After the surgery, no cast or splint fixation was applied. All patients performed enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), which included immediate ankle mobilisation from day 1, full weight-bearing walking from day 5 to 7, and gradually take part in athletic exercises from 8 weeks postoperatively. PBRT was performed in 11patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture between June 2012 and June 2015. No wound infection, fistula, skin necrosis, sural nerve damage, deep venous thrombosis or tendon re-rupture was found. One year after the surgery, all patients reported 100 AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score points and the mean ATRS was 96.6. The PRBT is a simple, effective and minimally invasive technique, with no need for immobilisation of the ankle, making possible immediate and aggressive postoperative rehabilitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Merenda, Lisa A.; Rutter, Laure; Curran, Kimberly; Kozin, Scott H.
Background: Tendon transfer surgery can restore elbow extension in approximately 70% of persons with tetraplegia and often results in antigravity elbow extension strength. However, we have noted an almost 15% rupture/attenuation rate. Objective: This investigation was conducted to analyze potential causes in adolescents/young adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) who experienced tendon rupture or attenuation after biceps-to-triceps transfer. Methods: Medical charts of young adults with SCI who underwent biceps-to-triceps transfer and experienced tendon rupture or attenuation were reviewed. Data collected by retrospective chart review included general demographics, surgical procedure(s), use and duration of antibiotic treatment, time from tendon transfer surgery to rupture/attenuation, and method of diagnosis. Results: Twelve subjects with tetraplegia (mean age, 19 years) who underwent biceps-to-triceps reconstruction with subsequent tendon rupture or attenuation were evaluated. Mean age at time of tendon transfer was 18 years (range, 14-21 years). A fluoroquinolone was prescribed for 42% (n=5) of subjects. Tendon rupture was noted in 67% (n=8), and attenuation was noted in 33% (n=4). Average length of time from surgery to tendon rupture/attenuation was 5.7 months (range, 3-10 months). Conclusion: Potential contributing causes of tendon rupture/attenuation after transfer include surgical technique, rehabilitation, co-contraction of the transfer, poor patient compliance, and medications. In this cohort, 5 subjects were prescribed fluoroquinolones that have a US Food and Drug Administration black box concerning tendon ruptures. Currently, all candidates for upper extremity tendon transfer reconstruction are counseled on the effects of fluoroquinolones and the potential risk for tendon rupture. PMID:23459326
Lantto, I; Heikkinen, J; Flinkkilä, T; Ohtonen, P; Leppilahti, J
We investigated the epidemiology of total Achilles tendon ruptures and complication rates after operative and nonoperative treatments over a 33-year period in Oulu, Finland. Patients with Achilles tendon ruptures from 1979 to 2011 in Oulu were identified from hospital patient records. Demographic data, treatment method, and complications were collected retrospectively from medical records. Overall and sex- and age-specific incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall incidence per 100,000 person-years increased from 2.1 (95% CI 0.3-7.7) in 1979 to 21.5 (95% CI 14.6-30.6) in 2011. The incidence increased in all age groups. The mean annual increase in incidence was 2.4% (95% CI 1.3-4.7) higher for non-sports-related ruptures than for sports-related ruptures (P = 0.036). The incidence of sports-related ruptures increased during the second 11-year period whereas the incidence of non-sports-related ruptures increased steadily over the entire study period. Infection was four times more common after operative treatment compared with nonoperative treatment, re-rupture rates were similar. The incidence of Achilles tendon ruptures increased in all age groups over a 33-year period. Increases were mainly due to sports-related injuries in the second 11-year period and non-sports-related injuries in the last 11-year period. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stein, Benjamin E; Stroh, David Alex; Schon, Lew C
Optimal treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures remains controversial. Positive results using stem-cell-bearing concentrates have been reported with other soft-tissue repairs, but no studies exist on outcomes of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) augmentation in primary Achilles tendon repair. We reviewed patients with sport-related Achilles tendon ruptures treated via open repair augmented with BMAC injection from 2009 to 2011. Data on operative complications, strength, range of motion, rerupture, calf circumference and functional improvement through progressive return to sport and the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) were analysed. A total of 27 patients (28 tendons) treated with open repair and BMAC injection were identified (mean age 38.3 ± 9.6 years). At mean follow-up of 29.7 ± 6.1 months, there were no reruptures. Walking without a boot was at 1.8 ± 0.7 months, participation in light activity was at 3.4 ± 1.8 months and 92% (25 of 27) of patients returned to their sport at 5.9 ± 1.8 months. Mean ATRS at final follow-up was 91 (range 72-100) points. One case of superficial wound dehiscence healed with local wound care. No soft-tissue masses, bone formation or tumors were observed in the operative extremity. Excellent results, including no re-ruptures and early mobilisation, were observed in this small cohort with open Achilles tendon repair augmented by BMAC. No adverse outcomes of biologic treatment were observed with this protocol. The efficacy of BMAC in the operative repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures warrants further study. IV - Therapeutic.
De la Fuente, Carlos; Peña y Lillo, Roberto; Carreño, Gabriel; Marambio, Hugo
Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a common injury during working years. Aggressive rehabilitation may provide better outcomes, but also a greater chance of re-rupture. To determine if aggressive rehabilitation has better clinical outcomes for Achilles tendon function, Triceps surae function, one-leg heel rise capacity and lower complication rate during twelve weeks after percutaneous Achilles tendon repair compared to conventional rehabilitation. Randomized controlled trial. Thirty-nine patients were prospectively randomized. The aggressive group (n=20, 41.4 ± 8.3 years) received rehabilitation from the first day after surgery. The conventional group (n=19, 41.7 ± 10.7 years) rested for 28 days, before rehabilitation started. The statistical parameters were the Achilles tendon rupture score (ATRS), verbal pain scale, time to return to work, pain medication consumption, Achilles tendon strength, dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM), injured-leg calf circumference, calf circumference difference, one-leg heel rise repetition and difference, re-rupture rate, strength deficit rate, and other complication rates. Mixed-ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test were performed for multiple comparisons. Student's t-test was performed for parameters measured on the 12th week. The aggressive group with respect to the conventional group had a higher ATRS; lower verbal pain score; lower pain medication consumption; early return to work; higher Achilles tendon strength; higher one-leg heel rise repetitions; and lower one-leg heel rise difference. The re-rupture rate was 5% and 5%, the strength deficit rate was 42% and 5%, and other complications rate was 11% and 15% in the conventional and aggressive group, respectively. Patients with Dresden repair and aggressive rehabilitation have better clinical outcomes, Achilles tendon function and one-leg heel rise capacity without increasing the postoperative complications rate after 12 weeks compared to rehabilitation with immobilization and
Lawrence, J E; Nasr, P; Fountain, D M; Berman, L; Robinson, A H N
This prospective cohort study aims to determine if the size of the tendon gap following acute rupture of the Achilles tendon shows an association with the functional outcome following non-operative treatment. All patients presenting within two weeks of an acute unilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon between July 2012 and July 2015 were considered for the study. In total, 38 patients (nine female, 29 male, mean age 52 years; 29 to 78) completed the study. Dynamic ultrasound examination was performed to confirm the diagnosis and measure the gap between ruptured tendon ends. Outcome was assessed using dynamometric testing of plantarflexion and the Achilles tendon Total Rupture score (ATRS) six months after the completion of a rehabilitation programme. Patients with a gap ≥ 10 mm with the ankle in the neutral position had significantly greater peak torque deficit than those with gaps < 10 mm (mean 23.3%; 7% to 52% vs 14.3%; 0% to 47%, p = 0.023). However, there was no difference in ATRS between the two groups (mean score 87.2; 74 to 100 vs 87.4; 68 to 97, p = 0.467). There was no significant correlation between gap size and torque deficit (τ = 0.103), suggesting a non-linear relationship. There was also no significant correlation between ATRS and peak torque deficit (τ = -0.305). This is the first study to identify an association between tendon gap and functional outcome in acute rupture of the Achilles tendon. We have identified 10 mm as a gap size at which deficits in plantarflexion strength become significantly greater, however, the precise relationship between gap size and plantarflexion strength remains unclear. Large, multicentre studies will be needed to clarify this relationship and identify population subgroups in whom deficits in peak torque are reflected in patient-reported outcome measures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:87-93. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Ji, Yunhan; Ma, Xin; Wang, Xu; Huang, Jiazhang; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Li
The aim was to compare the postoperative efficacy of the PDS II and Ethibond W4843 sutures in fresh, closed Achilles tendon rupture. With methods of random grouping (level of evidence II b), a total of 128 patients with fresh Achilles tendon rupture were operated on with PDS II or Ethibond W4843 suture. Postoperative objective examination and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring system were used for the evaluation. Group A underwent 12-39 months of follow-up, for an average of 22 months. Group B underwent 12-37 months of follow-up, for an average of 23 months. The postoperative AOFAS score of group A within 3 months was 93 ± 9.6 points. One case exhibited re-rupture, five cases exhibited incision infection, one case manifested deep infection, and seven cases exhibited Achilles tendon adhesion. The postoperative AOFAS score of group B within 3 months was 97 ± 7.8 points. Eleven cases had incision infection, and 13 cases manifested Achilles tendon adhesion. Minimal differences were observed in the incision infection, re-rupture rate, and Achilles tendon adhesion in the study of the PDS II and Ethibond W4843 sutures. But, based on the AOFAS score and pain score, the Ethibond suture performed better.
The Achilles tendon (AT) is the strongest, largest, and most commonly ruptured tendon in the human body. Physical examination provides high sensitivity and specificity. Imaging studies are not recommended unless there are equivocal findings in the physical examination. Recent studies have shown that the risk of re-rupture is negated with implementation of functional rehabilitation protocols. Heterogeneity in study design makes conclusions on the specifics of functional rehabilitation protocols difficult; however, it is clear that early weight bearing and early controlled mobilization lead to better patient outcome and satisfaction in both surgically and conservatively treated populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miller, Bruce S; Joseph, Thomas A; Noonan, Thomas J; Horan, Marilee P; Hawkins, Richard J
The purpose of this study was to document the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and functional outcome in patients with subscapularis ruptures after shoulder arthroplasty. Prospective objective and subjective data were collected on 7 patients with symptomatic rupture of the subscapularis tendon after shoulder arthroplasty. Presenting signs and symptoms included pain, weakness in internal rotation, increased external rotation, and anterior instability. All patients were treated with surgical repair of the ruptured tendon. Four required repair augmentation with a transfer of the pectoralis major tendon. After subscapularis repair and pectoralis transfer, 2 patients continued to have anterior instability and required an additional operation to address the instability. At a mean follow-up of 2.3 years (range, 18-55 months), the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder score in this study group was 63.2. The mean patient satisfaction rating, on a 10-point scale, was 6.2. Factors associated with post-arthroplasty subscapularis ruptures included subscapularis lengthening techniques used to address internal rotation contracture and previous surgery that violated the subscapularis tendon. Symptomatic subscapularis rupture after shoulder arthroplasty introduces the need for additional surgery and a period of protected or delayed rehabilitation after arthroplasty. Although symptoms were adequately addressed with appropriate surgical treatment, decreased functional outcomes were observed.
Waizy, H; Bouillon, B; Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Yao, D; Ettinger, S; Claassen, L; Plaass, C; Danniilidis, K; Arbab, D
Ruptures of the tendon of the tibialis anterior muscle tend to occur in the context of degenerative impairments. This mainly affects the distal avascular portion of the tendon. Owing to the good compensation through the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum muscles, diagnosis is often delayed. In addition to the clinical examination, magnetic resonance inaging (MRI) diagnostics are of particular importance, although damage or rupture of the tendon can also be demonstrated sonographically. Therapeutic measures include conservative or operative measures, depending on the clinical symptoms. Conservative stabilization of the ankle can be achieved by avoiding plantar flexion using a peroneal orthosis or an ankle-foot orthosis. Subsequent problems, such as metatarsalgia or overloading of the medial foot edge can be addressed by insoles or a corresponding shoe adjustment. An operative procedure is indicated when there is corresponding suffering due to pressure and functional impairment. The direct end-to-end reconstruction of the tendon is only rarely possible in cases of delayed diagnosis due to the degenerative situation and the retraction of the tendon stumps. Depending on the defect size and the tendon quality, various operative techniques, such as rotationplasty, free transplants or tendon transfer can be used.
Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Willy, Richard; Davis, Irene
Case report. The Achilles tendon is the most frequently ruptured tendon, and the incidence of Achilles tendon rupture has increased in the last decade. The rupture generally occurs without any preceding warning signs, and therefore preinjury data are seldom available. This case represents a unique opportunity to compare preinjury running mechanics with postinjury evaluation in a patient with an Achilles tendon rupture. A 23-year-old female sustained a right complete Achilles tendon rupture while playing soccer. Running mechanics data were collected preinjury, as she was a healthy participant in a study on running analysis. In addition, patient-reported symptoms, physical activity level, strength, ankle range of motion, heel-rise ability, Achilles tendon length, and running kinetics were evaluated 1 year after surgical repair. During running, greater ankle dorsiflexion and eversion and rearfoot abduction were noted on the involved side postinjury when compared to preinjury data. In addition, postinjury, the magnitude of all kinetics data was lower on the involved limb when compared to the uninvolved limb. The involved side displayed differences in strength, ankle range of motion, heel rise, and tendon length when compared to the uninvolved side 1 year after injury. Despite a return to normal running routine and reports of only minor limitations with running, considerable changes were noted in running biomechanics 1 year after injury. Calf muscle weakness and Achilles tendon elongation were also found when comparing the involved and uninvolved sides.
Scheidegger, Patric; Weisskopf, Lukas; Hirschmüller, Anja
Issue: Lower extremity tendon injuries often occur in physically active individuals. Most ruptures not involving great force are diagnosed in patients presenting underlying tendon degenerations. This also applies to patients taking medications because of a disease. We have observed several cases of bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures in patients who have been taking cortisone for a long period. We treated a healthy colleague (neurologist) in our clinic who sustained ruptures of the Achilles tendon on the left side (2012) and the peroneus brevis tendon on left side (2015) and right side (2016) after minimal traumata. Aim of this report is to provide a systematic review of this case and a literature review of similar cases, as few such cases have been published. Methods: We reviewed and analysed this patient’s records containing the sport-specific anamnesis, pre-existing condition, anamnesis of medications and therapy. The three injuries were magnetic resonance imaging–proven. Furthermore, the tendon’s condition was examined histologically in the context of the operative treatment through lace technique of the Achilles tendon and transfer of the peroneus brevis to the peroneus longus. We also researched the literature for bilateral ruptures of the peroneal tendons. Results and conclusion: The anamnesis confirmed no underlying disease. The patient took a macrolide antibiotic about half a year prior to the first peroneal injury for an otitis media. He denied having taken any other antibiotics, especially no quinolone antibiotics. However, the patient reported cortisone intake for 2 days some months before the second peroneal injury to treat an allergic reaction. That involved no local cortisone infiltration in the lower extremity. He underwent surgery within the first 2 weeks after each trauma. Each time, postoperative follow-ups revealed a good healing process. Three months after each operation, the patient was free of complaints. Axibal and Anderson described a
Balazs, George C; Brelin, Alaina M; Dworak, Theodora C; Brooks, Daniel I; Mauntel, Timothy C; Tintle, Scott M; Dickens, Jonathan F
Triceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries primarily occurring in young, active males or elderly individuals with various systemic diseases. Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of this injury, or the results of surgical management in high-demand populations. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and outcomes of surgical treatment in active duty American military personnel. The Military Data Repository (MDR) was queried for all active duty military personnel undergoing surgical repair or reconstruction of a triceps tendon rupture between January 2012 and December 2014. The electronic health records of all patients with at least 12 months clinical follow-up were searched for demographic information, injury details, preoperative imaging findings, post-operative complications, and ability to return to duty following surgical repair. Incidence was calculated based on total active duty population in the MDR over the study period. Risk factors for postoperative complication and inability to return to duty following surgical repair were assessed using univariate analyses. A total of 54 acute triceps tendon ruptures were identified in the search, of which 48 had at least 12 months follow-up and complete post-operative records. The incidence of acute triceps tendon rupture was 1.1 per 100,000 person-years. Twelve patients experienced post-operative complications, six of which were traumatic re-ruptures within four months of the index surgery. No patient had a post-operative infection or atraumatic repair failure. 94% of patients were able to return to active military service following surgical repair. Enlisted rank was a significant risk factor for a post-operative complication, but no factor predicted inability to return to active duty service. Surgical repair of acute triceps tendon ruptures reliably restores strength and function even in high-demand individuals. In our population, traumatic rerupture was the most common complication
Schutten, Kerry J V
A 12-year-old Standardbred mare was diagnosed with a ruptured prepubic tendon 1 month prepartum. The mare was treated with analgesia, stall rest, and an abdominal support wrap that was tightened daily. Both a live foal born 1 month later and the mare are doing well.
González-Murillo, M; Rodrigo-Alonso, A; Figueiredo-González, H; Salgado-Rodrigo, A M; Mota-Blanco, S M
We report a case of a 64 years-old-female patient with ruptured left Achilles tendon within two months of evolution that has gone unnoticed. By the application of a conservative treatment recovered complete and symmetrical functionality in five months time after the injury.
Truntzer, Jeremy N; Triana, Brian; Harris, Alex H S; Baker, Laurence; Chou, Loretta; Kamal, Robin N
Outcomes of nonsurgical management of acute Achilles tendon rupture have been demonstrated to be noninferior to those of surgical management. We performed a cost-minimization analysis of surgical and nonsurgical management of acute Achilles tendon rupture. We used a claims database to identify patients who underwent surgical (n = 1,979) and nonsurgical (n = 3,065) management of acute Achilles tendon rupture and compared overall costs of treatment (surgical procedure, follow-up care, physical therapy, and management of complications). Complication rates were also calculated. Patients were followed for 1 year after injury. Average treatment costs in the year after initial diagnosis were higher for patients who underwent initial surgical treatment than for patients who underwent nonsurgical treatment ($4,292 for surgical treatment versus $2,432 for nonsurgical treatment; P < 0.001). However, surgical treatment required fewer office visits (4.52 versus 10.98; P < 0.001) and less spending on physical therapy ($595 versus $928; P < 0.001). Rates of rerupture requiring subsequent treatment (2.1% versus 2.4%; P = 0.34) and additional costs ($2,950 versus $2,515; P = 0.34) were not significantly different regardless whether initial treatment was surgical or nonsurgical. In both cohorts, management of complications contributed to approximately 5% of the total cost. From the payer's perspective, the overall costs of nonsurgical management of acute Achilles tendon rupture were significantly lower than the overall costs of surgical management. III, Economic Decision Analysis.
Background The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was developed by a research group in 2007 in response to the need for a patient reported outcome measure for this patient population. Beyond this original development paper, no further validation studies have been published. Consequently the purpose of this study was to evaluate internal consistency, convergent validity and responsiveness of this newly developed patient reported outcome measure within patients who have sustained an isolated acute Achilles tendon rupture. Methods Sixty-four eligible patients with an acute rupture of their Achilles tendon completed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score alongside two further patient reported outcome measures (Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D). These were completed at baseline, six weeks, three months, six months and nine months post injury. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was evaluated for internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity, through correlation analysis and responsiveness, by analysing floor and ceiling effects and calculating its relative efficiency in comparison to the Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D scores. Results The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha > 0.8) and correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with the Disability Rating Index at five time points (pre-injury, six weeks, three, six and nine months) with correlation coefficients between -0.5 and -0.9. However, the confidence intervals were wide. Furthermore, the ability of the new score to detect clinically important changes over time (responsiveness) was shown to be greater than the Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D. Conclusions A universally accepted outcome measure is imperative to allow comparisons to be made across practice. This is the first study to evaluate aspects of validity of this newly developed outcome measure, outside of the developing centre. The ATRS demonstrated high internal consistency and
Noback, Peter C; Jang, Eugene S; Cuellar, Derly O; Seetharaman, Mani; Malagoli, Emiliano; Greisberg, Justin K; Vosseller, J Turner
The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether body mass index (BMI), activity level, and other risk factors predispose patients to Achilles tendon ruptures. A retrospective review of 279 subjects was performed (93 with Achilles tendon rupture, matched 1:2 with 186 age/sex matched controls with ankle sprains). Demographic variables and risk factors for rupture were tabulated and compared. The rupture group mean BMI was 27.77 (95% CI, 26.94-28.49), and the control group mean BMI was 26.66 (95% CI, 26.06-27.27). These populations were found to be statistically equivalent (p=0.047 and p<0.001 by two one-sided t-test). A significantly higher proportion of those suffering ruptures reported regular athletic activity at baseline (74%) versus controls (59%, p=0.013). There was no clinically significant difference found in BMI between patients with ruptures and controls. Furthermore, it was found that patients who sustained ruptures were also more likely to be active at baseline than their ankle sprain counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gigante, A; Moschini, A; Verdenelli, A; Del Torto, M; Ulisse, S; de Palma, L
There is no agreement on the ideal type of surgical management for Achilles tendon rupture. The present randomized prospective study was performed to compare outcome data of open and percutaneous repair in the treatment of Achilles tendon rupture. Forty consecutive patients with acute rupture of Achilles tendon were recruited. Patients were randomized to receive open (group A) or percutaneous repair with Tenolig (group B). All patients followed the same rehabilitation protocol except for slight differences in the duration of immobilization. Follow-up included objective evaluation (at 4 and 12 months), subjective evaluation using the SF-12 questionnaire (at 24 months), and bilateral ultrasound scanning and isokinetic testing (at 12 months). The differences in the parameters evaluated clinically were not significant except for ankle circumference, which was significantly greater in group B. There were two minor complications in the open repair group and one case of failed repair in the percutaneous group. SF-12 questionnaire, ultrasound and isokinetic test data did not show significant differences between the groups. The present study demonstrates that the open and the percutaneous technique are both safe and effective in repairing the ruptured Achilles tendon and that both afford the same degree of restoration of clinical, ultrasound and isokinetic patterns. Medium-term results were substantially comparable. Percutaneous repair is performed on a day-surgery basis, it reduces cutaneous complications and operation times, and enables faster recovery, enhancing overall patient compliance. To us, these characteristics make it preferable to open repair in managing subcutaneous ruptures of Achilles tendon in non-professional sports practicing adults.
Dacambra, Mark P; Walker, Richard Ea; Hildebrand, Kevin A
The simultaneous rupture of both distal biceps tendons is a rare clinical entity that is difficult to treat and can have poor outcomes. A variety of treatment and rehabilitation options exist and have been reported for single sided and staged bilateral repairs, but none have described an approach for acute bilateral ruptures. Repairing distal biceps tendon ruptures using a single anterior incision and a cortical suspensory button technique has become increasingly popular in recent years. We present a report of our surgical approach using an endobutton technique and rehabilitation algorithm for this unusual injury pattern. A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute onset bilateral elbow pain while lifting a large sheet of drywall off the ground. He initially felt a 'pop' on the right and almost immediately felt another on the left after having to quickly shift the weight. He was unable to continue working and sought medical attention. His pain was predominantly in his bilateral antecubital fossae and he had significant swelling and ecchymoses. His clinical examination demonstrated no palpable tendon, a retracted biceps muscle belly, and clear supination weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and showed bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures with retraction on both sides. After discussion with our patient, we decided that both sides would be repaired using a single anterior incision with endobutton fixation, first his right followed by his left six weeks later. Overall, our patient did very well and had returned to full manual work by our last follow-up at 30 months. Although he was never able to return to competitive recreational hockey and was left with mild lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve dysesthesias on his right, he felt he was at 85% of his premorbid level of function. We describe what we believe to be, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures successfully treated with a single
Mark-Christensen, Troels; Troelsen, Anders; Kallemose, Thomas; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner
The optimal treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is continuously debated. Recent studies have proposed that the choice of either operative or non-operative treatment may not be as important as rehabilitation, suggesting that functional rehabilitation should be preferred over traditional immobilization. The purpose of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to compare functional rehabilitation to immobilization in the treatment of ATR. This meta-analysis was conducted using the databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Source, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PEDro using the search terms: "Achilles tendon," "rupture," "mobilization" and "immobilization". Seven RCTs involving 427 participants were eligible for inclusion, with a total of 211 participants treated with functional rehabilitation and 216 treated with immobilization. Re-rupture rate, other complications, strength, range of motion, duration of sick leave, return to sport and patient satisfaction were examined. There were no statistically significant differences between groups. A trend favoring functional rehabilitation was seen regarding the examined outcomes. Functional rehabilitation after acute Achilles tendon rupture does not increase the rate of re-rupture or other complications. A trend toward earlier return to work and sport, and increased patient satisfaction was found when functional rehabilitation was used. The present literature is of low-to-average quality, and the basic constructs of the examined treatment and study protocols vary considerably. Larger, randomized controlled trials using validated outcome measures are needed to confirm the findings. II.
Zellers, Jennifer A; Cortes, Daniel H; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare
Achilles tendon rupture results in significant functional deficits regardless of treatment strategy (surgical versus non-surgical intervention). Recovery post-rupture is highly variable, making comprehensive patient assessment critical. Assessment tools may change along the course of recovery as the patient progresses - for instance, moving from a seated heel-rise to standing heel-rise to jump testing. However, tools that serve as biomarkers for early recovery may be particularly useful in informing clinical decision-making. The purpose of this case report was to describe the progress of a young, athletic individual following Achilles tendon rupture managed non-surgically, using patient reported and functional performance outcome measures and comprehensively evaluating Achilles tendon structure and function incorporating a novel imaging technique (cSWE). The subject is a 26 year-old, female basketball coach who sustained an Achilles tendon rupture and was managed non-surgically. The subject was able to steadily progress using a gradual tendon loading treatment approach well-supported by the literature. Multiple evaluative techniques including the addition of diagnostic ultrasound imaging and continuous shear wave elastography (cSWE) to standard clinical tests and measures were used to assess patient-reported symptoms, tendon structure, and tendon functional performance. Five assessments were performed over the course of 2-14 months post-rupture. By the 14-month follow-up, the subject had achieved full self-reported function. Tendon structural and mechanical properties showed similar shear modulus by 14 months, however, viscosity continued to be lower and tendon length longer on the ruptured side. Functional performance, evidenced by the heel-rise test and jump tests, also showed a positive trajectory, however, deficits of 12-28% remained between ruptured and non-ruptured sides at 14 months. This case report outlines comprehensive outcomes assessment in an athletic
Zhang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Quan; Lin, Xiang-Jin
Although simple end-to-end repair of the Achilles tendon is common, many augmented repair protocols have been implemented for acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, whether augmented repair is better than nonaugmented repair of an acute Achilles tendon rupture is still unknown. To conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether augmented surgical repair of an acute Achilles tendon rupture improved subjective patient satisfaction without an increase in rerupture rates. Secondary outcomes assessed included infections, ankle range of motion, calf muscle strength, and minor complications. Meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing augmented repair and nonaugmented repair for acute Achilles tendon rupture from January 1980 to August 2016 in the electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science (SCI-E/SSCI/A&HCI), and EMBASE. The keywords (Achilles tendon rupture) AND (surg* OR operat* OR repair* OR augment* OR non-augment* OR end-to-end OR sutur*) were combined, and results were limited to human RCTs and controlled clinical trials published in the English language. Four RCTs involving 169 participants were eligible for inclusion; 83 participants were treated with augmented repair and 86 were treated with nonaugmented repair. Augmented repair led to similar responses when compared with nonaugmented repair for acute Achilles tendon rupture (93% vs 90%, respectively; P = .53). The rerupture rates showed no significant difference for augmented versus nonaugmented repair (7.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; P = .69). No differences in superficial and deep infections occurred in augmented (7 infections) and nonaugmented (8 infections) repair groups during postoperative follow-up ( P = .89). The average incisional infection rate was 8.4% with augmented repair and 9.3% with nonaugmented repair. No significant differences in other complications were found between augmented (7.2%) and
Delgado-Brambila, H A; Cristiani, D G; Tinajero, E C; Burgos-Elías, V
The frequency of Achilles tendon tear has increased worldwide. Several factors have been described that help explain the mechanism of injury. The treatment of choice continues to be surgery; conservative treatment is reserved for patients with a high morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment consists of an open or percutaneous technique. In both modalities we try to achieve prompt mobilization of the operated tendon to obtain better and quicker healing. This prospective study describes our experience with 35 patients enrolled from February 2004 to August 2010. They were treated with open repair, physical rehabilitation and active ankle mobilization before the second postoperative week, and with colchicine. We obtained satisfactory results. Patients recovered complete mobility approximately at postoperative week 6, and from weeks 8 to 10 they could resume their daily work activities and participate in sports and recreational activities. Patients were assessed according to the ATRS classification to measure their clinical results. We had no infections or other major complications. We conclude that the open surgical repair of Achilles tendon tear, prompt mobility, and colchicine provide good results.
Guimarães, Marcus Valladares; Junior, Lúcio Honório de Carvalho; Terra, Dalton Lopes
Objective: Assess clinical results using two different protocols, 10 years after ACL reconstruction surgery with the central third of quadriceps muscle tendon (QT). Method: Between November /1997 and April/1998, 25 patients were submitted to 25 ACL reconstructions with QT by transtibial technique. The bone portion of the graft was fixated on femoral tunnel with interference screw and the tendinous portion of tibial tunnel with screw with washer. Two patients injured the new when playing soccer. Six patients were not available for follow-up (24%). Seventeen patients were evaluated, 15 men and two women, with mean age at surgery time of 28.53 ± 6.64 years. All patients were examined at six months, one year, and ten years after surgery. Clinical evaluation was made by the Lysholm scale, and the knee evaluation, with the Hospital for Special Surgery scale. Results: The patients had their injuries operated after 9.87 ± 14.42 months of the accident. According to Lysholm scale, the results at the end of the first year were 98.71 ± 2.47 and, after 10 years, 97.35 ± 3.12. Using the Hospital for Special Surgery scale, the mean score was 95.07 ± 5.23 in one year, and 94.87 ± 4.16 in 10 years. All patients returned to their professional activities with the same previous status. Fifteen (88.24%) patients were able to return to their sports activities, one by modifying the practice, while another one switched to another sport. No patient complained of pain on the donor area in the medium and long term. The sports return rate was excellent, and no changes were found on the femoropatellar joint. PMID:27022511
Wang, Chen-Chie; Chen, Pei-Yu; Wang, Ting-Ming; Wang, Chung-Li
Many surgeons prefer surgical repair for Achilles tendon ruptures in an attempt to reduce the risk of rerupture. To minimize wound complications, the use of minimally invasive surgery has become more popular recently. In line with this, the use of ultrasound to guide Achilles tendon repair is reported in this study. From March 2005 to January 2008, 23 patients with Achilles tendon rupture were repaired by the same surgeon. The ages of the patients ranged from 19 to 67 years old, with an average of 43 years old. The repair of the Achilles tendon was achieved through a stab wound under the guidance of ultrasonography. A control group consisted of 25 patients who received traditional open Achilles tendon repair. The average operation time was 52 minutes, and the average wound size was 1.1 cm. The short leg cast was removed 4 weeks after the surgery, and serial casting was used for another 3 to 4 weeks. The postoperative AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scores were 98.7 in the experimental group, 96.5 in the control group with no significant difference. The rates of local infection, stiffness of the ankle, pain of the scar and sural nerve injury were better in the experimental group than in the control group with significant difference. Ultrasound-guided surgery was a good choice due to its availability and real-time soft tissue visualization. It can further minimize the size of the surgical wound. Our method has the potential to achieve reliable results.
Hutchison, A M; Topliss, C; Beard, D; Evans, R M; Williams, P
The Swansea Morriston Achilles Rupture Treatment (SMART) programme was introduced in 2008. This paper summarises the outcome of this programme. Patients with a rupture of the Achilles tendon treated in our unit follow a comprehensive management protocol that includes a dedicated Achilles clinic, ultrasound examination, the use of functional orthoses, early weight-bearing, an accelerated exercise regime and guidelines for return to work and sport. The choice of conservative or surgical treatment was based on ultrasound findings. The rate of re-rupture, the outcome using the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and the Achilles Tendon Repair Score, (AS), and the complications were recorded. An elementary cost analysis was also performed. Between 2008 and 2014 a total of 273 patients presented with an acute rupture 211 of whom were managed conservatively and 62 had surgical repair. There were three re-ruptures (1.1%). There were 215 men and 58 women with a mean age of 46.5 years (20 to 86). Functional outcome was satisfactory. Mean ATRS and AS at four months was 53.0 (sd 14), 64.9 (sd 15) (n = 135), six months 67.8 (sd 16), 73.8 (sd 15) (n = 103) and nine months (72.4; sd 14) 72.3 (sd 13) (n = 43). The programme realised estimated cost savings exceeding £91,000 per annum. The SMART programme resulted in a low rate of re-rupture, a satisfactory outcome, a reduced rate of surgical intervention and a reduction in healthcare costs. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Kamath, Atul F; Shah, Roshan P; Summers, Nathan; Israelite, Craig L
Extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex problem that often requires surgical repair for functional deficits. We present a brief technical note on suture anchor fixation of a patellar tendon rupture after TKA. A surgical technique and literature review follows. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for tendinous repairs in other areas of orthopedic surgery, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in patellar tendon repair after TKA. The technique must be evaluated in more patients with longer follow-up before adoption. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Trofa, David P; Miller, J Chance; Jang, Eugene S; Woode, Denzel R; Greisberg, Justin K; Vosseller, J Turner
Most Achilles tendon ruptures are sports related. However, few studies have examined and compared the effect of surgical repair for complete ruptures on return to play (RTP), play time, and performance across multiple sports. To examine RTP and performance among professional athletes after Achilles tendon repair and compare pre- versus postoperative functional outcomes of professional athletes from different major leagues in the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) athletes who sustained a primary complete Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically between 1989 and 2013 were identified via public injury reports and press releases. Demographic information and performance-related statistics were recorded for 2 seasons before and after surgery and compared with matched controls. Statistical analyses were used to assess differences in recorded metrics. Of 86 athletes screened, 62 met inclusion criteria including 25 NBA, 32 NFL, and 5 MLB players. Nineteen (30.6%) professional athletes with an isolated Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically were unable to return to play. Among athletes who successfully returned to play, game participation averaged 75.4% ( P < .001) and 81.9% ( P = .002) of the total games played the season before injury at 1 and 2 years postoperatively, respectively. Play time was significantly decreased and athletes performed significantly worse compared with preoperative levels at 1 and 2 years after injury ( P < .001). When players were compared with matched controls, an Achilles tendon rupture resulted in fewer games played ( P < .001), decreased play time ( P = .025), and worse performance statistics ( P < .001) at 1 year but not 2 years postoperatively ( P > .05). When individual sports were compared, NBA players were most significantly affected, experiencing significant decreases in games played
Bell, R.; Boniello, M.R.; Gendron, N.R.; Flatow, E.L.; Andarawis-Puri, N.
Tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal injury whose treatment is limited by ineffective therapeutic interventions. Previously we have shown that tendons ineffectively repair early sub-rupture fatigue damage. In contrast, physiological exercise has been shown to promote remodeling of healthy tendons but its utility as a therapeutic to promote repair of fatigue damaged tendons remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the utility of exercise initiated 1 and 14 days after onset of fatigue damage to promote structural repair in fatigue damaged tendons. We hypothesized that exercise initiated 14 days after fatigue loading would promote remodeling as indicated by a decrease in area of collagen matrix damage, increased procollagen I and decorin, while decreasing proteins indicative of tendinopathy. Rats engaged in 6-week exercise for 30 min/day or 60 min/day starting 1 or 14 days after fatigue loading. Initiating exercise 1-day after onset of fatigue injury led to exacerbation of matrix damage, particularly at the tendon insertion. Initiating exercise 14 days after onset of fatigue injury led to remodeling of damaged regions in the midsubstance and collagen synthesis at the insertion. Physiological exercise applied after the initial biological response to injury has dampened can potentially promote remodeling of damaged tendons. PMID:25732052
Matus-Jiménez, J; Martínez-Arredondo, H
Rupture of Achilles tendon occurs at 2-6 cm from its attachment in the calcaneus; its frequency is estimated at 7-18 cases per 100,000 population in the United States and it occurs more frequently in males. The diagnosis is made clinically and with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging and treatment may be divided into acute or late. We present herein the use of allograft to treat patients with ruptures more than six weeks old; several techniques were used depending on the rupture site and the available allograft. Ten plasties were performed in ten patients with ruptures that occurred a mean of 8 months back; early rehabilitation was instituted and weight bearing was allowed at 4 weeks with a brace, which was removed at 12 weeks; patients could run at 12 weeks. Four wound dehiscence complications were reported, which resolved with second intention healing without the need for any other surgery, with good results and patient satisfaction.
Rokito, Andrew S; lofin, Ilya
Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a rare injury, the overwhelming majority occurring in the dominant arm of males during the fourth to sixth decades of life. Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps tendon is an extremely rare occurrence, with only three cases reported in the literature. This unusual injury occurred in a recreational weightlifter during a preacher curl exercise. In this particular case, a 6-week delay in presentation necessitated a staged procedure in which a primary repair was feasible in one elbow, while reconstruction using allograft tissue was required in the contralateral elbow. Satisfactory results for both elbows were achieved, with return to weightlifting by one year following surgery.
Qi, Jie; Duan, Liang; Li, Weiwei; Wei, Wenbo
To summarize the application and experience of repairing spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture by part-Kessler technique with suture anchor. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 31 patients with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture were treated by part-Kessler technique with suture anchor. Of 31 cases, 23 were male and 8 were female, aged 16-53 years (mean, 38 years). The left side was involved in 15 cases and the right side in 16 cases. The causes of injury included sudden heel pain and walking weakness during sports in 22 cases; no surefooted down-stairs, slip, and carrying heavy loads in 9 cases. The distance from broken site to the calcaneus adhension of Achilles tendon was 3-6 cm (mean, 4.2 cm). The time from injury to operation was 7 hours to 4 days (mean, 36.8 hours). All incisions healed by first intention without nerve injury or adhering with skin. The patients were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 15 months). All patients could complete 25 times heel raising without difficulty at 6 months after operation. No Achilles tendon rupture occurred again during follow-up. At 6 months after operation, the range of motion of the ankle joint in dorsiflexion and plantar flexion showed no significant difference between normal and affected sides (t=0.648, P=0.525; t=0.524, P=0.605). The circumference of the affected leg was significantly smaller than that of normal leg at 6 months after operation (t=2.074, P=0.041), but no significant difference was found between affected and normal sides at 12 months after operation (t=0.905, P=0.426). The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after operation were significantly higher than preoperative score (P<0.05); the score at 6 months after operation was significantly lower than that at other time points (P<0.05), but no significant difference was shown between the other time points (P>0.05). Repairing spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture by part-Kessler technique with suture anchor
Tian, Jing; Xie, Bing; Zhang, Hao
The applications of CT examination in the diagnosis of the acute Achilles tendon rupture (AATR) were investigated. A total of 36 patients with suspected acute Achilles tendon rupture were tested using physical examination, ultrasound, and 3DCT scanning, respectively. Then, surgery was performed for the patients who showed positive result in at least two of the three tests for AATR. 3DVR, MPR, and the other CT scan image processing and diagnosis were conducted in PACS (picture archiving and communication system). PACS was also used to measure the length of distal broken ends of the Achilles tendon (AT) to tendon calcaneal insertion. Our study indicated that CT has the highest accuracy in diagnosis of acute Achilles tendon complete rupture. The length measurement is matched between PACS and those actually measured in operation. CT not only demonstrates more details directly in three dimensions especially with the rupture involved calcaneal insertion flap but also locates the rupture region for percutaneous suture by measuring the length of distal stump in PACS without the effect of the position of ankle. The accuracy of CT diagnosis for Achilles tendon partial rupture is yet to be studied. PMID:28078295
Schlegel, Theodore F; Bushnell, Brandon D; Godfrey, Jenna; Boublik, Martin
Acute complete ruptures of the proximal adductor longus tendon are rare but challenging injuries to treat. The limited literature supports operative treatment, but data from management of chronic groin pain in athletes indicate that anatomical attachment of the tendon to the pubis may not be required for high-level function. Nonoperative management of complete adductor rupture can provide equal results to surgical repair in terms of return to play in the National Football League. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Using the National Football League Injury Surveillance System, adductor tendon ruptures documented by magnetic resonance imaging were identified in 19 National Football League players from 1992 to 2004. The team physician for each respective player completed a survey with information about history, physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging findings, treatment, and outcomes. Statistics were analyzed with a Student unpaired t test. Fourteen players were treated nonoperatively, and 5 players were treated with surgical repair using suture anchors. In both groups, all players eventually returned to play in the National Football League. Mean time for return to play was 6.1 +/- 3.1 weeks (range, 3-12 weeks) for the nonoperative group and 12.0 +/- 2.5 weeks (range, 10-16 weeks) for the operative group (P = .001). One player in the operative group suffered the complication of a draining wound and heterotopic ossification. Players represented a variety of positions, and 12 of 19 (63%) had experienced prior symptoms or events. Nonoperative treatment of proximal adductor tendon rupture results in a statistically significantly faster return to play than does operative treatment in athletes competing in the National Football League and avoids the risks associated with surgery while providing an equal likelihood of return to play at the professional level.
Opdam, K T M; Zwiers, R; Wiegerinck, J I; Kleipool, A E B; Haverlag, R; Goslings, J C; van Dijk, C N
Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have become a cornerstone for the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) is a PROM for outcome and assessment of an Achilles tendon rupture. The aim of this study was to translate the ATRS to Dutch and evaluate its reliability and validity in the Dutch population. A forward-backward translation procedure was performed according to the guidelines of cross-cultural adaptation process. The Dutch ATRS was evaluated for reliability and validity in patients treated for a total Achilles tendon rupture from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014 in one teaching hospital and one academic hospital. Reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Cronbach's alpha and minimal detectable change (MDC). We assessed construct validity by calculation of Spearman's rho correlation coefficient with domains of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles questionnaire (VISA-A) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain in rest and during running. The Dutch ATRS had a good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.852) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96). MDC was 30.2 at individual level and 3.5 at group level. Construct validity was supported by 75 % of the hypothesized correlations. The Dutch ATRS had a strong correlation with NRS for pain during running (r = -0.746) and all the five subscales of the Dutch FAOS (r = 0.724-0.867). There was a moderate correlation with the VISA-A-NL (r = 0.691) and NRS for pain in rest (r = -0.580). The Dutch ATRS shows an adequate reliability and validity and can be used in the Dutch population for measuring the outcome of treatment of a total Achilles tendon rupture and for research purposes. Diagnostic study, Level I.
Yotsumoto, Tadahiko; Miyamoto, Wataru; Uchio, Yuji
Immobilization or orthosis is required after conventional Achilles tendon surgery. Hypothesis This new Achilles tendon repair approach enables early rehabilitation without any postoperative immobilization or orthosis. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty consecutive patients (14 men and 6 women; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 16-70 years) who had acute subcutaneous Achilles tendon rupture were treated by the new method, with an average follow-up of 2.9 years (range, 2-4.8 years). Among them, 15 injuries were sports-related and 5 were work-related. The authors applied a side-locking loop technique of their own design for the core suture, using braided polyblend suture thread, with peripheral cross-stitches added. The patients started active and passive ankle mobilization from the next day, partial weightbearing walking from 1 week, full-load walking from 4 weeks, and double-legged heel raises from 6 weeks after surgery. The range of motion recovery equal to the intact side averaged 3.2 weeks. Double-legged heel raises and 20 continuous single-legged heel raise exercises were possible at an average of 6.3 weeks and 9.9 weeks, respectively. T2-weighted magnetic resonance signal intensity recovered to equal that of the intact portion of the same tendon at 12 weeks. The patients resumed sports activities or heavy labor at an average of 14.4 weeks. The Achilles tendon rupture score averaged 98.3 at 24 weeks. There were no complications. This new Achilles tendon repair approach enables early mobilization exercise without costly specialized orthosis or immobilization and allows an early return to normal life and sports activities, reducing the physical and economic burden on patients.
Kennedy, Katie C; Perry, James A; Duncan, Colleen G; Duerr, Felix M
To report clinical and histopathologic features of long digital extensor (LDE) tendon mineralization with concurrent cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture in a dog. Case report. 1.5-year-old, male castrated, English bulldog mix weighing 31.5 kg. Pre- and postoperative orthogonal radiographs, arthroscopic evaluation, arthrotomy with en bloc surgical excision, and histopathologic analysis of the excised LDE tendon. There was radiographic evidence of mineralization in the region of the proximal LDE and stifle instability suggestive of CCL rupture. Arthroscopy, and subsequent arthrotomy, showed complete tearing of the CCL and an intact but grossly thickened LDE. No evidence of avulsion or bony proliferation associated with the LDE was appreciated. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tenectomy of the LDE returned the dog to normal weight-bearing. No evidence of ectopic mineralization in the affected limb or similar clinical signs in the contralateral limb have been observed in 12 months follow-up. LDE tenectomy followed by stabilization of the stifle by TPLO resulted in a functional outcome. Mineralization without concurrent avulsion of the LDE has not been reported in dogs; however, posterolateral tendon injury in people has been linked to knee instability and cruciate ligament rupture. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Osarumwense, Donald; Wright, Jonathan; Gardner, Kikachukwu; James, Laurence
To survey the practice of orthopaedic consultants in the Greater London area for treating Achilles tendon ruptures. 221 orthopaedic consultants working in 28 hospitals within the Greater London area were identified. A questionnaire regarding conservative treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures was sent. The choice of immobilisation, the period of immobilisation, the time to weight bearing, the use of heel raises, and the use of diagnostic ultrasonography were enquired about. 62 of 86 respondents treated Achilles tendon ruptures conservatively by below-knee casts (n=51), above-knee casts (n=5), or functional braces (n=6). The most common immobilisation regimen (n=7) was to keep the foot in a sequence of an equinus position, a semi-equinus position, and a neutral position (3 weeks in each position). After cast removal, 45 of respondents preferred to use a heel raise for a median duration of 4 (range, 2-36) weeks. Respectively for foot and ankle specialists (n=24) and other orthopaedic specialists (n=38), the median immobilisation period prescribed was 8 (range, 3-13) and 9 (range, 6-36) weeks, respectively (p=0.625), whereas the median time to weight bearing prescribed was 6 (range, 0-9) and 6 (range, 0-12) weeks, respectively (p=0.402). Functional bracing was not as widely used as below-knee cast immobilisation. There was no consensus on the optimal immobilisation regimen.
Ferrer, Gerald A; Miller, R Matthew; Murawski, Christopher D; Tashman, Scott; Irrgang, James J; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H; Debski, Richard E
The objective of this study was to determine parameters associated with patellar fracture after quadriceps tendon autograft harvest. Thirteen non-fractured and five fractured patella surface models were created based on patient data obtained from a prospective randomized clinical trial in order to assess geometric parameters and bending stress. Measurements that describe the bone block harvest site geometry were used to calculate three normalized parameters. The relative depth parameter describes the thickness of the bone block harvest site with respect to the thickness of the patella at the harvest site. The asymmetry parameter defines the medial-lateral location of the bone bock harvest site. The normalized bending stress parameter assesses the bending stress experienced by the remaining bone beneath the bone block harvest site. The relative depth of the bone block harvest site in the non-fractured patellae was 27 ± 12 % and for the fractured patellae was 42 ± 14 % (p < 0.05). With a value <1 indicating a more lateral location of the harvest site, asymmetry for the non-fractured group was 1.0 ± 0.5 and 0.7 ± 0.4 for the fractured group (n.s.). The maximum bending stress experienced by the non-fractured patellae was (1.8 × 10(-3) ± 1.3 × 10(-3)) mm(-3) × M and for the fractured patellae was over three times greater (6.3 × 10(-3) ± 3.7 × 10(-3)) mm(-3) × M (p < 0.05). Based on the non-uniform geometry of the patella, an emphasis should be made on harvesting a standard percentage of patella thickness rather than a fixed depth. In order to minimize the incidence of a patellar fracture, bone blocks should not be taken laterally and should not exceed 30 % of the total patella thickness at the harvest site.
Introduction The simultaneous rupture of both distal biceps tendons is a rare clinical entity that is difficult to treat and can have poor outcomes. A variety of treatment and rehabilitation options exist and have been reported for single sided and staged bilateral repairs, but none have described an approach for acute bilateral ruptures. Repairing distal biceps tendon ruptures using a single anterior incision and a cortical suspensory button technique has become increasingly popular in recent years. We present a report of our surgical approach using an endobutton technique and rehabilitation algorithm for this unusual injury pattern. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute onset bilateral elbow pain while lifting a large sheet of drywall off the ground. He initially felt a ‘pop’ on the right and almost immediately felt another on the left after having to quickly shift the weight. He was unable to continue working and sought medical attention. His pain was predominantly in his bilateral antecubital fossae and he had significant swelling and ecchymoses. His clinical examination demonstrated no palpable tendon, a retracted biceps muscle belly, and clear supination weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and showed bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures with retraction on both sides. After discussion with our patient, we decided that both sides would be repaired using a single anterior incision with endobutton fixation, first his right followed by his left six weeks later. Conclusion Overall, our patient did very well and had returned to full manual work by our last follow-up at 30 months. Although he was never able to return to competitive recreational hockey and was left with mild lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve dysesthesias on his right, he felt he was at 85% of his premorbid level of function. We describe what we believe to be, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of simultaneous bilateral distal biceps
Cui, Jin; Jia, Zhenyu; Zhi, Xin; Li, Xiaoqun; Zhai, Xiao; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lin; Chen, Xiao; Su, Jiacan
The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), which is originally developed in 2007 in Swedish, is the only patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for specific outcome assessment of an Achilles tendon rupture.Purpose of this study is to translate and cross-culturally adapt Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) into simplified Chinese, and primarily evaluate the responsiveness, reliability and validity. International recognized guideline which was designed by Beaton was followed to make the translation of ATRS from English into simplified Chinese version (CH-ATRS). A prospective cohort study was carried out for the cross-cultural adaptation. There were 112 participants included into the study. Psychometric properties including floor and ceiling effects, Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, effect size, standard response mean, and construct validity were tested. The mean scores of CH-ATRS are 57.42 ± 13.70. No sign of floor or ceiling effect was found of CH-ATRS. High level of internal consistency was supported by the value of Cronbach's alpha (0.893). ICC (0.979, 95%CI: 0.984-0.993) was high to indicate the high test-retest reliability. Great responsive ness was proved with the high absolute value of ES and SRM (0.84 and 8.98, respectively). The total CH-ATRS score had very good correlation with physical function and body pain subscales of SF-36 (r = -0.758 and r = -0.694, respectively, p < 0.001), while poor correlation with vitality and role physical subscales of SF-36 (r = -0.033 and r = -0.025, respectively, p ≥ 0.05), which supported construct validity of CH-ATRS. This Chinese version of Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (CH-ATRS) can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for Achilles tendon rupture assessing in Chinese-speaking population. Level of evidence II.
Neumayer, Felix; Mouhsine, Elyazid; Arlettaz, Yvan; Gremion, Gérald; Wettstein, Michael; Crevoisier, Xavier
There is a trend towards surgical treatment of acute ruptured Achilles tendon. While classical open surgical procedures have been shown to restore good functional capacity, they are potentially associated with significant complications like wound infection and paresthesia. Modern mini-invasive surgical techniques significantly reduce these complications and are also associated with good functional results so that they can be considered as the surgical treatment of choice. Nevertheless, there is still a need for conservative alternative and recent studies report good results with conservative treatment in rigid casts or braces. We report the use of a dynamic ankle brace in the conservative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture in a prospective non-randomised study of 57 consecutive patients. Patients were evaluated at an average follow-up time of 5 years using the modified Leppilahti Ankle Score, and the first 30 patients additionally underwent a clinical examination and muscular testing with a Cybex isokinetic dynamometer at 6 and 12 months. We found good and excellent results in most cases. We observed five complete re-ruptures, almost exclusively in case of poor patient's compliance, two partial re-ruptures and one deep venous thrombosis complicated by pulmonary embolism. Although prospective comparison with other modern treatment options is still required, the functional outcome after early ankle mobilisation in a dynamic cast is good enough to ethically propose this method as an alternative to surgical treatment.
Amin, Nirav H; Old, Andrew B; Tabb, Loni P; Garg, Rohit; Toossi, Nader; Cerynik, Douglas L
A complete rupture of the Achilles tendon is a devastating injury. Variables affecting return to competition and performance changes for National Basketball Association (NBA) players are not readily evident. Players in the NBA who ruptured their Achilles tendons and who underwent surgical repair would have more experience in the league, and the performance of those who were able to return to competition would be decreased when compared with their performance before injury and with their control-matched peers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data for 18 basketball players with Achilles tendon repair over a 23-year period (1988-2011) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, and number of years playing in the league. Individual season statistics were obtained, and the NBA player efficiency rating (PER) was calculated for 2 seasons before and after injury. Controls were matched by playing position, number of seasons played, and performance statistics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of each factor. At the time of injury, the average age was 29.7 years, average BMI was 25.6, and average playing experience was 7.6 years. Seven players never returned to play an NBA game, whereas 11 players returned to play 1 season, with 8 of those players returning for ≥2 seasons. Players who returned missed an average of 55.9 games. The PER was reduced by 4.57 (P = .003) in the first season and by 4.38 (P = .010) in the second season. When compared with controls, players demonstrated a significant decline in the PER the first season (P = .038) and second season (P = .081) after their return. The NBA players who returned to play after repair of complete Achilles tendon ruptures showed a significant decrease in playing time and performance. Thirty-nine percent of players never returned to play.
Ahmad, Jamal; Jones, Kennis
We conducted a retrospective comparison of surgical treatment outcomes for acute Achilles tendon ruptures in nonobese and obese patients. Between October 2006 and April 2014, we studied 76 patients with acute midsubstance Achilles tendon rupture: 44 nonobese and 32 obese (body mass index >30 kg/m). Preoperative and postoperative function and pain were graded with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) Sports subscale and the visual analog scale for pain, respectively. All 76 patients presented for follow-up. On a scale of 100, the mean FAAM score for the nonobese patients increased from 38.1 preoperatively to 90.2 at final visit, and on a scale of 10, the mean pain score decreased from 7.1 preoperatively to 1.6 at latest follow-up. For obese patients, the mean FAAM score increased from 34.2 preoperatively to 83.3 at final visit, and the mean pain score decreased from 6.2 preoperatively to 1.9 at the latest follow-up. The postoperative scores of the two groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Postoperative wound complications developed in six nonobese patients and one obese patient (13.6% and 3.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). To our knowledge, comparing outcomes from surgically treated acute Achilles ruptures in nonobese and obese patients has not been previously reported. We found that both obese and nonobese patients can achieve improved Achilles tendon function and pain as a result of surgery. The findings of this study demonstrate that both nonobese and obese patients can achieve a high rate of improvement in ankle function and pain relief after surgical repair of the Achilles tendon.
Lui, Tun Hing; Chang, Joseph Jeremy; Maffulli, Nicola
Rerupture of the extensor hallucis longus tendon after primary repair and neglected rupture of the tendon poses surgical challenges to orthopedic surgeons. Open exploration and repair of the tendon ends usually requires large incision and extensive dissection. This may induce scarring and adhesion around the repaired tendon. Endoscopic-assisted repair has the advantage of minimally invasive surgery including less soft tissue trauma and scar formation and better cosmetic result. The use of Krackow locking suture and preservation of the extensor retinacula allow early mobilization of the great toe.
Morrey, Mark E; Abdel, Matthew P; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Morrey, Bernard F
Distal biceps tendon ruptures may have tendinous retraction, making primary repair difficult and calling into question the need for graft reconstruction. The decision for when to primarily fix or augment high-flexion repairs has not been addressed. We hypothesized high-flexion repairs would have good outcomes without graft augmentation. The purpose of this study was to examine allograft use and outcomes of distal biceps tendon ruptures requiring repair in greater than 60° of flexion. This was a retrospective case-control study 188 distal biceps tendon repairs; of these, 19 chronic and 4 acute cases were identified with repairs of >60° of flexion using a 2-incision technique. Graft need, complications, and Mayo Elbow Performance Score to assess function, were examined with a record review. Patients were surveyed regarding return to work and subjective satisfaction. A control group matched for surgeon, chronicity, and age, but without a high-flexion repair, was compared with cases by using the Student paired t test. Graft augmentation was used in 1 patient with poor tendon quality. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 100 for all 23 patients, with extension/flexion range of motion from 3° to 138°. All were subjectively "very satisfied/satisfied," with full work return, yet 3 reported mild fatigability. There were 4 complications: 3 transient lateral antebrachial cutaneous neurapraxias and 1 rerupture at the myotendinous junction after retrauma. Differences between cases and controls were not statistically significant. Contracted distal biceps tendons may be reliably reattached to their anatomic insertion with up to 90° of elbow flexion. This lessens the need for reconstruction in such circumstances. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bayer, Thomas; Fries, Simon; Schweizer, Andreas; Schöffl, Isabelle; Janka, Rolf; Bongartz, Georg
The objectives of this study were the evaluation of flexor tendon pulley rupture of the fingers in the crimp grip position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the comparison of the results with MRI in the neutral position in a cadaver study. MRI in the crimp grip position and in the neutral position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (combined pulley rupture, n = 14; single pulley rupture, n = 7). Measurement of the distance between the tendon and bone was performed. Images were evaluated by two readers, first independently and in cases of discrepancy in consensus. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley ruptures were calculated. Tendon bone distances were significantly higher in the crimp grip position than in the neutral position. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley rupture were 92.86 % and 100 % respectively in the crimp grip position and 78.57 % and 85.71 % respectively in the neutral position. Kappa values for interobserver reliability were 0.87 in the crimp grip position and 0.59 in the neutral position. MRI examination in the crimp grip position results in higher tendon bone distances by subjecting the pulleys to a higher strain, which facilitates image evaluation with higher interobserver reliability, higher sensitivity, and higher specificity for combined pulley rupture compared with examination in the neutral position.
Porter, Mark D; Shadbolt, Bruce
There is no consensus regarding the optimal management of the acutely ruptured Achilles tendon (TA). Functional bracing alone achieves outcomes similar to those of surgical repair. Surgical repair combined with immediate mobilization may improve the clinical outcome further. The purpose of our study was to determine if an accelerated rehabilitation programme following surgical repair of the ruptured TA could improve clinical outcome, relative to the standard protocol. Patients with an acutely ruptured TA were randomly allocated to undergo an accelerated programme (AP) or standard programme (SP), following surgery. Outcome was assessed at 12 months post-surgery using the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), the heel-raise height and the time taken to return to running. Fifty-one patients completed the study, 25 in the AP group and 26 in the SP group. At 12 months post-surgery, the ATRS results were similar in the two treatment groups (87.46 in AP with standard error (SE) of 0.735 versus 87.12 in SP with SE of 0.75) while the AP group had less lengthening of the TA (0.385 cm, SE 0.166 versus 1.00 cm, SE 0.169) and a more rapid return to running (17.231 weeks, SE 0.401 versus 21.08 weeks, SE 0.409), than the SP group. The accelerated rehabilitation programme resulted in less tendon lengthening, more rapid return to running, but similar ATRS relative to the standard rehabilitation. Immobilization following TA repair may prolong recovery. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Krapf, Daniel; Kaipel, Martin; Majewski, Martin
Acute Achilles tendon ruptures are common sports injuries; however, treatment remains a clinical challenge. Studies show a superior effect of early mobilization and full weight bearing on tendon healing and clinical outcome; however, few data exist on structural and biomechanical characteristics in the early healing phase. This study investigated the histological and biomechanical characteristics of early mobilization and full weight bearing in an Achilles tendon rupture model. Eighty rats underwent dissection of a hindpaw Achilles tendon; 40 rats were treated conservatively and 40 underwent open repair of the transected Achilles tendon by suturing. Early mobilization and full weight bearing were allowed in both groups. At 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after tenotomy, tensile strength, stiffness, thickness, tissue characteristics (histological analysis), and length were determined. Dissected Achilles tendons healed in all animals during full weight-bearing early mobilization. One and 2 weeks after tenotomy, rats in the operative group showed increased tensile strength and stiffness compared with the nonoperative group. Repair-site diameters were increased at 1, 2, and 8 weeks after tenotomy. Tendon length was decreased in the operative group throughout observation, whereas the nonoperative group showed increased structural characteristics on the cellular level and a more homogeneous collagen distribution. Surgical treatment of dissected rat Achilles tendons showed superior biomechanical characteristics within the first 2 weeks. Conservative treatment resulted in superior histological findings but significant lengthening of the tendon in the early healing phase (weeks 1-8). Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Tarallo, Luigi; Mugnai, Raffaele; Zambianchi, Francesco; Adani, Roberto; Catani, Fabio
AIM: To evaluate the clinical and functional results after repair of distal biceps tendon tears, following the Morrey’s modified double-incision approach. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with distal rupture of biceps brachii treated between 2003 and 2012 in our Orthopedic Department with muscle-splitting double-incision technique. Outcome measures included the Mayo elbow performance, the DASH questionnaire, patient’s satisfaction, elbow and forearm motion, grip strength and complications occurrence. RESULTS: At an average 18 mo follow-up (range, 7 mo-10 years) the average Mayo elbow performance and DASH score were respectively 97.2 and 4.8. The elbow flexion range was 94%, extension was -2°, supination was 93% and pronation 96% compared with the uninjured limb. The mean grip strength, expressed as percentage of respective contralateral limb, was 83%. The average patient satisfaction rating on a Likert scale (from 0 to 10) was 9.4. The following complications were observed: 3 cases of heterotopic ossification (6.4%), one (2.1%) re-rupture of the tendon at the site of reattachment and 2 cases (4.3%) of posterior interosseous nerve palsy. No complication required further surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: This technique allows an anatomic reattachment of distal biceps tendon at the radial tuberosity providing full functional recovery with low complication rate. PMID:25133147
Karaaslan, Fatih; Mermerkaya, Musa Uğur; Çıraklı, Alper; Karaoğlu, Sinan; Duygulu, Fuat
Controversy remains regarding the optimal treatment method and postoperative rehabilitation of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. In this study, pedobarographic assessments of surgical and conservative treatments were compared. A prospective assessment was made of 16 patients (eight surgical, eight conservative) and eight healthy controls using a plantar pressure measurement system. Biomechanical gait parameters were obtained using the Footscan dynamic gait analysis system. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for the evaluation of data. Nineteen males and five females were assessed, with an average age of 42.0±11.9 years. Follow-up was completed in 16 patients. No statistically significant difference was determined between the two treatment groups with regard to the gait analysis, but a difference was observed with the control group (P<0.001). All patients were able to resume their prior activities after 6 months and regained normal ranges of motion, with a high rate of satisfaction. Most of the patients (75%) were able to return to their pre-injury level of activities. Satisfactory results were obtained through conservative treatment of acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon. No significant differences or complications were observed in the group managed conservatively versus the group treated surgically. Further studies including 3D gait analyses and tendon biomechanical research are required to further investigate this issue.
Bulatović, Nikola; Aligrudić, Velisa; Dasić, Zarko; Pepić, Dzihad; Jusković, Aleksandar
It affects most frequently middle aged recreational male sportsmen (30-50 years old), previously followed by prodromal symptoms (5-33%). Rupture spot is 3 to 5 cm above heel bone vertex (90-95%) Retrospective study. WORKING OBJECTIVE: Comparison of functional re-. suits and complications of cast immobilization non-operative treatment and open suture surgical treatment. Overall 46 patients included who were treated at the Clinic for Orthopedics and Traumatology within the Clinical Center of Montenegro in Podgorica between 2004 and 2012. Patients were divided into two groups: I group consisted of 21 patients (45.65%) who were treated by cast immobilization and the II (control) group consisted of 25 patients (54.35%) who were treated by open surgical technique. Division by gender: 44 male patients (95.65%) and 2 female patients (4.35%). WORKING RESULTS: The average age of patients was 38.8 +/- 2.79 (21-60 years of age); for the patients treated operationally 37.1 +/- 3.98 years of age, for the patients treated non-operationally 40.2 +/- 2.39; 28 right side patients (60.86%), 18 left side patients (39.14%); Surface infection detected on 1 patient (2.17%); 2 patients with partial rupture, while 3 patients had complete rupture during early rehabilitation period after immobilization was taken off. Complete rupture detected on 3 patients (6.25%) has been recovered surgically. Thromboembolism noticed on 3 patients (6.52%) while 2 patients (4.34%) were affected by pulmonary embolism. Tendon elongation present on 3 patients (Magnetic Resonance (MR) Diagnostics) and on 1 patient reoperation was performed 3 months after the primary surgical intervention. This study didn't show significant statistical difference between two ways of treatment, but early immobilization is recommended because of better results. In case of Achilles tendon rupture, the advantage should be given to the surgical treatment, especially if younger population is treated.
Reito, Aleksi; Logren, Hanna-Liina; Ahonen, Katri; Nurmi, Heikki; Paloneva, Juha
Nonoperative treatment is feasible in most patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture. Risk factors associated with failed nonoperative treatment are poorly understood. We investigated risk factors associated with rerupture after nonoperative treatment and otherwise failed nonoperative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture. All patients diagnosed with acute Achilles tendon rupture between January 2009 and June 2016 and who underwent 8 weeks of nonoperative treatment with functional rehabilitation were included in the study. Patients with rerupture or otherwise failed nonoperative treatment were identified retrospectively. Time to rerupture and association of age, sex, time from injury, diabetes, and visits to the physiotherapist for cases of reruptures and otherwise failed nonoperative treatment were investigated. A total of 210 patients were included in the study. Fifteen patients sustained a rerupture. Rerupture incidence was 7.1%. Incidence of late reruptures, those occurring after return to daily activities at 12 weeks, was 1.9%. Six patients had otherwise failed nonoperative treatment. Median time to rerupture was 23 days (6 to 61) after the end of the treatment. The incidence of all-cause failure was 10.0%. Male gender was associated with reruptures ( P = .013) and failed nonoperative treatment for any reason ( P = .029). It is important to highlight the increased risk of rerupture in male patients during the first month after the end of the nonoperative treatment. Age alone, even in male patients, was a poor indication for operative treatment since it did not predict early failure. Further studies will hopefully clarify the influence of activity level on the risk of rerupture. Level IV, retrospective case series.
Burton, Alex; Aydogan, Umur
Tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) rupture is an uncommon injury, however, it can cause substantial deficit. Diagnosis is often delayed due to lack of initial symptoms; yet loss of function over time typically causes the patient to present for treatment. This delay usually ends up with major defects creating a great technical challenge for the operating surgeon. We present a novel technique and operative algorithm for the management of chronic TAT ruptures with a major gap after a delayed diagnosis not otherwise correctable with currently described techniques in the literature. This technique has been performed in 4 cases without any complications with fairly successful functional outcomes. For the reconstruction of chronic TAT rupture with an average delay of nine weeks after initial injury and gap of greater than 10 cm, a thorough operative algorithm was implemented in 4 patients using a double bundle gracilis allograft. Patients were then kept nonweightbearing for 6 weeks followed by weightbearing as tolerated. They began physical therapy with a focus on ankle exercises and gradual return to normal activity at 8 weeks, with resistance training exercises allowed at 12 weeks. At a mean follow-up time of 24.5 months, all patients reported significant pain relief with normal gait pattern. There were no reported intra- or postoperative complications. The average Foot and Ankle Ability Measure score increased to 90 from 27.5 in the postoperative period. All patients were able to return their previous activity levels. Gracilis allograft reconstruction as used in this study is a viable and reproducible alternative to primary repair with postoperative results being favorable without using complex tendon transfer techniques or autograft use necessitating the functional sacrifice of transferred or excised tendon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating a successful technique and operative algorithm of gracilis allograft reconstruction of the TAT
Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasanvand, Sahar; Fakhari, Zahra; Kordi, Ramin; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina
To cross-culturally adapt the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) to Persian language and to preliminary evaluate the reliability and validity of a Persian ATRS. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the ATRS to Persian language (ATRS-Persian) following steps described in guidelines. Thirty patients with total Achilles tendon rupture and 30 healthy subjects participated in this study. Psychometric properties of floor/ceiling effects (responsiveness), internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), construct validity, and discriminant validity were tested. Factor analysis was performed to determine the ATRS-Persian structure. There were no floor or ceiling effects that indicate the content and responsiveness of ATRS-Persian. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.95). Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standard of 0.3 for the all items (0.58-0.95). The test-retest reliability was excellent [(ICC)agreement 0.98]. SEM and SDC were 3.57 and 9.9, respectively. Construct validity was supported by a significant correlation between the ATRS-Persian total score and the Persian Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (PFAOS) total score and PFAOS subscales (r = 0.55-0.83). The ATRS-Persian significantly discriminated between patients and healthy subjects. Explanatory factor analysis revealed 1 component. The ATRS was cross-culturally adapted to Persian and demonstrated to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure functional outcomes in Persian patients with Achilles tendon rupture. II.
Benyass, Youssef; Chafry, Bouchaib; Koufagued, Kaldadak; Bouabid, Salim; Chagar, Belkacem
Les ruptures traumatiques du tendon quadricipital sont rares, elles surviennent préférentiellement après 40 ans, suite à un traumatisme indirect chez le sportif (flexion contrariée du genou) ou traumatisme banal chez le sédentaire. La tendinopathie préexistante est fréquente. La rupture est le plus souvent totale et siège au corps du tendon 60% des cas ou décallotement quadricipital au bord supérieur de la rotule (40% des cas). Le diagnostic est essentiellement clinique. Les examens complémentaires (échographie et imagerie par résonance magnétique) sont utiles et appuient le diagnostique, mais sont souvent faussement rassurants hormis la radiographie qui montre une rotule basse. Le traitement essentiellement chirurgical associé à la rééducation fonctionnelle donne des résultats largement meilleurs. Le délai d'intervention est un facteur pronostic très important. Les auteurs rapportent 03cas de rupture de tendon quadricipital. L’âge moyen est de 50ans. Ils ont été traités chirurgicalement et revus régulièrement, avec un recul de 16 mois pour apprécier l’évolution. Les résultats ont été très bons chez 02 cas et bon chez 01 cas. L'amélioration a été très nette selon les critères: marche, douleur et reprise d'activité physique. PMID:26985261
Erickson, Brandon J.; Mascarenhas, Randy; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Walton, David; Lee, Simon; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.
Background: Multiple meta-analyses have been published in efforts to determine whether operative or nonoperative treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures affords superior outcomes. Purpose: To perform a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses comparing operative and nonoperative treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures to determine which meta-analyses provide the highest level of evidence for treatment recommendations. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify meta-analyses that fit the study inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from these meta-analyses regarding patient outcomes and reruptures. Meta-analysis quality was assessed using the Oxman-Guyatt and QUOROM (Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses) systems. The Jadad algorithm was applied to determine the meta-analyses with the highest level of evidence. Results: Nine meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria, with all but 1 study including level 1 evidence. A total of 5842 patients were included. Seven studies found a higher rate of rerupture in the nonoperative group but a higher rate of complications in the operative group. One study found no differences in rerupture or complication rates, and 1 study found surgery decreased rerupture rates only when compared with nonoperative treatment without a functional brace. Three studies also identified an earlier return to work in the operative group. Almost all (8 of 9) of the meta-analyses had Oxman-Guyatt scores >3, indicating no major flaws. Conclusion: Operative treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures decreases rerupture rates but increases the risk for minor complications when compared with nonoperative treatment. Additionally, surgical treatment may allow earlier return to work. PMID:26665055
Westin, Olof; Nilsson Helander, Katarina; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Samuelsson, Kristian; Brorsson, Annelie; Karlsson, Jón
The aim of this study was to perform a long-term follow-up of patients treated for an Achilles tendon re-rupture, using established outcome measurements for tendon structure, lower extremity function and symptoms, and to compare the results with those for the uninjured side. A secondary aim was to compare the outcome with that of patients treated for primary ruptures. The hypotheses were that patients with a re-rupture recover well, and have similar long-term outcome as primary ruptures. Twenty patients (4 females) with a mean (SD) age of 44 (10.9) years, ranging from 24 to 64, were included. The patients were identified by reviewing the medical records of all Achilles tendon ruptures at Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Kungsbacka Hospital, Sweden, between 2006 and 2016. All patients received standardised surgical treatment and rehabilitation. The mean (SD) follow-up was 51 (38.1) months. A test battery of validated clinical and functional tests, patient-reported outcome measurements and measurements of tendon elongation were performed at the final follow-up. This cohort was then compared with the 2-year follow-up results from a previous randomised controlled trial of patients treated for primary Achilles tendon rupture. There were deficits on the injured side compared with the healthy side in terms of heel-rise height (11.9 versus 12.5 cm, p = 0.008), repetitions (28.5 versus 31.7, p = 0.004) and drop-jump height (13.2 versus 15.1 cm, p = 0.04). There was a significant difference in calf circumference (37.1 versus 38.4 cm, p =< 0.001) and ankle dorsiflexion on the injured side compared with the healthy side (35.3° versus 40.8°, p = 0.003). However, no significant differences were found in terms of tendon length 22.5 (2.5) cm on the injured side and 21.8 (2.8) cm on the healthy side. Compared with primary ruptures, the re-rupture cohort obtained significantly worse results for the Achilles tendon total rupture score, with a mean of
Piggott, Robert Pearse; Doody, Orla; Quinlan, John Francis
Groin pain post-total hip arthroplasty (THA) is of concern for the patient and the surgeon, especially when there is no history of any traumatic event. Obvious concern centres on complications from the prosthesis. The use of multiple imaging modalities allow for accurate diagnosis of groin pain. Atraumatic iliopsoas rupture is rare and has only been reported once before in the setting of THA. We present the case of 53-year old female with atraumatic rupture of the iliopsoas tendon that presented with severe groin pain and limited flexion. We discuss the clinical presentation, radiological features and follow-up of the patient. We also discuss the relevant published literature on the topic. This is a rare phenomenon but should be consider in patients with groin pain post-THA, especially after prosthesis complications have been ruled out. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Manzi, Luigi; Indino, Cristian; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Berjano, Pedro
Objective The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical results and return to sports in patients undergoing reconstruction of the Achilles tendon after minimally invasive reconstruction with semitendinosus tendon graft transfer. Methods Eight patients underwent surgical reconstruction with a minimally invasive technique and tendon graft augmentation with ipsilateral semitendinosus tendon for chronic Achilles tendon rupture (more than 30 days after the injury and a gap of >6 cm). Patients were evaluated at a minimum follow-up of 24 months after the surgery through the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Scores (ATRS), the Endurance test, the calf circumference of the operated limb, and the contralateral and the eventual return to sports activity performed before the trauma. Results The mean age at surgery was 50.5 years. Five men and three women underwent the surgery. The average AOFAS was 92, mean Endurance test was 28.1, and the average ATRS was 87. All patients returned to their daily activities, and six out of eight patients have returned to sports activities prior to the accident (two football players, three runners, one tennis player) at a mean of 7.0 (range: 6.7-7.2) months after the surgery. No patient reported complications or reruptures. Conclusion Our study confirms encouraging results for the treatment of Achilles tendon rupture with a minimally invasive technique with semitendinosus graft augmentation. The technique can be considered safe and allows patients to return to their sports activity. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series.
Singh, Rohit; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; Moores, Thomas Steven; Patel, Amit
Achilles tendon ruptures tend to occur more commonly in healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. The injury is usually due to sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot, all of which occur during high impact activities. We present the first reported case of interactive activity with Nintendo Wii games that have resulted in Achilles tendon rupture in a 46-year-old man. There have been no previous reports of Achilles tendon rupture with Nintendo Wii usage; it is a relatively uncommon mode of injury and is rare in terms of epidemiology of motion sensing video game injuries. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Singh, Rohit; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; Moores, Thomas Steven; Patel, Amit
Achilles tendon ruptures tend to occur more commonly in healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. The injury is usually due to sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot, all of which occur during high impact activities. We present the first reported case of interactive activity with Nintendo Wii games that have resulted in Achilles tendon rupture in a 46-year-old man. There have been no previous reports of Achilles tendon rupture with Nintendo Wii usage; it is a relatively uncommon mode of injury and is rare in terms of epidemiology of motion sensing video game injuries. PMID:24827648
Jallageas, R; Bordes, J; Daviet, J-C; Mabit, C; Coste, C
In the past few decades, the incidence of Achilles tendon rupture has increased in parallel with increased sports participation. Although the optimal treatment remains controversial, there is a trend towards surgical treatment in athletes. Surgical repair of ruptured Achilles tendon in athlete results in good functional and objective recovery, irrespective of the type of surgery performed. Subsidiarily, are the results different between percutaneous surgery (PS) and standard open surgery (OS)? This was a cross-sectional study of 31 patients who presented with a ruptured Achilles tendon that occurred during sports participation. Percutaneous surgery was performed in 16 patients and open surgery in 15 patients between 2005 and 2009. The objective recovery status was evaluated by open chain goniometry, measurement of leg muscle atrophy and assessment of isokinetic strength. The functional analysis was based on the delay, level of sports upon return, AOFAS and VAS for pain. Our series of Achilles tendon rupture patients consisted of 88% men and 12% women, with an average age of 38 years. In 71% of cases, the rupture occurred during eccentric loading. After a follow-up of 15 months, the muscle atrophy was 13 mm after PS and 24 mm after OS (P=0.01). A strength deficit of 19% in the plantar flexors was found in the two groups. No patient experienced a rerupture. The return to sports occurred at 130 days after PS and 178 days after OS (P=0.005). The average AOFAS score was 94 and the VAS was 0.5. There were no differences in ankle range of motion between the two groups. The majority (77%) of patients had returned to their preinjury level of sports activity. The return to activities of daily living was slower in our study than in studies based in Anglo-Saxon countries; this can be explained by the different sick leave coverage systems. Percutaneous surgery resulted in a faster return to sports (about 130 days) and less muscle atrophy than open surgery. Our results for
Holmes, D. F.; Lu, Y.; Purslow, P. P.; Kadler, K. E.; Bechet, D.; Wess, T. J.
Scaling relationships have been formulated to investigate the influence of collagen fibril diameter (D) on age-related variations in the strain energy density of tendon. Transmission electron microscopy was used to quantify D in tail tendon from 1.7- to 35.3-mo-old (C57BL/6) male mice. Frequency histograms of D for all age groups were modeled as two normally distributed subpopulations with smaller (DD1) and larger (DD2) mean Ds, respectively. Both DD1 and DD2 increase from 1.6 to 4.0 mo but decrease thereafter. From tensile tests to rupture, two strain energy densities were calculated: 1) uE [from initial loading until the yield stress (σY)], which contributes primarily to tendon resilience, and 2) uF [from σY through the maximum stress (σU) until rupture], which relates primarily to resistance of the tendons to rupture. As measured by the normalized strain energy densities uE/σY and uF/σU, both the resilience and resistance to rupture increase with increasing age and peak at 23.0 and 4.0 mo, respectively, before decreasing thereafter. Multiple regression analysis reveals that increases in uE/σY (resilience energy) are associated with decreases in DD1 and increases in DD2, whereas uF/σU (rupture energy) is associated with increases in DD1 alone. These findings support a model where age-related variations in tendon resilience and resistance to rupture can be directed by subtle changes in the bimodal distribution of Ds. PMID:22837169
Giambini, Hugo; Ikeda, Jun; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng
Loss of experimental animals due to tendon repair failure results in the need for additional animals to complete the study. We designed a relief proximal to the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon repair site to serve as a “safety incision” to prevent repair site ruptures and maximize safety incision-to-suture strength. The FDP tendons were dissected in 24 canine forepaws. The 2nd and 5th tendons were lacerated at the proximal interphalangeal joint level and sutured using a modified Kessler technique and peripheral running suture. Tendon width was measured where the FDP tendon separates into each individual digit and a safety incision, equal to the 2nd and 5th tendon widths, was performed 3, 4, or 5 mm (Groups 1, 2, and 3) proximal to the separation. The tendons were pulled at a rate of 1 mm/s until either the “safety incision” ruptured or the repair failed. There was no gap formation at the repair site in Groups 1 and 2. However, all Group 3 tendons failed by repair site rupture with the safety incision intact. An adequate safety incision to protect repair gap and rupture and maintain tendon tension for the FDP animal model should be about 4 mm from where the FDP tendon separates. PMID:20872585
Neumann, Julie A; Klein, Christopher M; van Eck, Carola F; Rahmi, Hithem; Itamura, John M
Avoiding delay in the surgical management of pectoralis major (PM) ruptures optimizes outcomes. However, this is not always possible, and when a tear becomes chronic or when a subacute tear has poor tissue quality, a graft can facilitate reconstruction. The primary aim was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of PM reconstruction with dermal allograft augmentation for chronic tears or for subacute tears with poor tissue quality. A second aim was to determine patient and surgical factors affecting outcome. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Nineteen consecutive patients (19 PM ruptures) with a mean ± SD age of 39.1 ± 8.4 years were retrospectively reviewed at 26.4 ± 16.0 months following PM tendon reconstruction with dermal allograft. Surgery was performed at 19.2 ± 41.2 months after injury (median, 7.6 months; range, 1.1-185.4 months). Several outcome scores were recorded pre- and postoperatively, including Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), as well as visual analog scale (VAS) (range, 0-10; 0 = no pain) and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE). Range of motion, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test score, and complications/reoperations were recorded postoperatively. Scores improved significantly for the DASH (preoperative, 34.9; postoperative, 8.0; P < .001) and VAS (preoperative, 5.0; postoperative, 1.5; P = .011). There was a trend toward improved SANE scores (preoperative, 15.0; postoperative, 80.0; P = .097), but the difference was not statistically significant, likely because of the small number of patients having preoperative SANE scores for review. Increased age was associated with higher VAS scores ( r = 0.628, P = .016) and less forward flexion ( r = -0.502, P = .048) and external rotation ( r = -0.654, P = .006). Patients with workers' compensation had lower scores for 3 measures: SANE (75.8 vs 88.4, P = .040), Constant (86.7 vs 93.4, P = .019), and ASES (81.9 vs 97.4, P = .016
Zhang, Dawei; Ye, Xiangming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wenjie
To observe the differences of affected-side ankle plantar flexors function and clinical efficacy between contralateral acupuncture combined with rehabilitation training and rehabilitation training alone for patients with acute closed achilles tendon rupture. Seventy-four patients with acute closed achilles tendon rupture were randomly assigned to an observation group and a control group, 37 cases in each group. Patients in the both groups were treated with routine rehabilitation training after the operation for 12 weeks; besides, patients in the observation group were treated with contralateral acupuncture at Zusanli (ST 36), Yanglingquan (GB 34), Chengshan (BL 57), Taixi (KI 3) before rehabilitation training in the first 6 weeks. The treatment were given once a day, 5 times as 1 course with 2 d at the interval. The Biodex System 4 multi-joint dynamometers system was applied to test and compare affected-side plantar flexion peak torque (PFPT), peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) and total work (TW) after 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. The efficacy evaluation was conducted after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, and the follow-up visit was conducted 12 weeks after end of treatment. The PFPT, PT/BW, TW in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group after 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment (all P <0.05); compared with those after 6 weeks, the PFPT, PT/BW, TW were significantly increased after 8 weeks of treatment (all P <0.05); compared with those after 6 weeks and 8 weeks, the PFPT, PT/BW, TW were significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment (all P <0.05). After 12 weeks of treatment and at follow-up visit, the clinical excellent and effective rates in the observation group were higher than those in the control group[89.2% (33/37) vs 70.3% (26/37), 94.6% (35/37) vs 75.7% (28/37), both P <0.05]. During the postoperative rehabilitation of acute closed achilles tendon rupture, the contralateral acupuncture combined with rehabilitation training
Hightower, Jane M; Dalessandri, Kathie M; Pope, Karl; Hernández, Germán T
Myofascial pain that has been associated with cancer and increased risk of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients is intrinsically associated with low magnesium and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Therefore, this physical finding was used as a clinical diagnostic proxy. The objective of this study was to assess the association and prevalence of disease in individuals with myofascial pain and low 25(OH)D in a county with low magnesium in the drinking water. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of a chart review of 269 subjects to assess subjects presenting with myofascial pain (assessed by tender trigger points) and 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 ng/mL or a history of 25(OH)D deficiency compared to those without these exposures. The association between the exposure of low 25(OH)D levels and myofascial pain was compared to all cancers, colon polyps, and tendon ruptures. The odds of having cancer with the combined exposures was 10.14 times the odds of not having either exposure (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.08, 20.25, p < 0.001). For adenomatous colon polyps, the odds ratio (OR) was 7.24 (95% CI, 3.83, 13.69, p < 0.001), and for tendon rupture, the OR was 8.65 (95% CI, 3.76, 19.94, p < 0.001). Of 80 subjects who had both myofascial pain and 25(OH)D less than 30 ng/mL, 74 were tested for red blood cell (RBC) magnesium. Half of those subjects had RBC magnesium concentrations < 4.6 mg/dL, and 23% had levels below the reference range (4.0-6.4 mg/dL). Myofascial pain as assessed by tender trigger points and 25(OH)D deficiency showed a significant association with cancer, adenomatous colon polyps, and tendon rupture. Further studies to verify these results are needed, especially in areas where there is low magnesium in the drinking water.
Taylor, C J; Bansal, R; Pimpalnerkar, A
Acute distal biceps rupture is a devastating injury in the young athlete and surgical repair offers the only chance of a full recovery. We report a new surgical technique used in 14 cases of acute distal tendon rupture in which the 'suture anchor technique' and a de-tensioning suture was employed. In this procedure the distal end of the biceps is re-attached to the radial tuberosity using a sliding whip stitch suture and the proximal part of the distal tendon repair attached to the underlying brachialis muscle with absorbable sutures. This restores correct anatomical alignment and isometric pull on the distal tendon and de-tensions the repair in the early post-operative period, allowing early rehabilitation and an early return to activity. In all cases patients regained a full pre-injury level of sporting activity at a mean period of 6.2 months (2-9 months).
de Boer, Maarten D; Selby, Anna; Atherton, Philip; Smith, Ken; Seynnes, Olivier R; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Maffulli, Nicola; Movin, Tomas; Narici, Marco V; Rennie, Michael J
We hypothesized that rates of myofibrillar and patellar tendon collagen synthesis would fall over time during disuse, the changes being accompanied in muscle by decreases in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and in gene expression for proteolytic enzymes. We studied nine men (22 ± 4 years, BMI 24 ± 3 kg m−2 (means ± s.d.) who underwent unilateral lower leg suspension for 23 days; five were studied between 0 and 10 days and four between 10 and 21 days. Muscle and tendon biopsies were taken in the postabsorptive state at days 0, 10 and 21 for measurement of protein synthesis, gene expression and protein phosphorylation. Muscle cross-sectional area decreased by 5.2% at 14 days and 10.0% (both P < 0.001), at 23 days, i.e. 0.5% day−1, whereas tendon dimensions were constant. Rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis fell (P < 0.01) from 0.047% h−1 at day 0 to 0.022% h−1 at 10 days without further changes. Tendon collagen synthetic rates also fell (P < 0.01), from 0.052 to 0.023% h−1 at 10 days and then to 0.010% h−1 at 21 days. FAK phosphorylation decreased 30% (P < 0.01) at 10 days. No changes occurred in the amounts/phosphorylation of PKB–P70s6k–mTOR pathway components. Expression of mRNA for MuRF-1 increased ∼3-fold at 10 days without changes in MAFbx or tripeptidyl peptidase II mRNA, but all decreased between 10 and 21 days. Thus, both myofibrillar and tendon protein synthetic rates show progressive decreases during 21 days of disuse; in muscle, this is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of FAK, with no marked increases in genes for proteolytic enzymes. PMID:17901116
Imaeda, Miwa; Hojo, Tatsuya; Kitakoji, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuto; Itoi, Megumi; Inoue, Motohiro
In this study we examined the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on the mechanical strength of the rat Achilles tendon after long-term recovery. Using 20 rats, an Achilles tendon rupture model was created in an invasive manner. The rats were assigned to one of three groups, that received EA treatment (EA group), minimal acupuncture (MA group) or remained untreated (Control group). In the EA group, EA stimulation (5 ms, 50 Hz, 20 µA, 20 min) was applied to the rupture region over a period of 90 days (five times/week). In the MA group, needles were inserted into the same positions as in the EA group but no electrical current was applied. After 90 days the tendon was measured to calculate the cross-sectional area of the rupture region. Then, the mechanical strength of the tendon was measured by tensile testing. No significant differences were observed between the three groups in cross-sectional area of the injured tendon. For maximum breaking strength, the EA group showed a significantly higher threshold compared with the Control group (P<0.05) but not the MA group (P=0.24). No significant difference was seen between the MA group and the Control group (P=0.96). Given the EA group showed a significant increase in maximum breaking strength, it is likely that EA stimulation increases the mechanical strength of a repaired tendon after long-term recovery, and EA stimulation could be useful for preventing re-rupture. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Chillemi, Claudio; Marinelli, Mario; De Cupis, Vincenzo
Distal biceps tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury. It commonly occurs in the dominant extremity of middle-aged men during an excessive eccentric tension as the arm is forced from a flexed position, while it is rarely observed during sport activities. Many techniques, including non-operative and surgical option, have been described for the treatment of a ruptured distal biceps tendon, but there is still considerable controversy about the management of choice. Nine patients affected with traumatic distal tendon ruptures of the biceps brachii were followed-up for a minimum of 24 months. Five patients underwent surgery (two-incision technique) and four patients were treated conservatively. Tendon readaptation to its origin was done by a suture metal anchor. Outcome was evaluated based on the physical examination, radiographic analysis and the SECEC elbow score. The SECEC elbow score results show that every single item result is in favour of surgical treatment. On measurements of motion, we found a slight flexion-extension deficit in two patients, but reduced supination in six patients and reduced pronation in four. Two patients had postoperative dysfunction of the deep branch of the radial nerve. Radiographic examination showed heterotopic bone formation on the radial tuberosity around the presumed insertion of the reattached tendon in 2 of 5 patients and ectopic ossification more proximally in the area of the biceps muscle Our findings confirm the view that anatomic repair of distal biceps tendon rupture provides consistently good results and early anatomic reconstruction can restore strength and endurance for the elbow.
De la Fuente, Carlos; Carreño, Gabriel; Soto, Miguel; Marambio, Hugo; Henríquez, Hugo
The purpose of this study was to describe the angle of clinical failure during cyclical mobilization exercises in the Achilles tendon of human cadaveric specimens that were repaired using the Dresden technique and FiberWire ® No. 2. The secondary aim was to identify the secure limit of mobilization, the type of failure, and the type of apposition. The lower limbs of eight males (mean age: 60.3 ± 6.3 years) were repaired with the Dresden technique following complete, percutaneous mid-substance Achilles tendon rupture. A basal tension of 10 N at 30° of plantarflexion was placed on each specimen. The angle of the ankle during clinical failure (tendon ends separation >5 mm) was then tested via cyclical exercises (i.e. 100 cycles between 30° and 15° of plantarflexion; 100 cycles between 15° of plantarflexion and 0°; 100 cycles between 0° and 15° of dorsiflexion; and 100 cycles between 15° of dorsiflexion and full dorsiflexion). Clinical failure was determined using the Laplacian edge detection filter, and the angle of clinical failure was obtained using a rotatory potentiometer aligned in relation to the intermalleolar axis of each foot specimen. The type of failure (knot, tendon, or suture) and apposition (termino-terminal or non-termino-terminal) were determined. Descriptive statistics were used to obtain the mean; standard deviation; 95 % confidence interval; 1st, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 100th percentiles; and the standard error of the mean for angle data. Proportions were used to describe the type of failure and apposition. The main results were a mean angle of clinical failure equal to 12.5° of plantarflexion, a limit of mobilization equal to 14.0° of plantarflexion, tendon failure type, and non-termino-terminal apposition in all specimens. While the mean angle of clinical failure in human cadaveric models was 12.5° of plantarflexion, after 14.0° of plantarflexion, the percutaneous Dresden technique was found insecure for cyclical mobilization
Kodde, Izaäk F; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Mulder, Paul G H; Eygendaal, Denise
Hypertrophic changes at the radial tuberosity have traditionally been related to distal biceps tendon degeneration and rupture. From supination to pronation of the forearm, the space available for the distal biceps tendon between de lateral ulna and radial bicipital tuberosity (RBT) decreases by almost 50%. A hypertrophic change at the radial tuberosity further reduces this space with impingement of the distal biceps tendon as a result. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the size of the RBT plays a role in the pathophysiology of distal biceps tendon ruptures. Twenty-two consecutive patients with a surgically proven distal biceps tendon rupture were matched to controls, in a 1:1 ratio. The size of the RBT was expressed as a ratio of the maximum diameter of the radius at the RBT to the diameter of the diaphysis just distal to the RBT (RD ratio), measured on standard radiographs of the elbow. The RD ratio of patients and matched controls were compared. The mean RD ratio in control group was 1.25 and not significantly different from the mean 1.30 in the group of patients with a distal biceps tendon rupture. Each 0.1 point increase in RD ratio results in an estimated 60% increase of the rupture odds, which was not significant either. Based on the RD ratio on conventional radiographs of the elbow, there was no significant difference in RBT size between patients with a distal biceps tendon rupture and matched controls without biceps tendon pathology.
Fazilleau, F; Cheval, D; Richou, J; Le Nen, D
Closed rupture of thumb flexor tendon pulleys is extremely rare. Several techniques have already been described for finger pulley reconstruction. Various techniques based on prior anatomic and biomedical studies have been proposed for thumb pulley reconstruction, in which one or two of the three pulleys are replaced. In the present study, we describe an original technique using a single, free palmaris longus (PL) autograft for thumb pulley reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
El Shewy, Mohamed Taha; El Barbary, Hassan Magdy; Abdel-Ghani, Hisham
Chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon is a surgical challenge, owing to the presence of a gap between the retracted ends, which renders direct repair almost impossible. In this study, 2 intratendinous distally based flaps fashioned from the proximal gastrocnemiussoleus complex are used to bridge the gap between the retracted edges of the ruptured Achilles tendon. The flaps are placed in the same line of pull of the ruptured tendon, in an effort to make the graft mimic the original biomechanics as much as possible. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eleven patients (9 male and 2 female) with neglected ruptures of the Achilles tendon with retracted ends were included in this study. Two flaps fashioned from the proximal gastrocnemiussoleus complex were rotated over themselves, passed through the proximal stump, and then securely inserted into a previously prepared bed in the distal stump. The patients were followed up for a period of 6 to 9 years. At the final follow-up, all patients were able to return to their preinjury level of activity within a period of 6 to 9 months. The mean preoperative American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 42.27, whereas it was 98.91 at the final follow-up, with a range of 88 (in 1 patient) to 100 points (in 10 patients). All 11 patients showed statistically significant improvement according to the Holz rating system. This technique allows for a bridging of the defect present in chronic ruptures of Achilles tendons, with a minimum of complications and a good final outcome.
Haverstock, John; Grewal, Ruby; King, Graham J W; Athwal, George S
The literature has shown an increased complication rate with a delay to surgical repair of acute distal biceps tendon ruptures; however, little has been documented regarding the outcome of delayed repairs. This case-control study compared a study cohort of delayed (>21 days) distal biceps tendon repairs with a control cohort repaired acutely (<21 days). Sixteen delayed repair cases were reviewed and matched with acute controls (1:3) based on repair technique, age, and workers' compensation status. The delayed cohort was reviewed and completed isometric strength testing and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire; Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation; and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow questionnaire. The time to surgery averaged 37 ± 12 days in the delayed cohort versus 10 ± 6 days in the acute cohort. Complications occurred in 63% of patients in the delayed cohort versus 29% in the acute cohort (P = .04); however, 90% of the delayed cohort's complications consisted of transient paresthesias. Follow-up scores on the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow questionnaire were not statistically different between cohorts (P > .37, P > .22, and P > .46, respectively). Despite a high rate of initial complications, patients treated with distal biceps tendon repair after a delay (>21 days) can expect similar functional outcomes to those treated acutely. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Andrew R; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E; Davis, W Hodges; Ellington, J Kent; Anderson, Robert B
Limited incision techniques for acute Achilles tendon ruptures have been developed in recent years to improve recovery and reduce postoperative complications compared with traditional open repair. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the clinical outcomes and postoperative complications between acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated using a percutaneous Achilles repair system (PARS [Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL]) versus open repair and evaluate the overall outcomes for operatively treated Achilles ruptures. Between 2005 and 2014, 270 consecutive cases of operatively treated acute Achilles tendon ruptures were reviewed (101 PARS, 169 open). Patients with Achilles tendinopathy, insertional ruptures, chronic tears, or less than 3-month follow-up were excluded. Operative treatment consisted of a percutaneous technique (PARS) using a 2-cm transverse incision with FiberWire (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL) sutures or open repair using a 5- to 8-cm posteromedial incision with FiberWire in a Krackow fashion reinforced with absorbable sutures. Patient demographics were recorded along with medical comorbidities, activity at injury, time from injury to surgery, length of follow-up, return to baseline activities by 5 months, and postoperative complications. The most common activity during injury for both groups was basketball (PARS: 39%, open: 47%). A greater number of patients treated with PARS were able to return to baseline physical activities by 5 months compared with the open group (PARS: 98%, open: 82%; P = .0001). There were no significant differences (P > .05) between groups in rates of rerupture (P = 1.0), sural neuritis (P = .16), wound dehiscence (P = .74), superficial (P = .29) and/or deep infection (P = .29), or reoperation (P = .13). There were no deep vein thromboses (DVTs) or reruptures in either group. In the PARS group, there were no cases of sural neuritis, 3 cases (3%) of superficial wound dehiscence, and 2 reoperations (2%) for superficial
Sveen, Thor-Magnus; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner
Acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) can be treated either surgically or non-surgically. High-quality meta-analyses show a lower re-rupture rate, but a higher overall complication rate among surgically treated patients. No studies have evaluated the socio-economic impact of different complications. The aim of this study was to investigate: 1) the socio-economic impact of complications after ATR through the utilisation of the Danish Patient Insurance Association (DPIA) database, 2) correlations between treatment and complications. A total of 324 patients with ATR reported in the period from 1992 to 2010 in the DPIA database were identified and patient records were reviewed manually. The compensation awarded for the 18-year period totalled 18,147,202 DKK with 41% of patient claims being recognised. Out of 180 surgically treated patients, 79 received a total compensation of 14,051,377 DKK, median 47,637 (range: 5,000-3,577,043). Of 114 non-surgically treated patients, 40 received 3,715,224 DKK in compensation, with a median amount of 35,788 DKK (range: 5,000-830,073). Compensation after surgical treatment was 3.8 times higher than compensation after non-surgical treatment. It is noteworthy that 34.5% of patients had an overlooked diagnosis which underlines the importance of a correct primary diagnosis. not relevant. not relevant.
Chu, Haikun; Xu, Yanbin; Chu, Haipeng; Xu, Yajun; Zhou, Fengji; Yu, Xin; Li, Hui; Ji, Xiaofeng
To investigate the effectiveness of modified percutaneous suture in repairing acute closed Achilles tendon rupture by comparing with conventional open suture. Between January 2006 and October 2009, 50 patients with acute closed Achilles tendon rupture were treated with modified percutaneous suture by making 5 small incisions at both sides of Achilles tendon and zigzag suture (improved group, n=22) and with Kessler suture (conventional group, n=28), respectively. No significant difference was found in gender, age, time from injury to operation between 2 groups (P > 0.05). In improved group, the patients achieved healing of incisions by first intention after operation and no complication occurred; however, incision infection occurred in 1 case, Achilles tendon re-rupture in 1 case, and incision scar contracture in 2 cases in conventional group. The operation time of improved group [(38.7 +/- 6.6) minutes] was significantly shorter (t=-12.29, P=0.00) than that of conventional group [(52.3 +/- 6.9) minutes]; the blood loss of improved group [(4.9 +/- 2.0) mL] was significantly less (t=-25.20, P=0.00) than that of conventional group [(40.7 +/- 7.1) mL]. The patients were followed up 2-3 years (mean, 29.9 months). The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 99.6 +/- 1.0 in improved group and was 98.4 +/- 3.0 in conventional group, showing no significant difference between 2 groups (t=1.66, P=0.10). Comparison with conventional open suture, modified percutaneous suture has some advantages, such as easy operation, less complications, rapid recovery of limb function, and so on. Modified percutaneous suture is one of the best choices for the treatment of acute closed Achilles tendon rupture.
Deng, Senlin; Sun, Zhengyu; Zhang, Chenghao; Chen, Gang; Li, Jian
Acute Achilles tendon ruptures can be treated with surgical and nonsurgical treatment. However, the optimal intervention for acute Achilles tendon rupture remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical outcomes of surgical treatment versus conservative management for acute Achilles tendon rupture. Eight randomized controlled studies involving 762 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In general, re-rupture occurred in 14 of 381 surgically treated patients (3.7%) and 37 of 377 nonsurgically treated patients (9.8%). Pooled results showed that the total re-rupture rate was significantly lower in surgical group than that in the nonsurgical group (risk ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.68; p = .001). No significant differences were found between the 2 treatment groups in the incidence of deep venous thrombosis, the number who returned to sport, ankle range of motion (dorsiflexion, plantarflexion), Achilles tendon total rupture score, or physical activity scale. Surgical treatment can effectively reduce the re-rupture rate and might be a better choice for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Multicenter, double-blind randomized controlled trials with stratification and long-term follow-up are needed to obtain a higher level of evidence and to guide clinical practice, especially in the comparison and selection of different treatments. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pantazis, K; Roupas, N D; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Theodoraki, S; Tsintoni, A; Kyriazopoulou, V
Tendinitis can be a presenting complaint in hypothyroidism, with symptomatic relief being obtained by appropriate management of the primary thyroid deficiency. To the best of our knowledge no other cases of spontaneous rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon during uncontrolled hypothyroidism have yet been reported. This case report describes an unusual case of spontaneous rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon in a 48-year-old white woman with severe hypothyroidism. She described experiencing a sudden sharp pain and an audible pop in her right shoulder while using her personal computer. On physical examination she was positive for Yergason's sign and a subsequent magnetic resonance imaging scan showed complete rupture of the long head of her biceps tendon. Laboratory tests revealed significantly elevated thyrotropin levels (>100 μIU/ml) and very low levels of both triiodothyronine (0.17 ng/ml) and free thyroxine (0.18 ng/dl). She was switched to a different thyroxin regimen with a progressive dosage increment. She declined surgical re-anchorage of the tendon but despite the discreet Popeye sign, her overall strength and shoulder function were satisfactory. After 2 months, she was found to be clinically euthyroid, having normal thyroid function tests (thyrotropin 2.95 μIU/mL, free thyroxine 1.07 ng/dl). At her last follow-up visit, 1 year post-injury, she reported nearly normal shoulder function in her daily activities and had a constant shoulder score of 93 points. The role of thyroid hormones in the synthesis and degeneration of collagen and in the proliferation and apoptosis of human tenocytes is discussed, providing a possible mechanism whereby hypothyroidism may lead to tendon tears. This report may have a greater impact among different subspecialties as it presupposes a high degree of awareness from internists, endocrinologists and orthopedic surgeons.
Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina
Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P < .001-.012). Significant improvement in calf muscle performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No
Spoendlin, Julia; Layton, J Bradley; Mundkur, Mallika; Meier, Christian; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R
Case reports and pharmacovigilance data reported cases of tendon ruptures in statin users, but evidence from observational studies is scarce and inconclusive. We aimed to assess the association between new statin use and tendon rupture. We performed a propensity score (PS)-matched sequential cohort study, using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Patients aged ≥45 years with at least one new statin prescription between 1995 and 2014 were PS-matched within 2-year entry blocks to patients without a statin prescription during the block. We followed patients until they had a recorded Achilles or biceps tendon rupture, completed 5 years of follow-up, or were censored for change in exposure status or another censoring criterion. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), applying Cox proportional hazard analyses in the overall cohort (crude and multivariable) and in the PS-matched cohort. We performed subgroup analyses by sex, age, treatment duration, and statin dose. We observed a crude HR of 1.32 (95 % CI 1.21-1.44) in the overall cohort, which attenuated after multivariable adjustment (HR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.92-1.12) and after PS-matching (HR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.84-1.08). Crude HRs were higher in women than in men, but remained around null in both sexes after multivariable adjustment and PS-matching. Subgroup analyses by age, treatment duration, and statin dose revealed null results across all subgroups. The results of this cohort study suggest that statin use does not increase the risk of tendon rupture, irrespective of gender, age, statin dose, or treatment duration.
Zhang, Hao; Tang, Hao; He, Qianyun; Wei, Qiang; Tong, Dake; Wang, Chuangfeng; Wu, Dajiang; Wang, Guangchao; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Wenbin; Li, Di; Ding, Chen; Liu, Kang; Ji, Fang
Although many meta-analyses comparing surgical intervention with conservative treatment have been conducted for acute Achilles tendon rupture, discordant conclusions are shown. This study systematically reviewed the overlapping meta-analyses relating to surgical versus conservative intervention of acute Achilles tendon rupture to assist decision makers select among conflicting meta-analyses, and to offer intervention recommendations based on the currently best evidence.Multiple databases were comprehensively searched for meta-analyses comparing surgical with conservative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Meta-analyses only comprising randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors independently evaluated the meta-analysis quality and extracted data. The Jadad decision algorithm was applied to ascertain which meta-analysis offered the best evidence.A total of 9 meta-analyses were included. Only RCTs were determined as Level-II evidence. The scores of Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) ranged from 5 to 10 (median 7). A high-quality meta-analysis with more RCTs was selected according to the Jadad decision algorithm. This study found that when functional rehabilitation was used, conservative intervention was equal to surgical treatment regarding the incidence of rerupture, range of motion, calf circumference, and functional outcomes, while reducing the incidence of other complications. Where functional rehabilitation was not performed, conservative intervention could significantly increase rerupture rate.Conservative intervention may be preferred for acute Achilles tendon rupture at centers offering functional rehabilitation, because it shows a similar rerupture rate with a lower risk of other complications when compared with surgical treatment. However, surgical treatment should be considered at centers without functional rehabilitation as this can reduce the incidence of rerupture.
Henríquez, Hugo; Muñoz, Roberto; Carcuro, Giovanni; Bastías, Christian
Open repair of Achilles tendon rupture has been associated with higher levels of wound complications than those associated with percutaneous repair. However, some studies suggest there are higher rerupture rates and sural nerve injuries with percutaneous repair. We compared the two types of repairs in terms of (1) function (muscle strength, ankle ROM, calf and ankle perimeter, single heel rise tests, and work return), (2) cosmesis (length scar, cosmetic appearance), and (3) complications. We retrospectively reviewed 32 surgically treated patients with Achilles rupture: 17 with percutaneous repair and 15 with open repair. All patients followed a standardized rehabilitation protocol. The minimum followup was 6 months (mean, 18 months; range, 6-48 months). We observed similar values of plantar flexor strength, ROM, calf and ankle perimeter, and single heel raising test between the groups. Mean time to return to work was longer for patients who had open versus percutaneous repair (5.6 months versus 2.8 months). Mean scar length was greater in the open repair group (9.5 cm versus 2.9 cm). Cosmetic appearance was better in the percutaneous group. Two wound complications and one rerupture were found in the open repair group. One case of deep venous thrombosis occurred in the percutaneous repair group. All complications occurred before 6 months after surgery. We identified no patients with nerve injury. Percutaneous repair provides function similar to that achieved with open repair, with a better cosmetic appearance, a lower rate of wound complications, and no apparent increase in the risk of rerupture. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Diao, Zhen-Bin; Chu, Hai-Kun; Li, Na; Sha, Xian-Hui; Chang, Shu-Song
To study the clinical effects of Achillon for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture (AATR). From April 2009 to April 2010, 19 patients with AATR who were treated with Achillon were retrospectively analyzed. There were 17 males and 2 females, with an average age of 40.2 years (30 to 58 years). There were 9 cases of sports injury, and 2 case of fall injury. The time from injury to surgery ranged from 0 to 8 days (2.2 days on average). The results of Thompson test and single heel rise test were positive in 19 cases. Clinical data were assessed with the patient satisfaction and the AOFAS hindfoot score during follow-up. All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 12 to 28 months (19.9 months on average). The average operation time was 41 minutes. There were no wound infections, recurrent rupture, or sural nerve complications. At the latest follow-up, 18 patients were totally satisfied with the surgical result, 1 patient feel generally due to mild pain when running. None of the patients were dissatisfied with the final results the latest follow-up. At the latest follow-up, the AOFAS score was 98.42 +/- 3.29 (89 to 100). All the patients regained normal range of motion and were able to resume their previous activities at six months after operation, with a high rate of satisfaction. Average decreased of mid-calf circumference was (0.82 +/- 0.85) cm (ranged from 0 to 3 cm). Treatment with Achillon is safe, effective for AATR with low incidence of complications and early active rehabilitation can be carried out. It is a good method to treat AATR.
Metz, Roderik; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Verleisdonk, Egbert-Jan M M; Tamminga, Rob; van der Werken, Christiaan
The aim of this study was to measure the effect of treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures on calf muscle strength recovery. Eighty-three patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were randomly allocated to either minimally invasive surgery with functional after-treatment or conservative treatment by functional bracing. Calf muscle strength using isokinetic testing was evaluated at 3 months and after 6 or more months posttreatment. To exclusively investigate the effect of treatment on outcome, the authors excluded patients with major complications from the analysis. In 31 of 39 patients in the surgical treatment group and 25 of 34 patients in the conservative treatment group, isokinetic strength tests were performed. In the analysis of differences in mean peak torque, no statistically significant differences were found between surgery and conservative treatment, except for plantar flexion strength at 90 degrees per second at the second measurement, favoring conservative treatment. After 8 to 10 months follow- up, loss of plantar flexion strength was still present in the injured leg in both treatment groups. In conclusion, isokinetic muscle strength testing did not detect a statistically significant difference between minimally invasive surgical treatment with functional after-treatment and conservative treatment by functional bracing of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.
Byrne, Paul A; Hopper, Graeme P; Wilson, William T; Mackay, Gordon M
Rupture of the Achilles tendon is an increasingly common injury, particularly in physically active males, and current evidence favors minimally invasive surgical repair. We describe the case of a 36-year-old male elite bobsled athlete with complete rupture of the Achilles tendon. He was treated with surgical repair of the ruptured tendon using an innovative, minimally invasive procedure based on an internal bracing concept and was able to undergo early mobilization and aggressive physiotherapy rehabilitation. His recovery was such that he returned to training at 13 weeks postoperatively and participated in an international competition at 18 weeks, winning a World Cup silver medal. He subsequently raced at the 2014 Winter Olympic Games at 29 weeks after surgery. At >2 years since his injury, he has experienced no complications or reinjury. This represents an exceptional recovery that far exceeds the standard expected for such injuries. The use of this technique for athletes could enable accelerated return to sporting activity and attainment of their preinjury activity levels. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balazs, George C; Brelin, Alaina M; Donohue, Michael A; Dworak, Theodora C; Rue, John-Paul H; Giuliani, Jeffrey R; Dickens, Jonathan F
Pectoralis major tendon ruptures are commonly described as rare injuries affecting men between 20 and 40 years of age, with generally excellent results after surgical repair. However, this perception is based on a relatively small number of case series and prospective studies in the orthopaedic literature. To determine the incidence of pectoralis major tendon ruptures in the active-duty military population and the demographic risk factors for a rupture and to describe the outcomes of surgical treatment. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. We utilized the Military Health System Data Repository (MDR) to identify all active-duty military personnel surgically treated for a pectoralis major tendon rupture between January 2012 and December 2014. Electronic medical records were searched for patients' demographic information, injury characteristics, and postoperative complications and outcomes. Risk factors for a rupture were calculated using Poisson regression, based on population counts obtained from the MDR. Risk factors for a postoperative complication, the need for revision surgery, and the inability to continue with active duty were determined using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 291 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean patient age was 30.5 years, all patients were male, and the median follow-up period was 18 months. The incidence of injuries was 60 per 100,000 person-years over the study period. Risk factors for a rupture included service in the Army, junior officer or junior enlisted rank, and age between 25 and 34 years. White race and surgery occurring >6 weeks after injury were significant risk factors for a postoperative complication. Among the 214 patients with a minimum of 12 months' clinical follow-up, 95.3% were able to return to military duty. Junior officer/enlisted status was a significant risk factor for failure to return to military duty. Among military personnel, Army soldiers and junior officer
de la Fuente, C; Carreño-Zillmann, G; Marambio, H; Henríquez, H
To compare the mechanical failure of the Dresden technique for Achilles tendon repair with the double modified Kessler technique controlled repair technique. The maximum resistance of the two repair techniques are also compared. A total of 30 Achilles tendon ruptures in bovine specimens were repaired with an Ethibond(®) suture to 4.5cm from the calcaneal insertion. Each rupture was randomly distributed into one of two surgical groups. After repair, each specimen was subjected to a maximum traction test. The mechanical failure (tendon, suture, or knot) rates (proportions) were compared using the exact Fisher test (α=.05), and the maximum resistances using the Student t test (α=.05). There was a difference in the proportions of mechanical failures, with the most frequent being a tendon tear in the Dresden technique, and a rupture of the suture in the Kessler technique. The repair using the Dresden technique performed in the open mode, compared to the Kessler technique, has a more suitable mechanical design for the repair of middle third Achilles tendon ruptures on developing a higher tensile resistance in 58.7%. However, its most common mechanical failure was a tendon tear, which due to inappropriate loads could lead to lengthening of the Achilles tendon. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Spoendlin, Julia; Meier, Christian; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R
Previous studies suggest that diabetes causes alterations in tendon collagen structure, but evidence on how such findings translate into clinical practice is scarce. We aimed to analyze the association between type 2 diabetes and the risk of tendon rupture. We conducted a matched case-control analysis using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Cases (n=7895) were aged 30-89years and had an incident diagnosis of Achilles- or biceps tendon rupture between 1995 and 2013. In multivariable logistic regression analyses we compared the odds of tendon rupture between patients with or without type 2 diabetes, in men and women separately, and taking into account diabetes severity (HbA1c), duration, and antidiabetic drug treatment. Within 165 (7.1%) female cases with type 2 diabetes, odds ratios (ORs) were increased with poorer diabetes control (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.20-3.41, HbA1c ≥9% [≥75mmol/mol]), longer disease duration (OR 1.60, 95% CI 0.93-2.74, ≥10years), and current insulin use (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.30-3.90, ≥20 prescriptions). Among 372 (6.7%) male cases, there was no effect of type 2 diabetes on the risk of tendon rupture. Our results suggest that the risk of tendon ruptures may be increased in women with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, but not in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phadnis, Joideep; Flannery, Olivia; Watts, Adam C
Distal biceps ruptures can result in ongoing pain and weakness when treated nonoperatively. If retraction of the tendon renders primary repair impossible, reconstruction using a graft is recommended. The current literature includes a variety of techniques with studies reporting small patient numbers. The aim of this study was to report the results of a larger cohort of patients using a technique modified from those previously described in the literature. Twenty-one consecutive male patients underwent distal biceps reconstruction through 2 small anterior incisions using an Achilles tendon allograft that was fixed distally using a transosseous EndoButton and secured proximally using a Pulvertaft weave and tendon wrap. The mean age was 44 years, and the mean time to surgery was 25 months (range, 2-96 months). Functional outcomes were collected prospectively. The mean preoperative Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score (11 patients) was 1.9 (range, 0-4.5). The mean postoperative Oxford Elbow Score, QuickDASH score, and Mayo Elbow Performance Score were 44.7 (range, 35-48), 4 (range, 0-20.5), and 92.9 (range, 70-100), respectively, at a mean follow up of 15 months (range, 6-35 months). The mean postoperative QuickDASH score was significantly improved compared with preoperatively (P < .001). All patients were satisfied and all returned to their previous level of activity. There were 2 transient lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve paresthesias, and 2 patients had a 5° extension lag. There were no other complications. Achilles allograft reconstruction of retracted irreparable distal biceps ruptures provides consistently good results with few complications using this technique. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ergin, Ömer Naci; Demirel, Mehmet; Özmen, Emre
Rupture of the Achilles' tendon is a common injury occurring particularly in middle-aged men due to sports trauma. Operative treatment is preferred generally due to lower risk of re-rupture. Possible complications of the operation include suture granulomas. Suture granulomas might represent a foreign body reaction, which itself is the end-stage response of the inflammatory wound-healing process to biomaterials. It may occur with both absorbable and non-absorbable suture materials such as silk in our case. The aim of this study is to present a case of a delayed foreign body reaction 30 years after open repair of the Achilles tendon with silk sutures. Our case is a 38-year-old male who presented to our outpatient clinic with complaints of swelling and pain around the posterior region of the ankle for the past 3 months. He had a history of open Achilles tendon repair at the age of 3 at the site of complaints. Physical examination was positive for a mass under the incision scar. Magnetic resonance imaging report was positive for a granulomatosis formation. The patient was booked for an operation to remove the mass. Suture granuloma represents a tissue reaction against the suture material. Orthopedic literature is sparse for such cases and case reports. Both because of its rarity in orthopedic literature and the amount of time between the surgery and reaction, our report is a valuable addition to the literature.
Ecker, Timo M; Bremer, Anne K; Krause, Fabian G; Müller, Thorsten; Weber, Martin
Acute traumatic rupture of the Achilles tendon can be treated operatively or nonoperatively. Throughout the literature, there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment protocol. To report on 17 years of experience with treating this injury with a standardized nonoperative treatment protocol. Case Series; Level of evidence, 4. The treatment protocol was based on a combination of an equinus cast and rehabilitation boot, which promoted immediate full weightbearing and early functional rehabilitation. A total of 171 patients were consecutively treated and prospectively followed from 1996 to 2013. Assessed were subjective parameters such as pain, loss of strength, return to previous activity level, meteosensitivity, and general satisfaction with the treatment outcome. Clinical assessment included testing of plantar flexion strength and endurance, calf circumference, and tendon length. Subjective and clinical parameters were then used to calculate a modified Thermann score. The correlation between tendon lengthening and function was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A total of 114 patients were followed for a minimum of 12 months (mean, 27 ± 20 months; range, 12-88 months). The mean Thermann score was 82 ± 13 (range, 41-100), and subjective satisfaction was rated "very good" and "good" in 90%. An inverse correlation was found between tendon length and muscle strength (R = -0.3). There were 11 reruptures (8 with and 3 without an adequate trauma). General complications were 5 deep venous thromboses, 1 complex regional pain syndrome, and minor problems such as transient heel pain (n = 3), heel numbness (n = 1), and cast-associated skin abrasions (n = 4). Seventeen years of experience with a nonoperative treatment protocol for acute rupture of the Achilles tendon confirmed good functional outcome and patient satisfaction. Reruptures mostly occurred with new traumatic events in the vulnerable phase from 6 to 12 weeks after the initial injury
Jandacka, Daniel; Zahradnik, David; Foldyna, Karel; Hamill, Joseph
This study represented a unique opportunity to understand changes in the human motion biomechanics during basic locomotion within a time interval of 4 years, when the monitored individual regained his original aerobic fitness, running performance and body mass index as prior to the injury. The participant visited the laboratory a month prior to the injury and during 4 years after the surgery. The surgery, subsequent rehabilitation and a 4-year running training programme in the studied recreational athlete did not completely eliminate the consequences of the Achilles tendon rupture. The function muscle deficit is namely manifested by a lower net plantar flexion moment and a lower net-generated ankle joint power during the take-off in the stance phase. The greater dorsal flexion in the affected ankle joint at the first contact with the ground and consequently higher peaks of ground reaction forces during running are consequences of the longer Achilles tendon in the affected lower extremity and weakened calf muscles.
Sayers, Stephen P.; LaFontaine, Tom; Scheussler, Scott
Background: Complete rupture of the distal tendon of the biceps brachii is relatively rare and there is little information to guide therapists in rehabilitation after this injury. The purposes of this case report are to review the rehabilitation concepts used for treating such an injury, and discuss how to modify exercises during rehabilitation based on patient progression while adhering to physician recommended guidelines and standard treatment protocols. Case Presentation: The patient was an active 38‐year old male experienced in weight‐training. He presented with a surgically repaired right distal biceps tendon following an accident on a trampoline adapted with a bungee suspension harness. The intervention focused on restoring range of motion and strengthening of the supporting muscles of the upper extremity without placing undue stress on the biceps brachii. Outcomes: The patient was able to progress from a moderate restriction in ROM to full AROM two weeks ahead of the physician's post‐operative orders and initiate a re‐strengthening protocol by the eighth week of rehabilitation. At the eighth post‐operative week the patient reported no deficits in functional abilities throughout his normal daily activities with his affected upper extremity. Discussion: The results of this case report strengthen current knowledge regarding physical therapy treatment for a distal biceps tendon repair while at the same time providing new insights for future protocol considerations in active individuals. Most current protocols do not advocate aggressive stretching, AROM, or strengthening of a surgically repaired biceps tendon early in the rehabilitation process due to the fear of a re‐rupture. In the opinion of the authors, if full AROM can be achieved before the 6th week of rehabilitation, initiating a slow transition into light strengthening of the biceps brachii may be possible. Level of evidence: 4‐Single Case report PMID:23316429
Kessler, M A; Lichtenberg, S; Habermeyer, P
Tendon retraction and fatty degeneration is a major problem in repair of massive rotator cuff tears. Especially in the transosseous refixation technique, a tension-free refixation cannot be obtained in all cases. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the postoperative results using a new tension-free reinsertion technique with a Corkscrew suture anchor system. Thirty patients (25 males, 5 females) with complete one and two tendon tears underwent open rotator cuff repair (rupture of one tendon: n=14, 47%). The torn tendons were mobilized and reinserted medially to reduce tension. Medialization was achieved by inserting tendon near the osteochondral border in a bony trough. The number of implanted suture anchors ranged from 2 to 6 (mean: 3.56). The mean age was 56 years (39-68 years) with a follow-up of 24 months (17-33 months). In one patient physical and sonographic examination showed a complete and in two patients a partial rerupture. A temporarily frozen shoulder occurred in two cases. No infection or rejection response was seen. In no case was revision surgery necessary. No displacement or loosening of the Corkscrew anchors was noticed. The constant score improved from 45 points preoperatively to 85 points at the time of follow-up (mean). The Corkscrew suture anchor system in combination with the new suture technique offers the possibility of a stable reinsertion even in reduced calcified bone structure. This facilitates good conditions for stable fibroblastic healing. Our midterm results show good osseous union combined with a low rerupture rate.
Turmo-Garuz, A; Rodas, G; Balius, R; Til, L; Miguel-Perez, M; Pedret, C; Del Buono, A; Maffulli, N
The purpose of the study is to explain the cause-effect relationship in three patients who reported combined ruptures of the Achilles tendon and the gastrosoleus complex 6 months after they had received corticosteroids injections for the management of retrocalcaneal bursitis. Three cryopreserved cadavers (three men, three left legs) were examined to assess the anatomic connection between the retrocalcaneal bursa and the Achilles tendon (distal and anterior fibers). Blue triptan medium contrast was injected. An unexpected connection between the retrocalcaneal bursa and the anterior fibers of the Achilles tendon was found in all instances. Local corticosteroid injection of the retrocalcaneal bursa may help the symptoms of retrocalcanear bursitis, but pose a risk of Achilles tendon rupture. This risk-benefit has to be taken into account when corticosteroid injections are prescribed to professional and high-level athletes.
Swiderski, J; Fitch, R B; Staatz, A; Lowery, J
This case report describes a four-year-old, eighty-five pound, male neutered Labrador retriever that was admitted with unilateral lameness and clinical findings consistent with a unilateral gostrocnemius tendon rupture. A prior history of trauma was not identified. Ultrasonagraphic evaluation revealed bilateral gastrocnemius tendon defects in which approximately 80% of the tendon was ruptured on the clinically normal side, yet mechanical function and anatomical length were not apparently altered. Bilateral surgical repair was performed utilizing primary tendon reconstruction, supported by fascia lata, autograft and polypropylene mesh. The repairs were protected with rigid costs for two weeks following surgery, and replaced with orthotics through the complete recovery period. Orthotics provided semi-rigid support and allowed removal for controlled intermittent physical therapy. This surgical repair technique, combined with orthotic support, allowed for early mobilization and good ultimate outcome for a complicated bilateral condition.
... An intramuscular contusion , which is when a muscle tears within the sheath (lining) that surrounds it. An ... the muscle and the sheath surrounding it both tear. Quadriceps contusions are common in sports that involve ...
LaBan, Myron M; Weir, Susan K; Taylor, Ronald S
A 66-yr-old white woman presented with progressive complaints of right lateral hip and thigh pain associated with a disabling limp without an antecedent history of trauma. Physical examination revealed localized pain over the right greater trochanter to palpation. A full pain-free range of motion of the right hip was associated with weakness in the hip abductors. The patient ambulated with a compensated right Trendelenburg gait. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a trochanteric bursitis and an effusion of the hip and a full-thickness tear of the gluteus medius muscle, with both a disruption and retraction of the tendon of an atretic gluteus minimus muscle. Conjoined tendon pathology of both the gluteus medius and minimus as, revealed by magnetic resonance examination, is probably more frequent than heretofore commonly recognized. In patients presenting with "intractable" complaints of a trochanteric bursitis and an ambulatory limp due to weakness in the hip abductors, imaging studies calling attention to a possible tendon rupture may be diagnostic.
Durrant, C A T; Bantick, G
Fracture of the base of the third metacarpal with associated avulsion of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon is a rare injury. We report such a fracture and the unusual resulting complication of division of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by the avulsed bony fragment. Careful monitoring using lateral radiographs is needed to make the diagnosis and displacement of the avulsed fragment warrants open reduction and internal fixation.
the effect of activity, race, age, or gender. The majority of the reports have been case studies or focused on one particular tendon and do not have...forces created by eccentric muscle activation are usually responsible for tendon failure. 1312 White et al The American Journal of Sports Medicine...Activities that maximize eccentric loading, such as repeti- tive jumping and sprinting exercises for the lower extrem- ities (bench press for the pectoralis
Jiang, Nan; Wang, Bowei; Chen, Anfu; Dong, Fu; Yu, Bin
The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a meta-analysis, the clinical effectiveness of operative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture (AATR) compared with nonoperative treatment. We systematically searched six electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Clinical Ovid, BIOSIS and Cochrane registry of controlled clinical trials) to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which operative treatment was compared with nonoperative treatment for AATR from 1980 to 2011. Trial quality was assessed using the modified Jadad scale. The data was using fixed-effects and random-effects models with mean differences and risk ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Ten RCTs with a total of 894 patients were screened. The results showed that operative was superior to nonoperative treatment regarding lower risk of re-rupture (P = 0.002) and shorter time for sick leave (P = 0.009) but inferior to nonoperative treatment regarding complication risks (P = 0.004). No significant difference was identified between the two methods regarding the number of patients who successfully returned to pre-injury sports (P = 0.30). Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences in relation to scar adhesion (P < 0.00001), superficial infection (P = 0.05), and sensibility disturbance (P = 0.0003). However, no significant differences were found between the two interventions in relation to deep infection (P = 0.22), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (P = 0.14), and extreme Achilles tendon lengthening (P = 0.31). Little consensus was obtained in the functional recovery from current trials as a result of an inconsistent assessment system. Compared with conservative treatment, operative treatment can effectively reduce the risk of re-rupture but increase the probability of complications. The increased complication risk may be associated with open repair surgery. However, no sufficient evidence is available from current studies to support the belief that operation may lead to
Soon, En Loong; Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah Bin Abd; Tan, Andrew Hwee Chye
Introduction: Massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) in the context of shoulder dislocations are relatively uncommon in the young adult (<40 years) and if reported are more commonly described in association with acute traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocations. They have rarely been described with posterior dislocations, regardless of patient age. This is the 1st case reported in the context of posterior dislocations, where a triad of biceps tendon rupture, posterior dislocation, and RCTs was observed during surgery. It provides an important reminder to readers about certain injuries commonly overlooked during the assessment of an acute traumatic shoulder. Case Report: We report an atypical case of a massive RCT involving a 34-year-old Asian male who landed on his outstretched hand after falling off a bicycle. A tear involving the supraspinatus and subscapularis was visualized during surgery, along with long head of biceps (LHB) tendon rupture. This was after an initial failure to achieve closed reduction of the posteriorly dislocated left shoulder. Conclusion: It is easy to miss the posterior instability, the associated RCTs or the biceps tendon injuries. Biceps tendon rupture should be a consideration when one is unable to reduce a posteriorly dislocated shoulder. The interposed torn LHB tendon trapped within the glenohumeral joint was the likely physical block in the initial failure to achieve closed reduction. With timely diagnosis, prudent physical examination, early imaging and surgery, and excellent results can potentially be achieved to return a young patient to full functionality. PMID:28819610
Nikolaidou, Maria-Elissavet; Banke, Ingo J.; Laios, Thomas; Petsogiannis, Konstantinos; Mourikis, Anastasios
Bodybuilding is a high-risk sport for distal triceps tendon ruptures. Management, especially in high-demanding athletes, is operative with suture anchor refixation technique being frequently used. However, the rate of rerupture is high due to underlying poor tendon quality. Thus, additional augmentation could be useful. This case report presents a reconstruction technique for a complete traumatic distal triceps tendon rupture in a bodybuilder with postoperative biomechanical assessment. A 28-year-old male professional bodybuilder was treated with a synthetic augmented suture anchor reconstruction for a complete triceps tendon rupture of his right dominant elbow. Postoperative biomechanical assessment included isokinetic elbow strength and endurance testing by using multiple angular velocities to simulate the “off-season” and “precompetition” phases of training. Eighteen months postoperatively and after full return to training, the biomechanical assessment indicated that the strength and endurance of the operated elbow joint was fully restored with even higher ratings compared to the contralateral healthy arm. The described reconstruction technique can be considered as an advisable option in high-performance athletes with underlying poor tendon quality due to high tensile strength and lack of donor site morbidity, thus enabling them to restore preinjury status and achieve safe return to sports. PMID:24711944
Schneppendahl, J; Gehrmann, S V; Stosberg, U; Regenbrecht, B; Windolf, J; Wild, M
A degenerative tear of the anterior tibial tendon is a rare event compared to other tendons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional results after surgical refixation. In a retrospective study, we report the functional outcome of five consecutive operatively treated patients suffering from a tear close to the insertion site of the anterior tibial tendon. All patients were assessed postoperatively, the AOFAS and Richter scores were obtained and the range of motion in the ankle joint was evaluated. Preoperatively all patients presented with a significant walking impairment due to a reduced active dorsiflexion, so the decision for surgical refixation was made. In all cases an MRI scan was performed preoperatively. Postoperative immobilisation without weight-bearing was done for six weeks. All patients returned to their former activity level, were satisfied with the postoperative result and had a normal gait in the follow-up examination. The range of motion was equal on both sides, the median AOFAS score was 86 and the median Richter score was 90 out of 100. There were no postoperative complications. Untreated tears of the anterior tibial tendon lead to significant impairment of the ankle joint and deformities of the foot. There is no consensus about the treatment with recommendations for operative and non-operative treatment. Various surgical procedures have been described. The surgical reconstruction of the tendon leads to a restored function of the ankle joint and allows a normal gait and is therefore desirable. Due to the loss of function and the good results after surgical treatment in our study, the non-operative treatment is not advisable. Surgical repair of degenerative tears of the anterior tibial tendon leads to very good functional results and high patient satisfaction.
Bai, Rong-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Bo; Zhan, Hui-Li; Qian, Zhan-Hua; Wang, Nai-Li; Liu, Yue; Li, Wen-Ting; Yin, Yu-Ming
Hand injuries are very common in sports, such as skiing and ball sports. One of the major reasons causing hand and finger deformity is due to ligament and tendon injury. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high-resolution 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate the complex anatomy of the fingers and thumb, especially the tendons and ligaments, and provide the accurate diagnosis of clinically important fingers and thumbs deformity due to ligamentous and tendinous injuries during sport activities. Sixteen fresh un-embalmed cadaveric hands were harvested from eight cadavers. A total of 20 healthy volunteers' hands and 44 patients with fingers or thumb deformity due to sports-related injuries were included in this study. All subjects had MR examination with T1-weighted images and proton density-weighted imaging with fat suppression (PD FS) in axial, coronal, and sagittal plane, respectively. Subsequently, all 16 cadaveric hands were sliced into 2-mm thick slab with a band saw (six in coronal plane, six in sagittal plane, and four in axial plane). The correlation of anatomic sections and the MRI characteristics of tendons of fingers and the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) at the metacarpal phalangeal joint (MCPJ) of thumb between 20 healthy volunteers and 44 patients (confirmed by surgery) were analyzed. The normal ligaments and tendons in 16 cadaveric hands and 20 volunteers' hands showed uniform low-signal intensity on all the sequences of the MRI. Among 44 patients with tendinous and ligamentous injuries in the fingers or thumb, 12 cases with UCL injury at MCPJ of the thumb (Stener lesion = 8 and non-Stener lesion = 4), 6 cases with the central slip injury, 12 cases with terminal tendon injury, and 14 cases with flexor digitorum profundus injury. The ligaments and tendons disruption manifested as increased signal intensity and poor definition, discontinuity, and heterogeneous signal intensity of the involved ligaments and tendons. Sports
Krill, Michael K; Borchers, James R; Hoffman, Joshua T; Krill, Matthew L; Hewett, Timothy E
Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures are a potentially career-altering and ending injury. Achilles tendon ruptures have a below average return-to-play rate compared to other common orthopaedic procedures for National Football League (NFL) players. The objective of this study was to monitor the incidence and injury rates (IR) of AT ruptures that occurred during the regular season in order to evaluate the influence of player position, time of injury, and playing surface on rupture rates. A thorough online review was completed to identify published injury reports and public information regarding AT ruptures sustained during regular season and post-season games in the National Football League (NFL) during the 2009-10 to 2016-17 seasons. Team schedules, player position details and stadium information was used to determine period of the season of injury and playing surface. IRs were calculated per 100 team games (TG). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were utilized to compare IRs. During eight monitored seasons, there were 44 AT ruptures in NFL games. A majority of AT ruptures were sustained in the first eight games of the regular season (n = 32, 72.7%). There was a significant rate difference for the first and second four-game segments of the regular season compared to the last two four-game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures (n = 32, 72.7%). The IR on grass was 1.00 per 100 TG compared to 1.08 per 100 TG on artificial turf (IRR: 0.93, p = .80). A significant increase in AT ruptures occurred in the first and second four game segments of the regular season compared to the last two-four game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures compared to offensive or specialist players. There was no difference between AT rupture rates and playing surface in games.
van der Eng, Dorien M; Schepers, Tim; Goslings, J Carel; Schep, Niels W L
Whether Achilles tendon rupture benefits from surgery or conservative treatment remains controversial. Moreover, the outcome can be influenced by the rehabilitation protocol. The goal of the present meta-analysis was to compare the rerupture rate after surgical repair of the Achilles tendon followed by weightbearing within 4 weeks versus conservative treatment with weightbearing within 4 weeks. In addition, a secondary analysis was performed to compare the rerupture rates in patients who started weightbearing after 4 weeks. Seven randomized controlled trials published from 2001 to 2012, with 576 adult patients, were included. The primary outcome measure was the rerupture rate. The secondary outcomes were minor and major complications other than rerupture. In the early weightbearing group, 7 of 182 operatively treated patients (4%) experienced rerupture versus 21 of 176 of the conservatively treated patients (12%). A secondary analysis of the patients treated with late weightbearing showed a rerupture rate of 6% (7 of 108) for operatively treated patients versus 10% (11 of 110) for conservatively treated patients. The differences concerning the rerupture rate in both groups were not statistically significant. No differences were found in the occurrence of minor or major complications after early weightbearing in both patient groups. In conclusion, we found no difference in the rerupture rate between the surgically and nonsurgically treated patients followed by early weightbearing. Weightbearing after 4 weeks also resulted in no differences in the rupture rate in the surgical versus conservatively treated patients. However, surgical treatment was associated with a twofold greater complication rate than conservative treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cottom, James M; Baker, Joseph S; Richardson, Phillip E; Maker, Jared M
Acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon are a common injury, and debate has continued in published studies on how best to treat these injuries. Specifically, controversy exists regarding the surgical approaches for Achilles tendon repair when one considers percutaneous versus open repair. The present study investigated the biomechanical strength of 3 different techniques for Achilles tendon repair in a cadaveric model. A total of 36 specimens were divided into 3 groups, each of which received a different construct. The first group received a traditional Krackow suture repair, the second group was repaired using a jig-assisted percutaneous suture, and the third group received a repair using a jig-assisted percutaneous repair modified with suture anchors placed into the calcaneus. The specimens were tested with cyclical loading and to ultimate failure. Cyclical loading showed a trend toward a stronger repair with the use of suture anchors after 10 cycles (p = .295), 500 cycles (p = .120), and 1000 cycles (p = .040). The ultimate load to failure was greatest in the group repaired with the modified knotless technique using the suture anchors (p = .098). The results of the present study show a clear trend toward a stronger construct in Achilles repair using a knotless suture anchor technique, which might translate to a faster return to activity and be more resistant to an early and aggressive rehabilitation protocol. Further clinical studies are warranted to evaluate this technique in a patient population. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maffulli, Gayle; Buono, Angelo Del; Richards, Paula; Oliva, Francesco; Maffulli, Nicola
At present, it is unclear which is the best management for Achilles tendon rupture. We assess the clinical, functional and imaging outcomes of active patients undergoing 3 different types of management for acute subcutaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon, including conservative cast immobilization, traditional open surgery and percutaneous repair. 26 active patients were managed for a rupture of the Achilles Tendon from January 2007 to March 2008. Anthropometric measurements, Functional assessment, Isometric strength, Ultrasonographic assessment, Patient satisfaction, Working life, Physical activity, Functional score and Complications were recorded retrospectively. All 23 (21 men, 2 women) patients were reviewed at a minimum follow-up of 24 months (average 25.7, range 24 to 32 months, SD: 6.3) from the index injury. Thermann scores and patient satisfaction were significantly higher following surgery than conservative management with no significance between open and minimally invasive operated patients. Sensitive disturbances occur in up to 12% of open repairs and 1.8% of patients managed nonsurgically. Clinical and functional outcomes following surgical repair, percutaneous and open, of the Achilles tendon are significantly improved than following conservative management. Level III.
Khiami, F; Di Schino, M; Sariali, E; Cao, D; Rolland, E; Catonné, Y
The Bosworth technique is old but still widely used. It involves problems of precisely determining the length of the Achilles tendon and of a volume effect in the turndown area. A new reconstruction technique is assessed, based on free sural triceps aponeurosis transfer without turndown, associated to tendon shortening suture. Twenty-three patients were assessed by AOFAS score and clinical examination (plus MRI in 14 cases) at a mean 24.5 months' follow-up. Mean age was 52.1 years. Mean pre-operative AOFAS score was 63.6/100. Mean postoperative AOFAS score was 96.1. Mean graft length was 7.5 cm. Surgical revision was required for one case of postoperative infection. Twelve patients resumed leisure sports at their previous level by a mean 9.4 ± 2 months; three competitive sportsmen resumed sport at their previous level by a mean 7.6 months. None were dissatisfied or disappointed with their operation. MRI performed at 1 year found increased tendon volume without abnormality in 57% of cases; 43% showed abnormal images. Functional results were comparable to literature reports. It can be difficult to determine Achilles length for the Bosworth technique: this is made easier by conserving a fibrous support of a length determined with reference to the healthy side. The technique avoids aponeurosis turndown, and thus avoids the problem of plasty volume effect. The two cases of cutaneous complication occurred in the two most elderly patients, raising the question of the indications for reconstructive surgery in the elderly. The abnormalities found on MRI concerned scar tissue remodeling in patients with good or excellent clinical results. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Selvan, D R; Perry, D; Machin, D G; Brown, D J
Volar plating of distal radius fractures is one of the common procedures performed in trauma surgery. Flexor pollicis longus (FPL) rupture has been described as complication following volar plating of distal radius fractures. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible relation between parameters measured on post-operative radiographs and the occurrence of FPL ruptures. This was a case control study. The post-operative radiographs of 11 FPL rupture, and 22 non-FPL rupture patients were reviewed with respect to fracture reduction and plate position and the various parameters were calculated by five independent people. Logistic regression was used to examine the importance of the variables. We identified two significant factors to predict FPL rupture after volar plating of distal radial fractures. These were radial tilt and plate distance from the joint line. The odds ratio of ruptures was 0.74 (95% CI 0.57-0.95) for every degree of radial tilt <25° and 0.50 (95% CI 0.28-0.88) for every millimetre that the distal end of the plate was away from the volar lip of the distal radius at the wrist joint. Post-operative radiographs could help us predict FPL rupture after distal radius volar plating. The findings also highlight the need for good fracture reduction and thoughtful placement of the volar plate intraoperatively to minimise the risk of FPL tendon rupture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Niekerk, Michael; Jawad, Farrah; Huntley, James S; McCowan, Stuart
Compartment syndrome complicating a ruptured Achilles tendon has previously been reported in a surgically treated patient. However--to our knowledge--this is the first report of compartment syndrome following conservative treatment. A 45-year-old man ruptured his Achilles tendon and elected to have treatment in an equinus cast. Three weeks later, he developed compartment syndrome and despite fasciotomy, required surgical debridement of his anterior compartment. Delay in both diagnosis and subsequent fasciotomy resulted in a poor outcome. Any suspicion of compartment syndrome mandates early compartmental pressure monitoring. The exact aetiology is uncertain but we speculate that the equinus position of his ankle combined with weight-bearing, was a major contributing factor.
Valkering, Kars P; Aufwerber, Susanna; Ranuccio, Francesco; Lunini, Enricomaria; Edman, Gunnar; Ackermann, Paul W
Functional weight-bearing mobilization may improve repair of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR), but the underlying mechanisms and outcome were unknown. We hypothesized that functional weight-bearing mobilization by means of increased metabolism could improve both early and long-term healing. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, patients with acute ATR were randomized to either direct post-operative functional weight-bearing mobilization (n = 27) in an orthosis or to non-weight-bearing (n = 29) plaster cast immobilization. During the first two post-operative weeks, 15°-30° of plantar flexion was allowed and encouraged in the functional weight-bearing mobilization group. At 2 weeks, patients in the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group received a stiff orthosis, while the functional weight-bearing mobilization group continued with increased range of motion. At 6 weeks, all patients discontinued immobilization. At 2 weeks, healing metabolites and markers of procollagen type I (PINP) and III (PIIINP) were examined using microdialysis. At 6 and 12 months, functional outcome using heel-rise test was assessed. Healing tendons of both groups exhibited increased levels of metabolites glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, and of PIIINP (all p < 0.05). Patients in functional weight-bearing mobilization group demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of glutamate compared to the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group (p = 0.045).The upregulated glutamate levels were significantly correlated with the concentrations of PINP (r = 0.5, p = 0.002) as well as with improved functional outcome at 6 months (r = 0.4; p = 0.014). Heel-rise tests at 6 and 12 months did not display any differences between the two groups. Functional weight-bearing mobilization enhanced the early healing response of ATR. In addition, early ankle range of motion was improved without the risk of Achilles tendon elongation and without altering long-term functional
Spoendlin, Julia; Meier, Christian; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R
The effect of bisphosphonates on extra-osseous tissue is rarely investigated. We performed an exploratory analysis on the association of new bisphosphonate use and incident tendon rupture in patients with or without oral glucocorticoid co-medication. We conducted a matched case-control study using data from the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Cases were patients aged 30-89 years with an incident diagnosis of Achilles or biceps tendon rupture between 1995 and 2013. We compared new oral bisphosphonate use between cases and controls with or without oral glucocorticoid co-medication, by timing (last prescription ≥180 days) and duration (number of prescriptions) of bisphosphonate use. In a case-crossover analysis, we compared new bisphosphonate exposure in the event period and the control period controlling for glucocorticoid use. Among 7859 cases, 246 (3.1%) were new users of bisphosphonates. Patients with glucocorticoid co-medication had an odds ratio (OR) for tendon rupture of 6.42 (95%CI 4.03-10.22) for short-term bisphosphonate use (≤4 prescriptions), which declined with increasing number of prescriptions. Among people with continuous prednisone use of 5-10 mg/day, bisphosphonate users with <9 prescriptions had an OR of 2.46 (95%CI 1.00-6.03), compared with bisphosphonate non-users. The case-crossover analysis yielded an OR of 4.46 (95%CI 2.76-7.20) for new bisphosphonate treatment in patients with glucocorticoid co-medication, and a null result in glucocorticoid non-users. New bisphosphonate treatment may transiently increase the risk of tendon rupture in oral glucocorticoid users. Further research is needed to establish causality of this yet unreported adverse drug reaction or drug-drug interaction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Spoendlin, Julia; Meier, Christian; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R
Tendinotoxicity of glucocorticoids (GC) has been shown, but evidence on how this translates into clinical practice remains scarce. To explore the association between oral or inhaled GC use and the risk of Achilles or biceps tendon rupture (ATR/BTR). We identified patients aged 18 to 89 years with incident ATR or BTR (1995-2013) for a matched (1:4) case-control analysis using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We stratified oral GC use by indication, timing and duration of use, continuous versus intermittent use, cumulative dose, and average daily dose. We stratified inhaled GC use by timing and number of prescriptions. Among 8,202 cases, we observed increased odds ratios (ORs) around 3.0 for continuous oral GC use, which declined shortly after therapy cessation (similarly across indications). Odds ratios increased with average daily dose (≥ 10 mg/day, OR 4.05, 95% CI 2.32-7.08) and were elevated after one cycle of high-dose oral GC (≥ 20 mg/day). There was no effect of inhaled GC at any level of exposure. Our results provide evidence that oral GC therapy increases the risk of tendon rupture in a dose-response relationship. A single short-term high-dose GC treatment course may be sufficient transiently to increase the risk of tendon rupture.
Brorsson, Annelie; Willy, Richard W; Tranberg, Roy; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin
It is unknown whether the height of a heel-rise performed in the single-leg standing heel-rise test 1 year after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) correlates with ankle biomechanics during walking, jogging, and jumping in the long-term. To explore the differences in ankle biomechanics, tendon length, calf muscle recovery, and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 6 years after ATR between 2 groups that, at 1-year follow-up, had less than 15% versus greater than 30% differences in heel-rise height. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Seventeen patients with less than 15% (<15% group) and 17 patients with greater than 30% (>30% group) side-to-side difference in heel-rise height at 1 year after ATR were evaluated at a mean (SD) 6.1 (2.0) years after their ATR. Ankle kinematics and kinetics were sampled via standard motion capture procedures during walking, jogging, and jumping. Patient-reported outcome was evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), Physical Activity Scale (PAS), and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). Tendon length was evaluated by ultrasonography. The Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = [Injured Side ÷ Healthy Side] × 100) was calculated for side differences. The >30% group had significantly more deficits in ankle kinetics during all activities compared with patients in the <15% group at a mean of 6 years after ATR (LSI, 70%-149% and 84%-106%, respectively; P = .010-.024). The >30% group, compared with the <15% group, also had significantly lower values in heel-rise height (LSI, 72% and 95%, respectively; P < .001) and heel-rise work (LSI, 58% and 91%, respectively; P < .001) and significantly larger side-to-side difference in tendon length (114% and 106%, respectively; P = .012). Achilles tendon length correlated with ankle kinematic variables ( r = 0.38-0.44; P = .015-.027) whereas heel-rise work correlated with kinetic variables ( r = -0.57 to 0.56; P = .001-.047). LSI tendon length correlated negatively with LSI heel-rise height ( r
Cavaignac, Etienne; Coulin, Benoit; Tscholl, Philippe; Nik Mohd Fatmy, Nik; Duthon, Victoria; Menetrey, Jacques
The quadriceps tendon (QT) autograft is known as an effective graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and shows a similar functional outcome to the bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) in randomized controlled trials, with a lesser incidence of complications. Up until now, only 2 studies have compared QT to hamstring tendon (HT) autograft. The functional outcomes of the QT technique are at least as good as those of the HT technique, with the same morbidity. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Ninety-five patients underwent isolated ACL reconstruction between January 1 and December 31, 2012. Fifty underwent ACL reconstruction with the QT and 45 with the HT. The same surgical technique, fixation method, and postoperative protocol were used in both groups. The following parameters were evaluated: surgical revisions, functional outcome (Lysholm, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], Tegner, subjective International Knee Documentation Committee), joint stability (KT-1000, Lachman, pivot shift), anterior knee pain (Shelbourne-Trumper score), and isokinetic strength. Descriptive statistics are presented for these variables using the Student t test. Eighty-six patients (45 QT, 41 HT) were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 3.6 ± 0.4 years; minimum follow-up was 3 years. There were 4 reoperations in the QT group (including 1 ACL revision) and 3 in the HT group (including 2 ACL revisions) ( P > .05). The Lysholm (89 ± 6.9 vs 83.1 ± 5.3), KOOS Symptoms (90 ± 11.2 vs 81 ± 10.3), and KOOS Sport (82 ± 11.3 vs 67 ± 12.4) scores were significantly better in the QT group than in the HT group. In terms of stability, the mean side-to-side difference was 1.1 ± 0.9 mm for the QT group and 3.1 ± 1.3 mm for the HT group based on KT-1000 measurements ( P < .005). The negative Lachman component was higher in the QT group than in the HT group (90% vs 46%, P < .005). There was a trend for the negative pivot-shift component to be higher in the QT group
Meheux, Carlos J; Jack, Robert A; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Harris, Joshua D
This study performs a systematic review to determine (1) if a significant difference exists in return to preinjury activity level between one- and two-stage treatment of combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patellar tendon (PT) tears; and (2) if a significant difference exists in the number of postoperative complications between the two differing surgical treatment approaches. A systematic review was performed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and registered on PROSPERO. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SCOPUS, and Sport Discus were searched for English language level I-IV evidence studies on either one- (simultaneous) or two-stage (sequential) surgical treatment of simultaneously sustained ipsilateral ACL and PT tears. The approach to initial evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes were qualitatively analyzed. Methodological quality assessment of all included studies was completed using the Methodological Index for Non-randomized Studies (MINORS). The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) tool was used to assess quality of evidence and provide strength of recommendation. Statistical analyses were done using Fischer's exact test. Eleven articles (18 patients; 83% males; mean age, 31.1 ± 10.1 years; mean follow-up, 2.2 ± 1.7 years; and mean MINORS 7.8/16) were analyzed. Eight patients had a one-stage procedure (primary PT repair and ACL reconstruction), and 10 patients underwent a two-stage procedure (primary PT repair first followed by ACL reconstruction) with mean 28 ± 45.7 weeks (5 weeks-3 years) between surgeries. The rate for return to preinjury activity level after surgery was not significantly different between one- (88%) and two-stage (100%) ( p = 0.444). There was a significantly higher complication rate ( p = 0.023) in the one-stage (stiffness, instability, and patella baja) versus two
Muzamil, Akhmad; Haries Firmansyah, Achmad
The research was done the optimization image of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T2 Fast Spin Echo (FSE) with variation Echo Train Length (ETL) on the Rupture Tendon Achilles case. This study aims to find the variations Echo Train Length (ETL) from the results of ankle’s MRI image and find out how the value of Echo Train Length (ETL) works on the MRI ankle to produce optimal image. In this research, the used ETL variations were 12 and 20 with the interval 2 on weighting T2 FSE sagittal. The study obtained the influence of Echo Train Length (ETL) on the quality of ankle MRI image sagittal using T2 FSE weighting and analyzed in 25 images of five patients. The data analysis has done quantitatively with the Region of Interest (ROI) directly on computer MRI image planes which conducted statistical tests Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR). The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) was the highest finding on fat tissue, while the Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR) on the Tendon-Fat tissue with ETL 12 found in two patients. The statistics test showed the significant SNR value of the 0.007 (p<0.05) of Tendon tissue, 0.364 (p>0.05) of the Fat, 0.912 (p>0.05) of the Fibula, and 0.436 (p>0.05) of the Heel Bone. For the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the Tendon-FAT tissue was about 0.041 (p>0.05). The results of the study showed that ETL variation with T2 FSE sagittal weighting had difference at Tendon tissue and Tendon-Fat tissue for MRI imaging quality. SNR and CNR were an important aspect on imaging optimization process to give the diagnose information.
Hangody, Gy; Pánics, G; Szebényi, G; Kiss, R; Hangody, L; Pap, K
The goal of the study was to find a proper technique to fix tendon grafts into an INSTRON loading machine. From 8 human cadavers, 40 grafts were collected. We removed the bone-patella tendon-bone grafts, the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, the quadriceps tendon-bone grafts, the Achilles tendons, and the peroneus longus tendons from each lower extremity. We tested the tendon grafts with five different types of fixation devices: surgical thread (Premicron 3), general mounting clamp, wire mesh, cement fixation, and a modified clamp for an INSTRON loading machine. The mean failure load in case of surgical thread fixation was (381N ± 26N). The results with the general clamp were (527N ± 45N). The wire meshes were more promising (750N ± 21N), but did not reach the outcomes we desired. Easy slippages of the ends of the tendons from the cement encasements were observed (253N ± 18N). We then began to use Shi's clamp that could produce 977N ± 416N peak force. We combined Shi's clamp with freezing of the graft and the rupture of the tendon itself demonstrated an average force of 2198 N ± 773N. We determined that our modified frozen clamp fixed the specimens against high tensile forces.
Buschmann, Johanna; Meier-Bürgisser, Gabriella; Bonavoglia, Eliana; Neuenschwander, Peter; Milleret, Vincent; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio
In tendon rupture repair, improvements such as higher primary repair strength, anti-adhesion and accelerated healing are needed. We developed a potential carrier system of an electrospun DegraPol tube, which was tightly implanted around a transected and conventionally sutured rabbit Achilles tendon. Histomorphometric analysis of the tendon tissue 12 weeks postoperation showed that the tenocyte density, tenocyte morphology and number of inflammation zones were statistically equivalent, whether or not DegraPol tube was implanted; only the collagen fibres were slightly less parallelly orientated in the tube-treated case. Comparison of rabbits that were operated on both hind legs with ones that were operated on only one hind leg showed that there were significantly more inflammation zones in the two-leg cases compared to the one-leg cases, while the implantation of a DegraPol tube had no such adverse effects. These findings are a prerequisite for using DegraPol tube as a carrier system for growth factors, cytokines or stem cells in order to accelerate the healing process of tendon tissue. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nwafor, I A; Eze, J C; Aminu, M B
Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture through the central tendon with herniation of the stomach and coils of small bowel into the pericardial cavity. Case note of a patient managed for traumatic diaphragmatic rupture through the central tendon with herniation of the stomach and coils of small bowel into the pericardial cavity was used with a review of relevant literature. A 49-year old civil engineer who presented with 2-year history of easy fatigability and palpitations as well as a 6-month history of hypertension and was initially managed as a case dilated cardiomyopathy to rule out incipient CCF secondary to hypertension, was evaluated and found to have chronic diaphragmatic hernia through the central tendon with evisceration of the stomach and coils of the small bowel into the pericardial cavity. Though there was history of motor vehicle crash preceding the development of the symptoms, but the long history of effort dyspnoea and palpitations added to enlarged cardiac silhouette on posterior anterior chest x-ray, a diagnostic challenge was posed which was resolved by thoracoabdominal CT scan. Patient had left sided posteriorlateral thoracotomy via 7h intercostal space followed with reduction of thq stomach and coils of small bowel after careful adhesiolysis and repair of the defect in double layers. High index of suspicion is very important in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic central tendon injury considering the rarity of the injury and diagnostic challenges it poses in chronic form. However, where the facilities are available, CT scan and 2-D echo will most of the time clinch the diagnosis; also is upper gastrointestinal series.
Zambelli, Roberto; Pinto, Rafael Z; Magalhães, João Murilo Brandão; Lopes, Fernando Araujo Silva; Castilho, Rodrigo Simões; Baumfeld, Daniel; Dos Santos, Thiago Ribeiro Teles; Maffulli, Nicola
There is a need for a patient-relevant instrument to evaluate outcome after treatment in patients with a total Achilles tendon rupture. The purpose of this study was to undertake a cross-cultural adaptation of the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) into Brazilian Portuguese, determining the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the instrument. A five-step approach was used in the cross-cultural adaptation process: initial translation (two bilingual Brazilian translators), synthesis of translation, back-translation (two native English language translators), consensus version and evaluation (expert committee), and testing phase. A total of 46 patients were recruited to evaluate the test-retest reproducibility and construct validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the ATRS. Test-retest reproducibility was performed by assessing each participant on two separate occasions. The construct validity was determined by the correlation index between the ATRS and the Orthopedic American Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) questionnaires. The final version of the Brazilian Portuguese ATRS had the same number of questions as the original ATRS. For the reliability analysis, an ICC(2,1) of 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.88 to 0.96) with SEM of 1.56 points and MDC of 4.32 was observed, indicating excellent reliability. The construct validity showed excellent correlation with R = 0.76 (95 % CI: 0.52 to 0.89, P < 0.001). The ATRS was successfully cross-culturally validated into Brazilian Portuguese. This version was a reliable and valid measure of function in patients who suffered complete rupture of the Achilles Tendon.
Real-time ultrasonography (US) using linear-array probes and a stand-off pad as a ''waterpath'' was performed to evaluate the Achilles tendon in 67 patients (including 24 athletes) believed to have acute or chronic traumatic or inflammatory pathologic conditions. Tendons in 23 patients appeared normal on US scans. The 44 abnormal tendons comprised five complete and four partial ruptures, seven instances of postoperative change, and 28 cases of tendonitis. US depiction of the inner structure of the tendon resulted in the diagnosis of focal abnormalities, including partial ruptures, nodules, and calcifications. Tendonitis was characterized by enlargement and decreased echogenicity of the tendon.more » The normal US appearance of the Achilles tendon is described.« less
Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Holmich, Per; Troelsen, Anders; Kristensen, Morten Tange
Early controlled ankle motion is widely used in the non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture, though its safety and efficacy have never been investigated in a randomized setup. The objectives of this study are to investigate if early controlled motion of the ankle affects functional and patient-reported outcomes. The study is performed as a blinded, randomized, controlled trial with patients allocated in a 1:1 ratio to one of two parallel groups. Patients aged from 18 to 70 years are eligible for inclusion. The intervention group performs early controlled motion of the ankle in weeks 3-8 after rupture. The control group is immobilized. In total, 130 patients will be included from one big orthopedic center over a period of 2½ years. The primary outcome is the patient-reported Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score evaluated at 12 months post-injury. Secondary outcome measures are the heel-rise work test, Achilles tendon elongation, and the rate of re-rupture. The primary analysis will be conducted as intention-to-treat analyses. This trial is the first to investigate the safety and efficacy of early controlled motion in the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture in a randomized setup. The study uses the patient-reported outcome measure, the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score, as the primary endpoint, as it is believed to be the best surrogate measure for the tendon's actual capability to function in everyday life. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02015364 . Registered on 13 December 2013.
... to go from walking to running, or to running uphill Tripped and fell, or had another accident Played a sport like tennis or basketball, with a lot of stopping and sharp turns Most injuries can be diagnosed during a physical exam. You ...
Lorbach, O; Pape, D; Raber, F; Busch, L C; Kohn, D; Kieb, M
Influence of the initial rotator cuff tear size and of different subregions of the SSP tendon on the cyclic loading behavior of a modified single-row reconstruction compared to a suture-bridging double-row repair. Artificial tears (25 and 35 mm) were created in the rotator cuff of 24 human cadaver shoulders. The reconstructions were performed as a single-row repair (SR) using a modified suture configuration or a suture-bridge double-row repair (DR). Radiostereometric analysis was used under cyclic loading (50 cycles, 10–180 N, 10–250 N) to calculate cyclic displacement in three different planes (anteroposterior (x), craniocaudal (y) and mediolateral (z) level). Cyclic displacement was recorded, and differences in cyclic displacement of the anterior compared to the posterior subregions of the tendon were calculated. In small-to-medium tears (25 mm) and medium-to-large tears (35 mm), significant lower cyclic displacement was seen for the SR-reconstruction compared to the DR-repair at 180 N (p ≤ 0.0001; p = 0.001) and 250 N (p = 0.001; p = 0.007) in the x-level. These results were confirmed in the y-level at 180 N (p = 0.001; p = 0.0022) and 250 N (p = 0.005; p = 0.0018). Comparison of the initial tear sizes demonstrated significant differences in cyclic displacement for the DR technique in the x-level at 180 N (p = 0.002) and 250 N (p = 0.004). Comparison of the anterior versus the posterior subregion of the tendon revealed significant lower gap formation in the posterior compared to the anterior subregions in the x-level for both tested rotator cuff repairs (p ≤ 0.05). The tested single-row repair using a modified suture configuration achieved superior results in three-dimensional measurements of cyclic displacement compared to the tested double-row suture-bridge repair. The results were dependent on the initial rupture size of the rotator cuff tear. Furthermore, significant differences were found between tendon subregions of the rotator cuff with
Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Flinkkila, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Leppilahti, Juhana
It remains controversial whether nonsurgical or surgical treatment provides better calf muscle strength recovery after an acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). Recent evidence has suggested that surgery might surpass nonsurgical treatment in restoring strength after an ATR. To assess whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings could explain calf muscle strength deficits and the difference between nonsurgical and surgical treatments in restoring calf muscle strength. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. From 2009 to 2013, 60 patients with acute ATRs were randomized to surgery or nonsurgical treatment with an identical rehabilitation protocol. The primary outcome measure was the volume of calf muscles assessed using MRI at 3 and 18 months. The secondary outcome measures included fatty degeneration of the calf muscles and length of the affected Achilles tendon. Additionally, isokinetic plantarflexion strength was measured in both legs. At 3 months, the study groups showed no differences in muscle volumes or fatty degeneration. However, at 18 months, the mean differences between affected and healthy soleus muscle volumes were 83.2 cm 3 (17.7%) after surgery and 115.5 cm 3 (24.8%) after nonsurgical treatment (difference between means, 33.1 cm 3 ; 95% CI, 1.3-65.0; P = .042). The study groups were not substantially different in the volumes or fatty degeneration of other muscles. From 3 to 18 months, compensatory hypertrophy was detected in the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and deep flexors in both groups. In the nonsurgical treatment group, the mean difference between affected and healthy FHL muscle volumes was -9.3 cm 3 (12%) and in the surgical treatment group was -8.4 cm 3 (10%) ( P ≤ .001). At 18 months, Achilles tendons were, on average, 19 mm longer in patients treated nonsurgically compared with patients treated surgically ( P < .001). At 18 months, surgically treated patients demonstrated 10% to 18% greater strength results ( P = .037). Calf
Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A.; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H.
Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135
Gooyers, Chad E; Frost, David M; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P
In this case report an incumbent firefighter partially ruptured his right Achilles tendon during a study of the physical demands of firefighting. Kinematics and kinetics of the lower limbs and trunk were collected while the firefighter performed two simulated fire ground tasks. From this unexpected event, two insights were obtained that should be considered in all future injury prevention and reporting efforts. (i) Consider the full anatomical linkage--the right ankle and knee kinematics leading up to the onset of injury trial were comparable to all preceding repetitions. However, there was a notable difference in the left knee starting position before the initiation of movement of the 37th hose-advance trial. (ii) Consider the cumulative load--the task in question comprised forward and backward phases. A marked difference was observed in the frontal-plane ankle moment during the return phase of the trial preceding the injury. Additionally, the magnitude of the left side vertical ground reaction force was comparable across all trials, suggesting that loads experienced by the right limb were also similar. This would indicate that the tolerance of the Achilles tendon and not the magnitude of the loading was altered. The unfortunate injury captured in this work provides insight into the complexity of characterizing the pathways of injury. It is recommended that future injury prevention and reporting efforts consider individuals' physical demands (at work and in life) and document the nature of loading (i.e., frequency, duration, magnitude, type) when considering the mechanism for injury. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, Christopher C; Jarrett, Claudius D; Brown, Brandon T
Distal biceps tendon ruptures continue to be an important injury seen and treated by upper extremity surgeons. Since the mid-1980s, the emphasis has been placed on techniques that limit complications or improve initial tendon-to-bone fixation strength. Recently, basic science research has expanded the knowledge base regarding the biceps tendon structure, footprint anatomy, and biomechanics. Clinical data have further delineated the results of conservative and surgical management of both partial and complete tears in acute or chronic states. The current literature on the distal biceps tendon is described in detail. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sabonghy, Eric Peter; Wood, Robert Michael; Ambrose, Catherine Glauber; McGarvey, William Christopher; Clanton, Thomas Oscar
Tendon transfer techniques in the foot and ankle are used for tendon ruptures, deformities, and instabilities. This fresh cadaver study compares the tendon fixation strength in 10 paired specimens by performing a tendon to tendon fixation technique or using 7 x 20-25 mm bioabsorbable interference-fit screw tendon fixation technique. Load at failure of the tendon to tendon fixation method averaged 279N (Standard Deviation 81N) and the bioabsorbable screw 148N (Standard Deviation 72N) [p = 0.0008]. Bioabsorbable interference-fit screws in these specimens show decreased fixation strength relative to the traditional fixation technique. However, the mean bioabsorbable screw fixation strength of 148N provides physiologic strength at the tendon-bone interface.
Keener, Jay D; Sethi, Paul M
Acute triceps ruptures are an uncommon entity, occurring mainly in athletes, weight lifters (especially those taking anabolic steroids), and following elbow trauma. Accurate diagnosis is made clinically, although MRI may aid in confirmation and surgical planning. Acute ruptures are classified on an anatomic basis based on tear location and the degree of tendon involvement. Most complete tears are treated surgically in medically fit patients. Partial-thickness tears are managed according to the tear severity, functional demands, and response to conservative treatment. We favor an anatomic footprint repair of the triceps to provide optimal tendon to bone healing and, ultimately, functional outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bickert, B; Kremer, T; Kneser, U
Closed tendon ruptures of the thumb that require secondary reconstruction can affect the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons. Treatment of rupture of the EPB tendon consists of refixation to the bone and temporary transfixation of the joint. In the case of preexisting or posttraumatic arthrosis, definitive arthrodesis of the thumb is the best procedure. Closed ruptures of the EPL and FPL tendons at the wrist joint cannot be treated by direct tendon suture. Rupture of the EPL tendon occurs after distal radius fractures either due to protruding screws or following conservative treatment especially in undisplaced fractures. Transfer of the extensor indicis tendon to the distal EPL stump is a good option and free interposition of the palmaris longus tendon is a possible alternative. The tension should be adjusted to slight overcorrection, which can be checked intraoperatively by performing the tenodesis test. Closed FPL ruptures at the wrist typically occur 3-6 months after osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures with palmar plates and are mostly characterized by crepitation and pain lasting for several weeks. They can be prevented by premature plate removal, synovectomy and carpal tunnel release. For treatment of a ruptured FPL tendon in adult patients the options for tendon reconstruction should be weighed up against the less complicated tenodesis or arthrodesis of the thumb interphalangeal joint.
Sabzevari, Soheil; Chao, Tom; Kalawadia, Jay; Lin, Albert
Treatment of subacute, retracted latissimus dorsi and teres major tendon ruptures in young overhead athletes is challenging. This case report describes management of a subacute retracted latissimus dorsi and teres major rupture with Achilles tendon allograft reconstruction using a two-incision minimally invasive technique. Level of evidence V.
Cerovac, S; Miranda, B H
Tendon defect reconstruction is amongst the most technically challenging areas in hand surgery. Tendon substance deficiency reconstruction techniques include lengthening, grafting, two-stage reconstruction and tendon transfers, however each is associated with unique challenges over and above direct repair. We describe a novel 'turnover lengthening' technique for hand tendons that has successfully been applied to the repair of several cases, including a case of attritional flexor and traumatic extensor tendon rupture in two presented patients where primary tenorrhaphy was not possible. In both cases a good post-operative outcome was achieved, as the patients were happy having returned back to normal activities of daily living such that they were discharged 12 weeks post-operatively. Our technique avoids the additional morbidity and complications associated with grafting, transfers and two stage reconstructions. It is quick, simple and reproducible for defects not exceeding 3-4 cm, provides a means of immediate one stage reconstruction, no secondary donor site morbidity and does not compromise salvage by tendon transfer and/or two-stage reconstruction in cases of failure. To our knowledge no such technique has been previously been described to reconstruct such hand tendon defects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Fan; Nerlich, Michael; Docheva, Denitsa
Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring joint movement. With advanced age, tendons become more prone to degeneration followed by injuries. Tendon repair often requires lengthy periods of rehabilitation, especially in elderly patients. Existing medical and surgical treatments often fail to regain full tendon function. The development of novel treatment methods has been hampered due to limited understanding of basic tendon biology. Recently, it was discovered that tendons, similar to other mesenchymal tissues, contain tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) which possess the common stem cell properties. The current strategies for enhancing tendon repair consist mainly of applying stem cells, growth factors, natural and artificial biomaterials alone or in combination. In this review, we summarise the basic biology of tendon tissues and provide an update on the latest repair proposals for tendon tears. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:332-342. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160075 PMID:28828182
Shybut, Theodore B; Puckett, Ernest R
Rupture of the triceps brachii tendon is exceedingly rare, and surgical repair is generally indicated. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been implicated in tendon pathology, including tendon ruptures. Triceps rupture has not been previously reported in the setting of fluoroquinolone antibiotic therapy. We present 2 cases of triceps tendon rupture after treatment with fluoroquinolones. In both cases, triceps repair was performed with good outcomes. These cases highlight a risk of fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy to athletes. The sports medicine team should be aware of this risk and consider it when choosing antibiotics to treat athletes.
... almost impossible. Achilles tendonitis is a very common running injury. But it can also affect basketball players, dancers, ... Proximal Biceps Tendonitis Safety Tips: Basketball Safety Tips: Running Repetitive Stress Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries ...
Hunter, Gary R; Katsoulis, Konstantina; McCarthy, John P; Ogard, William K; Bamman, Marcas M; Wood, David S; Den Hollander, Jan A; Blaudeau, Tamilane E; Newcomer, Bradley R
The purpose of study was to determine whether quadriceps/patella and Achilles tendon length and flexibility of the knee extensors and plantar flexors are related to walking and running economy. Twenty-one male distance runners were subjects. Quadriceps/patella and Achilles tendon length were measured by magnetic resonance imaging; body composition was measured DXA; oxygen uptake at rest while seated, walking (3 mph), and running (6 and 7 mph) were measured by indirect calorimetry; knee and ankle joint flexibility were measured by goniometry; and leg lengths were measured by anthropometry while seated. Correlations were used to identify relationships between variables of interest. Net VO2 (exercise VO2 - rest VO2) for walking (NVOWK) and running at 6 and 7 mph (NVO6 and NVO7, respectively) was significantly related to Achilles tendon length (r varying from -0.40 to -0.51, P all < 0.04). Achilles tendon cross section was not related to walking or running economy. Quadriceps/patella tendon length was significantly related to NVO7 (r = -0.43, P = 0.03) and approached significance for NVO6 (r = -0.36, P = 0.06). Flexibility of the plantar flexors was related to NVO7 (+0.38, P = 0.05). Multiple regression showed that Achilles tendon length was independently related to NVO6 and NVO7 (partial r varying from -0.53 to -0.64, all P < 0.02) independent of lower leg length, upper leg length, quadriceps/patella tendon length, knee extension flexibility, or plantarflexion flexibility. These data support the premise that longer lower limb tendons (especially Achilles tendon) and less flexible lower limb joints are associated with improved running economy.
Thomopoulos, Stavros; Parks, William C.; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Derwin, Kathleen A.
Tendon disorders are common and lead to significant disability, pain, healthcare cost, and lost productivity. A wide range of injury mechanisms exist leading to tendinopathy or tendon rupture. Tears can occur in healthy tendons that are acutely overloaded (e.g., during a high speed or high impact event) or lacerated (e.g., a knife injury). Tendinitis or tendinosis can occur in tendons exposed to overuse conditions (e.g., an elite swimmer’s training regimen) or intrinsic tissue degeneration (e.g., age-related degeneration). The healing potential of a torn or pathologic tendon varies depending on anatomic location (e.g., Achilles vs. rotator cuff) and local environment (e.g., intrasynovial vs. extrasynovial). Although healing occurs to varying degrees, in general healing of repaired tendons follows the typical wound healing course, including an early inflammatory phase, followed by proliferative and remodeling phases. Numerous treatment approaches have been attempted to improve tendon healing, including growth factor- and cell-based therapies and rehabilitation protocols. This review will describe the current state of knowledge of injury and repair of the three most common tendinopathies-- flexor tendon lacerations, Achilles tendon rupture, and rotator cuff disorders-- with a particular focus on the use of animal models for understanding tendon healing. PMID:25641114
Fanchini, Maurizio; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Combi, Franco; Benazzo, Franco; Bizzini, Mario
To describe the Return to competition after Achilles Tendon rupture (ATR) in an elite soccer player. Case report. Return to sport (RTS) of a professional soccer player who suffered an ATR during a match. The RTS phase started 15 weeks after surgery and specific on-field activities were gradually introduced. Criteria used to monitor the transition through the different phases were strength and endurance of the calf muscle and ability to sustain specific on-field training loads (TL) monitored with Global Positioning System and heart-rate system. TLs were weekly compared to pre-injury values to evaluate recovery and to prescribe future sessions. A 39-year-old (height 178 cm, weight 75 kg) elite soccer defender player, playing in Italian Serie-A league. Days of absence were lower compared to a cohort presented in UEFA study (119 versus 161 ± 65 days, respectively). External-TL and Internal-TL were organized to gradually increase during RTS and resulted in higher values prior to return to competition compared to pre-injury values. Concentric plantar flexion peak torque increased till 9th months after surgery. Monitoring of the field activities allowed comparison with pre-injury values and provided a useful and functional criteria to pass return to team activity and competition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Minkwitz, Susann; Schmock, Aysha; Bormann, Nicole; Kurtoglu, Alper; Tsitsilonis, Serafeim; Manegold, Sebastian
Reasons for the development of chronic tendon pathologies are still under debate and more basic knowledge is needed about the different diseases. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize different acute and chronic Achilles tendon disorders. Achilles tendon samples from patients with chronic tendinopathy (n = 7), chronic ruptures (n = 6), acute ruptures (n = 13), and intact tendons (n = 4) were analyzed. The histological score investigating pathological changes was significantly increased in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to acute ruptures. Inflammatory infiltration was detected by immunohistochemistry in all tendon pathology groups, but was significantly lower in tendinopathy compared to chronic ruptures. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed significantly altered expression of genes related to collagens and matrix modeling/remodeling (matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases) in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to intact tendons and/or acute ruptures. In all three tendon pathology groups markers of inflammation (interleukin (IL) 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, IL6, IL10, IL33, soluble ST2, transforming growth factor β1, cyclooxygenase 2), inflammatory cells (cluster of differentaition (CD) 3, CD68, CD80, CD206), fat metabolism (fatty acid binding protein 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, adiponectin), and innervation (protein gene product 9.5, growth associated protein 43, macrophage migration inhibitory factor) were detectable, but only in acute ruptures significantly regulated compared to intact tendons. The study gives an insight into structural and molecular changes of pathological processes in tendons and might be used to identify targets for future therapy of tendon pathologies. PMID:29385715
Malvankar, S; Khan, W S
The Achilles tendon is believed to have first developed two million years ago enabling humans to run twice as fast. However if the Achilles tendon is so important in terms of evolution, then why is this tendon so prone to injury - especially for those more active like athletes. The Achilles tendon had an integral role in evolving apes from a herbivorous diet to early humans who started hunting for food over longer distances, resulting in bipedal locomotion. Evolutionary advantages of the Achilles tendon includes it being the strongest tendon in the body, having an energy-saving mechanism for fast locomotion, allows humans to jump and run, and additionally is a spring and shock absorber during gait. Considering these benefits it is therefore not surprising that studies have shown athletes have thicker Achilles tendons than subjects who are less active. However, contradictory to these findings that show the importance of the Achilles tendon for athletes, it is well known that obtaining an Achilles tendon injury for an athlete can be career-altering. A disadvantage of the Achilles tendon is that the aetiology of its pathology is complicated. Achilles tendon ruptures are believed to be caused by overloading the tensed tendon, like during sports. However studies have also shown athlete Achilles tendon ruptures to have degenerative changes in the tendon. Other flaws of the Achilles tendon are its non-uniform vascularity and incomplete repair system which may suggest the Achilles tendon is on the edge of evolution. Research has shown that there is a genetic influence on the predisposition a person has towards Achilles tendon injuries. So if this tendon is here to stay in our anatomy, and it probably is due to the slow rate of evolution in humans, research in genetic modification could be used to decrease athletes' predisposition to Achilles tendinopathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W
Flexor tendon injuries still remain a challenging condition to manage to ensure optimal outcome for the patient. Since the first flexor tendon repair was described by Kirchmayr in 1917, several approaches to flexor tendon injury have enabled successful repairs rates of 70-90%. Primary surgical repair results in better functional outcome compared to secondary repair or tendon graft surgery. Flexor tendon injury repair has been extensively researched and the literature demonstrates successful repair requires minimal gapping at the repair site or interference with tendon vascularity, secure suture knots, smooth junction of tendon end and having sufficient strength for healing. However, the exact surgical approach to achieve success being currently used among surgeons is still controversial. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the results of studies demonstrating the current knowledge regarding the optimal approach for flexor tendon repair. Post-operative rehabilitation for flexor tendon surgery is another area, which has caused extensive debate in hand surgery. The trend to more active mobilisation protocols seems to be favoured but further study in this area is needed to find the protocol, which achieves function and gliding but avoids rupture of the tendons. Lastly despite success following surgery complications commonly still occur post surgery, including adhesion formation, tendon rupture and stiffness of the joints. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the appropriate management of these difficulties post surgery. New techniques in management of flexor tendon will also be discussed including external laser devices, addition of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:22431948
Hast, M. W.; Zuskov, A.; Soslowsky, L. J.
Tendinopathy is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which can cause significant pain and lead to complete rupture of the tendon, which often requires surgical repair. Due in part to the large spectrum of tendon pathologies, these disorders continue to be a clinical challenge. Animal models are often used in this field of research as they offer an attractive framework to examine the cascade of processes that occur throughout both tendon pathology and repair. This review discusses the structural, mechanical, and biological changes that occur throughout tendon pathology in animal models, as well as strategies for the improvement of tendon healing. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:193–202. PMID:24958818
Wagner, Emilio; Wagner, Pablo; Ortiz, Cristian; Radkievich, Ruben; Palma, Felipe; Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo
No clear guideline or solid evidence exists for peroneal tendon tears to determine when to repair, resect, or perform a tenodesis on the damaged tendon. The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanical behavior of cadaveric peroneal tendons artificially damaged and tested in a cyclic and failure mode. The hypothesis was that no failure would be observed in the cyclic phase. Eight cadaveric long leg specimens were tested on a specially designed frame. A longitudinal full thickness tendon defect was created, 3 cm in length, behind the tip of the fibula, compromising 66% of the visible width of the peroneal tendons. Cyclic testing was initially performed between 50 and 200 N, followed by a load-to-failure test. Tendon elongation and load to rupture were measured. No tendon failed or lengthened during cyclic testing. The mean load to failure for peroneus brevis was 416 N (95% confidence interval, 351-481 N) and for the peroneus longus was 723 N (95% confidence interval, 578-868 N). All failures were at the level of the defect created. In a cadaveric model of peroneal tendon tears, 33% of remaining peroneal tendon could resist high tensile forces, above the physiologic threshold. Some peroneal tendon tears can be treated conservatively without risking spontaneous ruptures. When surgically treating a symptomatic peroneal tendon tear, increased efforts may be undertaken to repair tears previously considered irreparable.
Wagner, Michael; Kääb, Max J; Schallock, Jessica; Haas, Norbert P; Weiler, Andreas
There are still controversies about graft selection for primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, especially with respect to knee stability and functional outcome. Biodegradable interference screw fixation of hamstring tendon grafts provides clinical results similar to those achieved with identical fixation of bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. In 1996 and 1997, primary isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft was performed in 72 patients. Since 1998, hamstring tendons were used as routine grafts. Matched patients with a hamstring tendon graft were selected from a database (n = 284). All patients were followed prospectively for a minimum of 2 years with KT-1000 arthrometer testing, International Knee Documentation Committee score, and Lysholm score. In the bone-patellar tendon-bone group, 9 patients were excluded because of bilateral rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament, 3 patients (4.2%) had a graft rupture, and 4 patients were lost to follow-up (follow-up rate, 92.1%), leaving 56 patients for a matched-group analysis. In the hamstring tendon database, the graft rupture rate was 5.6% (P = .698). The Lysholm score was 89.7 in the patellar tendon group and 94 in the hamstring tendon group (P = .003). The KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference was 2.6 mm for the patellar tendon group and 2.1 mm for the hamstring tendon group (P = .041). There were significantly less positive pivot-shift test results in the hamstring tendon group (P = .005), and hamstring tendon patients showed lower thigh atrophy (P = .024) and patellofemoral crepitus (P = .003). Overall International Knee Documentation Committee scores were better (P = .001) in the hamstring tendon group (hamstring tendon: 34 x A, 21 x B, 0 x C, 0 x D; bone-patellar tendon-bone: 17 x A, 32 x B, 6 x C, 0 x D). In this comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone and
Bottagisio, Marta; Lovati, Arianna B
Tendon is a connective tissue mainly composed of collagen fibers with peculiar mechanical properties essential to functional movements. The increasing incidence of tendon traumatic injuries and ruptures-associated or not with the loss of tissue-falls on the growing interest in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of animal models is mandatory to deepen the knowledge of the tendon healing response to severe damages or acute transections. Thus, the selection of preclinical models is crucial to ensure a successful translation of effective and safe innovative treatments to the clinical practice. The current review is focused on animal models of tendon ruptures and lacerations or defective injuries with large tissue loss that require surgical approaches or grafting procedures. Data published between 2000 and 2016 were examined. The analyzed articles were compiled from Pub Med-NCBI using search terms, including animal model(s) AND tendon augmentation OR tendon substitute(s) OR tendon substitution OR tendon replacement OR tendon graft(s) OR tendon defect(s) OR tendon rupture(s). This article presents the existing preclinical models - considering their advantages and disadvantages-in which translational progresses have been made by using bioactive sutures or tissue engineering that combines biomaterials with cells and growth factors to efficiently treat transections or large defects of Achilles and flexor tendons.
Hast, Michael W; Piazza, Stephen J
The "Oxford Rig" cadaveric simulator permits researchers and clinicians to study knee mechanics during a simulated squatting motion. The motion of the lower limb in the Oxford Rig is typically controlled by a single actuator that applies tension to the quadriceps tendon. The location of the quadriceps actuator, however, has differed across published descriptions of the Oxford Rig. Actuators have been placed on the femur and pelvis, and on "grounded" locations external to the specimen, but the consequences of this placement for knee kinematics and kinetics are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine these effects using a validated computational musculoskeletal model. When the actuator was placed on the femur or pelvis, forces realistically increased with knee flexion, with quadriceps and patellofemoral contact forces exceeding 2000 N and 3000 N, respectively, at 100° flexion. When the actuator was grounded, however, forces were substantially reduced and did not monotonically increase with flexion. Articular joint contact forces were not strongly influenced by changing the location of the actuator from the femur to the pelvis, with small RMS differences in quadriceps forces (48.2 N), patellofemoral forces (83.6 N), and tibiofemoral forces (58.9 N) between these conditions. The location of the actuator did not substantially affect knee kinematics. The results of this study suggest that the quadriceps actuator of the Oxford Rig should be attached to either the femur or the pelvis when the goal is to make realistic estimates of quadriceps forces and articular contact forces within the knee joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chmielnicki, M; Prokop, A
Rupture of the Achilles tendon is the most common rupture of a tendon in man. Acute rupture of the Achilles tendon may be treated in a variety of manners, including conservative treatment, open suture and percutaneous suture. Surgical treatment of active patients is recommended, as the risk of re-rupture is greater after non-surgical treatment. The aim of surgery is adequate treatment of Achilles tendon rupture with a low rate of complications, high comfort for patients and fast social and occupational rehabilitation. The indication for surgical treatment of Achilles tendon rupture predominantly includes ruptures in active patients, with the goal of optimal functional rehabilitation. Furthermore, the percutaneous technique protects soft tissue, with a lower rate of wound healing disorders and infection than with open surgical treatment. In our clinic we perform the percutaneous suturing technique with the Dresden instruments. The surgical technique and functional aftercare are shown in a video clip. Between 2007 and 2013, we treated 212 patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture by surgery with the Dresden instruments. There were 7 re-ruptures (3.3 %) and one case of infection within one year of surgery. Percutaneous Achilles tendon suture technique with the Dresden instruments is a safe operation that protects soft tissue. Patient satisfaction is high and the rate of complications is low. This allows rapid social and occupational rehabilitation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Damrow, Derek S; Van Valin, Scott E
Patellar sleeve fractures make up greater than 50% of all patellar fractures. They are essentially only seen in the pediatric population because of the thick periosteum and the distal patellar pole apophysis in this group. These fractures can lead to complications if not treated appropriately and in a timely fashion. Complications of missed or untreated patellar sleeve fractures include patella alta, anterior knee pain, and quadriceps atrophy. These can all result in severe limitations in activity. The authors describe a case of a 16-year-old boy who sustained a patellar sleeve fracture 3 years prior to presentation. On presentation, he had patella alta, diminished strength, 5° of extensor lag, and radiographs that revealed bone formation along the patellar tendon. Despite this, he was able to maintain a high level of activity. This case report explores how the patient could have maintained a high level of activity despite having a patellar sleeve fracture. Also, because of the delayed presentation, the patella was ossified and the quadriceps was retracted, which led to a novel approach to reconstructing his distal extensor mechanism. This approach included a V-Y advancement of the quadriceps tendon and patellar tendon reconstruction using the patient's hamstring tendon (semitendinosus). This technique, combined with physical therapy postoperatively, resulted in his return to varsity high school soccer. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this technique has not been reported for this rare condition. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e357-e359.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Okano, Tatsumasa; Suruga, Makoto; Aizawa, Shin; Fu, Freddie H
The purpose of this study was to reveal the degree of muscle recovery and report the clinical results of anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft. Twenty subjects undergoing anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft were included in this study. A 5-mm-wide, 8-cm-long graft, involving the entire layer of the quadriceps tendon, was harvested without bone block. The average graft diameter was 8.1 ± 1.4 mm. An initial tension of 30 N was applied. The femoral tunnel was created from the far-medial portal. Each femoral and tibial tunnel was created close to the antero-medial bundle insertion site. For the evaluation of muscle recovery (quadriceps and hamstring), a handheld dynamometer was used. The evaluation of muscle recovery was performed pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Muscle recovery data were calculated as a percentage of leg strength in the non-operated leg. Anterior tibial translation (ATT), pivot shift test, and IKDC score were evaluated. The average quadriceps strength pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ACL reconstruction was 90.5 ± 19, 67.8 ± 21.4, 84 ± 17.5, and 85.1 ± 12.6 %, respectively. The average hamstring strength pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ACL reconstruction was 99.5 ± 13.7, 78.7 ± 11.4, 90.5 ± 19, and 96.7 ± 13.8 %, respectively. ATT pre-operatively and at 12 months after surgery was 5.4 ± 1.3 and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. No subjects exhibited positive pivot shift after surgery. Within 6 months following surgery, quadriceps hypotrophy was observed in all subjects. However, the hypotrophy had recovered at 12 months following surgery. No subjects complained of donor site pain after surgery. Anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft resulted in equivalent level of muscle recovery and knee stability when compared with previously reported ACL
Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Newton, Julia; Martinez, Fernando O; Hedley, Robert; Gwilym, Stephen; Jones, Natasha; Reid, Hamish A B; Wood, Simon; Wells, Graham; Appleton, Louise; Wheway, Kim; Watkins, Bridget; Carr, Andrew Jonathan
Recent investigation of human tissue and cells from positional tendons such as the rotator cuff has clarified the importance of inflammation in the development and progression of tendon disease. These mechanisms remain poorly understood in disease of energy-storing tendons such as the Achilles. Using tissue biopsies from patients, we investigated if inflammation is a feature of Achilles tendinopathy and rupture. We studied Achilles tendon biopsies from symptomatic patients with either mid-portion tendinopathy or rupture for evidence of abnormal inflammatory signatures. Tendon-derived stromal cells from healthy hamstring and diseased Achilles were cultured to determine the effects of cytokine treatment on expression of inflammatory markers. Tendinopathic and ruptured Achilles highly expressed CD14+ and CD68+ cells and showed a complex inflammation signature, involving NF-κB, interferon and STAT-6 activation pathways. Interferon markers IRF1 and IRF5 were highly expressed in tendinopathic samples. Achilles ruptures showed increased PTGS2 and interleukin-8 expression. Tendinopathic and ruptured Achilles tissues expressed stromal fibroblast activation markers podoplanin and CD106. Tendon cells isolated from diseased Achilles showed increased expression of pro-inflammatory and stromal fibroblast activation markers after cytokine stimulation compared with healthy hamstring tendon cells. Tissue and cells derived from tendinopathic and ruptured Achilles tendons show evidence of chronic (non-resolving) inflammation. The energy-storing Achilles shares common cellular and molecular inflammatory mechanisms with functionally distinct rotator cuff positional tendons. Differences seen in the profile of ruptured Achilles are likely to be attributable to a superimposed phase of acute inflammation and neo-vascularisation. Strategies that target chronic inflammation are of potential therapeutic benefit for patients with Achilles tendon disease. © Article author(s) (or their
Newton, Julia; Martinez, Fernando O; Hedley, Robert; Gwilym, Stephen; Jones, Natasha; Reid, Hamish A B; Wood, Simon; Wells, Graham; Appleton, Louise; Wheway, Kim; Watkins, Bridget; Carr, Andrew Jonathan
Background Recent investigation of human tissue and cells from positional tendons such as the rotator cuff has clarified the importance of inflammation in the development and progression of tendon disease. These mechanisms remain poorly understood in disease of energy-storing tendons such as the Achilles. Using tissue biopsies from patients, we investigated if inflammation is a feature of Achilles tendinopathy and rupture. Methods We studied Achilles tendon biopsies from symptomatic patients with either mid-portion tendinopathy or rupture for evidence of abnormal inflammatory signatures. Tendon-derived stromal cells from healthy hamstring and diseased Achilles were cultured to determine the effects of cytokine treatment on expression of inflammatory markers. Results Tendinopathic and ruptured Achilles highly expressed CD14+ and CD68+ cells and showed a complex inflammation signature, involving NF-κB, interferon and STAT-6 activation pathways. Interferon markers IRF1 and IRF5 were highly expressed in tendinopathic samples. Achilles ruptures showed increased PTGS2 and interleukin-8 expression. Tendinopathic and ruptured Achilles tissues expressed stromal fibroblast activation markers podoplanin and CD106. Tendon cells isolated from diseased Achilles showed increased expression of pro-inflammatory and stromal fibroblast activation markers after cytokine stimulation compared with healthy hamstring tendon cells. Conclusions Tissue and cells derived from tendinopathic and ruptured Achilles tendons show evidence of chronic (non-resolving) inflammation. The energy-storing Achilles shares common cellular and molecular inflammatory mechanisms with functionally distinct rotator cuff positional tendons. Differences seen in the profile of ruptured Achilles are likely to be attributable to a superimposed phase of acute inflammation and neo-vascularisation. Strategies that target chronic inflammation are of potential therapeutic benefit for patients with Achilles tendon
Alsindi, Z; Datta, D
Two male trans-femoral amputees using modular trans-femoral prostheses lost control and fell to the ground when their prosthetic knees gave way. The semi-automatic knee lock malfunctioned in the first case while the free knee stabilising mechanics gave way in the second case. This resulted in a high tensile force acting on the contralateral quadriceps muscle causing it to rupture. As there are a significant number of patients with both kinds of prostheses it is important to be aware of this possibility so that necessary actions can be taken to minimise its occurrence. Even with the currently available weight activated stance phase control, the prosthetic knee will give way if the knee is flexed more than 20 degrees on weight bearing. Good power and control of hip extensors on the amputation side is needed to control the prosthetic knee joint, especially in the early stage of the walking cycle, i.e., from heel strike to mid-stance. Quadriceps muscle injury in amputees, as far as the authors are aware, has not been reported previously.
Stević, Ruza; Masulović, Dragan
Sonography is a useful technique for the investigation of a number of musculoskeletal disorders. The most common indication for ultrasonography of muscles and tendons is the diagnosis of traumatic lesions, distinguishing them from other disorders and follow- up of healing process. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of ultrasound in the diagnosis of muscle and tendon injuries. The study included 170 patients (148 male and 22 female), mean age 29.6 years (range 14-60 years). All examinations were performed by linear transducer of 7.5-10 MHz, with longitudinal and transverse scanning. Ultrasound examination followed physical examination. Traumatic lesions of muscles were diagnosed in 113 patients (66.7%) and tendon injuries in 57 cases (33.2%). The muscle changes detected by ultrasonography were the following: 70 (61.9%) partial and two (1.76%) complete ruptures, 22 (19.46%) haematoma, 9 (7.96%) strains grade I, 4 fibroses and 4 ossifying myositis 4 (3.5%, respectively). Complications of muscle injuries were diagnosed in two cases, a muscular hernia and an arteriovenous fistula. Among tendon injuries, 21 (33.8%) ruptures and 36 (66.1%) tendinitis were diagnosed. Accompanying effusion in the bursa of patients with tendon injuries was found in 9 cases. Ultrasonography allowed visualization and objective assessment of the type and the extent of traumatic pathomorphological changes of muscles and tendons. Such diagnostic possibilities of ultrasonography are especially important in the choice of appropriate therapy.
Eitzen, I; Eitzen, TJ; Holm, I; Snyder-Mackler, L; Risberg, MA
Background Isokinetic muscle strength tests using the peak torque value is the most frequently included quadriceps muscle strength measurement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured subjects. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate quadriceps muscle performance during the whole isokinetic curve in ACL deficient subjects classified as potential copers or non-copers, and investigate whether these curve profiles were associated with single-leg hop performance. We hypothesized that quadriceps muscle torque at other knee flexion angles than peak torque would give more information about quadriceps muscle strength deficits. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be significant torque differences between potential copers and non-copers, and a significant relationship between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2 Methods Seventy-six individuals with a complete unilateral ACL rupture within the last 3 months were included. The subjects were classified into potential copers and non-copers according to the criteria from Fitzgerald et al12. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests were performed at 60°/sec (Biodex 6000). Mean torque values were calculated for peak torque as well as for specific knee flexion angles. The one-leg hop and the 6 meter timed hop tests were included and symmetry indices were used. Results The peak torque value did not identify the largest quadriceps muscle strength deficit. Rather, these were established at knee flexion angles of less than 40°. There were significant differences in angle specific torque values between potential copers and non-copers (p<0.05). Moderate to strong associations were disclosed between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance, but only for non-copers (r≥0.32– 0.58). Conclusions Angle specific quadriceps muscle torque values of less than 40° of knee flexion provide more information on the quadriceps
Tagoe, Mark T; Reeves, Neil D; Bowling, Frank L
Patients with diabetes and ankle equinus are at particularly high risk for forefoot ulceration because of the development of high forefoot pressures. Stiffness in the triceps surae muscles and tendons are thought to be largely responsible for equinus in patients with diabetes and underpins the surgical rationale for Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) procedures to alleviate this deformity and reduce ulcer risk. The established/traditional surgical approach is the triple hemisection along the length of the Achilles tendon. Although the percutaneous approach has been successful in achieving increases in ankle dorsiflexion >30°, the tendon rupture risk has led to some surgeons looking at alternative approaches. The gastrocnemius aponeurosis may be considered as an alternative because of the Achilles tendon's poor blood supply. ATL procedures are a balance between achieving adequate tendon lengthening and minimizing tendon rupture risk during or after surgery. After ATL surgery, the first 7 days should involve reduced loading and protected range of motion to avoid rupture, after which gradual reintroduction to loading should be encouraged to increase tendon strength. In summary, there is a moderate level of evidence to support surgical intervention for ankle joint equinus in patients with diabetes and forefoot ulceration that is non-responsive to other conservative treatments. Areas of caution for ATL procedures include the risk for overcorrection, tendon rupture and the tendon's poor blood supply. Further prospective randomized control trials are required to confirm the benefits of ATL procedures over conservative care and the most optimal anatomical sites for surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jeyapalan, K; Bisson, M A; Dias, J J; Griffin, Y; Bhatt, R
The use of ultrasound scanning to establish tendon pathologies was assessed retrospectively in 17 patients in 18 digits. The ultrasound scan demonstrated four patterns: (1) normal intact tendons in four, (2) ruptured tendons in three, (3) tendons in continuity but attenuated in five and (4) tendons in continuity but thickened with fibrosis and decreased movement representing adhesions in five patients. Surgery was undertaken in only three cases, confirming the ultrasound diagnosis in two. Surgery was offered to all three patients with ruptures but was declined by two. Ultrasound imaging helped to avoid surgery in 14 cases by excluding flexor tendon re-ruptures. This allowed on-going mobilisation, leading to recovery of function.
Withrow, Thomas J; Huston, Laura J; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A
An instrumented cadaveric knee construct was used to quantify the association between impact force, quadriceps force, knee flexion angle, and anterior cruciate ligament relative strain in simulated unipedal jump landings. Anterior cruciate ligament strain will correlate with impact force, quadriceps force, and knee flexion angle. Descriptive laboratory study. Eleven cadaveric knees (age, 70.8 [19.3] years; 5 male; 6 female) were mounted in a custom fixture with the tibia and femur secured to a triaxial load cell. Quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle forces were simulated using pretensioned steel cables (stiffness, 7 kN/cm), and the quadriceps tendon force was measured using a load cell. Mean strain on the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a DVRT. With the knee in 25 degrees of flexion, the construct was vertically loaded by an impact force initially directed 4 cm posterior to the knee joint center. Tibiofemoral kinematics was measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system. The increase in anterior cruciate ligament relative strain was proportional to the increase in quadriceps force (r(2) = 0.74; P < .00001) and knee flexion angle (r(2) = 0.88; P < .00001) but was not correlated with the impact force (r(2) = 0.009; P = .08). The increase in knee flexion and quadriceps force during this simulated 1-footed landing strongly influenced the relative strain on the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament. These results suggest that even in the presence of knee flexor muscle forces, the increase in quadriceps force required to prevent the knee from flexing during landing can place the anterior cruciate ligament at risk for large strains.
Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Hast, Michael W.; Liu, Min; Usami, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi
Ectopic tendon mineralization can develop following tendon rupture or trauma surgery. The pathogenesis of ectopic tendon mineralization and its clinical impact have not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we utilized a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to determine whether ectopic tendon mineralization alters the biomechanical properties of the tendon and whether BMP signaling is involved in this condition. A complete transverse incision was made at the midpoint of the right Achilles tendon in 8-week-old CD1 mice and the gap was left open. Ectopic cartilaginous mass formation was found in the injured tendon by 4 weeks post-surgery and ectopic mineralization was detected at 8–10 weeks post-surgery. Ectopic mineralization grew over time and volume of the mineralized materials of 25-weeks samples was about 2.5 fold bigger than that of 10-weeks samples, indicating that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive. In vitro mechanical testing showed that max force, max stress and mid-substance modulus in the 25-weeks samples were significantly lower than the 10-weeks samples. We observed substantial increases in expression of bone morphogenetic protein family genes in injured tendons 1 week post-surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that phosphorylation of both Smad1 and Smad3 were highly increased in injured tendons as early as 1 week post-injury and remained high in ectopic chondrogenic lesions 4 weeks post-injury. Treatment with the BMP receptor kinase inhibitor (LDN193189) significantly inhibited injury-induced tendon mineralization. These findings indicate that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive, involves BMP signaling and associated with deterioration of tendon biomechanical properties. PMID:26825318
Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi
Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures.
Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi
Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures. PMID:27872726
Arthroscopic Repair of Massive Cuff Tears With Large Subscapularis Tendon Ruptures (Lafosse III/IV): A Prospective Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Controlled Case Series of 26 Cases With a Minimum Follow-up of 1 Year.
Grueninger, Patrick; Nikolic, Nikola; Schneider, Joerg; Lattmann, Thomas; Platz, Andreas; Chmiel, Corinne; Meier, Christoph
To prospectively assess arthroscopic repair of massive cuff tears (MCT) in a highly selective patient group with large subscapularis (SSC) tendon tears by means of clinical results and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Between April 2009 and December 2010, 26 patients with MCT were treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Only lesions involving a large tear of the SSC tendon (Lafosse III or IV) in combination with a complete tear of the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon and a tear of at least the anterior third of the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon were included. Minimum follow-up was 1 year. Pre- and postoperative assessment included a standardized clinical examination, subjective patient outcome, and MRI (structural integrity, fatty muscle infiltration, and muscular mass). Mean follow-up was 17 months (range, 12 to 34 months). MRI was performed in 25 patients. In 21 (84%) the cuff repair was intact. A partial retear of the SSC was found in 2 patients (8%). In 2 patients (8%) a full-thickness retear of the posterosuperior cuff was observed (1 SSP, 1 SSP/ISP). A significant increase of the muscle mass and decrease of fatty infiltration was observed for the SSC and SSP but not for the ISP. The mean Constant-Murley score improved from 36 to 86 points (P < .001) with all its subscores as well (P < .001). Muscular strength improved for the SSC (4.9 v 3.0, P < .001), SSP (4.6 v 2.9, P < .001), and ISP (4.8 v 3.4, P < .001). Overall patient satisfaction was high (3.6 ± 0.8). Arthroscopic repair of MCT involving the ISP, SSP, and large tears of the SSC provides a reliable tendon healing, in particular for the SSC tendon, combined with good functional results. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boesen, Anders Ploug; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Koenig, Merete Juhl; Bliddal, Henning; Torp-Pedersen, Soren; Langberg, Henning
Tendon-related injuries are a major problem, but the aetiology of tendinopathies is unknown. In tendinopathies as well as during unaccustomed loading, intra-tendinous flow can be detected indicating that extensive loading can provoke intra-tendinous flow. The aim of present study is to evaluate the vascular response as indicated by colour Doppler (CD) activity in both the Achilles and patella tendon after loading during high-level badminton matches. The Achilles tendon was subdivided into a mid-tendon, pre-insertional, and insertional region and the anterior knee tendons into a quadriceps-, patella- and tuberositas region. Intra-tendinous flow was measured using both a semi-quantitative grading system (CD grading) and a quantitative scoring system (CF) on colour Doppler. Intra-tendinous flow in the Achilles and anterior knee tendons was examined in fourteen single players before tournament and after 1st and 2nd match, respectively on both the dominant and non-dominant side. All players had abnormal intra-tendinous flow (Colour Doppler ≥ grade 2) in at least one tendon in at least one scan during the tournament. At baseline, only two of the 14 players had normal flow in all the tendons examined. After 1st match, tendencies to higher intra-tendinous flow were observed in both the dominant patella tendon and non-dominant quadriceps tendon (P-values n.s.). After 2nd match, intra-tendinous flow was significant increased in the dominant patella tendon (P = 0.009). In all other locations, there was a trend towards a stepwise increase in intra-tendinous flow. The preliminary results indicate that high amount of intra-tendinous flow was found in elite badminton players at baseline and was increased after repetitive loading, especially in the patella tendon (dominant leg). The colour Doppler measurement can be used to determine changes in intra-tendinous flow after repetitive loading.
Freedman, Benjamin R.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Summary This review highlights recent research on Achilles tendon healing, and comments on the current clinical controversy surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of injury. The processes of Achilles tendon healing, as demonstrated through changes in its structure, composition, and biomechanics, are reviewed. Finally, a review of tendon developmental biology and mechano transductive pathways is completed to recognize recent efforts to augment injured Achilles tendons, and to suggest potential future strategies for therapeutic intervention and functional tissue engineering. Despite an abundance of clinical evidence suggesting that current treatments and rehabilitation strategies for Achilles tendon ruptures are equivocal, significant questions remain to fully elucidate the basic science mechanisms governing Achilles tendon injury, healing, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:25332943
Vogiatzis, I; Tzineris, D; Athanasopoulos, D; Georgiadou, O; Geladas, N
The aim of the present study was to investigate why blood lactate after prolonged quadriceps contraction during hiking is only marginally increased. Eight sailors performed five 3-min hiking bouts interspersed with 5-s recovery periods. Whole body oxygen uptake, heart rate and lactate were recorded, along with continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy measures of quadriceps oxygenation. The time for 50% re-oxygenation was also assessed as an indication of the degree of localized oxygen delivery stress. Hiking elicited a significant (p = 0.001) increase in mean (+/- SD) heart rate (124 +/- 10 beats . min (-1)) which was accompanied by a disproportionately low oxygen uptake (12 +/- 2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Lactate was significantly (p = 0.001) increased throughout hiking manoeuvres, though post-exercise it remained low (3.2 +/- 0.9 mmol.l(-1)). During the hiking bouts mean quadriceps oxygenation was significantly (p = 0.001) reduced compared to baseline (by 33 +/- 5%), indicating an imbalance between muscle oxygen accessibility and oxygen demand. During rest intervals quadriceps oxygenation was partially restored. After the end of the final bout the time for 50 % re-oxygenation was only 8 +/- 2 s, whereas recovery of quadriceps oxygenation and oxygen uptake was completed within 3 min. We conclude that the observed low lactate could be attributed to the small oxygen and energy deficits during hiking as the muscles' oxygen accessibility is presumably partially restored during the brief rest intervals.
Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.
Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)
Tang, Jin Bo
New developments in primary tendon repair in recent decades include stronger core tendon repair techniques, judicious and adequate venting of critical pulleys, followed by a combination of passive and active digital flexion and extension. During repair, core sutures over the tendon should have sufficient suture purchase (no shorter than 0.7 to 1 cm) in each tendon end and must be sufficiently tensioned to resist loosening and gap formation between tendon ends. Slight or even modest bulkiness in the tendon substance at the repair site is not harmful, although marked bulkiness should always be avoided. To expose the tendon ends and reduce restriction to tendon gliding, the longest annular pulley in the fingers (i.e., the A2 pulley) can be vented partially with an incision over its distal or proximal sheath no longer than 1.5 to 2 cm; the annular pulley over the middle phalanx (i.e., the A4 pulley) can be vented entirely. Surgeons have not observed adverse effects on hand function after judicious and limited venting. The digital extension-flexion test to check the quality of the repair during surgery has become increasingly routine. A wide-awake surgical setting allows patient to actively move the digits. After surgery, surgeons and therapists protect patients with a short splint and flexible wrist positioning, and are now moving toward out-of-splint freer early active motion. Improved outcomes have been reported over the past decade with minimal or no rupture during postoperative active motion, along with lower rates of tenolysis.
Newton, Robert G.
The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut in the rupturable member. According to the preferred embodiment of the invention the rupturable member includes a solid head seated in the end of the drain line having a rim extending peripherally therearound, the rim being clamped against the end of the drain line by a clamp ring having an interior shearing edge, the bottom of the rupturable member being convex and extending into the drain line. Means are provided to draw the rupturable member away from the drain line against the shearing edge to clear the drain line for outflow of sodium therethrough.
Marinovich, Ryan; Soenjaya, Yohannes; Wallace, Gregory Q; Zuskov, Andre; Dunkman, Andrew; Foster, Brian L; Ao, Min; Bartman, Kevin; Lam, Vida; Rizkalla, Amin; Beier, Frank; Somerman, Martha J; Holdsworth, David W; Soslowsky, Louis J; Lagugné-Labarthet, François; Goldberg, Harvey A
Tendons/ligaments insert into bone via a transitional structure, the enthesis, which is susceptible to injury and difficult to repair. Fibrocartilaginous entheses contain fibrocartilage in their transitional zone, part of which is mineralized. Mineral-associated proteins within this zone have not been adequately characterized. Members of the Small Integrin Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) family are acidic phosphoproteins expressed in mineralized tissues. Here we show that two SIBLING proteins, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), are present in the mouse enthesis. Histological analyses indicate that the calcified zone of the quadriceps tendon enthesis is longer in Bsp(-/-) mice, however no difference is apparent in the supraspinatus tendon enthesis. In an analysis of mineral content within the calcified zone, micro-CT and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the mineral content in the calcified fibrocartilage of the quadriceps tendon enthesis are similar between wild type and Bsp(-/-) mice. Mechanical testing of the patellar tendon shows that while the tendons fail under similar loads, the Bsp(-/-) patellar tendon is 7.5% larger in cross sectional area than wild type tendons, resulting in a 16.5% reduction in failure stress. However, Picrosirius Red staining shows no difference in collagen organization. Data collected here indicate that BSP is present in the calcified fibrocartilage of murine entheses and suggest that BSP plays a regulatory role in this structure, influencing the growth of the calcified fibrocartilage in addition to the weakening of the tendon mechanical properties. Based on the phenotype of the Bsp(-/-) mouse enthesis, and the known in vitro functional properties of the protein, BSP may be a useful therapeutic molecule in the reattachment of tendons and ligaments to bone. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. All rights reserved.
Marinovich, Ryan; Soenjaya, Yohannes; Wallace, Gregory Q.; Zuskov, Andre; Dunkman, Andrew; Foster, Brian L.; Ao, Min; Bartman, Kevin; Lam, Vida; Rizkalla, Amin; Beier, Frank; Somerman, Martha J.; Holdsworth, David W.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Lagugné-Labarthet, François; Goldberg, Harvey A.
Tendons/ligaments insert into bone via a transitional structure, the enthesis, which is susceptible to injury and difficult to repair. Fibrocartilaginous entheses contain fibrocartilage in their transitional zone, part of which is mineralized. Mineral-associated proteins within this zone have not been adequately characterized. Members of the Small Integrin Binding Ligand N-Linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) family are acidic phosphoproteins expressed in mineralized tissues. Here we show that two SIBLING proteins, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), are present in the mouse enthesis. Histological analyses indicate that the calcified zone of the quadriceps tendon enthesis is longer in Bsp−/− mice, however no difference is apparent in the supraspinatus tendon enthesis. In an analysis of mineral content within the calcified zone, micro-CT and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the mineral content in the calcified fibrocartilage of the quadriceps tendon enthesis are similar between wild type and Bsp−/− mice. Mechanical testing of the patellar tendon shows that while the tendons fail under similar loads, the Bsp−/− patellar tendon is 7.5% larger in cross sectional area than wild type tendons, resulting in a 16.5% reduction in failure stress. However, picrosirius red staining shows no difference in collagen organization. Data collected here indicate that BSP is present in the calcified fibrocartilage of murine entheses and suggest that BSP plays a regulatory role in this structure, influencing the growth of the calcified fibrocartilage in addition to the weakening of the tendon mechanical properties. Based on the phenotype of the Bsp−/− mouse enthesis, and the known in vitro functional properties of the protein, BSP may be a useful therapeutic molecule in the reattachment of tendons and ligaments to bone. PMID:26826499
Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Place, Nicolas
To investigate potential differences in the recruitment order of motor units (MUs) in the quadriceps femoris when electrical stimulation is applied over the quadriceps belly versus the femoral nerve. M-waves and mechanical twitches were evoked using femoral nerve stimulation and direct quadriceps stimulation of gradually increasing intensity from 20 young, healthy subjects. Recruitment order was investigated by analysing the time-to-peak twitch and the time interval from the stimulus artefact to the M-wave positive peak (M-wave latency) for the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. During femoral nerve stimulation, time-to-peak twitch and M-wave latency decreased consistently (P < 0.05) with increasing stimulus intensity, whereas, during graded direct quadriceps stimulation, time-to-peak twitch and VL M-wave latency did not show a clear trend (P > 0.05). For the VM muscle, M-wave latency decreased with increasing stimulation level for both femoral nerve and direct quadriceps stimulation, whereas, for the VL muscle, the variation of M-wave latency with stimulus intensity was different for the two stimulation geometries (P < 0.05). Femoral nerve stimulation activated MUs according to the size principle, whereas the recruitment order during direct quadriceps stimulation was more complex, depending ultimately on the architecture of the peripheral nerve and its terminal branches below the stimulating electrodes for each muscle. For the VM, MUs were orderly recruited for both stimulation geometries, whereas, for the VL muscle, MUs were orderly recruited for femoral nerve stimulation, but followed no particular order for direct quadriceps stimulation.
Fryhofer, George W.; Freedman, Benjamin R.; Hillin, Cody D.; Salka, Nabeel S.; Pardes, Adam M.; Weiss, Stephanie N.; Farber, Daniel C.
Achilles tendon ruptures are common injuries. Sex differences are present in mechanical properties of uninjured Achilles tendon, but it remains unknown if these differences extend to tendon healing. We hypothesized that ovariectomized females (OVX) and males would exhibit inferior postinjury tendon properties compared with females. Male, female, and OVX Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32/group) underwent acclimation and treadmill training before blunt transection of the Achilles tendon midsubstance. Injured hindlimbs were immobilized for 1 wk, followed by gradual return to activity and assessment of active and passive hindlimb function. Animals were euthanized at 3 or 6 wk postinjury to assess tendon structure, mechanics, and composition. Passive ankle stiffness and range of motion were superior in females at 3 wk; however, by 6 wk, passive and active function were similar in males and females but remained inferior in OVX. At 6 wk, female tendons had greater normalized secant modulus, viscoelastic behavior, and laxity compared with males. Normalized secant modulus, cross-sectional area and tendon glycosaminoglycan composition were inferior in OVX compared with females at 6 wk. Total fatigue cycles until tendon failure were similar among groups. Postinjury muscle fiber size was better preserved in females compared with males, and females had greater collagen III at the tendon injury site compared with males at 6 wk. Despite male and female Achilles tendons withstanding similar durations of fatigue loading, early passive hindlimb function and tendon mechanical properties, including secant modulus, suggest superior healing in females. Ovarian hormone loss was associated with inferior Achilles tendon healing. PMID:27633741
Hase, Eiji; Minamikawa, Takeo; Sato, Katsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yasui, Takashi
Tendon rupture is a trauma difficult to recover the condition before injury. In previous researches, tensile test and staining method have been widely used to elucidate the mechanism of the repair process from the viewpoints of the mechanical property and the histological findings. However, since both methods are destructive and invasive, it is difficult to obtain both of them for the same sample. If both the mechanical property and the histological findings can be obtained from the same sample, one may obtain new findings regarding mechanisms of tendon repairing process. In this paper, we used second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy, showing high selectivity and good image contrast to collagen molecules as well as high spatial resolution, optical three-dimensional sectioning, deep penetration, and without additional staining. Since SHG light intensity sensitively reflects the structural maturity of collagen molecule and its aggregates, it will be a good indicator for the repairing degree of the ruptured tendon. From comparison of SHG images between the 4-weeks-repaired tendon and the sound tendon in the animal model, we confirmed that SHG light intensity of the repaired tendon was significantly lower than that of the sound tendon, indicating that the collagen structure in the repaired tendon is still immature. Furthermore, we performed both SHG imaging and the tensile test for the same sample, and confirmed a correlation between them. This result shows a potential of SHG light for an indicator of the histological and mechanical recovery of the ruptured tendon.
Winkel, R; Kalbhenn, O; Hoffmann, R
This retrospective examination compares the results of finger flexor tendon sutures with 2 strands and 4 strands. It was checked, whether and how 2 more strands influenced the rupture rate, the movement of the finger and the contentment of the patients. From 1996 to 2000 for the core suture of the flexor tendon of fingers we used 2 strands. 35 patients with 40 tendon sutures of 73 patients were examined. From 2001 to 2005 we used for the core suture 2 loop threads. 53 patients with 64 tendon sutures from a total of 111 patients were examined. At least 12 months had passed between operation and the examination. The rupture rate and the range of movement of each finger joint and the total mobility of the affected fingers were evaluated. Each case was compared to the uninjured opposite hand. The functional result was judged according to the score of Buck-Gramcko. The patient's contentment was recorded by the DASH (disability of arm, shoulder and hand) score. Effects of gender, age, accompanying injuries, zone of the injury and their influence on the results were analysed. The Buck-Gramcko score showed in the 2-strand group a distribution from summarised 70% "excellent" and "good" and 30% "fair" and "poor". In the 4-strand-group the relation was 93.7% "excellent" and "good", 6.3% "fair", one "poor". In the 2-strand group 2/40 (5%) of the tendon sutures ruptured, in the 4-strand group 1/64 (1.6%) ruptured. The average DASH value in the 2-strands-group was 16.6/100, in the 4-strands-group 18.1/100 when 0 is the best possible result and 100 the worst. The patient judgement in the 2-strand group was summarised to 70% for "excellent" and "good" and 30% "fair" and "poor". In the 4-strand group the patient's judgment was summarised in 75% "excellent" and "good" and in 25% "fair". The results of flexor tendon sutures with 4-strand core sutures have been superior to the results with 2-strand core suture according to range of motion of the fingers (P <0.005). © Georg Thieme
Machado, Felipe; Debieux, Pedro; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Astur, Diego; Peccin, Maria Stella; Cohen, Moisés
To compare knee isokinetic performance six months after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using grafts from either the patellar tendon or the hamstrings among patients who underwent the same rehabilitation protocol. Thirty-four patients were evaluated (17 with grafts from the patellar tendon and 17 with grafts from the hamstrings). Operated and non-operated knees were compared with regards to the variables of peak torque, work and the hamstring/quadriceps relationship at velocities of 60º/s and 180º/s and power of 180º/s after six months of surgery. The patients with ACL reconstruction using the patellar tendon (BPTB) showed quadriceps deficits for all variables, but the flexor musculature was balanced. In the hamstring group, both the extensors and the flexors showed deficits for the variables analyzed, except for hamstring power at 180º/s. Patients in the patellar tendon group had a greater quadriceps deficit compared with those in the hamstrings group. Patients in the hamstrings group had a greater muscular deficit in the flexor mechanism compared with the contralateral knee. An unbalanced H/Q ratio was observed regardless of graft type, but this was more evident in the BPTB group.
Loos, A; Kalb, K; Van Schoonhoven, J; Landsleitner Dagger, B
Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus-tendon (EPL) is a frequent complication after distal radius fractures. Other traumatic and non-traumatic reasons for this tendon lesion are known, including a theory about a disorder in the blood supply to the tendon itself. We examined 40 patients after reconstruction of the EPL-tendon in a mean follow-up time of 30 months. All patients were clinically examined and a DASH questionnaire was answered by all patients. The method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon was the transposition of the extensor indicis-tendon. After the operations the thumb was put in a splint for four weeks in a "hitch-hiker's-position". 31 ruptures of the tendon (77.5 %) were a result of trauma. In 20 of them (50 %) a distal radius fracture had occurred. Clinical examination included measurements of the movement of the thumb- and index-finger joints, the grip strength and the maximal span of the hand. Significant differences were not found. The isolated extension of the index finger was possible in all patients. But it was reduced in ten cases which represent 25 %. Our results were evaluated by the Geldmacher score to evaluate the reconstruction of the EPL-tendon. 20 % excellent, 65 % good, 12.5 % fair and 2.5 % poor results were reached. The Geldmacher score was used critically. We suggest its modification for the evaluation of thumb abduction. The DASH score reached a functional value of ten points which represents a very good result. In conclusion the extensor indicis-transposition is a safe method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon. Its substantial advantage is taking a healthy muscle as the motor, thereby avoiding the risk of using a degenerated muscle in late tendon reconstruction. A powerful extension of the index finger will be maintained by physical education. Generally, the loss of the extension of the index finger is negligible. It does not disturb the patients. But it has to be discussed with the patient before the operation.
Koenig, M J; Torp-Pedersen, S; Boesen, M I; Holm, C C; Bliddal, H
Anterior knee tendon problems are seldom reported in badminton players although the game is obviously stressful to the lower extremities. Painful anterior knee tendons are common among elite badminton players. The anterior knee tendons exhibit colour Doppler activity. This activity increases after a match. Painful tendons have more Doppler activity than tendons without pain. Cohort study. 72 elite badminton players were interviewed about training, pain and injuries. The participants were scanned with high-end ultrasound equipment. Colour Doppler was used to examine the tendons of 64 players before a match and 46 players after a match. Intratendinous colour Doppler flow was measured as colour fraction (CF). The tendon complex was divided into three loci: the quadriceps tendon, the proximal patellar tendon and the insertion on the tibial tuberosity. Interview: Of the 72 players, 62 players had problems with 86 tendons in the lower extremity. Of these 86 tendons, 48 were the anterior knee tendons. Ultrasound: At baseline, the majority of players (87%) had colour Doppler flow in at least one scanning position. After a match, the percentage of the knee complexes involved did not change. CF increased significantly in the dominant leg at the tibial tuberosity; single players had a significantly higher CF after a match at the tibial tuberosity and in the patellar tendon both before and after a match. Painful tendons had the highest colour Doppler activity. Most elite badminton players had pain in the anterior knee tendons and intratendinous Doppler activity both before and after match. High levels of Doppler activity were associated with self-reported ongoing pain.
Zhang, Liang; Wan, DaLong; Zhang, LeLe; Xu, ShiGuo; Xie, HaiYang; Lin, ShengZhang
Abstract Rationale: Currently, percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) is regarded as the first-line treatment modality of pyogenic liver abscess. Severe complications associated with PCD were uncommon. Hepatic rupture is an uncommon but life-threatening liver trauma with high mortality. Its management is challenging because a delay in the diagnosis may lead to fatal hemorrhagic shock. To our knowledge, PCD-associated hepatic rupture has never been reported. Patient concerns: We report herein a rare case of PCD-associated hepatic rupture. Its clinical courses and our therapeutic approaches are presented. Moreover, the clinical significance, underlying causes, and current views on severe liver trauma management will be discussed briefly. Diagnoses: A diabetic patient suffering from fever and malaise was diagnosed with a pyogenic liver abscess. PCD was performed because intravenous antibiotics were ineffective. The patient developed a liver rupture following PCD, with clinical and imaging confirmation but without further progression. Interventions: Surgical repair and vascular intervention were both inappropriate. As a result, medical treatments with supportive care were adopted and were found to be effective. Outcomes: The patient's condition improved gradually, with stabilized imaging and laboratory performance. He recovered uneventfully during follow-ups. Lessons: Hepatic rupture should be listed as an extremely rare but severe complication of PCD. Immediate suspicion and effective intervention may avoid an unfavorable consequence. PMID:29480839
Ackerman, Jessica E.; Bah, Ibrahima; Jonason, Jennifer H.; Buckley, Mark R.; Loiselle, Alayna E.
Aging is an important factor in disrupted homeostasis of many tissues. While an increased incidence of tendinopathy and tendon rupture are observed with aging, it is unclear whether this is due to progressive changes in tendon cell function and mechanics over time, or an impaired repair reaction from aged tendons in response to insult or injury. In the present study we examined changes in the mechanical properties of Flexor Digitorum Longus (FDL), Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (FCU), and tail fascicles in both male and female C57Bl/6 mice between 3-27 months of age to better understand the effects of sex and age on tendon homeostasis. No change in max load at failure was observed in any group over the course of aging, although there were significant decreases in toe and linear stiffness in female mice from 3-months to 15, and to 22-27-months. No changes in cell proliferation were observed with aging, although an observable decrease in cellularity occurred in 31-month old tendons. Given that aging did not dramatically alter tendon mechanical homeostasis we hypothesized that a disruption in tendon homeostasis, via acute injury would result in an impaired healing response. Significant decreases in max load, stiffness, and yield load were observed in repairs of 22-month old mice, relative to 4-month old mice. No changes in cell proliferation were observed between young and aged, however a dramatic loss of bridging collagen extracellular matrix was observed in aged repairs suggest that matrix production, but not cell proliferation leads to impaired tendon healing with aging. PMID:28419543
Kiliçoğlu, Onder; Türker, Mehmet; Yildız, Fatih; Akalan, Ekin; Temelli, Yener
Distal Achilles tendon avulsions are in the form of either bony and nonbony avulsion of Achilles tendon from its calcaneal insertion. Four patients with distal Achilles tendon avulsions or ruptures which were treated with tendon to bone repair using suture anchors are presented here. Operated leg was immobilized in above-knee cast for 4 weeks while the patient walked non-weight-bearing. Then, cast was changed to below knee, and full weight-bearing was allowed. Patients underwent gait analysis minimum at first postoperative year. Mean American Orthopedics Foot Ankle Society ankle/hindfoot score of patients at last visit was 88.75 (range 85-100), and Achilles tendon total rupture score was 77.75 (range 58-87). Mean passive dorsiflexion of injured ankles (14° ± 5°) was lower than uninjured ankles (23° ± 9°). All the kinematic parameters of gait analysis were comparable to the uninjured side. Maximum plantar flexion power of injured ankle was 1.40 W/kg, and this was significantly lower than the contralateral side value 2.38 W/kg; (P = 0.0143). There were no visually altered gait or problems in daily life. Suture anchor tenodesis technique of distal Achilles tendon avulsions was successful in achieving durable osteotendinous repairs.
Llombart Blanco, Rafael; Valentí, Andrés; Díaz de Rada, Pablo; Mora, Gonzalo; Valentí, Juan R
Patellar tendon rupture after total knee replacement is a rare and highly limiting injury with multifactorial aetiology. Many reconstruction techniques have been described with not very predictable results. The use of allografts has been accepted as a suitable solution. A series of seven patients with patellar tendon rupture treated with fresh-frozen tendon allograft reconstruction after knee arthroplasty is presented. Median follow-up is 25 months (20-31). Functional assessment improved, and the knee society score and knee functional score improved from 26 and 16 to 82 and 55, respectively. Median extension lag was 5° (0°-20°), with a median range of motion of 95° (70-100). Radiological study showed a rise of the patella of 22.26 mm. The use of fresh-frozen allografts as a solution to patellar tendon ruptures after knee arthroplasty seems to provide acceptable results. Increased patellar height does not seem to affect functionality. Case series, Level IV.
Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Li, Chien-Ming; Lin, Chia-Hung; Yang, Chia-En; Wu, Jian-Xing; Chen, Tainsong
The Achilles tendon is one of the most commonly observed tendons injured with a variety of causes, such as trauma, overuse and degeneration, in the human body. Rupture and tendinosis are relatively common for this strong tendon. Stress-strain properties and shape change are important biomechanical properties of the tendon to assess surgical repair or healing progress. Currently, there are rather limited non-invasive methods available for precisely quantifying the in vivo biomechanical properties of the tendons. The aim of this study was to apply quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods, including ultrasonic attenuation and speed of sound (SOS), to investigate porcine tendons in different stress-strain conditions. In order to find a reliable method to evaluate the change of tendon shape, ultrasound measurement was also utilized for measuring tendon thickness and compared with the change in tendon cross-sectional area under different stress. A total of 15 porcine tendons of hind trotters were examined. The test results show that the attenuation and broadband ultrasound attenuation decreased and the SOS increased by a smaller magnitude as the uniaxial loading of the stress-strain upon tendons increased. Furthermore, the tendon thickness measured with the ultrasound method was significantly correlated with tendon cross-sectional area (Pearson coefficient = 0.86). These results also indicate that attenuation of QUS and ultrasonic thickness measurement are reliable and potential parameters for assessing biomechanical properties of tendons. Further investigations are needed to warrant the application of the proposed method in a clinical setting.
Genovese, Eugenio; Ronga, Mario; Recaldini, Chiara; Fontana, Federico; Callegari, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola; Fugazzola, Carlo
To compare morphological, power Doppler, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of the Achilles tendon between asymptomatic athletes and athletes who had undergone surgical repair of a previous rupture. Twenty-four athletes were divided in two groups (A and B). Group A included 14 patients with a median age of 32 years (range 27 to 47 years) who had undergone surgical repair for unilateral Achilles tendon rupture. Group B (control group) included 10 subjects with a median age of 34 years (range 27 to 40 years) with no previous or present history of tendinopathy. All patients were evaluated with ultrasound, power Doppler, and CEUS with second-generation contrast agent. We studied the uninjured Achilles tendon in athletes of group A and either the left or the right Achilles tendon of the athletes in group B. CEUS showed a significantly greater ability to detect a greater number of vascular spots within the uninjured tendon of group A compared to group B (<0.05). In athletes who had suffered a tear of an Achilles tendon, CEUS detected small vessels that were not identified by power Doppler ultrasound in the uninjured contralateral Achilles tendon. CEUS is useful to evaluate vascularity not detected by other imaging techniques. Vascularity in the uninjured tendon seems to be increased in patients who had a previous rupture. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomas, M; Jordan, M
Rheumatoid arthritis is found in approximately 2 % of the total population in Europe and the peak incidence of the disease is during the fourth and fifth decades of life. In approximately 15 % the first symptoms of the disease occur at the level of the foot and ankle. If the early stage-dependent therapy with pharmaceuticals fails isolated surgery of the tendons (e.g. tenosynovectomy) and reconstructive surgery including the tendons (e.g. tendon transfer and tendon readaptation) are performed to keep the patient mobile. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the most commonly used interventions in the reconstruction of tendons in rheumatism patients and the corresponding indications. The conservative therapy options for rheumatic foot and ankle alterations with a special emphasis on tendon pathologies have a well-established importance and are also presented. A selective literature search was carried out for therapeutic options of rheumatic tendon pathologies. If possible attempts should be made to preserve functional qualities using tenosynovectomy, tendon sutures or tendon transfer operations. If joints are already destroyed or dislocated, tendon operations should be carried out only as combined interventions with arthrodesis, endoprostheses or resection arthroplasty. The time window in which these interventions are possible should not be missed. Orthotic devices, bandages or even orthopedic shoes provide external support and splinting but do not represent a causal therapy.
George, Michael S
Acute rotator cuff tear is commonly associated with tearing of the proximal biceps tendon, but has never been reported to occur simultaneously with a distal biceps tendon rupture. A 38-year-old right-hand-dominant strongman competitor attempted a 300-pound overhead axle press and experienced immediate pain in the right shoulder and elbow. He had no known systemic risk factors for tendon ruptures including hyperparathyroidism, hemodialysis, alcoholism, rheumatoid arthritis, statin medications, fluoroquinolones, and steroid use.Right shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a full-thickness supraspinatus tear with 3 cm of retraction. There was minimal fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus on the sagittal cuts consistent with acute rupture. The subscapularis was intact. The long head of the biceps tendon had mild medial subluxation but was completely within the bicipital groove. Right elbow MRI showed a complete distal biceps tendon rupture. Thirteen days after his injury, the patient underwent arthroscopic supraspinatus repair and proximal biceps tenodesis. Distal biceps tendon repair was performed using the modified 2-incision muscle-splitting technique. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was pain free and had returned to full activity including weightlifting but had not returned to strongman competition.This is the first report of simultaneous acute full thickness ruptures of the rotator cuff and distal biceps tendon. This case report underscores the importance of a complete physical examination and a high index of suspicion for additional concomitant injuries, particularly in athletes with unusually high stresses to the body. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R
Animal studies suggest that regular exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) induces an anabolic response in bone and tendon. However, the effects of this type of intervention on human tendon properties and its influence on the muscle-tendon unit function have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV training on the patellar tendon mechanical, material and morphological properties, the quadriceps muscle architecture and the knee extension torque-angle relationship. Fifty-five subjects were randomized into either a vibration, an active control, or an inactive control group. The active control subjects performed isometric squats on a vibration platform without vibration. Muscle and tendon properties were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry. Vibration training induced an increase in proximal (6.3%) and mean (3.8%) tendon cross-sectional area, without any appreciable change in tendon stiffness and modulus or in muscle architectural parameters. Isometric torque at a knee angle of 90° increased in active controls (6.7%) only and the torque-angle relation remained globally unchanged in all groups. The present protocol did not appreciably alter knee extension torque production or the musculo-tendinous parameters underpinning this function. Nonetheless, this study shows for the first time that WBV elicits tendon hypertrophy in humans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Staresinic, Mario; Petrovic, Igor; Novinscak, Tomislav; Jukic, Ivana; Pevec, Damira; Suknaic, Slaven; Kokic, Neven; Batelja, Lovorka; Brcic, Luka; Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Zoric, Zdenka; Ivanovic, Domagoj; Ajduk, Marko; Sebecic, Bozidar; Patrlj, Leonardo; Sosa, Tomislav; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag
We report complete transection of major muscle and the systemic peptide treatment that induces healing of quadriceps muscle promptly and then maintains the healing with functional restoration. Initially, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736 Pliva, Croatia; in trials for inflammatory bowel disease; wound treatment; no toxicity reported; effective alone without carrier) also superiorly accelerates the healing of transected Achilles tendon. Regularly, quadriceps muscle completely transected transversely 1.0 cm proximal to patella presents a definitive defect that cannot be compensated in rat. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg) is given intraperitoneally, once daily; the first application 30 min posttransection, the final 24 h before sacrifice. It consistently improves muscle healing throughout the whole 72-day period. Improved are: (i) biomechanic (load of failure increased); (ii) function (walking recovery and extensor postural thrust/motor function index returned toward normal healthy values); (iii) microscopy/immunochemistry [i.e., mostly muscle fibers connect muscle segments; absent gap; significant desmin positivity for ongoing regeneration of muscle; larger myofibril diameters on both sides, distal and proximal (normal healthy rat-values reached)]; (iv) macroscopic presentation (stumps connected; subsequently, atrophy markedly attenuated; finally, presentation close to normal noninjured muscle, no postsurgery leg contracture). Thus, posttransection healing-consistently improved-may suggest this peptide therapeutic application in muscle disorders. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Screen, H.R.C.; Birk, D.E.; Kadler, K.E.; Ramirez, F; Young, M.F.
This article is one of a series, summarising views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the “Functional Extracellular Matrix” stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely-varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, ageing and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. PMID:25640030
September, Alison V; Schwellnus, Martin P; Collins, Malcolm
Tendons and ligaments within the upper and lower limbs are some of the more common sites of musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity. Several extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been shown to be associated with these injuries. More recently, studies have suggested that there is also, at least in part, a genetic component to the Achilles tendon, rotator cuff and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, specific genes have not been suggested to be associated with rotator cuff or anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Sequence variants of the tenascin C (TNC) gene, on the other hand, have been shown to be associated with Achilles tendinopathies and Achilles tendon ruptures, whereas a variant of the collagen V α 1 (COL5A1) gene has also been shown to be associated with Achilles tendinopathies. Both genes encode for important structural components of tendons and ligaments. The COL5A1 gene encodes for a component of type V collagen, which has an important role in regulating collagen fibre assembly and fibre diameters. The TNC gene, on the other hand, encodes for TNC, which regulates the tissue's response to mechanical load. To date, only variants in two genes have been shown to be associated with Achilles tendon injuries. In addition, although specific genes have not been identified, investigators have suggested that there is also a genetic component to both rotator cuff and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. In future, specific genotypes associated with increased risk of injury to specific tendons and ligaments can prevent these injuries by identifying individuals at higher risk. PMID:17261551
Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Grainger, A J
MRI and ultrasound are now widely used for the assessment of tendon and ligament abnormalities. Healthy tendons and ligaments contain high levels of collagen with a structured orientation, which gives rise to their characteristic normal imaging appearances as well as causing particular imaging artefacts. Changes to ligaments and tendons as a result of disease and injury can be demonstrated using both ultrasound and MRI. These have been validated against surgical and histological findings. Novel imaging techniques are being developed that may improve the ability of MRI and ultrasound to assess tendon and ligament disease. PMID:22553301
Andarawis-Puri, N.; Flatow, E. L.
Tendinopathies are commonly attributable to accumulation of sub-rupture fatigue damage from repetitive use. Data is limited to late stage disease from patients undergoing surgery, motivating development of animal models, such as ones utilizing treadmill running or repetitive reaching, to investigate the progression of tendinopathies. We developed an in vivo model using the rat patellar tendon that allows control of the loading directly applied to the tendon. This manuscript discusses the response of tendons to fatigue loading and applications of our model. Briefly, the fatigue life of the tendon was used to define low, moderate and high levels of fatigue loading. Morphological assessment showed a progression from mild kinks to fiber disruption, for low to high level fatigue loading. Collagen expression, 1 and 3 days post loading, showed more modest changes for low and moderate than high level fatigue loading. Protein and mRNA expression of Ineterleukin-1β and MMP-13 were upregulated for moderate but not low level fatigue loading. Moderate level (7200 cycles) and 100 cycles of fatigue loading resulted in a catabolic and anabolic molecular profile respectively, at both 1 and 7 days post loading. Results suggest unique mechanisms for different levels of fatigue loading that are distinct from laceration. PMID:21625047
Earp, Jacob E.; Newton, Robert U.; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J.
Introduction: Tendon dynamics influence movement performance and provide the stimulus for long-term tendon adaptation. As tendon strain increases with load magnitude and decreases with loading rate, changes in movement speed during exercise should influence tendon strain. Methods: Ten resistance-trained men [squat one repetition maximum (1RM) to body mass ratio: 1.65 ± 0.12] performed parallel-depth back squat lifts with 60% of 1RM load at three different speeds: slow fixed-tempo (TS: 2-s eccentric, 1-s pause, 2-s concentric), volitional-speed without a pause (VS) and maximum-speed jump (JS). In each condition joint kinetics, quadriceps tendon length (LT), patellar tendon force (FT), and rate of force development (RFDT) were estimated using integrated ultrasonography, motion-capture, and force platform recordings. Results: Peak LT, FT, and RFDT were greater in JS than TS (p < 0.05), however no differences were observed between VS and TS. Thus, moving at faster speeds resulted in both greater tendon stress and strain despite an increased RFDT, as would be predicted of an elastic, but not a viscous, structure. Temporal comparisons showed that LT was greater in TS than JS during the early eccentric phase (10–14% movement duration) where peak RFDT occurred, demonstrating that the tendon's viscous properties predominated during initial eccentric loading. However, during the concentric phase (61–70 and 76–83% movement duration) differing FT and similar RFDT between conditions allowed for the tendon's elastic properties to predominate such that peak tendon strain was greater in JS than TS. Conclusions: Based on our current understanding, there may be an additional mechanical stimulus for tendon adaptation when performing large range-of-motion isoinertial exercises at faster movement speeds. PMID:27630574
Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Flatow, Evan L; Soslowsky, Louis J
Tendinopathy and tendon rupture are common and disabling musculoskeletal conditions. Despite the prevalence of these injuries, a limited number of investigators are conducting fundamental, basic science studies focused on understanding processes governing tendinopathies and tendon healing. Development of effective therapeutics is hindered by the lack of fundamental guiding data on the biology of tendon development, signal transduction, mechanotransduction, and basic mechanisms underlying tendon pathogenesis and healing. To propel much needed progress, the New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference, co-sponsored by NIAMS/NIH, the Orthopaedic Research Society, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, was held to promote exchange of ideas between tendon researchers and basic science experts from outside the tendon field. Discussed research areas that are underdeveloped and represent major hurdles to the progress of the field will be presented in this review. To address some of these outstanding questions, conference discussions and breakout sessions focused on six topic areas (Cell Biology and Mechanics, Functional Extracellular Matrix, Development, Mechano-biology, Scarless Healing, and Mechanisms of Injury and Repair), which are reviewed in this special issue and briefly presented in this review. Review articles in this special issue summarize the progress in the field and identify essential new research directions. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rice, David A; McNair, Peter J; Lewis, Gwyn N
A consequence of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is an inability to fully activate the quadriceps muscles, a problem termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). AMI leads to marked quadriceps weakness that impairs physical function and may hasten disease progression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether γ-loop dysfunction contributes to AMI in people with knee joint OA. Fifteen subjects with knee joint OA and 15 controls with no history of knee joint pathology participated in this study. Quadriceps and hamstrings peak isometric torque (Nm) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were collected before and after 20 minutes of 50 Hz vibration applied to the infrapatellar tendon. Between-group differences in pre-vibration torque were analysed using a one-way analysis of covariance, with age, gender and body mass (kg) as the covariates. If the γ-loop is intact, vibration should decrease torque and EMG levels in the target muscle; if dysfunctional, then torque and EMG levels should not change following vibration. One-sample t tests were thus undertaken to analyse whether percentage changes in torque and EMG differed from zero after vibration in each group. In addition, analyses of covariance were utilised to analyse between-group differences in the percentage changes in torque and EMG following vibration. Pre-vibration quadriceps torque was significantly lower in the OA group compared with the control group (P = 0.005). Following tendon vibration, quadriceps torque (P < 0.001) and EMG amplitude (P ≤0.001) decreased significantly in the control group but did not change in the OA group (all P > 0.299). Hamstrings torque and EMG amplitude were unchanged in both groups (all P > 0.204). The vibration-induced changes in quadriceps torque and EMG were significantly different between the OA and control groups (all P < 0.011). No between-group differences were observed for the change in hamstrings torque or EMG (all P > 0.554). γ-loop dysfunction may
Introduction A consequence of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is an inability to fully activate the quadriceps muscles, a problem termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). AMI leads to marked quadriceps weakness that impairs physical function and may hasten disease progression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether γ-loop dysfunction contributes to AMI in people with knee joint OA. Methods Fifteen subjects with knee joint OA and 15 controls with no history of knee joint pathology participated in this study. Quadriceps and hamstrings peak isometric torque (Nm) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were collected before and after 20 minutes of 50 Hz vibration applied to the infrapatellar tendon. Between-group differences in pre-vibration torque were analysed using a one-way analysis of covariance, with age, gender and body mass (kg) as the covariates. If the γ-loop is intact, vibration should decrease torque and EMG levels in the target muscle; if dysfunctional, then torque and EMG levels should not change following vibration. One-sample t tests were thus undertaken to analyse whether percentage changes in torque and EMG differed from zero after vibration in each group. In addition, analyses of covariance were utilised to analyse between-group differences in the percentage changes in torque and EMG following vibration. Results Pre-vibration quadriceps torque was significantly lower in the OA group compared with the control group (P = 0.005). Following tendon vibration, quadriceps torque (P < 0.001) and EMG amplitude (P ≤0.001) decreased significantly in the control group but did not change in the OA group (all P > 0.299). Hamstrings torque and EMG amplitude were unchanged in both groups (all P > 0.204). The vibration-induced changes in quadriceps torque and EMG were significantly different between the OA and control groups (all P < 0.011). No between-group differences were observed for the change in hamstrings torque or EMG (all P > 0
Shepherd, Jennifer H; Screen, Hazel R C
Tendon injuries, often called tendinopathies, are debilitating and painful conditions, generally considered to develop as a result of tendon overuse. The aetiology of tendinopathy remains poorly understood, and whilst tendon biopsies have provided some information concerning tendon appearance in late-stage disease, there is still little information concerning the mechanical and cellular events associated with disease initiation and progression. Investigating this in situ is challenging, and numerous models have been developed to investigate how overuse may generate tendon fatigue damage and how this may relate to tendinopathy conditions. This article aims to review these models and our current understanding of tendon fatigue damage. We review the strengths and limitations of different methodologies for characterizing tendon fatigue, considering in vitro methods that adopt both viable and non-viable samples, as well as the range of different in vivo approaches. By comparing data across model systems, we review the current understanding of fatigue damage development. Additionally, we compare these findings with data from tendinopathic tissue biopsies to provide some insights into how these models may relate to the aetiology of tendinopathy. Fatigue-induced damage consistently highlights the same microstructural, biological and mechanical changes to the tendon across all model systems and also correlates well with the findings from tendinopathic biopsy tissue. The multiple testing routes support matrix damage as an important contributor to tendinopathic conditions, but cellular responses to fatigue appear complex and often contradictory. PMID:23837793
Michels, Frederick; Van Der Bauwhede, Jan; Oosterlinck, Dirk; Thomas, Sam; Guillo, Stéphane
Ruptures of the tibialis anterior tendon are rare but can cause substantial functional deficiencies. The literature regarding the treatment of such injuries is very limited. Atraumatic ruptures often occur in the presence of an abnormal tendon structure, and retraction often makes end-to-end repair impossible. With traumatic lesions, the risk of developing both adhesions and scar tissue is high. This study assesses the results of a surgical reconstruction using the interposition of a semitendinosus tendon autograft in 12 patients. Three patients had a traumatic rupture, and 9 patients had an atraumatic rupture. In 8 patients, the procedure was carried out using a minimally invasive technique. The average postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot score was 95.7 in the atraumatic group and 94.7 in the traumatic group. Active dorsiflexion was possible after 2 to 3 weeks. We believe that the interposition of a strong, healthy tendon facilitated healing and allowed early weight bearing. All patients had good recovery of dorsiflexion and gait. Repairing a ruptured tibialis anterior tendon using a semitendinosus autograft was a reliable technique and offered a good result. With the minimally invasive approach, there was no need to divide the extensor retinaculum, which we believe allowed faster recovery and reduced the risk of adhesions and wound healing problems. Level IV, retrospective case series.
Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Beretta, Stephannie Spiandor; Pereira, Vinicius A I; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; van Dieën, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recovery time after quadriceps muscle fatigue on gait in young adults. Forty young adults (20-40 years old) performed three 8-m gait trials at preferred velocity before and after muscle fatigue, and after 5, 10 and 20min of passive rest. In addition, at each time point, two maximal isometric voluntary contractions were preformed. Muscle fatigue was induced by repeated sit-to-stand transfers until task failure. Spatio-temporal, kinetic and muscle activity parameters, measured in the central stride of each trial, were analyzed. Data were compared between before and after the muscle fatigue protocol and after the recovery periods by one-way repeated measures ANOVA. The voluntary force was decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and after 5, 10 and 20min of recovery compared to before the fatigue protocol. Step width (p<0.001) and RMS of biceps femoris (p<0.05) were increased immediately after the fatigue protocol and remained increased after the recovery periods. In addition, stride duration was decreased immediately after the fatigue protocol compared to before and to after 10 and 20min of rest (p<0.001). The anterior-posterior propulsive impulse was also decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and remained low after 5, 10 and 20min of rest. We conclude that 20min is not enough to see full recovery of gait after exhaustive quadriceps muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wei, Zhuang; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory D; Moran, Steven L; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng
Flexor tendon injury is common, and tendon reconstruction is indicated clinically if the primary repair fails or cannot be performed immediately after tendon injury. The purpose of the current study was to compare clinically standard extrasynovial autologous graft (EAG) tendon and intrasynovial allogeneic graft (IAG) that had both undergone biolubricant surface modification in a canine in vivo model. Twenty-four flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from the second and fifth digits of 12 dogs were used for this study. In the first phase, a model of failed FDP tendon repair was created. After 6 weeks, the ruptured FDP tendons with a scarred digit were reconstructed with the use of either EAG or IAG tendons treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and lubricin. At 12 weeks after tendon reconstruction, the digits were harvested for functional, biomechanical, and histologic evaluations. The tendon failure model was a clinically relevant and reproducible model for tendon reconstruction. The IAG group demonstrated improved digit function with decreased adhesion formation, lower digit work of flexion, and improved graft gliding ability compared with the EAG group. However, the IAG group had decreased healing at the distal tendon-bone junction. Our histologic findings verified the biomechanical evaluations and, further, showed that cellular repopulation of allograft at 12 weeks after reconstruction is still challenging. FDP tendon reconstruction using IAG with surface modification has some beneficial effects for reducing adhesions but demonstrated inferior healing at the distal tendon-bone junction compared with EAG. These mixed results indicate that vitalization and turnover acceleration are crucial to reducing failure of reconstruction with allograft. Flexor tendon reconstruction is a common surgical procedure. However, postoperative adhesion formation may lead to unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. In this study, we developed a potential flexor tendon
Abate, Michele; Salini, Vincenzo; Andia, Isabel
Several epidemiological and clinical observations have definitely demonstrated that obesity has harmful effects on tendons. The pathogenesis of tendon damage is multi-factorial. In addition to overload, attributable to the increased body weight, which significantly affects load-bearing tendons, systemic factors play a relevant role. Several bioactive peptides (chemerin, leptin, adiponectin and others) are released by adipocytes, and influence tendon structure by means of negative activities on mesenchymal cells. The ensuing systemic state of chronic, sub-clinic, low-grade inflammation can damage tendon structure. Metabolic disorders (diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and dislipidemia), frequently associated with visceral adiposity, are concurrent pathogenetic factors. Indeed, high glucose levels increase the formation of Advanced Glycation End-products, which in turn form stable covalent cross-links within collagen fibers, modifying their structure and functionality.Sport activities, so useful for preventing important cardiovascular complications, may be detrimental for tendons if they are submitted to intense acute or chronic overload. Therefore, two caution rules are mandatory: first, to engage in personalized soft training program, and secondly to follow regular check-up for tendon pathology.
Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O’Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas
Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries. Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers. Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus. A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments. Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047 PMID:28736620
Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O'Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas
Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries.Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers.Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus.A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments.Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion.The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047.
Schneider, Magdalena; Angele, Peter; Järvinen, Tero A H; Docheva, Denitsa
Due to the increasing age of our society and a rise in engagement of young people in extreme and/or competitive sports, both tendinopathies and tendon ruptures present a clinical and financial challenge. Tendon has limited natural healing capacity and often responds poorly to treatments, hence it requires prolonged rehabilitation in most cases. Till today, none of the therapeutic options has provided successful long-term solutions, meaning that repaired tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Our understanding of tendon biology and healing increases only slowly and the development of new treatment options is insufficient. In this review, following discussion on tendon structure, healing and the clinical relevance of tendon injury, we aim to elucidate the role of stem cells in tendon healing and discuss new possibilities to enhance stem cell treatment of injured tendon. To date, studies mainly apply stem cells, often in combination with scaffolds or growth factors, to surgically created tendon defects. Deeper understanding of how stem cells and vasculature in the healing tendon react to growth factors, common drugs used to treat injured tendons and promising cellular boosters could help to develop new and more efficient ways to manage tendon injuries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ding, David Y; LaMartina, Joey A; Zhang, Alan L; Pandya, Nirav K
Distal biceps tendon ruptures are uncommon events in the adult population and exceedingly rare in the adolescent population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and only report of a distal biceps tendon rupture in an adolescent with a history of chronic corticosteroid suppression. We present a case of a 17-year-old male on chronic corticosteroid suppression who underwent a successful distal biceps tendon repair after an acute rupture following weightlifting. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient reports full range of motion and strength, and is able to return to his preinjury activity level with sports and weightlifting. Acute distal biceps ruptures are uncommon injuries in the pediatric population, but may occur in conjunction with chronic corticosteroid use. Anatomic repair, when possible, can restore function and strength. level IV, case report.
... teens, biceps tendonitis is usually an overuse injury. Baseball pitchers, swimmers, tennis players, and people who have ... But if you swim or play tennis or baseball, that might not be an option! If your ...
... the Hand. Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Figures Figure 1 - Extensor tendons, located on the ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...
... Transfer Surgery Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Figures Figure 2: Example of Tendon Transfer surgery ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...
Tearing and inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder muscles can occur in sports which require the ... pitching, swimming, and lifting weights. Most often the shoulder will heal if a break is taken from ...
... the Hand. Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Figures Figure 1 -The tendons of the hand ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...
Norrbrand, Lena; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Vargas, Roberto; Tesch, Per A
Resistance exercise has been proposed as an aid to counteract quadriceps muscle atrophy in astronauts during extended missions in orbit. While space authorities have advocated the squat exercise should be prescribed, no exercise system suitable for in-flight use has been validated with regard to quadriceps muscle use. We compared muscle involvement in the terrestrial "gold standard" squat using free weights and a nongravity dependent flywheel resistance exercise device designed for use in space. The subjects were 10 strength-trained men who performed 5 sets of 10 repetitions using the barbell squat (BS; 10 repetition maximum) or flywheel squat (FS; each repetition maximal), respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface electromyography (EMG) techniques assessed quadriceps muscle use. Exercise-induced contrast shift of MR images was measured by means of transverse relaxation time (T2). EMG root mean square (RMS) was measured during concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) actions and normalized to EMG RMS determined during maximal voluntary contraction. The quadriceps muscle group showed greater exercise-induced T2 increase following FS compared with BS. Among individual muscles, the rectus femoris displayed greater T2 increase with FS (+24 +/- 14%) than BS (+8 +/- 4%). Normalized quadriceps EMG showed no difference across exercise modes. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that quadriceps muscle use in the squat is comparable, if not greater, with flywheel compared with free weight resistance exercise. Data appear to provide support for use of flywheel squat resistance exercise as a countermeasures adjunct during spaceflight.
Williams, James; Wharton, Rupert; Peev, Peter; Horwitz, Maxim
Delayed rupture of the extensor and flexor tendons are recognised complications of distal radius fractures. However, acute flexor tendon rupture in the context of forearm fractures is rare. A twelve-year-old female sustained midshaft fractures of the radius and ulna. Intra-operatively the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) was found to be stripped from its musculotendinous junction at the level of the fracture fragment. The ruptured tendon was repaired using a modified Krackow technique at the time of fracture fixation. The repair was protected in plaster of Paris prior to referral to the paediatric hand clinic. The patient made a full recovery. Flexor tendon injury is a rare but potentially devastating consequence of acute forearm fractures. High energy trauma, significant volar angulation of the fracture fragment and clinical signs of flexor tendon injury should raise suspicion of this injury. A high index of suspicion in conjunction with repeat clinical examination of flexor tendon function should be performed before opting for closed management or intramedullary nailing in paediatric patients.
Hrnack, Scott A; Crates, John M; Barber, F Alan
No consensus exists for the best primary repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Problems with wound healing and nerve damage can occur. Prolonged immobilization leads to stiffness and calf atrophy. This study assesses the clinical outcome of acute Achilles tendon repairs using a mini-dorsolateral incision followed by a rapid rehabilitation program. A consecutive series of acute Achilles tendon ruptures repaired using a mini-dorsolateral incision were reviewed with a minimum 12 months follow up. Fifteen patients with an average age of 44 (range, 32 to 60) years were followed an average of 45 (range, 14 to 72) months. Two modified, buried core high strength sutures were placed in each torn end of the Achilles tendon reinforced with a running circumferential whip-stitch. Ankle Hindfoot scores, single toe raises, calf circumference, and adverse events were recorded. An accelerated postoperative rehabilitation protocol was followed. Postoperative AOFAS Ankle Hindfoot scores averaged 98.3 [39 pain; 49.6 function; 9.3 alignment]. All patients could single heel raise. Eight of 15 demonstrated atrophy with an average calf circumference loss of 1.0 cm. The only postoperative complication was one case of superficial cellulitis successfully treated with oral antibiotics. There were no sural nerve injuries, wound break down, or re-ruptures at final followup. The repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures through a minimal lateral incision provided excellent functional outcomes, avoided complications including sural nerve injury, and allowed a return to sports between 4 to 6 months.
Lempainen, Lasse; Kosola, Jussi; Pruna, Ricard; Puigdellivol, Jordi; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari
As compared with injuries involving muscle only, those involving the central hamstring tendon have a worse prognosis. Limited information is available regarding the surgical treatment of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings. To describe the operative treatment and outcomes of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings among athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eight athletes (6 top level, 2 recreational) with central hamstring tendon injuries underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. The indication for surgery was recurrent (n = 6) or acute (n = 2) central hamstring tendon injury. All patients followed the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and return to play was monitored. Magnetic resonance imaging found a central tendon injury in all 3 hamstring muscles (long head of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus) with disrupted tendon ends. In acute and recurrent central tendon injuries, full return to play was achieved at 2.5 to 4 months. There were no adverse events during follow-up. Central tendon injuries of the hamstrings can be successfully repaired surgically after acute and recurrent ruptures.
Lempainen, Lasse; Kosola, Jussi; Pruna, Ricard; Puigdellivol, Jordi; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari
Background: As compared with injuries involving muscle only, those involving the central hamstring tendon have a worse prognosis. Limited information is available regarding the surgical treatment of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings. Purpose: To describe the operative treatment and outcomes of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings among athletes. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eight athletes (6 top level, 2 recreational) with central hamstring tendon injuries underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. The indication for surgery was recurrent (n = 6) or acute (n = 2) central hamstring tendon injury. All patients followed the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and return to play was monitored. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging found a central tendon injury in all 3 hamstring muscles (long head of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus) with disrupted tendon ends. In acute and recurrent central tendon injuries, full return to play was achieved at 2.5 to 4 months. There were no adverse events during follow-up. Conclusion: Central tendon injuries of the hamstrings can be successfully repaired surgically after acute and recurrent ruptures. PMID:29479545
Dejour, David; Saffarini, Mo; Demey, Guillaume; Baverel, Laurent
Revision ACL reconstruction requires careful analysis of failure causes particularly in cases of two previous graft ruptures. Intrinsic factors as excessive tibial slope or narrow femoral notch increase failure risks but are rarely addressed in revision surgery. The authors report outcomes, at minimum follow-up of 2 years, for second revision ACL reconstructions combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy for correction of excessive slope (>12°). Nine patients that underwent second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy were retrospectively studied. The mean age was 30.3 ± 4.4 years (median 28; range 26-37), and mean follow-up was 4.0 ± 2.0 years (median 3.6; range 2.0-7.6). Autografts were harvested from the quadriceps tendon (n = 8) or hamstrings (n = 1), and tibial osteotomy was done by anterior closing wedge, without detachment of the patellar tendon, to obtain a slope of 3° to 5°. All patients had fused osteotomies, stable knees, and there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The mean posterior tibial slope decreased from 13.2° ± 2.6° (median 13°; range 12°-18°) preoperatively to 4.4° ± 2.3° (median 4°; range 2°-8°) postoperatively. The mean Lysholm score was 73.8 ± 5.8 (median 74; range 65-82), and the IKDC-SKF was 71.6 ± 6.1 (median 72.8; range 62.2-78.5). The satisfactory results of second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy at minimum follow-up of 2 years suggest that tibia slope correction protects reconstructed ACL from fatigue failure in this study. The authors stress the importance of careful analysis failure causes prior to revision ACL reconstruction, and recommend correction of tibial slope if it exceeds 12°, to reduce the risks of graft retear. III.
Thompson, Eric M.; Worden, Charles
Most ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) require distances that are defined relative to a rupture model, such as the distance to the surface projection of the rupture (RJB) or the closest distance to the rupture plane (RRUP). There are a number of situations in which GMPEs are used where it is either necessary or advantageous to derive rupture distances from point-source distance metrics, such as hypocentral (RHYP) or epicentral (REPI) distance. For ShakeMap, it is necessary to provide an estimate of the shaking levels for events without rupture models, and before rupture models are available for events that eventually do have rupture models. In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, it is often convenient to use point-source distances for gridded seismicity sources, particularly if a preferred orientation is unknown. This avoids the computationally cumbersome task of computing rupture-based distances for virtual rupture planes across all strikes and dips for each source. We derive average rupture distances conditioned on REPI, magnitude, and (optionally) back azimuth, for a variety of assumed seismological constraints. Additionally, we derive adjustment factors for GMPE standard deviations that reflect the added uncertainty in the ground motion estimation when point-source distances are used to estimate rupture distances.
Lin, Anderson; Ting, Julius; Lee, Kwo-Whei
To evaluate coplanar imaging of the long head of the biceps tendon. We retrospectively compared coronal oblique magnetic resonance images aligned with the principal supraspinatus tendon and with the intra-articular biceps tendon in 21 patients. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed for lesions depicted, including superior labral anteroposterior (SLAP) tears. Arthroscopic findings were reviewed. Coronal oblique images aligned with intra-articular biceps tendon depicted 18 (86%) of 21 coplanar intra-articular biceps tendons. Coplanar images identified 6 cases of tendinosis, 1 tear, 3 intra-articular ruptures, and 20 (95.2%) of 21 exact origins of the tendon. Arthroscopy revealed 18 SLAP tears. The detection of SLAP lesions between both coronal oblique magnetic resonance images was significantly different (P = 0.007). Advantages included imaging of the intra-articular biceps tendon with least partial-volume effects, definition of SLAP lesions and the tendinous origin at the supraglenoid tubercle, depiction of intra-articular bicipital ruptures, and increased sensitivity and specificity for intra-articular lesions.
Mohr, Karen J; Kvitne, Ronald S; Pink, Marilyn M; Fideler, Bradley; Perry, Jacquelin
This study compared muscle activity and timing of gait phases during functional activities in 13 subjects with patellofemoral pain associated with lateral subluxation and in 11 subjects with healthy knees. Fine wire electromyography recorded activity in the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique during walking and ascending and descending stairs. Subjects were filmed to divide the activities into phases and determine timing. The vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis had similar patterns during all activities. Subjects with patellofemoral pain had significantly increased activity in the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis compared with the healthy subjects during the most demanding phases of the gait cycle, suggesting a generalized quadriceps weakness in the patients with patellofemoral pain. Timing differences were seen in walking and stair ascending with the subjects with patellofemoral pain spending significantly more time in stance compared with the healthy subjects. This may be an attempt to reduce the load on weak quadriceps. These data reflect a generalized quadriceps muscle weakness, rather than the prevailing theory of quadriceps muscle imbalance as an etiology of patellofemoral pain. Therefore, we support the practice of strengthening the entire quadriceps muscle group, rather than attempting to specifically target the vastus medialis oblique.
Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor);
A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.
Ackermann, Paul W
The regulation of tendon homoeostasis, including adaptation to loading, is still not fully understood. Accumulating data, however, demonstrates that in addition to afferent (sensory) functions, the nervous system, via efferent pathways which are associated with through specific neuronal mediators plays an active role in regulating pain, inflammation and tendon homeostasis. This neuronal regulation of intact-, healing- and tendinopathic tendons has been shown to be mediated by three major groups of molecules including opioid, autonomic and excitatory glutamatergic neuroregulators. In intact healthy tendons the neuromediators are found in the surrounding structures: paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the proper tendon itself is practically devoid of neurovascular supply. This neuroanatomy reflects that normal tendon homoeostasis is regulated from the tendon surroundings. After injury and during tendon repair, however, there is extensive nerve ingrowth into the tendon proper, followed by a time-dependent emergence of sensory, autonomic and glutamatergic mediators, which amplify and fine-tune inflammation and regulate tendon regeneration. In tendinopathic condition, excessive and protracted presence of sensory and glutamatergic neuromediators has been identified, suggesting involvement in inflammatory, nociceptive and hypertrophic (degenerative) tissue responses. Under experimental and clinical conditions of impaired (e.g. diabetes) as well as excessive (e.g. tendinopathy) neuromediator release, dysfunctional tendon homoeostasis develops resulting in chronic pain and gradual degeneration. Thus there is a prospect that in the future pharmacotherapy and tissue engineering approaches targeting neuronal mediators and their receptors may prove to be effective therapies for painful, degenerative and traumatic tendon disorders. PMID:23718724
Marqueti, Rita C; Durigan, João L Q; Oliveira, Anderson José S; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Guzzoni, Vinicius; Aro, Andrea A; Pimentel, Edson Rosa; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S
In elderly persons, weak tendons contribute to functional limitations, injuries, and disability, but resistance training can attenuate this age-related decline. We evaluated the effects of resistance training on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the calcaneal tendon (CT) in young and old rats and its effect on tendon remodeling. Wistar rats aged 3 mo (young, n = 30) and 20 mo (old, n = 30) were divided into 4 groups: young sedentary, young trained, old sedentary (OS), and old trained (OT). The training sessions were conducted over a 12-wk period. Aging in sedentary rats showed down-regulation in key genes that regulated ECM remodeling. Moreover, the OS group showed a calcification focus in the distal region of the CT, with reduced blood vessel volume density. In contrast, resistance training was effective in up-regulating connective tissue growth factor, VEGF, and decorin gene expression in old rats. Resistance training also increased proteoglycan content in young and old rats in special small leucine-rich proteoglycans and blood vessels and prevented calcification in OT rats. These findings confirm that resistance training is a potential mechanism in the prevention of aging-related loss in ECM and that it attenuates the detrimental effects of aging in tendons, such as ruptures and tendinopathies.-Marqueti, R. C., Durigan, J. L. Q., Oliveira, A. J. S., Mekaro, M. S., Guzzoni, V., Aro, A. A., Pimentel, E. R., Selistre-de-Araujo, H. S. Effects of aging and resistance training in rat tendon remodeling. © FASEB.
Lamouille, J; Müller, C; Aubry, S; Bensamoun, S; Raffoul, W; Durand, S
The means for judging optimal tension during tendon transfers are approximate and not very quantifiable. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of quantitatively assessing muscular mechanical properties intraoperatively using ultrasound elastography (shear wave elastography [SWE]) during extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer. We report two cases of EIP transfer for post-traumatic rupture of the extensor pollicis longus muscle. Ultrasound acquisitions measured the elasticity modulus of the EIP muscle at different stages: rest, active extension, active extension against resistance, EIP section, distal passive traction of the tendon, after tendon transfer at rest and then during active extension. A preliminary analysis was conducted of the distribution of values for this modulus at the various transfer steps. Different shear wave velocity and elasticity modulus values were observed at the various transfer steps. The tension applied during the transfer seemed close to the resting tension if a traditional protocol were followed. The elasticity modulus varied by a factor of 37 between the active extension against resistance step (565.1 kPa) and after the tendon section (15.3 kPa). The elasticity modulus values were distributed in the same way for each patient. The therapeutic benefit of SWE elastography was studied for the first time in tendon transfers. Quantitative data on the elasticity modulus during this test may make it an effective means of improving intraoperative adjustments. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lorimer, Anna V; Hume, Patria A
Research into the nature of overuse Achilles tendon injuries is extensive, yet uncertainty remains around how to identify athletes susceptible to Achilles tendon injury. To identify the strength of evidence for biomechanical risk factors associated with Achilles tendon injuries. SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Web of Science and PubMed were searched for Achilles tendon injury risk factors and biomechanical measures which are altered in runners with Achilles tendon injuries, excluding ruptures. Fifteen articles were included in the analysis. Two variables, high vertical forces and high arch, showed strong evidence for reduced injury risk. High propulsive forces and running on stiffer surfaces may also be protective. Only one biomechanical variable, high braking force, showed clear evidence for increasing Achilles injury risk. Gait retraining to direct the centre of mass further forward to reduce high braking force could be useful in decreasing the risk of Achilles injury. The majority of biomechanical risk factors examined showed unclear results, which is likely due to the multifactorial nature of Achilles overuse injuries. Many risk factors are related to how the athlete's body interacts with the environment during gait, including ground reaction forces, muscle activity both prior to landing and immediately post ground contact, and joint motion throughout stance. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of Achilles tendon injuries in running athletes but most effects remain unclear. Advice for athletes recovering from Achilles tendon injuries could include avoiding soft surfaces and reducing the pace of recovery runs. Orthotic intervention could assist athletes with low arches but modification of pronation should be viewed with caution. Strength training and gait retraining could be beneficial for reducing injury risk.
Pamukoff, Derek N; Montgomery, Melissa M; Moffit, Tyler J; Vakula, Michael N
Individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are at greater risk for knee osteoarthritis, partially because of chronic quadriceps dysfunction. Articular cartilage is commonly assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and radiography, but these methods are expensive and lack portability. Ultrasound imaging may provide a cost-effective and portable alternative for imaging the femoral cartilage. The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonography of the femoral cartilage between the injured and uninjured limbs of individuals with unilateral ACLR, and to examine the association between quadriceps function and ultrasonographic measures of femoral cartilage. Bilateral femoral cartilage thickness and quadriceps function were assessed in 44 individuals with unilateral ACLR. Quadriceps function was assessed using peak isometric strength, and early (RTD100) and late (RTD200) rate of torque development. Cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (P < 0.001) and femoral cartilage cross-sectional area (P = 0.007) were smaller in the injured compared with the uninjured limb. After accounting for time since ACLR, quadriceps peak isometric strength was associated with cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (r = 0.35, P = 0.02) and femoral cartilage cross-sectional area (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). RTD100 and RTD200 were not associated with femoral cartilage thickness or cross-sectional area. Individuals with ACLR have thinner cartilage in their injured limb compared with uninjured limb, and cartilage thickness is associated with quadriceps function. These results indicate that ultrasonography may be useful for monitoring cartilage health and osteoarthritis progression after ACLR.
Al-Qattan, Mohammad M
Conservative management (without suturing or splints) of partial extensor tendon lacerations greater than half the width of the tendon has not been previously investigated. In this prospective study, a total of 45 injured tendons (with lacerations involving 55%-90% of the width of the tendon) in 39 patients were treated conservatively. Injury zones I, III, and V of the fingers; and zones I and III of the thumb were excluded. Immediate non-resistive active mobilization was initiated and continued for 4 weeks, followed by resistive exercises. Patients were allowed to go back to work after 6 weeks. There were no cases of ruptures, triggering, infection, or complex regional pain syndrome. At final follow-up (8-9 months after injury), all patients obtained full range of motion with no extension lags. All patients were able to go back to normal duties. We conclude that early active motion without the use of splints or sutures in major extensor tendon lacerations in zones II, IV, VI-VIII of the fingers; and zones II, IV, and V of the thumb is safe.
Storti, Thiago Medeiros; Paniago, Alexandre Firmino; Faria, Rafael Salomon Silva
Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a rare clinical entity, seldom reported in the literature and with unclear therapeutic setting. The authors report the case of a 39-year-old white man who suffered a simultaneous bilateral rupture while working out. When weightlifting with elbows at 90° of flexion, he suddenly felt pain on the anterior aspect of the arms, coming for evaluation after two days. He presented bulging contour of the biceps muscle belly and ecchymosis in the antecubital fossa, extending distally to the medial aspect of the forearm, as well as a marked decrease of supination strength and pain in active elbow flexion. MRI confirmed the rupture with retraction of the distal biceps bilaterally. The authors opted for performing the tendon repairs simultaneously through the double incision technique and fixation to the bicipital tuberosity with anchors. The patient progressed quite well, with full return to labor and sports activities, being satisfied with the result after two years of surgery. In the literature search, few reports of simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps were retrieved, with only one treated in the acute phase of injury. Therefore, the authors consider this procedure to be a good option to solve this complex condition.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Wei, Zhuang; Kirk, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
Background Using allograft is an attractive alternative for flexor tendon reconstruction because of the lack of donor morbidity, and better matching to the intrasynovial environment. The purpose of this study was to use biolubricant molecules to modify the graft surface to decrease adhesions and improve digit function. Methods 28 flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from the 2nd and 5th digits of 14 dogs were first lacerated and repaired to create a model with repair failure and scar digit for tendon reconstruction. Six weeks after the initial surgery, the tendons were reconstructed with FDP allograft tendons obtained from canine cadavers. One graft tendon in each dog was treated with saline as a control and the other was treated with gelatin, carbodiimide derivatized, hyaluronic acid and lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin). Six weeks postoperatively, digit function, graft mechanics, and biology were analyzed. Results Allograft tendons treated with cd-HA-Lubricin had decreased adhesions at the proximal tendon/graft repair and within flexor sheath, improved digit function, and increased graft gliding ability. The treatment also reduced the strength at the distal tendon to bone repair, but the distal attachment rupture rate was similar for both graft types. Histology showed that viable cells migrated to the allograft, but these were limited to the tendon surface. Conclusion cd-HA-Lubricin treatment of tendon allograft improves digit functional outcomes after flexor tendon reconstruction. However, delayed bone-tendon healing should be a caution. Furthermore, the cell infiltration into the allograft tendons substance should be a target for future studies, to shorten the allograft self-regeneration period. PMID:24445876
Fouda, Mohamed B; Thankam, Finosh G; Dilisio, Matthew F; Agrawal, Devendra K
Rotator cuff (RC) tendons could beinflicted in many ways with an eventual outcome of pain, weakness and disability, which represent a large burden on health care cost. However, optimal healing, either conservatively or with surgical intervention, remains an issue that needs further investigation. Disorders of the RC tendons may result from external factors like trauma, or internal factors through physiologic and metabolic derangement. Most RC tendon disorders may be asymptomatic and may result from an over-activity of the inflicted shoulder and its tendons. Such tendon disorders are poorly diagnosed since patients do not seek medical attention until pain or weakness ensue. Immunological and biochemical events in RC disorders due to mechanical intolerance have not been investigated. Generally, the mechanical load drives normal physiological properties of the tendon. But, mechanical overload/burden exerts stress on tenocytes, and disrupts the tendon microenvironment by triggering a multitude of signaling pathways leading to extracellular matrix remodeling, disorganization, alteration in collagen composition and apoptosis. These events result in weak tendon which is highly susceptible to rupture or tear. In this article, we critically reviewed the intrinsic signaling pathways that are excessively triggered by continuous mechanical load and the counteracting physiological responses and associated derangements. The elucidation of the molecular events underlying mechanical stress-induced symptomatic/asymptomatic tendinopathy could provide information on potential target sites for translational application in the management of rotator cuff disorders. PMID:29118899
Tang, Jin Bo; Wu, Ya Fang; Cao, Yi; Chen, Chuan Hao; Zhou, You Lang; Avanessian, Bella; Shimada, Masaru; Wang, Xiao Tian; Liu, Paul Y.
Tendon injury during limb motion is common. Damaged tendons heal poorly and frequently undergo unpredictable ruptures or impaired motion due to insufficient innate healing capacity. By basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy via adeno-associated viral type-2 (AAV2) vector to produce supernormal amount of bFGF or VEGF intrinsically in the tendon, we effectively corrected the insufficiency of the tendon healing capacity. This therapeutic approach (1) resulted in substantial amelioration of the low growth factor activity with significant increases in bFGF or VEGF from weeks 4 to 6 in the treated tendons (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), (2) significantly promoted production of type I collagen and other extracellular molecules (p < 0.01) and accelerated cellular proliferation, and (3) significantly increased tendon strength by 68–91% from week 2 after AAV2-bFGF treatment and by 82–210% from week 3 after AAV2-VEGF compared with that of the controls (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Moreover, the transgene expression dissipated after healing was complete. These findings show that the gene transfers provide an optimistic solution to the insufficiencies of the intrinsic healing capacity of the tendon and offers an effective therapeutic possibility for patients with tendon disunion. PMID:26865366
Wu, Jiayu; Yuan, Hong; Li, Longyuan; Fan, Kunjie; Qian, Shanguang; Li, Bing
Owing to its viscoelastic nature, tendon exhibits stress rate-dependent breaking and stiffness function. A Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic shear lag model is proposed to illustrate the micromechanical behavior of the tendon under dynamic tensile conditions. Theoretical closed-form expressions are derived to predict the deformation and stress transfer between fibrils and interfibrillar matrix while tendon is dynamically stretched. The results from the analytical solutions demonstrate that how the fibril overlap length and fibril volume fraction affect the stress transfer and mechanical properties of tendon. We find that the viscoelastic property of interfibrillar matrix mainly results in collagen fibril failure under fast loading rate or creep rupture of tendon. However, discontinuous fibril model and hierarchical structure of tendon ensure relative sliding under slow loading rate, helping dissipate energy and protecting fibril from damage, which may be a key reason why regularly staggering alignment microstructure is widely selected in nature. According to the growth, injury, healing and healed process of tendon observed by many researchers, the conclusions presented in this paper agrees well with the experimental findings. Additionally, the emphasis of this paper is on micromechanical behavior of tendon, whereas this analytical viscoelastic shear lag model can be equally applicable to other soft or hard tissues, owning the similar microstructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linderman, Stephen W; Golman, Mikhail; Gardner, Thomas R; Birman, Victor; Levine, William N; Genin, Guy M; Thomopoulos, Stavros
Tendon-to-bone surgical repairs have unacceptably high failure rates, possibly due to their inability to recreate the load transfer mechanisms of the native enthesis. Instead of distributing load across a wide attachment footprint area, surgical repairs concentrate shear stress on a small number of suture anchor points. This motivates development of technologies that distribute shear stresses away from suture anchors and across the enthesis footprint. Here, we present predictions and proof-of-concept experiments showing that mechanically-optimized adhesive films can mimic the natural load transfer mechanisms of the healthy attachment and increase the load tolerance of a repair. Mechanical optimization, based upon a shear lag model corroborated by a finite element analysis, revealed that adhesives with relatively high strength and low stiffness can, theoretically, strengthen tendon-to-bone repairs by over 10-fold. Lap shear testing using tendon and bone planks validated the mechanical models for a range of adhesive stiffnesses and strengths. Ex vivo human supraspinatus repairs of cadaveric tissues using multipartite adhesives showed substantial increase in strength. Results suggest that adhesive-enhanced repair can improve repair strength, and motivate a search for optimal adhesives. Current surgical techniques for tendon-to-bone repair have unacceptably high failure rates, indicating that the initial repair strength is insufficient to prevent gapping or rupture. In the rotator cuff, repair techniques apply compression over the repair interface to achieve contact healing between tendon and bone, but transfer almost all force in shear across only a few points where sutures puncture the tendon. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of an adhesive film, implanted between tendon and bone, to enhance repair strength and minimize the likelihood of rupture. Mechanical models demonstrated that optimally designed adhesives would improve repair strength by over 10-fold
Lenart, Brett A.; Ticker, Jonathan B.
Tears of the subscapularis tendon have been under-recognised until recently. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is essential for diagnosis. A directed physical examination, including the lift-off, belly-press and increased passive external rotation can help identify tears of the subscapularis. All planes on MR imaging should be carefully evaluated to identify tears of the subscapularis, retraction, atrophy and biceps pathology. Due to the tendency of the tendon to retract medially, acute and traumatic full-thickness tears should be repaired. Chronic tears without significant degeneration should be considered for repair if no contraindication exists. Arthroscopic repair can be performed using a 30-degree arthroscope and a laterally-based single row repair; one anchor for full thickness tears ⩽ 50% of tendon length and two anchors for those ⩾ 50% of tendon length. Biceps pathology, which is invariably present, should be addressed by tenotomy or tenodesis. Timing of post-operative rehabilitation is dictated by the size of the repair and the security of the repair construct. The stages of rehabilitation typically involve a period of immobilisation followed by range of movement exercises, with a delay in active internal rotation (IR) and strengthening in IR. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:484–495. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.170015 PMID:29387471
Yamamoto, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sasho, Takahisa; Fukawa, Taisuke; Akatsu, Yorikazu; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kenji; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Purpose To determine the time-dependent change in strain ratios (SRs) at the healing site of an Achilles tendon rupture in a rabbit model of tendon transection and to assess the correlation between SRs and the mechanical and histologic properties of the healing tissue. Materials and Methods Experimental methods were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. The Achilles tendons of 24 New Zealand white rabbits (48 limbs) were surgically transected. The SRs of Achilles tendons were calculated by using compression-based quantitative ultrasonographic elastography measurements obtained 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after transection. After in vivo elastography, the left Achilles tendon was harvested for mechanical testing of ultimate load, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and linear stiffness, and the right tendons were harvested for tissue histologic analysis with the Bonar scale. Time-dependent changes in SRs, mechanical parameters, and Bonar scale scores were evaluated by using repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlation between SRs and each measured variable was evaluated by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Mean SRs and Bonar scale values decreased as a function of time after transection, whereas mechanical parameters increased (P < .001). SR correlated with ultimate stress (ρ = 0.68, P <.001,) elastic modulus (ρ = 0.74, P <.001), and the Bonar scale (ρ = 0.87, P <.001). Conclusion Quantitative elastography could be a useful method with which to evaluate mechanical and histologic properties of the healing tendon. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil
Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future. PMID:25143650
Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J; Sargeant, Anthony J
Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also investigated whether, apart from CSA, MVA and MRR were determinants of muscle strength. Polio subjects had significantly less strength, CSA, and MRR in the more-affected quadriceps than control subjects. MVA was reduced in 18 polio subjects and normal in all controls. PPS subjects differed from non-PPS subjects only in that the MVA of the more-affected quadriceps was significantly lower. Both CSA and MVA were found to be associated with muscle strength. Quadriceps strength in polio subjects was dependent not only on muscle mass, but also on the ability to activate the muscles. Since impaired activation was more pronounced in PPS subjects, the new muscle weakness and functional decline in PPS may be due not only to a gradual loss of muscle fibers, but also to an increasing inability to activate the muscles.
Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas
Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265
Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Dayer, Mark J.; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Swallow, Elisabeth B.; Porcher, Raphael; Vazir, Ali; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Polkey, Michael I.
Aims The clinical syndrome of heart failure includes exercise limitation that is not directly linked to measures of cardiac function. Quadriceps fatigability may be an important component of this and this may arise from peripheral or central factors. Methods and results We studied 10 men with CHF and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Compared with a rest condition, 10 min after incremental maximal cycle exercise, twitch quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation fell in both groups (CHF 14.1% ± 18.1%, p = 0.037; Control: 20.8 ± 11.0%, p < 0.001; no significant difference between groups). There was no significant change in quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction voluntary force. The difference in the motor evoked potential (MEP) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex between rest and exercise conditions at 10 min, normalised to the peripheral action potential, also fell significantly in both groups (CHF: 27.3 ± 38.7%, p = 0.037; Control: 41.1 ± 47.7%, p = 0.024). However, the fall in MEP was sustained for a longer period in controls than in patients (p = 0.048). Conclusions The quadriceps is more susceptible to fatigue, with a similar fall in TwQ occurring in CHF patients at lower levels of exercise. This is associated with no change in voluntary activation but a lesser degree of depression of quadriceps motor evoked potential. PMID:22795722
Aköz, T; Altintaş, H; Civelek, B
Tendon graft harvesting is a challenging part of hand surgery. It is not only a time-consuming procedure but also carries the potential complications associated with it. Various alternatives for this procedure are presented in the literature to overcome these difficulties. In this paper, we are presenting a series of cases in which a newly modified tendon stripper was used for tendon graft harvesting.
Ho, Gavin; Tantigate, Direk; Kirschenbaum, Josh; Greisberg, Justin K; Vosseller, J Turner
The changing demographics of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) patients have not fully been investigated. However, there has been a general suspicion that this injury is occurring in an increasingly older population, in terms of mean age. The aim of this study was to objectively show an increase in age in Achilles tendon rupture patients over time. Published literature on Achilles tendon ruptures was searched for descriptive statistics on the demographics of patients in the studies, specifically mean and median age of Achilles tendon rupture patients, gender ratio, percentage of athletics-related injuries, percentage of smokers, and BMI. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine the trend of patient demographics over time. A Welch one-way ANOVA was carried out to identify any possible differences in data obtained from different types of studies. The patient demographics from 142 studies were recorded, with all ATR injuries occurring between the years 1953 and 2014. There was no significant difference in the mean age data reported by varying study types, i.e. randomized controlled trial, cohort study, case series, etc. (P=0.182). There was a statistically significant rise in mean age of ATR patients over time (P<0.0005). There was also a statistically significant drop in percentage of male ATR patients (P=0.02). There is no significant trend for percentage of athletics-related injuries, smoking or BMI. Since 1953 to present day, the mean age at which ATR occurs has been increasing by at least 0.721 years every five years. In the same time period, the percentage of female study patients with ATR injuries has also been increasing by at least 0.6% every five years. Level III; Retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stefanich, R J; Putnam, M D; Peimer, C A; Sherwin, F S
Twenty-three patients with zone V flexor tendon lacerations rehabilitated by the Kleinert protocol were studied at an average of 46 months after trauma. Hand function was subjectively normal in only eight. Of fourteen patients who were employed at the time of injury, eight returned to their original occupations. Eight others were working at other jobs, and we considered six more capable of employment. Only one had a poor functional result that precluded occupational use of the hand. Pinch/grip strengths recovered to 85%/79% of the uninvolved side. Independent flexor digitorum superficialis/flexor digitorum profundus action was present in only seven patients. Sixteen regained full digital flexion. Extension loss averaged 25% at the wrist and 10% in each digit. As assessed by static two-point discrimination, sensibility was poor after associated median and ulnar nerve transections; this did not preclude good objective functional results. Complications included two tendon ruptures, proximal interphalangeal hyperextension in the presence of an unrepaired flexor digitorum superficialis, and limited motion in two patients after poor compliance in therapy. Tenolysis was needed in 4 of the 23. We now use a modified Duran technique for noncompliant patients and in those who are unable to extend their PIP joints because of weak intrinsic muscles.
Lavagnino, Michael; Bedi, Asheesh; Walsh, Christopher P; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth R; Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Arnoczky, Steven P
Tendons are viscoelastic tissues that deform (elongate) in response to cyclic loading. However, the ability of a tendon to recover this elongation is unknown. Tendon length significantly increases after in vivo or in vitro cyclic loading, and the ability to return to its original length through a cell-mediated contraction mechanism is an age-dependent phenomenon. Controlled laboratory study. In vitro, rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs) from Sprague-Dawley rats of 3 age groups (1, 3, and 12 months) underwent 2% cyclic strain at 0.17 Hz for 2 hours, and the percentages of elongation were determined. After loading, the RTTfs were suspended for 3 days under tissue culture conditions and photographed daily to determine the amount of length contraction. In vivo, healthy male participants (n = 29; age, 19-49 years) had lateral, single-legged weightbearing radiographs taken of the knee at 60° of flexion immediately before, immediately after, and 24 hours after completing eccentric quadriceps loading exercises on the dominant leg to fatigue. Measurements of patellar tendon length were taken from the radiographs, and the percentages of tendon elongation and subsequent contraction were calculated. In vitro, cyclic loading increased the length of all RTTfs, with specimens from younger (1 and 3 months) rats demonstrating significantly greater elongation than those from older (12 months) rats (P = .009). The RTTfs contracted to their original length significantly faster (P < .001) and in an age-dependent fashion, with younger animals contracting faster. In vivo, repetitive eccentric loading exercises significantly increased patellar tendon length (P < .001). Patellar tendon length decreased 24 hours after exercises (P < .001) but did not recover completely (P < .001). There was a weak but significant (R (2) = 0.203, P = .014) linear correlation between the amount of tendon contraction and age, with younger participants (<30 years) demonstrating significantly more contraction (P
Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.
A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Lamberti, Alfredo; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair. PMID:22190961
Alexander, R McNeill
Vertebrate animals exploit the elastic properties of their tendons in several different ways. Firstly, metabolic energy can be saved in locomotion if tendons stretch and then recoil, storing and returning elastic strain energy, as the animal loses and regains kinetic energy. Leg tendons save energy in this way when birds and mammals run, and an aponeurosis in the back is also important in galloping mammals. Tendons may have similar energy-saving roles in other modes of locomotion, for example in cetacean swimming. Secondly, tendons can recoil elastically much faster than muscles can shorten, enabling animals to jump further than they otherwise could. Thirdly, tendon elasticity affects the control of muscles, enhancing force control at the expense of position control.
Condouret, J; Cohn, J; Ferret, J-M; Lemonsu, A; Vasconcelos, W; Dejour, D; Potel, J-F
This retrospective multicentric study was designed to assess the outcome of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles two years after Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare muscles recovery depending on the type of graft and individual variables like age, gender, level of sport, but also in terms of discomfort, pain and functional score. The results focused on the subjective and objective IKDC scores, SF36, the existence or not of subjective disorders and their location. The review included isokinetic muscle tests concentric and eccentric extensors/flexors but also internal rotators/external rotators with analysis of mean work and mean power. One hundred and twenty-seven patients were included with an average age 29 years (+/-10). They all had an ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendon with single or double bundles. In the serie, the average muscles deficit at two years was 10% for the flexors and extensors but with a significant dispersion. Significant differences were not noted in the mean values of all parameters in term of sex or age (over 30 years or not), neither the type of sport, nor of clinical assessment (Class A and B of objective IKDC score), nor the existence of anterior knee pain. There was a relationship between the level of extensor or flexor recovery and the quality of functional results with minimal muscle deficits close to 5% if the IKDC score was over 90 and deficits falling to 15% in the group with IKDC score less than 90. The type of reconstruction (patellar tendon versus hamstrings) had an influence on the muscle deficit. For extensors, the recovery was the same in the two groups, more than 90% at two years and the distribution of these two populations by level of deficit was quite the same. For flexors, residual deficits were significantly higher in the hamstrings group on the three studied parameters whatever the speed and the type of contraction (concentric or eccentric) with an average deficit of 14 to 18
Lederer, Stefan; Auffarth, Alexander; Bogner, Robert; Tauber, Mark; Mayer, Michael; Karpik, Stefanie; Matis, Nicholas; Resch, Herbert
Irreparable ruptures of the subscapularis tendon lead to impaired function of the shoulder joint. In such cases, transfer of the pectoralis major tendon has led to encouraging results. The procedure fails periodically, typically associated with insufficient in-growth of the transferred tissue. We hypothesized that tendon harvest with chips of cancellous bone would improve the tendon-bone interface. Of 62 consecutive pectoralis tendon transfers, 54 shoulders were followed-up at an average of 35 months. In all shoulders, the transferred tendon was rerouted behind the conjoint tendon and fixed by transosseous sutures. In 29 shoulders, the tendon was harvested with a cuff of cancellous bone. In 25 shoulders, the conventional technique with sharp detachment of the tendon was used. Apart from detailed clinical examination of all shoulders, a magnetic resonance image (MRI) was available in 52 shoulders. The overall Constant score had improved from an average of 38.8 points preoperatively to 63.4 points at follow-up. Shoulders treated with the new fixation technique scored 64.4 compared with 62.2 for the conventional fixations. The MRI showed intact tendons and muscles in 80.8% of shoulders. In 7 shoulders (13.5%), the transferred tendon was ruptured. Two of these were treated with the new fixation technique. Mean patient satisfaction score was 8.2 points. A secure method of fixation that avoids secondary ruptures despite insufficiency of the transferred tendon is of great importance. Also the rerouting of the transferred tendon under the conjoined tendon is essential to imitate the natural force vector and the function of an intact subscapularis tendon. Patients in this investigation were also monitored by MRI to verify the integrity of the transferred tendon. As a salvage procedure, the pectoralis major tendon transfer provides good results in most cases. Sufficient in-growth of the transferred tissue is essential for the success of the procedure. This seems to be
Kaux, Jean-François; Libertiaux, Vincent; Leprince, Pierre; Fillet, Marianne; Denoel, Vincent; Wyss, Clémence; Lecut, Christelle; Gothot, André; Le Goff, Caroline; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Drion, Pierre
The tendon is a dynamic entity that remodels permanently. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has been shown to have a beneficial effect on tendon healing after lesion in rats. Furthermore, eccentric exercise seems to improve the mechanical quality of the tendon. A combination of PRP injection and eccentric training might be more effective than either treatment alone. Controlled laboratory study. Adult male rats were anesthetized, an incision was performed in the middle of their left patellar tendon and an injection of physiological fluid (PF) or homologous PRP was randomly made at the lesion level. The rats were then divided into 2 groups: the eccentric group, undergoing eccentric training 3 times a week, and the untrained group, without any training. Thus, 4 groups were compared. After 5 weeks, the tendons were removed and their ultimate tensile strength and energy were measured. Tendons were frozen for proteomic analyses when all biomechanical tests were completed. Statistical analysis was performed with linear mixed effect models. No significant difference was found between the treatments using PF injection or PRP injection alone. However, the value of the ultimate tensile force at rupture was increased by 4.5 N (108% of control, P = .006) when eccentric training was performed. An intragroup analysis revealed that eccentric training significantly improved the ultimate force values for the PRP group. Proteomic analysis revealed that eccentric training led to an increase in abundance of several cytoskeletal proteins in the PF group, while a decrease in abundance of enzymes of the glycolytic pathway occurred in the PRP-treated groups, indicating that this treatment might redirect the exercise-driven metabolic plasticity of the tendon. Eccentric training altered the metabolic plasticity of tendon and led to an improvement of injured tendon resistance regardless of the treatment injected (PF or PRP). This study demonstrates the necessity of eccentric rehabilitation
Vaughn, Natalie H.; Stepanyan, Hayk; Gallo, Robert A.; Dhawan, Aman
Background: Tendon injury such as tendinopathy or rupture is common and has multiple etiologies, including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The genetic influence on susceptibility to tendon injury is not well understood. Purpose: To analyze the published literature regarding genetic factors associated with tendon injury. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A systematic review of published literature was performed in concordance with the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to identify current evidence for genetic predisposition to tendon injury. PubMed, Ovid, and ScienceDirect databases were searched. Studies were included for review if they specifically addressed genetic factors and tendon injuries in humans. Reviews, animal studies, or studies evaluating the influence of posttranscription factors and modifications (eg, proteins) were excluded. Results: Overall, 460 studies were available for initial review. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles were ultimately included for qualitative synthesis. Upon screening of references of these 11 articles, an additional 15 studies were included in the final review, for a total of 26 studies. The genetic factors with the strongest evidence of association with tendon injury were those involving type V collagen A1, tenascin-C, matrix metalloproteinase–3, and estrogen-related receptor beta. Conclusion: The published literature is limited to relatively homogenous populations, with only level 3 and level 4 data. Additional research is needed to make further conclusions about the genetic factors involved in tendon injury. PMID:28856171
Barton, Jennifer K.; Rice, Photini S.; Howard, Caitlin C.; Koevary, Jen W.; Danford, Forest; Gonzales, David A.; Vande Geest, Jon; Latt, L. Daniel; Szivek, John A.; Amodei, Richard; Slayton, Michael
Tendinopathies and tendon tears heal slowly because tendons have a limited blood supply. Intense therapeutic ultrasound (ITU) is a treatment modality that creates very small, focal coagula in tissue, which can stimulate a healing response. This pilot study investigated the effects of ITU on rabbit and rat models of partial Achilles tendon rupture. The right Achilles tendons of 20 New Zealand White rabbits and 118 rats were partially transected. Twenty-four hours after surgery, ITU coagula were placed in the tendon and surrounding tissue, alternating right and left legs. At various time points, the following data were collected: ultrasound imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, mechanical testing, gene expression analysis, histology, and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of sectioned tissue. Ultrasound visualized cuts and treatment lesions. OCT showed the effect of the interventions on birefringence banding caused by collagen organization. MPM showed inflammatory infiltrate, collagen synthesis and organization. By day 14- 28, all tendons had a smooth appearance and histology, MPM and OCT still could still visualize residual healing processes. Few significant results in gene expression were seen, but trends were that ITU treatment caused an initial decrease in growth and collagen gene expression followed by an increase. No difference in failure loads was found between control, cut, and ITU treatment groups, suggesting that sufficient healing had occurred by 14 days to restore all test tissue to control mechanical properties. These results suggest that ITU does not cause harm to tendon tissue. Upregulation of some genes suggests that ITU may increase healing response.
Manent, Andrea; Lopez, Laia; Vilanova, Joan; Mota, Tiago; Alvarez, Jordi; Santamaría, Alejandro; Oliva, Xavier Martí
Many treatments are available for acute Achilles tendon ruptures, conservative and surgical, with none superior to another. For surgical treatment, one can use various techniques. Recent studies have shown that double stitches are superior to simple sutures. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to determine the suture technique that is the most resistant to rupture. We performed an experimental anatomic study with 27 fresh-frozen human cadaveric Achilles tendons obtained through the body donation program of the University of Barcelona, testing the maximum strength. We simulated a rupture by performing resection in the middle portion of the tendon, 4 cm proximal to the calcaneus insertion. We then evaluated the double Kessler, double Bunnell, Krackow, and percutaneous Ma and Griffith technique. We used absorbable suture (polydioxanone no. 1) with all the techniques. Traction was performed using a machine that pulls the tendon at 10 to 100 N in 1000 repetitive cycles. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ 2 test and analysis of variance, with the 95% confidence intervals (p < .05). All repairs failed at the site of the suture knots, with none pulling out through the substance of the tendon. We found no significant differences among the different open suture techniques (p > .05). The Krackow suture presented with superior resistance, with a rupture rate 16.70% but with a mean elongation of 7.11 mm. The double Bunnell suture had the same rupture rate as the Krakow suture (16.70%) but with an inferior mean elongation of 4.53 mm. The Krackow and Bunnell suture were superior in endurance, strength of failure, and primary stability compared with the other suture types. However, the former presented with greater tendon elongation, although the difference was not statistically significant. Therefore, according to our findings and the published data, we recommend double Bunnell sutures for the surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture
Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H; Matzon, A; Hindhede, J; Bejder, A; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K
In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD) or a carbohydrate group (PLA). Subjects completed 12 weeks maximal knee extensor training with one leg using eccentric contractions and the other using concentric contractions. Before and after training cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps and patellar tendon CSA was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging and a isometric strength test was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD). Quadriceps CSA increased by 7.3 ± 1.0% (P < 0.001) in WHD and 3.4 ± 0.8% (P < 0.01) in PLA, with a greater increase in WHD compared to PLA (P < 0.01). Proximal patellar tendon CSA increased by 14.9 ± 3.1% (P < 0.001) and 8.1 ± 3.2% (P = 0.054) for WHD and PLA, respectively, with a greater increase in WHD compared to PLA (P < 0.05), with no effect of contraction mode. MVC and RFD increased by 15.6 ± 3.5% (P < 0.001) and 12-63% (P < 0.05), respectively, with no group or contraction mode effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training - irrespective of contraction mode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lepley, Adam S; Gribble, Phillip A; Pietrosimone, Brian G
Quadriceps strength is a vital component to lower extremity function and is often the focus in resistance training interventions and injury rehabilitation. Electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) is frequently used to supplement strength gains; however, the true effect remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to determine the magnitude of the treatment effect for EMGBF on quadriceps strength compared with that of placebo and traditional exercise interventions in both healthy and pathological populations. Web of Science and ProQuest databases were searched, and bibliographies of relevant articles were crossreferenced. Six articles measuring isometric quadriceps strength in response to EMGBF training were included and methodologically assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Standardized effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from preintervention and postintervention measures for EMGBF, placebo, and exercise-only interventions. Separate comparisons were made between studies assessing different intervention length (<4 and ≥4 weeks) and patient populations (pathological and healthy). Articles included received an average PEDro score of 6.5 ± 0.84. Homogeneous EMGBF effect sizes were found in all 6 studies (d = 0.01-5.56), with 4 studies reporting CI that crossed 0. A heterogeneous collection of effect sizes was found for exercise alone (d = -0.12 to 1.18) and placebo (d = -0.2 to 1.38), with 4 and 1 studies having a CI that crossed 0, respectively. The greatest EMGBF effects were found in pathological populations (d = 0.01-5.56), with the strongest effect found in the subjects with knee osteoarthritis (d = 5.56, CI = 4.26-6.68). As a group, effects were the strongest for EMGBF compared with that of placebo and exercise-only interventions, yet definitive evidence that EMGBF is beneficial for increasing quadriceps strength could not be concluded because of the 4 studies demonstrating a wide CI.
Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Post, Eric G; Walden, Courtney E
Quadriceps strength deficits persist for years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and patients with these deficits often shift torque demands away from the knee extensors to the hip during functional tasks. However, it is not clear how quadriceps strength deficits may affect hip strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in lower extremity strength in individuals with ACL reconstruction with differing levels of quadriceps strength asymmetry. Isometric strength was recorded bilaterally in 135 participants (73 control and 62 with unilateral ACL reconstruction, time from surgery = 30.9 ± 17.6 months) from the knee extensors and flexors, hip extensors and abductors, and hip internal and external rotator muscle groups. Symmetry indices (limb symmetry index (LSI)) were created based on quadriceps strength, and subjects with ACL reconstruction were subdivided (high quadriceps (LSI ≥ 90%), n = 37; low quadriceps (LSI < 85%), n = 18). Individual group (control vs high quadriceps vs low quadriceps) by limb (reconstructed/nondominant vs healthy/dominant) repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare strength (%BW) for each of the six joint motions of interest (knee extensors/flexors, hip abductors/extensors/external, and internal rotators) while controlling for time from surgery. An interaction was observed for quadriceps strength (P < 0.001), and the reconstructed limb in the low quadriceps group was weaker than all other limbs. A main effect for group was observed with the low quadriceps group having greater hip extension (P = 0.007) strength in both limbs compared with the other groups. Knee flexion strength was weaker in the reconstructed limb of the high quadriceps group (P = 0.047) compared with all other groups and limbs. Individuals with ACL reconstruction and involved limb quadriceps weakness have greater hip extension strength in both limbs compared with patients with bilateral strength symmetry and controls.
Huh, Jeannie; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A
An Achilles sleeve avulsion occurs when the tendon ruptures distally from its calcaneal insertion as a continuous "sleeve." This relatively rare injury pattern may not be appreciated until the time of surgery and can be challenging to treat because, unlike a midsubstance rupture, insufficient tendon remains on the calcaneus to allow for end-to-end repair, and unlike a tuberosity avulsion fracture, any bony element avulsed with the tendon is inadequate for internal fixation. This study aimed to highlight the characteristics of Achilles sleeve avulsions and present the outcomes of operative repair using suture anchor fixation. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 11 consecutive Achilles tendon sleeve avulsions (10 males, 1 female; mean age 44 years) that underwent operative repair between 2008 and 2014. Patient demographics, injury presentation, and operative details were reviewed. Postoperative outcomes were collected at a mean follow-up of 38.4 (range, 12-83.5) months, including the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot score, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, plantarflexion strength, patient satisfaction, and complications. Eight patients (72.7%) had preexisting symptoms of insertional Achilles disease. Ten of 11 (90.9%) injuries were sustained during recreational athletic activity. An Achilles sleeve avulsion was recognized preoperatively in 7 of 11 (64%) cases, where lateral ankle radiographs demonstrated a small radiodensity several centimeters proximal to the calcaneal insertion. Intraoperatively, 90.9% of sleeve avulsions had a concomitant Haglund deformity and macroscopic evidence of insertional tendinopathy. All patients healed after suture anchor repair. The average AOFAS score was 92.8 and VAS score was 0.9. Ten patients (90.9%) were completely satisfied. One complication occurred, consisting of delayed wound healing. Achilles tendon sleeve avulsions predominantly occurred in middle-aged men with preexisting insertional
Liu, Yang; Lin, Lixiang; Lin, Chuanlu; Weng, Qihao; Hong, Jianjun
To discuss the effect and advantage of the improved oval forceps suture-guiding method combined with anchor nail in the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. A retrospective research was performed on 35 cases of acute Achilles tendon rupture treated with the improved oval forceps suture-guiding method from January 2013 to October 2016. Instead of the Achillon device, we perform the Achillon technique with the use of simple oval forceps, combined with absorbable anchor nail, percutaneously to repair the acute Achilles tendon rupture. All patients were followed up for at least 12 months (range, 12-19 months), and all the patients underwent successful repair of their acute Achilles tendon rupture using the improved oval forceps suture-guiding method without any major intra- or postoperative complications. All the patients returned to work with pre-injury levels of activity at a mean of 12.51 ± 0.76 weeks. Mean AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scores improved from 63.95 (range, 51-78) preoperatively to 98.59 (range, 91-100) at last follow-up. This was statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Mean Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) at final follow-up was 94.87 (range, 90-100). The improved oval forceps suture-guiding method could make the advantage of minimally invasive repair with less complications, reduced surgical time and similar functional outcomes compared with the traditional open surgery. In addition, our new technique could save the cost of surgery with the compare of the Achillon device. At the same time for the cases which the remote broken tendon ends were within 2 cm from the calcaneal nodules, because of the less tendon tissue was left in the remote side, traditional percutaneous methods are incapable to ensure the reconstruction strength. By using the anchor nail, the improved technique has better repair capacity and expands the operation indication of oval forceps method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jae Hoon; Baek, Jong Hun; Lee, Jung Seok
Subluxation of the extensor tendon results from a disruption to the sagittal band at the metacarpophalangeal joint. When conservative treatment fails to correct the subluxation, surgical treatment may be necessary. Surgical techniques for chronic cases vary in graft source and graft pathway. We present a surgical technique to recentralize and stabilize the extensor tendon using a residual ruptured sagittal band. This technique is simple and effective without donor site morbidity and seems to provide potential biomechanical advantages by restoring nearly normal anatomy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Busilacchi, A; Olivieri, M; Ulisse, S; Gesuita, R; Skrami, E; Lording, T; Fusini, F; Gigante, A
To evaluate the sonoelastographic features of Achilles tendon healing after percutaneous treatment using real-time sonoelastography, a new tool able to quantify deformation in biological tissues. Patients with atraumatic Achilles tendon ruptures, treated with a percutaneous technique, were assessed. Sonoelastographic evaluations were performed at the myotendinous junction, tendon body/lesion site and osteotendinous junction, both for the operated and contralateral side, at 40 days, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Using standard regions of interest, the "strain index" (SI) was calculated as an indicator of tendon elasticity. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the ATRS questionnaire at 6 months and 1 year post-operatively and correlated with sonoelastographic findings. Sixty healthy tendons from 30 volunteers were used to provide a healthy control range. Twenty-five patients were recruited for this study. The SI in treated tendons showed progressive stiffening over time, especially at myotendinous junction and at the site of the sutured lesion, resulting in significantly higher stiffness than both the contralateral tendon and healthy volunteers. Peak thickness of treated tendons occurred at 6 months, with a tendency to reduce at 1 year, while never achieving a normal physiological state. Greatest remodelling was seen at the lesion site. The contralateral tendon showed significant thickening at the myotendinous and osteotendinous junctions. The SI of the contralateral tendon was found to be stiffer than physiological values found in the control group. ATRS score improved significantly between 6 months and 1 year, being negatively correlated with the SI (p < 0.001). RTSE showed that operatively treated Achilles tendons become progressively stiffer during follow-up, while the ATRS score improved. From a biomechanical point of view, at 1 year after surgery Achilles tendons did not show a "restitutio ad integrum". Real-time sonoelastography provides more
Kyritsis, Polyvios; Bahr, Roald; Landreau, Philippe; Miladi, Riadh; Witvrouw, Erik
The decision as to whether or not an athlete is ready to return to sport (RTS) after ACL reconstruction is difficult as the commonly used RTS criteria have not been validated. To evaluate whether a set of objective discharge criteria, including muscle strength and functional tests, are associated with risk of ACL graft rupture after RTS. 158 male professional athletes who underwent an ACL reconstruction and returned to their previous professional level of sport were included. Before players returned to sport they underwent a battery of discharge tests (isokinetic strength testing at 60°, 180° and 300°/s, a running t test, single hop, triple hop and triple crossover hop tests). Athletes were monitored for ACL re-ruptures once they returned to sport (median follow-up 646 days, range 1-2060). Of the 158 athletes, 26 (16.5%) sustained an ACL graft rupture an average of 105 days after RTS. Two factors were associated with increased risk of ACL graft rupture: (1) not meeting all six of the discharge criteria before returning to team training (HR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 9.2, p≤0.001); and (2) decreased hamstring to quadriceps ratio of the involved leg at 60°/s (HR 10.6 per 10% difference, 95% CI 10.2 to 11, p=0.005). Athletes who did not meet the discharge criteria before returning to professional sport had a four times greater risk of sustaining an ACL graft rupture compared with those who met all six RTS criteria. In addition, hamstring to quadriceps strength ratio deficits were associated with an increased risk of an ACL graft rupture. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Wei, Zhuang; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng
We compared the mechanical force of tendon-to-bone repair techniques for flexor tendon reconstruction. Thirty-six flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided into three groups based upon the repair technique: (1) suture/button repair using FDP tendon (Pullout button group), (2) suture bony anchor using FDP tendon (Suture anchor group), and (3) suture/button repair using FDP tendon with its bony attachment preserved (Bony attachment group). The repair failure force and stiffness were measured. The mean load to failure and stiffness in the bony attachment group were significantly higher than that in the pullout button and suture anchor groups. No significant difference was found in failure force and stiffness between the pullout button and suture anchor groups. An intrasynovial flexor tendon graft with its bony attachment has significantly improved tensile properties at the distal repair site when compared with a typical tendon-to-bone attachment with a button or suture anchor. The improvement in the tensile properties at the repair site may facilitate postoperative rehabilitation and reduce the risk of graft rupture. PMID:23754507
Hart, Joseph M; Kerrigan, D Casey; Fritz, Julie M; Saliba, Ethan N; Gansneder, Bruce; Ingersoll, Christopher D
The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of hamstrings and quadriceps fatigue to quadriceps inhibition following lumbar extension exercise. Regression models were calculated consisting of the outcome variable: quadriceps inhibition and predictor variables: change in EMG median frequency in the quadriceps and hamstrings during lumbar fatiguing exercise. Twenty-five subjects with a history of low back pain were matched by gender, height and mass to 25 healthy controls. Subjects performed two sets of fatiguing isometric lumbar extension exercise until mild (set 1) and moderate (set 2) fatigue of the lumbar paraspinals. Quadriceps and hamstring EMG median frequency were measured while subjects performed fatiguing exercise. A burst of electrical stimuli was superimposed while subjects performed an isometric maximal quadriceps contraction to estimate quadriceps inhibition after each exercise set. Results indicate the change in hamstring median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the exercise sets in the history of low back pain group only. Change in quadriceps median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the first exercise set in the control group only. In conclusion, persons with a history of low back pain whose quadriceps become inhibited following lumbar paraspinal exercise may be adapting to the fatigue by using their hamstring muscles more than controls. Key PointsA neuromuscular relationship between the lumbar paraspinals and quadriceps while performing lumbar extension exercise may be influenced by hamstring muscle fatigue.QI following lumbar extension exercise in persons with a history of LBP group may involve significant contribution from the hamstring muscle group.More hamstring muscle contribution may be a necessary adaptation in the history of LBP group due to weaker and more fatigable lumbar extensors.
Biscarini, Andrea; Contemori, Samuele; Busti, Daniele; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E
Quadriceps strengthening exercises designed for the early phase of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation should limit the anterior tibial translation developed by quadriceps contraction near full knee extension, in order to avoid excessive strain on the healing tissue. We hypothesize that knee-flexion exercises with simultaneous voluntary contraction of quadriceps (voluntary quadriceps cocontraction) can yield considerable levels of quadriceps activation while preventing the tibia from translating forward relative to the femur. Electromyographic activity in quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured in 20 healthy males during isometric knee-flexion exercises executed near full knee extension with maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction and external resistance (R) ranging from 0% to 60% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Biomechanical modeling was applied to derive the shear (anterior/posterior) tibiofemoral force developed in each exercise condition. Isometric knee-flexion exercises with small external resistance (R=10% 1RM) and maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction yielded a net posterior (ACL-unloading) tibial pull (P=0.005) and levels of activation of 32%, 50%, and 45% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction, for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis, respectively. This exercise might potentially rank as one of the most appropriate quadriceps strengthening interventions in the early phase of ACL rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roewer, Ben D.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly-injured knee ligament during sporting activities. After injury, most individuals experience episodes of the knee giving way during daily activities (non-copers). Non-copers demonstrate asymmetrical quadriceps strength and movement patterns which could have long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if non-copers resolve their strength and movement asymmetries within two years after surgery. 26 non-copers were recruited to undergo pre-operative quadriceps strength testing and 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects underwent surgery to reconstruct the ligament followed by physical therapy focused on restoring normal range of motion, quadriceps strength, and function. Subjects returned for quadriceps strength testing and gait analysis six months and two years after surgery. Acutely after injury, quadriceps strength was asymmetric between limbs, but resolved six months after surgery. Asymmetric knee angles, knee moments, and knee and hip power profiles were also observed acutely after injury and persisted six months after surgery despite subjects achieving symmetrical quadriceps strength. Two years after surgery, quadriceps strength in the involved limb continued to improve and most kinematic and kinetic asymmetries resolved. These findings suggest that adequate quadriceps strength does not immediately resolve gait asymmetries in non-copers. They also suggest that non-copers have the capacity to improve their quadriceps strength and gait symmetry long after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21592482
Wood, Lauren K.; Arruda, Ellen M.
The incidence of tendon degeneration and rupture increases with advancing age. The mechanisms underlying this increased risk remain unknown but may arise because of age-related changes in tendon mechanical properties and structure. Our purpose was to determine the effect of aging on tendon mechanical properties and collagen fibril morphology. Regional mechanical properties and collagen fibril characteristics were determined along the length of tibialis anterior (TA) tendons from adult (8- to 12-mo-old) and old (28- to 30-mo-old) mice. Tangent modulus of all regions along the tendons increased in old age, but the increase was substantially greater in the proximal region adjacent to the muscle than in the rest of the tendon. Overall end-to-end modulus increased with old age at maximum tendon strain (799 ± 157 vs. 1,419 ± 91 MPa) and at physiologically relevant strain (377 ± 137 vs. 798 ± 104 MPa). Despite the dramatic changes in tendon mechanical properties from adulthood to old age, collagen fibril morphology and packing fraction remained relatively constant in all tendon regions examined. Since tendon properties are influenced by their external loading environment, we also examined the effect of aging on TA muscle contractile properties. Maximum isometric force did not differ between the age groups. We conclude that TA tendons stiffen in a region-dependent manner throughout the life span, but the changes in mechanical properties are not accompanied by corresponding changes in collagen fibril morphology or force-generating capacity of the TA muscle. PMID:21737825
Yosmaoğlu, Hayri Baran; Baltacı, Gül; Sönmezer, Emel; Özer, Hamza; Doğan, Deha
This study aims to compare the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autogenous hamstring or patellar tendon graft on the peak torque angle. The study included 132 patients (103 males, 29 females; mean age 29±9 year) who were performed ACL reconstruction with autogenous hamstring or patellar tendon graft. The peak torque angles in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles were recorded using an isokinetic dynamometer. Angle of peak knee flexion torque occurred significantly earlier within the range of motion on the operated side than nonoperated side at 180°/second in the hamstring tendon group. Angle of peak knee extension torque occurred significantly earlier within the range of motion on the operated side than nonoperated side at 180°/second in the patellar tendon group. There were no statistically significant differences in the flexion and extension peak torque angles between the operated and nonoperated knees at 60°/second in both groups. The angle of peak torque at relatively high angular velocities is affected after ACL reconstruction in patients with hamstring or patellar tendon grafts. The graft donor site directly influences this parameter. This finding may be important for clinicians in terms of preventing re-injury.
Zini, Raul; Panascì, Manlio; Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Vasta, Sebastiano; Denaro, Vincenzo
Background: Since it was developed, hip arthroscopy has become the favored treatment for femoroacetabular impingement. Due to recent considerable improvements, the indications for this technique have been widely extended. Injuries of the rectus femoris tendon origin, after an acute phase, could result in a chronic tendinopathy with calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition, leading to pain and loss of function. Traditionally, this condition is addressed by local injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids or, when conservative measures fail, by open excision of the calcific lesion by an anterior approach. Purpose: To assess whether arthroscopic excision of calcification of the proximal rectus is a safe and effective treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Outcomes were studied from 6 top amateur athletes (age range, 30-43 years; mean, 32.6 years) affected by calcification of the proximal rectus who underwent arthroscopic excision of the calcification. Patients were preoperatively assessed radiographically, and diagnosis was confirmed by a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan. To evaluate the outcome, standardized hip rating scores were used pre- and postoperatively (at 6 and 12 months): the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Oxford Hip Score, and Modified Harris Hip Score. Moreover, visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, sport activity level (SAL), and activities of daily living (ADL) were also used. Results: One year after surgery, all patients reported satisfactory outcomes, with 3 of 6 rating their return-to-sport level as high as preinjury level, and the remaining 3 with a percentage higher than 80%. Five patients ranked their ability to carry on daily activities at 100%. Statistical analysis showed significant improvement of the Oxford Hip Score, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and all 3 VAS subscales (pain, SAL, and ADL) from pre- to latest postoperative assessment (P < .05). Conclusion: Arthroscopic excision of
Yang, Jinjuan; Zhao, Qianjun; Wang, Kunfu; Liu, Hao; Ma, Caiyun; Huang, Hongmei; Liu, Yingjie
The lack of appropriate candidates of cell sources for cell transplantation has hampered efforts to develop therapies for tendon injuries, such as tendon rupture, tendonitis, and tendinopathy. Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) are a type of stem cells which may be used in the treatment of tendon injuries. In this study, TDSCs were isolated from 5-mo-old Luxi Yellow fetal bovine and cultured in vitro and further analyzed for their biological characteristics using immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. It was found that primary TDSCs could be expanded for 42 passages in vitro maintaining proliferation. The expressions of stem cell marker nucleostemin and tenocyte-related markers, such as collagen I, collagen II, collagen III, and tenascin-C, were observed on different passage cells by immunofluorescence. The results from RT-PCR show that TDSCs were positive for collagen type I, CD44, tenascin-C, and collagen type III but negative for collagen type II. Meanwhile, TDSC passage 4 was successfully induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Our results indicate that the fetal bovine TDSCs not only had strong self-renewal capacity but also possess the potential for multi-lineage differentiation. This study provides theoretical basis and experimental foundation for potential therapeutic application of the fetal bovine TDSCs in the treatment of tendon injuries.
Howell, Julianne W; Peck, Fiona
In recent years, a significant amount of research in the field of tendon injury in the hand has contributed to advances in both surgical and rehabilitation techniques. The introduction of early motion has improved tendon healing, reduced complications, and enhanced final outcomes. There is overwhelming evidence to show that carefully devised rehabilitation programs are critical to achieving favourable outcomes. Whatever the type, or level, of flexor or extensor injury, the ultimate goal of both the surgeon and therapist is to protect the repair, modify peritendinous adhesions, promote optimal tendon excursion and preserve joint motion. Early tendon motion regimens are initiated at surgery or within 5 days post repair. Intra-operative information from the surgeon to the therapist is vital to the choice of splint protected position to reduce repair rupture/gap forces, and to commencement of active, or splint controlled, motion for tendon excursion. Decisions should align with the phases of healing, the clinician's observations, frequent range of motion measurements and patient input. Clinical concepts pertinent to early motion rehabilitation decisions are presented by zone of injury for both flexor and extensor tendons during the early phases of healing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Freedman, Benjamin R; Gordon, Joshua A; Bhatt, Pankti R; Pardes, Adam M; Thomas, Stephen J; Sarver, Joseph J; Riggin, Corinne N; Tucker, Jennica J; Williams, Alexis W; Zanes, Robert C; Hast, Michael W; Farber, Daniel C; Silbernagel, Karin G; Soslowsky, Louis J
Achilles tendon ruptures are common and devastating injuries; however, an optimized treatment and rehabilitation protocol has yet to be defined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of surgical repair and return to activity on joint function and Achilles tendon properties after 3 weeks of healing. Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 100) received unilateral blunt transection of their Achilles tendon. Animals were then randomized into repaired or non-repaired treatments, and further randomized into groups that returned to activity after 1 week (RTA1) or after 3 weeks (RTA3) of limb casting in plantarflexion. Limb function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties (mechanical, organizational using high frequency ultrasound, histological, and compositional) were evaluated. Results showed that both treatment and return to activity collectively affected limb function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties. Functionally, RTA1 animals had increased dorsiflexion ROM and weight bearing of the injured limb compared to RTA3 animals 3-weeks post-injury. Such functional improvements in RTA1 tendons were evidenced in their mechanical fatigue properties and increased cross sectional area compared to RTA3 tendons. When RTA1 was coupled with nonsurgical treatment, superior fatigue properties were achieved compared to repaired tendons. No differences in cell shape, cellularity, GAG, collagen type I, or TGF-β staining were identified between groups, but collagen type III was elevated in RTA3 repaired tendons. The larger tissue area and increased fatigue resistance created in RTA1 tendons may prove critical for optimized outcomes in early Achilles tendon healing following complete rupture. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2172-2180, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Freedman, BR; Gordon, JA; Bhatt, PB; Pardes, AM; Thomas, SJ; Sarver, JJ; Riggin, CN; Tucker, JJ; Williams, AW; Zanes, RC; Hast, MW; Farber, DC; Silbernagel, KG; Soslowsky, LJ
Achilles tendon ruptures are common and devastating injuries; however, an optimized treatment and rehabilitation protocol has yet to be defined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of surgical repair and return to activity on joint function and Achilles tendon properties after 3-weeks of healing. Sprague Dawley rats (N=100) received unilateral blunt transection of their Achilles tendon. Animals were then randomized into repaired or non-repaired treatments, and further randomized into groups that returned to activity after 1-week (RTA1) or after 3-weeks (RTA3) of limb casting in plantarflexion. Limb function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties (mechanical, organizational using high frequency ultrasound, histological, and compositional) were evaluated. Results showed that both treatment and return to activity collectively affected limb function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties. Functionally, RTA1 animals had increased dorsiflexion ROM and weight bearing of the injured limb compared to RTA3 animals 3-weeks post injury. Such functional improvements in RTA1 tendons were evidenced in their mechanical fatigue properties and increased cross sectional area compared to RTA3 tendons. When RTA1 was coupled with nonsurgical treatment, superior fatigue properties were achieved compared to repaired tendons. No differences in cell shape, cellularity, GAG, collagen type I, or TGF-β staining were identified between groups, but collagen type III was elevated in RTA3 repaired tendons. The larger tissue area and increased fatigue resistance created in RTA1 tendons may prove critical for optimized outcomes in early Achilles tendon healing following complete rupture. PMID:27038306
Sretenovic, Jasmina; Ajdzanovic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Srejovic, Ivan; Corbic, Milena; Milosevic, Verica; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Milosavljevic, Zoran
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic analogs of testosterone often used by athletes to increase the skeletal muscle mass. Our goal was to examine the effects of physical activity and physical activity combined with supraphysiological doses of nandrolone on functional morphology of the quadriceps muscle. The study included 32 peripubertal Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups: control (T-N-), nandrolone (T-N+), physical activity (T+N-) and physical activity plus nandrolone (T+N+) groups. The T+N- and T+N+ group swam for 4 weeks, 1 h/day, 5 days/week. The T-N+ and T+N+ groups received nandolone decanoate (20 mg/kg b.w.) once per week, subcutaneously. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed and muscle specimens were prepared for the processing. Tissue sections were histochemically and immunohistochemically stained, while the image analysis was used for quantification. Longitudinal diameter of quadriceps muscle cells was increased for 21% in T-N+, for 57% in T+N- and for 64% in T+N+ group while cross section muscle cell area was increased in T-N+ for 19%, in T+N- for 47% and in T+N+ group for 59%, compared to the control. Collagen fibers covered area was increased in T-N+ group for 36%, in T+N- for 109% and in T+N+ group for 159%, compared to the control. Erythrocyte depots were decreased in T-N+ group and increased in T+N- and T+N+ group, in comparison with T-N-. VEGF depots were increased in all treated groups. Chronic administration of supraphysiological doses of AASs alone or in combination with physical activity induces hypertrophy and significant changes in the quadriceps muscle tissue structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
... a small amount of corticosteroid and a local anesthetic into the bursa. JOINT Any joint problem, such ... A small amount of corticosteroid and a local anesthetic will be injected into the joint. TENDON A ...
Skovgaard, Dorthe; Svensson, Rene B; Scheijen, Jean; Eliasson, Pernilla; Mogensen, Pernille; Hag, Anne Mette F; Kjær, Michael; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Schjerling, Peter; Magnusson, Stig P; Couppé, Christian
Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins like collagen in bone and tendon causing modification of the biomechanical properties. This has been hypothesized to raise the risk of orthopedic injury such as bone fractures and tendon ruptures. We evaluated the relationship between AGE content in the diet and accumulation of AGEs in weight-bearing animal Achilles tendon. Two groups of mice (C57BL/6Ntac) were fed with either high-fat diet low in AGEs high-fat diet (HFD) ( n = 14) or normal diet high in AGEs (ND) ( n = 11). AGE content in ND was six to 50-fold higher than HFD The mice were sacrificed at week 40 and Achilles and tail tendons were carefully excised to compare weight and nonweight-bearing tendons. The amount of the AGEs carboxymethyllysine (CML), methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) and carboxyethyllysine (CEL) in Achilles and tail tendon was measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and pentosidine with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescent detection. AGEs in Achilles tendon were higher than in tail tendon for CML ( P < 0.0001), CEL ( P < 0.0001), MG-H1 and pentosidine (for both ND and HFD) ( P < 0.0001). The AGE-rich diet (ND) resulted in an increase in CML ( P < 0.0001), MG-H1 ( P < 0.001) and pentosidine ( P < 0.0001) but not CEL, in Achilles and tail tendon. This is the first study to provide evidence for AGE accumulation in injury-prone, weight-bearing Achilles tendon associated with intake of an AGE-rich diet. This indicates that food-derived AGEs may alter tendon properties and the development of tendon injuries. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
Jildeh, Toufic R.; Okoroha, Kelechi R.; Marshall, Nathan E.; Abdul-Hak, Abraham; Zeni, Ferras; Moutzouros, Vasilios
Background: Surgical repair of an Achilles tendon rupture has been shown to decrease rerupture rates. However, surgery also increases the risk of complications, including infection. Purpose: To determine the risk factors for infection and rerupture after primary repair of Achilles tendon ruptures. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 423 patients who underwent operative treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures between the years 2008 and 2014. The primary outcome of interest was the total rate of infection, and the secondary outcome of interest was the incidence of rerupture within 2 years of operation. Results: A total of 423 patients were analyzed, with a mean age of 46 years (range, 16-83 years) and a mean body mass index of 31.4 kg/m2 (range, 17-55 kg/m2). The overall infection rate was 2.8%, and the rerupture rate was 1%. The median time between surgery and superficial surgical site infection was 30 days, and the median time between surgery and rerupture was 38 days. Longer tourniquet times (100.3 ± 34.7 minutes vs 69.9 ± 21.4 minutes; P = .04) and greater estimated blood loss (15.0 ± 9.1 mL vs 5.1 ± 12.0 mL; P = .01) were associated with an increased rate of deep surgical site infections. Patients who had longer operation and tourniquet times trended toward higher rerupture rates (P = .06 and .08, respectively). When compared with nonsmokers, current and previous smokers had an increased incidence of superficial or deep surgical site infections (6.25% vs 1.42%; P = .02). Age, sex, race, body mass index, alcohol use, diabetes, past steroid injections, and mechanism of injury did not contribute to complication rates. Conclusion: Achilles tendon repairs were associated with a low risk of infection and rerupture. Patients with longer tourniquet times, higher estimated blood loss, and a history of smoking were at increased risk for surgical site infections. Patients with longer operative times had
Luchetti, R; Atzei, A
We report our 11-year experience of performing arthroscopically assisted triangular fibrocartilage complex reconstruction in the treatment of chronic distal radio-ulnar joint instability resulting from irreparable triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. Eleven patients were treated. Three skin incisions were made in order to create radial and ulna tunnels for passage of the tendon graft, which is used to reconstruct the dorsal and palmar radio-ulnar ligaments, under fluoroscopic and arthroscopic guidance. At a mean follow-up of 68 months all but one had a stable distal radio-ulnar joint. Pain and grip strength, Mayo wrist score, Disability of the Arm Hand and Shoulder and patient-rated wrist and hand evaluation scores improved. The ranges of forearm rotation remained largely unchanged. Complications included an early tendon graft tear, two late-onset graft ruptures, one ulna styloid fracture during surgery and persistent wrist discomfort during forearm rotation requiring tendon graft revision in one case. An arthroscopic assisted approach for triangular fibrocartilage complex reconstruction appears safe and produces comparable results with the open technique. IV.
Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare
Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
Tang, Jin Bo
This article reviews some recent advancements in repair and rehabilitation of the flexor tendons. These include placing sparse or no peripheral suture when the core suture is strong and sufficiently tensioned, allowing the repair site to be slightly bulky, aggressively releasing the pulleys (including the entire A2 pulley or both the A3 and A4 pulleys when necessary), placing a shorter splint with less restricted wrist positioning, and allowing out-of-splint active motion. The reported outcomes have been favourable with few or no repair ruptures and no function-disturbing tendon bowstringing. These changes favour easier surgeries. The recent reports have cause to re-evaluate long-held guidelines of a non-bulky repair site and the necessity of a standard peripheral suture. Emerging understanding posits that minor clinically noticeable tendon bowstringing does not affect hand function, and that free wrist positioning and out-of-splint motion are safe when strong surgical repairs are used and the pulleys are properly released.
Chronic finger extensor apparatus injuries are the result of the initial acute treatment having failed or being flawed. Because of their chronic nature, these injuries present various amounts of tendon retraction, tendon callus lengthening, peritendinous scar adhesions, static and dynamic imbalances with the flexor apparatus and intrinsic muscles, and joint contractures. This article will review the anatomy of the extensor mechanism and then will outline by location, the various clinical pictures that are secondary to chronic tendon injury. The clinical presentation of these injuries can be highly variable but their symptomatology and treatment are very specific. Of the possible therapeutic strategies for chronic mallet finger with or without associated swan-neck deformity, chronic boutonniere deformity, chronic sagittal band injuries, old ruptures on the dorsum of the wrist and traumatic defects in multiple tissues, conservative treatment is often the main element. Secondary surgical repair is not free of complications, and the results are often lacking. Rehabilitation and orthotic bracing are an integral part of the management of these injuries, no matter which treatment method is being considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.
Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…
De Carli, Angelo; Lanzetti, Riccardo Maria; Ciompi, Alessandro; Lupariello, Domenico; Vadalà, Antonio; Argento, Giuseppe; Ferretti, Andrea; Vulpiani, M C; Vetrano, M
Our hypothesis was that the Achilles tendon healing process after surgical treatment would be promoted by PRP with a faster return to sports activities. Thirty patients with Achilles tendon rupture and surgically treated with a combined mini-open and percutaneous technique were prospectively enroled in the study. Patients were alternately case-by-case assigned to Group A (control group; 15 patients) or Group B (study group; 15 patients). In Group B, PRP was locally infiltrated both during surgery and 14 days after surgery. Patients in both groups were followed up at 1, 3, 6 and 24 months post-operatively via physical examination, VAS, FAOS and VISA-A scales; ultrasonography (US) and MRI were also conducted at one and 6 months; at the 6-month follow-up, isokinetic and jumping capacity tests were also performed. The VAS, FAOS and VISA-A scale showed no difference between the two groups at 1, 3, 6 and 24 months post-operatively. Isokinetic evaluation showed no differences at both angular speeds. Jumping evaluation showed no difference at 6 months. Also US evaluation showed no differences. MRI data analysis before administration of gadolinium did not reveal significant differences between the two groups. Moreover, after intravenous injection of gadolinium, patients in Group B showed signal enhancement in 30 % of patients compared to 80 % in Group A at 6 months, as indirect evidence of better tendon remodelling (P < 0.05). A substantial equivalence in structural and functional results in Achilles tendon ruptures surgically treated with and without addition of PRP is shown by present study. Clinical results, morphological features and jumping capability were similar in both groups. The addition of PRP to the surgical treatment of Achilles tendon rupture does not appear to offer superior clinical and functional results. IV.
Bojanić, Ivan; Dimnjaković, Damjan; Mahnik, Alan; Smoljanović, Tomislav
Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency (PTTI) is nowadays considered to be the main cause of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes of tendoscopic treatment of tibialis poste- rior tendon (TP) in eleven patients with stage 1 or 2 PTTI and failed prior conservative treatment. Tendoscopy was carried out as a solitary procedure in 8 patients, while in 3 patients additional procedures such as ,,mini-open" tubularization of TP or anterior ankle arthroscopy were necessary. In a single patient transfer of flexor digitorum longus tendon was performed as a second stage surgery due to complete rupture of TP. Related with tendoscopic procedure, no complications were re- ported. TP tendoscopy is a useful and beneficial minimally invasive procedure to treat TP pathology at earlier stages of PTTI. It is a technically demanding procedure that requires extensive experience in arthroscopic management of small ioints and excellent knowledge of repional anatomy.
Maerz, T; Fleischer, M; Newton, M D; Davidson, A; Salisbury, M; Altman, P; Kurdziel, M D; Anderson, K; Bedi, A; Baker, K C
Little is known regarding acute local and systemic processes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. No study has elucidated whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mobilized into circulation and recruited to the injured joint. In Part 1, Lewis rats were randomized to noninvasive ACL rupture (Rupture) or non-injured (Control) (n = 6/group). After 72 h, whole blood MSC concentration was assessed using flow cytometry. Synovial fluid and serum were assayed for stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α and cartilage degeneration biomarkers, respectively. In Part 2, 12 additional rats were randomized and intravenously-injected with fluorescently-labeled allogenic MSCs. Cell tracking was performed using longitudinal, in vivo and ex vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging and histology. Synovium SDF-1α and interleukin (IL)-17A immunostaining was performed. Serum was assayed for SDF-1α and 29 other cytokines. In Part 1, there was a significant increase in MSC concentration and synovial fluid SDF-1α in Rupture. No differences in cartilage biomarkers were observed. In Part 2, Rupture had significantly higher NIR signal at 24, 48, and 72 h, indicating active recruitment of MSCs to the injured joint. Ex vivo cell tracking demonstrated MSC localization in the synovium and myotendinous junction (MTJ) of the quadriceps. Injured synovia exhibited increased synovitis grade and higher degree of IL-17A and SDF-1α immunostaining. ACL rupture induced peripheral blood mobilization of MSCs and migration of intravenously-injected allogenic MSCs to the injured joint, where they localized in the synovium and quadriceps MTJ. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nich, C; Dhiaf, N; Di Schino, M; Augereau, B
Partial tearing of the infraspinatus and/or subscapularis tendon(s) is frequently associated with supraspinatus full-thickness tears. However, limited data regarding its influence on supraspinatus surgical repair is available. Our aim was to assess the functional and anatomical outcomes of open repair of supraspinatus full-thickness tears combined with adjacent partial tearing, comparatively to a control. We retrospectively identified 22 patients (22 shoulders) with a partial tear, most of them being a delamination tear, of the infraspinatus and/or subscapularis tendons associated with a complete detachment of the supraspinatus tendon. Twenty-seven patients (27 shoulders) treated for an isolated complete detachment of the supraspinatus tendon by open repair served as controls. The mean age was 58 years. A proximalized trans-osseous reinsertion of the supraspinatus tendon was combined with a curettage-closure of the delamination tear. Patients were evaluated with standardized MRI at last follow-up. At a mean of 75-month follow-up, the presence of a partial tear of either infraspinatus or subscapularis, or both, did not influence function and healing rates of supraspinatus tendon repair. Conversely to the control, when a retear occurred, the functional score tended to worsen. Preoperatively, fatty muscular degeneration was more pronounced when a partial tear was present. Fatty degeneration worsened regardless of repair healing. Open reinsertion of a supraspinatus full-thickness tear associated with a thorough treatment of partial tear of adjacent tendons led to optimal functional and anatomical mid term outcomes. Our results suggest the presence of a partial tear of adjacent tendons could be associated with poorer function in case of supraspinatus tendon re-rupture. Level III case-control study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nakase, Junsuke; Aiba, Tomohiro; Goshima, Kenichi; Takahashi, Ryohei; Toratani, Tatsuhiro; Kosaka, Masahiro; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki
The aim of this study was to compare ultrasonography stages of the tibial tuberosity development and physical features. This study examined 200 knees in 100 male football players aged 10-15 years. Tibial tuberosity development on ultrasonography was divided into 3 stages: Sonolucent stage (stage S), Individual stage (stage I), and Connective stage (stage C). Age, height, quadriceps and hamstring muscle tightness, and muscle strength in knee extension and flexion were determined. These findings were compared with the respective stages of development. The tibial tuberosity was stage S in 27 knees, stage I in 69 knees, and stage C in 104 knees, with right and left sides at the same stage in 95 %. Average age and height significantly increased with advancing tibial tuberosity development. Quadriceps tightness increased with tibial tuberosity development. Hamstring tightness decreased with development. The strength of both knee extension and flexion increased with advancing development, with a greater change seen in knee extension, hamstring/quadriceps ratio: stage C, 0.74; stage A, 0.64; stage E, 0.53. Osgood-Schlatter pathogenesis reportedly involves increased quadriceps tightness with rapidly increasing femoral length during tibial tuberosity development. In this study, it was confirmed that quadriceps tightness increased, yet hamstring tightness decreased, suggesting that quadriceps tightness is not due to femoral length alone. Other factors, including muscle strength, may be involved. The study shows that thigh muscle tightness and thigh muscle performance change with the skeletal maturation of the distal attachment of the patellar tendon. These results add new information to the pathogenesis of Osgood-Schlatter disease.
Dorweiler, Matthew A; Van Dyke, Rufus O; Siska, Robert C; Boin, Michael A; DiPaola, Mathew J
Triceps tendon ruptures are rare orthopaedic injuries that almost always require surgical repair. This study tests the biomechanical properties of an original anchorless double-row triceps repair against a previously reported knotless double-row repair. The anchorless double-row triceps repair technique will yield similar biomechanical properties when compared with the knotless double-row repair technique. Controlled laboratory study. Eighteen cadaver arms were randomized into 2 groups. One group received the anchorless repair and the other received the knotless anchor repair. A materials testing system (MTS) machine was used to cycle the repaired arms from 0° to 90° with a 2.5-pound weight for 1500 cycles at 0.25 Hz. Real-time displacement of the tendon was measured during cycling using a probe. Load to failure was performed after completion of cyclic loading. The mean displacement with the anchorless technique was 0.77 mm (SD, 0.25 mm) at 0° (full elbow extension) and 0.76 mm (SD, 0.38 mm) at 90° (elbow flexion). The mean displacement with the anchored technique was 0.83 mm (SD, 0.57 mm) at 0° and 1.01 mm (SD, 0.62 mm) at 90°. There was no statistically significant difference for tendon displacement at 0º ( P = .75) or 90º ( P = .31). The mean load to failure with the anchorless technique was 618.9 N (SD, 185.6 N), while it was 560.5 N (SD, 154.1 N) with the anchored technique, again with no statistically significant difference ( P = .28). Our anchorless double-row triceps repair technique yields comparable biomechanical properties to previously described double-row triceps tendon repair techniques, with the added benefit of avoiding the cost of suture anchors. This anchorless double-row triceps tendon repair can be considered as an acceptable alternative to a knotless anchor repair for triceps tendon ruptures.
Savvidou, Christiana; Tsai, Tsu-Min
The purpose of this study is to report the clinical results after repair of flexor tendon zone II injuries utilizing a 6-strand double-loop technique and early post-operative active rehabilitation. We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients involving 51 cases with zone II flexor tendon repair using a six strand double loop technique from September 1996 to December 2012. Most common mechanism of injuries was sharp lacerations (86.5 %). Tendon injuries occurred equally in manual and non-manual workers and were work-related in 33 % of the cases. The Strickland score for active range of motion (ROM) postoperatively was excellent and good in the majority of the cases (81 %). The rupture rate was 1.9 %. The six strand double loop technique for Zone II flexor tendon repair leads to good and excellent motion in the majority of patients and low re- rupture rate. It is clinically effective and allows for early postoperative active rehabilitation.
Sutton, Karen M; Bullock, James Montgomery
The rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is three times higher in female athletes than in male athletes. Intrinsic factors such as increased quadriceps angle and increased posterior tibial slope may predispose girls and women to ACL injury. Compared with males, females have smaller notch widths and smaller ACL cross-sectional area; however, no conclusive correlation between ACL size and notch dimension exists, especially in relation to risk of ACL injury. Female athletes who land with the knees in inadequate flexion and in greater-than-normal valgus and external rotation are at increased risk of ACL injury. No conclusive link has been made between ACL injury and the menstrual cycle. Neuromuscular intervention protocols have been shown to reduce the rate of injury in girls and women. Females are more likely than males to have a narrow A-shaped intercondylar notch, and special surgical considerations are required in such cases. Following ACL reconstruction, female athletes are more likely than male athletes to rupture the contralateral ACL; however, males and females are equally likely to rupture the reconstructed knee. Although self-reported outcomes in the first 2 years following reconstruction are worse for females than for males, longer-term studies demonstrate no difference between males and females.
Conroy, Christine; Sethi, Paul; Macken, Craig; Wei, David; Kowalsky, Marc; Mirzayan, Raffy; Pauzenberger, Leo; Dyrna, Felix; Obopilwe, Elifho; Mazzocca, Augustus D
-deficient, complete distal biceps rupture model, acellular dermal allograft augmentation restored the native tendon's biomechanical properties at time zero. The grafted tissue-deficient model demonstrated no significant differences in the load to failure and gap formation compared with the native tendon. As expected, dermal augmentation of attritional tendon repair increased the load to failure and stiffness as well as decreased displacement compared with the ungrafted tissue-deficient model. Tendons with their native width showed no statistical difference or negative biomechanical consequences of dermal augmentation. Dermal augmentation of the distal biceps is a biomechanically feasible option for patients with an attritionally thinned-out tendon.
Amin, Nirav H; McCullough, Kirk C; Mills, Gavin L; Jones, Morgan H; Cerynik, Douglas L; Rosneck, James; Parker, Richard D
Achilles tendon rupture within professional athletes has been shown to lead to devastating consequences regarding return to athletic performance. Not only can this devastating injury affect performance for the remainder of player's career, it frequently becomes a career-ending event. Considering these significant risks associated with complete rupture, the purpose of this study was to evaluate NBA players with a spectrum of reported Achilles tendon pathology, from tendinopathy (insertional and non-insertional) to complete rupture. Between the 1988-1989 and 2010-2011 NBA seasons, we identified 43 cases of Achilles tendon pathology treated non-operatively. A control group was matched for the players able to return to play with the following parameters: age, position played, number of seasons played in the league, and similarly rated career performance statistics. Considering the medical staff, trainers and facilities available to a professional athlete, a “weekend warrior” should be counseled that even in optimal conditions, 14% of NBA players were unable to return to function/play after Achilles tendinopathy, and that those who were able to return did so at a decreased level of performance. In conclusion, players with Achilles tendinopathy have a better chance to return if they are younger in age and early in their professional career. Furthermore, the association between Achilles pathology and decline in player performance is an important message to convey to coaching staff and team management to allow properly informed decisions when these conditions arise. PMID:29082269
Amin, Nirav H; McCullough, Kirk C; Mills, Gavin L; Jones, Morgan H; Cerynik, Douglas L; Rosneck, James; Parker, Richard D
Achilles tendon rupture within professional athletes has been shown to lead to devastating consequences regarding return to athletic performance. Not only can this devastating injury affect performance for the remainder of player's career, it frequently becomes a career-ending event. Considering these significant risks associated with complete rupture, the purpose of this study was to evaluate NBA players with a spectrum of reported Achilles tendon pathology, from tendinopathy (insertional and non-insertional) to complete rupture. Between the 1988-1989 and 2010-2011 NBA seasons, we identified 43 cases of Achilles tendon pathology treated non-operatively. A control group was matched for the players able to return to play with the following parameters: age, position played, number of seasons played in the league, and similarly rated career performance statistics. Considering the medical staff, trainers and facilities available to a professional athlete, a "weekend warrior" should be counseled that even in optimal conditions, 14% of NBA players were unable to return to function/play after Achilles tendinopathy, and that those who were able to return did so at a decreased level of performance. In conclusion, players with Achilles tendinopathy have a better chance to return if they are younger in age and early in their professional career. Furthermore, the association between Achilles pathology and decline in player performance is an important message to convey to coaching staff and team management to allow properly informed decisions when these conditions arise.
Background Non-operative treatment of acute hip adductor longus ruptures in athletes has been described in the literature. However, very limited information concerning the recovery of this type of injury exists. This case represented a unique possibility to study the recovery of two acute adductor longus ruptures, using novel, reliable and validated assessment methods. Case presentation A 22-year old male soccer player (Caucasian) sustained two subsequent acute adductor longus ruptures, one in each leg. The injuries occurred 10 months apart, and were treated non-surgically in both situations. He was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after the second rupture. Full hip adductor muscle-strength recovery was obtained 52 weeks after the first rupture and 10 weeks after the second rupture. The adductor longus injuries, as verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), showed evidence of a complete tendon rupture in both cases, with an almost identical imaging appearance. It was only at 6 and 10 weeks ultrasonographic follow-up that the first rupture was found to include a larger anatomical area than the second rupture. Conclusion From this case we can conclude that two apparently similar hip adductor longus ruptures, verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), can have very different hip adductor strength recovery times. Assessment of adductor strength recovery may therefore in the future be a useful and important additional measure for determining when soccer players with hip adductor longus ruptures can return safely to play. PMID:23693119
Kircher, Jörn; Ziskoven, Christoph; Patzer, Thilo; Zaps, Daniela; Bittersohl, Bernd; Krauspe, Rüdiger
The complete rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is an uncommon injury but has become increasingly common among athletes in recent years. This may be due to a higher number of individuals taking part in high-impact sports and weightlifting as well as the use of anabolic substances, which can make muscles and tendons vulnerable to injury. In recent literature, there are only few recommendations to rely on conservative treatment alone, but there are a number of reports and case series recommending early surgical intervention. Comparing the results of the two treatment regimens, there is clear evidence for a superior outcome after surgical repair with better cosmesis, better functional results, regaining of muscle power, and return to sports compared with the conservative treatment. In summary, anatomic surgical repair is the treatment of choice for complete acute ruptures of the pectoralis major tendon or muscle in athletes.
Szebeszczyk, Janina; Straszecka, Joanna
The examination of Achilles tendon reflex is widely used as a simple, noninvasive clinical test in diagnosis and pharmacological therapy monitoring in such diseases as: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetic neuropathy, the lower limbs obstructive angiopathies and intermittent claudication. Presented Achilles tendon reflect measuring system is based on the piezoresistive sensor connected with the cylinder-piston system. To determinate the moment of Achilles tendon stimulation a detecting circuit was used. The outputs of the measuring system are connected to the PC-based data acquisition board. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy and repeatability is good enough for diagnostics and therapy monitoring purposes. A user friendly, easy-to-operate measurement system fulfills all the requirements related to recording, presentation and storing of the patients' reflexograms.
Paolillo, F R; Corazza, A V; Paolillo, A R; Borghi-Silva, A; Arena, R; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S
To evaluate the effects of infrared-light-emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on functional performance. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups and successfully completed the full study. The three groups were: (1) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n = 10); (2) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n = 10); and (3) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n = 10). Training was performed over a period of 6 months, twice a week for 45 min per session at 85-90% of maximal heart rate, which was obtained during progressive exercise testing. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2) and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. Quadriceps performance was measured during isokinetic exercise testing at 60°/s and 300°/s. Peak torque did not differ amongst the groups. However, the results showed significantly higher values of power and total work for the LED group (∆ = 21 ± 6 W and ∆ = 634 ± 156 J, p < 0.05) when compared to both the exercise group (∆ = 13 ± 10 W and = 410 ± 270 J) and the sedentary group (∆ = 10 ± 9 W and ∆ = 357 ± 327 J). Fatigue was also significantly lower in the LED group (∆ = -7 ± 4%, p < 0.05) compared to both the exercise group (∆ = 3 ± 8%) and the sedentary group (∆ = -2 ± 6%). Infrared-LED during treadmill training may improve quadriceps power and reduce peripheral fatigue in postmenopausal women.
Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Sarman, Hakan; Baran, Tuncay; Memisoglu, Kaya; Binbir, Ismail; Savas, Yilmaz; Isik, Cengiz; Boyraz, Ismail; Koc, Bunyamin
A new isometric contraction quadriceps-strengthening exercise was developed to restore the quadriceps strength lost after knee surgery more rapidly. This study evaluated the results of this new method. Patients were taught to perform the isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise in the unaffected knee in the supine position, and then they performed it in the affected knee. First, patients were taught the classical isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise, and then they were taught our new alternative method: "pull the patella superiorly tightly and hold the leg in the same position for 10 seconds". Afterward, the quadriceps contraction was evaluated using a non-invasive Myomed 932 EMG-biofeedback device (Enraf-Nonius, The Netherlands) with gel-containing 48 mm electrodes (Türklab, The Turkey) placed on both knees. The isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise performed using our new method had stronger contraction than the classical method (P < 0.01). The new method involving pulling the patella superiorly appears to be a better choice, which can be applied easily, leading to better patient compliance and greater quadriceps force after arthroscopic and other knee surgeries.
Fox, Alice J. S.; Bedi, Asheesh; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Ying, Liang; Harris, Paul E.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the diabetic phenotype on the mechanical properties of the native patellar tendon and its enthesis. Diabetes was induced via intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in Lewis rats. Control (n = 18) and diabetic animals(n = 20) were killed at 12 and 19 days for analysis. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and a two-tailed Fisher test with significance set at p < 0.05. Pre- and post-injection intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests demonstrated significant impairment of glycemic control in the diabetic compared to control animals (p = 0.001). Mean serum hemoglobin A1c levels at 19 days was 10.6 ± 2.7% and 6.0 ± 1.0% for the diabetic and control groups, respectively (p = 0.0001). Fifteen of sixteen diabetic animals demonstrated intrasubstance failure of the patellar tendon, while only 7 of 14 control specimens failed within the tendon substance. The Young’s modulus of the diabetic tendon was significantly lower than control specimens by 19 days post-induction (161 ± 10 N m−2 compared to 200 ± 46 N m−2, respectively) (p = 0.02). The metabolic condition of poorly controlled diabetes negatively affects the mechanical properties of the native patellar tendon. These altered structural properties may predispose diabetic patients to a greater risk of tendinopathy and/or traumatic rupture. PMID:21246619
Nowotny, J; Aibibu, D; Farack, J; Nimtschke, U; Hild, M; Gelinsky, M; Kasten, P; Cherif, Ch
One possibility to improve the mechanical properties after tendon ruptures is augmentation with a scaffold. Based on wet spinning technology, chitosan fibres were processed to a novel pure high-grade multifilament yarn with reproducible quality. The fibres were braided to obtain a 3D tendon scaffold. The CS fibres and scaffolds were evaluated biomechanically and compared to human supraspinatus (SSP) tendons. For the cytobiological characterization, in vitro cell culture experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were performed. Three types of 3D circular braided scaffolds were fabricated. Significantly, higher ultimate stress values were measured for scaffold with larger filament yarn, compared to scaffold with smaller filament yarn. During cultivation over 28 days, the cells showed in dependence of isolation method and/or donor a doubling or tripling of the cell number or even a six-fold increase on the CS scaffold, which was comparable to the control (polystyrene) or in the case of cells obtained from human biceps tendon even higher proliferation rates. After 14 days, the scaffold surface was covered homogeneously with a cell layer. In summary, the present work demonstrates that braided chitosan scaffolds constitute a straightforward approach for designing tendon analogues, maintaining important flexibility in scaffold design and providing favourable mechanical properties of the resulting construct.
Tadros, Anthony S; Huang, Brady K; Pathria, Mini N
Injuries to the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit are common and a significant source of pain and loss of function. This article focuses on the important anatomical and biomechanical considerations for each component of the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit. We review normal and pathologic conditions affecting this unit, illustrating the imaging appearance of common disorders on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of these structures is crucial for the radiologist to make accurate diagnoses and provide clinically relevant assessments. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Yilmaz, Erhan; Avci, Mustafa; Bulut, Mehmet; Kelestimur, Halidun; Karakurt, Lokman; Ozercan, Ibrahim
Adhesion of the tendon, which can occur during healing of tendon repair, is negatively affected by the outcome of surgery. In this experimental study, we sought to prevent adhesion of the tendon, and determined the mechanical stiffness of repair tissue by wrapping sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm; Genzyme, Cambridge, Massachusetts) around the repaired tendon segments. The study group comprised 2 groups of 20 chickens. In group I, the right gastrocnemius tendons of the chickens were cut smoothly, and after tendon and sheath repair, the skin was sutured. In group II, the right gastrocnemius tendons of the chickens were cut, the tendons were repaired, and before skin closure, Seprafilm was wrapped around the repaired tendon segments. Plastic splints were used for holding the chickens' ankles in a neutral position, and they were allowed weight bearing for 8 weeks. In group II, anatomic space between the tendon-sheath and tendon was clear and the tendon-sheath complex was sliding easily around the repaired tendon segment, and this complex was more functional both biomechanically and histologically. Also, the Seprafilm-applied tendons (group II) were observed to be biomechanically more resistant to the tensile forces in group I. Seprafilm is an easily applied interpositional material that can be used safely to prevent adhesion during the tendon healing process. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Kumar, Deepak; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; MacLeod, Toran D.; Lin, Wilson; Nardo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila; Souza, Richard B
Objectives To compare thigh muscle intramuscular fat (intraMF) fractions and area between people with and without knee radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA); and to evaluate the relationships of quadriceps adiposity and area with strength, function and knee MRI lesions. Methods Ninety six subjects (ROA: KL >1; n = 30, control: KL = 0,1; n = 66) underwent 3-Tesla MRI of the thigh muscles using chemical shift-based water/fat MR imaging (fat fractions) and the knee (clinical grading). Subjects were assessed for isometric/isokinetic quadriceps/hamstrings strength, function (KOOS, stair climbing test [SCT], and 6-minute walk test [(6MWT]. Thigh muscle intraMF fractions, muscle area and strength, and function were compared between controls and ROA subjects, adjusting for age. Relationships between measures of muscle fat/area with strength, function, KL and lesion scores were assessed using regression and correlational analyses. Results The ROA group had worse KOOS scores but SCT and 6MWT were not different. The ROA group had greater quadriceps intraMF fraction but not for other muscles. Quadriceps strength was lower in ROA group but the area was not different. Quadriceps intraMF fraction but not area predicted self-reported disability. Aging, worse KL, and cartilage and meniscus lesions were associated with higher quadriceps intraMF fraction. Conclusion Quadriceps intraMF is higher in people with knee OA and is related to symptomatic and structural severity of knee OA, where as the quadriceps area is not. Quadriceps fat fraction from chemical shift-based water/fat MR imaging may have utility as a marker of structural and symptomatic severity of knee OA disease process. PMID:24361743
Pinet, C; Scillia, P; Cassart, M; Lamotte, M; Knoop, C; Mélot, C; Estenne, M
In the absence of complications, recipients of lung transplants for cystic fibrosis have normal pulmonary function but the impact of the procedure on the strength and bulk of respiratory and limb muscles has not been studied. Twelve stable patients who had undergone lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis 48 months earlier (range 8-95) and 12 normal subjects matched for age, height, and sex were studied. The following parameters were measured: standard lung function, peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometry, diaphragm surface area by computed tomographic (CT) scanning, diaphragm and abdominal muscle thickness by ultrasonography, twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, quadriceps isokinetic strength, and quadriceps cross section by CT scanning, and lean body mass. Diaphragm mass was computed from diaphragm surface area and thickness. Twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, diaphragm mass, and abdominal muscle thickness were similar in the two groups but quadriceps strength and cross section were decreased by nearly 30% in the patients. Patients had preserved quadriceps strength per unit cross section but reduced quadriceps cross section per unit lean body mass. The cumulative dose of corticosteroids was an independent predictor of quadriceps atrophy. Peak oxygen uptake showed positive correlations with quadriceps strength and cross section in the two groups, but peak oxygen uptake per unit quadriceps strength or cross section was reduced in the patient group. The diaphragm and abdominal muscles have preserved strength and bulk in patients transplanted for cystic fibrosis but the quadriceps is weak due to muscle atrophy. This atrophy is caused in part by corticosteroid therapy and correlates with the reduction in exercise capacity.
Scheiderer, Bastian; Imhoff, Florian B; Morikawa, Daichi; Lacheta, Lucca; Obopilwe, Elifho; Cote, Mark P; Imhoff, Andreas B; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Siebenlist, Sebastian
.78 ± 0.9 mm, P < .001). Mean peak failure load of the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique (732.1 ± 156.0 N) was significantly higher than that of the knotless suture-bridge repair technique (505.4 ± 173.9 N, P = .011) and the transosseous cruciate repair technique (281.1 ± 74.8 N, P < .001). Mechanism of failure differed among the 3 repairs, with the only olecranon fracture occurring in the knotless suture-bridge repair technique at the level of the lateral row suture anchors. At time zero, the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique and the knotless suture-bridge repair technique both provided anatomic footprint coverage. Ultimate load to failure was highest for the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique, while gap formation was different only in comparison with the transosseous cruciate repair technique. The V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique provides an alternative procedure to other established repairs for acute/subacute distal triceps tendon ruptures. The reduced repair site motion of the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique and the knotless suture-bridge repair technique at the time of surgery may allow a more aggressive rehabilitation program in the early postoperative period.
Freedman, Benjamin R; Fryhofer, George W; Salka, Nabeel S; Raja, Harina A; Hillin, Cody D; Nuss, Courtney A; Farber, Daniel C; Soslowsky, Louis J
Conservative treatment (non-operative) of Achilles tendon ruptures is suggested to produce equivalent capacity for return to function; however, long term results and the role of return to activity (RTA) for this treatment paradigm remain unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long term response of conservatively treated Achilles tendons in rodents with varied RTA. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) received unilateral blunt transection of the Achilles tendon followed by randomization into groups that returned to activity after 1-week (RTA1) or 3-weeks (RTA3) of limb casting in plantarflexion, before being euthanized at 16-weeks post-injury. Uninjured age-matched control animals were used as a control group (n=10). Limb function, passive joint mechanics, tendon properties (mechanical, histological), and muscle properties (histological, immunohistochemical) were evaluated. Results showed that although hindlimb ground reaction forces and range of motion returned to baseline levels by 16-weeks post-injury regardless of RTA, ankle joint stiffness remained altered. RTA1 and RTA3 groups both exhibited no differences in fatigue properties; however, the secant modulus, hysteresis, and laxity were inferior compared to uninjured age-matched control tendons. Despite these changes, tendons 16-weeks post-injury achieved secant stiffness levels of uninjured tendons. RTA1 and RTA3 groups had no differences in histological properties, but had higher cell numbers compared to control tendons. No changes in gastrocnemius fiber size or type in the superficial or deep regions were detected, except for type 2x fiber fraction. Together, this work highlights RTA-dependent deficits in limb function and tissue-level properties in long-term Achilles tendon and muscle healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Freedman, Benjamin R; Fryhofer, George W; Salka, Nabeel S; Raja, Harina A; Hillin, Cody D; Nuss, Courtney A; Farber, Daniel C; Soslowsky, Louis J
Conservative treatment (non-operative) of Achilles tendon ruptures is suggested to produce equivalent capacity for return to function; however, long term results and the role of return to activity (RTA) for this treatment paradigm remain unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long term response of conservatively treated Achilles tendons in rodents with varied RTA. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) received unilateral blunt transection of the Achilles tendon followed by randomization into groups that returned to activity after 1-week (RTA1) or 3-weeks (RTA3) of limb casting in plantarflexion, before being sacrificed at 16-weeks post-injury. Uninjured age-matched control animals were used as a control group (N=10). Limb function, passive joint mechanics, tendon properties (mechanical, histological), and muscle properties (histological, immunohistochemical) were evaluated. Results showed that although hindlimb ground reaction forces and range of motion returned to baseline levels by 16-weeks regardless of RTA, ankle stiffness remained altered. RTA1 and RTA3 groups both exhibited no differences in fatigue properties; however, the secant modulus, hysteresis, and laxity were inferior compared to uninjured age-matched control tendons. Despite these changes, tendons 16-weeks post-injury achieved secant stiffness levels of uninjured tendons. RTA1 and RTA3 groups had no differences in histological properties, but had higher cell numbers com