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Sample records for quadricollis rambur termita

  1. First Maltese record of Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1879) (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Nardi, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Three specimens of Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1878) were recently found in Malta in UV light traps and represent the first record of this species for this country. Although Stephanopachys quadricollis is native to the Mediterranean basin, it is not yet clear if these Maltese records are due to a natural population or to an interception. Distributional, nomenclatural and biological data on this species are summarized, and a new synonymy is established: Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1879) = Stephanopachys quadraticollis Kocher, 1956, syn. n. PMID:27551222

  2. First Maltese record of Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1879) (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Nardi, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Three specimens of Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1878) were recently found in Malta in UV light traps and represent the first record of this species for this country. Although Stephanopachys quadricollis is native to the Mediterranean basin, it is not yet clear if these Maltese records are due to a natural population or to an interception. Distributional, nomenclatural and biological data on this species are summarized, and a new synonymy is established: Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1879) = Stephanopachys quadraticollis Kocher, 1956, syn. n.

  3. First Maltese record of Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1879) (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mifsud, David; Nardi, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three specimens of Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1878) were recently found in Malta in UV light traps and represent the first record of this species for this country. Although Stephanopachys quadricollis is native to the Mediterranean basin, it is not yet clear if these Maltese records are due to a natural population or to an interception. Distributional, nomenclatural and biological data on this species are summarized, and a new synonymy is established: Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1879) = Stephanopachys quadraticollis Kocher, 1956, syn. n. PMID:27551222

  4. Three new species of the genus Lepidostoma Rambur (Lepidostomatidae: Trichoptera) from India.

    PubMed

    Parey, Sajad H; Morse, John C; Pandher, Manpreet S

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Lepidostoma Rambur are described and illustrated from the Indian Himalaya: Lepidostoma trilobatum sp. nov., L. lidderwatense sp. nov., and L. sainii sp. nov., all belonging to the Lepidostoma ferox Branch. With these new additions, the genus Lepidostoma is now represented by 50 species in India and over 450 species globally. PMID:27395712

  5. Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

    2012-01-01

    Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1–7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (He), respectively. There was an increase in He from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and He, and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. FST (0.004–0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian–French lineage in northern Spain

  6. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 of Africa (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Lebiini). Part IV.

    PubMed

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Nine new species of the genus Singilis from Africa are described: Singilis (s.str.) shavrini sp. n. (Kenya, Tanzania), S. (s.str.) africaorientalis sp. n. (Ethiopia, Somalia, Tanzania, Kenya, RSA, Zambia, Zimbabwe), S. (s.str.) burtoni sp. n. (Zambia, Zimbabwe), S. (s.str.) paganeli sp. n. (RSA), S. (s.str.) somalicus sp. n. (Somalia), S. (s.str.) haekeli sp. n. (Zambia), S. (s.str.) crypticus sp. n. (Cameroon), S. (s.str.) pallens sp. n. (Namibia) and S. (s.str.) parvulus sp. n. (Zimbabwe). One new subspecies from Kenya, S. (s.str.) africaorientalis kenyacus ssp. n., is described too. Differential diagnosis of the related species Singilis (s.str.) allardi (Basilewsky, 1963), S. (s.str.) ambulans (Peringuey, 1896), S. (s.str.) cribricollis (Peringuey, 1904), S. (s.str.) pusillus (Peringuey, 1898) and S. (s.str.) zonata Chaudoir, 1878 is also proposed. Illustrations of habitus and aedeagus for every species is provided, and new country records are given. PMID:27615879

  7. Nectarivory by the plant-tissue feeding predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae): nutritional redundancy or nutritional benefit?

    PubMed

    Portillo, Nati; Alomar, Oscar; Wäckers, Felix

    2012-03-01

    Most predators and parasitoids feed on plant-provided food (nectar, pollen) or engage in herbivory during at least part of their life stages. Plant feeding by these insects plays an important role in driving predator-herbivore dynamics. Thus, understanding the effects of plant feeding on omnivores could be an important element in improving biological control strategies. The mirid Macrolophus pygmaeus is an omnivorous heteropteran predator of whitefly and other pests. Unlike other predators that need to seek out accessible nectar to meet their carbohydrate requirements, mirid bugs can access the plant's carbohydrate resources by feeding directly on plant tissues. Leaf and stem feeding could be seen as a nutritional surrogate that allows mirids to become independent of nectar availability. However, to date feeding experiments have not yet considered nectar feeding by these mirid predators. In this study we demonstrate that M. pygmaeus survival is prolonged on broad bean plants featuring extrafloral nectar as compared to broad bean with extrafloral nectaries removed, irrespective of the presence of cattail pollen. Survival on extrafloral nectar was comparable to the survival by individuals kept on broad bean provided with eggs of Ephestia kuehniella as prey. Also, a greater proportion of mirid females laid eggs when extrafloral nectar was available as compared to those confined on nectariless plants without supplemental food.

  8. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  9. Uso de Cebos para el Control de la Termita de Formosa, Coptotermes formosanus, en Zonas Arboladas en la Ciudad de Nuevo Orleáns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 220 underground termite stations were installed 1 meter away from the base of trees located in the median area of seven blocks of Esplanade Avenue, New Orleans, LA. Aspen wood was used to monitor termite populations. A nutritionally based bait matrix developed by United States Department ...

  10. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  11. Infestation and population dynamics of insects on stored cassava and yams chips in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Gnonlonfin, G J B; Hell, K; Siame, A B; Fandohan, P

    2008-12-01

    Natural insect infestation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz subspecies esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) chips was evaluated during two consecutive storage seasons (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) in two agroecological zones of Benin (Northern Guinea Savanna [NGS] and Sudan Savanna [SS]). The insects infesting chips were collected, identified, and counted, they included Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). P. truncatus and C. quadricollis were observed with a higher prevalence on cassava than on yam chips. During both seasons after 3 mo of storage, all (100%) cassava chip samples were infested with P. truncatus and C. quadricollis in both agroecological zones, whereas yam chips only showed lower infestation rates of 59.5 and 19.1% for P. truncatus and C. quadricollis, respectively, at the end of storage in 2003-2004. During the 2004-2005 season after 3 mo of storage infestation rate in yam chips was 66 and 24% in NGS and 100 and 0% in SS for P. truncatus and C. quadricollis, respectively, showing that insect infestation levels vary significantly with commodity, year, and fluctuate during the storage season.

  12. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  13. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  14. Evolution of premating reproductive isolation among conspecific populations of the sea rock-pool beetle Ochthebius urbanelliae driven by reinforcing natural selection.

    PubMed

    Porretta, Daniele; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2012-04-01

    How natural selection might be involved in speciation remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. When two or more species co-occur in the same areas, natural selection may favor divergence in mating traits. By acting in sympatric but not allopatric populations, natural selection can also affect mate choice within species and ultimately initiate speciation among conspecific populations. Here, we address this potential effect in the sea rock-pool beetles Ochthebius quadricollis and O. urbanelliae. The two species, which inhabit the Mediterranean coasts, co-occurr syntopically in an area along the Italian Tyrrhenian coast and completed reproductive isolation by reinforcement. In this article, through mating trials under laboratory conditions between conspecific populations, we found in O. quadricollis no deviations from random mating. Conversely, in O. urbanelliae, we found a clear pattern of premating isolation between the reinforced populations sympatric with O. quadricollis and those nonreinforced allopatric. This pattern is consistent with the view that natural selection, which completed the reproductive isolation between the two species in sympatry, led incidentally also to partial premating reproductive isolation (I(PSI) estimator from 0.683 to 0.792) between conspecific populations of O. urbanelliae. This case study supports an until recently underappreciated role of natural selection resulting from species interactions in initiating speciation. PMID:22486705

  15. A review of Canadian and Alaskan species of the genus Liogluta Thomson, and descriptions of three new species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Webster, Reginald P.; Langor, David W.; Sikes, Derek; Bourdon, Caroline; Godin, Benoit; Ernst, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fourteen species of Liogluta Thomson are reported from Canada and Alaska. Three of these are described as new to science: Liogluta castoris Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n.; Liogluta microgranulosa Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n.; and Liogluta pseudocastoris Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. The previously unknown male of Liogluta gigantea Klimaszewski & Langor, Liogluta quadricollis (Casey), Liogluta wickhami (Casey), and female of Liogluta granulosa Lohse are described, and illustrated. Liogluta aloconotoides Lohse is synonymized with Liogluta terminalis (Casey). New provincial and state records are provided for six Liogluta species. A key to species, revised distribution with new provincial records, and new natural history data are provided. PMID:27110169

  16. Two new species of the genus Centromacronema Ulmer 1905 (Hydropsychidae: Macronematinae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Everton S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2016-07-08

    Centromacronema is an endemic genus from the Neotropics, with distribution ranging from Mexico to southern Brazil. The genus comprises 15 described species, but only two of them have been recorded in Brazil: Centromacronema               auripenne (Rambur 1842) and C. obscurum (Ulmer 1905). Two new species are herein described and illustrated from   Brazil, C. pioneira n. sp. from Serra da Jiboia, Bahia state, including the first description of a female for the genus, and C. poyanawa n. sp. from Serra do Divisor, Acre state.

  17. The Lepidostoma coreanum Species Complex (Trichoptera, Lepidostomatidae) in the Asian Far East.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomiko

    2016-01-01

    A total of 68 species of genus Lepidostoma Rambur (Trichoptera; Lepidostomatidae) has been reported from the Asian Far East. L. coreanum (Kumanski & Weaver 1992) was originally described from North Korea. Detail examination of specimens of this species and its related specimens collected in the Asian Far East revealed the hypothetical definition of L. coreanum and the presence of 4 new related species, L. niigataense sp. nov., L. hattorii sp. nov., L. yuwanense sp. nov., and L. ishigakiense sp. nov. The species assemblage is named as the Lepidostoma coreanum Species Complex. PMID:27395509

  18. The Tribe Anisoscelini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Coreidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan. PMID:26624414

  19. Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)

    PubMed Central

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

  20. Description of two new filtering carnivore Drusus species (Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Vitecek, Simon; Kučinić, Mladen; Oláh, János; Previšić, Ana; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Waringer, Johann; Pauls, Steffen U.; Graf, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans are described. Additionally, observations on the biodiversity and threats to the region’s endemic aquatic fauna are discussed. Drusus krpachi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Korab Mountains, Macedonia, and Drusus malickyi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Prokletije Mountains, Albania. Both new species are most similar to Drusus macedonicus but differ from the latter in the shape of segment IX, the shape of the tips of the intermediate appendages in lateral view, the shape of the inferior appendages, and the form and shape of the parameres. In addition, males of the European species of filtering carnivore Drusinae are diagnosed and illustrated, including Cryptothrix nebulicola McLachlan, Drusus chrysotus Rambur, Drusus discolor Rambur, Drusus macedonicus Schmid, Drusus meridionalis Kumanski, Drusus muelleri McLachlan, Drusus romanicus Murgoci and Botosaneanu, and Drusus siveci Malicky. These additions to the Western Balkan fauna demonstrate the significance of this region for European biodiversity and further highlight the importance of faunistic studies in Europe. PMID:26257570

  1. The caddisfly fauna (Insecta, Trichoptera) of the rivers of the Black Sea basin in Kosovo with distributional data for some rare species

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Gashi, Agim; Grapci-Kotori, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adult caddisflies were collected from 12 stations in the Black Sea basin in Kosovo using UV light traps. Sixty-five of the seventy-six species reported in this paper are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. The unexpected discovery of several species during this investigation: Agapetus delicatulus McLachlan, 1884, Psychomyia klapaleki Malicky, 1995, Tinodes janssensi Jacquemart, 1957, Hydropsyche emarginata Navas, 1923, Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968, Potamophylax rotundipennis (Brauer, 1857), Potamophylax schmidi Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1970, Ceraclea albimacula (Rambur, 1842), Helicopsyche bacescui Orghidan & Botosaneanu, 1953, Adicella filicornis (Pictet, 1834), Beraea maurus (Curtis, 1834) and Beraeamyia hrabei Mayer, 1937 illustrates that collections from poorly investigated areas in Europe will almost certainly revise the existing knowledge on the distribution of these and other species. PMID:22539915

  2. Revision of Japanese species of the genus Ecnomus McLachlan (Trichoptera: Ecnomidae), with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Kuhara, Naotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Five species of the genus Ecnomus McLachlan (Ecnomidae), including 2 new species, are recognized from Japan: E. hokkaidensis sp. nov. from Hokkaidô and E. sakishimensis sp. nov. from Ishigaki-jima and Iriomote-jima, Ryûkyû Islands, are described. Ecnomus japonicus Fischer, originally described from Kyûshû, is re-described. In addition, illustrations of the male and female genitalia are provided for E. tenellus (Rambur) and E. yamashironis Tsuda, which are common species in Japan. Ecnomus kososiensis Kobayashi, originally described from Honshû, and E. tsudai Kumanski, originally described from Korea, are synonymized under E. tenellus and E. japonicus, respectively. PMID:27395146

  3. New records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna with the description of a new species, Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae).

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Vitecek, Simon; Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Previšić, Ana; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Pauls, Steffen U

    2015-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula is one of the most important European hotspots of freshwater biodiversity. The region is, however, to a large extent insufficiently investigated. Here we present data on distribution of caddisflies in one particularly understudied area, the Republic of Kosovo. Our data include the first records of Adicella altandroconia Botosaneanu & Novak and Halesus tessellatus (Rambur) for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna, and a new locality for the recently described Ecclisopteryx keroveci Previšić, Graf, & Vitecek. Further, we describe the new caddisfly species Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. from the Kopaonik Mountains. The new species belongs to the D. discophorus Species Group and differs morphologically from its most similar congeners (D. discophorus Radovanović, D. balcanicus Kumanski, and D. bureschi Kumanski) mainly in exhibiting (1) subtrianglar superior appendages; (2) a narrow, dorsal spinate area of tergite VIII; and (3) evenly rounded tips of intermediate appendages in caudal view. In phylogenetic analysis, D. dardanicus sp. nov. is well delineated and recovered as a sister taxon to D. osogovicus Kumanski, a species recorded from Bulgaria. The recent discovery of a new species and other rare or microendemic species presents important contributions to the knowledge on the rich freshwater biodiversity in Kosovo. These species face increasing anthropogenic pressure and threats to their conservation. PMID:26624385

  4. Barcoding Fauna Bavarica: 78% of the Neuropterida fauna barcoded!

    PubMed

    Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars; Hausmann, Axel; Hebert, Paul; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Gruppe, Axel

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode data set for the Neuropterida of Central Europe, including 80 of the 102 species (78%) recorded from Bavaria (Germany) and three other species from nearby regions (Austria, France and the UK). Although the 286 specimens analyzed had a heterogeneous conservation history (60% dried; 30% in 80% EtOH; 10% fresh specimens in 95% EtOH), 237 (83%) generated a DNA barcode. Eleven species (13%) shared a BIN, but three of these taxa could be discriminated through barcodes. Four pairs of closely allied species shared barcodes including Chrysoperla pallida Henry et al., 2002 and C. lucasina Lacroix, 1912; Wesmaelius concinnus (Stephens, 1836) and W. quadrifasciatus (Reuter, 1894); Hemerobius handschini Tjeder, 1957 and H. nitidulus Fabricius, 1777; and H. atrifrons McLachlan, 1868 and H. contumax Tjeder, 1932. Further studies are needed to test the possible synonymy of these species pairs or to determine if other genetic markers permit their discrimination. Our data highlight five cases of potential cryptic diversity within Bavarian Neuropterida: Nineta flava (Scopoli, 1763), Sympherobius pygmaeus (Rambur, 1842), Sisyra nigra (Retzius, 1783), Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens, 1836) and Coniopteryx pygmaea Enderlein, 1906 are each split into two or three BINs. The present DNA barcode library not only allows the identification of adult and larval stages, but also provides valuable information for alpha-taxonomy, and for ecological and evolutionary research.

  5. Comparative cytogenetic study of three Macrolophus species (Heteroptera, Miridae)

    PubMed Central

    Jauset, Ana Maria; Edo-Tena, Eva; Castañé, Cristina; Agustí, Nuria; Alomar, Oscar; Grozeva, Snejana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur, 1839) (Insecta, Heteroptera, Miridae) is a predator of key vegetable crop pests applied as a biocontrol agent in the Mediterranean region. Macrolophus pygmaeus and Macrolophus melanotoma (A. Costa, 1853) are cryptic species with great morphological similarity which results in their misidentification and negative consequences for the conservation of their populations on greenhouse and outdoor crops. In order to find out specific markers for their separation we studied the karyotype, male meiosis and heterochromatin composition of these species and additionally of a third species (as a reference one), Macrolophus costalis Fieber, 1858. We demonstrate here that all the three species share achiasmate male meiosis and sex chromosome pre-reduction. On the other hand, the species differ in karyotype, with 2n=28 (26+XY) in Macrolophus pygmaeus, 2n=27 (24+X1X2Y) in Macrolophus costalis, and 2n=34 (32+XY) in Macrolophus melanotoma, and heterochromatin distribution and composition. In addition, the species differ in sperm morphology: sperm cells of Macrolophus costalis are significantly longer with longer head and tail than those of Macrolophus melanotoma and Macrolophus pygmaeus, whereas sperm cells of Macrolophus melanotoma have a longer tail than those of Macrolophus pygmaeus. All these characters can be used as markers to identify the species, in particular the cryptic species Macrolophus melanotoma and Macrolophus pygmaeus. PMID:26753078

  6. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Insecticides on the Functional Response of Two Mirid Generalist Predators.

    PubMed

    Martinou, Angeliki F; Stavrinides, Menelaos C

    2015-01-01

    The use of agrochemicals particularly pesticides, can hamper the effectiveness of natural enemies, causing disruption in the ecosystem service of biological control. In the current study, the effects of the insecticides thiacloprid and chlorantraniliprole on the functional response curves were assessed for two mirid predator nymphs, Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. In the absence of insecticides, both predators exhibited a type II functional response when feeding on eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella. N. tenuis seems to be a more efficient predator than M. pygmaeus, as model estimated handling time was significantly lower for the former than for the latter. Residual exposure of M. pygmaeus to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide was associated with a change in the asymptote but not the type of the functional response curve. Thiacloprid seems to be the least compatible with M. pygmaeus, as it led to both a significant reduction of the attack rate and an increase in handling time. In contrast, chlorantraniliprole exposure significantly increased the handling time, but not the attack rate of the predator. Residual exposure of N. tenuis to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide did not have a significant effect on the type nor the parameters of the functional response model. The results show that pesticide residues that do not have lethal effects on beneficial arthropods can reduce prey consumption depending on predator species and on likely risks associated with toxicity.

  7. Solvatochromic behaviour and larvicidal activity of acridine-3-carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Bharathi, A; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, A Abdul; Rajakumar, G

    2014-11-01

    A new series of substituted ethyl 10-chloro-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-12-phenyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydrobenzo[a]acridine-3-carboxylates, 3a-e have been synthesized through NaOH base mediated cyclocondensation of (E)-7-chloro-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-9-phenyl-3,4-dihydroacridin-1(2H)-ones, 1a-e with ethyl acetoacetate. Structures of these synthesized molecules were studied by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and EI-MS. And all the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their UV-absorption studies with various metal solutions. Acridine-3-carboxylate derivatives were tested against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Hippobosca maculata. Among those compounds, 3b and 3e have good larvicidal activities against both A.stephensi and H.maculata. Toxicity of compounds, 3b and 3e compounds were evaluated with the reference non-target aquatic species like, Sphaerodema annulatum Fabricius (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) and Zyxomma petiolatum Rambur (Odonata: Libellulidae) results very low LC50 values revels that, the synthetic compounds are non toxic. PMID:25240425

  8. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity. PMID:27393640

  9. New records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna with the description of a new species, Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Vitecek, Simon; Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Previšić, Ana; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Pauls, Steffen U.

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula is one of the most important European hotspots of freshwater biodiversity. The region is, however, to a large extent insufficiently investigated. Here we present data on distribution of caddisflies in one particularly understudied area, the Republic of Kosovo. Our data include the first records of Adicella altandroconia Botosaneanu & Novak and Halesus tessellatus (Rambur) for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna, and a new locality for the recently described Ecclisopteryx keroveci Previšić, Graf, & Vitecek. Further, we describe the new caddisfly species Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. from the Kopaonik Mountains. The new species belongs to the D. discophorus Species Group and differs morphologically from its most similar congeners (D. discophorus Radovanović, D. balcanicus Kumanski, and D. bureschi Kumanski) mainly in exhibiting (1) subtrianglar superior appendages; (2) a narrow, dorsal spinate area of tergite VIII; and (3) evenly rounded tips of intermediate appendages in caudal view. In phylogenetic analysis, D. dardanicus sp. nov. is well delineated and recovered as a sister taxon to D. osogovicus Kumanski, a species recorded from Bulgaria. The recent discovery of a new species and other rare or microendemic species presents important contributions to the knowledge on the rich freshwater biodiversity in Kosovo. These species face increasing anthropogenic pressure and threats to their conservation. PMID:26624385

  10. Biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Phytoseiulus macropilis and Macrolophus pygmaeus in tomato greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Gigon, Vincent; Camps, Cédric; Le Corff, Josiane

    2016-01-01

    Biological control against phytophagous arthropods has been widely used under greenhouse conditions. Its success is dependent on a number of factors related to the abiotic conditions and to the interactions between pests and biological control agents. In particular, when multiple predator species are introduced to suppress one pest, competitive interactions might occur, including intraguild predation (IGP). In tomato crops, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a very problematic phytophagous mite and its control is not yet satisfactory. In 2012 and 2013, the ability of a potential new predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) was assessed, alone and in the presence of Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a polyphagous mirid supposed to predate on P. macropilis. Both years, under greenhouse conditions, the effectiveness of the two predators was compared between the following treatments: T. urticae, T. urticae + P. macropilis, T. urticae + M. pygmaeus, and T. urticae + P. macropilis + M. pygmaeus. The number of arthropods per tomato plant over time indicated that P. macropilis well-controlled the population of T. urticae, whereas M. pygmaeus had a very limited impact. Furthermore, there was no evidence of IGP between the two predators but in the presence of M. pygmaeus, P. macropilis tended to have a more clumped spatial distribution. Further studies should clarify the number and location of inoculation points to optimize the control of T. urticae by P. macropilis. PMID:26481345

  11. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity.

  12. Barcoding Fauna Bavarica: 78% of the Neuropterida Fauna Barcoded!

    PubMed Central

    Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars; Hausmann, Axel; Hebert, Paul; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Gruppe, Axel

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode data set for the Neuropterida of Central Europe, including 80 of the 102 species (78%) recorded from Bavaria (Germany) and three other species from nearby regions (Austria, France and the UK). Although the 286 specimens analyzed had a heterogeneous conservation history (60% dried; 30% in 80% EtOH; 10% fresh specimens in 95% EtOH), 237 (83%) generated a DNA barcode. Eleven species (13%) shared a BIN, but three of these taxa could be discriminated through barcodes. Four pairs of closely allied species shared barcodes including Chrysoperla pallida Henry et al., 2002 and C. lucasina Lacroix, 1912; Wesmaelius concinnus (Stephens, 1836) and W. quadrifasciatus (Reuter, 1894); Hemerobius handschini Tjeder, 1957 and H. nitidulus Fabricius, 1777; and H. atrifrons McLachlan, 1868 and H. contumax Tjeder, 1932. Further studies are needed to test the possible synonymy of these species pairs or to determine if other genetic markers permit their discrimination. Our data highlight five cases of potential cryptic diversity within Bavarian Neuropterida: Nineta flava (Scopoli, 1763), Sympherobius pygmaeus (Rambur, 1842), Sisyra nigra (Retzius, 1783), Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens, 1836) and Coniopteryx pygmaea Enderlein, 1906 are each split into two or three BINs. The present DNA barcode library not only allows the identification of adult and larval stages, but also provides valuable information for alpha-taxonomy, and for ecological and evolutionary research. PMID:25286434

  13. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Insecticides on the Functional Response of Two Mirid Generalist Predators

    PubMed Central

    Martinou, Angeliki F.; Stavrinides, Menelaos C.

    2015-01-01

    The use of agrochemicals particularly pesticides, can hamper the effectiveness of natural enemies, causing disruption in the ecosystem service of biological control. In the current study, the effects of the insecticides thiacloprid and chlorantraniliprole on the functional response curves were assessed for two mirid predator nymphs, Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. In the absence of insecticides, both predators exhibited a type II functional response when feeding on eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella. N. tenuis seems to be a more efficient predator than M. pygmaeus, as model estimated handling time was significantly lower for the former than for the latter. Residual exposure of M. pygmaeus to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide was associated with a change in the asymptote but not the type of the functional response curve. Thiacloprid seems to be the least compatible with M. pygmaeus, as it led to both a significant reduction of the attack rate and an increase in handling time. In contrast, chlorantraniliprole exposure significantly increased the handling time, but not the attack rate of the predator. Residual exposure of N. tenuis to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide did not have a significant effect on the type nor the parameters of the functional response model. The results show that pesticide residues that do not have lethal effects on beneficial arthropods can reduce prey consumption depending on predator species and on likely risks associated with toxicity. PMID:26641652

  14. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    PubMed

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would benefit from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitism of five Trichogramma species-strains on the pest-plant system T. absoluta-tomato, and 2) assessed various biological traits of parasitoids, mass-reared on a factitious host (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), when developing on T. absoluta. In addition, we evaluated the overall efficiency of two specific Trichogramma species when released under greenhouse conditions in combination with a common natural enemy in tomato crop, the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Parasitoids emerging from T. absoluta on tomato showed lower parasitism rates and poor biological traits, for example, wing deformations, reduced longevity, when compared with the control reared on the factitious host. Under greenhouse conditions, the parasitoids that developed on T. absoluta after initial releases contributed little to biological control of T. absoluta, and parasitism tended to be lower when the predator was present. However, a slightly higher T. absoluta control level was achieved by combining the predator and release of the parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. This study shows that Trichogramma parasitoids may not build up populations on the T. absoluta-tomato system, but that Trichogramma parasitoids can be used in combination with M. pygmaeus to enhance biological control of the pest in tomato crops.

  15. Beyond Predation: The Zoophytophagous Predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Induces Tomato Resistance against Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Maria L; Steppuhn, Anke; Geuss, Daniel; Topalidou, Nikoleta; Zografou, Aliki; Sabelis, Maurice W; Broufas, George D

    2015-01-01

    Many predatory insects that prey on herbivores also feed on the plant, but it is unknown whether plants affect the performance of herbivores by responding to this phytophagy with defence induction. We investigate whether the prior presence of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) on tomato plants affects plant resistance against two different herbivore species. Besides plant-mediated effects of M. pygmaeus on herbivore performance, we examined whether a plant defence trait that is known to be inducible by herbivory, proteinase inhibitors (PI), may also be activated in response to the interactions of this predator with the tomato plant. We show that exposing tomato plants to the omnivorous predator M. pygmaeus reduced performance of a subsequently infesting herbivore, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, but not of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The spider-mite infested tomato plants experience a lower herbivore load, i.e., number of eggs deposited and individuals present, when previously exposed to the zoophytophagous predator. This effect is not restricted to the exposed leaf and persists on exposed plants for at least two weeks after the removal of the predators. The decreased performance of spider mites as a result of prior exposure of the plant to M. pygmaeus is accompanied by a locally and systemically increased accumulation of transcripts and activity of proteinase inhibitors that are known to be involved in plant defence. Our results demonstrate that zoophytophagous predators can induce plant defence responses and reduce herbivore performance. Hence, the suppression of populations of certain herbivores via consumption may be strengthened by the induction of plant defences by zoophytophagous predators.

  16. Trophic relationships between predators, whiteflies and their parasitoids in tomato greenhouses: a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ripoll, R; Gabarra, R; Symondson, W O C; King, R A; Agustí, N

    2012-08-01

    The whiteflies Bemisia tabaci Gennadius and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are two of the main pests in tomato crops. Their biological control in Mediterranean IPM systems is based on the predators Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae), as well as on the parasitoids Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet) and Encarsia pergandiella Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). These natural enemies may interact with each other and their joint use could interfere with the biological control of those whitefly pests. Analysis of predator-prey interactions under field conditions is therefore essential in order to optimize whitefly control. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-primers were designed to detect DNA fragments of these whiteflies and parasitoids within both predator species in tomato greenhouses. We demonstrated that both predators feed on both whitefly species, as well as on both parasitoids under greenhouse conditions. Prey molecular detection was possible where prey abundance was very low or even where predation was not observed under a microscope. Whitefly DNA detection was positively correlated with adult whitefly abundance in the crop. However, a significant relationship was not observed between parasitoid DNA detection and the abundance of parasitoid pupae, even though the predation rate on parasitoids was high. This unidirectional intraguild predation (predators on parasitoids) could potentially reduce their combined impact on their joint prey/host. Prey molecular detection provided improved detection of prey consumption in greenhouse crops, as well as the possibility to identify which prey species were consumed by each predator species present in the greenhouse, offering a blueprint with wider applicability to other food webs.

  17. The Distribution of Dragonfly Larvae in a South Carolina Stream: Relationships With Sediment Type, Body Size, and the Presence of Other Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, Wade B.; Horacek, Henry Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Dragonfly larvae were sampled in Little Creek, Greenville, SC. The distributions of five common species were described relative to sediment type, body size, and the presence of other larvae. In total, 337 quadrats (1 m by 0.5 m) were sampled by kick seine. For each quadrat, the substrate was classified as sand, sand-cobble mix, cobble, coarse, or rock, and water depth and distance from bank were measured. Larvae were identified to species, and the lengths of the body, head, and metafemur were measured. Species were distributed differently across sediment types: sanddragons, Progomphus obscurus (Rambur) (Odonata: Gomphidae), were common in sand; twin-spotted spiketails, Cordulegaster maculata Selys (Odonata: Cordulegastridae), preferred a sand-cobble mix; Maine snaketails, Ophiogomphus mainensis Packard (Odonata: Gomphidae), preferred cobble and coarse sediments; fawn darners, Boyeria vinosa (Say) (Odonata: Aeshnidae), preferred coarse sediments; and Eastern least clubtails, Stylogomphus albistylus (Hagen) (Odonata: Gomphidae), preferred coarse and rock sediments. P. obscurus and C. maculata co-occurred more frequently than expected by chance, as did O. mainensis, B. vinosa, and S. albistylus. Mean size varied among species, and species preferences contributed to differences in mean size across sediment types. There were significant negative associations among larval size classes: small larvae (<12 mm) occurred less frequently with large larvae (>15 mm) than expected by chance, and large larvae were alone in quadrats more frequently than other size classes. Species may select habitats at a large scale based on sediment type and their functional morphology, but small scale distributions are consistent with competitive displacement or intraguild predation. PMID:25843584

  18. Preference and Prey Switching in a Generalist Predator Attacking Local and Invasive Alien Pests

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Coline C.; Bompard, Anaïs; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato. PMID:24312646

  19. The distribution of dragonfly larvae in a South Carolina stream: relationships with sediment type, body size, and the presence of other larvae.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Wade B; Horacek, Henry Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Dragonfly larvae were sampled in Little Creek, Greenville, SC. The distributions of five common species were described relative to sediment type, body size, and the presence of other larvae. In total, 337 quadrats (1 m by 0.5 m) were sampled by kick seine. For each quadrat, the substrate was classified as sand, sand-cobble mix, cobble, coarse, or rock, and water depth and distance from bank were measured. Larvae were identified to species, and the lengths of the body, head, and metafemur were measured. Species were distributed differently across sediment types: sanddragons, Progomphus obscurus (Rambur) (Odonata: Gomphidae), were common in sand; twin-spotted spiketails, Cordulegaster maculata Selys (Odonata: Cordulegastridae), preferred a sand-cobble mix; Maine snaketails, Ophiogomphus mainensis Packard (Odonata: Gomphidae), preferred cobble and coarse sediments; fawn darners, Boyeria vinosa (Say) (Odonata: Aeshnidae), preferred coarse sediments; and Eastern least clubtails, Stylogomphus albistylus (Hagen) (Odonata: Gomphidae), preferred coarse and rock sediments. P. obscurus and C. maculata co-occurred more frequently than expected by chance, as did O. mainensis, B. vinosa, and S. albistylus. Mean size varied among species, and species preferences contributed to differences in mean size across sediment types. There were significant negative associations among larval size classes: small larvae (<12 mm) occurred less frequently with large larvae (>15 mm) than expected by chance, and large larvae were alone in quadrats more frequently than other size classes. Species may select habitats at a large scale based on sediment type and their functional morphology, but small scale distributions are consistent with competitive displacement or intraguild predation. PMID:25843584

  20. Beyond Predation: The Zoophytophagous Predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Induces Tomato Resistance against Spider Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Maria L.; Steppuhn, Anke; Geuss, Daniel; Topalidou, Nikoleta; Zografou, Aliki; Broufas, George D.

    2015-01-01

    Many predatory insects that prey on herbivores also feed on the plant, but it is unknown whether plants affect the performance of herbivores by responding to this phytophagy with defence induction. We investigate whether the prior presence of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) on tomato plants affects plant resistance against two different herbivore species. Besides plant-mediated effects of M. pygmaeus on herbivore performance, we examined whether a plant defence trait that is known to be inducible by herbivory, proteinase inhibitors (PI), may also be activated in response to the interactions of this predator with the tomato plant. We show that exposing tomato plants to the omnivorous predator M. pygmaeus reduced performance of a subsequently infesting herbivore, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, but not of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The spider-mite infested tomato plants experience a lower herbivore load, i.e., number of eggs deposited and individuals present, when previously exposed to the zoophytophagous predator. This effect is not restricted to the exposed leaf and persists on exposed plants for at least two weeks after the removal of the predators. The decreased performance of spider mites as a result of prior exposure of the plant to M. pygmaeus is accompanied by a locally and systemically increased accumulation of transcripts and activity of proteinase inhibitors that are known to be involved in plant defence. Our results demonstrate that zoophytophagous predators can induce plant defence responses and reduce herbivore performance. Hence, the suppression of populations of certain herbivores via consumption may be strengthened by the induction of plant defences by zoophytophagous predators. PMID:25974207

  1. Beyond Predation: The Zoophytophagous Predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Induces Tomato Resistance against Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Maria L; Steppuhn, Anke; Geuss, Daniel; Topalidou, Nikoleta; Zografou, Aliki; Sabelis, Maurice W; Broufas, George D

    2015-01-01

    Many predatory insects that prey on herbivores also feed on the plant, but it is unknown whether plants affect the performance of herbivores by responding to this phytophagy with defence induction. We investigate whether the prior presence of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) on tomato plants affects plant resistance against two different herbivore species. Besides plant-mediated effects of M. pygmaeus on herbivore performance, we examined whether a plant defence trait that is known to be inducible by herbivory, proteinase inhibitors (PI), may also be activated in response to the interactions of this predator with the tomato plant. We show that exposing tomato plants to the omnivorous predator M. pygmaeus reduced performance of a subsequently infesting herbivore, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, but not of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The spider-mite infested tomato plants experience a lower herbivore load, i.e., number of eggs deposited and individuals present, when previously exposed to the zoophytophagous predator. This effect is not restricted to the exposed leaf and persists on exposed plants for at least two weeks after the removal of the predators. The decreased performance of spider mites as a result of prior exposure of the plant to M. pygmaeus is accompanied by a locally and systemically increased accumulation of transcripts and activity of proteinase inhibitors that are known to be involved in plant defence. Our results demonstrate that zoophytophagous predators can induce plant defence responses and reduce herbivore performance. Hence, the suppression of populations of certain herbivores via consumption may be strengthened by the induction of plant defences by zoophytophagous predators. PMID:25974207

  2. Damselflies of the genus Argia of the Guiana Shield (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    PubMed

    Garrison, Rosser W; Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Manaus, about 5 miles N of Flores on route to Campos Sales, small creek in virgin forest, about 3°0'S, 60°1' W, 15 vi 1922, J.H. Williamson & J.W. Strohm leg., in UMMZ), and A. recurvata (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, San Carlos de Río Negro, 1°55' N, 67°4' W, 97 m, 14-21 iii 1984, J. De Marmels leg., in MIZA). The status of Argia impura Rambur, 1842, is discussed and the following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Argia stigmatica Navás, 1934 and A. umbriaca Fraser, 1946 are considered junior synonyms of Argia indicatrix Calvert, 1902, and Argia eliptica Selys, 1865 and A. icterica Navás, 1934 are considered junior synonyms of A. oculata Hagen in Selys, 1865. PMID:26624698

  3. Damselflies of the genus Argia of the Guiana Shield (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    PubMed

    Garrison, Rosser W; Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2015-11-16

    (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Manaus, about 5 miles N of Flores on route to Campos Sales, small creek in virgin forest, about 3°0'S, 60°1' W, 15 vi 1922, J.H. Williamson & J.W. Strohm leg., in UMMZ), and A. recurvata (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, San Carlos de Río Negro, 1°55' N, 67°4' W, 97 m, 14-21 iii 1984, J. De Marmels leg., in MIZA). The status of Argia impura Rambur, 1842, is discussed and the following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Argia stigmatica Navás, 1934 and A. umbriaca Fraser, 1946 are considered junior synonyms of Argia indicatrix Calvert, 1902, and Argia eliptica Selys, 1865 and A. icterica Navás, 1934 are considered junior synonyms of A. oculata Hagen in Selys, 1865.

  4. Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)—A Revision of the World Genera

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol

    2016-01-01

    Mulsant 1850, E. dubia Crotch 1874, E. monovittata Gordon 1975, E. orthostriata Gordon 1975, E. paracuta Gordon 1975, E. patricia Mulsant 1850, E. satipensis Gordon 1975, and E. univittata Crotch 1874 are transferred to Toxotoma Weise 1900 (comb. nov.); Afissa chapini Dieke 1947, A. complicata Dieke 1947, A. convexa Dieke 1947, A. magna Dieke 1947, A. militaris Dieke 1947, A. quadricollis Dieke 1947, A. subacuta Dieke 1947, A. szechuana Dieke 1947, Epilachna boymi Jadwiszczak and Węgrzynowicz 2003, E. crepida Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. decipiens Crotch 1874, E. dorotae Bielawski 1979, E. hamulifera Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. malleforma Peng, Pang and Ren 2002, E. siphodenticulata Hoàng 1983, E. angusta Li 1961, E. bifibra Li 1961, E. chingjing Yu and Wang 1999, E. circumdata Hoàng 1978, E. circummaculata Pang and Mao 1977, E. clematicola Cao and Xiao 1984, E. exornata Bielawski 1965, E. folifera Pang and Mao 1979, E. fugongensis Cao and Xiao 1984, E. glochisifoliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. gressiti Li 1961, E. lata Li 1961, E. madanensis Zeng 2002, E. media Li 1961, E. mobliteratiae Li 1961, E. yongshanensis Cao and Xiao 1984, Solanophila acuta Weise 1900, and S. saginata Weise 1902 are transferred to Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 (comb. nov.); Coccinella canina Fabricius 1781, Epilachna dregei Mulsant 1850, E. infirma Mulsant 1850, E. murrayi Crotch 1874 and E. paykullii Mulsant 1850 are transferred to Solanophila Weise 1898 (comb. nov.); Afissula antennata Bielawski 1967, A. rana Kapur 1958, A. uniformis Pang and Mao 1979, Epilachna ampliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. flavimarginalis Hoàng 1978, E. max Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. parvula Crotch, E. plicata Weise 1889, and E. sanscrita Crotch 1874 are transferred to Afissa Dieke 1947 (comb. nov.); Epilachna papuensis Crotch 1874 and Subafissa brittoni Bielawski 1963 are transferred to Henosepilachna Li 1961 (comb. nov.); Epilachna admirabilis Crotch 1874, E. alternans Mulsant 1850, E. glochinosa Pang and Mao 1979

  5. Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)-A Revision of the World Genera.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol

    2016-01-01

    1850, E. dubia Crotch 1874, E. monovittata Gordon 1975, E. orthostriata Gordon 1975, E. paracuta Gordon 1975, E. patricia Mulsant 1850, E. satipensis Gordon 1975, and E. univittata Crotch 1874 are transferred to Toxotoma Weise 1900 (comb. nov.); Afissa chapini Dieke 1947, A. complicata Dieke 1947, A. convexa Dieke 1947, A. magna Dieke 1947, A. militaris Dieke 1947, A. quadricollis Dieke 1947, A. subacuta Dieke 1947, A. szechuana Dieke 1947, Epilachna boymi Jadwiszczak and Węgrzynowicz 2003, E. crepida Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E decipiens Crotch 1874, E. dorotae Bielawski 1979, E. hamulifera Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. malleforma Peng, Pang and Ren 2002, E. siphodenticulata Hoàng 1983, E. angusta Li 1961, E. bifibra Li 1961, E. chingjing Yu and Wang 1999, E. circumdata Hoàng 1978, E. circummaculata Pang and Mao 1977, E. clematicola Cao and Xiao 1984, E. exornata Bielawski 1965, E. folifera Pang and Mao 1979, E. fugongensis Cao and Xiao 1984, E. glochisifoliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. gressiti Li 1961, E. lata Li 1961, E. madanensis Zeng 2002, E. media Li 1961, E. mobliteratiae Li 1961, E. yongshanensis Cao and Xiao 1984, Solanophila acuta Weise 1900, and S. saginata Weise 1902 are transferred to Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 (comb. nov.); Coccinella canina Fabricius 1781, Epilachna dregei Mulsant 1850, E. infirma Mulsant 1850, E. murrayi Crotch 1874 and E. paykullii Mulsant 1850 are transferred to Solanophila Weise 1898 (comb. nov.); Afissula antennata Bielawski 1967, A. rana Kapur 1958, A. uniformis Pang and Mao 1979, Epilachna ampliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. flavimarginalis Hoàng 1978, E. max Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. parvula Crotch, E. plicata Weise 1889, and E. sanscrita Crotch 1874 are transferred to Afissa Dieke 1947 (comb. nov.); Epilachna papuensis Crotch 1874 and Subafissa brittoni Bielawski 1963 are transferred to Henosepilachna Li 1961 (comb. nov.); Epilachna admirabilis Crotch 1874, E. alternans Mulsant 1850, E. glochinosa Pang and Mao 1979, E

  6. Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)-A Revision of the World Genera.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol

    2016-01-01

    1850, E. dubia Crotch 1874, E. monovittata Gordon 1975, E. orthostriata Gordon 1975, E. paracuta Gordon 1975, E. patricia Mulsant 1850, E. satipensis Gordon 1975, and E. univittata Crotch 1874 are transferred to Toxotoma Weise 1900 (comb. nov.); Afissa chapini Dieke 1947, A. complicata Dieke 1947, A. convexa Dieke 1947, A. magna Dieke 1947, A. militaris Dieke 1947, A. quadricollis Dieke 1947, A. subacuta Dieke 1947, A. szechuana Dieke 1947, Epilachna boymi Jadwiszczak and Węgrzynowicz 2003, E. crepida Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E decipiens Crotch 1874, E. dorotae Bielawski 1979, E. hamulifera Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. malleforma Peng, Pang and Ren 2002, E. siphodenticulata Hoàng 1983, E. angusta Li 1961, E. bifibra Li 1961, E. chingjing Yu and Wang 1999, E. circumdata Hoàng 1978, E. circummaculata Pang and Mao 1977, E. clematicola Cao and Xiao 1984, E. exornata Bielawski 1965, E. folifera Pang and Mao 1979, E. fugongensis Cao and Xiao 1984, E. glochisifoliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. gressiti Li 1961, E. lata Li 1961, E. madanensis Zeng 2002, E. media Li 1961, E. mobliteratiae Li 1961, E. yongshanensis Cao and Xiao 1984, Solanophila acuta Weise 1900, and S. saginata Weise 1902 are transferred to Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 (comb. nov.); Coccinella canina Fabricius 1781, Epilachna dregei Mulsant 1850, E. infirma Mulsant 1850, E. murrayi Crotch 1874 and E. paykullii Mulsant 1850 are transferred to Solanophila Weise 1898 (comb. nov.); Afissula antennata Bielawski 1967, A. rana Kapur 1958, A. uniformis Pang and Mao 1979, Epilachna ampliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. flavimarginalis Hoàng 1978, E. max Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. parvula Crotch, E. plicata Weise 1889, and E. sanscrita Crotch 1874 are transferred to Afissa Dieke 1947 (comb. nov.); Epilachna papuensis Crotch 1874 and Subafissa brittoni Bielawski 1963 are transferred to Henosepilachna Li 1961 (comb. nov.); Epilachna admirabilis Crotch 1874, E. alternans Mulsant 1850, E. glochinosa Pang and Mao 1979, E

  7. Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)—A Revision of the World Genera

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol

    2016-01-01

    Mulsant 1850, E. dubia Crotch 1874, E. monovittata Gordon 1975, E. orthostriata Gordon 1975, E. paracuta Gordon 1975, E. patricia Mulsant 1850, E. satipensis Gordon 1975, and E. univittata Crotch 1874 are transferred to Toxotoma Weise 1900 (comb. nov.); Afissa chapini Dieke 1947, A. complicata Dieke 1947, A. convexa Dieke 1947, A. magna Dieke 1947, A. militaris Dieke 1947, A. quadricollis Dieke 1947, A. subacuta Dieke 1947, A. szechuana Dieke 1947, Epilachna boymi Jadwiszczak and Węgrzynowicz 2003, E. crepida Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. decipiens Crotch 1874, E. dorotae Bielawski 1979, E. hamulifera Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. malleforma Peng, Pang and Ren 2002, E. siphodenticulata Hoàng 1983, E. angusta Li 1961, E. bifibra Li 1961, E. chingjing Yu and Wang 1999, E. circumdata Hoàng 1978, E. circummaculata Pang and Mao 1977, E. clematicola Cao and Xiao 1984, E. exornata Bielawski 1965, E. folifera Pang and Mao 1979, E. fugongensis Cao and Xiao 1984, E. glochisifoliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. gressiti Li 1961, E. lata Li 1961, E. madanensis Zeng 2002, E. media Li 1961, E. mobliteratiae Li 1961, E. yongshanensis Cao and Xiao 1984, Solanophila acuta Weise 1900, and S. saginata Weise 1902 are transferred to Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 (comb. nov.); Coccinella canina Fabricius 1781, Epilachna dregei Mulsant 1850, E. infirma Mulsant 1850, E. murrayi Crotch 1874 and E. paykullii Mulsant 1850 are transferred to Solanophila Weise 1898 (comb. nov.); Afissula antennata Bielawski 1967, A. rana Kapur 1958, A. uniformis Pang and Mao 1979, Epilachna ampliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. flavimarginalis Hoàng 1978, E. max Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. parvula Crotch, E. plicata Weise 1889, and E. sanscrita Crotch 1874 are transferred to Afissa Dieke 1947 (comb. nov.); Epilachna papuensis Crotch 1874 and Subafissa brittoni Bielawski 1963 are transferred to Henosepilachna Li 1961 (comb. nov.); Epilachna admirabilis Crotch 1874, E. alternans Mulsant 1850, E. glochinosa Pang and Mao 1979