Science.gov

Sample records for qualitative empirical studies

  1. Importance of experimental as well as empirical qualitative studies in special education.

    PubMed

    Brantlinger, Ellen; Klingner, Janette; Richardson, Virginia

    2005-04-01

    In the past few decades qualitative research has increasingly appeared in special education journals. However, much of this work falls within the parameters of producing useful technical information that can be applied to the contexts where children and adults with disabilities learn, work, and live. Experimental qualitative studies that rely on postmodern or poststructural analyses, critical theory, and narrative research with subjective personal stories seem to be considered too radical, ideological, and theoretical to make it into many special education scholarly outlets. We argue that experimental qualitative designs have much to contribute to the fields of special education and disability studies and, hence, should reach those who receive or provide services to people with disabilities.

  2. Pharmacists and patients feedback on empirically designed prescription warning labels: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Smith, Paul D; Huang, Yen-Ming; Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura

    2017-02-01

    Background Recommendations call for the inclusion of both patient and provider input in the redesign of prescription labels. Pharmacist opinions on prescription warning labels are important because they are the health providers who would eventually distribute and explain the revised labels during medication counseling. They may be the first health provider to notice a patient's misunderstanding on how to safely use their prescription medications. Objectives To explore the perspectives of patients and pharmacists on five newly designed PWLs, and examine if there were similarities and differences between patients' and pharmacists' perspectives. Setting Private room in Wisconsin. Methods A descriptive study using semi-structured 60-min face-to-face individual interviews with patients and pharmacists explored patients and pharmacists' feedback on five newly designed PWLs. Patients who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication and pharmacists who filled prescriptions in an ambulatory setting participated in the study. The patient and pharmacist perspectives on the words (content), picture and color (cosmetic appearance), and placement of warning instructions on the pill bottle (convenience) was based on a label redesign framework. Qualitative content analysis was done. Main outcome measure Patient and pharmacist perspectives on the newly designed PWLs. Results Twenty-one patients and eight pharmacists practicing in an academic medical center outpatient setting (n = 5) or retail pharmacy (n = 3) participated. All patients and pharmacists wanted the PWLs positioned on the front of the pill bottle but not the side of the bottle or warning instructions embedded into the main prescription label. Other similarities included participants preferring: (1) pictures closely depicting the instructions and (2) the use of yellow highlighting on the PWL to draw attention to it. There were differences in patient and pharmacist perspectives

  3. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  4. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    methods in public relations and marketing communications. New York, Routledge 166-185 13. Denzin , N. K. (1978) The Research Act: A Theoretical...Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study

  5. Qualitative Studies in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "What Is It Like To Be an Independent HRD Consultant?" (Alexander Ardishvili), reports on a phenomenological study that investigated the experience of being an independent HRD (human resource development) consultant through interviews with 10 successful HRD consultants. The study identified eight…

  6. University Students' Understanding of the Concepts Empirical, Theoretical, Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2015-01-01

    University research education in many disciplines is frequently confronted by problems with students' weak level of understanding of research concepts. A mind map technique was used to investigate how students understand central methodological concepts of empirical, theoretical, qualitative and quantitative. The main hypothesis was that some…

  7. Breastfeeding Twins: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvur, Tuncay Muge; Kose, Dilek; Nemut, Tijen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the needs and difficulties of mothers who had multiple babies at Sakarya County by focusing on their breastfeeding experience. Ten mothers who gave birth to multiple infants participated in the study voluntarily. The framework method of data analysis was applied systematically both within and across cases, with categories and themes identified by reading transcripts of interviews. Major themes generated from focus narrative interviews are described. These themes are: willingness of mothers to breastfeed and continue, management of breastfeeding, use of pacifier, daily life, ınstructions of healthcare personnel, and advices from practice of experienced mothers. This study showed that women were aware of the importance of mother's milk for their babies. They all, somehow, made intensive efforts to breastfeed their twins. Women who expect and/or have multiple babies need much more support and guidance, which may include advice for nutritional and daily care. PMID:24592592

  8. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  9. Experience of fibromyalgia. Qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, M. C.; Brown, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore illness experiences of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Midsize city in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. METHOD: Seven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the illness experience of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analysis. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. The analysis strategy used a phenomenologic approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. MAIN FINDINGS: Themes that emerged from the interpretive analysis depict patients' journeys along a continuum from experiencing symptoms, through seeking a diagnosis, to coping with the illness. Experiencing symptoms was composed of four subcategories: pain, a precipitating event, associated symptoms, and modulating factors. Seeking a diagnosis entailed frustration and social isolation. Confirmation of diagnosis brought relief as well as anxiety about the future. After diagnosis, several steps led to creation of adaptive coping strategies, which were influenced by several factors. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the conventional medical model fails to address the complex experience of fibromyalgia. Adopting a patient-centred approach is important for helping patients cope with this disease. PMID:10845136

  10. An empirical and model study on automobile market in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ji-Ying; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Yueping; He, Da-Ren

    2006-03-01

    We have done an empirical investigation on automobile market in Taiwan including the development of the possession rate of the companies in the market from 1979 to 2003, the development of the largest possession rate, and so on. A dynamic model for describing the competition between the companies is suggested based on the empirical study. In the model each company is given a long-term competition factor (such as technology, capital and scale) and a short-term competition factor (such as management, service and advertisement). Then the companies play games in order to obtain more possession rate in the market under certain rules. Numerical simulation based on the model display a competition developing process, which qualitatively and quantitatively agree with our empirical investigation results.

  11. A Qualitative Ethnographic Portrait of Women's Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Julee L.

    2013-01-01

    In this research study, I sought to understand and describe the Women's and Gender Studies (WGS) Program at Berea College by exploring it through the experiences of students, faculty, administrators, and alumnae. I designed and implemented a feminist organizational ethnography. Organizational ethnography is a naturalistic, qualitative research…

  12. Characterizing Student Expectations: A Small Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…

  13. Using Qualitative Methods to Study Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William; Lisboa, Carolina

    2005-01-01

    Basic concepts and procedures of qualitative analysis are discussed, especially as they relate to the study of the features, processes, and effects of friendships. The contributions of the previous chapters are presented according to theory and research on friendship as a developmental process.

  14. Aggregation, Validation, and Generalization of Qualitative Data - Methodological and Practical Research Strategies Illustrated by the Research Process of an empirically Based Typology.

    PubMed

    Weis, Daniel; Willems, Helmut

    2016-12-12

    The article deals with the question of how aggregated data which allow for generalizable insights can be generated from single-case based qualitative investigations. Thereby, two central challenges of qualitative social research are outlined: First, researchers must ensure that the single-case data can be aggregated and condensed so that new collective structures can be detected. Second, they must apply methods and practices to allow for the generalization of the results beyond the specific study. In the following, we demonstrate how and under what conditions these challenges can be addressed in research practice. To this end, the research process of the construction of an empirically based typology is described. A qualitative study, conducted within the framework of the Luxembourg Youth Report, is used to illustrate this process. Specifically, strategies are presented which increase the likelihood of generalizability or transferability of the results, while also highlighting their limitations.

  15. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

    2012-01-01

    There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…

  16. Does the New Digital Generation of Learners Exist? A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Contreras, David; Meyer, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion on the current generation of students and their relationship to technology, providing qualitative, empirical information obtained in the Chilean context. The study analyses and discusses the ideas regarding the emergence of a new generation of learners, or digital natives, as characterised by…

  17. A Qualitative Case Study Exploring Self-Efficacy and Its Influence on Fourth Grade Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prindle, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The perception of higher self-efficacy in young children has been determined to be a better predictor of intellectual and academic performance than simply the acquisition of skills alone. This empirical qualitative single-case study was conducted in order to explore the influence of self-efficacy instruction on perceptions toward and achievement…

  18. [Hospital costs: results of empirical studies].

    PubMed

    Delande, G; Negre, M

    1992-01-01

    The DRG hospital payment system will be introduced in France in 1993-94 under the name of GHM ("groupes homogènes de malades"). However the method for evaluating costs is mainly based on past trends and, as a matter of fact, they exclude innovative care behavior from the doctors. Three new methods are therefore experimented: (i) standardized operation protocols; (ii) observation of consumed products and time of health personnel; (iii) observation of the costs resulting from the tariffs of the Social Security administration. The empirical studies were carried out in Montpellier and Nantes, two middle size cities of France.

  19. A Study of Service-Learning at Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Alice

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore student perceptions of service learning as well as the importance of service learning to community college students. Data were collected through interviews with 24 community college participants from Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College, both in southwest…

  20. An Empirical Study of Enterprise Conceptual Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaby-Tavor, Ateret; Amid, David; Fisher, Amit; Ossher, Harold; Bellamy, Rachel; Callery, Matthew; Desmond, Michael; Krasikov, Sophia; Roth, Tova; Simmonds, Ian; de Vries, Jacqueline

    Business analysts, business architects, and solution consultants use a variety of practices and methods in their quest to understand business. The resulting work products could end up being transitioned into the formal world of software requirement definitions or as recommendations for all kinds of business activities. We describe an empirical study about the nature of these methods, diagrams, and home-grown conceptual models as reflected in real practice at IBM. We identify the models as artifacts of "enterprise conceptual modeling". We study important features of these models, suggest practical classifications, and discuss their usage. Our survey shows that the "enterprise conceptual modeling" arena presents a variety of descriptive models, each used by a relatively small group of colleagues. Together they form a "long tail" that extends from "drawings" on one end to "standards" on the other.

  1. Nurses, the Oppressed Oppressors: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; ParsaYekta, Zohreh; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare equity, defined as rightful and fair care provision, is a key objective in all health systems. Nurses commonly experience cases of equity/inequity when caring for patients. The present study was the first to explain nurses’ experience of equal care. A qualitative study sought to describe the experiences of 18 clinical nurses and nurse managers who were selected through purposive sampling. The inclusion criteria were the nurses’ familiarity with the subject of the study and willingness to participate. The data were collected through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews. The sampling continued up to data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and then transcribed word by word. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The major theme extracted in this study was the equation between submissiveness and oppression in nurses. It had two subthemes, namely the oppressed nurse and the oppressive nurse. The first subtheme comprised three categories including nurses’ occupational dissatisfaction, discrimination between nursing personnel, and favoring physicians over nurses. The second subtheme consisted of three categories, namely habit-oriented care provision, inappropriate care delegation, and care rationing while neglecting patient needs. When equal care provision was concerned, the participating nurses fluctuated between states of oppression and submissiveness. Hence, equal conditions for nurses are essential to equal care provision. In fact, fair behavior toward nurses would lead to equity nursing care provision and increase satisfaction with the healthcare system. PMID:26156912

  2. Nurses, the Oppressed Oppressors: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; ParsaYekta, Zohreh; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2015-03-18

    Healthcare equity, defined as rightful and fair care provision, is a key objective in all health systems. Nurses commonly experience cases of equity/inequity when caring for patients. The present study was the first to explain nurses' experience of equal care. A qualitative study sought to describe the experiences of 18 clinical nurses and nurse managers who were selected through purposive sampling. The inclusion criteria were the nurses' familiarity with the subject of the study and willingness to participate. The data were collected through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews. The sampling continued up to data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and then transcribed word by word. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The major theme extracted in this study was the equation between submissiveness and oppression in nurses. It had two subthemes, namely the oppressed nurse and the oppressive nurse. The first subtheme comprised three categories including nurses' occupational dissatisfaction, discrimination between nursing personnel, and favoring physicians over nurses. The second subtheme consisted of three categories, namely habit-oriented care provision, inappropriate care delegation, and care rationing while neglecting patient needs. When equal care provision was concerned, the participating nurses fluctuated between states of oppression and submissiveness. Hence, equal conditions for nurses are essential to equal care provision. In fact, fair behavior toward nurses would lead to equity nursing care provision and increase satisfaction with the healthcare system.

  3. An empirical study of software design practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

  4. Empirical study of recent Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Li, W.; Cai, X.; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of the empirical data taken from the Chinese stock market during the time period from January, 2006 to July, 2007. By using the methods of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and calculating correlation coefficients, we acquire the evidence of strong correlations among different stock types, stock index, stock volume turnover, A share (B share) seat number, and GDP per capita. In addition, we study the behavior of “volatility”, which is now defined as the difference between the new account numbers for two consecutive days. It is shown that the empirical power-law of the number of aftershock events exceeding the selected threshold is analogous to the Omori law originally observed in geophysics. Furthermore, we find that the cumulative distributions of stock return, trade volume and trade number are all exponential-like, which does not belong to the universality class of such distributions found by Xavier Gabaix et al. [Xavier Gabaix, Parameswaran Gopikrishnan, Vasiliki Plerou, H. Eugene Stanley, Nature, 423 (2003)] for major western markets. Through the comparison, we draw a conclusion that regardless of developed stock markets or emerging ones, “cubic law of returns” is valid only in the long-term absolute return, and in the short-term one, the distributions are exponential-like. Specifically, the distributions of both trade volume and trade number display distinct decaying behaviors in two separate regimes. Lastly, the scaling behavior of the relation is analyzed between dispersion and the mean monthly trade value for each administrative area in China.

  5. Computer Based Social Studies Instruction: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusoy, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the quality of the computer and Internet based social studies course was investigated. A case study design was chosen to understand, a) how computers are used in the eighth grade classroom, b) what the students' and teachers' perceptions are about the advantages and problems of using computers. Qualitative data sources showed that…

  6. Transition mixing study empirical model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

    1988-01-01

    The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

  7. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  8. How public perceive diabetes: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Samereh; Mardanian, Leila; Mirzaei, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes has a high prevalence in Iran, and its incidence is estimated to increase from 3.5 million adults in 2005 to 5.1 million by 2025. Given the high prevalence of diabetes in Iranians, it is surprising that little is known about understanding of diabetes in the general population. This study aimed to explore how people without diabetes interpreted the disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative content analysis, using unstructured and in-depth interviews, with the participation of 21 individuals without diabetes (13 women and 8 men), 18-61 years old, who were selected for this purpose from the cities of Isfahan and Tehran from October 2010 to May 2011. The data were analyzed using latent content analysis method. Results: The participants had different beliefs and ideas about diabetes and most of them gave a negative and black image of diabetes. Although a small number of individuals considered diabetes better than AIDS and cancer, they often took diabetes as blackness, end of romances, and a gradual death. Conclusion: However, the study sample was small. The findings show that the participants’ perspective on diabetes is negative and destructive. It seems shaping a new identity in the path of empowerment could be difficult within the social and cultural context. These findings can give an insight to health care providers to realize how important it is to find the public perception about diabetes. They are responsible to change or modify the public view on diabetes by introducing the disease with the help of prominent people and educating individuals in the society on all aspects of living with diabetes, not simply the symptoms and disabilities it brings along. PMID:23853650

  9. An empirical study of scanner system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D.; Biehl, L.; Simmons, W.

    1976-01-01

    The selection of the current combination of parametric values (instantaneous field of view, number and location of spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio, etc.) of a multispectral scanner is a complex problem due to the strong interrelationship these parameters have with one another. The study was done with the proposed scanner known as Thematic Mapper in mind. Since an adequate theoretical procedure for this problem has apparently not yet been devised, an empirical simulation approach was used with candidate parameter values selected by the heuristic means. The results obtained using a conventional maximum likelihood pixel classifier suggest that although the classification accuracy declines slightly as the IFOV is decreased this is more than made up by an improved mensuration accuracy. Further, the use of a classifier involving both spatial and spectral features shows a very substantial tendency to resist degradation as the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased. And finally, further evidence is provided of the importance of having at least one spectral band in each of the major available portions of the optical spectrum.

  10. Case Study Research in Education. A Qualitative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.

    A practical guide for designing and carrying out qualitative case study in education is provided. How-to advice for managing all phases of case study research is included. The focus is on case studies that draw from what is commonly known as the qualitative research paradigm rather than a quantitative, positivistic, experimental orientation. Three…

  11. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  12. Sleep during basic combat training: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Shannon K; Wilkinson, Larrell L; Burroughs, Ericka L; Muraca, Stephanie T; Wigfall, Lisa T; Louis-Nance, Tasha; Williams, Edith M; Glover, Saundra H; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2012-07-01

    Anecdotal accounts indicate that Basic Combat Training (BCT) is associated with significant sleep impairment, which conceivably could impact health, attrition, and training. However, there has been little empirical investigation of sleep during BCT. The aim of this study was to obtain a qualitative assessment of soldiers' perceptions about their sleep and consequences of sleep disruption during BCT. During November/December of 2010, focus group discussions were conducted with soldiers, ages > or = 18 years, who had completed at least 4 weeks of BCT at Fort Jackson, SC. The soldiers were assessed in 45 to 60 min sessions involving three groups of female soldiers (total n = 28) and three groups of male soldiers (total n = 38). Soldiers reported reductions in their sleep duration and quality, which were attributed to many factors, particularly noise, nighttime work detail, stress, and hunger. These sleep changes had many perceived negative effects on performance, mood, and other components of BCT. These effects were more evident in soldiers of lower physical fitness. This study suggests associations between sleep and BCT outcomes. Whether these associations warrant changes in the sleep environment of BCT will require much further investigation.

  13. Communication and Organization in Software Development: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, Carolyn B.; Basili, Victor R.

    1996-01-01

    The empirical study described in this paper addresses the issue of communication among members of a software development organization. The independent variables are various attributes of organizational structure. The dependent variable is the effort spent on sharing information which is required by the software development process in use. The research questions upon which the study is based ask whether or not these attributes of organizational structure have an effect on the amount of communication effort expended. In addition, there are a number of blocking variables which have been identified. These are used to account for factors other than organizational structure which may have an effect on communication effort. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection and analysis. These methods include participant observation, structured interviews, and graphical data presentation. The results of this study indicate that several attributes of organizational structure do affect communication effort, but not in a simple, straightforward way. In particular, the distances between communicators in the reporting structure of the organization, as well as in the physical layout of offices, affects how quickly they can share needed information, especially during meetings. These results provide a better understanding of how organizational structure helps or hinders communication in software development.

  14. Women's Studies at Empire State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Virginia L.

    Because of the unique program of Empire State College, the problem of providing compensatory courses about women and developing a strategy for eventually having them incorporated into the curriculum of a discipline has been avoided. The focus at this college has been taken from the teacher and placed on the student, giving the student the primary…

  15. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  16. Doctors on Values and Advocacy: A Qualitative and Evaluative Study.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Siun; Little, Miles

    2016-05-11

    Doctors are increasingly enjoined by their professional organisations to involve themselves in supraclinical advocacy, which embraces activities focused on changing practice and the system in order to address the social determinants of health. The moral basis for doctors' decisions on whether or not to do so has been the subject of little empirical research. This opportunistic qualitative study of the values of medical graduates associated with the Sydney Medical School explores the processes that contribute to doctors' decisions about taking up the advocate role. Our findings show that personal ideals were more important than professional commitments in shaping doctors' decisions on engagement in advocacy. Experiences in early life and during training, including exposure to power and powerlessness, significantly influenced their role choices. Doctors included supraclinical advocacy in their mature practices if it satisfied their desire to achieve excellence. These findings suggest that common approaches to promoting and facilitating advocacy as an individual professional obligation are not fully congruent with the experiences and values of doctors that are significant in creating the advocate. It would seem important to understand better the moral commitments inherent in advocacy to inform future developments in codes of medical ethics and medical education programs.

  17. Exploring School Counselors' Perceptions of Vicarious Trauma: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mashone; Henfield, Malik S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine school counselors' perceptions of vicarious trauma. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology was used. Six school counselors were interviewed. Three primary domains emerged from the data: (a) ambiguous vicarious trauma, (b) support system significance, and (c) importance of level of…

  18. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  19. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  20. Motorcyclists' reactions to safety helmet law: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Mohammadi, Eesa; Montazeri, Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Bazargan, Shahrzad Hejazi

    2009-01-01

    Background Extensive body of the literature reveals that proper use of helmets is an effective way to reduce the severity of injuries and fatalities among motorcyclists. However, many motorcyclists do not use safety helmet properly. This study aimed to empirically explore reactions of motorcyclists to the safety helmet laws, in Iran. Methods Qualitative data were collected via four focus groups and 11 in-depth interviews. Participants were 28 male motorcyclists who never used a safety helmet during rides, and 4 male police officers. All transcripts, codes and categories were read for several times to exhaust identifiable major themes. During this process data were reduced from text to codes and themes. Results Five major themes emerged from the data analyses, including themes related to the following: (1) circumventing or dodging police officers; (2) simulating a helmet wearing behavior; (3) accepting the probability of receiving a ticket; (4) taking advantage of the police neglect and carelessness; and (5) using a cheap or convenient helmet. Conclusion Our findings suggest certain levels of reckless driving among the participating motorcyclists in this study. They also point to a system of law enforcement that operates haphazardly and fails to consistently penalize those who deviate from it. Further studies are needed to investigate how "risks" are perceived and relate to "reactions", and how a 'culture of masculinity' may encourage risk tolerance and a disposition toward lawlessness and carelessness among male motorcyclists. Also, there is a need for the development and implementation of multidimensional interventions that would offer socio-culturally sensitive educational and motivational messages to the motorcyclists and the in-service traffic-enforcement officers in Iran. PMID:19843325

  1. [The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study.

  2. The German specimen case, Amalia X: empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Kächele, Horst; Albani, Cornelia; Buchheim, Anna; Hölzer, Michael; Hohage, Roderich; Mergenthaler, Erhard; Jiménez, Juan Pablo; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne; Neudert-Dreyer, Lisbeth; Pokorny, Dan; Thomä, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    The authors provide a perspective on how psychoanalytic process research can be implemented. This is based on a process research model described elsewhere and summarizes the kinds of studies that can be situated on the four levels of the model. The authors summarize multiple empirical studies that were performed in a completely tape-recorded psychoanalytic therapy and have been published. These studies demonstrate the many modalities empirical process research has available to objectively study psychoanalytic process phenomena and their implication for outcome.

  3. Empirical study on human acupuncture point network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Shen, Dan; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren

    2007-03-01

    Chinese medical theory is ancient and profound, however is confined by qualitative and faint understanding. The effect of Chinese acupuncture in clinical practice is unique and effective, and the human acupuncture points play a mysterious and special role, however there is no modern scientific understanding on human acupuncture points until today. For this reason, we attend to use complex network theory, one of the frontiers in the statistical physics, for describing the human acupuncture points and their connections. In the network nodes are defined as the acupuncture points, two nodes are connected by an edge when they are used for a medical treatment of a common disease. A disease is defined as an act. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The results certify that the degree distribution, act degree distribution, and the dependence of the clustering coefficient on both of them obey SPL distribution function, which show a function interpolating between a power law and an exponential decay. The results may be helpful for understanding Chinese medical theory.

  4. Online Counseling Using Email: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…

  5. Applying Infant Massage Practices: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Grace; Kretschmer, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the dynamic interaction between a mother and her 11-month-old visually impaired infant before and after the mother was taught infant massage. After the mother learned infant massage, she had more appropriate physical contact with her infant, engaged with him within his field of vision, directly vocalized to him, and had a…

  6. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people’s needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. Methods This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Results Analyzing participants’ perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). Conclusions General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals’ needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran. PMID:27504163

  7. Diversity in High Schools and Diversity Management: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to present the diversities in high schools and opinions of teachers about management of these diversities. The sample of the study is from nine teachers working at the official high schools in the center of Denizli in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data are collected with a semi-structured interview form…

  8. Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lally, Phillippa; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2011-08-01

    Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development of behavioural automaticity; and selecting effective cues to support repeated behaviour. Results showed that behaviour change was initially experienced as cognitively effortful but as automaticity increased, enactment became easier. Habits were typically formed in work-based contexts. Weekends and vacations temporarily disrupted performance due to absence of associated cues, but habits were reinstated on return to work. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  9. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  10. Aging, Spirituality, and Time: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Black, Helen K.; Hannum, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the concepts of aging, time, spirituality, and future care needs in four randomly selected informants from a group of 54 never-married childless older women. Using data from the Generativity and Lifestyles of Older Women (GLOW) study, we questioned how women’s perceptions of these concepts came together in current older age. We employed cultural theory, (our theoretical framework), ethnography, (our methodological framework), and phenomenology, (our philosophical foundation) to produce a portrait of each woman interviewed. Through a three-session interview process, we elicited the women’s life stories, reasons for childlessness, and topics that emerged as significant to the women, including aging, a sense of time remaining, and spirituality. A key finding was that the context of each woman’s life, both biographical and historical, transpired as a foundation for these concepts. That is, a woman’s “place in time” shaped their experiences of aging, as well as her reasons for childlessness and perceptions of finitude. PMID:26539067

  11. Improving science teaching in multicultural settings: A qualitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Judith; Kean, Elizabeth

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study of a collaboration between the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the administration and science teachers of the Omaha (Nebraska) Public Schools to improve the learning environment in multicultural science classrooms. The study of the summer workshops and follow-up interactions is described, along with a description of the changes in teacher attitudes and beliefs toward culturally diverse students. The three major themes of the workshops (multicultural understanding, cooperative learning, and problem solving as a source of content) are presented. Qualitative data sources are used to describe and interpret the changes in teacher interactions with minority students that were observed during a three-year period.

  12. An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

    A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

  13. A Qualitative Study of Parental Resistance to Girls' Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alat, Zeynep; Alat, Kazim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the reasons for parental resistance to girls' schooling. The study was conducted in Ordu, Giresun, Gumushane, and Sinop provinces of Turkey where school enrollment rates for girls were among the lowest in the Black Sea Region. The results showed that obstacles for female education varied and…

  14. Work Experiences of Latina Immigrants: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggerth, Donald E.; DeLaney, Sheli C.; Flynn, Michael A.; Jacobson, C. Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the…

  15. Where Do College Drinkers Draw the Line?: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Danielle L.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Kate B.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has received nationwide recognition as a public health concern. The primary aim of this study was to explore students' opinions of when drinking crosses the line from acceptable to unacceptable. This study used qualitative methods to: (a) examine unappealing aspects of drinking by relationship type…

  16. A Qualitative Study: Integrating Art and Science in the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Deborah N.

    2013-01-01

    The study was used to develop an understanding of the nature of a creative learning experience that incorporated the foundational elements of Reggio Emilia, place-based education, and experience design. The study took place in an urban high school with eight students in an advanced placement art class. The qualitative research project revolved…

  17. PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

  18. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  19. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  20. Mexican American Adults in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Janet Ann

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used a narrative design to explore the perceptions, background and experiences of Mexican Americans who completed their bachelor's degree as adult learners. The study focuses in particular on their experiences of learning to be bicultural. A "Borderlands" framework whereby Mexican American adult learners negotiated…

  1. Exploring Young People's Perceptions Relevant to Counselling: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Surf, Anne; Lynch, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Presents findings from a qualitative study exploring young people's perceptions about the provision of a youth-counseling service. Study reveals factors that hinder willingness to seek counseling and factors that encourage young people to make use of counseling. (Author/GCP)

  2. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  3. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  4. Writing via Reading Software: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillman, Carolyn V.; And Others

    A study evaluated the effects of one reading software program on the written language production of kindergarten and first grade students. Subjects were approximately 600 students from six different schools--three using the computerized reading program, Writing to Read, and three comparable in demographics, but not using the program. Stories…

  5. Instruction for Web Searching: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colaric, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of problems that users have with Web searching focuses on a study of undergraduates that investigated three instructional methods (instruction by example, conceptual models without illustrations, and conceptual models with illustrations) to determine differences in knowledge acquisition related to three types of knowledge (declarative,…

  6. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  7. Honors Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Debra K.; Banning, James H.

    2012-01-01

    A potential source of useful information about undergraduate honors education can be found in doctoral dissertation abstracts that focus on honors. Debra Holman and James Banning of Colorado State University sought to explore this resource by undertaking a bounded qualitative meta-study of such abstracts using document analysis. Three…

  8. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  9. A Qualitative Case Study: Teacher Perceptions of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Stacey L. E.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is becoming a more widely used term to explain student behaviors, yet research on EF in education is limited. This qualitative study addressed a gap in literature by examining teacher perceptions of students with EF deficits, as well as teacher preparedness and desire to learn more about EF. Perceptions of third grade,…

  10. Improving Math Performance in High Risk Schools: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Leticia M.

    2013-01-01

    The researcher developed a case study using a qualitative research methodology to describe the functions of a team of math teachers in a professional learning community in a Title 1 low performing high school that led to increased student achievement. The tenth-grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics results for the…

  11. Learning Experiences of University Biology Faculty: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusch, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this article incorporates qualitative research through in-depth, individual, structured interviews with 12 biology faculty from two Midwestern universities to explore perceptions about how they have learned to teach and how they work to improve their skills.

  12. Perceptions of Principals' Support for Teacher Leadership: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine principals' perceptions with respect to teacher leadership and the opportunities or barriers to leadership roles that teachers encounter within a school. Understanding the perspectives of principals with respect to teacher leadership and the opportunities or barriers to leadership could…

  13. Resident Physicians' Perspectives on Effective Outpatient Teaching: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisiel, John B.; Bundrick, John B.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through…

  14. A Qualitative Self-Study of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourie, Robert James

    2007-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a retinal degenerative disease causing progressive blindness. Most research on RP is biomedical, and mostly from an observer perspective, therefore poorly reflecting the lived experience of having RP. Accordingly, the researcher conducted a retrospective qualitative self-study, to analyze reflections on his own…

  15. Underage "Binge Drinking": A Qualitative Study into Motivations and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a qualitative study examining young people's perceived motivations for "binge drinking", and the associated harmful outcomes. Sixty-four, in-depth, one-to-one interviews were carried out with 14 to 17 year olds in southern England who had experience of binge drinking. Given the underage sample, most of…

  16. Beginning Teachers Take Flight: A Qualitative Study of Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelle, Pamela S.

    This qualitative study examined the socialization experiences of novice Louisiana middle school teachers. With the middle school as the unit of analysis, it used the aeronautical metaphor to describe schools as organizations where new teachers' initial flight into teaching occurred. Data collection involved interviews with principals, mentors, and…

  17. A Qualitative Study on Changes of Educational Values among Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Bardakci, Salih

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to evaluate both the positive and negative changes in the aims and practices of current schools and, in addition, identify teacher values that have influenced the Turkish educational system from the early years of the Turkish Republic till now. With this in mind, a set of semi structured open-ended…

  18. Influences on Preservice Teacher Socialization: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Melissa J.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative two-year study traces the changes in beliefs and actions of four preservice teachers through the final two years of their university education program. Dialectical Theory of Socialization and Cognitive Dissonance Theory provide the theoretical framework. The findings show that three main factors affect the transfer of learning…

  19. Adjuncts Matter: A Qualitative Study of Adjuncts' Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Telvis M.

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic factors that influence the workplace experiences of 27 adjuncts teaching online were explored. In this qualitative research study, the adjuncts' lived experiences were examined through in-depth interviews. The results indicated three emergent factors which influenced the participants' workplace experiences, and the alternative…

  20. Australian Adult Consumers' Beliefs about Plant Foods: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study examined consumers' perceived barriers and benefits of plant food (fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, seeds) consumption and views on the promotion of these foods. Ten focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Groups consisted of employees of various workplaces, community group members,…

  1. Metaphoric Stories in Supervision of Internship: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Carol A.; Ward, Janice E.; Scofield, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a qualitative study that explored how the use of stories in supervision may contribute to self-reflection in master's-level counseling interns. Interns from 2 universities participated in facilitated discussions of 3 fairy tales throughout a semester. The analysis of storied discussions revealed 3 themes related to supervisee…

  2. Measuring physical activity with sensors: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dias, André; Fisterer, Bernhard; Lamla, Gregor; Kuhn, Klaus; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Horsch, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Long term wearing of motion and heart rate sensors are essential aspects for longitudinal studies on physical activity measurement studies. We conducted a qualitative study with seven subjects in a total of 13 test sessions to identify usability and handling problems associated with Stayhealth RT3, Actigraph GT1M and Polar RS800 sensors. We found that battery life limitation is the most recurrent technical problem and long term wear of heart rate sensors produces discomfort and skin irritation.

  3. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  4. An Empirical Study of Students on Academic Probation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.; Graham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A substantial number of university students are placed on academic probation each year, many of whom never succeed in academia. Hence, it is critical to identify who these students are, why they end up on academic probation, and most importantly how best to intervene. To determine this, an empirical study of students on academic probation for the…

  5. Continued Use of a Chinese Online Portal: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Hung-Pin

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the internet has made online portals a popular means of surfing the internet. In internet commerce, understanding the post-adoption behaviour of users of online portals can help enterprises to attract new users and retain existing customers. For predicting continued use intentions, this empirical study focused on applying and…

  6. Threat, Intimidation, and Student Financial Market Knowledge: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Matthew W.; Devoto, Steve; Kent, Daniel W.; Harrison, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Threat emanating from financial markets may intimidate college students to some degree. In this article, the authors considered the influence of such intimidation on student financial market knowledge. They hypothesized a negative relationship between intimidation and market knowledge. An empirical study of over 150 undergraduate business school…

  7. Empirical Performance of Covariates in Education Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Vivian C.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Miller-Bains, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article summarizes results from 12 empirical evaluations of observational methods in education contexts. We look at the performance of three common covariate-types in observational studies where the outcome is a standardized reading or math test. They are: pretest measures, local geographic matching, and rich covariate sets with a strong…

  8. Validity of Empirical Studies of Information System Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    research design using the Campbell and Stanley (1966) taxonomy. 29 2. Handling Threats to Internal Validity Once a study was classified according to...randomized comparison groups, controls for all threats to internal validity. The difficult with the MIS empirical studies of effectiveness is that only four...a much sounder design that the one-group. Regrettably, only 2% of the reviewed studies employed a time-series design. B. HANDLING THREATS TO INTERNAL

  9. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  10. Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots.

  11. Reexamining competitive priorities: Empirical study in service sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Fazli; Mohammad, Jihad

    2015-02-01

    The general objective of this study is to validate the multi-level concept of competitive priorities using reflective-formative model at a higher order for service industries. An empirical study of 228 firms from 9 different service industries is conducted to answer the objective of this study. Partial least square analysis with SmartPLS 2.0 was used to perform the analysis. Finding revealed six priorities: cost, flexibility, delivery, quality talent management, quality tangibility, and innovativeness. It emerges that quality are expanded into two types; one is related to managing talent for process improvement and the second one is the physical appearance and tangibility of the service quality. This study has confirmed competitive priorities as formative second-order hierarchical latent construct by using rigorous empirical evidence. Implications, limitation and suggestion for future research are accordingly discussed in this paper.

  12. Return to work after burns: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Mackey, S P; Diba, R; McKeown, D; Wallace, C; Booth, S; Gilbert, P M; Dheansa, B S

    2009-05-01

    As yet no qualitative research studies looking at return to work following burns have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the "hows" and "whys" of return to work, by purposively selecting a cross-section of burns patients who returned to the same/similar job, those who returned to work but either on a part-time basis or in a different role/job and those who became or remained unemployed, and using semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences. Using matrix analysis methodology, and with the general themes that emerged from these transcripts, it was possible to place patients into 5 broad groups, the "defeated", the "burdened", the "affected", the "unchanged" and the "stronger". We anticipate that use of these general groups will be useful in targeting multi-disciplinary return to work strategies, and discuss how this qualitative research has changed practice at the Queen Victoria Hospital Burns Centre.

  13. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  14. Effective Factors in Providing Holistic Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Jasemi, Madineh; Valizadeh, Leila; Keogh, Brian; Taleghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses’ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis) software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring. PMID:26009677

  15. A qualitative study on adolescence, health and family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907

  16. Model and empirical study on some collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pei-Pei; Kan Chen; He, Yue; Zhou, Tao; Su, Bei-Bei; Jin, Yingdi; Chang, Hui; Zhou, Yue-Ping; Sun, Li-Cheng; Wang, Bing-Hong; He, Da-Ren

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we present an empirical study of a few practical systems described by cooperation networks, and propose a model to understand the results obtained. We study four non-social systems, which are the Bus Route Networks of Beijing and Yangzhou, the Travel Route Network of China, Huai-Yang recipes of Chinese cooked food, and a social system, which is the Collaboration Network of Hollywood Actors. In order to explain the results related to the degree distribution, act-degree distribution and act-size distribution (especially about the degree distribution, which may be better fitted using a stretched exponential distribution (SED)), we suggest a simple model to show a possible evolutionary mechanism for the emergence of such networks. The analytic and numerical results obtained from the model are in good agreement with the empirical results.

  17. Empirical study on clique-degree distribution of networks.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei-Ke; Ren, Jie; Qi, Feng; Song, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Meng-Xiao; Yang, Hong-Feng; Jin, Hui-Yu; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao

    2007-09-01

    The community structure and motif-modular-network hierarchy are of great importance for understanding the relationship between structures and functions. We investigate the distribution of clique degrees, which are an extension of degree and can be used to measure the density of cliques in networks. Empirical studies indicate the extensive existence of power-law clique-degree distributions in various real networks, and the power-law exponent decreases with an increase of clique size.

  18. Offender experiences and opinions of mixed-gender group work in the community: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Nina; Day, Jo

    2011-10-01

    The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology.

  19. Abortion providers, professional identity, and restrictive laws: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Britton, Laura E; Mercier, Rebecca J; Buchbinder, Mara; Bryant, Amy G

    2017-03-01

    Most studies on the impact of restrictive abortion laws have focused on patient-level outcomes. To better understand how such laws affect providers, we conducted a qualitative study of 27 abortion providers working under a restrictive law in North Carolina. Providers derived professional identity from their motivations, values, and experiences of pride related to abortion provision. The law affected their professional identities by perpetuating negative characterizations of their profession, requiring changes to patient care and communication, and creating conflicts between professional values and legal obligations. We conclude that a holistic understanding of the impact of abortion laws should include providers' perspectives.

  20. Evidence for the Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy: A Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roesler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome) on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method. PMID:25379256

  1. Cancer support groups: a critical review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Wachala, Elizabeth D

    2007-05-01

    Support groups for adults affected by cancer are widely offered by local community and national agencies in North America. This type of psychosocial intervention is defined in terms of its structure and functions, and its theoretical underpinnings and models of practice are described. Forty-four empirical studies of professionally led cancer support groups are summarized and critically reviewed. These studies include 32 outcome evaluations of randomized controlled trials, two process evaluations, and 10 consumer satisfaction studies. The findings reveal high levels of consumer satisfaction, and the outcome evaluations substantiate the morale and other quality of life benefits short of prolonging life. Discussion centers on priorities for future research and practice.

  2. Positive changes after breast cancer: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Masoud; Taleghani, Fariba; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic events such as breast cancer along with negative effects on patients also have positive effects. These cases have been studied less in Iran. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of explanation of positive changes after breast cancer by using a qualitative approach. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 in one of the specialized centers for cancer affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this study, it was interviewed with 19 women with breast cancer about positive changes after cancer by using individual, open and deep methods. The interviews were analyzed with conventional content analysis method. Results: The titles of the three major categories were included as behavioral changes to maintain and promote health (acquisition of health information and adopting promoting health behaviors), spiritual development (attention to the God and sense of meaning in life, revising the values and priorities, strengthening moral and behavioral traits) and personal growth and flourish (feeling empowerment, confidence and efforts to achieve the goals and desires). These three categories have led to emerge themes in this study as the “Awakening after cancer.” Conclusions: The results of this study indicated positive changes after breast cancer. Considering such changes while providing care and consulting to patients with breast cancer in addition to facilitate and accelerate positive changes will be prompted to provide care and proper and influential consulting to promote patient health. PMID:26430682

  3. Taking culture seriously in biomedical HIV prevention trials: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Rubincam, Clara; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Newman, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    A substantial gap exists between widespread acknowledgement of the importance of incorporating cultural sensitivity in biomedical HIV prevention trials and empirical evidence to guide the operationalization of cultural sensitivity in these trials. We conducted a systematic literature search and qualitative meta-synthesis to explore how culture is conceptualized and operationalized in global biomedical HIV prevention trials. Across 29 studies, the majority (n = 17) were conducted in resource-limited settings. We identified four overarching themes: (1) semantic cultural sensitivity - challenges in communicating scientific terminology into local vernaculars; (2) instrumental cultural sensitivity - understanding historical experiences to guide tailoring of trial activities; (3) budgetary, logistical, and personnel implications of operationalizing cultural sensitivity; and (4) culture as an asset. Future investigations should address how sociocultural considerations are operationalized across the spectrum of trial preparedness, implementation, and dissemination in particular sociocultural contexts, including intervention studies and evaluations of the effectiveness of methods used to operationalize culturally sensitive practices.

  4. Empowerment Needs of Women With Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taleghani, Fariba; Bahrami, Masoud; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the increasing number of women suffering from breast cancer worldwide, promoting the empowerment of these patients is an important factor affecting their survival. Objectives: Few studies have investigated the empowerment needs of the breast cancer women, especially in Iran. Therefore, this study was performed to explain the empowerment needs of women with breast cancer in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative study, 19 women with breast cancer were interviewed regarding their empowerment needs using the individual open-ended and, in-depth interviews and then the qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: Three main categories of empowerment needs from the participants’ perspectives were as follows: 1- information: the initial empowerment plans (timely and comprehensive information, coordination and continuity of information, easy and full-time access to information), 2- beliefs: the approval of the empowerment plans for execution (actuality, trust and hope and new beliefs), and 3- skills: efficient execution of the empowerment plans (communication skills, expression the needs, emotions, questions and use of the internet). Conclusions: It seems that promoting the empowerment of women with breast cancer is essential. Factors found in this study and also in similar studies, in which empowerment needs are explained in-depth through the experiences of the patients, should be considered and used in the treatment, educational and counseling programs to promote the empowerment of women with breast cancer. PMID:25763213

  5. Medicare Beneficiary Knowledge: Measurement Implications from a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Teal, Cayla R.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Murphy, Christi L.; John, Dolly A.; Morgan, Robert O.

    2006-01-01

    Medicare beneficiary knowledge about fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare versus managed care alternatives (MCA) has been studied extensively. However, these efforts might be compromised by lack of familiarity with common Medicare terminology. We used qualitative methods to examine beneficiaries' familiarity with Medicare Programs (FFS and MCA) and terminology. Twenty-one indepth, semi-structured beneficiary interview transcripts were analyzed through iterative review. Across sex, race/ethnicity, and benefits programs, participants found interview questions with Medicare terminology difficult to answer, potentially causing missing, incorrect, and inaccurate responses to interview questions. Assessment of beneficiary knowledge may be fundamentally impacted by absence of basic familiarity with Medicare Programs terminology. PMID:17290655

  6. Perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kara; Siu, Judy Yuen-Man; Fung, Timothy K F

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers. Altogether 37 participants, age 35 or older, were interviewed. Participants' perception of advantages and disadvantages of adopting acupuncture, and their criteria in selecting acupuncturists, were collected. Results found that among the user group, acupuncture was perceived as being effective, having little side effects, and generating lasting impact. Among nonusers, acupuncture was perceived as lacking a clinical base, high risk, and nonstandardized. Nonusers had less confidence in acupuncture than biomedicine. Participants relied on social communication and the practitioner's professional qualifications in choosing acupuncturists. Marketing implications are discussed.

  7. Women's health bridges and barriers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Parvizy, Soroor; Kiani, Kiandokht; Ivbijaro, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The authors aimed to understand the social bridges and social barriers to women's health in Iran. We used a qualitative content analysis method and interviewed 22 women. The participants identified appropriate employment, physical exercise, and cultural and educational development as social bridges to women's health. Social barriers to women's health included gender inequalities, burden of responsibility, and financial difficulties. Based on the results of this study, we suggest an interdisciplinary approach to plan social-based health programs in order to improve women's health outcomes in the developing countries such as Iran.

  8. The public library as therapeutic landscape: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Liz

    2014-03-01

    The idea of the therapeutic landscape has been widely used to describe the relationship between place and improvements in mental health. This paper uses data from a qualitative study conducted with people with mental health problems to outline the role of the public library as a therapeutic landscape. It situates the public library as a space that is simultaneously familiar and welcoming, comforting and calming, and empowering. Further, the paper reflects on the impact of proposed library closures in light of these previously hidden benefits, thinking about the library's role as an environment and not as a service provider.

  9. Resident physicians' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, John B; Bundrick, John B; Beckman, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through third-year internal medicine residents at a large academic medical center were conducted to better understand residents' perspectives on effective outpatient teaching. A group facilitator solicited residents' reflections, based on their lived experiences, on teaching domains from previous factor analytic studies: interpersonal, clinical-teaching, and efficiency. Researchers coded focus group transcripts and identified themes within the domains. Final themes were determined by consensus. Leading themes were "kindness" and "teacher-learner relationships." Junior residents were sensitive to faculty who were brusque, harsh, and degrading. Senior residents respected faculty who were humble, collaborative, and allowed residents to co-manage teaching encounters. Seniors emphasized the importance of faculty role-modelling and preferentially staffed with experts to "gain wisdom from experience." Overall, residents expressed that effective learning requires grounded teacher-learner relationships. These findings support learning theories and previous factor analytic studies. However, this qualitative study provided insights that could not be gleaned from assessment scores alone.

  10. Peer assessment in problem-based learning: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Papinczak, Tracey; Young, Louise; Groves, Michele

    2007-05-01

    Peer assessment provides a powerful avenue for students to receive feedback on their learning. Although student perceptions of peer assessment have been studied extensively in higher education, little qualitative research has been undertaken with medical students in problem-based learning (PBL) curricula. A qualitative study of students' attitudes to, and perceptions of, peer assessment was undertaken within the framework of a larger study of metacognition with first-year medical students at the University of Queensland. A highly structured format for provision of feedback was utilised in the study design. Many recommendations from the higher education literature on optimal implementation of peer-assessment procedures were put into practice. Results indicated the existence of six main themes: (1) increased responsibility for others, (2) improved learning, (3) lack of relevancy, (4) challenges, (5) discomfort, and (6) effects on the PBL process. Five of these themes have previously been described in the literature. However, the final theme represents a unique, although not unexpected, finding. Students expressed serious concerns about the negative impact of peer assessment on the cooperative, non-judgmental atmosphere of PBL tutorial groups. The practical implications of these findings are considered.

  11. Women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Results: Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Conclusions: Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women. PMID:27563321

  12. Empirical studies of design software: Implications for software engineering environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.

  13. Physical activity among the elderly in China: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanling; Du, Xiaojing; Zhang, Chunfang; Wang, Sibao

    2013-07-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well known, but little is known about the views of elderly Chinese people regarding physical activity, and what factors affect this. This qualitative study aims to explore the experiences and perceptions of the elderly community regarding physical activity and to gain a better understanding of these. A qualitative study of 12 elderly Chinese people was undertaken using the Colaizzi phenomenological approach and using semi-structured interviews to gather data. Three key themes emerged relating to current physical activity status, beliefs about physical activity and factors influencing physical activity. This study provides new knowledge about the elderly community's experiences and perceptions of physical activity. By understanding these, were may show that promoting active lifestyles and building physical activity into and around day-to-day activities are important strategies in increasing levels of activity. Furthermore, the need for appropriate activity facilities, available space, peer motivation and general social support could promote activity beliefs and subsequent adherence among the elderly community.

  14. Care Instability in Nursing Homes; A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Majid; Fadayevatan, Reza; Abedi, Heidar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of long-term care services has risen and this trend is expected to continue as the population reaches old age. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the caring conditions in nursing homes. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative approach using conventional qualitative content analysis. The study was conducted on 23 Iranian participants including 14 elders and 9 caregivers. Data was collected with unstructured interviews and continued to the point of data saturation. Analysis of data was performed continually and concurrently with data collection through a comparative method. Results: Three themes emerged from 595 open codes including care as unpleasant task, sustained care and insufficient resources. Ten subthemes indicated participants’ experiences and understanding of caring conditions in a nursing home. Conclusions: The prevailing given care was the routine one with a focus on physical aspects, although there was some psychological care given to the older people. The findings of this research are guidelines for managers and care planners in nursing homes who should pay attention to physical and psychological care needs of older people. In addition, it is important to pay close attention to the needs of caregivers and provision of instructions for treatment, supervision and education of caregivers and medical students to provide a better care. PMID:27186382

  15. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants’ context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. Methods and analysis We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical

  16. An international qualitative study of ability and disability in ADHD using the WHO-ICF framework.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Soheil; Viljoen, Marisa; Massuti, Rafael; Selb, Melissa; Almodayfer, Omar; Karande, Sunil; de Vries, Petrus J; Rohde, Luis; Bölte, Sven

    2017-03-28

    This is the third in a series of four cross-cultural empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF(-CY) Core Sets for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To explore the perspectives of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, self-advocates, immediate family members and professional caregivers on relevant areas of impairment and functional abilities typical for ADHD across the lifespan as operationalized by the ICF(-CY). A qualitative study using focus group discussions or semi-structured interviews of 76 participants, divided into 16 stakeholder groups. Participants from five countries (Brazil, India, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Sweden) were included. A deductive qualitative content analysis was conducted to extract meaningful functioning and disability concepts from verbatim material. Extracted concepts were then linked to ICF(-CY) categories by independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. In total, 82 ICF(-CY) categories were identified, of which 32 were related to activities and participation, 25 to environmental factors, 23 to body functions and 2 to body structures. Participants also provided opinions on experienced positive sides to ADHD. A high level of energy and drive, creativity, hyper-focus, agreeableness, empathy, and willingness to assist others were the most consistently reported strengths associated with ADHD. Stakeholder perspectives highlighted the need to appraise ADHD in a broader context, extending beyond diagnostic criteria into many areas of ability and disability as well as environmental facilitators and barriers. This qualitative study, along with three other studies (comprehensive scoping review, expert survey and clinical study), will provide the scientific basis to define ICF(-CY) Core Sets for ADHD, from which assessment tools can be derived for use in clinical and research setting, as well as in health care

  17. Meanings of Health for Iranian Diabetic Patients: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Moridi, Golrokh; Valiee, Sina; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Nasab, Golnaz Esmaeil; Khaledi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health is an exclusive and subjective phenomenon, and one of the most important situations with regard to perception of health, arises when patients suffer from a chronic disease. This study was conducted within the qualitative research framework and aimed to explore the meanings of health as perceived by a group of Iranian diabetic patients. Methods A descriptive qualitative analysis design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants among diabetic patients, who were admitted to the diabetes care centre of Tohid Hospital of the Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran during a ten-month period in 2014. Interviews were transcribed and analysed through conventional content analysis. Results Based on the findings of the study, three major health-related themes emerged: 1) the syndrome of the healthy body and the happy heart (physical well-being vivacity, satisfaction, and calmness of the mind), 2) life without compulsory limitations (lack of dietary limitations, No activity limitations, lack of social limitations), and 3) exalted spirituality (satisfying self and others, trusting God, remembering God). Conclusion Health care providers should consider the meaning of health in special groups, chiefly in patients with chronic diseases. It facilitates the development of appropriate programmes to improve desirable health levels among diabetic patients. PMID:27790342

  18. Spirituality Concept by Health Professionals in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Memaryan, Nadereh; Rassouli, Maryam; Mehrabi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that "spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah)." Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies.

  19. Where do College Drinkers Draw the Line? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Danielle L.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Kate B.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has received nationwide recognition as a public health concern. The primary aim of this study was to explore students’ opinions of when drinking “crosses the line” from acceptable to unacceptable. This study used qualitative methods to: (a) examine unappealing aspects of drinking by relationship type (potential dating partner, friend, self), and (b) determine whether this differs by gender. Seventy-eight interviews were conducted with college students who violated campus-alcohol policy. The semi-structured interview included open-ended questions related to reactions to other’s excessive drinking. Qualitative analyses revealed that college males and females find lack of control as unappealing, including lack of physical, verbal, and sexual control. More females than males indicated negative perceptions of same-sex friends and self who displayed poor sexual control. Future research might also consider integration of themes in measures of negative expectancies and consequences to more accurately capture unappealing aspects of college drinking behavior. PMID:26877588

  20. Spirituality Concept by Health Professionals in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that “spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah).” Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies. PMID:27493675

  1. A Trade Study of Thermosphere Empirical Neutral Density Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL ... AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0008 AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0008 A TRADE STUDY OF THERMOSPHERE EMPIRICAL NEUTRAL DENSITY MODELS Chin S. Lin, et al. 1 August...Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 DTIC COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings

  2. Empirical orthogonal functions and normal modes. [for atmospheric data studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt to provide physical insight into the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) representation of data fields by the study of fields generated by linear stochastic models is presented in this paper. In a large class of these models, the EOFs at individual Fourier frequencies coincide with the orthogonal mechanical modes of the system - provided they exist. The precise mathematical criteria for this coincidence are derived and a physical interpretation is provided. A scheme possibly useful in forecasting is formally constructed for representing any stochastic field by a linear Hermitian model forced by noise.

  3. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. Conclusions The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses’ career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies. PMID:27556054

  4. Nonprofessional Care in Chronic Critically Ill Patient: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dehkordi, Leila Mardanian; Babashahi, Monireh; Irajpour, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Decision-making about patients with critical condition transfer from Intensive Care Unit to the general wards be delegated to their families. The aim of the study was explaining the experiences of family caregiver's about care of chronic critically ill patient. Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative content analysis using unstructured interview. Participants were selected purposively from May 2014 to May 2015 and data collection continued until data saturation. Analysis was based on conventional content analysis. Results: Participants’ experiences classified into three main categories as following: nonprofessional care, enhancing factors of care, and inhibiting factors of care. Conclusions: Finding of the current study showed different aspects of care. Care of chronic critically ill patients is a long-term process that affected by different factors. It seems that the exploration of caregivers needs and planning supportive interventions based on their needs improve the quality of care. PMID:28028426

  5. Religious experiences of Iranian transgenders: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Safavifar, Farnoosh; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Alavi, Kaveh; Negarandeh, Reza; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Eftekhar, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender identity disorder and its treatment with sex reassignment surgery is a profound experience, which can affect the mental, interpersonal, social and religious aspects of one’s life. Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study focusing on the various dimensions of the experiences of seven patients suffering from gender identity disorder in a female-to-male subgroup. This study presents a report concerning the religious aspects of their experience. Results: The findings of this study were categorized into the four following conceptual categories: sense of guilt; accomplishing a sense of submission to God’s will as well as God’s pleasing; practical commitment to religion; and rejection by the religious communities. Conclusion: Diminishing religion to spirituality comprised the core experiences of these patients having intimate relations with such concepts as secularism, stigma, and technocracy. PMID:27493929

  6. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    van Mook, W N K A; De Grave, W S; Gorter, S L; Zwaveling, J H; Schuwirth, L W; van der Vleuten, P M

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was performed. The moderator asked participants to clarify the terms professionalism and professional behaviour, and to explore the questions "How do you learn the mentioned aspects?" and "What ways of learning do you find useful or superfluous?". Qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA2007) facilitated analysis using an inductive coding approach. Thirty-five fellows across eight groups participated. The themes most frequently addressed were communication, keeping distance and boundaries, medical knowledge and expertise, respect, teamwork, leadership and organisation and management. Medical knowledge, expertise and technical skills seem to become more tacit when training progresses. Topics can be categorised into themes of workplace-based learning, by gathering practical experience, by following examples and receiving feedback on action, including learning from own and others' mistakes. Formal teaching courses (e.g. communication) and scheduled sessions addressing professionalism aspects were also valued. The emerging themes considered most relevant for intensivists were adequate communication skills and keeping boundaries with patients and relatives. Professionalism is mainly learned 'on the job' from role models in the intensive care unit. Formal teaching courses and sessions addressing professionalism aspects were nevertheless valued, and learning from own and others' mistakes was considered especially useful. Self-reflection as a starting point for learning professionalism was stressed.

  7. A qualitative study of infectious diseases fellowships in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Asako

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research is to elucidate the actual status of Infectious Diseases (ID) Fellowship programs in Japan to improve them further. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with infectious diseases fellows and his/her faculty consultants from 10 institutions providing ID Fellowships in Japan. We qualitatively analysed the data to delineate the actual status of each program and the fellowship program policies overall, and to identify measures for further improvement. Results The interviews revealed that there are largely two kinds of ID fellowships; ID programs entirely devoting full time to infectious diseases, and programs that are subordinate concepts of other subspecialties, where only a portion of hours were devoted to ID. Some institutions did not even have an ID department. Time spent by the faculty consultants on fellows also varied among programs. The desire for improvement also varied among interviewees; some being happy with the current system while others demanded radical reform. Conclusions Even though there are many ID fellowship programs in Japan, the content, quality, and concepts apparently vary among programs. The perceptions by interviewees on the educational system differed, depending on the standpoints they have on ID physicians. There probably needs to be a coherency in the provision of ID fellowship programs so that fellows acquire competency in the subspecialty with sufficient expertise to act as independent ID specialists. Further studies are necessary for the improvement of ID subspecialty training in Japan.  PMID:26896873

  8. Teaching and assessing procedural skills: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Graduating Internal Medicine residents must possess sufficient skills to perform a variety of medical procedures. Little is known about resident experiences of acquiring procedural skills proficiency, of practicing these techniques, or of being assessed on their proficiency. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate resident 1) experiences of the acquisition of procedural skills and 2) perceptions of procedural skills assessment methods available to them. Methods Focus groups were conducted in the weeks following an assessment of procedural skills incorporated into an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Using fundamental qualitative description, emergent themes were identified and analyzed. Results Residents perceived procedural skills assessment on the OSCE as a useful formative tool for direct observation and immediate feedback. This positive reaction was regularly expressed in conjunction with a frustration with available assessment systems. Participants reported that proficiency was acquired through resident directed learning with no formal mechanism to ensure acquisition or maintenance of skills. Conclusions The acquisition and assessment of procedural skills in Internal Medicine programs should move toward a more structured system of teaching, deliberate practice and objective assessment. We propose that directed, self-guided learning might meet these needs. PMID:23672617

  9. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Marcello; Gangeri, Laura; Brunelli, Cinzia; Boeri, Paolo; Borreani, Claudia; Bosisio, Marco; Karmann, Claude Fusco; Greco, Margherita; Miccinesi, Guido; Murru, Luciana; Trimigno, Patrizia

    2003-01-01

    Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT) for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ), a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81%) completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease). Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness). Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions) has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which emerged from this

  10. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts. PMID:22943578

  11. Nurses' perspectives on workplace mistreatment: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl

    2016-03-01

    An accurate understanding of workplace mistreatment and its impacts on nurses is crucial to hospital managers. A qualitative approach using conventional content analysis was adopted in this study to describe the perspectives of a sample of Iranian nurses concerning workplace mistreatment. After analyzing the transcribed interviews, three main themes emerged: (i) Demand for a more humanistic and appreciative environment; this theme consisted of three categories: "incompetent management practice", "invisibility of nurses", and "unethical behaviors"; (ii) Unprofessional interpersonal encounters which included three categories: "poorly defined job characteristics", "nurses' poor performance", and "inefficient supportive means and structures"; and (iii) Inaction despite injury, consisting of two categories: "passive and ineffective ways of coping with mistreatment", and "personal and professional negative impacts". Findings from this study can guide further investigation within diverse populations of Iranian nurses, as well as worldwide, in order for firm conclusions to be drawn. Future research could compare the perspectives of other stakeholders - patients and relatives, physicians, and managers concerning workplace mistreatment.

  12. A qualitative study on physicians' perceptions of specialty characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been limited research on physicians’ perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory) in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Methods: Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Results: Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. Conclusion: The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students. PMID:27363502

  13. Physical therapy rehabilitation strategies for dancers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Megin

    2013-01-01

    This was a qualitative study utilizing a phenomenological approach. The purpose was to determine what rehabilitation strategies physical therapists use with dancers and to discuss techniques for implementing these strategies from both the dancer's and the physical therapist's perspectives. Self-administered questionnaires were sent via email to dancers and physical therapists. Purposeful sampling was done through use of a criterion sampling method that required participants to have experienced dancer rehabilitation. Data were correlated to find common strategies and to encourage modification of current approaches. Physical therapists returned 29 surveys, while dancers returned eight. Five themes were identified in the areas of: 1. evaluation, 2. dance modification, 3. interventions, 4. education, and 5. communication. The conclusion of this study was that successful rehabilitative strategies involve ongoing evaluation that incorporates knowledge of dance technique and performance, dance-centered movement modification that is clearly defined, and an understanding of dance lingo.

  14. Cutting down: insights from qualitative studies of smoking in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Graham, Hilary; Flemming, Kate; Fox, David; Heirs, Morag; Sowden, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effects of smoking in pregnancy are minimised if the mother quits completely in early pregnancy. Smokers are therefore advised to quit abruptly; cutting down is not recommended either as a method of, or alternative to, quitting. However, most pregnant smokers do not quit and cutting down is widely reported. Evidence comes primarily from quantitative studies; qualitative research has contributed little to understandings of cigarette consumption in pregnancy. In consequence, little is known about the place and meaning of cutting down for pregnant smokers. The paper investigates this important dimension of maternal smoking. It explores perceptions and experiences of cutting down among pregnant smokers by examining data from a systematic review of qualitative studies of smoking in pregnancy. The studies were located in high-income countries and published between 1970 and 2012. Twenty-six studies, reported in 29 papers, were included, representing over 640 women. Meta-ethnography guided the analysis and synthesis. Data (participants' accounts and authors' interpretations) were extracted and coded; codes were progressively combined to identify overarching themes ('lines of argument'). Running through the lines of argument was evidence on cutting down; the paper presents and analyses this evidence. The analysis indicates that cutting down figured centrally as both a method of quitting and, for persistent smokers, a method of harm reduction. While pregnant women were aware that official advice was to quit abruptly, cutting down was seen as a positive behaviour change in often-difficult domestic circumstances, and one that health professionals condoned. Our findings suggest that cutting down in pregnancy, as an aid and an alternative to quitting, requires greater recognition if healthcare and tobacco control policies are to be sensitive to the perspectives and circumstances of pregnant smokers.

  15. Teachers' Professional Competences: What Has Drama in Education to Offer? An Empirical Study in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papavassiliou-Alexiou, Ioanna; Zourna, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how the training in and use of Drama in Education (DiE) affects the development of teachers' professional skills. The article draws on data from broader empirical qualitative research about the impact of DiE on personal, social and professional development of Greek secondary school teachers. The research was carried out using…

  16. Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…

  17. A qualitative numerical study of high dimensional dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, David James

    Since Poincare, the father of modern mathematical dynamical systems, much effort has been exerted to achieve a qualitative understanding of the physical world via a qualitative understanding of the functions we use to model the physical world. In this thesis, we construct a numerical framework suitable for a qualitative, statistical study of dynamical systems using the space of artificial neural networks. We analyze the dynamics along intervals in parameter space, separating the set of neural networks into roughly four regions: the fixed point to the first bifurcation; the route to chaos; the chaotic region; and a transition region between chaos and finite-state neural networks. The study is primarily with respect to high-dimensional dynamical systems. We make the following general conclusions as the dimension of the dynamical system is increased: the probability of the first bifurcation being of type Neimark-Sacker is greater than ninety-percent; the most probable route to chaos is via a cascade of bifurcations of high-period periodic orbits, quasi-periodic orbits, and 2-tori; there exists an interval of parameter space such that hyperbolicity is violated on a countable, Lebesgue measure 0, "increasingly dense" subset; chaos is much more likely to persist with respect to parameter perturbation in the chaotic region of parameter space as the dimension is increased; moreover, as the number of positive Lyapunov exponents is increased, the likelihood that any significant portion of these positive exponents can be perturbed away decreases with increasing dimension. The maximum Kaplan-Yorke dimension and the maximum number of positive Lyapunov exponents increases linearly with dimension. The probability of a dynamical system being chaotic increases exponentially with dimension. The results with respect to the first bifurcation and the route to chaos comment on previous results of Newhouse, Ruelle, Takens, Broer, Chenciner, and Iooss. Moreover, results regarding the high

  18. "Sufficient health" as perceived by Thai villagers: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Arpanantikul, Manee; Phuphaibul, Rutja; Khuwatsumrit, Kusuma

    2017-01-05

    Globalization has led to the rapid modernization of Thai villagers' traditional lifestyle, with significant consequential changes in health. The integration of the sufficiency economy philosophy with health - a concept known as "sufficient health" - can improve health and wellbeing; however, little is known of the actual meaning of "sufficient health." This qualitative study explored the meaning of sufficient health as perceived by Thai villagers. Data were collected from 122 villagers living in a rural Thai community and analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed five themes reflecting the meaning of sufficient health: being healthy and not having an illness, having regular health check-ups, performing self-care, living sufficiently, and avoiding risks. Understanding the meaning attributed to sufficient health can help nurses provide appropriate health care for villagers while retaining concern and respect for their cultural backgrounds. Importantly, providing opportunities to villagers to participate in health activities could help them recognize and sustain sufficient health.

  19. Death in nursing homes: a Danish qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gorlén, Tanja Fromberg; Gorlén, Thomas; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the quality of end-of-life care in Danish nursing homes (NHs). This qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews with nursing staff members in three NHs in Copenhagen, Denmark, aimed to describe the participants' perceptions of end-of-life care in Danish NHs, with particular focus on medication administration and collaboration with GPs. Four main categories of problematic issues emerged: medication (problems with 'as needed' medication and lack of knowledge of subcutaneous administration), interpersonal relations (difficulties in cooperation and communication between relatives and GPs), decision making (problems concerning termination of life-prolonging treatment and the need for early planning of end-of-life care), and professional development (documentation and education). Considerable improvements may be achieved primarily by educating and training nursing staff and GPs. More research is warranted to optimise end-of-life care in Danish NHs.

  20. Adolescents' Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Ahanonu, Ezihe Loretta; Jooste, Karien

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents' interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional); having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents' understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  1. Adult burn survivors' views of peer support: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Badger, Karen; Royse, David

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined 30 burn survivors' perceptions of the value of peer support in their own psychosocial rehabilitation. Little research is available that investigates the role of peer support in post-burn recovery in terms of perceived benefits and costs. Findings revealed strong positive views regarding the helpfulness of peer support. Burn survivors reported that peer supporters provided a sense of belonging and affiliation and gave hope and confidence. Two-thirds of the sample had served as peer supporters themselves after receiving their injuries, suggesting that mutual aid does involve reaching out to others. At the same time, survivors spoke of possible costs in helping others. Involving peer supporters in the psychological rehabilitation of burn survivors may be an important complement to the medical team.

  2. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly.

  3. A Qualitative Case Study Examining Intervention Tailoring for Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G.; Toobert, Deborah; Smith, Matthew Lee; Osuna, Diego; McKay, James; Villarreal, Edna K.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rimer, Barbara K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To explore issues of intervention tailoring for ethnic minorities based on information and experiences shared by researchers affiliated with the Health Maintenance Consortium (HMC). Methods A qualitative case study methodology was used with the administration of a survey (n=17 principal investigators) and follow-up telephone interviews. Descriptive and content analyses were conducted, and a synthesis of the findings was developed. Results: A majority of the HMC projects used individual tailoring strategies regardless of the ethnic background of participants. Follow-up interview findings indicated that key considerations in the process of intervention tailoring for minorities included formative research; individually oriented adaptations; and intervention components that were congruent with participants’ demographics, cultural norms, and social context. Conclusions Future research should examine the extent to which culturally tailoring long-term maintenance interventions for ethnic minorities is efficacious and should be pursued as an effective methodology to reduce health disparities. PMID:20604705

  4. Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet.

  5. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Caldas, José Peixoto; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Dias, Sónia

    2014-02-01

    Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women's perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews) for collecting and analysing data (content analysis) and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison), contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  6. Challenges of Documenting Schoolchildren's Psychosocial Health: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Clausson, Eva K; Berg, Agneta; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' experience of challenges related to documenting schoolchildren's psychosocial health in Sweden. Six focus group discussions were carried out. Areas for discussions included questions about situations, especially challenging to document as well as what constrains and/or facilitates documenting psychosocial health problem issues. Qualitative content analysis was used for interpreting the data. The analysis resulted in one overarching theme: having to do one's duty and being afraid of doing wrong; and three subthemes: uncertainty related to one's own ability, concerns related to future consequences, and strategies to handle the documentation. School nurses relying on their intuition and using a structured documentation model may increase the opportunities for a reliable documentation. To further develop their professional skills with regular, clinical supervision can be of great importance. This in turn may increase contributions to research and development for the benefit of schoolchildren's psychosocial health.

  7. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs.

  8. Ethics and Representation in Qualitative Studies of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Peter, Ed.; Kirsch, Gesa E., Ed.

    Reflecting on the practice of qualitative literacy research, this book presents 14 essays that address the most pressing questions faced by qualitative researchers today: how to represent others and themselves in research narratives; how to address ethical dilemmas in research-participant relations; and how to deal with various rhetorical,…

  9. Cognitive Styles and Managerial Behaviour: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Van Den Broeck, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach: Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed (n = 100). Findings: Qualitative evidence was found for…

  10. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients’ health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588

  11. Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses' viewpoint: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy.

  12. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.

  13. Tomography by iterative convolution - Empirical study and application to interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, C. M.; Prikryl, I.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm for computer tomography has been developed that is applicable to reconstruction from data having incomplete projections because an opaque object blocks some of the probing radiation as it passes through the object field. The algorithm is based on iteration between the object domain and the projection (Radon transform) domain. Reconstructions are computed during each iteration by the well-known convolution method. Although it is demonstrated that this algorithm does not converge, an empirically justified criterion for terminating the iteration when the most accurate estimate has been computed is presented. The algorithm has been studied by using it to reconstruct several different object fields with several different opaque regions. It also has been used to reconstruct aerodynamic density fields from interferometric data recorded in wind tunnel tests.

  14. Information Assurance in Saudi Organizations - An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Syed Irfan; Mirza, Abdulrahman A.; Alghathbar, Khaled

    This paper presents selective results of a survey conducted to find out the much needed insight into the status of information security in Saudi Arabian organizations. The purpose of this research is to give the state of information assurance in the Kingdom and to better understand the prevalent ground realities. The survey covered technical aspects of information security, risk management and information assurance management. The results provide deep insights in to the existing level of information assurance in various sectors that can be helpful in better understanding the intricate details of the prevalent information security in the Kingdom. Also, the results can be very useful for information assurance policy makers in the government as well as private sector organizations. There are few empirical studies on information assurance governance available in literature, especially about the Middle East and Saudi Arabia, therefore, the results are invaluable for information security researchers in improving the understanding of information assurance in this region and the Kingdom.

  15. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

  16. Students’ perspective of bedside teaching: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Swailmi, Farhan Khashim; Khan, Ishtiaq Ali; Mehmood, Yasir; Al-Enazi, Shehab Ahmed; Alrowaili, Majed; Al-Enazi, Madallah Mashaan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine students’ perception of bedside teaching, to find out barriers in its effective implementation and to suggest strategies to make it an effective learning tool. Methods: This study was conducted in Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University Arar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between November 2013 and January 2014. The study design was qualitative inductive thematic analysis using transcripts from audio-recorded focus group discussions. Four focused group discussions with medical students of 4th and 5th year MBBS were conducted. Each 40 to 50 minutes discussion session was audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis extracted key themes pertaining to objectives of the study. Results: A total 75 students of 4th and 5th year MBBS took part in the study, 48 were female and 27 of them were male. Students believed that bedside teaching is valuable for learning essential clinical skills. They described many barriers in its effective implementation: uncooperative and less number of patients and faculty attitude. Our students suggested various strategies to address these barriers: promotion of awareness among general public about students’ learning and its benefits, free medical treatment for expatriates and building of university hospital. Conclusion: Bedside teaching is an important learning tool. Its utility can be enhanced by orienting local patients’ attitude towards importance of students’ learning, by providing free medical treatment to expatriates and by including bedside teaching in faculty development programs. PMID:27182238

  17. Differential Weighting: A Survey of Methods and Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.; Wang, Marilyn D.

    The literature on a priori and empirical weighting of test items and test-item options is reviewed. While multiple regression is the best known technique for deriving fixed empirical weights for component variables (such as tests and test items), other methods allow one to derive weights which equalize the effective weights of the component…

  18. When the group practice breaks up: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277

  19. Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222

  20. Citizens' perspectives on personalized medicine: a qualitative public deliberation study.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Yvonne; Abelson, Julia; Simeonov, Dorina; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Our objective was to explore citizens' informed and reasoned values and expectations of personalized medicine, a timely yet novel genomics policy issue. A qualitative, public deliberation study was undertaken using a citizens' reference panel on health technologies, established to provide input to the health technology assessment process in Ontario, Canada. The citizens' panel consisted of five women and nine men, aged 18-71 years, with one member selected from each health authority region. There were shared expectations among the citizens' panel members for the potential of personalized medicine technologies to improve care, provided they are deemed clinically valid and effective. These expectations were tempered by concerns about value for money and the possibility that access to treatment may be limited by personalized medicine tests used to stratify patients. Although they questioned the presumed technological imperative presented by personalized medicine technologies, they called for increased efforts to prepare the health-care system to effectively integrate these technologies. This study represents an early but important effort to explore public values toward personalized medicine. This study also provides evidence of the public's ability to form coherent judgments about a new policy issue. Concerned that personalized tests might be used to ration care, they suggested that treatment should be made available if patients wanted it, irrespective of tests that indicate little benefit. This issue raises clinical and policy challenges that may undermine the value of personalized medicine. Further efforts to deliberate with the public are warranted to inform effective, efficient and equitable translation of personalized medicine.

  1. Rehabilitation Needs of People with Cerebral Palsy: a qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    sharifi, Azam; Kamali, Mohammad; Chabok, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of disorders regarding the development of movement and posture, which causes limitations in activity. In fact, it is attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occur during brain development in fetus or infant. CP disorders may accompany by speech, auditory, visual abnormality, seizure, learning disorder, mental retardation and etc. Due to the variation in disorders and ultimately the needs that are made in the wake of the diseases, understanding the needs of these patients is essential. Methods: This research was a qualitative study, with phenomenology method and sampling was purposeful. The participants were 17 cerebral palsy people (6 female and 11 male, with aged 15 to 43). Data were collected by deep interview with open-end questions and analyzed by collaizi method. Results: During the interview sessions, notes and ideas were classified and assorted, so that, the rehabilitation needs of people with CP were understood according to the statements of participants. The results of this study were placed in four domains, 3 themes and 22 subthemes. The domains included social, emotional needs, economic, and therapeutic needs. Conclusion: The requirements studies in this research were particularly introduced by patients with CP. People in the society, who might have contact with these patients, are responsible to help them to overcome their problems and disabilities. PMID:25250261

  2. Wearable technologies in osteoarthritis: a qualitative study of clinicians’ preferences

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Enrica; Murtagh, Ged M; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigates clinicians’ views of health-related wearable technologies in the context of supporting osteoarthritis (OA) long-term management. Clinicians’ preferences are critical in identifying realistic implementation strategies for such technologies. Design Qualitative study incorporating an inductive thematic analysis applied to identify key themes from clinicians’ responses. Participants Clinicians, including 4 general practitioners, 4 physiotherapists and 5 orthopaedic surgeons were interviewed. Setting The study was conducted in a University setting. Results Participants all agreed wearable technologies could positively complement their role and enhance their relationship with patients. Perceived benefits of wearable technologies included monitoring patients’ progress, treatment evaluation, monitoring compliance and informing clinical decision-making. The device should be designed to provide objective data of patients’ locomotion capability in an easy and timely fashion via a simple interface. Data should be available to both clinicians and patients to provide them with the motivation to achieve clinical goals and allow them to take ownership of their treatment. The use of technology was also seen as a way to more effectively plan treatment and manage patients’ contact time saving time and cost. Conclusions Findings support the use of wearable technologies to enhance current OA management and suggest clinical uses. Adoption of technologies could have implications on the effectiveness of treatment provided overcoming current barriers, in particular compliance with treatment. PMID:26810998

  3. Relapse Experience in Iranian Opiate Users: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid; Jalali, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background: To understand the relapse process, it is required to notice the clients learned behaviors and environmental contexts. We aimed to explore and describe relapse experiences of Iranian drug users. Methods: This is a grounded theory study and twenty two participants were selected using purposive sampling, snowball and theoretical sampling. After obtaining written informed consent, data gathering was done by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews. According to Strauss and Corbin three phases of open coding, axial coding and selection coding were done for qualitative analysis and continuous comparison. During the research period Guba and Lincoln criteria were used to be reassured of the accuracy and rigor of the study findings. Results: The main categories of this study were craving and conflict, family stress and psychological indicators of relapse that emerged in three phases including recovery, tension and pre-relapse. High anxiety, withdrawal, rationalization and lying were the most common symptoms. Conclusion: Family reactions and social conditions play a key role in relapse. Relapse process is an active and multidimensional event in which the clients experience a psychosocial status continuum from recovery to relapse. Most psychological problems are seen in the tension phase. PMID:25349849

  4. Emergency Nurses as Second Victims of Error: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Ajri-Khameslou, Mehdi; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba

    There are many nurses who are victims of errors in the hospital environment. It is quite essential to perceive the outcome of mistakes in nurses' profession. The aim of this scientific study was to interpret the causes that place nurses in danger of errors in emergency departments and also the consequences resulting from confronting the errors in the job environment. This research was designed to pursue a qualitative approach following content analysis. Through the purposeful sampling, 18 emergency nurses were selected to participate in this study. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. The results of data analysis were presented in three different categories: the psychological reactions to error, learning from errors, and avoiding reactions. The current study revealed that errors could create positive and negative impacts on the emergency nurses' attitude. Confronting the errors through learning from the mistakes can result in the improvement of patients' safety whereas the negative outcomes can provoke destructive effects on nurses' career. Nurses are considered as victims of errors; therefore, they need support and protection to enhance their career.

  5. A Qualitative Study of the Work Environments of Mexican Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Juarez, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that

  6. An Empirical Study of Student Willingness to Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Borozan, Anci

    2012-01-01

    Companies wish for universities to provide business students with international education and awareness. Short- and long-term study-abroad programs are an effective method by which this is accomplished, but relatively few American students study abroad. In response to these facts, this study develops hypotheses that predict student willingness to…

  7. Barriers to referral in patients with angina: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Katy; Chapple, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To explore barriers to patients being referred for possible revascularisation. Design Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Participants 16 patients aged under 75 years with stable angina and their doctors. Setting General practice in Toxteth, Liverpool. Results Fear of both hospitals and medical tests was common and largely hidden from the doctors. Patients felt they were old, had low expectations of treatment, viewed angina as a chronic illness, and knew little about new developments in angina treatment. Patients and doctors had difficulty in recognising angina symptoms that were not textbook definitions amid multiple comorbidity. Patients saw doctors as busy and did not want to bother them with their condition. Cultural gaps and communication difficulties existed despite all but one patient having English as their first language. Conclusions Listening to patients is vital to address inequitable access to health services: how patients are treated by doctors today affects acceptability of referral tomorrow. Primary care groups in deprived areas should work with communities to address local fears. This will involve collaboration between primary, secondary, and tertiary care. Cultural gaps exist between patients and doctors in deprived areas, and diagnostic confusion can occur particularly in the presence of other psychological and physical morbidity. Adequate time and resources—for example, education for doctors and patients and provision of interpreters—need to be provided if inequitable access to revascularisation procedures is to be addressed. Key messages In different communities and patient groups different myths and fears operate and need to be addressed, as experiences of hospital can profoundly affect patients’ confidence Patients in deprived areas with high mortality rates perceive themselves as “old” at a young age, and expectations of treatment are limited Angina symptoms in inner city primary care may not be the same

  8. Ethnocultural community leaders' views and perceptions on biobanks and population specific genomic research: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Ozdemir, Vural; Fortin, Marilyn; Egalité, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    Substantial investments were made in population based biobanks over the past decade. Ethnocultural community members are both sponsors and beneficiaries of biobanks. In addition, the success of biobank projects depends on community support and participation. Yet there are few empirical data on views, perceptions and interests of ethnocultural communities on biobanks. This silent gap in genomics, ethics and policy literatures has to be addressed. We conducted a qualitative research study with in-depth interviews of ethnocultural community leaders (e.g., members of the Canadian Parliament, school commissioners) on their perspectives concerning population specific genomics research and biobanks. An equal partnership model where public is not only informed, but also involved in decision-making processes was perceived as an essential democratic requisite. These empirical data on ethnocultural community leaders' views, interests and perceptions identify several key socio-cultural and ethical factors that can be decisive for effective and sustainable community involvement in biobanks.

  9. Contraception Use Among Iranian Women With HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Saeieh, Sara E.; Nasrabadi, Alireza N.; Ebadi, Abbas; Moghadam, Zahra B.; Mohraz, Minoo; Jozani, Zahra B.; Rezaei, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of family planning methods to people with HIV not only prevents unwanted pregnancy, but also leads to a reduction in the possibility of transmission of the virus from the patient to the sexual partner and the fetus. In order to prevent the spread of HIV and enhance reproductive rights, it is necessary to inform women with HIV of the contraception methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore experiences of HIV positive women about contraception use. Method: This qualitative study was conducted on 18 women with HIV who were at reproductive age and had referred the Center for clients with Risky Behavior in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method in MAXQDA 10. Results: The following two themes were derived from descriptions of the use of contraception methods by women with HIV: 1) Contraception is the forgotten component of reproductive health services; 2) inconsistent condom use. Each theme also contained three sub-themes. Conclusion: Results of investigations showed that Risky Behavior consultation Centers mostly stress the use of condom for husband/sexual partners without HIV. In addition, since health care practitioners play an important role in provision of reproductive health services, their lack of knowledge and cooperation considerably contribute to the spread of the disease and violation of patient rights. PMID:26234989

  10. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.

  11. Communication Needs of Patients with Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnazar, Tahereh Alsadat Khoubbin; Rassouli, Mrayam; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Momenzadeh, Syrus; Rejeh, Nahid; Mohseny, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since communication is considered to be one of the central concepts in caregiving practices, this study aims to examine the perception of women with breast cancer in terms of their communication needs. Methods: In this qualitative study, 20 participants (9 women with breast cancer, 10 of health-care professionals, and one family caregiver) were selected through purposive sampling, and a face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted with each of them. After data collection, all interviews were transcribed and reviewed, and categories were extracted. The data were analyzed with Conventional Content Analysis of Landman and Graneheim using MAXQDA10 software. Results: The analysis resulted in two extracted categories: “therapeutic communication” and “facilitating empathy”, and five subcategories: “trust-building therapist”, “crying out to be heard,” “seeking a soothing presence,” “sharing knowledge,” and “supportive peers”. Conclusion: Identifying and promoting the communicative needs of patients could lead to a considerably better care of patients under treatment. Therefore, therapeutic communication, as an integral part, should be incorporated into the care plan for patients with breast cancer and their families in the Oncology and Palliative Care wards. PMID:27803561

  12. RN to FNP: a qualitative study of role transition.

    PubMed

    Heitz, Laura J; Steiner, Susan H; Burman, Mary E

    2004-09-01

    Registered nurses who return to school in a nurse practitioner program undergo role transition throughout the educational process and into the postgraduate period. This study examined the role transition that occurs in family nurse practitioner (FNP) students. A descriptive, qualitative design was used with in-depth telephone interviews of 9 female FNPs who had recently graduated. A conceptual model was generated that described the role transition from RN to FNP. Two phases of role transition occurred and were depicted by the central categories that emerged: extrinsic obstacles, intrinsic obstacles, turbulence, positive extrinsic forces, positive intrinsic forces, and role development. Although the central categories were found to be the same in Phase I and Phase II, the defining characteristics differed. This study has implications for FNPs, students, and educators regarding role transition. It presents new findings not identified in prior research: personal commitments and sacrifices were identified as specific obstacles encountered during the educational process, and differences were found between inexperienced and experienced RNs in relation to the FNP role transition during the educational period.

  13. Forming ideas about health: A qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404

  14. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  15. Experiences of Being Heterozygous for Fabry Disease: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    von der Lippe, Charlotte; Frich, Jan C; Harris, Anna; Solbrække, Kari Nyheim

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the experiences of women with Fabry disease. The aim of this study was to explore women's experiences of being heterozygous for Fabry disease. We used an explorative qualitative study design and selected ten Norwegian women who were known heterozygous for Fabry disease to participate. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews and analyzed the interviews using inductive thematic analysis. We found that learning about one's heterozygous status may be devastating for some. However, for most of the participants, heterozygous status, as well as doctors' acceptance of symptoms in women heterozygous for Fabry disease, provided an explanation and relief. Although many women did not consider themselves ill, they wished to be acknowledged as more than "just carriers." The participants were grateful for enzyme replacement therapy, although it had its burdens regarding time, planning, and absences from school or work. Women with Fabry disease felt that the lack of knowledge among healthcare professionals about Fabry disease was frustrating and worrisome. These findings suggest that healthcare professionals should acknowledge the different ways women react to their diagnosis, and be aware of the personal costs of receiving treatment.

  16. Forming ideas about health: a qualitative study of Ontario adolescents.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations.

  17. Difficulties in Balint groups: a qualitative study of leaders' experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2010-01-01

    Background Balint groups (BGs) are a means of enhancing competence in the physician–patient relationship and are also regarded as beneficial for GPs' mental health. However, voluntary BGs are still few, some members terminate their participation, and problems are reported in obligatory groups in residency programmes. This raises questions about possible negative aspects of BGs. Aim To examine difficulties in BGs as experienced by BG leaders. Design of study Qualitative study using interviews. Setting Eight BG leaders from five countries were interviewed. Method The interviews focused on the informants' experiences of difficulties in their groups and were analysed with a systematic text-condensation method. Results Three categories of difficulties emerged from the analysis: 1) the individual physician having needs, vulnerabilities, and defences; 2) the group (including the leader) having problems of hidden agendas, rivalries, and frames; and 3) the surrounding environment defining the conditions of the group. BGs were found to fit into modern theories of small groups as complex systems. They are submitted to group dynamics that are sometimes malicious, and are exposed to often tough environmental conditions. Conclusion Professionally conducted BGs seem to be a gentle, efficient method to train physicians, but with limitations. Participation of a member demands psychological stability and an open mind. BGs need support from the leadership of healthcare organisations in order to exist. PMID:21062547

  18. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna

    2016-06-17

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Key stakeholders' perspectives towards childhood obesity treatment: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Staniford, Leanne Jane; Breckon, Jeff David; Copeland, Robert James; Hutchison, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been a dramatic global increase in childhood obesity. A better understanding of stakeholders' perceptions of intervention requirements could contribute to developing more effective interventions for childhood obesity. This study provides a qualitative, in-depth, analysis of stakeholders' (children, parents and health professionals) perspectives toward the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment interventions. Twenty-six stakeholders were recruited using purposive sampling; semi-structured interviews were adopted to explore stakeholders' perceptions with data analysed using a framework approach. Stakeholders concurred that treatment should be family-based incorporating physical activity, nutrition and psychological components, and be delivered in familiar environments to recipients. However, incongruence existed between stakeholders towards the sustainability of obesity treatment interventions. Parents and children reported needing ongoing support to sustain behavioural changes made during treatment, while health professionals suggested interventions should aim to create autonomous individuals who exit treatment and independently sustain behaviour change. This study provides an insight into issues of stakeholder involvement in the obesity intervention design and delivery process. To promote long-term behaviour change, there needs to be increased congruence between the delivery and receipt of childhood obesity treatment interventions. Interventions need to incorporate strategies that promote autonomous and self-regulated motivation, to enhance families' confidence in sustaining behaviour change independent of health professional support.

  20. Newsmaking on drugs: a qualitative study with journalism professionals.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Fabio C; Noto, Ana Regina

    2008-09-01

    Drugs are a frequent subject in the news media. Despite the existence of an important dynamic interplay between the print media, public opinion, and public policies, studies on these relationships are still scarce regarding the drug issue. The objective of this study is to understand the newsmaking process regarding drugs from the vantage point of Brazilian journalism professionals. Using qualitative research, semistructured interviews were conducted among an intentional sample of 22 professionals who write news stories and articles about drugs in nationwide news media. Interviewees mentioned illegality and crime as the main factors leading to the production of stories and articles. They claimed that by instilling fear among readers, newspapers and magazines tend to increase their audiences and/or sales. Most interviewees considered the coverage of drugs in Brazil as weak. Main problems reported include lack of knowledge on the subject, and not enough time to prepare the stories. It was concluded that the newsmaking process regarding drugs undergoes a series of interferences that compromise the content of the stories, therefore social strategies are needed in order to improve the quality of the material published in Brazil.

  1. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. Methods: This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013. The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research were women before discharge and after delivery. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. Results: Four categories of factors that could affect patient involvement in safe delivery emerged from our analysis: patient-related (true and false beliefs, literacy, privacy, respect for patient), illness-related (pain, type of delivery, patient safety incidents), health care professional-relatedand task-related factors (behavior, monitoring &training), health care setting-related (financial aspects, facilities). Conclusion More research is needed to explore the factors affecting the participation of mothers. It is therefore, recommended to: 1) take notice of mother education, their husbands, midwives and specialists; 2) provide pregnant women with insurance coverage from the outset of pregnancy, especially during prenatal period; 3) form a labor pain committee consisting of midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists in order to identify the preferred painless labor methods based on the existing facilities and conditions, 4) carry out research on observing patients’ privacy and dignity; 5) pay more attention on the factors affecting cesarean. PMID:26755469

  2. Why test for tuberculosis? A qualitative study from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Skinner, D; Claassens, M

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Early testing and treatment initiation are crucial for controlling the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, especially in high-burden countries such as South Africa. Objective: To explore reasons why patients opted to test for TB and the context in which they were tested. Design: This qualitative study was nested in a larger study evaluating patients who did not initiate anti-tuberculosis treatment after diagnosis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 41 patients across five provinces of South Africa. Results: While most patients presented for testing because of their symptoms, unfortunately many waited until their symptoms were severe and thus remained infectious for longer. Outreach campaigns and TB screening at primary health care facilities were perceived favourably, although some respondents were unclear as to the nature of the tests being performed and had concerns about the implications. Positive health care worker attitudes towards presumptive TB patients contributed towards prompt testing and treatment initiation. Conclusion: As patients often delayed presenting for testing, strategies to engage early with presumptive TB patients so that testing and treatment can commence without delay should be a priority for TB programmes.

  3. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carried out with them. Results: Three themes were came up after analyzing the interviews: 1. Psychological reactions including three subthemes of feelings, concerns, and fears; 2. physical reactions including the subthemes of symptoms and feelings; and 3. spiritual reactions including religious beliefs and faith. Conclusions: The present study showed that for the purpose of assessing pregnancy in adolescents, one should consider the context and culture in which the adolescent lives. This is because factors such as preplanned or unwanted pregnancy and imposed or consensual marriage within or outside the family may draw different reactions from adolescents. Hence, all those factors need to be considered in order to plan health education during pregnancy for this age group. PMID:25949255

  4. Why test for tuberculosis? A qualitative study from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Early testing and treatment initiation are crucial for controlling the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, especially in high-burden countries such as South Africa. Objective: To explore reasons why patients opted to test for TB and the context in which they were tested. Design: This qualitative study was nested in a larger study evaluating patients who did not initiate anti-tuberculosis treatment after diagnosis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 41 patients across five provinces of South Africa. Results: While most patients presented for testing because of their symptoms, unfortunately many waited until their symptoms were severe and thus remained infectious for longer. Outreach campaigns and TB screening at primary health care facilities were perceived favourably, although some respondents were unclear as to the nature of the tests being performed and had concerns about the implications. Positive health care worker attitudes towards presumptive TB patients contributed towards prompt testing and treatment initiation. Conclusion: As patients often delayed presenting for testing, strategies to engage early with presumptive TB patients so that testing and treatment can commence without delay should be a priority for TB programmes. PMID:28123955

  5. Perceived needs in women with gestational diabetes: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khooshehchin, Taraneh Emamgoli; Keshavarz, Zohre; Afrakhteh, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is the most common medical complication of pregnancy. It can be associated with many complications for mother and fetus. Gestational diabetes is also one of the main health issues in Iran. Therefore, the present study is aimed at a deeper understanding of women’s experiences of gestational diabetes and their perceived needs to inform future lifestyle interventions. Methods This qualitative content analysis study was carried out in 2015. Participants were pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes in the 24th to 36th week of pregnancy, who were referred to the clinics affiliated with Shahid Beheshti Medical Science University in Tehran, Iran. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants, using semi-structured questions. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Conventional content analysis was carried out for data analysis. Interviews continued until data saturation was obtained. Data were coded in MAXQDA software (version 11). Results Content analysis highlighted two themes; educational needs and need to support. The former was featured with five main categories: information sources, education process, unknown and known, weaknesses of public information system, and eagerness to learn. The latter was featured with two main categories: family support and social support. Conclusion Clarifying the needs of the mothers with gestational diabetes, leads to better and proper education planning and a program toward the improvement of health, self-care, and prevention of diabetes. PMID:28163857

  6. Patients' unvoiced agendas in general practice consultations: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Christine A; Bradley, Colin P; Britten, Nicky; Stevenson, Fiona A; Barber, Nick

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate patients' agendas before consultation and to assess which aspects of agendas are voiced in the consultation and the effects of unvoiced agendas on outcomes. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in south east England and the West Midlands. Participants 35 patients consulting 20 general practitioners in appointment and emergency surgeries. Results Patients' agendas are complex and multifarious. Only four of 35 patients voiced all their agendas in consultation. Agenda items most commonly voiced were symptoms and requests for diagnoses and prescriptions. The most common unvoiced agenda items were: worries about possible diagnosis and what the future holds; patients' ideas about what is wrong; side effects; not wanting a prescription; and information relating to social context. Agenda items that were not raised in the consultation often led to specific problem outcomes (for example, major misunderstandings), unwanted prescriptions, non-use of prescriptions, and non-adherence to treatment. In all of the 14 consultations with problem outcomes at least one of the problems was related to an unvoiced agenda item. Conclusion Patients have many needs and when these are not voiced they can not be addressed. Some of the poor outcomes in the case studies were related to unvoiced agenda items. This suggests that when patients and their needs are more fully articulated in the consultation better health care may be effected. Steps should be taken in both daily clinical practice and research to encourage the voicing of patients' agendas. PMID:10797036

  7. Data envelopment analysis in service quality evaluation: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Seyedvahid; Saati, Saber; Tavana, Madjid

    2015-10-01

    Service quality is often conceptualized as the comparison between service expectations and the actual performance perceptions. It enhances customer satisfaction, decreases customer defection, and promotes customer loyalty. Substantial literature has examined the concept of service quality, its dimensions, and measurement methods. We introduce the perceived service quality index (PSQI) as a single measure for evaluating the multiple-item service quality construct based on the SERVQUAL model. A slack-based measure (SBM) of efficiency with constant inputs is used to calculate the PSQI. In addition, a non-linear programming model based on the SBM is proposed to delineate an improvement guideline and improve service quality. An empirical study is conducted to assess the applicability of the method proposed in this study. A large number of studies have used DEA as a benchmarking tool to measure service quality. These models do not propose a coherent performance evaluation construct and consequently fail to deliver improvement guidelines for improving service quality. The DEA models proposed in this study are designed to evaluate and improve service quality within a comprehensive framework and without any dependency on external data.

  8. Young Dutch people's experiences of trading sex: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    van de Walle, Robert; Picavet, Charles; van Berlo, Willy; Verhoeff, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the subject of transactional sex among young Dutch people has generated a heated social debate in the Netherlands. However, accurate data on this phenomenon are scarce. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on young Dutch people's experiences of having sex in return for money or a material reward. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with young Dutch men and women aged 14 to 24. Participants came from diverse backgrounds in terms of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Experiences of trading sex differed in terms of the motivation to trade sex, the presence or absence of coercion, and the availability of other options for earning money. Participants' feelings about their experiences varied. For most participants, the sex itself was unpleasant and required considerable emotion management. Still, some felt adequately compensated by the reward or felt trading sex was preferable to other jobs. Gender played an important role, with feelings of disgust or shame reported especially by female participants, whereas male participants reported more positive experiences. Interactions involving coercion or financial dependence on trading sex generally had a negative emotional impact. Participants stressed the differences between their own experiences and professional prostitution.

  9. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

    PubMed Central

    Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. Methods: A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. Results: The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Conclusion: Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources. PMID:27226663

  10. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahanonu, Ezihe Loretta; Jooste, Karien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional); having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents’ understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs. PMID:28032078

  11. Intergenerational learning about keeping health: a qualitative regional Australian study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Judy; Price, Kay; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Haren, Matthew T; McDermott, Robyn

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the conditions under which families try to influence members' health-related practices can provide information to build concepts adding to models of health promotion. This paper reports on an exploratory qualitative study examining the influences of intergenerational relationships in shaping beliefs, knowledge and practices about health and illness in a regional Australian city. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 adults with family members of other generations living in the city, all of whom had experience of asthma. We found that overall people's experience of health and illness, particularly in childhood, was taken for granted and not reflected upon. It was in the face of serious illness or death of a family member that objective knowledge about health and illness was sought and integrated within the family leading, in most cases, to significant lifestyle changes or 'doing things differently'. We drew on Bourdieu's concept of the three forms of theoretical knowledge in analysing our findings. We found the concept of knowledge as 'primary taken-for-granted experience', and the concept of praxeological knowledge as the knowledge created by the dialectical relationships between an individual subject and objectives structures were helpful. To influence individual health practices, we need to acknowledge how the family context confirms the taken-for-granted health practices of an individual and the family circumstances that might lead families to seek objective knowledge and make lifestyle changes to promote health.

  12. Pregnancy in Spanish elite sportswomen: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2016-06-20

    Pregnancy and motherhood have been historically considered as reasons why elite sportswomen may end their sport careers. During pregnancy, the safety of both mother and baby has been identified as a key reason for ceasing sport participation. Recent "official" statistics on how many elite athletes are mothers suggest that pregnancy, motherhood, and sport could be no longer mutually exclusive. The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the lived pregnancy of Spanish elite sportswomen. Spanish elite sportswomen (n = 20) aged between 18 and 65 years that had been pregnant during their sporting professional career and after the end of their pregnancy had taken up again their professional sporting career for at least one year were included. Data were collected from May 2010 to April 2012 using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (1) choosing the right moment; (2) fears and doubts; and (3) justifying physical exercise. By giving voice to these elite Spanish sportswomen, their pregnancy experiences are made visible, which might help to gain a better understanding into their expectations and develop policies and practices focused on elite sportswomen during and after pregnancy.

  13. Misunderstandings in prescribing decisions in general practice: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Britten, Nicky; Stevenson, Fiona A; Barry, Christine A; Barber, Nick; Bradley, Colin P

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To identify and describe misunderstandings between patients and doctors associated with prescribing decisions in general practice. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in the West Midlands and south east England. Participants 20 general practitioners and 35 consulting patients. Main outcome measures Misunderstandings between patients and doctors that have potential or actual adverse consequences for taking medicine. Results 14 categories of misunderstanding were identified relating to patient information unknown to the doctor, doctor information unknown to the patient, conflicting information, disagreement about attribution of side effects, failure of communication about doctor's decision, and relationship factors. All the misunderstandings were associated with lack of patients' participation in the consultation in terms of the voicing of expectations and preferences or the voicing of responses to doctors' decisions and actions. They were all associated with potential or actual adverse outcomes such as non-adherence to treatment. Many were based on inaccurate guesses and assumptions. In particular doctors seemed unaware of the relevance of patients' ideas about medicines for successful prescribing. Conclusions Patients' participation in the consultation and the adverse consequences of lack of participation are important. The authors are developing an educational intervention that builds on these findings. PMID:10678863

  14. Interdisciplinary hospice team processes and multidimensional pain: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dugan Day, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews and a 1-year observation of team members from two hospices (physicians, nurses, aides, chaplains, social workers). Utilizing constant comparison, 14 final thematic categories were discovered. Use of biopsychosocial/spiritual terms by all team members meant that the team had the common language needed to communicate about multidimensional pain. Interviews and observation revealed a gap in translating multidisciplinary communication in team meetings into collaborative acts for pain treatment. In addition, structural influences inhibited creativity in pain palliation. There was no mutual understanding of the purpose for team meetings, no recognition of the need to reflect on team process, or common definition of leadership. Social work roles in hospice should include leadership that moves teams toward interdisciplinary care for multidimensional pain.

  15. Determining research knowledge infrastructure for healthcare systems: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examines research knowledge infrastructures (RKIs) found in health systems. An RKI is defined as any instrument (i.e., programs, interventions, tools) implemented in order to facilitate access, dissemination, exchange, and/or use of evidence in healthcare organisations. Based on an environmental scan (17 key informant interviews) and scoping review (26 studies), we found support for a framework that we developed that outlines components that a health system can have in its RKI. The broad domains are climate for research use, research production, activities used to link research to action, and evaluation. The objective of the current study is to profile the RKI of three types of health system organisations--regional health authorities, primary care practices, and hospitals--in two Canadian provinces to determine the current mix of components these organisations have in their RKI, their experience with these components, and their views about future RKI initiatives. Methods This study will include semistructured telephone interviews with a purposive sample region of a senior management team member, library/resource centre manager, and a 'knowledge broker' in three regional health authorities, five or six purposively sampled hospitals, and five or six primary care practices in Ontario and Quebec, for a maximum of 71 interviewees. The interviews will explore (a) which RKI components have proven helpful, (b) barriers and facilitators in implementing RKI components, and (c) views about next steps in further development of RKIs. Discussion This is the first qualitative examination of potential RKI efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in health system decision making. We anticipate being able to identify broadly applicable insights about important next steps in building effective RKIs. Some of the identified RKI components may increase the use of research evidence by decision makers, which may then lead to more informed decisions

  16. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  17. Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

  18. Causes of Incivility in Iranian Nursing Students: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Mostafa; Ildarabadi, Es-hagh; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incivility among nursing students is a common academic problem. Knowing the causes of students’ incivility will enable the faculty members and academic institutions to select correct strategies to deal with this problem. This study was conducted to explore the causes of incivility among nursing students from both educators’ and students’ points of view. Methods: gThis qualitative content analysis study was applied in order to explore experiences and insights of 17 nursing lecturers and 9 nursing students who were selected through purposeful sampling and interviewed on the causes of incivility. Participants were selected among students and lecturers of nursing schools in Khorasan Razavi. The inclusion criteria for the students were having passed one educational term and for the lecturers having one year experience of teaching respectively. Data gathering was done using deep semi-structured interviews starting from March 2014 to March 2015. Results: Three main categories extracted from the data were student related factors, teacher related factors, and organizational factors. Non-educational engagement, attracting attentions, lack of motivation, students’ personality, and lack of experience were the subcategories of student related factors. Subcategories of teacher related factors included lack of skills, teachers’ personal qualities, lack of experience, and incivility of teachers. Finally, the subcategories of organizational factors included no evaluation system for teachers and lack of understanding the organizational rules and regulations. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that factors related to students, teachers, and organization may lead to nursing students’ incivility and clarified its dimensions. In order to develop a civil environment in nursing college, managers and educators’ awareness should be promoted via various ways such as workshops. PMID:26793730

  19. Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote

  20. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Habibi, Mojtaba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis ap- proach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women) and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives) as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their medical treatments as

  1. Lessons Learned on Benchmarking from the International Human Reliability Analysis Empirical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

  2. An efficient empirical Bayes method for genomewide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Wei, J; Pan, Y; Xu, S

    2016-08-01

    Linear mixed model (LMM) is one of the most popular methods for genomewide association studies (GWAS). Numerous forms of LMM have been developed; however, there are two major issues in GWAS that have not been fully addressed before. The two issues are (i) the genomic background noise and (ii) low statistical power after Bonferroni correction. We proposed an empirical Bayes (EB) method by assigning each marker effect a normal prior distribution, resulting in shrinkage estimates of marker effects. We found that such a shrinkage approach can selectively shrink marker effects and reduce the noise level to zero for majority of non-associated markers. In the meantime, the EB method allows us to use an 'effective number of tests' to perform Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. Simulation studies for both human and pig data showed that EB method can significantly increase statistical power compared with the widely used exact GWAS methods, such as GEMMA and FaST-LMM-Select. Real data analyses in human breast cancer identified improved detection signals for markers previously known to be associated with breast cancer. We therefore believe that EB method is a valuable tool for identifying the genetic basis of complex traits.

  3. Empirical approaches to the study of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-02-01

    The study of language evolution, and human cognitive evolution more generally, has often been ridiculed as unscientific, but in fact it differs little from many other disciplines that investigate past events, such as geology or cosmology. Well-crafted models of language evolution make numerous testable hypotheses, and if the principles of strong inference (simultaneous testing of multiple plausible hypotheses) are adopted, there is an increasing amount of relevant data allowing empirical evaluation of such models. The articles in this special issue provide a concise overview of current models of language evolution, emphasizing the testable predictions that they make, along with overviews of the many sources of data available to test them (emphasizing comparative, neural, and genetic data). The key challenge facing the study of language evolution is not a lack of data, but rather a weak commitment to hypothesis-testing approaches and strong inference, exacerbated by the broad and highly interdisciplinary nature of the relevant data. This introduction offers an overview of the field, and a summary of what needed to evolve to provide our species with language-ready brains. It then briefly discusses different contemporary models of language evolution, followed by an overview of different sources of data to test these models. I conclude with my own multistage model of how different components of language could have evolved.

  4. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary

  5. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

  6. Burn patients' experience of pain management: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.

  7. Symptoms in patients with takotsubo syndrome: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Ulin, Kerstin; Omerovic, Elmir; Ekman, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the meaning of narrated symptoms in connection to takotsubo syndrome. Design, method, participants and setting Qualitative study consisting of 25 interviews, 23 women and 2 men aged 39–84 and living in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. The transcribed text was analysed with phenomenological hermeneutics. Results The interviewees reported a large number of symptoms before, during and after the acute onset of takotsubo syndrome, including pain, affected breathing, lassitude, malaise and nausea. Several of these have not been reported previously. Symptoms before the acute onset were, even if they had been prominent, ignored by the interviewees for various reasons. During the acute phase, the symptoms could no longer be ignored and the interviewees sought healthcare. The remaining residual symptom after discharge from hospital caused a great deal of worry because the interviewees feared that they would be permanent and they felt they could not live this way. On the whole, becoming ill and having a large number of symptoms greatly impacted the lives of the interviewees and made them re-evaluate how they had been living. Furthermore, they reported feeling alone and lost regarding their symptom burden, especially in relation to their residual symptoms, which affected their health and ability to return to daily life. Conclusions Acute symptoms, and symptoms before and after the acute ones, are a major part of the illness experience for patients with takotsubo syndrome and affect their health and well-being. Assessment of symptoms should be an integrated part of care to promote health. One way of achieving this is through the patients’ own narratives of their experiences, which are an important component in person-centred care. PMID:27707826

  8. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  9. Surgeons’ Emotional Experience of Their Everyday Practice - A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Revah-Lévy, Anne; Farges, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians’ emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice. Methods and Findings 27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women) participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon). 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons’ emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital)—surgeons’ own emotions, their perception of patients’ emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues), the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon), as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability). Conclusions Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons’ experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done) is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur. PMID:26600126

  10. Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

  11. Running a hospital patient safety campaign: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ozieranski, Piotr; Robins, Victoria; Minion, Joel; Willars, Janet; Wright, John; Weaver, Simon; Martin, Graham P.; Woods, Mary Dixon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Research on patient safety campaigns has mostly concentrated on large-scale multi-organisation efforts, yet locally led improvement is increasingly promoted. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the design and implementation of an internal patient safety campaign at a large acute National Health Service hospital trust with a view to understanding how to optimise such campaigns. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a qualitative study of a campaign that sought to achieve 12 patient safety goals. The authors interviewed 19 managers and 45 frontline staff, supplemented by 56 hours of non-participant observation. Data analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Findings The campaign was motivated by senior managers’ commitment to patient safety improvement, a series of serious untoward incidents, and a history of campaign-style initiatives at the trust. While the campaign succeeded in generating enthusiasm and focus among managers and some frontline staff, it encountered three challenges. First, though many staff at the sharp end were aware of the campaign, their knowledge, and acceptance of its content, rationale, and relevance for distinct clinical areas were variable. Second, the mechanisms of change, albeit effective in creating focus, may have been too limited. Third, many saw the tempo of the campaign as too rapid. Overall, the campaign enjoyed some success in raising the profile of patient safety. However, its ability to promote change was mixed, and progress was difficult to evidence because of lack of reliable measurement. Originality/value The study shows that single-organisation campaigns may help in raising the profile of patient safety. The authors offer important lessons for the successful running of such campaigns. PMID:25241600

  12. An empirical study of FORTRAN programs for parallelizing compilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Zhiyu; Li, Zhiyuan; Yew, Pen-Chung

    1990-01-01

    Some results are reported from an empirical study of program characteristics that are important in parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area of data dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are examined. The major findings are included. Many subscripts contain symbolic terms with unknown values. A few methods of determining their values at compile time are evaluated. Array references with coupled subscripts appear quite frequently; these subscripts must be handled simultaneously in a dependence test, rather than being handled separately as in current test algorithms. Nonzero coefficients of loop indexes in most subscripts are found to be simple: they are either 1 or -1. This allows an exact real-valued test to be as accurate as an exact integer-valued test for one-dimensional or two-dimensional arrays. Dependencies with uncertain distance are found to be rather common, and one of the main reasons is the frequent appearance of symbolic terms with unknown values.

  13. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group). All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society); 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician). Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine. PMID:22405186

  14. GPs’ approaches to documenting stigmatising information: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Almas; Welch, Lisa C

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete medical documentation is essential for continuity of care, but the competing need to protect patient confidentiality presents an ethical dilemma. This is particularly poignant for GPs because of their central role in facilitating continuity. Aim To examine how GPs manage medical documentation of stigmatising mental health (MH) and non-MH information. Design and setting A qualitative sub-study of a factorial experiment with GPs practising in Massachusetts, US. Method Semi-structured interviews (n = 128) were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Results GPs expressed difficulties with and inconsistent strategies for documenting stigmatising information. Without being asked directly about stigmatising information, 44 GPs (34%) expressed difficulties documenting it: whether to include clinically relevant but sensitive information, how to word it, and explaining to patients the importance of including it. Additionally, 75 GPs (59%) discussed strategies for managing documentation of stigmatising information. GPs reported four strategies that varied by type of information: to exclude stigmatising information to respect patient confidentiality (MH: 26%, non-MH: 43%); to include but restrict access to information (MH: 13%, non-MH: 25%); to include but neutralise information to minimise potential stigma (MH: 26%, non-MH: 29%); and to include stigmatising information given the potential impact on care (MH: 68%, non-MH: 32%). Conclusion Lack of consistency undermines the potential of medical documentation to efficiently facilitate continuous, coordinated health care because providers cannot be certain how to interpret what is or is not in the chart. A proactive consensus process within the field of primary care would provide much needed guidance for GPs and, ultimately, could enhance quality of care. PMID:26009532

  15. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context. PMID:21878101

  16. Produsage as a form of self-publication. A qualitative study of casual news produsage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picone, Ike

    2011-04-01

    While Axel Bruns's theory of produsage offers an adequate way of looking at a variety of sites where the production of news content takes the form of collaborative, user-driven production, it seems less suited for the study of productive news use as a user experience, as a way users engage in a more productive way with content. This article gives a first impetus towards the expansion of the theory of produsage to a more user-oriented framework that is fitted to approach produsage as a social practice, rather than as a process of information production. The empirical work presented in this paper concerns the average news user, rather than the expert bloggers and citizen journalists most studies tend to focus on. Through a qualitative, semi-experimental study based on a Living Lab-approach, motivational, situational, and social factors shaping productive news use are identified. Drawing from the findings, conceptual elements as "potential public" and "social reflex" are introduced. Self-publication is proposed as a way to understand how average news users experience productive news use.

  17. The effect of Alexander technique training program: A qualitative study of ordinary behavior application

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Baek, Soon Gi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to configure and apply the Alexander technique training program and assess the effect of program through physical, emotional and behavioral aspects. To achieve the research aims, qualitative research method had been conducted, subjecting 8 people, who were participating in Alexander Technique training program for this study. The study used focus group interview method for collecting date and employed for the interview method by mixing the semi-structured and unstructured questionnaire. The results were followings. First, one could develop body awareness and body consciousness through experiencing lived bodily sensation. Second, from Alexander Technique training program, people experienced psycho & physical’s equilibrium. Third, one could change not only the manner of use of body but also the attitude to the life from conscious attention to daily ordinary movement. The results provided empirical evidence of Alexander Technique training program’s functions in terms of physical, emotional and behavioral aspect through the process of consciousness control from lived body education. PMID:25610819

  18. Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

  19. Relational Theory and Intergenerational Connectedness: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Bartlett, Jan R.; Carlson, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    Relational theory encourages women to be connected in relationships. The authors used qualitative methodology to explore the interactions of a nonfamilial intergenerational group of 7 female adolescents (13-15 years) and 5 older women (62-80 years) in a structured retreat. Findings indicated that the participants experienced increased connectivity…

  20. A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

  1. Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

  2. Doctors' Perceptions and Practices of Breaking Bad News: A Qualitative Study From Greece.

    PubMed

    Oikonomidou, Despoina; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Ploumpidis, Dimitrios; Stylianidis, Stylianos; Tountas, Yannis

    2016-07-01

    There is limited information about doctors' communication behaviors and their salient beliefs with regard to bad news disclosure in Greece. In this qualitative study we investigated the self-reported practices of doctors on breaking bad news, their perceptions about the factors affecting the delivery of such news, and their beliefs about the most appropriate disclosure manner. A focus group discussion and individual interviews were conducted. Twenty-five resident and specialist doctors from primary health care and hospital settings participated. We analyzed the collected data with content analysis techniques. Participants were found to acknowledge the importance of appropriate and effective delivery of bad news; however, none of them reported the implementation of empirically informed communication practices. They described communication patterns mainly formed by their work experience and often guided by the patient's family requests. Doctor, patient, and family characteristics and organizational features and resources were reported to affect the delivery of bad news. Participants perceived the most appropriate disclosure manner as an individualized approach to each patient's unique needs. They suggested an interdisciplinary, collaborative management of the delivery process and the establishment of formal supportive services. These findings may provide useful information for the development of tailored, empirically informed curriculum interventions and educational programs in order to address several barriers to communication. Sociocultural characteristics that influence the disclosure practice, as well as physicians' perceptions that are consistent with the optimal information delivery, should be taken into account. System-level strategies that focus on the development of patient-centered communication also need to be prioritized.

  3. Teachers’ experiences of adolescents’ pain in everyday life: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Gudrun; Westergren, Thomas; Haraldstad, Kristin; Johannessen, Berit; Høie, Magnhild; Helseth, Sølvi; Fegran, Liv; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-01-01

    Objectives More adolescents report pain now than previously. In Norway, episodic pain problems have been reported by 60% of children and adolescents aged 8–18 years, with 21% reporting duration of pain of more than 3 months. Since adolescents spend much time at school, the attitude and behaviour of teachers play important roles regarding the experience of pain felt by adolescents in everyday life. Yet research on how teachers perceive the pain experienced by adolescents in a school setting is limited. We therefore seek to gain insight to teachers’ classroom experiences with (1) adolescent's self-reported pain symptoms; (2) adolescents management of their pain and (3) how to help adolescents manage their pain. Setting Teachers in 5 junior high schools in Norway representing municipalities in 3 rural areas and 2 cities. Research design A qualitative study with an explorative design comprising 5 focus group interviews. Each group consisted of 3–8 junior high school teachers. A semistructured interview guide was used to cover the issues. The transcribed text was analysed with qualitative content analysis. Participants 22 teachers participated (5 men, 17 women; age range 29–62 years) with teaching experience ranging from 3 to nearly 40 years. Results The main theme describing the experience of teachers with adolescents’ pain in everyday life is that pain and management of pain is a social, physical and psychological interwoven phenomenon. Through empirical analyses, 3 subcategories emerged: (1) everyday pain—expressing strenuous life; (2) managing pain—escaping struggle and (3) strategies of teachers—support and normalisation. Conclusions Teachers have a biopsychosocial understanding and approach to pain experienced by adolescents. This understanding influences the role of teachers as significant others in the lives of adolescents with regard to pain and management of their pain in a school setting. PMID:26338838

  4. A comparative study between Empirical Wavelet Transforms and Empirical Mode Decomposition Methods: Application to bearing defect diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedadouche, M.; Thomas, M.; Tahan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is a noise assisted method that may sometimes provide a significant improvement on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). However, the amplitude and number of added noise need to be selected when applying the EEMD method. Furthermore, the computation time which depends on the number of ensemble trails is very high compared to the EMD. In this paper, a new way for choosing the appropriate added noise is presented. Conversely, a recently-developed method called the Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) is investigated. A comparative study between the EMD and EWT methods is conducted. The results show that the EWT is better than the EEMD and EMD on mode estimates and computation time is significantly reduced. An experimental study on bearing diagnosis is conducted. The EWT is applied to experimental data coming from damaged bearings. In the paper, an index selection is introduced that allows for the automatic selection of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that should be used to perform the envelope spectrum. It is shown that choosing all the IMF selected by the index is more efficient than only choosing the best one. The envelope of the sum of the selected IMF clearly reveals the bearing frequencies and its harmonics which are excited by the defect. This approach seems to be an effective and efficient method for processing bearing fault signals.

  5. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. Objective The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Results Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. Conclusion The government’s endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of

  6. A quantitative analysis of qualitative studies in clinical journals for the 2000 publishing year

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2004-01-01

    Background Quantitative studies are becoming more recognized as important to understanding health care with all of its richness and complexities. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the qualitative studies published in 170 core clinical journals for 2000. Methods All identified studies that used qualitative methods were reviewed to ascertain which clinical journals publish qualitative studies and to extract research methods, content (persons and health care issues studied), and whether mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative methods) were used. Results 60 330 articles were reviewed. 355 reports of original qualitative studies and 12 systematic review articles were identified in 48 journals. Most of the journals were in the discipline of nursing. Only 4 of the most highly cited health care journals, based on ISI Science Citation Index (SCI) Impact Factors, published qualitative studies. 37 of the 355 original reports used both qualitative and quantitative (mixed) methods. Patients and non-health care settings were the most common groups of people studied. Diseases and conditions were cancer, mental health, pregnancy and childbirth, and cerebrovascular disease with many other diseases and conditions represented. Phenomenology and grounded theory were commonly used; substantial ethnography was also present. No substantial differences were noted for content or methods when articles published in all disciplines were compared with articles published in nursing titles or when studies with mixed methods were compared with studies that included only qualitative methods. Conclusions The clinical literature includes many qualitative studies although they are often published in nursing journals or journals with low SCI Impact Factor journals. Many qualitative studies incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:15271221

  7. Cardiovascular medicine at face value: a qualitative pilot study on clinical axiology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiology is characterized by its state-of-the-art biomedical technology and the predominance of Evidence-Based Medicine. This predominance makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to deal with the ethical dilemmas that emerge in this subspecialty. This paper is a first endeavor to empirically investigate the axiological foundations of the healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital. Our pilot study selected, as the target population, cardiology personnel not only because of their difficult ethical deliberations but also because of the stringent conditions in which they have to make them. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reconsider clinical ethics and Value-Based Medicine. This study proposes a qualitative analysis of the values and the virtues of healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital in order to establish how the former impact upon the medical and ethical decisions made by the latter. Results We point out the need for strengthening the roles of healthcare personnel as educators and guidance counselors in order to meet the ends of medicine, as well as the need for an ethical discernment that is compatible with our results, namely, that the ethical values developed by healthcare professionals stem from their life history as well as their professional education. Conclusion We establish the kind of actions, communication skills and empathy that are required to build a stronger patient-healthcare professional relationship, which at the same time improves prognosis, treatment efficiency and therapeutic adhesion. PMID:23531271

  8. Socioeconomic variations in responses to chest pain: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Helen Mary; Reid, Margaret Elspeth; Watt, Graham Charles Murray

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore and explain socioeconomic variations in perceptions of and behavioural responses to chest pain. Design Qualitative interviews. Setting Community based study in Glasgow, Scotland. Participants 30 respondents (15 men and 15 women) from a socioeconomically deprived area of Glasgow and 30 respondents (15 men and 15 women) from an affluent area of Glasgow. Outcome measures Participants' reports of their perceptions of and actions in response to chest pain. Results Residents of the deprived area reported greater perceived vulnerability to heart disease, stemming from greater exposure to heart disease in family members and greater identification with high risk groups and stereotypes of cardiac patients. This greater perceived vulnerability was not associated with more frequent reporting of presenting to a general practitioner. People from the deprived area reported greater exposure to ill health, which allowed them to normalise their chest pain, led to confusion with other conditions, and gave rise to a belief that they were overusing medical services. These factors were associated with a reported tendency not to present with chest pain. Anxiety about presenting among respondents in the deprived area was heightened by self blame and fear that they would be chastised by their general practitioner for their risk behaviours. Conclusions Important socioeconomic variations in responses to chest pain may contribute to the known inequities in uptake of secondary cardiology services. Primary care professionals and health promoters should be aware of the ways in which perceptions of symptoms and illness behaviour are shaped by social and cultural factors. What is already known on this topicSocioeconomic variations in rates of angiography and revascularisation existAmong socioeconomically deprived patients with a diagnosis of angina, barriers to accessing services include fear, denial, low expectations, and diagnostic confusionWhat this study adds

  9. EBM in primary care: a qualitative multicenter study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence based medicine (EBM) has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs)' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. Methods This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Results Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1) The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2) The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3) The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts. The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. Conclusions The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not always centred on patients

  10. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. Revised and Expanded from "Case Study Research in Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.

    This book offers a resource guide for qualitative researchers in education, discussing data collection techniques, data analysis, reporting, and the issues of validity, reliability, and ethics. Part 1 reviews the nature and design of qualitative research; it discusses various types of qualitative research (including case studies), and how to…

  11. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Pamela; Jack, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in…

  12. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  13. Creating SPACE through Africa Yoga Project: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    West, Jennifer; Duffy, Nicole; Liang, Belle

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative analysis examined teachers' experiences of the Africa Yoga Project (AYP), a mentoring-oriented yoga program for fostering resilience among individuals and groups impacted by poverty and trauma. Interviews conducted with AYP teachers were coded using qualitative content analysis. Themes demonstrated that AYP benefited participants by creating S.P.A.C.E. (Safety and stability, Personal growth, Action, Cultural diversity, and Empowerment). The findings illustrated ways in which this program fostered individual and community wellness and positive engagement. Implications are discussed including the potential for providing yoga as a low-cost, sustainable, and effective intervention to promote health, economic self-sufficiency, and community engagement in diverse settings with limited resources.

  14. Empirical Study of Formative Evaluation in Adult ESL Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qin

    2012-01-01

    Formative Evaluation is a method of evaluating a program while the program activities are forming or happening. Formative evaluation focuses on the "process" during which problems are timely spotted, corrected and adjustments made so that an intended goal can be accomplished. Through a four-month empirical research work with students of…

  15. Identifying nurses' rewards: a qualitative categorization study in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    De Gieter, Sara; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland; Caers, Ralf; Du Bois, Cindy; Jegers, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Background Rewards are important in attracting, motivating and retaining the most qualified employees, and nurses are no exception to this rule. This makes the establishment of an efficient reward system for nurses a true challenge for every hospital manager. A reward does not necessarily have a financial connotation: non-financial rewards may matter too, or may even be more important. Therefore, the present study examines nurses' reward perceptions, in order to identify potential reward options. Methods To answer the research question "What do nurses consider a reward and how can these rewards be categorized?", 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with nurses were conducted and analysed using discourse and content analyses. In addition, the respondents received a list of 34 rewards (derived from the literature) and were asked to indicate the extent to which they perceived each of them to be rewarding. Results Discourse analysis revealed three major reward categories: financial, non-financial and psychological, each containing different subcategories. In general, nurses more often mentioned financial rewards spontaneously in the interview, compared to non-financial and psychological rewards. The questionnaire results did not, however, indicate a significant difference in the rewarding potential of these three categories. Both the qualitative and quantitative data revealed that a number of psychological and non-financial rewards were important for nurses in addition to their monthly pay and other remunerations. In particular, appreciation for their work by others, compliments from others, presents from others and contact with patients were highly valued. Moreover, some demographical variables influenced the reward perceptions. Younger and less experienced nurses considered promotion possibilities as more rewarding than the older and more senior ones. The latter valued job security and working for a hospital with a good reputation higher than their younger and more

  16. Interactions among Knowledge, Beliefs, and Goals in Framing a Qualitative Study in Statistics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, qualitative research methods have become more prevalent in the field of statistics education. This paper offers thoughts on the process of framing a qualitative study by means of an illustrative example. The decisions that influenced the framing of a study of pre-service teachers' understanding of the concept of statistical…

  17. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  18. Barriers and Facilitators of Breasteeding for Primiparous Active Duty Military Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    Breastfeeding increases oxytocin levels, allowing more rapid involution of the uterus and decreased postpartum bleeding. Amenorrhea caused by breastfeeding ...BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY Kristine Markley Bristow APPROVED...FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  19. Use of Evidence in the Implementation of Social Programs: A Qualitative Study from Chile.

    PubMed

    Flores, Rodrigo; Naranjo, Carola; Hein, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Through this qualitative, empirical study the authors aim to explore and describe the sources of knowledge that are used to guide intervention practice by social workers in Chile. Particular attention was paid to factors that may facilitate or hinder the use of research-based evidence to guide social interventions design, implementation, and outcome evaluation. In order to explore these issues, 25 semi-structured interviews with social workers from Chilean social service non-profit organizations were conducted. The main findings suggest that social workers do not use research-based evidence to support their social interventions due to various personal organizational constraints (e.g., lack of time, lack of access to resources for disseminating evidence, lack of English command). In addition, no evaluation processes of social programs which will support evidence-based effectiveness could be found. One key barrier to support use of evidence and evidence production may be related to the fact that most non-governmental organizations maintain a hierarchical and vertical relationship with state agencies (program design, oversight, and funding) for social program development.

  20. Clients' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients' experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients' experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in "A sense of being in communion with self and others" theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients' ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required.

  1. Gaps in studies of global health education: an empirical literature review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhaolan; Wang, JianLi

    2015-01-01

    Background Global health has stimulated a lot of students and has attracted the interest of many faculties, thereby initiating the establishment of many academic programs on global health research and education. global health education reflects the increasing attention toward social accountability in medical education. Objective This study aims to identify gaps in the studies on global health education. Design A critical literature review of empirical studies was conducted using Boolean search techniques. Results A total of 238 articles, including 16 reviews, were identified. There had been a boom in the numbers of studies on global health education since 2010. Four gaps were summarized. First, 94.6% of all studies on global health education were conducted in North American and European countries, of which 65.6% were carried out in the United States, followed by Canada (14.3%) and the United Kingdom (9.2%). Only seven studies (2.9%) were conducted in Asian countries, five (2.1%) in Oceania, and two (0.8%) in South American/Caribbean countries. A total of 154 studies (64.4%) were qualitative studies and 64 studies (26.8%) were quantitative studies. Second, elective courses and training or programs were the most frequently used approach for global health education. Third, there was a gap in the standardization of global health education. Finally, it was mainly targeted at medical students, residents, and doctors. It had not granted the demands for global health education of all students majoring in medicine-related studies. Conclusions Global health education would be a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity, reducing health disparities, and also for future professional careers. It is the time to build and expand education in global health, especially among developing countries. Global health education should be integrated into primary medical education. Interdisciplinary approaches and interprofessional collaboration were recommended. Collaboration

  2. An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to Control Micro Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to Control Micro Aerial Vehicles Ming Hou...Report DRDC Toronto TR 2010-075 October 2010 An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to...drives the need for a small and light controller which will not hinder a soldier carrying it. This requirement brings an issue of designing an

  3. Study design in qualitative research--2: Sampling and data collection strategies.

    PubMed

    Devers, K J; Frankel, R M

    2000-01-01

    In two prior papers in our series on qualitative research [Frankel & Devers (2000a, 2000b) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Frankel & Devers (2000) Study design in qualitative research-1: developing research questions and assessing research needs, Education for Health, 13, 251-261], we examine two critical issues in qualitative research design: sampling, including identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects, and data collection and management. We describe these two key steps in the qualitative research design process, discuss challenges that often emerge when pursuing these steps, and provide guidelines for addressing them. Qualitative research most often uses "purposive," rather than random, sampling strategies. A good understanding of these sampling strategies and why they are used is central to designing a credible qualitative study. In addition, given the real-world context in which most qualitative research is carried out, identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects are critical parts of the process. We also provide suggestions for developing and maintaining productive and mutually satisfying research relationships with sites and subjects. Finally, data collection and management are often neglected subjects in qualitative research. We offer practical advice on how to collect and manage qualitative data, including factors to consider when deciding how structured the data collection process should be, the pros and cons of audio- and/or videotaping compared with note-taking, and tips for writing up field notes and document management. A forthcoming, final paper in the series will focus on qualitative data analysis and the publication of qualitative research results.

  4. Additive empirical parametrization and microscopic study of deuteron breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2017-02-01

    Comparative assessment of the total breakup proton-emission cross sections measured for 56 MeV deuteron interaction with target nuclei from 12C to 209Bi, with an empirical parametrization and recently calculated microscopic neutron-removal cross sections was done at the same time with similar data measured at 15, 25.5, 70, and 80 MeV. Comparable mass dependencies of the elastic-breakup (EB) cross sections provided by the empirical parametrization and the microscopic results have been also found at the deuteron energy of 56 MeV, while the assessment of absolute-values variance up to a factor of two was not possible because of the lack of EB measurements at energies higher than 25.5 MeV. While the similarities represent an additional validation of the microscopic calculations, the cross-section difference should be considered within the objectives of further measurements.

  5. Menstruation during a lifespan: A qualitative study of women's experiences.

    PubMed

    Brantelid, Ida Emilie; Nilvér, Helena; Alehagen, Siw

    2014-01-01

    Menstruation is a natural phenomenon for women during their reproductive years. Our aim was to describe women's experiences of menstruation across the lifespan. Qualitative interviews with a narrative approach were conducted with 12 women between 18 and 48 years of age in Sweden. Using thematic analysis, we found menstruation to be a complex phenomenon that binds women together. It is perceived as an intimate and private matter, which makes women want to conceal the occurrence of menstrual bleeding. Over time, menstruation becomes a natural part of women's lives and gender identity. Health professionals play a central role supporting women to deal with menstruation.

  6. The Moral Economy of Health Technology Assessment: An Empirical Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducey, Ariel; Ross, Sue; Pott, Terilyn; Thompson, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Using data from interviews with Health Technology Assessment (HTA) professionals in Canada, this paper shows their views of the appropriate role of, and evidence required for, HTA are associated with values and norms. Recognizing HTA as a moral economy helps to explain when and why HTA professionals' views of what HTA should and can do are…

  7. An Empirical and Qualitative Study of the Strategic Planning Process of a Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleong, Chandra

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses whether there are differences in performance based on differences in strategy. First, an attempt was made to determine whether the institution had a strategy, and if so, did it follow a particular model. Major models of strategy are the industry analysis approach, the resource based view or the RBV model and the more recent,…

  8. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  9. Teachers as Researchers of New Literacies: Reflections on Qualitative Self-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kew, Bryan; Given, Kim; Brass, Jory

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a beginning teacher, experienced teacher, and teacher educator reflect upon their experiences with qualitative self-studies of language and literacy in teacher education courses. The goal of these course projects was to introduce teachers to sociocultural theories, qualitative research, and "new" literacies. Sharing…

  10. Exploring Perceptions of the Mental Health of Youth in Mexico: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…

  11. Barriers and Facilitators of Breastfeeding for Primiparous Active Duty Military Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-11

    allowing more rapid involution of the uterus and decreased postpartum bleeding. Amenorrhea caused by breastfeeding results in less menstrual blood loss in...BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY Kristine Markley Bristow APPROVED... BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY” beyond brief excerpts is with the permission of the copyright owner, and

  12. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  13. Understanding Participation in Sport and Physical Activity among Children and Adults: A Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research may be able to provide an answer as to why adults and children do or do not participate in sport and physical activity. This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity. The…

  14. Meta-Study as Diagnostic: Toward Content Over Form in Qualitative Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Frost, Julia; Garside, Ruth; Cooper, Chris; Britten, Nicky

    2016-02-01

    Having previously conducted qualitative syntheses of the diabetes literature, we wanted to explore the changes in theoretical approaches, methodological practices, and the construction of substantive knowledge which have recently been presented in the qualitative diabetes literature. The aim of this research was to explore the feasibility of synthesizing existing qualitative syntheses of patient perspectives of diabetes using meta-study methodology. A systematic review of qualitative literature, published between 2000 and 2013, was conducted. Six articles were identified as qualitative syntheses. The meta-study methodology was used to compare the theoretical, methodological, analytic, and synthetic processes across the six studies, exploring the potential for an overarching synthesis. We identified that while research questions have increasingly concentrated on specific aspects of diabetes, the focus on systematic review processes has led to the neglect of qualitative theory and methods. This can inhibit the production of compelling results with meaningful clinical applications. Although unable to produce a synthesis of syntheses, we recommend that researchers who conduct qualitative syntheses pay equal attention to qualitative traditions and systematic review processes, to produce research products that are both credible and applicable.

  15. The Role of Light and Music in Gambling Behaviour: An Empirical Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spenwyn, Jenny; Barrett, Doug J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empirical study into the combined effects of both music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants…

  16. Medical Student Beliefs about Disclosure of Mental Health Issues: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Winter, Peter; Rix, Andrew; Grant, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 the United Kingdom's General Medical Council (GMC) commissioned research to develop guidance for medical schools on how best to support students with mental illness. One of the key findings from medical student focus groups in the study was students' strong belief that medical schools excluded students on mental health grounds. Students believed mental illness was a fitness to practice matter that led to eventual dismissal, although neither personal experience nor empirical evidence supported this belief. The objective of the present study was a deeper exploration of this belief and its underlying social mechanisms. This included any other beliefs that influenced medical students' reluctance to disclose a mental health problem, the factors that reinforced these beliefs, and the feared consequences of revealing a mental illness. The study involved a secondary analysis of qualitative data from seven focus groups involving 40 student participants across five UK medical schools in England, Scotland, and Wales. Student beliefs clustered around (1) the unacceptability of mental illness in medicine, (2) punitive medical school support systems, and (3) the view that becoming a doctor is the only successful career outcome. Reinforcing mechanisms included pressure from senior clinicians, a culture of "presenteeism," distrust of medical school staff, and expectations about conduct. Feared consequences centered on regulatory "fitness to practice" proceedings that would lead to expulsion, reputational damage, and failure to meet parents' expectations. The study's findings provide useful information for veterinary medical educators interested in creating a culture that encourages the disclosure of mental illness and contributes to the debate about mental illness within the veterinary profession.

  17. Children's views of accident risks and prevention: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Green, J.; Hart, L.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To examine children's accounts of injury risks and opportunities for prevention. Setting—Schools, youth clubs, and a holiday activity scheme in the south east of England. Methods—Sixteen focus groups were held with 7–11 year old children. Transcripts of the discussions were analysed using qualitative methods. Results—Children were knowledgeable about injury risks and how to reduce them. They also saw injury prevention as primarily their own responsibility. However, they were also sophisticated in their criticisms of generalised prevention advice, and evaluated safety messages in the light of local environmental and social knowledge. Personal experience was more often reported as a reason for risk reduction than formal prevention advice. Risks for injury were not isolated from other risks faced. Conclusions—Effective educational interventions aimed at changing children's risk behaviour should build more on children's own competence and knowledge of their local environment, and stress the need to manage risks rather than avoid dangers. PMID:9595326

  18. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge.

  19. An Empirical Study for Impacts of Measurement Errors on EHR based Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Rui; Cao, Ming; Wu, Yonghui; Huang, Jing; Denny, Joshua C; Xu, Hua; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, Electronic Health Records (EHR) systems have been increasingly implemented at US hospitals. Despite their great potential, the complex and uneven nature of clinical documentation and data quality brings additional challenges for analyzing EHR data. A critical challenge is the information bias due to the measurement errors in outcome and covariates. We conducted empirical studies to quantify the impacts of the information bias on association study. Specifically, we designed our simulation studies based on the characteristics of the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. Through simulation studies, we quantified the loss of power due to misclassifications in case ascertainment and measurement errors in covariate status extraction, with respect to different levels of misclassification rates, disease prevalence, and covariate frequencies. These empirical findings can inform investigators for better understanding of the potential power loss due to misclassification and measurement errors under a variety of conditions in EHR based association studies. PMID:28269935

  20. A conceptual model of physician-patient relationships: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, Mohammad Reza; Afshar, Leila

    2016-01-01

    In any clinical encounter, an effective physician-patient relationship is necessary for achieving the desired outcome. This outcome is successful treatment, and therefore, the relationship should be a healing one. In addition, in the Islamic view, the physician is a manifestation of God’s healing attribute, which is usually undermined in everyday therapeutic communications. Yet there are few empirical data about this experience and how it occurs in the clinical context. This study was conducted to develop a model of physician-patient relationship, with the healing process at its core. Our goal was to explain the nature and characteristics of this encounter. In Islamic teachings, healing is defined as “cure” when possible and if not, reducing pain and suffering and ultimately finding a meaning in the illness experience. This study was a qualitative inquiry. Data were collected through 17 open-ended, semi-structured interviews with physicians who had an effective relationship with their patients. The participants’ experiences and their perception regarding the relationship were subjected to grounded theory content analysis. For establishing the trustworthiness of the data collection and analysis we used triangulation, peer review, and member checking. The findings showed that the components of the patient-physician healing relationship could be categorized in the four key processes of valuing the patient as a person, effective management of power imbalance, commitment, and the physician’s competence and character. This leads to forming the three necessary relational elements of trust, peace and hope, and being acknowledged. Their importance has been better demonstrated in a relationship which incorporates the spiritual aspects of patient care and also physician’s satisfaction. The physician-patient relationship has a central role in patient outcome. This relationship has an understandable structure and its components may have an effective impact on

  1. Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

  2. Qualitative study of influences on food store choice.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

    2012-10-01

    Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (three African-American and two Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques-content analysis and constant comparison-were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, non-food merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice.

  3. A qualitative study of physicians' engagement in reducing healthcare disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt, Susanne K.; Wynia, Matthew K.; Gadon, Margaret; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2007-01-01

    Despite calls for physician engagement to reduce disparities, little is known about what drives physicians to become engaged or what engaged physicians are doing. We conducted in-depth interviews with a group of highly engaged physicians and used qualitative methods to identify how these physicians became interested in alleviating healthcare disparities and what strategies they use to improve care for their minority patients. We found that most participants have experienced being a minority, though only half were racial minorities, and many related extensive childhood experiences with minorities. Participants identified several key barriers to quality care for minorities, including language barriers, resource limitations, lack of patient education and low patient empowerment. When asked how physicians can reduce health disparities, most subjects emphasized interpersonal respect, though some promising non-interpersonal approaches to reducing disparities were also identified. These interviews document the lived experiences of a group of physicians who are highly engaged in reducing disparities and suggest that connecting with experiences as a minority and other early life experiences can prompt later professional engagement in this important issue. PMID:18229768

  4. Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

  5. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  6. Why clinicians do not implement integrated treatment for comorbid substance use disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Nele; Krumeich, Anja; Havermans, Remco C.; Smeets, Feikje; Jansen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare providers working in addiction facilities do not often implement integrated treatment of comorbid substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while there is empirical evidence to do so. Objective This study aims to get insight into the views of clinicians with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in SUD patients. Method A qualitative research method was chosen. Fourteen treatment staff members of different wards of an addiction care facility were interviewed by an independent interviewer. Results Despite acknowledging adverse consequences of trauma exposure on SUD, severe underdiagnosis of PTSD was mentioned and treatment of PTSD during SUD treatment was not supported. Obstacles related to the underestimation of PTSD among SUD patients and to the perceptions of SUD clinicians concerning the treatment of comorbid SUD/PTSD were reported. Conclusions It is concluded that SUD facilities should train their clinicians to enable them to provide for integrated treatment of SUD/PTSD. PMID:24511368

  7. Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented. PMID:22783157

  8. Understanding human queuing behaviour at exits: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Wagoum, A. U. Kemloh; Liao, W.

    2017-01-01

    The choice of the exit to egress from a facility plays a fundamental role in pedestrian modelling and simulation. Yet, empirical evidence for backing up simulation is scarce. In this contribution, we present three new groups of experiments that we conducted in different geometries. We varied parameters such as the width of the doors, the initial location and number of pedestrians which in turn affected their perception of the environment. We extracted and analysed relevant indicators such as distance to the exits and density levels. The results put in evidence the fact that pedestrians use time-dependent information to optimize their exit choice, and that, in congested states, a load balancing over the exits occurs. We propose a minimal modelling approach that covers those situations, especially the cases where the geometry does not show a symmetrical configuration. Most of the models try to achieve the load balancing by simulating the system and solving optimization problems. We show statistically and by simulation that a linear model based on the distance to the exits and the density levels around the exit can be an efficient dynamical alternative. PMID:28280588

  9. How People Interpret Healthy Eating: Contributions of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisogni, Carole A.; Jastran, Margaret; Seligson, Marc; Thompson, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…

  10. Gaps in studies of global health education: an empirical literature review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhaolan; Wang, JianLi

    2015-01-01

    Background Global health has stimulated a lot of students and has attracted the interest of many faculties, thereby initiating the establishment of many academic programs on global health research and education. global health education reflects the increasing attention toward social accountability in medical education. Objective This study aims to identify gaps in the studies on global health education. Design A critical literature review of empirical studies was conducted using Boolean search techniques. Results A total of 238 articles, including 16 reviews, were identified. There had been a boom in the numbers of studies on global health education since 2010. Four gaps were summarized. First, 94.6% of all studies on global health education were conducted in North American and European countries, of which 65.6% were carried out in the United States, followed by Canada (14.3%) and the United Kingdom (9.2%). Only seven studies (2.9%) were conducted in Asian countries, five (2.1%) in Oceania, and two (0.8%) in South American/Caribbean countries. A total of 154 studies (64.4%) were qualitative studies and 64 studies (26.8%) were quantitative studies. Second, elective courses and training or programs were the most frequently used approach for global health education. Third, there was a gap in the standardization of global health education. Finally, it was mainly targeted at medical students, residents, and doctors. It had not granted the demands for global health education of all students majoring in medicine-related studies. Conclusions Global health education would be a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity, reducing health disparities, and also for future professional careers. It is the time to build and expand education in global health, especially among developing countries. Global health education should be integrated into primary medical education. Interdisciplinary approaches and interprofessional collaboration were recommended. Collaboration

  11. [Reflexivity and positionality tools to promote theoretical-methodological congruency on commencing a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Bover, Andreu

    2013-01-01

    The interest in responding to socially determined health needs has led to an increased use of qualitative methodology by researchers and health professionals. This situation has prompted a search for new tools that will facilitate implementation and promote the quality of their research. The researcher's reflexivity and positionality have been described as very useful rigour strategies to promote theoretical-methodological congruency in qualitative research, as well as in generating new knowledge with a greater impact on health. Two methodological tools are presented here in the form of self-reflective questions, with some examples from qualitative health studies conducted in Spain, which can help novice researchers to plan how to commence a qualitative project. Some implications for the health research, practice and policy are discussed.

  12. Presence of Mind: A Qualitative Study of Meditating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Michèle; Miller, John P.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study into the effects of meditation practice on the lives of professional educators, specifically educators who either began or continued such practice during course work led by Professor Miller at the University of Toronto. The study incorporates semistructured interviews with 12 participants to track their…

  13. Writing and Publishing Qualitative Studies in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    When a study is published in a respected professional journal, it not only verifies that the research has been completed but also that it has been subjected to anonymous peer review. Published results from studies in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge and provide direction to guide future early childhood education…

  14. Democratic Classroom Management in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…

  15. Critical Elements of Student Assistance Programs: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rodriguez, Leslie; Beyard, Karen; Goldstein, Marc B.

    2010-01-01

    Student assistance programs (SAPs) are one approach for using teams to respond to student needs, but there is little research on SAP implementation and whether SAPs function as intended. The authors present findings from a study of two SAPs that use a model developed by Connecticut's Governor's Prevention Partnership. The study focused on…

  16. Setting the Qualitative Research Agenda in Social Studies Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gordon R.; Parsons, Jim

    Three publications ("Dissertation Abstracts International,""Social Education," and "Theory and Research in Social Education") are reviewed to determine trends in types of social studies research conducted between 1977 and 1984. Using a four-fold classification system, 159 studies are surveyed. Results show an…

  17. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  18. Use of a qualitative methodological scaffolding process to design robust interprofessional studies.

    PubMed

    Wener, Pamela; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2013-07-01

    Increasingly, researchers are using qualitative methodology to study interprofessional collaboration (IPC). With this increase in use, there seems to be an appreciation for how qualitative studies allow us to understand the unique individual or group experience in more detail and form a basis for policy change and innovative interventions. Furthermore, there is an increased understanding of the potential of studying new or emerging phenomena qualitatively to inform further large-scale studies. Although there is a current trend toward greater acceptance of the value of qualitative studies describing the experiences of IPC, these studies are mostly descriptive in nature. Applying a process suggested by Crotty (1998) may encourage researchers to consider the value in situating research questions within a broader theoretical framework that will inform the overall research approach including methodology and methods. This paper describes the application of a process to a research project and then illustrates how this process encouraged iterative cycles of thinking and doing. The authors describe each step of the process, shares decision-making points, as well as suggests an additional step to the process. Applying this approach to selecting data collection methods may serve to guide and support the qualitative researcher in creating a well-designed study approach.

  19. Underrepresented Minorities in Medical School Admissions: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Hadinger, Margaret A

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: This study explored Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino medical students' perceptions of the medical school admissions process. Previous research has explored other elements of the medical education continuum. However, little is known regarding minorities' perceptions of navigating the medical school admissions process. To address this gap in the literature, this exploratory study suggests a conceptual model describing why minorities apply to medical school and the influences affecting their admissions experience.

  20. Heritage Learners of Mexican Descent in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study of Past and Present Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gignoux, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative interpretive study that explores the past and present experiences of heritage learners (HLs) of Mexican descent who were studying or had recently studied advanced Spanish in institutions of higher education. All of the participants had been exposed to Spanish in the home and began their studies in elementary or middle school…

  1. Understanding Masculinity in Undergraduate African American Men: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Mincey, Krista; Alfonso, Moya; Hackney, Amy; Luque, John

    2014-09-01

    This study reports findings on views of masculinity with undergraduate Black men, which included interviews and focus groups (N = 46) with participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Specifically, this study explored how Black men define being a man and being a Black man. Undergraduate Black males at a historically Black college and university (N = 25) and a predominately White institution (N = 21) in the Southeastern United States were recruited to participate in this study. Through the use of thematic analysis, findings indicated that three levels of masculinity exist for Black men: what it means to be a man, what it means to be a Black man, and who influences male development. Implications and recommendations for future research and practice are discussed.

  2. Nurses' Error Management in Critical Care Units: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Peyrovi, Hamid; Valiee, Sina

    Nursing errors are common in critical care units, and nurses are in the first line of confrontation. The purpose of this study was to explore the processes of managing nursing errors in critical care units in Iran and to develop a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon. This was a grounded theory study. We recruited a sample of 18 critical care nurses for the study. The sampling method was purposive and then changed to theoretical. The data were collected through in-depth interviews. For data analysis, we employed the constant comparative analysis technique. The core category of the study was "continuous situational analysis." The main categories were situational analysis and error removal. When nurses confronted an error, they opted for analyzing the error situation in terms of the nature of error, probable consequences, monitoring, and life threat. Accordingly, they employed error removal strategies such as self-action, cooperation, notifying, and censoring. These steps happened concurrently, successively, or cyclically. To manage their committed errors, nurses usually go through an informal process. Nurse-managers need to design effective error management strategies and require the practicing nurses to adhere to them. A practical model for effective prevention and management of nursing errors in critical care units is necessary.

  3. Online Faculty Perceptions on Effective Faculty Mentoring: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Teresa; Layne, Melissa; Ice, Phil

    2014-01-01

    When higher education leaders give little thought or offer little mentoring to their faculty members, there is risk of driving faculty members from teaching online and of them having a poor experience in online teaching. Without mentoring support, faculty members may feel disconnected and unsupported. The purpose of the study was to examine the…

  4. Information Literacy in the Workplace: A Qualitative Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John; Irving, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Although increasingly recognized as a future skills issue, the use of information in the workplace is a little studied area within library and information research. A substantial "pedagogic" literature of learning in the workplace exists, however, and this was critically reviewed to generate a repertoire of issues which could in turn be…

  5. Coping Strategies of Iranian Elderly Women: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.

    2010-01-01

    Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…

  6. How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Sitwat; Zyngier, David

    2012-01-01

    The authors use Ryan and Deci's (2000) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to better understand how student motivation and engagement are linked combined with Schlechty's Student Engagement Continuum to analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on students' different engagement types. The study seeks to understand which type of…

  7. Challenges of Documenting Schoolchildren's Psychosocial Health: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausson, Eva K.; Berg, Agneta; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' experience of challenges related to documenting schoolchildren's psychosocial health in Sweden. Six focus group discussions were carried out. Areas for discussions included questions about situations, especially challenging to document as well as what constrains and/or facilitates documenting…

  8. Student Parents, Hardship and Debt: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Eve; Roberts, Ron

    2006-01-01

    To date little is known about the effects of financial hardship on student parents, who remain a significant although largely unrecognized proportion of the student population. The objective of this study was to gain an insight into their concerns and illuminate issues which may have far-reaching consequences not only for the mental and physical…

  9. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  10. A Qualitative Study of Resilient Latina/o College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Johnson, Michael B.; Fielding, Cheryl; Cavazos, Alyssa G.; Castro, Veronica; Vela, Luti

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted with 11 Latina/o college students in order to provide insight into how these students develop a sense of resilience. Five factors from J. H. McMillan and D. F. Reed's (1994) concept of resiliency appeared to play an important role in these students' high academic achievement: high educational goals, support and…

  11. Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

  12. A Qualitative Study of TAFE Students Exiting from TAFE Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Catherine; Sharma, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Institutional researchers have undertaken many studies of student attrition in the past but mainly focusing on the quantitative dimensions. No doubt it is important for institutions to be aware of their attrition rates and how this may vary by demographic and other variables in order to develop strategies to minimise drop-out rates and thereby…

  13. Spiritual Evolution of Bereavement Counselors: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puterbaugh, Dolores T.

    2008-01-01

    This article draws from a phenomenological study on the experience of being a bereavement counselor. Ten bereavement counselors shared their experiences in bereavement counseling. Spiritual and emotional aspects of bereavement counseling with grieving and dying persons are discussed as well as the spiritual effects on and growth processes of the…

  14. Obesity Prevention Opinions of School Stakeholders: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della Torre, Sophie Bucher; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2010-01-01

    Background: In general, schools are an important setting to implement current recommendations for obesity prevention in children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigated the opinions of different school stakeholders on the feasibility and acceptability of current obesity prevention strategies that could be…

  15. Scaffolding Preservice Teachers' WebQuest Design: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how participating preservice teachers reported their perceptions and use of different scaffolds provided to support their WebQuest design. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a succession of course activities designed to guide WebQuest design and development. Results indicated that while participants followed, adapted,…

  16. Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

    2011-01-01

    Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…

  17. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  18. Family Stigma Associated With Epilepsy: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nabi Amjad, Reza; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Navab, Elham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Harmful nature of epilepsy can affect the patient and their parent. Stigma, arising from it, affects the patient and their family. To relieve it understanding the experiences of the parent are useful. This study was aimed at understanding the experiences of parent of child with epilepsy in Iran. Methods: In this interpretative phenomenological study, 10 parents who took care of their child with epilepsy were participated. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. After transcription, data were analyzed using Van Manen’s method. Results: Family stigma emerged as a main theme in data analysis with three subthemes including becoming verbally abusive, a dull and heavy shadowed look, and associates interference. Conclusion: Family stigma is a major challenge for parents of child with epilepsy need to special attention by health system. Nurses, as a big part of the system, can play an important role to manage this problem. PMID:28299298

  19. Emotions in veterinary surgical students: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Tanggaard, Lene; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Berendt, Mette

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination of emotions; 63% of students experienced negative emotions, while 58% experienced positive ones. In addition, 61% of students reported feeling excited or tense. Students' statements reveal that anxiety is perceived as counterproductive to learning, while excitement seems to enhance students' focus and engagement. Our study identified the most common sources of positive and negative emotions to be "being able to prepare well" and "lack of self-confidence," respectively. Our findings suggest that there are factors that we can influence in the surgical learning environment to minimize negative emotions and enhance positive emotions and engagement, thereby improving students' learning.

  20. Psychological Problems Derived from Mastectomy: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, José Manuel García; López, María Luisa Domínguez

    2011-01-01

    Advances in treatment of breast cancer have not avoided using mastectomy in all cases, and when this happens, we are dealing with a woman who is suffering from psychological problems. In order to study this issue we have carried out a research with the collaboration of The Andalusian Association of Women with Mastectomies (AMAMA) in Seville, which provided us with a sample of 46 mastectomized women. The objective of this study is to analyze in depth the psychological reaction of women to mastectomy through its different stages from diagnosis to surgical treatment. We chose a cualitative method so as to explore the subjective components of psicologycal respons. As a result, we found in studied women: (a) The “fracture” of the “corporal imaginary” related to the disappearance of a valuable organ, linked to the feeling of loss of personal attractiveness, low self-esteem and avoidance of social relationships. (b) The problem with “femininity” has been linked to the issue of “desirability”, something innate in the “feminine position”. (c) Many of them keep in mind the idea of mutilation, as a “hole” which is impossible to integrate. (d) Finally, we demonstrate how certain features of personality made them especially vulnerable to the explained phenomena. PMID:22312492

  1. Empirical studies of software design: Implications for SSEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    Implications for Software Engineering Environments (SEEs) are presented in viewgraph format for characteristics of projects studied; significant problems and crucial problem areas in software design for large systems; layered behavioral model of software processes; implications of field study results; software project as an ecological system; results of the LIFT study; information model of design exploration; software design strategies; results of the team design study; and a list of publications.

  2. An Empirical Review of Internet Addiction Outcome Studies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chennan; Liao, Minli; Smith, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The authors systematically reviewed the outcomes and methodological quality of 24 Internet addiction (IA) treatment outcome studies in China. Method: The authors used 15 attributes from the quality of evidence scores to evaluate 24 outcome studies. These studies came from both English and Chinese academic databases from 2000 to 2010.…

  3. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  4. Canadian adolescents' perspectives of cancer risk: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Safipour, Jalal; Tailor, Ketan

    2015-09-01

    Research examining adolescents' understandings of cancer and cancer risk is limited. Accordingly, we conducted an ethnographic study that sought to extend our limited understanding of Canadian adolescents' perspectives of cancer and cancer prevention including how adolescents conceptualize and understand cancer risk. This article addresses findings specific to adolescents' perspectives of cancer risk. Seventy-five adolescents (11-19 years old) took part in the study. Two individual open-ended interviews were planned for each adolescent with the second interview occurring 4 to 5 weeks after the first interview. The second interview was complemented by the use of photovoice. Four focus groups, composed of the adolescents who took part in the individual interviews, were also conducted. Data analysis involved both thematic and content analysis. Findings revealed that adolescents conceptualized cancer risk in terms of specific risk factors, with lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, diet/nutrition and physical inactivity) dominating their discourse. Adolescents rationalized risky health behaviours through use of cognitive strategies that included questioning and evaluating risk information, considering the benefits costs of the cancer risk, and downplaying the impact of the cancer risk. Use of these cognitive strategies helped to make cancer risks more acceptable to adolescents. While adolescents felt that cancer could not always be prevented, they did feel it was possible for individuals to delay getting cancer by lowering the impact of cancer risks through making the right choices. Although more research in this area is needed, the findings from this study may help inform cancer prevention and risk communication programmes and policies.

  5. Neighbourhood perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Louise N; Woods, Catherine; Coleman, Rosarie; Perry, Ivan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective promotion of physical activity in low income communities is essential given the high prevalence of inactivity in this sector. Methods This study explored determinants of engaging in physical activity in two Irish city based neighbourhoods using a series of six focus groups and twenty five interviews with adult residents. Data were analysed using constant comparison methods with a grounded theory approach. Results Study findings centred on the concept of 'community contentment'. Physical activity was related to the degree of contentment/comfort within the 'self' and how the 'self' interacts within the neighbourhood. Contemporary focus on outer bodily appearance and pressure to comply with societal expectations influenced participants' sense of confidence and competence. Social interaction, involvement, and provision of adequate social supports were viewed as positive and motivating. However normative expectations appeared to affect participants' ability to engage in physical activity, which may reflect the 'close knit' culture of the study neighbourhoods. Access to suitable local facilities and amenities such as structured and pleasant walking routes was regarded as essential. Indeed participants considered walking to be their preferred form of physical activity which may relate to the minimal skill requirement, ease of access and low financial costs incurred. Conclusion In the context of physical activity, health promoters need to be conscious of the difficulties that individuals feel in relation to bodily appearance and the pressure to comply with societal standards. This may be particularly relevant in low income settings where insufficient allocation of resources and social supports means that individuals have less opportunity to attend to physical activity than individuals living in higher income settings. PMID:18373842

  6. Maximising the impact of qualitative research in feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials: guidance for researchers.

    PubMed

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Hoddinott, Pat; Lewin, Simon; Thomas, Kate J; Young, Bridget; Adamson, Joy; Jansen, Yvonne Jfm; Mills, Nicola; Moore, Graham; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility studies are increasingly undertaken in preparation for randomised controlled trials in order to explore uncertainties and enable trialists to optimise the intervention or the conduct of the trial. Qualitative research can be used to examine and address key uncertainties prior to a full trial. We present guidance that researchers, research funders and reviewers may wish to consider when assessing or undertaking qualitative research within feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials. The guidance consists of 16 items within five domains: research questions, data collection, analysis, teamwork and reporting. Appropriate and well conducted qualitative research can make an important contribution to feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials. This guidance may help researchers to consider the full range of contributions that qualitative research can make in relation to their particular trial. The guidance may also help researchers and others to reflect on the utility of such qualitative research in practice, so that trial teams can decide when and how best to use these approaches in future studies.

  7. Andean rural children's views of the environment: A qualitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurial, Mahia

    Andean rural children's drawings and narratives about their crops and the immediate biological environment are rich tools to understand local views of the environment. Children's drawings and narratives were collected and linked to interviews as well as participant observation gathered from parents, leaders and teachers. The research sites are the community of Willca and the school of Mayu. Fieldwork was completed in 1998. In the conceptual framework I distinguish between two dissimilar knowledges, school knowledge and local knowledge. These knowledges produce two dissimilar views of the environment. I further analyze relationships of knowledge and power and argue that school knowledge overpowers local knowledge. Concomitantly, I studied set of ideas associated with two knowledges aforementioned: superacion (surpass) and regeneration (Apffel-Marglin 1995). Although these ideas coexist in peoples' minds they are not linked or effectively connected. In order to link local knowledge and school knowledge together, I propose the integration of environmental studies and art education to enhance a local sense of place (Blandy et. al 1993) in Andean and other schools. This will contribute to grassroots educational policy.

  8. New methods for quantitative and qualitative facial studies: an overview.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I T; Hintz, R J; Frias, J L

    1989-01-01

    The clinical study of birth defects has traditionally followed the Gestalt approach, with a trend, in recent years, toward more objective delineation. Data collection, however, has been largely restricted to measurements from X-rays and anthropometry. In other fields, new techniques are being applied that capitalize on the use of modern computer technology. One such technique is that of remote sensing, of which photogrammetry is a branch. Cartographers, surveyors and engineers, using specially designed cameras, have applied geometrical techniques to locate points on an object precisely. These techniques, in their long-range application, have become part of our industrial technology and have assumed great importance with the development of satellite-borne surveillance systems. The close-range application of similar techniques has the potential for extremely accurate clinical measurement. We are currently evaluating the application of remote sensing to facial measurement using three conventional 35 mm still cameras. The subject is photographed in front of a carefully measured grid, and digitization is then carried out on 35-mm slides specific landmarks on the cranioface are identified, along with points on the background grid and the four corners of the slide frame, and are registered as xy coordinates by a digitizer. These coordinates are then converted into precise locations in object space. The technique is capable of producing measurements to within 1/100th of an inch. We suggest that remote sensing methods such as this may well be of great value in the study of congenital malformations.

  9. Public Beliefs about Antibiotics, Infection and Resistance: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Pauline; Chamberlain, Kerry; Dew, Kevin; Gabe, Jonathan; Hodgetts, Darrin; Madden, Helen

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of public views and ways of talking about antibiotics. Four focus groups were held with members of the public. In addition, 39 households were recruited and interviews, diaries of medicine taking, diaries of any contact with medication were used to explore understanding and use of medication. Discussions related to antibiotics were identified and analyzed. Participants in this study were worried about adverse effects of antibiotics, particularly for recurrent infections. Some were concerned that antibiotics upset the body’s “balance”, and many used strategies to try to prevent and treat infections without antibiotics. They rarely used military metaphors about infection (e.g., describing bacteria as invading armies) but instead spoke of clearing infections. They had little understanding of the concept of antibiotic resistance but they thought that over-using antibiotics was unwise because it would reduce their future effectiveness. Previous studies tend to focus on problems such as lack of knowledge, or belief in the curative powers of antibiotics for viral illness, and neglect the concerns that people have about antibiotics, and the fact that many people try to avoid them. We suggest that these concerns about antibiotics form a resource for educating patients, for health promotion and social marketing strategies. PMID:27029314

  10. A qualitative study exploring genetic counsellors' experiences of counselling children.

    PubMed

    Ulph, Fiona; Leong, James; Glazebrook, Cris; Townsend, Ellen

    2010-10-01

    The identification of healthy carriers by newborn screening programmes raises questions about how and when the carrier results will be conveyed to child. There is currently a lack of information concerning how best to convey carrier information to children. This is a serious gap in the literature and practice. This study examined genetic counsellors' experiences of counselling children to explore how to support and inform children about their carrier result. Practising members of the United Kingdom (UK) Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors took part in semi-structured telephone interviews. Respondents described the communication process and identified barriers and facilitators of communication. Age, illness experience and maturity were variously discussed as facilitators; all of which are integral to psychological theories of children's understanding of illness. Adaptive family communication, school tuition and educational materials were also seen as influencing counselling efficacy. Relevant materials that children could keep were also seen as important to enhance children's autonomy. Yet, such resources were rare, constituting a barrier to communication. Counsellors reported communication was further impeded by maladaptive family communication and resistance from children to engaging in counselling. By exploring the facilitators and barriers inherent in communicating genetic information to children, guidance can be offered to counsellors, researchers and parents. This study indicates that some factors (eg illness experiences) previously identified by psychological theories may act in complex ways within this setting. Importantly, the factors identified as being most influential when communicating with children about genetics are amenable to change through interventions, support and training.

  11. Qualitative study of women's experience after therapeutic massage

    PubMed Central

    Garakyaraghi, Mohammad; Givi, Mahshid; Moeini, Mahin; Eshghinezhad, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension has become a major problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Iran. As it is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, even small reductions in the prevalence can have potentially large public health benefits. Among the complementary methods, massage provides an effective means to lower the blood pressure. If nurses perceive the experiences of hypertensive patients receiving massage, they can use massage more effectively in their care plan. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive phenomenological study. Deep interviews were conducted with nine prehypertensive women who received Swedish massage three times a week in a total of 10 sessions, with each session lasting 10-15 min. Then, the researcher conducted an interview using a ‘grand tour question (open ended question) and the participants were then encouraged to speak freely explaining their thoughts and feelings about the experience of massage therapy. Data analysis was done by Colaizzi's method. Validity and reliability were obtained through measures such as real value, applicability, continuity, and authenticity. Results: Women evaluated the massage therapy positively. The findings yielded six themes, including relaxation, sleeping better, reduction of anxiety and tension, reduction of fatigue, invigorating experience, improve connecting. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a body-centered intervention like massage can be valuable in a multidisciplinary approach to women with prehypertension. This method is easy to learn and relatively short (10-15 min) to administer as a suitable complement in nursing care for this group of patients. PMID:25183981

  12. [Qualitative and quantitative studies of autofluorescence in fungi].

    PubMed

    Graf, B; Göbel, U B; Adam, T

    1998-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an important method in mycology. It is a common procedure used in immunology or histology and more recently in modern techniques of molecular biology like in-situ hybridization. Since several molds and yeasts show autofluorescence, an interference of this phenomenon with the detection method cannot be excluded. Therefore, we studied autofluorescence in fungi in more detail, in particular with respect to the dependence of this phenomenon from growth conditions, fixing method or mounting medium used. Here we show that moulds cultivated in a liquid medium are strongly autofluorescent which could be considerably reduced by repetitive washing. In moulds, we did not find important differences in autofluorescence levels with the three fixing methods under study. However, this finding cannot be generalized. Thus, in the yeast Candida albicans we found the autofluorescence pattern being largely dependent from the fixing method and the excitation wave length, respectively. In particular, with green excitation we could show that aceton fixation resulted in strong fluorescence of individual cells within a vast population of cells showing little or no autofluorescence. In addition, we could demonstrate that mounting media are able to strongly modify autofluorescence in fungi. Using digital image acquisition with a cooled CCD camera we were able to quantify the influence of different mounting media on fluorescence intensities of Aspergillus fumigatus.

  13. A Qualitative Case Study of the Bilingual Teacher Shortage in One Texas School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how stakeholders in one Texas school district perceive, experience, and respond to the Spanish bilingual teacher shortage. The research design was qualitative with an exploratory, single case study approach. The case study school district was a mid-sized suburban district in Texas that utilized a dual…

  14. Difficulties Faced in Social Club Activities: A Qualitative Study Based on Teacher Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keçe, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to scrutinize the problems encountered in social club activities based on opinions of club advisors. This study was conducted in line with qualitative research methods using the interview technique to collect data. Therefore, interviews were held with 21 club advisors included in the study group. A category analysis, a…

  15. Adult Financial Literacy Education and Latina Learners: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprow, Karin Millard

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a case study design to explore the teaching and learning that takes place in an adult Latino financial literacy education that was aimed specifically at Latina single mothers. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by a blend of critical and Latina feminist sociocultural adult learning perspectives, as well…

  16. School Transitions: A Qualitative Study of the Supports Provided by Washington State Special Education Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of special education administrators in the transition planning process for children with disabilities ages 3-21 in selected Washington school districts. A basic qualitative study was selected to construct meaning from a described phenomenon. The study sought to identify and explain how special education…

  17. A Qualitative Study on the Use of Summarizing Strategies in Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susar Kirmizi, Fatma; Akkaya, Nevin

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal how well summarizing strategies are used by Grade 4 and Grade 5 students as a reading comprehension strategy. This study was conducted in Buca, Izmir and the document analysis method, a qualitative research strategy, was employed. The study used a text titled "Environmental Pollution" and an…

  18. What Do Women Want? A Qualitative Study of Dating.

    PubMed

    Noel, Nora E; Ogle, Richard L; Maisto, Stephen A; Jackson, Lee A

    2016-02-01

    Many approaches to decrease unwanted sex for women emphasize enhanced risk recognition. However, women often remain in risky situations despite recognition; so we need to understand the attractions of normative dating and sex. In this focus group study, 45 young adult women discussed their attractions to men, dating, and sex. Themes emerged describing conflicts between what they wanted, dating realities, desire for "traditional" behavior from the man, alcohol use, sexual arousal (hers and his), indirect communication about sex, feeling "obligated," and enhanced self-esteem. Results suggest improving risk-recognition programs by examining and clarifying women's goals for dating and putting positive emphasis on "have fun, achieve your goals, but try to avoid harm in the process."

  19. Supporting adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Shahnaz; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Vanaki, Zohreh

    2014-03-01

    Without sufficient support, type 1 diabetes mellitus often disturbs patients' normal lives. This study describes and explores the support that Iranian adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus experienced. Semistructured interviews were conducted with ten adolescents, seven family members, one dietitian, one nurse, and one school nurse. Participants were chosen using purposive sampling from two teaching hospitals and one high school in two urban areas of Iran. Using standard procedures for content analysis, three main themes were identified: maintaining a normal life; receiving tangible, informational, and emotional support from the family and society; and advancement of life toward normalization. The cornerstone of maintaining a normal life for adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus is to adopt an active role in taking care of themselves within their systems of support.

  20. Classroom Misbehavior in the Eyes of Students: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316

  1. Electronic Cigarette Use among Current Smokers: A Pilot Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Ban A.; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Dube, Shanta R.; Sterling, Kymberle L.; Burns, Joy D.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This pilot study explored psychosocial influences of e-cigarette use among dual users. Methods Two focus groups among adult current smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were conducted in Georgia. Discussions were audio-recorded. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were employed. Results Reasons for initial use included curiosity and social influence. Themes related to regular use included enjoyment of sensory experiences and perception of reduced harm. Nicotine craving, social image, and convenience were reasons for initial and regular dual use. Two patterns of use emerged – (1) using e-cigarettes to supplement combustible cigarettes; and (2) to replace combustible cigarettes. Conclusions Reasons for dual use were related to nicotine dependence, social influence, product appeal, and perception of reduced harm. Understanding contextual nuances of dual use can inform policy and communication.

  2. Classroom misbehavior in the eyes of students: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rachel C F; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed.

  3. Practicing nurses perspectives of clinical scholarship: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a scarcity of research published on clinical scholarship. Much of the conceptualisation has been conducted in the academy. Nurse academics espouse that the practice of nursing must be built within a framework of clinical scholarship. A key concept of clinical scholarship emerging from discussions in the literature is that it is an essential component of enabling evidence–based nursing and the development of best practice standards to provide for the needs of patients/clients. However, there is no comprehensive definition of clinical scholarship from the practicing nurses. The aim of this study was to contribute to this definitional discussion on the nature of clinical scholarship in nursing. Methods Naturalistic inquiry informed the method. Using an interpretative approach 18 practicing nurses from Australia, Canada and England were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and the text coded for emerging themes. The themes were sorted into categories and the components of clinical scholarship described by the participants compared to the scholarship framework of Boyer [JHEOE 7:5-18, 2010]. Results Clinical scholarship is difficult to conceptualise. Two of the essential elements of clinical scholarship are vision and passion. The other components of clinical scholarship were building and disseminating nursing knowledge, sharing knowledge, linking academic research to practice and doing practice-based research. Conclusion Academic scholarship dominated the discourse in nursing. However, in order for nursing to develop and to impact on health care, clinical scholarship needs to be explored and theorised. Nurse educators, hospital-based researchers and health organisations need to work together with academics to achieve this goal. Frameworks of scholarship conceptualised by nurse academics are reflected in the findings of this study with their emphasis on reading and doing research and translating it

  4. Exploring Women’s Beliefs and Perceptions About Healthy Eating Blogs: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette-Maheux, Véronique; Provencher, Veronique; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Pluye, Pierre; Straus, Sharon; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death (63%) worldwide. A key behavioral risk factor is unhealthy eating. New strategies must be identified and evaluated to improve dietary habits. Social media, such as blogs, represent a unique opportunity for improving knowledge translation in health care through interactive communication between health consumers and health professionals. Despite the proliferation of food and lifestyle blogs, no research has been devoted to understanding potential blog readers’ perceptions of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians. Objective To identify women’s salient beliefs and perceptions regarding the use of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians promoting the improvement of their dietary habits. Methods We conducted a qualitative study with female Internet users living in the Quebec City, QC, area with suboptimal dietary habits. First, the women explored 4 existing healthy eating blogs written in French by qualified dietitians. At a focus group 2-4 weeks later, they were asked to discuss their experience and perceptions. Focus group participants were grouped by age (18-34, 35-54, and 55-75 years) and by their use of social media (users/nonusers). Using a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, participants were asked to identify salient beliefs underlying their attitudes (advantages/disadvantages), subjective norms (what people important to them would think), and perceptions of control (facilitators/barriers) regarding the use of a healthy eating blog written by a dietitian to improve dietary habits. Discussion groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, coded, and a deductive content analysis was performed independently by 2 individuals using the NVivo software (version 10). Results All participants (N=33) were Caucasian women aged between 22 to 73 year. Main advantages perceived of using healthy eating blogs written by a dietitian were that they provided useful recipe ideas, improved

  5. Online Behavior in Virtual Space: An Empirical Study on Helping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Liu, Jui-Jung

    2011-01-01

    Although previous studies have acknowledged that helping behavior has many potential benefits, little research has aimed at understanding which factors would possibly enhance helping behaviors among team members in CSCL environment. Accordingly, this study was intended to identify underlying factors leading learners to collaborate in virtual CSCL…

  6. Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

  7. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  8. Academic Probation: An Empirical Study of Private University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Jashim Uddin; Chowdhury, Md. Humayun Kabir; Rahman, Sheehan; Talukder, A. K. M. Mominul Haque

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the factors contributing to academic probation in university settings and highlights the problems that students encounter in higher education institutions in Bangladesh. The study focused on students facing academic probation on two private universities in Bangladesh and analyzed students' response with respect to nine…

  9. Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

    2014-12-13

    Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice.

  10. A qualitative study of breast cancer self-help groups.

    PubMed

    Gray, R; Fitch, M; Davis, C; Phillips, C

    1997-12-01

    This study reports on the experience of women in four community breast cancer self-help groups in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 women, asking them about benefits and limitations of their group involvement, and about their perspectives on group processes and structures. Overall, participants reported their group involvement to be extremely helpful for navigating the short and long-term impact of breast cancer. Emotional support benefits included connecting with other breast cancer survivors, feeling understood and sharing experiences, providing hope, and sharing healing laughter. Informational and practical support benefits included sharing of important information and learning how to get what you want. Even where there were concerns about limitations or tensions of group experience, these occurred against a backdrop of appreciation and commitment. From the discussion of group processes and structures, a number of issues were identified as problematic. Most notable were how to deal with deaths of group members and how to balance the group's primary purpose of providing mutual support with secondary goals of dealing with group business and engaging in meaningful advocacy.

  11. Principles of fatigue in residency education: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Taryn S.; Watling, Christopher J.; Teunissen, Pim W.; Dornan, Tim; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Proposals to implement fatigue-management strategies in residency education assume that medicine shares the view of other risk-adverse industries that fatigue is hazardous. This view is an essential underpinning of fatigue-management strategies that other industries have embedded as part of their workplace occupational health and safety programs. We sought to explore how residents understand fatigue in the context of their training environment. Methods: We interviewed 21 residents in 7 surgical and nonsurgical programs at Western University in 2014. All participants met the inclusion criteria of routinely working 24-hour call shifts while enrolled in their training program. Data collection and analysis occurred iteratively in keeping with constructivist grounded theory methodology and informed theoretical sampling to sufficiency. Results: Four predominant principles of fatigue captured how the social learning environment shaped residents' perceptions of fatigue. These included the conceptualization of fatigue as (a) inescapable and therefore accepted, (b) manageable through experience, (c) necessary for future practice and (d) surmountable when required. Interpretation: This study elaborates our understanding of how principles of fatigue are constructed and reinforced by the training environment. Whereas fatigue is seen as a collective hazard in other industries, our data showed that, in residency training, fatigue may be seen as a personal challenge. Consequently, fatigue-management strategies that conceptualize fatigue as an occupational threat may have a limited impact on resident behaviour and patient safety. PMID:27398364

  12. Characterization of Investigators’ Approach to Translational Research: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Doris M.; Robinson, Georgeanna F.W.B.; Gilliam, Victoria A.; Primack, Brian A.; Switzer, Galen E.; Seltzer, Deborah L; Kapoor, Wishwa N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about how investigators approach their research programs along the translational research continuum. Many consider the translational continuum to be linear, with research beginning at the bench and concluding with research at the bedside or in the community. We aimed to understand if translational investigators approach and view their research in this fashion. Methods We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 16 graduates of the University of Pittsburgh’s Multidisciplinary Clinical Research Scholars Program (KL2) in 2012. Results Our research revealed three characteristic models. The first model we called “linear” and represented the traditional approach. The second we called “holistic”; these investigators began with central research questions and sought to explore them in every direction of translation, not necessarily taking linear steps. The third model we called “technical”; in this model, investigators focused on a unique technology or methodology and applied it across multiple research contexts. Conclusion This study found that there are multiple ways that translational investigators approach their research program. Better understanding of these models can help educators and mentors guide investigators so that they can be more productive in their clinical or translational research career. PMID:25066780

  13. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  14. Fertility Desire in Iranian Women with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    BEHBOODI-MOGHADAM, Zahra; NIKBAKHT-NASRABADI, Alireza; EBADI, Abbas; ESMAELZADEH – SAEIEH, Sara; MOHRAZ, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childbearing is a cause of concern for women living with HIV. To improve reproductive right of women with HIV and prevent the spread of HIV; it is needed to understand fertility experiences of infected women with HIV. The aim of this study was to explore fertility intentions and experiences of HIV-infected women in Iran. Methods: Totally, 15 in–depth interviews were conducted with HIV- infected women who were at reproductive age and had referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital Consultation Center for Clients with Risky Behaviors in Tehran, Iran. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method in MAXQDA 10. Results: Analysis of the meaning units of interviews showed themes in describing of fertility desires of HIV women as follows: 1) Motherhood as a way for stability of life; 2) Uncertainties about the future; and 3) Unpleasant experience of pregnancy and delivery. This theme has three sub-themes as stigma, discrimination and weakness in health care system. Conclusion: Health care provider and community should respect the right of infected women and inform them on sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26587477

  15. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. Methods: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. Results: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Interpretation: Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care. PMID:27398374

  16. Sedentary behaviour in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Tanja; Beyer, Nina; Aadahl, Mette; Hetland, Merete L.; Løppenthin, Katrine; Midtgaard, Julie; Esbensen, Bente A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite increasing interest in investigating sedentary behaviour (SB) in the general population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is little documentation of the subjective experiences of SB in patients with RA. This study aimed to examine how patients with RA describe their daily SB. Methods Fifteen patients with RA (10 women and 5 men) from 23 to 73 years of age and with a disease duration ranging from 4 to 27 years were interviewed following a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analysed using the content analysis method described by Graneheim. Results SB appeared in three categories covering: 1) A constant battle between good and bad days; SB could be a consequence of RA in terms of days with pronounced pain and fatigue resulting in many hours of SB. 2) Adaptation to everyday life; living with the unpredictability of RA included constant modification of physical activity level causing increase in SB, especially during periods of disease flare. Prioritizing and planning of SB also functioned as part of self-management strategies. 3) It has nothing to do with my arthritis; for some patients, SB was not related to RA, but simply reflected a way of living independent of the disease. Conclusions SB is perceived, motivated, and performed differently in patients with RA. An individually tailored approach may be essential in understanding and encouraging patients’ motivation towards sustainable change in SB and activity patterns. PMID:26462971

  17. The pragmatics of therapeutic interaction: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Lepper, Georgia

    2009-10-01

    The research reported in this article aims to demonstrate a method for the systematic study of the therapist/patient interaction in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, drawing upon the tradition and methods of 'pragmatics'--the study of language in interaction. A brief introduction to the discipline of pragmatics demonstrates its relevance to the contemporary focus of clinical theory on the here-and-now dynamics of the relationship between analyst and patient. This is followed by a detailed study of five segments from the transcript of a therapeutic dialogue, drawn from a brief psychoanalytic psychotherapy, in which therapist and patient negotiate the meaning of the patient's symptom: Is it psychosomatic? The research seeks to show how the therapeutic process can be observed and studied as an interactional achievement, grounded in general and well-studied procedures through which meaning is intersubjectively developed and shared. Implications of the analysis for clinical theory and practice, and further research, are discussed.

  18. Finding a method to analyze qualitative data: using a study of conceptual learning.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Wendy J

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing awareness in the health sciences of the potential of qualitative research to address questions that quantitative research cannot satisfactorily answer. While a growing number of studies in health sciences and health sciences education discuss the value of such research or describe the methodology and data collection processes, few detail how analysis was carried out. Reliability and validity of findings from qualitative research depend on the quality of data management, retrieval, and interpretation or identification of meaning. The robustness of data analysis is therefore an important factor in the rigor of qualitative research. This article uses a study of dental students' conceptual learning to illustrate strategies that ensure rigor in qualitative analysis. Factors that informed the decisions regarding analysis are discussed in detail. The use of both grounded theory and literature is discussed. The role that deductive and inductive reasoning played in the analysis is outlined. A brief section illustrates the kinds of conclusions that can be made about conceptual learning when qualitative data are rigorously analyzed. Finally, potential shortcomings in the study and alternatives or additional mechanisms for ensuring validity and reliability of analysis are discussed.

  19. Teen Drivers’ Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Denise L.; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers’ fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. Method A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Findings Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. Conclusions The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle. PMID:27346920

  20. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports.

    PubMed

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

  1. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    PubMed Central

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980

  2. Patients’ perceptions of waiting for bariatric surgery: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada waiting lists for bariatric surgery are common, with wait times on average > 5 years. The meaning of waiting for bariatric surgery from the patients’ perspective must be understood if health care providers are to act as facilitators in promoting satisfaction with care and quality care outcomes. The aims of this study were to explore patients’ perceptions of waiting for bariatric surgery, the meaning and experience of waiting, the psychosocial and behavioral impact of waiting for treatment and identify health care provider and health system supportive measures that could potentially improve the waiting experience. Methods Twenty-one women and six men engaged in in-depth interviews that were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis between June 2011 and April 2012. The data were subjected to re-analysis to identify perceived health care provider and health system barriers to accessing bariatric surgery. Results Thematic analysis identified inequity as a barrier to accessing bariatric surgery. Three areas of perceived inequity were identified from participants’ accounts: socioeconomic inequity, regional inequity, and inequity related to waitlist prioritization. Although excited about their acceptance as candidates for surgery, the waiting period was described as stressful, anxiety provoking, and frustrating. Anger was expressed towards the health care system for the long waiting times. Participants identified the importance of health care provider and health system supports during the waiting period. Recommendations on how to improve the waiting experience included periodic updates from the surgeon’s office about their position on the wait list; a counselor who specializes in helping people going through this surgery, dietitian support and further information on what to expect after surgery, among others. Conclusion Patients’ perceptions of accessing and

  3. Learning from MOOCs: A Qualitative Case Study from the Learners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yeonjeong; Jung, Insung; Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the massive open online course (MOOC) experiences of three educational technology scholars assuming the roles of learners. Adapting Carroll's model of school learning as a theoretical framework, the study employed an autoethnography method to collect empirical data in three different MOOCs. Data analysis from regularly…

  4. Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Lian J.

    2011-01-01

    Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…

  5. Trend extraction using empirical mode decomposition and statistical empirical mode decomposition: Case study: Kuala Lumpur stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Abobaker M.

    2014-12-01

    Two nonparametric methods for prediction and modeling of financial time series signals are proposed. The proposed techniques are designed to handle non-stationary and non-linearity behave and to extract meaningful signals for reliable prediction. Due to Fourier Transform (FT), the methods select significant decomposed signals that will be employed for signal prediction. The proposed techniques developed by coupling Holt-winter method with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and it is Extending the scope of empirical mode decomposition by smoothing (SEMD). To show performance of proposed techniques, we analyze daily closed price of Kuala Lumpur stock market index.

  6. Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

  7. Using ERP and WfM Systems for Implementing Business Processes: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aversano, Lerina; Tortorella, Maria

    Software systems mainly considered from enterprises for dealing with a business process automation belong to the following two categories: Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. The wider diffusion of ERP systems tends to favourite this solution, but there are several limitations of most ERP systems for automating business processes. This paper reports an empirical study aiming at comparing the ability of implementing business processes of ERP systems and WfMSs. Two different case studies have been considered in the empirical study. It evaluates and analyses the correctness and completeness of the process models implemented by using ERP and WfM systems.

  8. User acceptance of mobile commerce: an empirical study in Macau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ivan K. W.; Lai, Donny C. F.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to examine the positive and negative factors that can significantly explain user acceptance of mobile commerce (m-commerce) in Macau. A technology acceptance model for m-commerce with five factors is constructed. The proposed model is tested using data collected from 219 respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis is performed to examine the reliability and validity of the model, and structural equation modelling is performed to access the relationship between behaviour intention and each factor. The acceptance of m-commerce is influenced by factors including performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and privacy concern; while effort expectancy is insignificant in this case. The results of the study are useful for m-commerce service providers to adjust their strategies for promoting m-commerce services. This study contributes to the practice by providing a user technology acceptance model for m-commerce that can be used as a foundation for future research.

  9. Website Service Quality in Ireland: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Regina

    Despite the fact that service quality is a critical determinant of website success, studies show that consumers frequently view the service quality delivered through websites as unsatisfactory. This paper outlines a study that investigated the dimensions of website service excellence valued by Irish customers of a small-to-medium enterprise specialising in gifts. The E-S-QUAL measurement instrument was applied to the customers who purchase products online from this retailer, in order to determine their purchasing patterns and the dimensions of e-service quality that they value. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of the instrument in determining gaps in e-service quality. The findings will be of benefit both to practitioners and researchers seeking to improve their understanding of the factors that contribute towards the creation and maintenance of consumer satisfaction in Irish online transactions.

  10. Sustaining the environment through recycling: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Ramayah, T; Lee, Jason Wai Chow; Lim, Shuwen

    2012-07-15

    This paper examines the determinants of recycling behaviour among 200 university students from the perspective of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings indicate that environmental awareness was significantly related to attitude towards recycling, whilst attitude and social norms had significant impact on recycling behaviour. However, convenience and cost of recycling were not significant reasons for recycling. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour. It also confirms the appropriateness of the TPB in examining studies of this nature. Further suggestions for future research are offered.

  11. Student Stress in an FE College: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Abbe; Stott, Clare

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted of student stress in a further education (FE) college in northwest England. In collaboration with the college, two questionnaires were developed, one for the teaching staff and the other for the students. Questionnaires were distributed to 69 staff and 1,100 students, with a response rate of 94 percent from staff and 84…

  12. Adult Attachment and Developmental Personality Styles: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Alissa; Lyddon, William J.; Henson, Robin K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study was designed to test specific hypotheses associated with W. J. Lyddon and A. Sherry's (2001) attachment theory model of developmental personality styles. More specifically, 4 adult attachment dimensions were correlated with 10 personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, R. Davis, & C.…

  13. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  14. An Empirical Study of State University Students' Perceived Service Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, Gede Mahatma Yuda; Metasari, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify: university students' perceived service quality dimensions; the dimensions contributing most towards overall students' perceived service quality; and whether there is a difference in perceived quality level of each dimension based on students' year of study and gender in the context of undergraduate students of…

  15. Creativity and Tolerance of Ambiguity: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenasni, Franck; Besancon, Maud; Lubart, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between creativity and tolerance of ambiguity. Participants were parents and their adolescent children. Three measures of creativity were used: a divergent thinking task, a story-writing task and self-evaluation of creative attitudes and behavior. Participants completed two self-report measures of tolerance of…

  16. College of Business Majors' Perceptions toward Globalization: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…

  17. An Empirical Study of Graduate Student Mobility Underpinning Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, Takao; Shirakawa, Nobuyuki; Okuwada, Kumi

    2013-01-01

    The issue of international student mobility has had a profound effect on policy decision-making in the higher education system of essentially every country; however, the statistical data on this subject are insufficient, especially for graduate students. The purposes of this study are to substantiate the state of international mobility among…

  18. Similarity Attraction in Learning Contexts: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Otmar E.; Cater, John James, III; Michel, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    This study tests a process model of learning in which trainer and trainee traits are simultaneously considered as endogenous variables of learning outcomes. The article builds on a social view of training and similarity-attraction paradigms. In this context, the authors hypothesize that trainer-trainee similarity in personality (agreeableness)…

  19. Self-Efficacy and IPS: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Linda P.

    2015-01-01

    The fact that some learners learn language more successfully than others who are at the same level of aptitude and capabilities is inevitable. To understand why, the researcher has focused her attention on individual differences among learners. The ones that have been taken into account in this study are namely called self-efficacy and identity…

  20. Creativity, Schizotypicality, and Mystical Experience: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalica, Kerri; Hunt, Harry

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the commonalities and the differences between creativity and the schizophrenia spectrum. The variables measured were creativity, schizotypy, absorption, mystical experiences, spatial ability, balance, positive and negative presence, and neuroticism. Three community groups were recruited: 31 artists, 10 people with…

  1. HRD Interventions, Employee Competencies and Organizational Effectiveness: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnuru, Rama Krishna Gupta; Sahoo, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of human resource development (HRD) interventions on organizational effectiveness by means of employee competencies which are built by some of the selected HRD interventions. Design/methodology/approach: An integrated research model has been developed by combining the principal factors…

  2. An Empirical Study on Students' Ability to Comprehend Design Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander; Tsantalis, Nikolaos; Deligiannis, Ignatios

    2008-01-01

    Design patterns have become a widely acknowledged software engineering practice and therefore have been incorporated in the curricula of most computer science departments. This paper presents an observational study on students' ability to understand and apply design patterns. Within the context of a postgraduate software engineering course,…

  3. Study Abroad Programs and American Student Worldmindedness: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ceasar; Jones-Rikkers, Catherine G.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the worldmindedness (extent to which individuals value global perspectives on various issues) of students participating in study abroad programs designed to increase their exposure to different cultural contexts. Found that such programs do have a positive impact on development of worldmindedness, and that the level of difference between…

  4. Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Boran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

  5. The Depth and Breadth of Google Scholar: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Chris; Neuhaus, Ellen; Asher, Alan; Wrede, Clint

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of Google Scholar in November 2004 was accompanied by fanfare, skepticism, and numerous questions about the scope and coverage of this database. Nearly one year after its inception, many of these questions remain unanswered. This study compares the contents of 47 different databases with that of Google Scholar. Included in this…

  6. Management Education Program Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sou, Gryphon; Zhou, Pinqiu

    2007-01-01

    Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…

  7. Effect of Geographic Distance on Distance Education: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this study…

  8. Research Compensation and Lottery: An Online Empirical Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangeneh, Masood; Barmaki, Reza; Gibson-Wood, Hilary; Levitan, Michael-Jane; Romeo, Rosemary; Bottoms, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Recruiting participants for a research project can be challenging. Incentives, particularly monetary incentives, have been shown to increase response rates. Offering a monetary incentive for participation in a research study can become very costly for the investigators. For this reason some researchers, including graduate students involved in…

  9. An Empirical Study of Reporting Practices Concerning Measurement Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Agnello, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the current research practice concerning reporting measurement validity evidence based on a sample of 696 research reports listed in the American Psychological Association's Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures. Only 55% of the reports included any type of validity evidence. This was a substantially lower…

  10. Factors Affecting Softlifting Intention of Computing Students: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahim, Md. Mahbubur; Seyal, Afzaal H.; Rahman, Mohd. Noah Abd.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses softlifting as a form of software piracy and describes a study that analyzed the softlifting intentions of computing students in Brunei Darussalam. Considers student attitudes; gender; family income; personal computer ownership; experience; faculty remarks; institutional monitoring; and implications for attempts to curb software piracy.…

  11. IT Entrepreneurial Intention among College Students: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    IT (Information Technology) entrepreneurs have been contributing greatly to economic growth and job creation. Despite its importance, IT entrepreneurship remains understudied in business research. Particularly, the study of IT entrepreneurial behavior has been ignored in both Information Systems (IS) and entrepreneurship disciplines. Utilizing the…

  12. A Qualitative Study of Facilitators and Barriers Related to Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Barclay, Chris; Mattison, Amira; Tan, Sim Yin; Sabnis, Sujay; Brundage, Amber; Marshall, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the majority of school psychologists' time continues to be dedicated to SPED related activities. Despite ongoing calls for school psychologists to expand their roles, why many practitioners do not deliver more comprehensive services is not well understood. This qualitative study investigated facilitators of and…

  13. The Obstacles of Synergy in Schools: A Qualitative Study on Teamwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toremen, Fatih; Karakus, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the obstacles in creating effective teamwork and generate suggestions for overcoming these obstacles. The study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approaches and used purposive sampling. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews from 52 teachers who were working at a primary school in…

  14. Dialogue in the Relationships between Principals and Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tracie Shelley

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines dialogue and discourse patterns between principals and teachers. It analyzes daily verbal interactions in order to identify shared meanings, hidden messages, and the dynamics of power. This study is also based on the belief that democracy in education is vital to maintaining a collaborative, people friendly…

  15. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  16. A Qualitative Case Study on the Organizational Identity of Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gizir, Sidika

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to investigate the common issues and factors associated with organizational identity from the viewpoint of faculty members employed during the 2011-2012 academic year in the Faculty of Education at Mersin University in Mersin, Turkey. The sample of this study consisted of 14 faculty members, including…

  17. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  18. A Qualitative Study on Learning and Teaching with Learning Paths in a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Cindy; Valcke, Martin; Schellens, Tammy; De Wever, Bram; Vanderlinde, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study (carried out between 2011 and 2013) about the adoption and implementation of learning paths within a Learning Management System (LMS). Sixteen secondary school biology teachers of the GO! Network in Flanders (an urbanized region in Belgium) were involved in the study and questioned via…

  19. Mexican "Curanderismo" as Ethnopsychotherapy: A Qualitative Study on Treatment Practices, Effectiveness, and Mechanisms of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Steffi

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of a qualitative field study of the ethnotherapeutic treatment practices of "curanderos," the practitioners of traditional Mexican medicine, and their effectiveness in the treatment of mental illness. Three healers and their patients from the southwestern state of Oaxaca participated in the study. The…

  20. Internationally Educated Teachers and Student Teachers in Iceland: Two Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragnarsdottir, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…

  1. Ethical Decision-Making in Academic Administration: A Qualitative Study of College Deans' Ethical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catacutan, Maria Rosario G.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical decision-making in school administration has received considerable attention in educational leadership literature. However, most research has focused on principals working in secondary school settings while studies that explore ethical reasoning processes of academic deans have been significantly few. This qualitative study aims to…

  2. A Qualitative Examination of the Attitudes of Liberal Studies Markers towards Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2011-01-01

    In Hong Kong, onscreen marking (OSM) is superseding paper-based marking (PBM) across the entire national examinations system. This paper describes a qualitative study of the attitudes of Liberal Studies markers towards OSM. This becomes a compulsory subject in Hong Kong's new senior secondary school curriculum to be first examined in 2012, with a…

  3. An Exploration of Registered Nurses' Intentions to Leave the Profession: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutter, Stacy Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of female registered nurses who have intentions to leave the profession with particular attention to the influence of gender. The theoretical framework of feminist poststructuralism informed this study, which emphasizes the role of discourse and power relations in the…

  4. Gender Differences in Japanese College Students' Participation in a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Douglass J.

    2008-01-01

    Lincoln and Guba (1985) reminded us that a qualitative study can change midcourse, taking the researcher into areas of inquiry they did not anticipate at the beginning. This case study was originally designed to ascertain the benefits and limitations of video-equipped cellular telephone use by Japanese college students. When the data were…

  5. A Qualitative Study of Coping in Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Burroughs, Tajhma; Wright, Jamie; Lemanczyk, Theresa; Darragh, Amy Rowntree

    2010-01-01

    A significant body of research exists that explores the stressors of raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are fewer studies, however, that examine specific effective coping strategies of mothers of children with an ASD. This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of effective coping strategies for their parenting…

  6. Mentoring Experiences and Needs of Novice Professional School Counselors: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Glenda S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of my grounded theory study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of beginning school counselors entering the profession and the role that mentoring played in their induction process. Qualitative data (i.e., a demographic questionnaire, written short-answer statements, interviewer observations, and a…

  7. Nursing Students' Experiences of the Empathy of Their Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkonen, Kristina; Kyngäs, Helvi; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nursing students' experiences of empathy of nursing teachers with the emphasis on how experiencing empathy from their teachers influences students, their learning and professional development. This research was a qualitative descriptive study conducted through face-to-face interviews with nursing students.…

  8. A Qualitative Study of Characteristics, Competencies, and Strategies of Transition Staff Working with Urban Latino

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Lorenzo, Omayra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore characteristics, competencies, and strategies of transition program employment representatives who attain successful employment outcomes for urban Latino/a youths with disabilities. This study employed in-depth interviewing as a method of data collection. The central research question guiding…

  9. Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access among Rural Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…

  10. Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access Among Rural Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…

  11. Faculty Members' Perceptions of Community College Centers for Teaching and Learning: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore faculty members' perceptions of community college Centers for Teaching and Learning (CTLs); whose main purpose is to promote, facilitate, and honor excellence in teaching and learning through the support of full-time and adjunct faculty, at all career stages. A generic qualitative study with a grounded…

  12. Exploring Novice Teachers' Cognitive Processes Using Digital Video Technology: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun-Ongerth, Yuelu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes a qualitative case study that investigated novice teachers' video-aided reflection on their own teaching. To date, most studies that have investigated novice teachers' video-aided reflective practice have focused on examining novice teachers' levels of reflective writing rather than the cognitive…

  13. Title I Schools: A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of Effective Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Hope L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences associated with instructional coaching in Title I schools. The experiences of eight teachers and four instructional coaches are represented within the study. The personal experiences and beliefs are provided in the data collection process through the use of one-on-one interviews. Additional accounts…

  14. The Persistence of Second-Generation Cambodian American College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon, Nikum

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study seeks to investigate an interesting and understudied case of the persistence and retention of immigrant students in postsecondary education. Specifically, the study examines the way family dynamics of second-generation Cambodian college students influence their success in postsecondary education. Currently, much of the…

  15. Different Approaches to Understanding Patients in General Practice in Denmark: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Reventlow, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in…

  16. A Qualitative Study: Retention of First-Year Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study focuses on retention of first-year learners by exploring three variables: academic support, social support, and coping strategies. The research method is grounded theory founded by Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967). The philosophical assumptions of the study are Constructivist and Advocacy/Participatory knowledge…

  17. Female Superintendents: A Qualitative Study of the Journey to the Role of Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stacey M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the journey of females to the role of superintendent. This study is based on interviews of six female superintendents from Indiana and Illinois in cities with a population of 15,000 people or more. Three of the superintendents had more than 25 years of experience in education, and three of the superintendents had 25…

  18. Leaders' Experiences with High School-College Writing Center Collaborations: A Qualitative Multiple-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore academic leaders' experiences with the organizational elements of their own high school-college writing center collaborations. Conjoining theories framed this study: collaborative leadership theory, Kenneth Bruffee's notion of social constructionism and collaborative learning…

  19. Changing Green Subjectivities in Outdoor and Environmental Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lou

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal qualitative study of Australian tertiary students studying Outdoor and Environmental Education. It draws on the work of Foucault and Darier to consider how "environmental governmentality" shapes the conduct, desires and attitudes of these students over time. Attention is drawn to normalising and…

  20. The Impact of Prompted Narrative Writing during Internship on Reflective Practice: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Rachel B.; Kern, David E.; Wright, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of…

  1. Indigenous Crisis Counseling in Taiwan: An Exploratory Qualitative Case Study of an Expert Therapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ben C. H.; Hsu, Wei-Su; Lai, Nien-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we adopted a single qualitative case study method to explore and examine indigenous approaches to crisis counseling in Taiwan, through the distinct lens of an expert Taiwanese counseling psychologist. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted with the psychologist (as the case) to document her lived clinical experiences…

  2. Those Who Were Born Poor: A Qualitative Study of Philippine Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuason, Ma. Teresa G.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the psychological experience of poverty among 2 groups of Filipinos who were interviewed about the effects of being raised poor, 12 who became rich, and 13 who remained poor. Using constructivist and critical theories as research paradigms and grounded theory as methodology, the results of the study illustrated…

  3. A Qualitative Multi-Site Case Study: Examining Principals' Leadership Styles and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preyear, Loukisha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multi-site case study was to explore the impact of principals' leadership styles on student academic achievement in a high-poverty low-performing school district in Louisiana. A total of 17 participants, principals and teachers, from this school district were used in this study. Data source triangulation of…

  4. A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

    2012-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…

  5. College Student Risky Sexual Behaviors and the Attaining of Academic Success a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the qualitative study was to explore college student sexual health choices from a 4-year undergraduate institution. The study could be used for future research into why the numbers of sexual risk choices including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain among college campuses, and how they affect academic success. Through…

  6. Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Data Management Information System Deployments: Financial Services Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dannie J.

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of financial services industry change managers to understand the genesis of low data management information system project adoption rates. The goal of the study was to find methods to improve data management information system adoption rates. The participant pool consisted of 19…

  7. Black Male Adolescents Navigating Microaggressions in a Traditionally White Middle School: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative case study analysis, this study offers in-depth understanding of Black male middle school students' perceptions of racial microaggressions. It was found that Black male adolescents, depending on their backgrounds, are aware of different types of microaggressions. Implications for school counselors, teachers, and…

  8. Guys and Dolls: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Views of Gendered Play in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on data collected for a larger study investigating kindergarten teachers' online discussions of play, the present qualitative study examines teachers' discussions of gender. Findings suggest that teachers' project onto their kindergarten students many of their own gender prejudices about play. These teachers reinforced gendered attitudes…

  9. A Qualitative Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life of Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…

  10. Perceptions of Women Laid off from Technology Positions: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The number of women in the information technology (IT) profession has fluctuated along with the growth of business. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions of women who had been laid off from IT positions during the economic downturn period between 2007 and 2010. The research study was designed to…

  11. Bullying/Victimization from a Family Perspective: A Qualitative Study of Secondary School Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibou-Nakou, I.; Tsiantis, J.; Assimopoulos, H.; Chatzilambou, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper uses a qualitative method in order to study the ways in which bullying is discursively organized among young adolescent students in relation to the family factors related to it. Only a few studies have linked aspects of parenting and family functioning to bullying through the use of students' discourses despite the fact that…

  12. A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

  13. High School Football Players and Their Coaches: A Qualitative Study of Their Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaza, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…

  14. A Qualitative Study of Information Technology Managers' Experiences and Perceptions Regarding Outsourced Data Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Eric Justin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of IT Managers in publicly traded companies within the San Antonio, Texas area about outsourced data centers. Narrative data was collected using open-ended questions and face-to-face interviews within semi-structured environments. The research questions guided the study: (1)…

  15. The Nature and Requirements of Work in University-Based Telehealth Units: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Deborah E.

    2013-01-01

    Telehealth units are one of many university administrative units created to foster innovation in universities over the last 40 years. Despite the proliferation of such units, few organizational studies have examined the work undertaken inside of these units. This qualitative study used a sequential two-part research design to understand the…

  16. Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches in Studying Student Perceptions of Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Fisher, Darrell L.

    A cross-national study of learning environments in Taiwan and Australia is one example of research that employs both qualitative and quantitative methods. This paper describes the part of that study related to the development and validation of an instrument called the Teacher Student Interaction (TSI) which assess student perceptions of teacher…

  17. Empirical studies on informal patient payments for health care services: a systematic and critical review of research methods and instruments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence demonstrates that informal patient payments are an important feature of many health care systems. However, the study of these payments is a challenging task because of their potentially illegal and sensitive nature. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review and analysis of key methodological difficulties in measuring informal patient payments. Methods The systematic review was based on the following eligibility criteria: English language publications that reported on empirical studies measuring informal patient payments. There were no limitations with regard to the year of publication. The content of the publications was analysed qualitatively and the results were organised in the form of tables. Data sources were Econlit, Econpapers, Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, SocINDEX. Results Informal payments for health care services are most often investigated in studies involving patients or the general public, but providers and officials are also sample units in some studies. The majority of the studies apply a single mode of data collection that involves either face-to-face interviews or group discussions. One of the main methodological difficulties reported in the publication concerns the inability of some respondents to distinguish between official and unofficial payments. Another complication is associated with the refusal of some respondents to answer questions on informal patient payments. We do not exclude the possibility that we have missed studies that reported in non-English language journals as well as very recent studies that are not yet published. Conclusions Given the recent evidence from research on survey methods, a self-administrated questionnaire during a face-to-face interview could be a suitable mode of collecting sensitive data, such as data on informal patient payments. PMID:20849658

  18. Aspect-Oriented Approach to Operating System Development Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, Jaakko; Tuominen, Harri

    This paper presents a case-study where a new programming technique is applied to an established branch of software development. The purpose of the study was to test whether or not aspect-oriented programming (AOP) could be used in operating systems development. Instead of any real world operating system an educational OS with the name Nachos was used. This was because Nachos is written in Java which makes it easy to introduce aspect-oriented techniques. In this paper a new file system for the Nachos OS is developed and then it is analyzed by profiling and metrics. The results show that it is possible to use AOP in OS development and that it is also beneficial to do so.

  19. An Empirical Study of Earth Covered Schools in Oklahoma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    Director, Defense Nuclear Agency Division of Biology and Medicine Attn: Mr. Torn Kenned- Atornic Energy Commission Washington, D. C. 20305 ^tt-: Mr...studies of underground structures in general and the Oklahoma schools in particular. Several were found. Limited measurement of the energy saving potential...suggests it is real, and significant; a sixty percent saving in energy was found to be likely without any specific effort at energy efficient design

  20. A Formulative and Empirical Study of Black Families. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobles, Wade; And Others

    This research study on the black family was based on the position that black culture in the U.S. is the result of a special admixture of the continuation of an African world-view or cultural perspective which operates within the perspective of an Anglo-American world-view. Because this research is guided by this position, it is viewed as a…

  1. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study

    PubMed Central

    PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

  2. An empirical study of economies of scope in home healthcare.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, T I

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply the economic theory of economies of scope to the home healthcare industry. DATA SOURCES: Data on 488 observations obtained from the Cost Report (HCFA Form 1728-86) of all Connecticut state-licensed, Medicare-certified home health agencies. STUDY DESIGN: The Cost Report was the primary source of data for this study. Information on total cost, scope, and other related factors was collected. Logarithmic and nonlinear regression analyses were used to identify factors related to scope and also to test for economies of scope. DATA COLLECTION METHOD: Data collected were both cross-sectional and time series (from 1988-1992). Data accuracy was verified using description of frequencies, measures of central tendency and variation, and a calculation package so that a computer calculation on the data could be compared with the agency's calculation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It was determined that initially as scope increases, costs go down, thus proving economies of scope. For larger values of scope, it was determined that costs go up, proving diseconomies of scope. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the home health agencies included in this study provide more services than is cost effective given the economic theory of economies of scope. PMID:9240283

  3. Case studies of patient interactions, care provision and the impact of emotions: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Banning, Maggi; Gumley, Virginia

    2013-12-01

    Caring is a complex phenomenon. Nurses aim to relieve patient suffering, acknowledge subjective experiences, display empathy but also manage emotions related to care provision. This study explored nurses' perceptions, experiences and emotions related to caring for cancer patients. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to explore the emotions management of 32 nurses working in a cancer hospital in Pakistan. Data saturation occurred after 20 interviews. Three themes emerged from the data related to caring, acknowledgement of patients' feelings, professional behaviour, patient involvement and emotional control. Some nurses repressed their emotions and feelings over patients who had difficulties sustaining hope. In such cases nurses require supportive networks to assist their emotions management and intra-personal skills. Educational support is needed to help nurses express their views in relation to emotional contagion, significance of repressed emotions and to identify supportive ways to assist nurses to communicate their experiences.

  4. An empirical study of early childhood support through partnership building.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Ortiz, Theresa; Navarro, Diana; Maier, Roland; Wang, Summer; Wang, Lisa; Wang, Libing

    2016-12-01

    The first five years were recognized as a critical period of child growth. Accordingly, California voters approved tobacco tax through Proposition 10 to fund early childhood services since 1998. Due to the state revenue decline, Service Integration has been advocated to enhance program supports in Child Health, Family Functioning, and Child Development. In this study, interview data are analyzed to examine the partnership building among 40 programs. The results indicate a significant impact of the service outreach across remote communities in Kern County, California. In addition, contextual information is provided to facilitate interpretation of the partnership strength from a social network analysis. Enhancement of this investigation is discussed in light of future development.

  5. Dissociation, PTSD, and Substance Abuse: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Najavits, Lisa; Walsh, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD) and dissociation. We studied 77 women with current PTSD and substance dependence, classified into high- versus low-dissociation on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. They were compared on trauma- and substance-related symptoms, cognitions, coping skills, social adjustment, trauma history, psychiatric symptoms, and self-harm/suicidal behaviors. We found the high-dissociation group consistently more impaired than the low-dissociation group. Also, the sample overall evidenced relatively high levels of dissociation, indicating that even in the presence of recent substance use, dissociation remains a major psychological phenomenon. Indeed, the high-dissociation group reported stronger expectation that substances could manage their psychiatric symptoms. The high-dissociation group also had more trauma-related symptoms and childhood histories of emotional abuse and physical neglect. Discussion addresses methodology, the “chemical dissociation” hypothesis, and the need for more nuanced understanding of how substances are experienced in relation to dissociative phenomena. PMID:22211445

  6. Ontogeny of dreaming: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-10-01

    The examination of children's sleep-related mental experiences presents many significant challenges for researchers investigating the developmental trajectories of human dreaming. In contrast to the well-explored developmental patterns of human sleep, data from dream research are strikingly divergent with highly ambiguous results and conclusions, even though there is plenty of indirect evidence suggesting parallel patterns of development between neural maturation and dreaming. Thus results from studies of children's dreaming are of essential importance not only to enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming but to also add to our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive and emotional development. This review summarizes research results related to the ontogeny of dreaming: we critically reconsider the field, systematically compare the findings based on different methodologies, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of methods, arguing in favor of methodological pluralism. Since most contradictory results emerge in connection with descriptive as well as content related characteristics of young children's dreams, we emphasize the importance of carefully selected dream collection methods. In contrast nightmare-related studies yield surprisingly convergent results, thus providing strong basis for inferences about the connections between dreaming and cognitive emotional functioning. Potential directions for dream research are discussed, aiming to explore the as yet unraveled correlations between the maturation of neural organization, sleep architecture and dreaming patterns.

  7. Methamphetamine use in Central Germany: protocol for a qualitative study exploring requirements and challenges in healthcare from the professionals' perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Laura; Schumann, Nadine; Fankhaenel, Thomas; Thiel, Carolin; Klement, Andreas; Richter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The synthetic drug methamphetamine with its high addiction potential is associated with substantial adverse health effects. In Germany, especially Central Germany, the increase in the consumption of methamphetamine has exceeded that of other illegal drugs. The treatment system and service providers are facing new challenges due to this rise in consumption. This qualitative study will explore the demand created by the increasing healthcare needs of methamphetamine-addicted persons in Central Germany, and the difficulty of rehabilitating addicted people. Methods and analysis The collection of empirical data will take place in a consecutive, two-stage process. In the first part of data collection, the experiences and perspectives of 40 professionals from numerous healthcare sectors for methamphetamine-addicted persons will be explored with the help of semistructured face-to-face interviews and probed by the research team. These findings will be discussed in 2 focus groups consisting of the participants of the face-to-face interviews; these group discussions comprise the second part of the data collection process. The interviews will be audio recorded, transcribed, and then subjected to qualitative content analysis. Ethics and dissemination All interviewees will receive comprehensive written information about the study, and sign a declaration of consent prior to the interview. The study will comply rigorously with data protection legislation. The research team has obtained the approval of the Ethical Review Committee at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. The results of the study will be published in high-quality, peer-reviewed international journals, presented at several congresses and used to design follow-up research projects. Trial registration number VfD_METH_MD_15_003600. PMID:27256092

  8. Physician leadership styles and effectiveness: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Samuels, Michael E; Stoskopf, Carleen H

    2005-12-01

    The authors study the association between physician leadership styles and leadership effectiveness. Executive directors of community health centers were surveyed (269 respondents; response rate = 40.9 percent) for their perceptions of the medical director's leadership behaviors and effectiveness, using an adapted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (43 items on a 0-4 point Likert-type scale), with additional questions on demographics and the center's clinical goals and achievements. The authors hypothesize that transformational leadership would be more positively associated with executive directors' ratings of effectiveness, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate extra effort, as well as the center's clinical goal achievement, than transactional or laissez-faire leadership. Separate ordinary least squares regressions were used to model each of the effectiveness measures, and general linear model regression was used to model clinical goal achievement. Results support the hypothesis and suggest that physician leadership development using the transformational leadership model may result in improved health care quality and cost control.

  9. Consolidated View on Space Software Engineering Problems - An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, N.; Vieira, M.; Ricci, D.; Cotroneo, D.

    2015-09-01

    Independent software verification and validation (ISVV) has been a key process for engineering quality assessment for decades, and is considered in several international standards. The “European Space Agency (ESA) ISVV Guide” is used for the European Space market to drive the ISVV tasks and plans, and to select applicable tasks and techniques. Software artefacts have room for improvement due to the amount if issues found during ISVV tasks. This article presents the analysis of the results of a large set of ISVV issues originated from three different ESA missions-amounting to more than 1000 issues. The study presents the main types, triggers and impacts related to the ISVV issues found and sets the path for a global software engineering improvement based on the most common deficiencies identified for space projects.

  10. [Assumption of projective reduplication in psychosomatic patients. I. Results of an empirical study].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, G

    1988-01-01

    The starting position of this study was the striking discrepancy between clinical hypothesis on "projective reduplication" and their empirical validation. Empirical data for the statistical analysis derived from a heterogeneous group of psychosomatically ill persons (N = 33) and a group of normal controls (N = 30). Using the similarity of the image of one's self and the one of others as an experimental analogy of the "projective reduplication", we could not ascertain any verifying hint for this syndrome. The results of the present study do not support the assumption of a clinical phenomenon according to the hypotheses tested. But it still remains uncertain whether these hypotheses are appropriate transformations of clinical experience.

  11. Comparative approaches from empirical to mechanistic simulation modelling in Land Evaluation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, P.; Basile, A.; Bonfante, A.; Terribile, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Land Evaluation (LE) comprise the evaluation procedures to asses the attitudes of the land to a generic or specific use (e.g. biomass production). From local to regional and national scale the approach to the land use planning should requires a deep knowledge of the processes that drive the functioning of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. According to the classical approaches the assessment of attitudes is the result of a qualitative comparison between the land/soil physical properties and the land use requirements. These approaches have a quick and inexpensive applicability; however, they are based on empirical and qualitative models with a basic knowledge structure specifically built for a specific landscape and for the specific object of the evaluation (e.g. crop). The outcome from this situation is the huge difficulties in the spatial extrapolation of the LE results and the rigidity of the system. Modern techniques instead, rely on the application of mechanistic and quantitative simulation modelling that allow a dynamic characterisation of the interrelated physical and chemical processes taking place in the soil landscape. Moreover, the insertion of physical based rules in the LE procedure may make it less difficult in terms of both extending spatially the results and changing the object (e.g. crop species, nitrate dynamics, etc.) of the evaluation. On the other side these modern approaches require high quality and quantity of input data that cause a significant increase in costs. In this scenario nowadays the LE expert is asked to choose the best LE methodology considering costs, complexity of the procedure and benefits in handling a specific land evaluation. In this work we performed a forage maize land suitability study by comparing 9 different methods having increasing complexity and costs. The study area, of about 2000 ha, is located in North Italy in the Lodi plain (Po valley). The range of the 9 employed methods ranged from standard LE approaches to

  12. Short Stories via Computers in EFL Classrooms: An Empirical Study for Reading and Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    The present empirical study scrutinizes the use of short stories via computer technologies in teaching and learning English language. The objective of the study is two-fold: to examine how short stories could be used through computer programs in teaching and learning English and to collect data about students' perceptions of this technique via…

  13. Using an Empirical Binomial Hierarchical Bayesian Model as an Alternative to Analyzing Data from Multisite Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, J. Michael; Anderson, Billie S.; Woodby, Lesa L.; Crawford, Myra A.; Russell, Toya V.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the statistical methodologies used in demonstration and effectiveness studies when the treatments are applied across multiple settings. The importance of evaluating and how to evaluate these types of studies are discussed. As an alternative to standard methodology, the authors of this article offer an empirical binomial…

  14. An Empirical Study of Communication between Teachers and Students in Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingyong, Zhou; Zuoyu, Zhou

    2006-01-01

    As an empirical study based on multiple linear regression analysis of the investigation data, this paper studies the communication between teachers and students in universities. It reveals that the interaction between university teachers and students promotes the personal development of college students. For some reason, however, a rather low…

  15. Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs at Commercial Schools--An Empirical Study in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Within the study of teacher training, it is generally accepted that a teacher's behaviour and success in the classroom is influenced by their personal beliefs. This paper discusses teachers' pedagogical beliefs, domain-specific beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning. We outline empirical results from various studies which explore…

  16. Personality Traits, Sexual Problems, and Sexual Orientation: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation.

  17. [Patient satisfaction and geriatric care - an empirical study].

    PubMed

    Clausen, G; Borchelt, M; Janssen, C; Loos, S; Mull, L; Pfaff, H

    2006-02-01

    Patients' satisfaction has become a central concept in quality assurance. Despite progress in research in this area is still a lack of data for geriatric patients. Referring to the consumer model, satisfaction can be described as a difference between expectations and assessed performance. The aim of this study is to analyze satisfaction among geriatric patients in an in-patient setting. A personal interview was performed 1-2 days before discharge. Patients suffering for dementia or with problems to communicate were excluded. 124 of 268 geriatric patients who were discharged in 2003 were included (inclusion rate 46.3%). 119 were willing to participate (response rate 96.0%). Respondents were between 61 and 96 years old, 39% were male and 42% had serious functional limitations at time of admission. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of a combined index of satisfaction and expectations: a) quality of hotel services; b) experience of neglect; c) provision of medical information and skills. In summary, standardized personal questionnaires can provide valid and reliable data of geriatric patients. Satisfaction of elderly patients is negatively affected by neglect and positively influenced by provision of medical information and a good hotel services.

  18. Empirical study of simulated two-planet microlensing events

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wei; Gould, Andrew; Penny, Matthew; Mao, Shude; Gendron, Rieul

    2014-10-10

    We undertake the first study of two-planet microlensing models recovered from simulations of microlensing events generated by realistic multiplanet systems in which 292 planetary events, including 16 two-planet events, were detected from 6690 simulated light curves. We find that when two planets are recovered, their parameters are usually close to those of the two planets in the system most responsible for the perturbations. However, in 1 of the 16 examples, the apparent mass of both detected planets was more than doubled by the unmodeled influence of a third, massive planet. This fraction is larger than but statistically consistent with the roughly 1.5% rate of serious mass errors due to unmodeled planetary companions for the 274 cases from the same simulation in which a single planet is recovered. We conjecture that an analogous effect due to unmodeled stellar companions may occur more frequently. For 7 out of 23 cases in which two planets in the system would have been detected separately, only one planet was recovered because the perturbations due to the two planets had similar forms. This is a small fraction (7/274) of all recovered single-planet models, but almost a third of all events that might plausibly have led to two-planet models. Still, in these cases, the recovered planet tends to have parameters similar to one of the two real planets most responsible for the anomaly.

  19. An empirical study of Freud's penis-baby equation.

    PubMed

    Jones, R L

    1994-03-01

    One hypothesis of traditional psychoanalytic theory holds that a cardinal aspect of the "natural" development of femininity involves the woman's substitution of the wish for a baby in place of her original wish for a penis. The current study modified and extended earlier research examining the validity of Freud's this "penis-baby" theory. College-aged women and men were presented with either subliminal or supraliminal auditory messages concerned with either pregnancy or penetration themes. Subjects' written responses to Holtzman ink-blots, obtained both before and after exposure to an auditory message, were content-coded for phallic imagery and sexual imagery. Consistent with Freud's speculations about the phallic significance of pregnancy for women, female subjects who were exposed to the subliminal pregnancy message produced significantly more phallic imagery responses to ink-blots than did women in any of the other experimental conditions (p < .01). The phallic imagery production of males did not vary significantly as a function of message condition. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of modern revisions to Freud's psychology of women and the current psychoanalytic conceptualization of penis envy as a highly condensed mental product with many layers of meaning.

  20. Empirical study of alginate impression materials by customized proportioning system

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Alginate mixers available in the market do not have the automatic proportioning unit. In this study, an automatic proportioning unit for the alginate mixer and controller software were designed and produced for a new automatic proportioning unit. With this device, it was ensured that proportioning operation could arrange weight-based alginate impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS The variation of coefficient in the tested groups was compared with the manual proportioning. Compression tension and tear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of alginate impression materials. The experimental data were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey test at the 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS No statistically significant differences in modulus of elastisity (P>0.3), tensional/compresional strength (P>0.3), resilience (P>0.2), strain in failure (P>0.4), and tear energy (P>0.7) of alginate impression materials were seen. However, a decrease in the standard deviation of tested groups was observed when the customized machine was used. To verify the efficiency of the system, powder and powder/water mixing were weighed and significant decrease was observed. CONCLUSION It was possible to obtain more mechanically stable alginate impression materials by using the custom-made proportioning unit. PMID:27826387

  1. The adoption of mobile health management services: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources.

  2. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect

    Linyan Sun; Wang, M.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Reasons for not reporting adverse incidents: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C; Stanhope, N; Crowley-Murphy, M

    1999-02-01

    A previous study (Stanhope et al. 1998) established that staff in two obstetric units reported less than a quarter of designated incidents to the units' risk managers. A questionnaire was administered to 42 obstetricians and 156 midwives at the same two obstetric units, exploring the reasons for low rates of reporting. Questions concerned their knowledge of their unit's incident reporting system; whether they would report a series of 10 designated adverse obstetric incidents to the risk manager; and their views on 12 potential reasons for not reporting incidents. Most staff knew about the incident-reporting system in their unit, but almost 30% did not know how to find a list of reportable incidents. Views on the necessity of reporting the 10 designated obstetric incidents varied considerably. For example, 96% of staff stated they would always report a maternal death, whereas less than 40% would report a baby's unexpected admission to the Special Care Baby Unit. Midwives said they were more likely to report incidents than doctors, and junior staff were more likely to report than senior staff. The main reasons for not reporting were fears that junior staff would be blamed, high workload and the belief (even though the incident was designated as reportable) that the circumstances or outcome of a particular case did not warrant a report. Junior doctors felt less supported by their colleagues than senior doctors. Current systems of incident reporting, while providing some valuable information, do not provide a reliable index of the rate of adverse incidents. Recommended measures to increase reliability include clearer definitions of incidents, simplified methods of reporting, designated staff to record incidents and education, feedback and reassurance to staff about the nature and purpose of such systems.

  4. Words that Hurt: A Qualitative Study of Parental Verbal Abuse in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Jennifer; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study…

  5. Residents Learning from a Narrative Experience with Dying Patients: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…

  6. Math, Science, and Engineering Integration in a High School Engineering Course: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtorta, Clara G.; Berland, Leema K.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering in K-12 classrooms has been receiving expanding emphasis in the United States. The integration of science, mathematics, and engineering is a benefit and goal of K-12 engineering; however, current empirical research on the efficacy of K-12 science, mathematics, and engineering integration is limited. This study adds to this growing…

  7. The Experience of Perinatal Care at a Birthing Center: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pewitt, Amber T.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive pilot study was to describe women's experiences of care and satisfaction at a freestanding birth center. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with seven women who had given birth within 12 months of participant selection. Using qualitative content analysis, three themes emerged: (1) Empowerment, (2) Sense of Motherhood, and (3) Establishing and Strengthening Relationships. Data revealed that women value caring providers, that caring providers may affect positive outcomes, and that those outcomes may lead to a satisfactory experience. PMID:19436419

  8. Problematic situations associated with dating experiences and relationships among urban African American adolescents: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Terri N; Erwin, Elizabeth H; Helms, Sarah W; Masho, Saba W; Farrell, Albert D

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system. Qualitative analysis identified 18 individual themes representing six categories of problem situations: (a) approach and initiation; (b) conflict, conflict resolution, and break-ups; (c) communication, connection, and emotion; (d) aggression and victimization; (e) the role of others; and (f) media and technology. Identification of these problem situation themes has important implications for developing and evaluating prevention efforts designed to foster healthy adolescent dating relationships.

  9. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  10. Food Choice by People with Intellectual Disabilities at Day Centres: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Luke; Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Blackburn, Chrissie; Glover, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities experience a range of health inequalities. It is important to investigate possible contributory factors that may lead to these inequalities. This qualitative study identified some difficulties for healthy eating in day centres. (1) Service users and their family carers were aware of healthy food choices but…

  11. Human Trafficking and Education: A Qualitative Case Study of Two NGO Programs in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spires, Robert Weber

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative, ethnographic case study, I examine two Thai NGO shelters/schools working with human trafficking survivors and at-risk populations of children ages 5-18. The two NGOs had a residential component, meaning that children live at the shelter, and an educational component, meaning that children are taught academic and vocational…

  12. Experiences of Community College Students with ADHD: A Qualitative Study in the Tradition of Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Charla Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Postsecondary educational institutions of all types have seen increases in the number of enrollees diagnosed with ADHD. Despite such increases less in known about ADHD among college students because the majority of research has focused on children and adolescents. This qualitative study conducted in the tradition of phenomenology, explored the…

  13. A Qualitative Study of Students' Computational Thinking Skills in a Data-Driven Computing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Timothy T.; Robbins, Kay A.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking, problem solving, the use of tools, and the ability to consume and analyze information are important skills for the 21st century workforce. This article presents a qualitative case study that follows five undergraduate biology majors in a computer science course (CS0). This CS0 course teaches programming within a data-driven…

  14. Factors Related to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction in Midlife and Older Women: A Qualitative Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women in the United States. Although a healthy diet and appropriate physical activity can help reduce risk, few women are engaging in these behaviors. In this study, qualitative methods were used to better understand: knowledge and aware...

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of Georgia's Early Reading Intervention Program: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobby, Patti Tennant

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used an ethnographic method to investigate teachers' perceptions of reading interventions delivered in a state-funded early intervention program (EIP). Academically at-risk students struggle to meet grade-level standards year after year, even with interventions involving small group, targeted assistance. Teacher perceptions…

  16. Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

  17. Exploring Global Competence with Managers in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ras, Gerard J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…

  18. Adolescents' Perspectives on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…

  19. An Educational Transition: Post-Secondary Correctional Education--A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Administration of post-secondary correctional education (PSCE) programs within state was vastly changed through legislation enacted in 2009. This study examined the transition of a PSCE system formerly facilitated by higher education to the current system administered by the State Department of Corrections (SDC). This qualitative case study…

  20. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  1. Learning and Classroom Preferences of Gifted Eighth Graders: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samardzija, Nadine; Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore how academically gifted eighth graders experience learning, with special attention to learning and classroom preferences. Twenty-three students were interviewed individually. The central phenomenon was that their learning preferences were complex, nuanced, and idiosyncratic, and…

  2. Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

  3. A Qualitative Study to Explore How Parental Expectations and Rules Influence Beverage Choices in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…

  4. Separate, but Not Equal: A Qualitative Case Study Comparing Traditional and Homebound Instruction Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonteix, Kimberly Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study explored the perceptions and beliefs of teachers of students in Grade 9 and 10, at a high school in south-central New Jersey, who taught traditional classroom courses that incorporated technology, regarding their lived experiences delivering homebound instruction for the same curriculum. Technology used in the…

  5. An Examination of Oregon Writing Project Teachers: A Qualitative Study of Professional Development Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obery, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the influence of the 2011 Oregon Writing Project (OWP) Summer Institute (SI) on the professional development of six teachers in the following ways: 1. The development of case descriptions of teachers' personal and professional backgrounds relevant to their teaching of writing. 2. An examination of the effects of the…

  6. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  7. Teachers' Views on Values Education: A Qualitative Study in Sweden and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert; Og uz, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine Swedish and Turkish teachers' perspectives on values education. Qualitative interviews with 52 teachers were conducted and analyzed. Values education was mostly about compliance with societal values and norms. The learning goals or values in values education were mainly on how to treat others and on…

  8. A Qualitative Study of Learning from CAL Programs in Two Tertiary Education Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Iain

    The purpose of this paper is to consider a range of qualitative aspects and measures of student learning in current use, and to consider the insights into student learning that these provide. In this study, a measure of depth of processing, the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy developed by J. B. Biggs and F. K. Collis (1982)…

  9. Dreams Deferred but not Deterred: A Qualitative Study on Undergraduate Nursing Student Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Marcia I.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study using grounded theory was conducted to examine the reasons that a sample of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students withdrew from their nursing programs. The sample consisted of 11 nursing students who left generic baccalaureate nursing programs located in an urban area of a southeastern state. A semi-structured interview…

  10. Factors Affecting Self-Referral to Counselling Services in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiades, Chrysostomos; Winthrop, Allan; Gough, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of psychological support in the workplace (also known as workplace counselling) are well documented. Most large organisations in the UK have staff counselling schemes. However, it is unclear what, if any, factors affect employee decisions to use such schemes. This study has used a qualitative methodology to explore the reasons that…

  11. Stories of Six Successful African American Males High School Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, A'Lesia; Mixon, Jason R.; Butcher, Jennifer; Harris, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, narrative study explored experiences of six successful African American male high school students. Findings suggested that barriers prior to high school were negative elements in the home and community. To be successful in high school, they overcame barriers of absent fathers, disruptive homes, negative community, and peers, and…

  12. How Six Women Deans of Agriculture Have Attained Their Leadership Role: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleihauer, Sarah; Stephens, Carrie; Hart, William E.; Stripling, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    There is a disproportionate ratio of men to women in leadership roles in higher education and agriculture. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lives of women deans in agriculture in an attempt to conceptualize the leadership styles they have developed as a result of their positions as deans in a predominantly male field. Six…

  13. A Qualitative Study Comparing the Instruction on Vectors between a Physics Course and a Trigonometry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Wendy Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Science and engineering instructors often observe that students have difficulty using or applying prerequisite mathematics knowledge in their courses. This qualitative project uses a case-study method to investigate the instruction in a trigonometry course and a physics course based on a different methodology and set of assumptions about student…

  14. Five Year Follow-up Evaluation of a Faculty Development Program: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennill, Marcia Marie

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative follow-up evaluation explored the long-term impact of a faculty development program on participants who were five years post program. This study focused on 12 faculty members who participated in the University of Missouri's New Faculty Teaching Scholars program. The nine month program focused on creating a culture of teaching…

  15. Turning Points during the Life of Student Project Teams: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study a more flexible alternative of conceptualising changes over time in teams is tested within student project teams. The conceptualisation uses turning points during the lifespan of a team to outline team development, based on work by Erbert, Mearns, & Dena (2005). Turning points are moments that made a significant…

  16. Marketing of Revenue-Generating ESL Programs at the University of Calgary: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study endeavored to understand how program managers at one post-secondary Canadian university define, understand and undertake the marketing of their revenue-generating English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. Data were collected through interviews with three managers of distinct English as a Second Language (ESL)…

  17. A Qualitative Study of Alumni Non-Donors of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxx, Laura R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study was designed as an exploration of the phenomena of alumni non-donors of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Successfully securing private voluntary support is one of the most critical challenges for higher education institutions as traditional sources of financial support diminish, and alumni…

  18. Exploring Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Practices about Preschool Outdoor Play: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintic, Sandra; Petty, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored how early childhood teachers' beliefs and practices influence the function of preschool outdoor play. Teachers believed that supervision was paramount. They perceived that the physical design of the outdoor environment posed limitations for planning, preparation, and implementation. Teachers' recollections of…

  19. The Usefulness of Reflexive Photography for Qualitative Research: A Case Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, S.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of reflexive photography for qualitative research in the human and social sciences. The investigation was done in the context of how male academics construct their world in a university during transformation. A group of white, male academics in the human sciences were provided with a camera and were requested to…

  20. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples in Open Adoption Arrangements: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has attended to the role of gender and sexual orientation in shaping open adoption dynamics. This qualitative, longitudinal study of 45 adoptive couples (15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 15 heterosexual couples) examined adopters' motivations for open adoption, changes in attitudes about openness, and early relationship dynamics. Key…

  1. Transformation through Health Teaching for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focht-New, Ginny

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have medical conditions similar to those among the general population but with more complex presentation, a extended life expectancy, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These adults' health education has been inadequate. In this qualitative study, the author describes the…

  2. Theory and Concepts in Qualitative Research: A Theory of Methodology in a Study of Directed Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Geoffrey E.

    The importance of theory in qualitative work is discussed through an examination of the search for theory that arose in relation to a case study of educational change in an American school district. Theory is defined as an analytical, interpretive framework to help the researcher make sense of what is going on in the social setting. Certain…

  3. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  4. Recruiting Highly Qualified African American Teachers in American Urban Public Schools: A Qualitative Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, LaNora Marcell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative collective case study is to identify the weaknesses in the methods used to recruit highly qualified African American preservice teachers in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The data collection process consisted of one-on-one, open-ended interview questions with 10 highly qualified African American public school…

  5. A Qualitative Case Study: Student Perceptions of "Voice" in the IEP Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczkowski, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single community qualitative case study was to determine how the voice of the student was present in the IEP process, documentation paperwork, and curricular and diagnostic decisions, among a group of seven students, grades 9 through 12, placed in a self-contained program for students with emotional disabilities in a suburban…

  6. Finding Self: A Qualitative Study of Transgender, Transitioning, and Adulterated Silicone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Phyllis M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and testing of a theory-based interview guide. To increase awareness of adulterated silicone use among Transgender. Design: A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. Setting: Interviews were conducted in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Method: Seven transgender adults aged 18 and over were interviewed…

  7. A Qualitative Study of Training in Conflict Resolution and Cooperative Learning in an Alternative High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vernay

    This study evaluated the training in conflict resolution (CR) and cooperative learning (CL) of about 180 students in an alternative high school (AHS) in New York City. The qualitative methodology included direct observations of students' daily routines, systematic observations of special events, and interviews with key faculty and staff members.…

  8. Chinese Visiting Scholars' Academic Socialization in US Institutions of Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xue, Mo; Chao, Xia; Kuntz, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Socialization as a theoretical concept has been increasingly applied to higher education over the past several decades. However, little research examines international visiting scholars' overseas academic socialization experiences. Rooted in socialization theory, this one-year qualitative study explores 15 Chinese visiting scholars' lived…

  9. Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

  10. A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Learning from Tutorials: A Qualitative Study of Approaches to Learning and Perceptions of Tutorial Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This study examines differences in university students' approaches to learning when attending tutorials as well as variation in students' perceptions of tutorials as an educational arena. In-depth qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with undergraduates showed how surface and deep approaches to learning were revealed in the…

  12. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

  13. Student Debt, Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making of Adult Learners: A Basic Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, William J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic qualitative research study was conducted to develop insights into how adult learners employ problem-solving and decision-making (PSDM), when considering college financing, student loans, and student debt. Using the social media Website Facebook, eight qualified participants were recruited. Participants were interviewed via telephone, and…

  14. Problematic Situations Associated with Dating Experiences and Relationships among Urban African American Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…

  15. The Role and Functionality of Emotions in Feedback at University: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Anna D.; Fitness, Julie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring the role and functionality of emotions in feedback. In-depth interview data from students and lecturers at an Australian university are analysed using cognitive appraisal and prototype theory. Results suggest that students experience a range of positive and negative emotions in feedback contexts…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badrasawi, Kamal J. I.; Zubairi, Ainol; Idrus, Faizah

    2016-01-01

    Writing skill is seen as a cornerstone of university students' success in both academic and career life. This qualitative study was conducted to further explore the teachers' and students' perceptions on the relationship between writing apprehension and writing performance, contributing factors of writing apprehension, and strategies to reduce…

  17. A Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies about Children Experiencing Parental Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a scoping review of qualitative studies about children's experiences and feelings during times of parental separation. The purpose of the review was to explore children's feelings and attitudes about their parents' separation and how their voices are heard during times of parental separation. The scoping review examined 44…

  18. Parents' Rules about Underage Drinking: A Qualitative Study of Why Parents Let Teens Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate…

  19. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…

  20. A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Math Anxiety among Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Tina Rye

    2010-01-01

    This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant…