Brantlinger, Ellen; Klingner, Janette; Richardson, Virginia
In the past few decades qualitative research has increasingly appeared in special education journals. However, much of this work falls within the parameters of producing useful technical information that can be applied to the contexts where children and adults with disabilities learn, work, and live. Experimental qualitative studies that rely on postmodern or poststructural analyses, critical theory, and narrative research with subjective personal stories seem to be considered too radical, ideological, and theoretical to make it into many special education scholarly outlets. We argue that experimental qualitative designs have much to contribute to the fields of special education and disability studies and, hence, should reach those who receive or provide services to people with disabilities.
Mills, Rilla Dean
This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…
McWilliam, R. A.
Discussion of criteria for evaluating qualitative reports of early intervention research identifies four important criteria: (1) where the investigators are coming from; (2) what they did; (3) how they arrived at their findings; and (4) what the study means. A checklist of key indicators of quality in reports of qualitative research is attached.…
The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. PMID:27338694
The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised.
The first of the four papers in this symposium, "What Is It Like To Be an Independent HRD Consultant?" (Alexander Ardishvili), reports on a phenomenological study that investigated the experience of being an independent HRD (human resource development) consultant through interviews with 10 successful HRD consultants. The study identified eight…
University research education in many disciplines is frequently confronted by problems with students' weak level of understanding of research concepts. A mind map technique was used to investigate how students understand central methodological concepts of empirical, theoretical, qualitative and quantitative. The main hypothesis was that some…
Hoyt, William T.; Bhati, Kuldhir S.
This article examines the 50 qualitative studies published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP) over a 15-year period in light of methodological principles advocated by qualitative theorists. The match between practices and principles is not high. In the modal investigation, coders (most of whom did not interact with or observe…
From case study articles drawn from four journals in gifted education, two are identified as exemplars of qualitative case study research. The works of Coleman (2001) and Hebert and Beardsley (2001) are used to illustrate how researchers can plan qualitative case studies so that the perspectives of gifted students are included. (Contains…
Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika
This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…
Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Norkute, Odeta
In this article, relevance of practice during university studies is highlighted, as well as the main stages of its organisation, qualitative parameters, as well as criteria and indicators that validate them are defined. Discussion on the idea that taking into consideration qualitative parameters of organising practice as a component of studies…
Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…
O'Connor, Bridget N.
This guide to using qualitative case study research in business education explains methodological steps and decisions, illustrated with examples from business research. It addresses data analysis and interpretation, including discussion of software tools. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)
Wainwright, S P
This study explores and describes experiences of chronic liver disease from the patient's perspective. No qualitative research studies appear to have examined the experiences of these patients. In-depth focused interviews and grounded theory data collection and data analysis methods were used. A two-stage theoretical framework (becoming ill, and not living) of the experience of transcending chronic liver disease is presented. Sociological and psychological literature on common sense models of health and illness are briefly reviewed. Several suggestions for further research are made. The way in which this qualitative research study is leading to a quantitative and qualitative appraisal of the psychological adjustment in end-stage chronic liver disease patients is outlined.
This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies. Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented. Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.
Rosser, Julee L.
In this research study, I sought to understand and describe the Women's and Gender Studies (WGS) Program at Berea College by exploring it through the experiences of students, faculty, administrators, and alumnae. I designed and implemented a feminist organizational ethnography. Organizational ethnography is a naturalistic, qualitative research…
Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K
Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services. PMID:24566505
Huston, P.; Rowan, M.
OBJECTIVE: To define qualitative research in terms of its philosophical roots, the questions it addresses, its methods and analyses, and the type of results it can offer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases were searched for the years January 1985 to April 1998. The search strategy consisted of "textword" terms that searched in the "title" field of both databases. Qualitative research and evaluation textbooks in health and the social sciences were also used. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information on qualitative research is based on the most recent and valid evidence from the health and social science fields. MAIN MESSAGE: Qualitative research seeks to understand and interpret personal experience to explain social phenomena, including those related to health. It can address questions that quantitative research cannot, such as why people do not adhere to a treatment regimen or why a certain health care intervention is successful. It uses many methods of data collection, including participant observation, case studies, and interviews, and numerous approaches to data analysis that range from the quasistatistical to the intuitive and inductive. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research, a form of research completely different from quantitative research, can provide important insights into health-related phenomena and can enrich further research inquiries. PMID:9839063
Stake, Robert E.
This book provides invaluable guidance for thinking through and planning a qualitative study. Rather than offering recipes for specific techniques, master storyteller Robert Stake stimulates readers to discover "how things work" in organizations, programs, communities, and other systems. Topics range from identifying a research question to…
Bukowski, William; Lisboa, Carolina
Basic concepts and procedures of qualitative analysis are discussed, especially as they relate to the study of the features, processes, and effects of friendships. The contributions of the previous chapters are presented according to theory and research on friendship as a developmental process.
This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…
Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.
There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…
Sheikh, Kabir; Mondal, Shinjini; Patanwar, Pratibha; Rajkumari, Babita; Sundararaman, T
The importance of addressing concerns of rural health worker welfare in order to improve their performance and retention is widely acknowledged; yet there is little empirical research on the needs of rural health professionals. We report findings from a qualitative research study in rural Chhattisgarh, involving indepth interviews with 37 practitioners and data analysis using the "framework" approach. Participants' expressions of their needs encompassed a range of reforms and improvements, including better salaries and job security, more rational posting and promotion procedures, and facility improvements. Opportunities for need-based skills training and better housing also emerged as key needs, as did better schools, assurance of personal security, and recognition and appreciation of their services by the administration. Increased investment in rural infrastructure and training, graded packages of benefits for rural doctors, and governance reforms to improve the internal accountability of government health services emerge as recommendations from the study. PMID:27474693
Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due
Prindle, Catherine M.
The perception of higher self-efficacy in young children has been determined to be a better predictor of intellectual and academic performance than simply the acquisition of skills alone. This empirical qualitative single-case study was conducted in order to explore the influence of self-efficacy instruction on perceptions toward and achievement…
Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Contreras, David; Meyer, Eduardo
This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion on the current generation of students and their relationship to technology, providing qualitative, empirical information obtained in the Chilean context. The study analyses and discusses the ideas regarding the emergence of a new generation of learners, or digital natives, as characterised by…
Ferszt, Ginette G; Hickey, Joyce
The United States has more people, per capita, in prisons and jails than any other country in the world. Because the prison population is largely composed of people who have been economically and socially disadvantaged, a very high percentage enter correctional facilities in poor health. Because of the large concentrated numbers of women, men, and youth in prisons and jails, an exceptional opportunity exists for nurses and other researchers to conduct creative and innovative research to improve the health care of this hard-to-reach population. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurse researchers who have been successful in conducting studies in different correctional settings. A qualitative descriptive design was used, and telephone interviews with 16 participants were completed. The participants described how they established credibility, the challenges they faced, and the unexpected personal and professional rewards they received. Recommendations for potential researchers will hopefully lead to an increase in research with this invisible population. PMID:24256982
Otlowski, Margaret F; Taylor, Sandra D; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine K
This paper outlines a major empirical study that is being undertaken by an interdisciplinary team into genetic discrimination in Australia. The 3-year study will examine the nature and extent of this newly emerging phenomenon across the perspectives of consumers, third parties, and the legal system and will analyze its social and legal dimensions. Although the project is confined to Australia, it is expected that the outcomes will have significance for the wider research community as this is the most substantial study of its kind to be undertaken to date into genetic discrimination. PMID:12394353
Swanberg, Jennifer E; Logan, T K
This exploratory study sought to gather detailed information about how domestic violence affects women's employment, specifically to identify the types of job interference tactics used by abusers and their consequences on women's job performance; identify and understand the context associated with disclosure about victimization to employers and coworkers; and identify the supports offered to employees after disclosure. Qualitative analyses, guided by grounded theory, revealed that perpetrators exhibited job interference behaviors before, during, and after work. Abuser tactics reduced women's job performance as measured by absenteeism, tardiness, job leavings, and terminations. Among women who disclosed victimization to employers, informal and formal job supports were offered. Workplace supports led to short-term job retention, but fear and safety issues mitigated employers' attempts to retain workers.
Bufkin, Melissa A.
Qualitative research is a type of research process that is widely used to give people a voice while researching a particular subject matter. In using this research process, one must understand how important it is to develop research questions within the qualitative research process. The purpose of this article is to aid researchers in the…
This qualitative study was conducted to explore student perceptions of service learning as well as the importance of service learning to community college students. Data were collected through interviews with 24 community college participants from Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College, both in southwest…
Shabanloei, Reza; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Dolatkhah, Roya
Stigma is one of the main problems of patients suffering from cirrhosis, and it causes many challenges for the patients and their treatment. The present study aimed to discover and define the perceived stigma by cirrhotic patients. This qualitative study was conducted through a content analysis approach. The participants were 15 patients suffering from cirrhosis. Data were collected via semistructured, in-depth interviews and analyzed on the basis of methods described by Granheme and Landman. During data analysis, stigma was categorized into four categories and 13 subcategories: external representation of social stigma (others' avoidance behaviors, inadmissible tag, discriminative behaviors of treatment personnel, blaming behaviors), internal representation of social stigma (social ostracism, social isolation, curiosity to perceive people's perceptions), external representation of self-stigma (fear of disclosure of illness, threatening situation, difficult emotional relationships), and internal representation of self-stigma (condemned to suffer, self-punishment, self-alienation). Experiencing stigma is common among cirrhotic patients and may affect patients' coping with the illness and treatment. Thus, it is specifically important that treatment personnel know patients' perception, provide comprehensive support for these patients, and plan to enhance public awareness about the disease recommended. PMID:27258462
Shaw, C; Williams, K; Assassa, P R; Jackson, C
This qualitative study was undertaken to assess patients' views of the urodynamic investigation. The aim was to identify the dimensions important to patients in evaluating satisfaction with this type of procedure and ways in which care could be improved. Unstructured interviews were carried out by four trained interviewers with 21 people (17 female and 4 male) who had undergone the urodynamic investigation at various gynaecology, urology and continence outpatient clinics. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The data was then coded and a thematic analysis carried out. The main theme to emerge was focused on patients' feelings about the procedure. This consisted of a combination of anxiety and embarrassment. Anxiety was because of fear of the unknown and embarrassment at the intimate nature of the procedure and lack of privacy. The interpersonal and communication skills of the health care professional were central in alleviating these negative feelings. The establishment of a friendly relationship based on equality and mutual respect and trust was important in preventing anxiety and embarrassment. A number of practical issues were identified that would contribute to improving the service for patients. It was found that nurses possessed all the attributes required to provide an effective service and recommendations were made that nurses specializing in continence care should take a more active role in urodynamic investigations.
Anaby-Tavor, Ateret; Amid, David; Fisher, Amit; Ossher, Harold; Bellamy, Rachel; Callery, Matthew; Desmond, Michael; Krasikov, Sophia; Roth, Tova; Simmonds, Ian; de Vries, Jacqueline
Business analysts, business architects, and solution consultants use a variety of practices and methods in their quest to understand business. The resulting work products could end up being transitioned into the formal world of software requirement definitions or as recommendations for all kinds of business activities. We describe an empirical study about the nature of these methods, diagrams, and home-grown conceptual models as reflected in real practice at IBM. We identify the models as artifacts of "enterprise conceptual modeling". We study important features of these models, suggest practical classifications, and discuss their usage. Our survey shows that the "enterprise conceptual modeling" arena presents a variety of descriptive models, each used by a relatively small group of colleagues. Together they form a "long tail" that extends from "drawings" on one end to "standards" on the other.
Abdoli, Samereh; Mardanian, Leila; Mirzaei, Marjan
Background: Diabetes has a high prevalence in Iran, and its incidence is estimated to increase from 3.5 million adults in 2005 to 5.1 million by 2025. Given the high prevalence of diabetes in Iranians, it is surprising that little is known about understanding of diabetes in the general population. This study aimed to explore how people without diabetes interpreted the disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative content analysis, using unstructured and in-depth interviews, with the participation of 21 individuals without diabetes (13 women and 8 men), 18-61 years old, who were selected for this purpose from the cities of Isfahan and Tehran from October 2010 to May 2011. The data were analyzed using latent content analysis method. Results: The participants had different beliefs and ideas about diabetes and most of them gave a negative and black image of diabetes. Although a small number of individuals considered diabetes better than AIDS and cancer, they often took diabetes as blackness, end of romances, and a gradual death. Conclusion: However, the study sample was small. The findings show that the participants’ perspective on diabetes is negative and destructive. It seems shaping a new identity in the path of empowerment could be difficult within the social and cultural context. These findings can give an insight to health care providers to realize how important it is to find the public perception about diabetes. They are responsible to change or modify the public view on diabetes by introducing the disease with the help of prominent people and educating individuals in the society on all aspects of living with diabetes, not simply the symptoms and disabilities it brings along. PMID:23853650
Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.
Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.
MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M
This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.
Wang, Peiling; White, Marilyn Domas
Identifies several aspects of citing behavior (reasons for citing, criteria used in decision making, and metalevel documentation concerns) by directly questioning researchers about decisions to cite or not to cite specific documents. The results reported are preliminary results related to citing behavior derived from a qualitative, longitudinal…
Merriam, Sharan B.
A practical guide for designing and carrying out qualitative case study in education is provided. How-to advice for managing all phases of case study research is included. The focus is on case studies that draw from what is commonly known as the qualitative research paradigm rather than a quantitative, positivistic, experimental orientation. Three…
Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825
Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.
The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.
Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…
Seaman, Carolyn B.; Basili, Victor R.
The empirical study described in this paper addresses the issue of communication among members of a software development organization. The independent variables are various attributes of organizational structure. The dependent variable is the effort spent on sharing information which is required by the software development process in use. The research questions upon which the study is based ask whether or not these attributes of organizational structure have an effect on the amount of communication effort expended. In addition, there are a number of blocking variables which have been identified. These are used to account for factors other than organizational structure which may have an effect on communication effort. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection and analysis. These methods include participant observation, structured interviews, and graphical data presentation. The results of this study indicate that several attributes of organizational structure do affect communication effort, but not in a simple, straightforward way. In particular, the distances between communicators in the reporting structure of the organization, as well as in the physical layout of offices, affects how quickly they can share needed information, especially during meetings. These results provide a better understanding of how organizational structure helps or hinders communication in software development.
Parker, Mashone; Henfield, Malik S.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine school counselors' perceptions of vicarious trauma. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology was used. Six school counselors were interviewed. Three primary domains emerged from the data: (a) ambiguous vicarious trauma, (b) support system significance, and (c) importance of level of…
Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.
Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…
Lester, Virginia L.
Because of the unique program of Empire State College, the problem of providing compensatory courses about women and developing a strategy for eventually having them incorporated into the curriculum of a discipline has been avoided. The focus at this college has been taken from the teacher and placed on the student, giving the student the primary…
Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru
The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study.
Orr, Linda C; Barbour, Rosaline S; Elliott, Lawrie
BackgroundEmpirical research suggests that involving carers brings benefits to families and services. Consequently, drug-related policy and guidance has increasingly encouraged drug services to involve carers at all levels of service provision. ObjectiveTo explore the purpose and scope of carer involvement with adult drug services in North-east Scotland. Design, Setting and ParticipantsA total of 82 participants (20 informal carers, 43 service providers and 19 policy makers) were purposively selected to take part in a qualitative study. Eight focus groups and 32 interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2008. FindingsThree themes were identified through thematic coding: ‘Current levels of involvement’, ‘Use of the term carer’ and ‘Opportunities for change?’ Carer involvement was described as limited, unplanned and unstructured, and consisted largely of information and advice, practical and emotional support, and signposting of services. Although use of the term ‘carer’ was contested within and across the groups, caring in a drug context was considered the ‘same but different’ from caring in other contexts. Carers remained sceptical that services actually wanted to involve them in supporting their relative or to offer carers support in their own right. Many service providers and policy makers regarded carer involvement as an aspiration. ConclusionEncouraging carers, service providers and policy makers to reach a shared understanding of caring in a drug context may help translation of policy into practice. However, there is also a fundamental need for drug services to widen the level and type of involvement activities on offer to carers. PMID:23216899
Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.
The study was made in order to provide background for a planned public relations program sponsored by the American Home Economics Association (AHEA). A total of 26 personal and 79 telephone interviews were conducted of persons in business, education, communications and media, and government. The study found that: there is need for a public…
Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh
Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…
Bell, Edward E.
Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…
Chiang, Linda H.
This study used an oral history method to collect data from contemporary citizens who grew up in the United States during the 1930s and 1940s. The primary purpose of the study was to gather historical evidence from those eras and identify participants' life themes and values. A secondary purpose was to implement interdisciplinary collaboration…
This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment.
This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment. PMID:15588012
Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid
Introduction Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people’s needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. Methods This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Results Analyzing participants’ perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). Conclusions General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals’ needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran. PMID:27504163
The purpose of the present study is to present the diversities in high schools and opinions of teachers about management of these diversities. The sample of the study is from nine teachers working at the official high schools in the center of Denizli in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data are collected with a semi-structured interview form…
This qualitative study sought information about the content, nature, and diversity of teachers' beliefs and principles. Selected studies involving the beliefs of teachers in the areas of curriculum theory and innovation, decision making and thinking, and improving teaching are discussed and analyzed. A discussion of the study's methodology points…
Hallberg, L R; Carlsson, S G
This study aims to describe, from the perspective of patients with fibromyalgia themselves, their experiences of having to live with chronic pain and how they manage their situation. The sample consists of 22 female patients (22-60 years). Open-ended in-depth interviews were analysed by a method directed by the tradition of Grounded Theory. Three descriptive categories were grounded in the data, labelled subjective pain language, diversified pain coping, and pain communication. These descriptive categories formed the higher-order, or core, concept preoccupied with pain. Having to live with chronic pain seems to include that the sufferer becomes self-centred and preoccupied with the pain: the pain is mostly present and affects every aspect of life, leading to a continuous awareness of and coping with the pain. Pain tends to interrupt normal life, demands attention and is difficult to disengage from. Although coping should not be evaluated in terms of good and bad, passivity, escape behaviours, and resignation/catastrophizing, which dominated in the present study sample, might affect social and psychological functioning negatively. Patients with fibromyalgia might benefit from psychological support in coping with their pain and from reinforcement of healthy behaviours.
Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna
Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…
Li, Jian; Shen, Dan; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren
Chinese medical theory is ancient and profound, however is confined by qualitative and faint understanding. The effect of Chinese acupuncture in clinical practice is unique and effective, and the human acupuncture points play a mysterious and special role, however there is no modern scientific understanding on human acupuncture points until today. For this reason, we attend to use complex network theory, one of the frontiers in the statistical physics, for describing the human acupuncture points and their connections. In the network nodes are defined as the acupuncture points, two nodes are connected by an edge when they are used for a medical treatment of a common disease. A disease is defined as an act. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The results certify that the degree distribution, act degree distribution, and the dependence of the clustering coefficient on both of them obey SPL distribution function, which show a function interpolating between a power law and an exponential decay. The results may be helpful for understanding Chinese medical theory.
Chaput, Yves; Paradis, Michel; Beaulieu, Lucie; Labonté, Édith
Background The psychiatric emergency service (PES) is a major hub in the mental health care delivery system. The aim of this study was to more precisely define what psychiatrists consider to be a psychiatric emergency and to examine the underlying basis of this assessment. Methods Over twenty-two thousand PES visits were assessed prospectively for pertinence and urgency by psychiatrists in four functionally and structurally different services in the province of Quebec, Canada. This study took place between July 15 1996 and August 31, 2004. Results Overall, 57% of visits were judged pertinent and urgent (P/U), 30% pertinent but not urgent (P/NU) and 13% neither pertinent nor urgent (NP/NU). Between 50 and 60% of P/U tagged visits were diagnosed with an affective or a psychotic disorder, often with a suicidal content. They also more frequently resulted in a short-term observation in the PES or a hospitalization. Variables suggesting the presence of a behaviorally disturbed state (aggressive behaviors, involuntary or police referrals) were equally likely to be found in P/U or NP/NU visits. Legal confinement following the consultation was almost exclusively seen in visits judged P/U. The percent of visits tagged P/U at the four individual sites varied substantially above and below the 57% value for the combined data. Interestingly, no major inter-site differences in diagnostic profiles for the three pertinence and urgency anchor points were found that might account for this variability. Finally, visits from high frequency users were less likely to be judged P/U than visits from patients attending less frequently. Conclusion Primary consideration for a P/U tag was a visit characterized by a behaviorally disturbed state and/or, suicidal ideation (or attempts) within the context of either an underlying psychotic or affective disorder, especially if poor judgment was an issue. Some specific diagnoses appeared to qualify the above core clinical considerations, increasing or
Black, Helen K.; Hannum, Susan M.
We examined the concepts of aging, time, spirituality, and future care needs in four randomly selected informants from a group of 54 never-married childless older women. Using data from the Generativity and Lifestyles of Older Women (GLOW) study, we questioned how women’s perceptions of these concepts came together in current older age. We employed cultural theory, (our theoretical framework), ethnography, (our methodological framework), and phenomenology, (our philosophical foundation) to produce a portrait of each woman interviewed. Through a three-session interview process, we elicited the women’s life stories, reasons for childlessness, and topics that emerged as significant to the women, including aging, a sense of time remaining, and spirituality. A key finding was that the context of each woman’s life, both biographical and historical, transpired as a foundation for these concepts. That is, a woman’s “place in time” shaped their experiences of aging, as well as her reasons for childlessness and perceptions of finitude. PMID:26539067
Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N
Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside.
Las Hayas, Carlota; Padierna, Jesús A; Muñoz, Pedro; Aguirre, Maialen; Gómez Del Barrio, Andrés; Beato-Fernández, Luís; Calvete, Esther
The objectives of the authors in this study were two-fold: (1) to explore the role of resilience in recovery from eating disorders (EDs), and (2) to develop a model of resilience in women with EDs. Semi-structured interviews with ten women were conducted in April 2011, along with two focus groups with women who had recovered from EDs (n = 5 women each; conducted in April 2012 at the University of Deusto, Spain), one focus group with clinical experts (n = 8; conducted in April 2012 at the Foundation Against EDs of Biskay, Spain), and six narratives from primary caregivers of ED patients living in Biskay, Spain (conducted in November 2012). All data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. All female participants acknowledged experiencing resilience in their recovery. The analysis resulted in a conceptual model of resilience composed of the following categories: deep dissatisfaction with life, turning point, acceptance, hope, determination to change, accountability for the ED, active coping, getting social support, gaining self-knowledge, getting information about EDs, increase well-being, trait resilience, initiating new projects and living in the here and now. According to the model presented, resilience preceded the experience of recovery in women with EDs in this sample and could be a useful asset for future interventions.
Oah, She-zeen; Dickinson, Alyce M.
This paper reviews empirical research which has been directly influenced by Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Despite the importance of this subject matter, the book has generated relatively little empirical research. Most studies have focused on Skinner's mand and tact relations while research focused on the other elementary verbal operants has been limited. However, the results of empirical research that exist support Skinner's analysis of the distinction between elementary verbal operants and his distinction between the speaker's and listener's repertoires. Further, research suggests that language training programs may not be successful if they do not provide explicit training of each elementary verbal operant and independent training of speaker's and listener's repertoires. PMID:22477586
Knittel, Christopher Roland
This dissertation examines the actions of firms when faced with regulatory restructuring. Chapter I examines the equilibrium pricing behavior of local exchange telephone companies under a variety of market structures. In particular, the pricing behavior of three services are analyzed: residential local service, business local service, and intraLATA toll service. Beginning in 1984, a variety of market structure changes have taken place in the local telecommunications industry. I analyze differences in the method of price-setting regulation and the restrictions on entry. Specifically, the relative pricing behavior under rate of return and price cap regulation is analyzed, as well as the impact of entry in the local exchange and intraLATA toll service markets. In doing so, I estimate an empirical model that accounts for the stickiness of rates in regulated industries that is based on firm and regulator decision processes in the presence of adjustment costs. I find that, faced with competitive pressures that reduce rates in one service, incumbent firm rates increase in other services, thereby reducing the benefits from competition. In addition, the findings suggest that price cap regulation leads to higher rates relative to rate-of-return regulation. Chapter 2 analyzes the pricing and investment behavior of electricity firms. Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a dual-product regulated monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate single-product regulated monopolies. This paper analyzes the relative pricing and investment decisions of electricity firms operating in the two market structures. The unique relationship between these two products imply that the relative incentives of single and dual-product firms are likely to differ. Namely electricity and natural gas are substitutes in consumption while natural
Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina
This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…
DeRosa, Janet Ann
This qualitative study used a narrative design to explore the perceptions, background and experiences of Mexican Americans who completed their bachelor's degree as adult learners. The study focuses in particular on their experiences of learning to be bicultural. A "Borderlands" framework whereby Mexican American adult learners negotiated…
Mills, Deborah N.
The study was used to develop an understanding of the nature of a creative learning experience that incorporated the foundational elements of Reggio Emilia, place-based education, and experience design. The study took place in an urban high school with eight students in an advanced placement art class. The qualitative research project revolved…
Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…
Terry, Danielle L.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Kate B.
Alcohol use among college students has received nationwide recognition as a public health concern. The primary aim of this study was to explore students' opinions of when drinking crosses the line from acceptable to unacceptable. This study used qualitative methods to: (a) examine unappealing aspects of drinking by relationship type…
Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.
The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…
Cardona, Betty; Jain, Sachin; Canfield-Davis, Kathy
This qualitative case study explored how families from diverse cultural backgrounds understood family involvement in the context of early childhood care and educational settings. Participants in the study included nine members from six families who had children enrolled in three early childhood care and education programs. The primary method of…
Gallo, Laura L.
To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…
Kozma, Robert B.; Anderson, Ronald E.
Describes the Second Instructional Technology in Education Study: Module 2 (SITES M2), a series of qualitative studies that identify and describes innovative pedagogical practices in 28 participating countries that use technology, and provides a context for the other papers in this issue. (Author/LRW)
Peterson, Jean Sunde
A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…
Evanciew, Cheryl E. P.
A qualitative study examined experiences between mentors and youth apprentices from the standpoint of situated cognition theory. The youth apprenticeship program studied was located in a rural southeastern community. High school youth apprentices worked with adult mentors and management personnel in selected businesses in the fields of business…
Alat, Zeynep; Alat, Kazim
The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the reasons for parental resistance to girls' schooling. The study was conducted in Ordu, Giresun, Gumushane, and Sinop provinces of Turkey where school enrollment rates for girls were among the lowest in the Black Sea Region. The results showed that obstacles for female education varied and…
This qualitative study examined three stigma reduction interventions against mental illness stigma: education, video, and contact. Undergraduates (N = 69) in three introductory psychology classes from a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the northeast United States participated. Responses to two open-ended questions revealed common negative and stereotypical themes associated with mental illness. The benefits of supplementing traditional social distance measures with a qualitative approach, as well as the importance of considering a social developmental approach to stigma education are discussed.
Hamilton, Rebekah J; Bowers, Barbara J
In 2004, 111 million adults accessed the Internet looking for health and medical information. Qualitative researchers can apply long-standing principles of recruitment and interviewing to the Internet. The purpose of this article is to examine the theoretical and methodological aspects of Internet recruitment and e-mail interviewing. The authors address issues of appropriateness, adequacy, representativeness, sample bias, data fraud, flexibility and consistency in interviewing, timing, elimination of the need for transcription, oral versus written communication, reliability and validity, and ethical concerns. They include some practical suggestions on a research design for a qualitative study employing both Internet recruitment and e-mail interviewing.
Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne
This paper reports findings from a qualitative study examining young people's perceived motivations for "binge drinking", and the associated harmful outcomes. Sixty-four, in-depth, one-to-one interviews were carried out with 14 to 17 year olds in southern England who had experience of binge drinking. Given the underage sample, most of this…
Zhao, Dongchen; Ma, Yunpeng
Through the qualitative interviews of five implementers of primary school mathematics curriculum, this study addresses the ways in which mathematics lessons are evaluated. Results show that each evaluator recognizes different aspects of a "good lesson," however, among all criteria, the design of the lesson plan, realization of the lesson goals,…
Angelle, Pamela S.
This qualitative study examined the socialization experiences of novice Louisiana middle school teachers. With the middle school as the unit of analysis, it used the aeronautical metaphor to describe schools as organizations where new teachers' initial flight into teaching occurred. Data collection involved interviews with principals, mentors, and…
The study described in this article incorporates qualitative research through in-depth, individual, structured interviews with 12 biology faculty from two Midwestern universities to explore perceptions about how they have learned to teach and how they work to improve their skills.
Gilat, Itzhak; Rosenau, Sarah
The present study focuses on the effectiveness of interactions with callers to a helpline as perceived by the helpline volunteers. Applying a qualitative methodology, we analysed 12 descriptions of what the volunteers considered to be the most helpful calls they could reconstruct from memory, and the factors they attributed to the successful…
Basol, Gulsah; Bardakci, Salih
The purpose of this qualitative study was to evaluate both the positive and negative changes in the aims and practices of current schools and, in addition, identify teacher values that have influenced the Turkish educational system from the early years of the Turkish Republic till now. With this in mind, a set of semi structured open-ended…
Kisiel, John B.; Bundrick, John B.; Beckman, Thomas J.
Learning theories, which suggest that experienced faculty use collaborative teaching styles, are reflected in qualitative studies of learners in hospital settings. However, little research has used resident focus groups to explore characteristics of successful teachers in outpatient clinics. Therefore, focus group discussions with first through…
Rich, Telvis M.
The extrinsic factors that influence the workplace experiences of 27 adjuncts teaching online were explored. In this qualitative research study, the adjuncts' lived experiences were examined through in-depth interviews. The results indicated three emergent factors which influenced the participants' workplace experiences, and the alternative…
This paper examines "Fresh Start," a New Labour flagship initiative to raise education "standards" in a radical and innovative way. Drawing on a qualitative study of a comprehensive school in England, I argue that the initiative added to the problems faced by the "failing school" and promoted rather traditional ways of raising "standards" due to…
Reed, Stacey L. E.
Executive function (EF) is becoming a more widely used term to explain student behaviors, yet research on EF in education is limited. This qualitative study addressed a gap in literature by examining teacher perceptions of students with EF deficits, as well as teacher preparedness and desire to learn more about EF. Perceptions of third grade,…
Holman, Debra K.; Banning, James H.
A potential source of useful information about undergraduate honors education can be found in doctoral dissertation abstracts that focus on honors. Debra Holman and James Banning of Colorado State University sought to explore this resource by undertaking a bounded qualitative meta-study of such abstracts using document analysis. Three…
Davies, Timothy Gray; Dickmann, Ellyn; Harbour, Clifford P.; Banning, James H.
This article utilized a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 214 dissertations listed by title only in Volume 31 of the "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" ("CCJRP"). Complete abstracts for these dissertations from 2004-2005 were obtained via Proquest Digital Database. The following was the overarching research…
Sommer, Carol A.; Ward, Janice E.; Scofield, Thomas
The authors describe a qualitative study that explored how the use of stories in supervision may contribute to self-reflection in master's-level counseling interns. Interns from 2 universities participated in facilitated discussions of 3 fairy tales throughout a semester. The analysis of storied discussions revealed 3 themes related to supervisee…
Fourie, Robert James
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a retinal degenerative disease causing progressive blindness. Most research on RP is biomedical, and mostly from an observer perspective, therefore poorly reflecting the lived experience of having RP. Accordingly, the researcher conducted a retrospective qualitative self-study, to analyze reflections on his own…
Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David
This exploratory qualitative study examined consumers' perceived barriers and benefits of plant food (fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, seeds) consumption and views on the promotion of these foods. Ten focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Groups consisted of employees of various workplaces, community group members,…
Fouad, Nadya A.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Carter, Laura; Bernfeld, Steven; Gray, India; Liu, Jane P.
This qualitative study examines factors that influence the career decisions of dislocated workers. The research focuses on individuals identified as working class, as this group has been relatively ignored in past research compared to individuals from higher socioeconomic statuses. Participants include 13 individuals (10 females and 3 males)…
Marks, Melissa J.
This qualitative two-year study traces the changes in beliefs and actions of four preservice teachers through the final two years of their university education program. Dialectical Theory of Socialization and Cognitive Dissonance Theory provide the theoretical framework. The findings show that three main factors affect the transfer of learning…
Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.
The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…
Rocco, Tonette S.
Observations on qualitative manuscripts submitted for publication identified problem areas: organization and format, relationship of concept and method, methodological issues (study type, conceptual framework, sample, data collection/analysis, integrity, data management), discussion, and data presentation. Recommendations for improving quality of…
LeTendre, Gerald K.
Reviews qualitative (historical and ethnographic) studies of education in Japan that advance a general understanding of educational theory and practice. Japan, which is neither an educational paradise nor an examination hell, is the source of much data of value to educational research in the United States. (SLD)
Banning, James H.; Kuk, Linda
The purpose of this study was to examine dissertations that were published in the U.S. during the past 5 years that related to collegiate housing. The dissertations were examined using a bounded qualitative meta-analysis approach. Each dissertation was examined using three questions: What were the methods/attributes of the research? What were the…
Faseleh Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Sharif, Farkhondeh
Introduction: Nursing is always accompanied by shift working and nurses in Iran have to work night shifts in some stages of their professional life. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 20 novice nurses working in two university hospitals of Jahrom, Iran. The study data were collected through focus group interviews. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis and qualitative content analysis. Results: The study findings revealed five major themes of value system, physical and psychological problems, social relationships, organizational problems, and appropriate opportunity. Conclusion: The study presented a deep understanding of the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts, which can be used by the managers as a basis for organizing health and treatment systems. PMID:25276724
Colaric, Susan M.
Discussion of problems that users have with Web searching focuses on a study of undergraduates that investigated three instructional methods (instruction by example, conceptual models without illustrations, and conceptual models with illustrations) to determine differences in knowledge acquisition related to three types of knowledge (declarative,…
Gill, Stephen D; Hogg, Toni; Dolley, Pamela J
The current study provides evidence of patient loneliness during inpatient rehabilitation, an incidental, yet important finding from a qualitative study. Patients, staff and community volunteers in our rehabilitation centre completed semistructured in-depth interviews that were subjected to a thematic analysis. Results indicated that some patients had unmet social needs and experienced profound loneliness despite being surrounded by staff and patients. Further investigation to quantify the prevalence, intensity and effects of loneliness during inpatient rehabilitation is warranted.
Kimball, Miles A.
Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…
Balamane, H.; Halicioglu, T.; Tiller, W. A.
We have performed a comparative study of six classical many-body potentials for silicon (Pearson, Takai, Halicioglu, and Tiller; Biswas and Hamann; Stillinger and Weber; Dodson, Tersoff 2, and Tersoff 3). Extensive static calculations have been performed using these potentials on Sin clusters (n=2-6), bulk point defects, elastic constants, polytypes, pressure-induced phase transformations, and surfaces [(111), (100), and (110)]. Similarities and differences between the six potentials have been identified, and their transferability as well as their accuracy with respect to experiment and first-principles methods have been assessed. In general, all of these potentials do a relatively poor job of modeling the energetics of small clusters as well as the various reconstructions of the Si(111) surface. They provide a fair to good description of the properties of bulk diamond cubic silicon, its intrinsic defects, and the Si(100) surface. Besides the fact that none of them models π bonding, their inability to be more transferable lies in their inadequate description of the angular forces. Each potential has its strengths and limitations, but none of them appears to be clearly superior to the others, and none is totally transferrable. However, despite their shortcomings we feel that some of these potentials will be useful in large-scale simulations of materials-related problems. They can give valuable insights into phenomena that are otherwise intractable to investigate either experimentally or via first-principles methods.
Helbing, Dirk; Johansson, Anders; Al-Abideen, Habib Zein
Many observations of the dynamics of pedestrian crowds, including various self-organization phenomena, have been successfully described by simple many-particle models. For ethical reasons, however, there is a serious lack of experimental data regarding crowd panic. Therefore, we have analyzed video recordings of the crowd disaster in Mina/Makkah during the Hajj in 1426H on 12 January 2006. They reveal two subsequent, sudden transitions from laminar to stop-and-go and “turbulent” flows, which question many previous simulation models. While the transition from laminar to stop-and-go flows supports a recent model of bottleneck flows [D. Helbing , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168001 (2006)], the subsequent transition to turbulent flow is not yet well understood. It is responsible for sudden eruptions of pressure release comparable to earthquakes, which cause sudden displacements and the falling and trampling of people. The insights of this study into the reasons for critical crowd conditions are important for the organization of safer mass events. In particular, they allow one to understand where and when crowd accidents tend to occur. They have also led to organizational changes, which have ensured a safe Hajj in 1427H.
Nicholson, J.; Pitts, M.; Young, D.
The first month of spin-scan ozone imaging (SOI) data (October 1981) was processed and compared with total ozone mapping spectrometer and ground based data. Short term variations in the ozone field have been revealed using animated sequences of SOI data. High correlations were observed between SOI ozone and upper tropospheric meteorological data. The relationship between ozone and temperature in the stratosphere was investigated by examining Nimbus 4 backscattered ultraviolet ozone and selective chopper radiometer temperature measurements as well as solar Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet ozone and stratospheric and mesospheric sounder temperature measurements. Results from these ozone temperature studies were compared with calculations from theoretical 2-D models. All of the lims infrared monitor of the stratosphere data was processed at 10 pressure levels and correlations between various species have been performed. The Venus Atmospheric Drag model was modified taking into account recent investigations on the Venus thermosphere and the resulting model was considered for incorporation into the Venus International Reference Atmosphere.
Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn
Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253
Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi
Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots.
Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh
Background Today, women empowering is an important issue. Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women’s empowerment through health information seeking is done. Methods In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Results Four central themes were emerged to explain women’s empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification, Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and medication adherence. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management. PMID:26005690
Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi
Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots. PMID:21391499
Collective phenomena in animal groups have attracted much attention in the last years, becoming one of the hottest topics in ethology. There are various reasons for this. On the one hand, animal grouping provides a paradigmatic example of self-organization, where collective behavior emerges in absence of centralized control. The mechanism of group formation, where local rules for the individuals lead to a coherent global state, is very general and transcends the detailed nature of its components. In this respect, collective animal behavior is a subject of great interdisciplinary interest. On the other hand, there are several important issues related to the biological function of grouping and its evolutionary success. Research in this field boasts a number of theoretical models, but much less empirical results to compare with. For this reason, even if the general mechanisms through which self-organization is achieved are qualitatively well understood, a quantitative test of the models assumptions is still lacking. New analysis on large groups, which require sophisticated technological procedures, can provide the necessary empirical data. PMID:19404431
Mackey, S P; Diba, R; McKeown, D; Wallace, C; Booth, S; Gilbert, P M; Dheansa, B S
As yet no qualitative research studies looking at return to work following burns have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the "hows" and "whys" of return to work, by purposively selecting a cross-section of burns patients who returned to the same/similar job, those who returned to work but either on a part-time basis or in a different role/job and those who became or remained unemployed, and using semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences. Using matrix analysis methodology, and with the general themes that emerged from these transcripts, it was possible to place patients into 5 broad groups, the "defeated", the "burdened", the "affected", the "unchanged" and the "stronger". We anticipate that use of these general groups will be useful in targeting multi-disciplinary return to work strategies, and discuss how this qualitative research has changed practice at the Queen Victoria Hospital Burns Centre.
Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Jasemi, Madineh; Valizadeh, Leila; Keogh, Brian; Taleghani, Fariba
Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses’ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis) software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring. PMID:26009677
The evolution of the internet has made online portals a popular means of surfing the internet. In internet commerce, understanding the post-adoption behaviour of users of online portals can help enterprises to attract new users and retain existing customers. For predicting continued use intentions, this empirical study focused on applying and…
Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
Jyothibabu, C.; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan; Farooq, Ayesha
This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empirical study in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between individual- and…
Ford, Matthew W.; Devoto, Steve; Kent, Daniel W.; Harrison, Todd
Threat emanating from financial markets may intimidate college students to some degree. In this article, the authors considered the influence of such intimidation on student financial market knowledge. They hypothesized a negative relationship between intimidation and market knowledge. An empirical study of over 150 undergraduate business school…
Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907
Aghabarary, Maryam; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan
Health care professionals believe that futile care must not be provided; however, there is no clear agreement over the definition and the manifestations of futile care. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian nurses' perceptions of futile care. In this qualitative exploratory study, the conventional content analysis approach was used for collecting and analyzing the study data. Three main themes were extracted from the data: nonfutility of care: care tantamount with outcome; sense of burnout; and subjectivity and relativity of medical futility concept. PMID:26633723
Idris, Fazli; Mohammad, Jihad
The general objective of this study is to validate the multi-level concept of competitive priorities using reflective-formative model at a higher order for service industries. An empirical study of 228 firms from 9 different service industries is conducted to answer the objective of this study. Partial least square analysis with SmartPLS 2.0 was used to perform the analysis. Finding revealed six priorities: cost, flexibility, delivery, quality talent management, quality tangibility, and innovativeness. It emerges that quality are expanded into two types; one is related to managing talent for process improvement and the second one is the physical appearance and tangibility of the service quality. This study has confirmed competitive priorities as formative second-order hierarchical latent construct by using rigorous empirical evidence. Implications, limitation and suggestion for future research are accordingly discussed in this paper.
Merrell, Robert S; Hannah, David J; Van Arsdale, Amy C; Buman, Matthew P; Rice, Kenneth G
As an initial step toward uncovering the therapeutic potential of expressive writing for treating perfectionism, the current study utilized an emotional writing prompt to penetrate the inner world of 14 maladaptive perfectionists. The major question driving the inquiry was whether informative themes would emerge when perfectionists were prompted to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings. Procedures derived from Consensual Qualitative Research were used to analyze the written text. Results revealed domains labeled Stress, Relationships, Coping, Expectations, Perfectionism, and Academic/Professional Goals. These domains and their respective categories, along with the use of expressive writing, could enrich clinical interventions in treatment studies of perfectionists.
Bahrami, Masoud; Taleghani, Fariba; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefy, Alireza
Introduction: Traumatic events such as breast cancer along with negative effects on patients also have positive effects. These cases have been studied less in Iran. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of explanation of positive changes after breast cancer by using a qualitative approach. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 in one of the specialized centers for cancer affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this study, it was interviewed with 19 women with breast cancer about positive changes after cancer by using individual, open and deep methods. The interviews were analyzed with conventional content analysis method. Results: The titles of the three major categories were included as behavioral changes to maintain and promote health (acquisition of health information and adopting promoting health behaviors), spiritual development (attention to the God and sense of meaning in life, revising the values and priorities, strengthening moral and behavioral traits) and personal growth and flourish (feeling empowerment, confidence and efforts to achieve the goals and desires). These three categories have led to emerge themes in this study as the “Awakening after cancer.” Conclusions: The results of this study indicated positive changes after breast cancer. Considering such changes while providing care and consulting to patients with breast cancer in addition to facilitate and accelerate positive changes will be prompted to provide care and proper and influential consulting to promote patient health. PMID:26430682
Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor
This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.
Moller, Naomi P; Vossler, Andreas
Infidelity can destroy relationships, but there is long-standing debate in the field about how best to define the construct. A clear definition of infidelity is important theoretically, empirically, and therapeutically; however, research on the topic is limited. This study explores how seven experienced couple counselors define infidelity on the basis of their work with heterosexual couples presenting with this issue. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts and research findings suggest a rich web of conflicting definitions of infidelity for couples counselors and, in their accounts, clients. The findings support an understanding of infidelity as socially constructed and the implications of this for the field are discussed.
Rubincam, Clara; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Newman, Peter A
A substantial gap exists between widespread acknowledgement of the importance of incorporating cultural sensitivity in biomedical HIV prevention trials and empirical evidence to guide the operationalization of cultural sensitivity in these trials. We conducted a systematic literature search and qualitative meta-synthesis to explore how culture is conceptualized and operationalized in global biomedical HIV prevention trials. Across 29 studies, the majority (n = 17) were conducted in resource-limited settings. We identified four overarching themes: (1) semantic cultural sensitivity - challenges in communicating scientific terminology into local vernaculars; (2) instrumental cultural sensitivity - understanding historical experiences to guide tailoring of trial activities; (3) budgetary, logistical, and personnel implications of operationalizing cultural sensitivity; and (4) culture as an asset. Future investigations should address how sociocultural considerations are operationalized across the spectrum of trial preparedness, implementation, and dissemination in particular sociocultural contexts, including intervention studies and evaluations of the effectiveness of methods used to operationalize culturally sensitive practices. PMID:26560332
Zeng, Li; Zhu, Xiaoping; Meng, Xianmei; Mao, Yafen; Wu, Qian; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Lanshu
Objectives: This study aimed to explore the experience of seniors’ family caregivers with regarding the responsibility, burden and support needs during caregiving in Shanghai, China. Materials and methods: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative design was used and a semi-structure interview was conducted. A convenience sample of 11 participants in two community service centers in Shanghai was recruited. Data saturation guided the size of the sample. The Colaizzi method of empirical phenomenology was used for interviewing and analyzing data obtained from 11 caregivers. Results: Three major themes were found: It is a hard work; It is my responsibility; Social support is not enough. Conclusion: The findings of the study are practical and helpful for health care providers to develop appropriate caregiver support services, to balance the responsibility and burden of caregivers, and to consider the factors influencing the utility of support services. PMID:25126186
Parvizy, Soroor; Kiani, Kiandokht; Ivbijaro, Gabriel
The authors aimed to understand the social bridges and social barriers to women's health in Iran. We used a qualitative content analysis method and interviewed 22 women. The participants identified appropriate employment, physical exercise, and cultural and educational development as social bridges to women's health. Social barriers to women's health included gender inequalities, burden of responsibility, and financial difficulties. Based on the results of this study, we suggest an interdisciplinary approach to plan social-based health programs in order to improve women's health outcomes in the developing countries such as Iran.
Chan, Kara; Siu, Judy Yuen-Man; Fung, Timothy K F
This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers. Altogether 37 participants, age 35 or older, were interviewed. Participants' perception of advantages and disadvantages of adopting acupuncture, and their criteria in selecting acupuncturists, were collected. Results found that among the user group, acupuncture was perceived as being effective, having little side effects, and generating lasting impact. Among nonusers, acupuncture was perceived as lacking a clinical base, high risk, and nonstandardized. Nonusers had less confidence in acupuncture than biomedicine. Participants relied on social communication and the practitioner's professional qualifications in choosing acupuncturists. Marketing implications are discussed.
Chan, Kara; Siu, Judy Yuen-Man; Fung, Timothy K F
This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the perception of acupuncture among users and nonusers. Altogether 37 participants, age 35 or older, were interviewed. Participants' perception of advantages and disadvantages of adopting acupuncture, and their criteria in selecting acupuncturists, were collected. Results found that among the user group, acupuncture was perceived as being effective, having little side effects, and generating lasting impact. Among nonusers, acupuncture was perceived as lacking a clinical base, high risk, and nonstandardized. Nonusers had less confidence in acupuncture than biomedicine. Participants relied on social communication and the practitioner's professional qualifications in choosing acupuncturists. Marketing implications are discussed. PMID:26950540
The idea of the therapeutic landscape has been widely used to describe the relationship between place and improvements in mental health. This paper uses data from a qualitative study conducted with people with mental health problems to outline the role of the public library as a therapeutic landscape. It situates the public library as a space that is simultaneously familiar and welcoming, comforting and calming, and empowering. Further, the paper reflects on the impact of proposed library closures in light of these previously hidden benefits, thinking about the library's role as an environment and not as a service provider.
Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi
Background: Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Results: Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Conclusions: Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women. PMID:27563321
Rahimi, Majid; Fadayevatan, Reza; Abedi, Heidar Ali
Background: The use of long-term care services has risen and this trend is expected to continue as the population reaches old age. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the caring conditions in nursing homes. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative approach using conventional qualitative content analysis. The study was conducted on 23 Iranian participants including 14 elders and 9 caregivers. Data was collected with unstructured interviews and continued to the point of data saturation. Analysis of data was performed continually and concurrently with data collection through a comparative method. Results: Three themes emerged from 595 open codes including care as unpleasant task, sustained care and insufficient resources. Ten subthemes indicated participants’ experiences and understanding of caring conditions in a nursing home. Conclusions: The prevailing given care was the routine one with a focus on physical aspects, although there was some psychological care given to the older people. The findings of this research are guidelines for managers and care planners in nursing homes who should pay attention to physical and psychological care needs of older people. In addition, it is important to pay close attention to the needs of caregivers and provision of instructions for treatment, supervision and education of caregivers and medical students to provide a better care. PMID:27186382
Azimian, Jalil; Negarandeh, Reza; Fakhr- Movahedi, Ali
Aim: One of the most important factors contributing to staff shortage is nurses’ ineffective coping with transitions. Changes in nurses’ official positions are usually associated with varying degrees of transition. Identification of affecting factors on nurses’ coping in responding to transition can promote quality of nursing activity and prevent nurses’ shortage. So the aim of this study was to explore factors affecting nurses’ coping with transitions. Methods: The participant of this exploratory qualitative study consisted of sixteen nurses that were work in medical wards of four hospitals in Qazvin, Iran. Data collected by semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis approach. Results: The main theme of the study was ‘inadequate preparation for transition’. This theme consisted of six categories including “staff training and development”, “professional relationships”, “perceived level of support”, “professional accountability and commitment”, “welfare services”, and “nursing staff shortage”. Conclusion: Nursing managers and policy makers need to pay special attention to the affecting factors on nurses’ coping with transition and develop effective strategies for facilitating it. PMID:25363117
Magin, Parker; Adams, Jon; Heading, Gaynor; Pond, Dimity; Smith, Wayne
Psoriasis is a common condition with recognised psychological comorbidity in specialist practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the psychological comorbidities in psoriasis in patients from general (family) practices and specialist dermatology practices, using a qualitative methodology. This was a qualitative study, utilising semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. Twenty-nine patients with psoriasis were recruited from general practices and specialist dermatology practices in an Australian non-capital city. Respondents represented a broad range of ages and psoriasis severities. The principle study finding was that psychological morbidity in psoriasis is considerable. Though mood and anxiety symptoms were present in participants, and were occasionally severe, more prominent sequelae of psoriasis were embarrassment, shame, impaired self-image, low self-esteem, self-consciousness and stigmatisation. Psoriasis was associated with behavioural avoidance and effects on respondents' sexuality. The perception of psoriasis as an incurable disease beyond respondents' control, with consequent pessimism regarding prognosis and treatment efficacy, was a contributor to psychological morbidity. Some respondents reported psoriasis having permanently and adversely affected their personality - avoidant personality traits were ascribed to the experience of living with psoriasis. Our conclusion is that the psychological effects of psoriasis can be considerable and long-lasting and are evident across a broad range of psoriasis severities. Clinicians should be aware that psychological sequelae are complex and encompass a range of psychological morbidities beyond conventional psychiatric diagnoses.
Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick
Introduction In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants’ context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. Methods and analysis We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical
Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome) on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method. PMID:25379256
Fereidooni Moghadam, Malek; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh
Background: The use of physical restraint as an intervention in the care of psychiatric patients dates back to the beginning of psychiatry. Although it is a challenging question, it is still one of the common procedures in psychiatry. Considering that very little research has been done in Iran in relation to physical restraint, this qualitative study aimed to investigate the experiences of nurses working in psychiatric wards regarding physical restraint. Methods: This qualitative study was done on 14 nurses working in the psychiatric hospitals of Ahvaz city, southern Iran, during 2011-2012. The participants were selected by purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, which were continued until data saturation and emergence of themes. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Four categories emerged: (1) Restraint as a multi-purpose procedure, (2) Processing of physical restraint, (3) Restraint as a challenging subject and (4) The effects of restraint on the spectrum. Each category has several different sub-categories. Conclusion: The participants described using physical restraint as one of the main strategies to control psychiatric patients, and despite having negative consequences, it is extensively used. Given the risks and challenges of using physical restraint, nursing education should find alternative methods. PMID:25349842
Memaryan, Nadereh; Rassouli, Maryam; Mehrabi, Maryam
Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that "spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah)." Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies. PMID:27493675
Moridi, Golrokh; Valiee, Sina; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Nasab, Golnaz Esmaeil; Khaledi, Shahnaz
Introduction Health is an exclusive and subjective phenomenon, and one of the most important situations with regard to perception of health, arises when patients suffer from a chronic disease. This study was conducted within the qualitative research framework and aimed to explore the meanings of health as perceived by a group of Iranian diabetic patients. Methods A descriptive qualitative analysis design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants among diabetic patients, who were admitted to the diabetes care centre of Tohid Hospital of the Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran during a ten-month period in 2014. Interviews were transcribed and analysed through conventional content analysis. Results Based on the findings of the study, three major health-related themes emerged: 1) the syndrome of the healthy body and the happy heart (physical well-being vivacity, satisfaction, and calmness of the mind), 2) life without compulsory limitations (lack of dietary limitations, No activity limitations, lack of social limitations), and 3) exalted spirituality (satisfying self and others, trusting God, remembering God). Conclusion Health care providers should consider the meaning of health in special groups, chiefly in patients with chronic diseases. It facilitates the development of appropriate programmes to improve desirable health levels among diabetic patients. PMID:27790342
Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that “spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah).” Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies. PMID:27493675
Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh
Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. Conclusions The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses’ career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies. PMID:27556054
Safavifar, Farnoosh; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Alavi, Kaveh; Negarandeh, Reza; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Eftekhar, Maryam
Background: Gender identity disorder and its treatment with sex reassignment surgery is a profound experience, which can affect the mental, interpersonal, social and religious aspects of one’s life. Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study focusing on the various dimensions of the experiences of seven patients suffering from gender identity disorder in a female-to-male subgroup. This study presents a report concerning the religious aspects of their experience. Results: The findings of this study were categorized into the four following conceptual categories: sense of guilt; accomplishing a sense of submission to God’s will as well as God’s pleasing; practical commitment to religion; and rejection by the religious communities. Conclusion: Diminishing religion to spirituality comprised the core experiences of these patients having intimate relations with such concepts as secularism, stigma, and technocracy. PMID:27493929
Pavlinic, Slavica; Wright, Anthony H.; Buckley, Paul D.
A qualitative research study employing stimulated recall interviewing explored student understanding in computer-aided instruction in first-year university chemistry. The study involving 36 students and 32 interviews covered four types of computer-based task: a simulated experiment, a supplementary experiment to a practical laboratory, a problem-solving tutorial, and an exercise using solid-state animations. Analysis of the data showed that although all students completed the tasks, they frequently failed to understand the material presented. Prior knowledge assumed in the task and lack of appropriate feedback often contributed to the task's not matching the learning needs of students. The study revealed the inadequacy of the linear instructional design of the tasks investigated.
Maunsell, E; Brisson, C; Dubois, L; Lauzier, S; Fraser, A
People treated for cancer have reported a variety of problems at work. However, there is little data on work experience after breast cancer, particularly for women treated in recent years. This exploratory qualitative study was conducted among 13 breast cancer survivors who had paid employment at diagnosis, returned to work afterwards, and mentioned work-related problems to a clinic nurse or physician. Unstructured, thematic interviews were undertaken. Qualitative thematic content analysis was conducted to identify and group themes which emerged from participants' discourse. Women in various types of jobs reported experiencing job loss, demotion, unwanted changes in tasks, problems with the employer and co-workers, personal changes in attitudes to work and diminished physical capacity. These work problems also preoccupied people treated for cancer more than two decades ago. New areas of concern also emerged: possible positive and negative effects of learning (implicitly or explicitly) about the diagnosis while at work and lack of discussion with health professionals about work and return-to-work issues, suggesting that health professionals' behaviour may influence women's work experience right from diagnosis. The identification of these new problems and confirmation of previously reported ones underlines the pertinence of determining how important and widespread these problems are in women now being treated for breast cancer.
Tregay, Jenifer; Wray, Jo; Crowe, Sonya; Knowles, Rachel; Daubeney, Piers; Franklin, Rodney; Barron, David; Hull, Sally; Barnes, Nick; Bull, Catherine; Brown, Katherine L
Objective To qualitatively assess the discharge processes and postdischarge care in the community for infants discharged after congenital heart interventions in the first year of life. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and Framework Analysis. Setting UK specialist cardiac centres and the services their patients are discharged to. Subjects Twenty-five cardiologists and nurses from tertiary centres, 11 primary and secondary health professionals and 20 parents of children who had either died after discharge or had needed emergency readmission. Results Participants indicated that going home with an infant after cardiac intervention represents a major challenge for parents and professionals. Although there were reported examples of good care, difficulties are exacerbated by inconsistent pathways and potential loss of information between the multiple teams involved. Written documentation from tertiary centres frequently lacks crucial contact information and contains too many specialist terms. Non-tertiary professionals and parents may not hold the information required to respond appropriately when an infant deteriorates, this contributing to the stressful experience of managing these infants at home. Where they exist, the content of formal ‘home monitoring pathways’ varies nationally, and families can find this onerous. Conclusions Service improvements are needed for infants going home after cardiac intervention in the UK, focusing especially on enhancing mechanisms for effective transfer of information outside the tertiary centre and processes to assist with monitoring and triage of vulnerable infants in the community by primary and secondary care professionals. At present there is no routine audit for this stage of the patient journey. PMID:26826171
Tamburini, Marcello; Gangeri, Laura; Brunelli, Cinzia; Boeri, Paolo; Borreani, Claudia; Bosisio, Marco; Karmann, Claude Fusco; Greco, Margherita; Miccinesi, Guido; Murru, Luciana; Trimigno, Patrizia
Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT) for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ), a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81%) completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease). Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness). Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions) has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which emerged from this
Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt
This study attempts to characterize the nature of disagreement among odontologists in determining the fundamental properties of suspected bitemark injuries. Fifteen odontologists were asked to freely comment on six images of supposed bitemarks. Qualitative analysis using a grounded theory approach revealed that practitioner agreement was at best fair, with wide-ranging opinions on the origin, circumstance, and characteristics of the wound given for all six images. More experienced practitioners (>10 years) tended to agree with each other less than those who had 10 years or less experience in forensic odontology. The differences in opinions can be at least partly accounted for by the inconsistent nature of approaches used by different practitioners in assessing bitemark evidence. The results of this study indicate that more definitive guidelines as to the assessment of bitemarks as patterned injuries should be developed to ensure the highest possible level of practitioner agreement. PMID:23488694
Purpose: There has been limited research on physicians’ perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory) in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Methods: Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Results: Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. Conclusion: The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students. PMID:27363502
Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts. PMID:22943578
The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.
Ong, Bie Nio; Konstantinou, Kika; Corbett, Mandy; Hay, Elaine
STUDY DESIGN.: Longitudinal qualitative interview study, nested within a back pain cohort study. OBJECTIVE.: Enhance the understanding of patients' own perspectives on living with sciatica to inform improvements in care and treatment outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Reports of patients' own accounts of sciatica and its impact on daily life are still scarce. Research on back pain has shown that it is important to understand how people live with pain and how they perceive interactions with health care professionals and interpret interventions. These types of insights help to improve treatments and their acceptability to patients. METHODS.: In-depth qualitative interviews with 37 people at baseline and 6 and 12 months' follow-up. The interviews covered topics that were derived from the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire and allowed open-ended talk about people's experiences of pain. All interviews were tape-recorded, fully transcribed, and thematically analyzed. RESULTS.: People needed to make sense of sciatica through identifying a cause and having it clinically diagnosed. The impact of sciatic pain was seen to be constant, intense, and all-encompassing. Appreciation of this by clinicians was considered important, as well as the provision of clear information about treatment and prognosis. Expectations about treatment options varied between patients, and people balanced pain relief with adverse effects. CONCLUSION.: Our study highlights patients' own accounts of the distinctiveness, impact, and intrusiveness of their sciatic symptoms. Our findings emphasize the importance of leg pain in identifying a subgroup of back-pain patients more likely to have severe symptoms, be at risk of poor outcome, and who should be considered a priority for early diagnosis and management. Future management of sciatica needs to include listening to patients' stories, offering a credible physical assessment, explanation, and diagnosis of the condition. Explaining the limits to
Tan, Edwin C K; Stewart, Kay; Elliott, Rohan A; George, Johnson
Objectives To explore general practice staff, pharmacist and patient experiences with pharmacist services in Australian general practice clinics within the Pharmacists in Practice Study. Design Qualitative study. Setting Two general practice clinics in Melbourne, Australia, in which pharmacists provided medication reviews, patient and staff education, medicines information and quality assurance services over a 6-month period. Participants Patients, practice staff and pharmacists. Method Semi-structured telephone interviews with patients, focus groups with practice staff and semi-structured interviews and periodic narrative reports with practice pharmacists. Data were analysed thematically and theoretical frameworks used to explain the findings. Results 34 participants were recruited: 18 patients, 14 practice staff (9 general practitioners, 4 practice nurses, 1 practice manager) and 2 practice pharmacists. Five main themes emerged: environment; professional relationships and integration; pharmacist attributes; staff and patient benefits and logistical challenges. Participants reported that colocation and the interdisciplinary environment of general practice enabled better communication and collaboration compared to traditional community and consultant pharmacy services. Participants felt that pharmacists needed to possess certain attributes to ensure successful integration, including being personable and proactive. Attitudinal, professional and logistical barriers were identified but were able to be overcome. The findings were explained using D'Amour's structuration model of collaboration and Roger's diffusion of innovation theory. Conclusions This is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of general practice staff, pharmacists and patients on their interactions within the Australian general practice environment. Participants were receptive of colocated pharmacist services, and various barriers and facilitators to integration were identified. Future
Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba
Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life. PMID:26644793
Petrucci, Cristina; Lancia, Loreto; Motta, Paolo Carlo
Background: Hospital organisations based on the level of care intensity have clearly revealed a concept, that of care complexity, which has been widely used for decades in the healthcare field. Despite its wide use, this concept is still poorly defined and it is often confused with and replaced by similar concepts such as care intensity or workload. This study aims to describe the meaning of care complexity as perceived by nurses in their day-to-day experience of hospital clinical care, rehabilitation, home care, and organisation. Design and methods Fifteen interviews were conducted with nurses belonging to clinical-care areas and to heterogeneous organisational areas. The interview was of an unstructured type. The participants were selected using a propositional methodology. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method was chosen for the analysis of the interviews. Results: The nurses who were interviewed predominantly perceive the definition of care complexity as coinciding with that of workload. Nevertheless, the managerial perspective does not appear to be exclusive, as from the in-depth interviews three fundamental themes emerge that are associated with the concept of care complexity: the patient, the nurse and the organisation. Conclusions: The study highlights that care complexity consists of both quantitative and qualitative aspects that do not refer only to the organisational dimension. The use of the terminology employed today should be reconsidered: it appears to be inappropriate to talk of measurement of care complexity, as this concept also consists of qualitative – thus not entirely quantifiable – aspects referring to the person being cared for. In this sense, reference should instead be made to the evaluation of care complexity, which would also constitute a better and more complete basis for defining the nursing skills required in professional nursing practice. Significance for public health In recent years, reference to the concept of
Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L
This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization.
Bergland, Astri Marie Glosli; Tveit, Bodil; Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen
More and more old people live alone, and living alone is reported to be a key risk factor for experiencing loneliness and developing poor health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of living alone for older men. Systematic text condensation and hermeneutic interpretation were used in analysis of the data. Four themes emerged: lonely at times, missing and longing for a shared life, keeping active, and some kind of freedom. The findings revealed that inner and outer resources come into play and have influence on the processes of managing and solving the situation of living alone. The findings are in accordance with theoretical perspectives on loneliness, aloneness, and solitude. The findings offer nurses in any clinical context valuable information to allow them to address the core emotional and potential mental health issues old men face in coping with the situation of living alone. PMID:26864842
Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie
This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet. PMID:17980457
Esmann, Solveig; Jemec, Gregor B E
Hidradenitis suppurativa influences patients' lives in many ways. It is therefore necessary to focus on the effects of the disease on daily life in order better to define patient-related outcomes in hidradenitis suppurativa studies. Interviews were conducted with 12 patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. Initial single interviews were followed by semi-structured and structured qualitative focus group interviews in order to improve the richness of the data and obtain in-depth understanding of the impact of the topics. Important topics were found to relate to aspects of interpersonal contact, especially in relation to smell and appearance, various emotional reactions, and feelings of lack of control. It was found that hidradenitis suppurativa has a great emotional impact on patients and promotes isolation due to fear of stigmatization. Shame and irritation are frequent and relate to smell, scars, itching and pain. Quality of life is adversely affected and professional support is needed. PMID:21394419
Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie
This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet.
Chuh, Antonio A T
Rash orientation in pityriasis rosea (PR) has been described as Christmas-tree pattern, inverted Christmas-tree pattern, fir tree pattern, parallel to the ribs or along skin cleavage lines. We retrieved clinical photographs of 11 patients diagnosed as having PR over a two-year period for qualitative study of rash orientation. We found that Langer's cleavage lines are the most appropriate description. All three components of these lines on the trunk, i.e. V-shaped pattern on upper chest and upper back, circumferential pattern around the shoulders and hips, and transverse pattern on the lower anterior trunk and lower back, are demonstrated by most patients. We believe with the present state of knowledge, the mechanism for PR following Langer's lines is best considered unknown. We advocate abandoning other descriptions which might cause confusion to students and trainee physicians.
Cools, Eva; Van Den Broeck, Herman
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach: Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed (n = 100). Findings: Qualitative evidence was found for…
Mortensen, Peter, Ed.; Kirsch, Gesa E., Ed.
Reflecting on the practice of qualitative literacy research, this book presents 14 essays that address the most pressing questions faced by qualitative researchers today: how to represent others and themselves in research narratives; how to address ethical dilemmas in research-participant relations; and how to deal with various rhetorical,…
Lin, Carol Yeh-Yun
Employee empowerment is an essential managerial means that can be used to obtain competitive advantages from human resources in the new millennium. A comprehensive understanding of the essence of empowerment is crucial to facilitate its effective implementation. In this article, the author proposes a 4-dimensional empowerment model in an organizational setting and a matrix that incorporates the 4 dimensions and the 7S (R. H. Waterman, T. J. Peters, & J. R. Phillips, 1980) organizational factors. In addition, this study represents an empirical examination of the effects of personal and company characteristics on empowerment. The implications of the research results are discussed.
Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy.
Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588
Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients’ health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588
Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Smith, Paul D; Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura; Huang, Yen-Ming
The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs) is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4%) with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3). The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability. PMID:27258026
Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura; Huang, Yen-Ming
The complexity of written medication information hinders patients’ understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs) is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4%) with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3). The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0–6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including ‘WARNING’ on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability. PMID:27258026
Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid
Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.
Eggerth, Donald E.; DeLaney, Sheli C.; Flynn, Michael A.; Jacobson, C. Jeff
Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the grounded theory approach in which themes emerge from iterative readings of the transcripts by a group of investigators. This study identified themes related to excessive workload, familiar work/unfamiliar hazards, cultural tensions, lack of health care, pregnancy, sexual harassment, and family obligations/expectations. The responses of the Latina workers in this study clearly indicated that they live within a complex web of stressors, both as workers and as women. The increased economic opportunities that come with immigration to the United States are accompanied by many opportunities for exploitation, especially if they are undocumented. It is hoped that the findings of this study will raise awareness regarding these issues and spur further work in this area. PMID:26346566
Prosser, Helen; Walley, Tom
BACKGROUND: Doctors are aware of the commercial bias in pharmaceutical representative information; nevertheless, such information is known to change doctors' prescribing, and augment irrational prescribing and prescribing costs. AIM: To explore GPs, reasons for receiving visits from pharmaceutical representatives. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. SETTING: One hundred and seven general practitioners (GPs) in practices from two health authorities in the North West of England. RESULTS: The main outcome measures of the study were: reasons for receiving/not receiving representative visits; advantages/disadvantages in receiving visits; and quality of representative-supplied information. Most GPs routinely see pharmaceutical representatives, because they bring new drug information speedily; they are convenient and accessible; and can be consulted with a saving of time and effort. Many GPs asserted they had the skills to critically appraise the evidence. Furthermore, the credibility and social characteristics of the representative were instrumental in shaping GPs' perceptions of representatives as legitimate information providers. GPs also received visits from representatives for reasons other than information acquisition. These reasons are congruent with personal selling techniques used in marketing communications. CONCLUSIONS: The study draws attention to the social and cultural contexts of GP-representative encounters and the way in which the acquisition of pharmacological information within the mercantile context of representative visits is legitimated. This highlights the need for doctors to critically appraise information supplied by representatives in relation to other information sources. PMID:12879831
Friston, Karl J; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter
This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level - e.g., dynamic causal models - and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction.
Friston, Karl J.; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E.; van Wijk, Bernadette C.M.; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter
This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level – e.g., dynamic causal models – and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction. PMID:26569570
Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten
A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…
Papavassiliou-Alexiou, Ioanna; Zourna, Christina
This article examines how the training in and use of Drama in Education (DiE) affects the development of teachers' professional skills. The article draws on data from broader empirical qualitative research about the impact of DiE on personal, social and professional development of Greek secondary school teachers. The research was carried out using…
Ravishankar, Nidhi; Bernstein, Mark
As the focus on modern neurosurgery has shifted to the realm of technological advancement, some patients and their loved ones still hold a strong faith in their religion to guide them through the process. This study aimed to determine whether religion as a coping mechanism was beneficial for patients before, during and after craniotomy. Qualitative case study methodology was used. Interviews were conducted with randomly selected 36 adult patients who underwent surgery for a benign or malignant brain tumour. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and the data subjected to thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged from the data: (1) religion significantly benefited neurosurgical patients; (2) neurosurgical patients did not require a dedicated religious room in the hospital; (3) neurosurgical patients required religious resources such as leaders and/or groups; and (4) patients were not in favour of their physician engaging in the religious ritual. Most patients found religion to be an effective coping mechanism, offering them strength, comfort, and hope through the surgery. The findings from this study emphasize the need for including a "religious time-out" before and after surgery and the inclusion of religious leaders/groups for those in favour to ensure quality care and patient satisfaction.
Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Tashi, Shohreh; Mehran, Nahid; Eskandari, Narges; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh
Background: Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires counseling and assessment prior to acceptance by infertile couples and complete surrogate mothers. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional experiences of surrogate mothers. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative, phenomenological study. We selected eight complete surrogate mothers in Isfahan. We used convenient sampling method and in-depth interview to collect the information. The data analysis was fulfilled via Colaizzi’s seven-stage method. Reliability and validity study of the roots in the four-axis was done. Results: The findings of these interviews were classified into two main themes and four sub themes: acquired experiences in pregnancy (feelings toward pregnancy, relationship with family, relatives and commissioning couple) and consequences of surrogacy (complications of pregnancy, religious and financial problems of surrogacy). Conclusion: Surrogacy pregnancy should be considered as high-risk emotional experience because many of surrogate mothers may face negative experiences. Therefore, it is recommended that surrogates should receive professional counseling prior to, during and following pregnancy. PMID:25114669
sharifi, Azam; Kamali, Mohammad; Chabok, Ali
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of disorders regarding the development of movement and posture, which causes limitations in activity. In fact, it is attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occur during brain development in fetus or infant. CP disorders may accompany by speech, auditory, visual abnormality, seizure, learning disorder, mental retardation and etc. Due to the variation in disorders and ultimately the needs that are made in the wake of the diseases, understanding the needs of these patients is essential. Methods: This research was a qualitative study, with phenomenology method and sampling was purposeful. The participants were 17 cerebral palsy people (6 female and 11 male, with aged 15 to 43). Data were collected by deep interview with open-end questions and analyzed by collaizi method. Results: During the interview sessions, notes and ideas were classified and assorted, so that, the rehabilitation needs of people with CP were understood according to the statements of participants. The results of this study were placed in four domains, 3 themes and 22 subthemes. The domains included social, emotional needs, economic, and therapeutic needs. Conclusion: The requirements studies in this research were particularly introduced by patients with CP. People in the society, who might have contact with these patients, are responsible to help them to overcome their problems and disabilities. PMID:25250261
Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277
Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud
Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222
Roy, Nobhojit; Madhiwalla, Neha; Pai, Sanjay A
We conducted a qualitative study to determine the range of promotional practices influencing drug usage in Mumbai. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 15 senior executives in drug companies, 25 chemists and 25 doctors; focus group discussions were held with 36 medical representatives. The study provided a picture of what might be described as an unholy alliance: manufacturers, chemists and doctors conspire to make profits at the expense of consumers and the public's health, even as they negotiate with each other on their respective shares of these profits. Misleading information, incentives and unethical trade practices were identified as methods to increase the prescription and sale of drugs. Medical representatives provide incomplete medical information to influence prescribing practices; they also offer incentives including conference sponsorship. Doctors may also demand incentives, as when doctors' associations threaten to boycott companies that do not comply with their demands for sponsorship. Manufacturers, chemists and medical representatives use various unethical trade practices. Of particular interest was the finding that chemists are major players in this system, providing drug information directly to patients. The study also reinforced our impression that medical representatives are the least powerful of the four groups. PMID:18630221
Seamark, Clare J; Lings, Pamela
Background: Teenage pregnancy is seen as a cause for concern in the United Kingdom (UK). However, there has been little research from primary care looking at teenage motherhood and its implications. Aim: To investigate the experiences of teenage mothers in relation to their role as mothers and their expectations of their futures. Design of study: Qualitative study. Setting: East Devon, England. Methods: Nine women who had conceived their first child while still a teenager agreed to participate. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken, audiotaped, transcribed, and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: The women expressed positive attitudes to being mothers and described how it had affected their lives. For some, motherhood had been the impetus to change direction and consider a career, because they had someone else for whom they were responsible. They recognised that they were still young enough to enter further education or other aspects of employment as their children grew up. Conclusions: For the women in this study, having been a teenage mother did not mean that their life and future were all over. Motherhood and bringing up children were valued in their own right. The women were realistic about their futures, often making plans to develop their careers. PMID:15527606
Squires, Allison; Juarez, Adrian
Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that
Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen
Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404
Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen
Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations.
Heitz, Laura J; Steiner, Susan H; Burman, Mary E
Registered nurses who return to school in a nurse practitioner program undergo role transition throughout the educational process and into the postgraduate period. This study examined the role transition that occurs in family nurse practitioner (FNP) students. A descriptive, qualitative design was used with in-depth telephone interviews of 9 female FNPs who had recently graduated. A conceptual model was generated that described the role transition from RN to FNP. Two phases of role transition occurred and were depicted by the central categories that emerged: extrinsic obstacles, intrinsic obstacles, turbulence, positive extrinsic forces, positive intrinsic forces, and role development. Although the central categories were found to be the same in Phase I and Phase II, the defining characteristics differed. This study has implications for FNPs, students, and educators regarding role transition. It presents new findings not identified in prior research: personal commitments and sacrifices were identified as specific obstacles encountered during the educational process, and differences were found between inexperienced and experienced RNs in relation to the FNP role transition during the educational period.
Saeieh, Sara E.; Nasrabadi, Alireza N.; Ebadi, Abbas; Moghadam, Zahra B.; Mohraz, Minoo; Jozani, Zahra B.; Rezaei, Elham
Background: The application of family planning methods to people with HIV not only prevents unwanted pregnancy, but also leads to a reduction in the possibility of transmission of the virus from the patient to the sexual partner and the fetus. In order to prevent the spread of HIV and enhance reproductive rights, it is necessary to inform women with HIV of the contraception methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore experiences of HIV positive women about contraception use. Method: This qualitative study was conducted on 18 women with HIV who were at reproductive age and had referred the Center for clients with Risky Behavior in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method in MAXQDA 10. Results: The following two themes were derived from descriptions of the use of contraception methods by women with HIV: 1) Contraception is the forgotten component of reproductive health services; 2) inconsistent condom use. Each theme also contained three sub-themes. Conclusion: Results of investigations showed that Risky Behavior consultation Centers mostly stress the use of condom for husband/sexual partners without HIV. In addition, since health care practitioners play an important role in provision of reproductive health services, their lack of knowledge and cooperation considerably contribute to the spread of the disease and violation of patient rights. PMID:26234989
Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust
The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.
Bruins, M; Geertzen, J H B; Groothoff, J W; Schoppen, T
The objectives of this study were to describe the process of job reintegration, to obtain more detailed information about workplace adjustments, and to assess the positive and negative experiences of amputees (in the Netherlands) who returned to paid work after their lower limb amputation. The study had a retrospective design with semi-structured interviews. The authors used a qualitative methodology to obtain detailed information on the reintegration process. Thirty-two (32) subjects participated with a mean age of 42.6 years. The mean time between amputation and return to work was nearly one year (11.5 months). The most common reasons for delay in return to work were stump problems and problems in wound healing. Fifty percent (50%) of the amputees got different work tasks or another job than before amputation, mainly because of physical restrictions caused by the amputation. The most important motives of the amputees for job reintegration were work as a form of day spending (69%) and social contacts at the workplace (66%). Bad support of the implementing body which takes care of job reintegration and employer (34%) were the most mentioned obstacle to job reintegration. Vocational workers should be regular members in the rehabilitation teams for amputees.
Freeman, A C; Sweeney, K
Objectives To explore the reasons why general practitioners do not always implement best evidence. Design Qualitative study using Balint-style groups. Setting Primary care. Participants 19 general practitioners. Main outcome measures Identifiable themes that indicate barriers to implementation. Results Six main themes were identified that affected the implementation process: the personal and professional experiences of the general practitioners; the patient-doctor relationship; a perceived tension between primary and secondary care; general practitioners' feelings about their patients and the evidence; and logistical problems. Doctors are aware that their choice of words with patients can affect patients' decisions and whether evidence is implemented. Conclusions General practitioner participants seem to act as a conduit within the consultation and regard clinical evidence as a square peg to fit in the round hole of the patient's life. The process of implementation is complex, fluid, and adaptive. What is already known on this topicGeneral practitioners do not always act on evidence in clinical practiceGeneral practitioners are reluctant to jeopardise their relationship with the patient and sometimes feel that patients are unwilling to take drugsWhat this study addsImplementation of evidence by general practitioners is a complex and fluid processDecisions are influenced by the doctor's personal and professional experience as well as by their knowledge of and relationship with the patientDoctors' choice of words can influence patients' decisions about treatment PMID:11701576
Khoshnazar, Tahereh Alsadat Khoubbin; Rassouli, Mrayam; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Momenzadeh, Syrus; Rejeh, Nahid; Mohseny, Maryam
Introduction: Since communication is considered to be one of the central concepts in caregiving practices, this study aims to examine the perception of women with breast cancer in terms of their communication needs. Methods: In this qualitative study, 20 participants (9 women with breast cancer, 10 of health-care professionals, and one family caregiver) were selected through purposive sampling, and a face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted with each of them. After data collection, all interviews were transcribed and reviewed, and categories were extracted. The data were analyzed with Conventional Content Analysis of Landman and Graneheim using MAXQDA10 software. Results: The analysis resulted in two extracted categories: “therapeutic communication” and “facilitating empathy”, and five subcategories: “trust-building therapist”, “crying out to be heard,” “seeking a soothing presence,” “sharing knowledge,” and “supportive peers”. Conclusion: Identifying and promoting the communicative needs of patients could lead to a considerably better care of patients under treatment. Therefore, therapeutic communication, as an integral part, should be incorporated into the care plan for patients with breast cancer and their families in the Oncology and Palliative Care wards. PMID:27803561
von der Lippe, Charlotte; Frich, Jan C; Harris, Anna; Solbrække, Kari Nyheim
Little is known about the experiences of women with Fabry disease. The aim of this study was to explore women's experiences of being heterozygous for Fabry disease. We used an explorative qualitative study design and selected ten Norwegian women who were known heterozygous for Fabry disease to participate. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews and analyzed the interviews using inductive thematic analysis. We found that learning about one's heterozygous status may be devastating for some. However, for most of the participants, heterozygous status, as well as doctors' acceptance of symptoms in women heterozygous for Fabry disease, provided an explanation and relief. Although many women did not consider themselves ill, they wished to be acknowledged as more than "just carriers." The participants were grateful for enzyme replacement therapy, although it had its burdens regarding time, planning, and absences from school or work. Women with Fabry disease felt that the lack of knowledge among healthcare professionals about Fabry disease was frustrating and worrisome. These findings suggest that healthcare professionals should acknowledge the different ways women react to their diagnosis, and be aware of the personal costs of receiving treatment. PMID:26948256
Sharif, Farkhondeh; Masoumi, Sara
Background Nursing student's experiences of their clinical practice provide greater insight to develop an effective clinical teaching strategy in nursing education. The main objective of this study was to investigate student nurses' experience about their clinical practice. Methods Focus groups were used to obtain students' opinion and experiences about their clinical practice. 90 baccalaureate nursing students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery) were selected randomly from two hundred students and were arranged in 9 groups of ten students. To analyze the data the method used to code and categories focus group data were adapted from approaches to qualitative data analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the focus group data. From the students' point of view," initial clinical anxiety", "theory-practice gap"," clinical supervision", professional role", were considered as important factors in clinical experience. Conclusion The result of this study showed that nursing students were not satisfied with the clinical component of their education. They experienced anxiety as a result of feeling incompetent and lack of professional nursing skills and knowledge to take care of various patients in the clinical setting. PMID:16280087
von der Lippe, Charlotte; Frich, Jan C; Harris, Anna; Solbrække, Kari Nyheim
Little is known about the experiences of women with Fabry disease. The aim of this study was to explore women's experiences of being heterozygous for Fabry disease. We used an explorative qualitative study design and selected ten Norwegian women who were known heterozygous for Fabry disease to participate. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews and analyzed the interviews using inductive thematic analysis. We found that learning about one's heterozygous status may be devastating for some. However, for most of the participants, heterozygous status, as well as doctors' acceptance of symptoms in women heterozygous for Fabry disease, provided an explanation and relief. Although many women did not consider themselves ill, they wished to be acknowledged as more than "just carriers." The participants were grateful for enzyme replacement therapy, although it had its burdens regarding time, planning, and absences from school or work. Women with Fabry disease felt that the lack of knowledge among healthcare professionals about Fabry disease was frustrating and worrisome. These findings suggest that healthcare professionals should acknowledge the different ways women react to their diagnosis, and be aware of the personal costs of receiving treatment.
Overgaard, Dorthe; Kaldan, Gudrun; Marsaa, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Thyge Lynghøj; Shaker, Saher Burhan; Egerod, Ingrid
The disease course in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is variable, but patients experience a progressive decline in lung function and increased symptom burden leading to death. Little is known about the patients' experience and their needs during the disease course or about the burden on family caregivers. Both patients and family caregivers face an altered life as the disease progresses. The aim of our study was to increase knowledge of life with IPF for patients and family caregivers.This study had a qualitative descriptive design using in-depth dyadic interviews with IPF patients (n=25) and family caregivers (n=24). We used the five-step analysis from the framework method and analysed the data on three levels: the patient, the family caregivers and couple level.The following six themes emerged as the main results: information and disclosure, reactional dyssynchrony, perpetual vigilance, emotional ambivalence, gradual and tacit role shift, and adapted coping strategies.Our findings suggest that IPF patients need information at the time of diagnosis, but some issues should be paced as the disease progresses. A palliation plan was demanded by patients and their caregivers. Further efforts are required to provide palliative care to IPF patients starting at the time of diagnosis. PMID:26846831
Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust
The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators. PMID:26246527
McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L
An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.
In this study is intended to investigate prospective social studies teachers' role model preferences and the reflections of these preferences to their daily lives. This study was designed as a qualitative study in the form of descriptive model. The participants consisted of 306 prospective social studies teachers enrolled in nine different…
Chambers, Stephanie; Lobb, Alexandra; Butler, Laurie; Harvey, Kate; Traill, W Bruce
The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products. PMID:17368868
Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah
Objective To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Design Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Participants Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Setting Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Results Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Conclusions Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. PMID:25940425
Frost, Julia; Britten, Nicky; Jolly, Kate; Greaves, Colin; Abraham, Charles; Dalal, Hayes
Objectives To identify the needs of caregivers supporting a person with heart failure and to inform the development of a caregiver resource to be used as part of a home-based self-management programme. Methods A qualitative study informed by thematic analysis involving 26 caregivers in individual interviews or a focus group. Results Three distinct aspects of caregiver support in heart failure management were identified. Firstly, caregivers identified needs about supporting management of heart failure including: coping with the variability of heart failure symptoms, what to do in an emergency, understanding and managing medicines, providing emotional support, promoting exercise and physical activity, providing personal care, living with a cardiac device and supporting depression management. Secondly, as they make the transition to becoming a caregiver, they need to develop skills to undertake difficult discussions about the role; communicate with health professionals; manage their own mental health, well-being and sleep; and manage home and work. Thirdly, caregivers require skills to engage social support, and voluntary and formal services while recognising that the long-term future is uncertain. Discussion The identification of the needs of caregiver has been used to inform the development of a home-based heart failure intervention facilitated by a trained health care practitioner. PMID:25795144
Risdon, C; Cook, D; Willms, D
BACKGROUND: Gay and lesbian physicians in training face considerable challenges as they become professionalized. Qualitative research is necessary to understand the social and cultural factors that influence their medical training. In this study we explored the significance of gay or lesbian identity on the experiences of medical training using naturalistic methods of inquiry. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews, focus groups and an e-mail listserv were used to explore professional and personal issues of importance to 29 gay and lesbian medical students and residents in 4 Canadian cities. Data, time, method and investigator triangulation were used to identify and corroborate emerging themes. The domains explored included career choice, "coming out," becoming a doctor, the environment and career implications. RESULTS: Gay or lesbian medical students and residents experienced significant challenges. For all participants, sexual orientation had an effect on their decisions to enter and remain in medicine. Once in training, the safety of a variety of learning environments was of paramount importance, and it affected subsequent decisions about identity disclosure, residency and career path. Respondents' assessment of professional and personal risk was influenced by the presence of identifiable supports, curricula inclusive of gay and lesbian sexuality and health issues and effective policies censuring discrimination based on sexual orientation. The need for training programs to be proactive in acknowledging and supporting diversity was identified. INTERPRETATION: Considerable energy and emotion are spent by gay and lesbian medical students and residents navigating training programs, which may be, at best, indifferent and, at worst, hostile. PMID:10693588
Henderson, Lesley; Millett, Christopher; Thorogood, Nicki
Summary Objective To assess reasons for low uptake of immunization amongst orthodox Jewish families. Design Qualitative interviews with 25 orthodox Jewish mothers and 10 local health care workers. Setting The orthodox Jewish community in North East London. Main outcome measures Identification of views on immunization in the orthodox Jewish community. Results In a community assumed to be relatively insulated from direct media influence, word of mouth is nevertheless a potent source of rumours about vaccination dangers. The origins of these may lie in media scares that contribute to anxieties about MMR. At the same time, close community cohesion leads to a sense of relative safety in relation to tuberculosis, with consequent low rates of BCG uptake. Thus low uptake of different immunizations arises from enhanced feelings of both safety and danger. Low uptake was not found to be due to the practical difficulties associated with large families, or to perceived insensitive cultural practices of health care providers. Conclusions The views and practices of members of this community are not homogeneous and may change over time. It is important that assumptions concerning the role of religious beliefs do not act as an obstacle for providing clear messages concerning immunization, and community norms may be challenged by explicitly using its social networks to communicate more positive messages about immunization. The study provides a useful example of how social networks may reinforce or challenge misinformation about health and risk and the complex nature of decision making about children's health. PMID:18463280
Dugan Day, Michele
Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews and a 1-year observation of team members from two hospices (physicians, nurses, aides, chaplains, social workers). Utilizing constant comparison, 14 final thematic categories were discovered. Use of biopsychosocial/spiritual terms by all team members meant that the team had the common language needed to communicate about multidimensional pain. Interviews and observation revealed a gap in translating multidisciplinary communication in team meetings into collaborative acts for pain treatment. In addition, structural influences inhibited creativity in pain palliation. There was no mutual understanding of the purpose for team meetings, no recognition of the need to reflect on team process, or common definition of leadership. Social work roles in hospice should include leadership that moves teams toward interdisciplinary care for multidimensional pain.
Mooney, Mary; Glacken, Michele; O'Brien, Frances
It is widely accepted that nursing as a career is viewed favourably by society in that it offers job security, mobility and career variety. The main reason for choosing nursing in the 21st century remains the desire to help and care for others, as this paper demonstrates. The findings presented here are part of an on-going longitudinal study which is exploring whether mode of selection into nursing has an impact on a number of variables, of which, career choice is one. The aim of this paper is to identify why non-mature under-graduate students choose nursing as a career and to determine what factors influence this decision. An exploratory-descriptive design, employing a qualitative approach was used. Following receipt of ethical approval, data were collected using focus group interviews and content analysis was employed. Participants were students on a general nursing programme delivered in a large Irish Higher Education Institute. Interviews took place within the first 3 months of the programme, prior to the first clinical placement. It emerged that although nursing was not everybody's first career choice, all participants had sought a career which involved caring. Family or friends in the profession played a role in influencing participants' career selection. PMID:17888547
Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz
Objectives: To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. Methods: A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. Results: The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Conclusion: Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources. PMID:27226663
Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon
The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder. PMID:24174009
Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early
Roth, Virginia R; Theriault, Anne; Clement, Chris; Worthington, Jim
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the under-representation of women physicians in clinical leadership by examining the issue from their perspective. Design/methodology/approach - The authors used large group engagement methods to explore the experiences and perceptions of women physicians. In order to capture common themes across this group as a whole, participants were selected using purposeful sampling. Data were analysed using a structured thematic analysis procedure. Findings - This paper provides empirical insights into the influences affecting women physicians' decision to participate in leadership. The authors found that they often exclude themselves because the costs of leadership outweigh the benefits. Potential barriers unique to healthcare include the undervaluing of leadership by physician peers and perceived lack of support by nursing. Research limitations/implications - This study provides an in-depth examination of why women physicians are under-represented in clinical leadership from the perspective of those directly involved. Further studies are needed to confirm the generalizability of these findings and potential differences between demographic groups of physicians. Practical implications - Healthcare organizations seeking to increase the participation of women physicians in leadership should focus on modifying the perceived costs of leadership and highlighting the potential benefits. Large group engagement methods can be an effective approach to engage physicians on specific issues and mobilize grass-roots support for change. Originality/value - This exploratory study provides insights on the barriers and enablers to leadership specific to women physicians in the clinical setting. It provides a reference for healthcare organizations seeking to develop and diversify their leadership talent. PMID:27296884
Nabi, Syed Irfan; Mirza, Abdulrahman A.; Alghathbar, Khaled
This paper presents selective results of a survey conducted to find out the much needed insight into the status of information security in Saudi Arabian organizations. The purpose of this research is to give the state of information assurance in the Kingdom and to better understand the prevalent ground realities. The survey covered technical aspects of information security, risk management and information assurance management. The results provide deep insights in to the existing level of information assurance in various sectors that can be helpful in better understanding the intricate details of the prevalent information security in the Kingdom. Also, the results can be very useful for information assurance policy makers in the government as well as private sector organizations. There are few empirical studies on information assurance governance available in literature, especially about the Middle East and Saudi Arabia, therefore, the results are invaluable for information security researchers in improving the understanding of information assurance in this region and the Kingdom.
Vest, C. M.; Prikryl, I.
An algorithm for computer tomography has been developed that is applicable to reconstruction from data having incomplete projections because an opaque object blocks some of the probing radiation as it passes through the object field. The algorithm is based on iteration between the object domain and the projection (Radon transform) domain. Reconstructions are computed during each iteration by the well-known convolution method. Although it is demonstrated that this algorithm does not converge, an empirically justified criterion for terminating the iteration when the most accurate estimate has been computed is presented. The algorithm has been studied by using it to reconstruct several different object fields with several different opaque regions. It also has been used to reconstruct aerodynamic density fields from interferometric data recorded in wind tunnel tests.
Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne
The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.
Rad, Mostafa; Ildarabadi, Es-hagh; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi
Background: Incivility among nursing students is a common academic problem. Knowing the causes of students’ incivility will enable the faculty members and academic institutions to select correct strategies to deal with this problem. This study was conducted to explore the causes of incivility among nursing students from both educators’ and students’ points of view. Methods: gThis qualitative content analysis study was applied in order to explore experiences and insights of 17 nursing lecturers and 9 nursing students who were selected through purposeful sampling and interviewed on the causes of incivility. Participants were selected among students and lecturers of nursing schools in Khorasan Razavi. The inclusion criteria for the students were having passed one educational term and for the lecturers having one year experience of teaching respectively. Data gathering was done using deep semi-structured interviews starting from March 2014 to March 2015. Results: Three main categories extracted from the data were student related factors, teacher related factors, and organizational factors. Non-educational engagement, attracting attentions, lack of motivation, students’ personality, and lack of experience were the subcategories of student related factors. Subcategories of teacher related factors included lack of skills, teachers’ personal qualities, lack of experience, and incivility of teachers. Finally, the subcategories of organizational factors included no evaluation system for teachers and lack of understanding the organizational rules and regulations. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that factors related to students, teachers, and organization may lead to nursing students’ incivility and clarified its dimensions. In order to develop a civil environment in nursing college, managers and educators’ awareness should be promoted via various ways such as workshops. PMID:26793730
Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Habibi, Mojtaba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali
Background Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis ap- proach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women) and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives) as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their medical treatments as
Karafillakis, Emilie; Dinca, Irina; Apfel, Franklin; Cecconi, Sabrina; Wűrz, Andrea; Takacs, Judit; Suk, Jonathan; Celentano, Lucia Pastore; Kramarz, Piotr; Larson, Heidi J
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are often referred to as the most trusted source of vaccine-related information for their patients. However, the evidence suggests that a number of HCWs are vaccine-hesitant. This study consists of 65 semi-structured interviews with vaccine providers in Croatia, France, Greece, and Romania to investigate concerns HCWs might have about vaccination. The results revealed that vaccine hesitancy is present in all four countries among vaccine providers. The most important concern across all countries was the fear of vaccine side effects. New vaccines were singled out due to perceived lack of testing for vaccine safety and efficacy. Furthermore, while high trust in health authorities was expressed by HCWs, there was also strong mistrust of pharmaceutical companies due to perceived financial interests and lack of communication about side effects. The notion that it is a doctor's responsibility to respond to hesitant patients was reported in all countries. Concerns were also seen to be country- and context-specific. Strategies to improve confidence in vaccines should be adapted to the specific political, social, cultural and economic context of countries. Furthermore, while most interventions focus on education and improving information about vaccine safety, effectiveness, or the need for vaccines, concerns raised in this study identify other determinants of hesitancy that need addressing. The representativeness of the views of the interviewed HCWs must be interpreted with caution. This a qualitative study with a small sample size that included geographical areas where vaccination uptake was lower or where hesitancy was more prevalent and it reflects individual participants' beliefs and attitudes toward the topic. As HCWs have the potential of influencing patient vaccination uptake, it is crucial to improve their confidence in vaccination and engage them in activities targeting vaccine hesitancy among their patients. PMID:27576074
Karafillakis, Emilie; Dinca, Irina; Apfel, Franklin; Cecconi, Sabrina; Wűrz, Andrea; Takacs, Judit; Suk, Jonathan; Celentano, Lucia Pastore; Kramarz, Piotr; Larson, Heidi J
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are often referred to as the most trusted source of vaccine-related information for their patients. However, the evidence suggests that a number of HCWs are vaccine-hesitant. This study consists of 65 semi-structured interviews with vaccine providers in Croatia, France, Greece, and Romania to investigate concerns HCWs might have about vaccination. The results revealed that vaccine hesitancy is present in all four countries among vaccine providers. The most important concern across all countries was the fear of vaccine side effects. New vaccines were singled out due to perceived lack of testing for vaccine safety and efficacy. Furthermore, while high trust in health authorities was expressed by HCWs, there was also strong mistrust of pharmaceutical companies due to perceived financial interests and lack of communication about side effects. The notion that it is a doctor's responsibility to respond to hesitant patients was reported in all countries. Concerns were also seen to be country- and context-specific. Strategies to improve confidence in vaccines should be adapted to the specific political, social, cultural and economic context of countries. Furthermore, while most interventions focus on education and improving information about vaccine safety, effectiveness, or the need for vaccines, concerns raised in this study identify other determinants of hesitancy that need addressing. The representativeness of the views of the interviewed HCWs must be interpreted with caution. This a qualitative study with a small sample size that included geographical areas where vaccination uptake was lower or where hesitancy was more prevalent and it reflects individual participants' beliefs and attitudes toward the topic. As HCWs have the potential of influencing patient vaccination uptake, it is crucial to improve their confidence in vaccination and engage them in activities targeting vaccine hesitancy among their patients.
Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote
Kelley, Marjorie; Demiris, George; Nguyen, Huong; Oliver, Debra P; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine
Background Informal, unpaid, family caregivers provide much hospice care in the United States. These caregivers suffer physically, psychologically, emotionally, and socially from the burden of caring. The most often identified area of caregiver burden is the management of end-of-life pain. However, little empirical evidence exists of effective interventions to help caregivers manage end-of-life pain, and issues surrounding caregiver pain management remain vague and undefined. Understanding these concerns will inform the design of effective caregiver interventions. Aim The purpose of this study was to describe and organize caregiver pain management challenges faced by home hospice caregivers of cancer patients. Design A content analysis of secondary data, namely, recordings of caregiver interviews, was conducted to describe pain management issues. These interviews were part of a larger clinical trial. Setting/participants Multiple sessions with 29 informal caregivers, of patients dying of cancer, were audio-recorded. Subjects were purposively selected from two hospice programs in the Northwestern United States. Caregivers of noncancer patients were excluded from the study sample. Results A framework of six major themes with subordinate subthemes was developed through a literature review and peer review. The framework was used to organize the content of 87 caregiver interviews. The six major themes identified in the analysis included Caregiver-Centric Issues, Caregiver Medication Skills and Knowledge Issues, End-of-Life Symptom Knowledge Issues, Communication and Teamwork Issues, Organizational Skill Issues, and Patient-Centric Issues. Conclusion This analysis clearly articulated and classified caregiver issues surrounding pain management. Future hospice research may benefit from the use of this analysis and framework in the development of tools to alleviate this major cause of caregiver burden. PMID:23612959
Everitt, Hazel; Kumar, Satinder; Little, Paul
BACKGROUND: Acute infective conjunctivitis is a self-limiting condition that commonly presents to primary care. Patients' understanding of conjunctivitis, their reasons for attendance, and their responses to different management strategies, are unknown. AIM: To explore patients' understanding of conjunctivitis and its management. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study using semi-structured one-to-one interviews. SETTING: Three general practices in Hampshire and Wiltshire. METHOD: Twenty-five patients presenting with conjunctivitis at their general practices were interviewed. Main outcome measures were patients' perceptions of conjunctivities, their experience and knowledge of the disease, beliefs regarding treatment, and their responses to different management strategies and a patient information leaflet. RESULTS: Patients regarded conjunctivitis as a minor illness, although some considered it might become more serious if not treated. Nearly all were confident at recognising conjunctivitis. They stated a preference for not taking medication, but believed that conjunctivitis would not clear up without treatment. However, they were open to alternative management approaches; for example, the delayed prescription approach, because they trusted their general practitioners' (GPs') judgement. Once they were aware of the self-limiting nature of conjunctivitis, patients felt they would prefer to wait a few days to see if the condition improved before seeking medical advice, even if this resulted in a few more days of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Patients who attend their general practices with conjunctivitis present for treatment because they are not aware of its self-limiting nature. Providing patients with this information may enable patients, enhance self-management, and reduce the use of topical antibiotics and the demand for urgent general practice appointments. PMID:12564275
Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay
Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794
Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M
Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357
Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao
Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.
Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary
Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon
Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619
Orri, Massimiliano; Revah-Lévy, Anne; Farges, Olivier
Background Physicians’ emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice. Methods and Findings 27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women) participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon). 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons’ emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital)—surgeons’ own emotions, their perception of patients’ emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues), the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon), as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability). Conclusions Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons’ experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done) is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur. PMID:26600126
Background Many medical schools have embraced small group learning methods in their undergraduate curricula. Given increasing financial constraints on universities, active learning groups like seminars (with 25 students a group) are gaining popularity. To enhance the understanding of seminar learning and to determine how seminar learning can be optimised it is important to investigate stakeholders’ views. In this study, we qualitatively explored the views of teachers on aspects affecting seminar learning. Methods Twenty-four teachers with experience in facilitating seminars in a three-year bachelor curriculum participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Three focus groups met twice with an interval of two weeks led by one moderator. Sessions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis. An iterative process of data reduction resulted in emerging aspects that influence seminar learning. Results Teachers identified seven key aspects affecting seminar learning: the seminar teacher, students, preparation, group functioning, seminar goals and content, course coherence and schedule and facilities. Important components of these aspects were: the teachers’ role in developing seminars (‘ownership’), the amount and quality of preparation materials, a non-threatening learning climate, continuity of group composition, suitability of subjects for seminar teaching, the number and quality of seminar questions, and alignment of different course activities. Conclusions The results of this study contribute to the unravelling of the ‘the black box’ of seminar learning. Suggestions for ways to optimise active learning in seminars are made regarding curriculum development, seminar content, quality assurance and faculty development. PMID:23399475
Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Borozan, Anci
Companies wish for universities to provide business students with international education and awareness. Short- and long-term study-abroad programs are an effective method by which this is accomplished, but relatively few American students study abroad. In response to these facts, this study develops hypotheses that predict student willingness to…
Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay
Abstract Background Concurrent with the evolving role of the department chair in academic medicine is the entry of women physicians into chair positions. Because implicit biases that stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership remain strong, examining faculty members' perceptions of their chair's leadership in medical school departments with women chairs can provide insight into the views of women leaders in academic medicine and the complex ways in which gender may impact these chairs' leadership style and actions. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 male and 15 female faculty members representing all faculty tracks in three clinical departments chaired by women. Inductive, qualitative analysis of the subsequent text allowed themes to emerge across interviews. Results Four themes emerged regarding departmental leadership. One dealt with the leadership of the previous chair. The other three described the current chair's characteristics (tough, direct, and transparent), her use of communal actions to help support and mentor her faculty, and her ability to build power through consensus. Because all three chairs were early in their tenure, a wait and see attitude was frequently expressed. Faculty generally viewed having a woman chair as an indication of positive change, with potential individual and institutional advantages. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the culture of academic medicine has moved beyond questioning women physicians' competence to lead once they are in top organizational leadership positions. The findings are also consonant with experimental research indicating that women leaders are most successful when they pair stereotypic male (agentic) behaviors with stereotypic female (communal) behaviors. All three chairs exhibited features of a transformational leadership style and characteristics deemed essential for effective leadership in academic medicine. PMID:20156081
Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group). All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society); 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician). Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine. PMID:22405186
Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Negarandeh, Reza
Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A purposive sample of 30 hospital nurses and nurse managers was selected to obtain data by means of in-depth semi structured interviews. Data were analysed by means of the content analysis method. Results The emerging themes were: (1) the nurses' perceptions and reactions to conflict; (2) organizational structure; (3) hospital management style; (4) the nature and conditions of job assignment; (5) individual characteristics; (6) mutual understanding and interaction; and (7) the consequences of conflict. The first six themes describe the sources of the conflict as well as strategies to manage them. Conclusion How nurses perceive conflict influences how they react to it. Sources of conflict are embedded in the characteristics of nurses and the nursing system, but at the same time these characteristics can be seen as strategies to resolve conflict. We found mutual understanding and interaction to be the main factor able to prevent and resolve conflict effectively. We therefore recommend that nurses and nurse managers encourage any virtues and activities that increase such understanding and interaction. Finally, as conflict can destroy individual nurses as well as the nursing system, we must act to control it effectively. PMID:19302706
Dossa, Almas; Welch, Lisa C
Background Complete medical documentation is essential for continuity of care, but the competing need to protect patient confidentiality presents an ethical dilemma. This is particularly poignant for GPs because of their central role in facilitating continuity. Aim To examine how GPs manage medical documentation of stigmatising mental health (MH) and non-MH information. Design and setting A qualitative sub-study of a factorial experiment with GPs practising in Massachusetts, US. Method Semi-structured interviews (n = 128) were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Results GPs expressed difficulties with and inconsistent strategies for documenting stigmatising information. Without being asked directly about stigmatising information, 44 GPs (34%) expressed difficulties documenting it: whether to include clinically relevant but sensitive information, how to word it, and explaining to patients the importance of including it. Additionally, 75 GPs (59%) discussed strategies for managing documentation of stigmatising information. GPs reported four strategies that varied by type of information: to exclude stigmatising information to respect patient confidentiality (MH: 26%, non-MH: 43%); to include but restrict access to information (MH: 13%, non-MH: 25%); to include but neutralise information to minimise potential stigma (MH: 26%, non-MH: 29%); and to include stigmatising information given the potential impact on care (MH: 68%, non-MH: 32%). Conclusion Lack of consistency undermines the potential of medical documentation to efficiently facilitate continuous, coordinated health care because providers cannot be certain how to interpret what is or is not in the chart. A proactive consensus process within the field of primary care would provide much needed guidance for GPs and, ultimately, could enhance quality of care. PMID:26009532
A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…
Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees
The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…
Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David
Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…
Matthews, Sarah H.
Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…
The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…
Smith, C. Scott; Morris, Magdalena; Francovich, Chris; Hill, William; Gieselman, Janet
Qualitative analysis of a large ethnographic database from observations of a resident teaching clinic revealed three important findings. The first finding was that breakdown, a situation where an "actor" (such as a person or the group) is not achieving expected effectiveness, was the most important category because of its frequency and explanatory…
Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Bartlett, Jan R.; Carlson, Laurie A.
Relational theory encourages women to be connected in relationships. The authors used qualitative methodology to explore the interactions of a nonfamilial intergenerational group of 7 female adolescents (13-15 years) and 5 older women (62-80 years) in a structured retreat. Findings indicated that the participants experienced increased connectivity…
A particular framework of teachers' conceptions about assessment in school is presented. Fifty teachers of primary and secondary school were interviewed. Results of a qualitative analysis allowed building a model of conceptions of assessment. This model comprises four dimensions about the effects of assessment on: teaching, learning,…
Tuleja, Elizabeth A.
Focuses on the qualitative methods used to examine a high school science teacher's instructional practice and his students' performance. Explains participation-observation, collection of field notes and documents, pre-post survey, interviews, and analysis of analytic memos; and discusses the teacher's goal of combining skills-based instruction…
While Axel Bruns's theory of produsage offers an adequate way of looking at a variety of sites where the production of news content takes the form of collaborative, user-driven production, it seems less suited for the study of productive news use as a user experience, as a way users engage in a more productive way with content. This article gives a first impetus towards the expansion of the theory of produsage to a more user-oriented framework that is fitted to approach produsage as a social practice, rather than as a process of information production. The empirical work presented in this paper concerns the average news user, rather than the expert bloggers and citizen journalists most studies tend to focus on. Through a qualitative, semi-experimental study based on a Living Lab-approach, motivational, situational, and social factors shaping productive news use are identified. Drawing from the findings, conceptual elements as "potential public" and "social reflex" are introduced. Self-publication is proposed as a way to understand how average news users experience productive news use.
Najafi, Seyedvahid; Saati, Saber; Tavana, Madjid
Service quality is often conceptualized as the comparison between service expectations and the actual performance perceptions. It enhances customer satisfaction, decreases customer defection, and promotes customer loyalty. Substantial literature has examined the concept of service quality, its dimensions, and measurement methods. We introduce the perceived service quality index (PSQI) as a single measure for evaluating the multiple-item service quality construct based on the SERVQUAL model. A slack-based measure (SBM) of efficiency with constant inputs is used to calculate the PSQI. In addition, a non-linear programming model based on the SBM is proposed to delineate an improvement guideline and improve service quality. An empirical study is conducted to assess the applicability of the method proposed in this study. A large number of studies have used DEA as a benchmarking tool to measure service quality. These models do not propose a coherent performance evaluation construct and consequently fail to deliver improvement guidelines for improving service quality. The DEA models proposed in this study are designed to evaluate and improve service quality within a comprehensive framework and without any dependency on external data.
Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael
Background Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. Objective The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Results Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. Conclusion The government’s endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of
Rohde, Gudrun; Westergren, Thomas; Haraldstad, Kristin; Johannessen, Berit; Høie, Magnhild; Helseth, Sølvi; Fegran, Liv; Slettebø, Åshild
Objectives More adolescents report pain now than previously. In Norway, episodic pain problems have been reported by 60% of children and adolescents aged 8–18 years, with 21% reporting duration of pain of more than 3 months. Since adolescents spend much time at school, the attitude and behaviour of teachers play important roles regarding the experience of pain felt by adolescents in everyday life. Yet research on how teachers perceive the pain experienced by adolescents in a school setting is limited. We therefore seek to gain insight to teachers’ classroom experiences with (1) adolescent's self-reported pain symptoms; (2) adolescents management of their pain and (3) how to help adolescents manage their pain. Setting Teachers in 5 junior high schools in Norway representing municipalities in 3 rural areas and 2 cities. Research design A qualitative study with an explorative design comprising 5 focus group interviews. Each group consisted of 3–8 junior high school teachers. A semistructured interview guide was used to cover the issues. The transcribed text was analysed with qualitative content analysis. Participants 22 teachers participated (5 men, 17 women; age range 29–62 years) with teaching experience ranging from 3 to nearly 40 years. Results The main theme describing the experience of teachers with adolescents’ pain in everyday life is that pain and management of pain is a social, physical and psychological interwoven phenomenon. Through empirical analyses, 3 subcategories emerged: (1) everyday pain—expressing strenuous life; (2) managing pain—escaping struggle and (3) strategies of teachers—support and normalisation. Conclusions Teachers have a biopsychosocial understanding and approach to pain experienced by adolescents. This understanding influences the role of teachers as significant others in the lives of adolescents with regard to pain and management of their pain in a school setting. PMID:26338838
Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman
The course of depressive disorders can vary considerable, with some individuals exhibiting a chronic course and poor outcomes, while others have a more episodic course and better outcomes. However it is unclear whether degree of chronicity is continuous or reflects qualitatively distinct subgroups. Using data from a 5-wave, 10-year, naturalistic study of 127 depressed outpatients, we examined whether depression chronicity lies on a continuum or manifests natural boundaries. Spline regression was used to test 7 continuous and discontinuous models of the relationship between depression during the first follow-up interval and multiple outcomes at subsequent follow-ups. In order to further validate the findings, we also created empirically-derived subgroups based on the results of the spline regression analyses and compared them on baseline clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes. There was a clear and consistent discontinuity indicating that for higher levels of chronicity during the first 30 month period, depression was linearly related to outcome; in contrast, for lower levels of chronicity, depression in the initial interval was unrelated to subsequent outcomes. The findings were strikingly consistent across the 4 follow-up evaluations using multiple outcomes and goodness-of-fit indices. In addition, the chronic group--as defined by the first follow-up period--exhibited more baseline chronic depression, anxiety and personality disorders, family history of dysthymia, and childhood adversity, and was more likely to attempt suicide and be hospitalized during follow-up, than the non-chronic group. Results suggest that there are qualitatively distinct classes of patients with more and less chronic depressions, and support the utility of longitudinal course as a means of parsing depression into more homogeneous subgroups. PMID:26845258
McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Gadd, Cynthia S
Background Quantitative studies are becoming more recognized as important to understanding health care with all of its richness and complexities. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the qualitative studies published in 170 core clinical journals for 2000. Methods All identified studies that used qualitative methods were reviewed to ascertain which clinical journals publish qualitative studies and to extract research methods, content (persons and health care issues studied), and whether mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative methods) were used. Results 60 330 articles were reviewed. 355 reports of original qualitative studies and 12 systematic review articles were identified in 48 journals. Most of the journals were in the discipline of nursing. Only 4 of the most highly cited health care journals, based on ISI Science Citation Index (SCI) Impact Factors, published qualitative studies. 37 of the 355 original reports used both qualitative and quantitative (mixed) methods. Patients and non-health care settings were the most common groups of people studied. Diseases and conditions were cancer, mental health, pregnancy and childbirth, and cerebrovascular disease with many other diseases and conditions represented. Phenomenology and grounded theory were commonly used; substantial ethnography was also present. No substantial differences were noted for content or methods when articles published in all disciplines were compared with articles published in nursing titles or when studies with mixed methods were compared with studies that included only qualitative methods. Conclusions The clinical literature includes many qualitative studies although they are often published in nursing journals or journals with low SCI Impact Factor journals. Many qualitative studies incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:15271221
Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois
The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.
Background Due to the aeging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60–64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. Results In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Conclusions
Background Evidence based medicine (EBM) has made a substantial impact on primary care in Spain over the last few years. However, little research has been done into family physicians (FPs)' attitudes related to EBM. The present study investigates FPs' perceptions of EBM in the primary care context. Methods This study used qualitative methodology. Information was obtained from 8 focus groups composed of 67 FPs from 47 health centers in 4 autonomous regions in Spain. Intentional sampling considered participants' previous education in EBM, and their experience as tutors in family medicine or working groups' members of the Spanish Society of Family Practice. Sociological discourse analysis was used with the support of the MAXqda software. Results were validated by means of triangulation among researchers and contrast with participants. Results Findings were grouped into three main areas: 1) The tug-of-war between the "science" of EBM and "experience" in the search for good clinical practice in primary care; 2) The development of EBM sensemaking as a reaction to contextual factors and interests; 3) The paradox of doubt and trust in the new EBM experts. The meaning of EBM was dynamically constructed within the primary care context. FPs did not consider good clinical practice was limited to the vision of science that EBM represents. Its use appeared to be conditioned by several factors that transcended the common concept of barriers. Along with concerns about its objectivity, participants showed a tendency to see EBM as the use of simplified guidelines developed by EBM experts. Conclusions The identification of science with EBM and its recognition as a useful but insufficient tool for the good clinical practice requires rethinking new meanings of evidence within the primary care reality. Beyond the barriers related to accessing and putting into practice the EBM, its reactive use can determine FPs' questions and EBM development in a direction not always centred on patients
Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.
This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…
Introduction Cardiology is characterized by its state-of-the-art biomedical technology and the predominance of Evidence-Based Medicine. This predominance makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to deal with the ethical dilemmas that emerge in this subspecialty. This paper is a first endeavor to empirically investigate the axiological foundations of the healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital. Our pilot study selected, as the target population, cardiology personnel not only because of their difficult ethical deliberations but also because of the stringent conditions in which they have to make them. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reconsider clinical ethics and Value-Based Medicine. This study proposes a qualitative analysis of the values and the virtues of healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital in order to establish how the former impact upon the medical and ethical decisions made by the latter. Results We point out the need for strengthening the roles of healthcare personnel as educators and guidance counselors in order to meet the ends of medicine, as well as the need for an ethical discernment that is compatible with our results, namely, that the ethical values developed by healthcare professionals stem from their life history as well as their professional education. Conclusion We establish the kind of actions, communication skills and empathy that are required to build a stronger patient-healthcare professional relationship, which at the same time improves prognosis, treatment efficiency and therapeutic adhesion. PMID:23531271
Merriam, Sharan B.
This book offers a resource guide for qualitative researchers in education, discussing data collection techniques, data analysis, reporting, and the issues of validity, reliability, and ethics. Part 1 reviews the nature and design of qualitative research; it discusses various types of qualitative research (including case studies), and how to…
Borgo, R; Abdul-Rahman, A; Mohamed, F; Grant, P W; Reppa, I; Floridi, L; Chen, Min
In written and spoken communications, figures of speech (e.g., metaphors and synecdoche) are often used as an aid to help convey abstract or less tangible concepts. However, the benefits of using rhetorical illustrations or embellishments in visualization have so far been inconclusive. In this work, we report an empirical study to evaluate hypotheses that visual embellishments may aid memorization, visual search and concept comprehension. One major departure from related experiments in the literature is that we make use of a dual-task methodology in our experiment. This design offers an abstraction of typical situations where viewers do not have their full attention focused on visualization (e.g., in meetings and lectures). The secondary task introduces "divided attention", and makes the effects of visual embellishments more observable. In addition, it also serves as additional masking in memory-based trials. The results of this study show that visual embellishments can help participants better remember the information depicted in visualization. On the other hand, visual embellishments can have a negative impact on the speed of visual search. The results show a complex pattern as to the benefits of visual embellishments in helping participants grasp key concepts from visualization.
De Gieter, Sara; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland; Caers, Ralf; Du Bois, Cindy; Jegers, Marc
Background Rewards are important in attracting, motivating and retaining the most qualified employees, and nurses are no exception to this rule. This makes the establishment of an efficient reward system for nurses a true challenge for every hospital manager. A reward does not necessarily have a financial connotation: non-financial rewards may matter too, or may even be more important. Therefore, the present study examines nurses' reward perceptions, in order to identify potential reward options. Methods To answer the research question "What do nurses consider a reward and how can these rewards be categorized?", 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with nurses were conducted and analysed using discourse and content analyses. In addition, the respondents received a list of 34 rewards (derived from the literature) and were asked to indicate the extent to which they perceived each of them to be rewarding. Results Discourse analysis revealed three major reward categories: financial, non-financial and psychological, each containing different subcategories. In general, nurses more often mentioned financial rewards spontaneously in the interview, compared to non-financial and psychological rewards. The questionnaire results did not, however, indicate a significant difference in the rewarding potential of these three categories. Both the qualitative and quantitative data revealed that a number of psychological and non-financial rewards were important for nurses in addition to their monthly pay and other remunerations. In particular, appreciation for their work by others, compliments from others, presents from others and contact with patients were highly valued. Moreover, some demographical variables influenced the reward perceptions. Younger and less experienced nurses considered promotion possibilities as more rewarding than the older and more senior ones. The latter valued job security and working for a hospital with a good reputation higher than their younger and more
Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.
This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…
Brown, James M.
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the lived experiences of teachers at an urban Title 1 elementary school regarding the training, beliefs and use of interactive whiteboards as a resource to raise student mathematical achievement levels. The problem addressed in this qualitative phenomenological study was the…
Banning, James H.; Kuk, Linda
The purpose of this study was to examine dissertations over the past five years that focused on student affairs organizational issues. A bounded qualitative meta-study was used and the methods, theories, and findings of the dissertations were examined. A variety of research methods were used including quantitative, qualitative and mixed designs.…
Shen, Z. ); Li, Z. ); Yew, P.C. . Center for Supercomputing Research and Development)
In this paper, the authors report some results from an empirical study of program characteristics that are important to parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area of data dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are also examined. The major findings include: many subscripts contain symbolic terms with unknown values. A few methods to determine their values at compile time are evaluated; array references with coupled subscripts appear quite frequently. These subscripts must be handled simultaneously in a dependence test, rather than being handled separately as in current test algorithms; nonzero coefficients of loop indexes in most subscripts are found to be simple: they are either 1 or -1. It allows an exact real-valued test to be as accurate as an exact integer-valued test for one-dimensional or two-dimensional arrays; dependences with uncertain distance are found to be rather common, and one of the main reasons is the frequent appearance of symbolic terms with unknown values.
Ademoye, Oluwakemi A.; Ghinea, Gheorghita
The increasing demand for multi-modal systems and applications that are highly interactive and multi-sensory in nature has led to the introduction of new media and new user interface devices in multimedia computing. Computer generated smell, also known as olfactory data, is one of such media objects currently generating a lot of interest in the multimedia industry. We are currently focusing our attention on exploring user perception of computer generated smell when combined with other media to enrich their multimedia experience. In this paper, we present the results of an empirical study into users' perception of olfactory enhanced multimedia displays. Results showed that users generally enjoy an enhanced multimedia experience when augmented by olfactory stimuli, and that the presence of such stimuli increases the sense of relevance. Whilst there is a general positive bias towards olfactory enhanced multimedia applications, specific properties of smell such as diffusion and lingering mean that in practice specific attention needs to be given when a mix of smells is associated with visualised multimedia content; moreover, it was found that whilst smell was incorrectly identified in some instances, the presence of smell per se is generally enough to create a richer user multimedia experience.
Shen, Zhiyu; Li, Zhiyuan; Yew, Pen-Chung
Some results are reported from an empirical study of program characteristics that are important in parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area of data dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are examined. The major findings are included. Many subscripts contain symbolic terms with unknown values. A few methods of determining their values at compile time are evaluated. Array references with coupled subscripts appear quite frequently; these subscripts must be handled simultaneously in a dependence test, rather than being handled separately as in current test algorithms. Nonzero coefficients of loop indexes in most subscripts are found to be simple: they are either 1 or -1. This allows an exact real-valued test to be as accurate as an exact integer-valued test for one-dimensional or two-dimensional arrays. Dependencies with uncertain distance are found to be rather common, and one of the main reasons is the frequent appearance of symbolic terms with unknown values.
Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D; Parke, Adrian
Playing videogames is now a major leisure pursuit, yet research in the area is comparatively sparse. Previous correlational evidence suggests that subjective time loss occurs during playing videogames. This study examined experiences of time loss among a relatively large group of gamers (n = 280). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through an online survey. Results showed that time loss occurred irrespective of gender, age, or frequency of play, but was associated with particular structural characteristics of games such as their complexity, the presence of multi-levels, missions and/or high scores, multiplayer interactions, and plot. Results also demonstrated that time loss could have both positive and negative outcomes for players. Positive aspects of time loss included helping players to relax and temporarily escape from reality. Negative aspects included the sacrificing of other things in their lives, guilty feelings about wasted time, and social conflict. It is concluded that for many gamers, losing track of time is a positive experience and is one of the main reasons for playing videogames. PMID:17305447
Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars
The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients’ experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients’ experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in “A sense of being in communion with self and others” theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients’ ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required. PMID:24717265
Devers, K J; Frankel, R M
In two prior papers in our series on qualitative research [Frankel & Devers (2000a, 2000b) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Frankel & Devers (2000) Study design in qualitative research-1: developing research questions and assessing research needs, Education for Health, 13, 251-261], we examine two critical issues in qualitative research design: sampling, including identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects, and data collection and management. We describe these two key steps in the qualitative research design process, discuss challenges that often emerge when pursuing these steps, and provide guidelines for addressing them. Qualitative research most often uses "purposive," rather than random, sampling strategies. A good understanding of these sampling strategies and why they are used is central to designing a credible qualitative study. In addition, given the real-world context in which most qualitative research is carried out, identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects are critical parts of the process. We also provide suggestions for developing and maintaining productive and mutually satisfying research relationships with sites and subjects. Finally, data collection and management are often neglected subjects in qualitative research. We offer practical advice on how to collect and manage qualitative data, including factors to consider when deciding how structured the data collection process should be, the pros and cons of audio- and/or videotaping compared with note-taking, and tips for writing up field notes and document management. A forthcoming, final paper in the series will focus on qualitative data analysis and the publication of qualitative research results. PMID:14742088
Brantelid, Ida Emilie; Nilvér, Helena; Alehagen, Siw
Menstruation is a natural phenomenon for women during their reproductive years. Our aim was to describe women's experiences of menstruation across the lifespan. Qualitative interviews with a narrative approach were conducted with 12 women between 18 and 48 years of age in Sweden. Using thematic analysis, we found menstruation to be a complex phenomenon that binds women together. It is perceived as an intimate and private matter, which makes women want to conceal the occurrence of menstrual bleeding. Over time, menstruation becomes a natural part of women's lives and gender identity. Health professionals play a central role supporting women to deal with menstruation.
Kew, Bryan; Given, Kim; Brass, Jory
In this article, a beginning teacher, experienced teacher, and teacher educator reflect upon their experiences with qualitative self-studies of language and literacy in teacher education courses. The goal of these course projects was to introduce teachers to sociocultural theories, qualitative research, and "new" literacies. Sharing…
There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…
Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie
Qualitative research may be able to provide an answer as to why adults and children do or do not participate in sport and physical activity. This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity. The…
Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley
Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…
Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela
Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…
Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano
Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.
Formative Evaluation is a method of evaluating a program while the program activities are forming or happening. Formative evaluation focuses on the "process" during which problems are timely spotted, corrected and adjustments made so that an intended goal can be accomplished. Through a four-month empirical research work with students of…
Frost, Julia; Garside, Ruth; Cooper, Chris; Britten, Nicky
Having previously conducted qualitative syntheses of the diabetes literature, we wanted to explore the changes in theoretical approaches, methodological practices, and the construction of substantive knowledge which have recently been presented in the qualitative diabetes literature. The aim of this research was to explore the feasibility of synthesizing existing qualitative syntheses of patient perspectives of diabetes using meta-study methodology. A systematic review of qualitative literature, published between 2000 and 2013, was conducted. Six articles were identified as qualitative syntheses. The meta-study methodology was used to compare the theoretical, methodological, analytic, and synthetic processes across the six studies, exploring the potential for an overarching synthesis. We identified that while research questions have increasingly concentrated on specific aspects of diabetes, the focus on systematic review processes has led to the neglect of qualitative theory and methods. This can inhibit the production of compelling results with meaningful clinical applications. Although unable to produce a synthesis of syntheses, we recommend that researchers who conduct qualitative syntheses pay equal attention to qualitative traditions and systematic review processes, to produce research products that are both credible and applicable.
This paper discusses whether there are differences in performance based on differences in strategy. First, an attempt was made to determine whether the institution had a strategy, and if so, did it follow a particular model. Major models of strategy are the industry analysis approach, the resource based view or the RBV model and the more recent,…
Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J
In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge.
Krukowski, Rebecca A.; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith
Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (3 African-American and 2 Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9 years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques—content analysis and constant comparison—were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, nonfood merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice. PMID:22771756
Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387
Vanderbilt, Susanne K; Wynia, Matthew K; Gadon, Margaret; Alexander, G Caleb
Despite calls for physician engagement to reduce disparities, little is known about what drives physicians to become engaged or what engaged physicians are doing. We conducted in-depth interviews with a group of highly engaged physicians and used qualitative methods to identify how these physicians became interested in alleviating healthcare disparities and what strategies they use to improve care for their minority patients. We found that most participants have experienced being a minority, though only half were racial minorities, and many related extensive childhood experiences with minorities. Participants identified several key barriers to quality care for minorities, including language barriers, resource limitations, lack of patient education and low patient empowerment. When asked how physicians can reduce health disparities, most subjects emphasized interpersonal respect, though some promising non-interpersonal approaches to reducing disparities were also identified. These interviews document the lived experiences of a group of physicians who are highly engaged in reducing disparities and suggest that connecting with experiences as a minority and other early life experiences can prompt later professional engagement in this important issue.
Krukowski, Rebecca A; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith
Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (three African-American and two Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques-content analysis and constant comparison-were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, non-food merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice.
van Gurp, Jelle; van Selm, Martine; Vissers, Kris; van Leeuwen, Evert; Hasselaar, Jeroen
Objective The problems and needs of advanced cancer patients and proxies normally increase as the disease progresses. Home-based advanced cancer patients and their proxies benefit from collaborations between primary care physicians and hospital-based palliative care specialists when confronted with complex problems in the last phase of life. Telemedicine might facilitate direct, patient-centered communication between patients and proxies, primary care physicians, and specialist palliative care teams (SPCTs). This study focuses on the impact of teleconsultation technologies on the relationships between home-based palliative care patients and hospital-based palliative care specialists. Methods This work consists of a qualitative study among patients, family members, and caregivers that utilizes long-term direct observations, semi-structured interviews, and open interviews following the observations. Results The analysis of the empirical data resulted in three key concepts that describe the impact of teleconsultation on the patient-professional relationship in palliative homecare: transcending the institutional walls of home and hospital; transparency of teleconsultation technology; and technologized, intimate patient-professional relationships. Teleconsultation offers (1) condensed encounters between home-based palliative care patients and distant professionals, (2) a unique insight into the patients’ daily lives for palliative care specialists, and (3) long-term interaction that results in trustful relationships and experiences of intimacy and relief. Conclusions Teleconsultation fits the practice of home-based palliative care. Teleconsultation can, if well applied, facilitate computer-mediated but empathic patient-palliative care specialist relationships, which enable professional care attuned to the patient’s context as well as patient involvement. This article proposes a teleconsultation implementation guide for optimal use of teleconsultation in daily
Spenwyn, Jenny; Barrett, Doug J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.
Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empirical study into the combined effects of both music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants…
Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick
Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines
Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation. PMID:24330628
Gielen, Nele; Krumeich, Anja; Havermans, Remco C.; Smeets, Feikje; Jansen, Anita
Background Healthcare providers working in addiction facilities do not often implement integrated treatment of comorbid substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while there is empirical evidence to do so. Objective This study aims to get insight into the views of clinicians with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in SUD patients. Method A qualitative research method was chosen. Fourteen treatment staff members of different wards of an addiction care facility were interviewed by an independent interviewer. Results Despite acknowledging adverse consequences of trauma exposure on SUD, severe underdiagnosis of PTSD was mentioned and treatment of PTSD during SUD treatment was not supported. Obstacles related to the underestimation of PTSD among SUD patients and to the perceptions of SUD clinicians concerning the treatment of comorbid SUD/PTSD were reported. Conclusions It is concluded that SUD facilities should train their clinicians to enable them to provide for integrated treatment of SUD/PTSD. PMID:24511368
Nebelung, C; Forkel, J A; Elkeles, T
There have been increasing discussions in the health sciences in recent years about socio-spatial influences on health activities. The starting point has been the growing territorial inequality in spatial development resources, which has an effect on the participatory chances of people in structurally weak regions. The concept of "peripherisation" is used to describe this change. Empirical investigations of socio-spatial resources at the local level are rare, because the theoretical preconditions have not been elaborated sufficiently for the theoretical modelling to be recognised for hypothesis-based empirical investigations. At the centre of this theorisation are analyses of the "social capital" of every-day actions. As part of the Rural Health Study 2008 at the University of Applied Science Neubrandenburg (involving a longitudinal analysis with quantitative surveys in 14 rural communities in north-eastern Germany 1973, 1994, 2008), a qualitative approach was also adopted with case and community studies. The first results are compared with the state of the literature. Case studies are presented showing strategies for adaptation and improvement of the individual's situation, and also the daily solidarity of people in villages. Development potentials are outlined.
This dissertation is a collection of three papers that employ empirical within study comparisons (WSCs) to identify conditions that support causal inference in observational studies. WSC studies empirically estimate the extent to which a given observational study reproduces the result of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) when both share the same…
Bisogni, Carole A.; Jastran, Margaret; Seligson, Marc; Thompson, Alyssa
Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…
Milanovich, D M; Driskell, J E; Stout, R J; Salas, E
One of the most troublesome dynamics evident in the airplane cockpit is related to patterns of authority relations between the captain and the first officer: Too often, captains fail to listen and first officers fail to speak. The authors propose that many instances of superordinate and subordinate behavior in the cockpit--the captain's tendency to reject input from other team members and the first officer's hesitancy to question the captain--represent cases of status generalization. First, the authors describe the theory of status generalization and show support for the operation of the theory by presenring examples of flightcrew behavior that the theory predicts. Second, an initial empirical test was conducted to instantiate the claim that captain-first officer differences can be seen as status differences. Finally, the significance and implications of this perspective are discussed.
Ganellen, R J; Wasyliw, O E; Haywood, T W; Grossman, L S
Can psychosis be faked on the Rorschach? We examined this question by comparing 2 groups of subjects with a high incentive to malinger, persons accused of serious crimes. All subjects were administered both the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach and were assigned to honest (N = 35) and malingered (N = 13) groups on the basis of MMPI validity scales. The Rorschach protocols of these 2 groups were compared to assess how successfully malingerers could deliberately produce records that appeared psychotic on empirically derived Rorschach indices of psychosis. Despite an attempt to portray themselves as psychotic on the MMPI, subjects in the malingered group did not differ from honest responders on Rorschach variables that distinguish psychotic from nonpsychotic patients, but did differ in the number of dramatic responses produced. Our data suggest that the combination of the MMPI and Rorschach provides a powerful psychometric technique for detecting deliberate malingering of psychosis.
Nicholson, L.; Colyer, M.; Cooper, S. -A.
Background: Difficulties in the recruitment of adults with intellectual disability (ID) to research studies are well described but little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulties in recruiting to a specific research project, in order to inform future recruitment to ID research. Methods: Individual semi-structured…
Torres-Rodriguez, Leslie; Beyard, Karen; Goldstein, Marc B.
Student assistance programs (SAPs) are one approach for using teams to respond to student needs, but there is little research on SAP implementation and whether SAPs function as intended. The authors present findings from a study of two SAPs that use a model developed by Connecticut's Governor's Prevention Partnership. The study focused on…
Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan
The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…
Irwin, Michèle; Miller, John P.
This article presents the results of a study into the effects of meditation practice on the lives of professional educators, specifically educators who either began or continued such practice during course work led by Professor Miller at the University of Toronto. The study incorporates semistructured interviews with 12 participants to track their…
van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham
Purpose: This study aims to provide an in-depth individual level understanding of the psychological factors that affect cycle commuting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 15 participants (eight cycle commuters and seven potential cycle commuters) from a "cycle-friendly" employer based in a Scottish city took part in the study.…
Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Chungen
The energy relationships and electronic structures of the lowest-lying spin states in several anti-ferromagnetic tetraradical model systems are studied with high-level ab initio and semi-empirical methods. The Full-CI method (FCI), the complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2), and the n-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) are employed to obtain reference results. By comparing the energy relationships predicted from the Heisenberg and Hubbard models with ab initio benchmarks, the accuracy of the widely used Heisenberg model for anti-ferromagnetic spin-coupling in low-spin polyradicals is cautiously tested in this work. It is found that the strength of electron correlation (|U/t|) concerning anti-ferromagnetically coupled radical centers could range widely from strong to moderate correlation regimes and could become another degree of freedom besides the spin multiplicity. Accordingly, the Heisenberg-type model works well in the regime of strong correlation, which reproduces well the energy relationships along with the wave functions of all the spin states. In moderately spin-correlated tetraradicals, the results of the prototype Heisenberg model deviate severely from those of multi-reference electron correlation ab initio methods, while the extended Heisenberg model, containing four-body terms, can introduce reasonable corrections and maintains its accuracy in this condition. In the weak correlation regime, both the prototype Heisenberg model and its extended forms containing higher-order correction terms will encounter difficulties. Meanwhile, the Hubbard model shows balanced accuracy from strong to weak correlation cases and can reproduce qualitatively correct electronic structures, which makes it more suitable for the study of anti-ferromagnetic coupling in polyradical systems. PMID:26963572
Lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation is a major risk factor for all types of skin cancer. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine theory-guided empirical studies examining adolescent tanning practices.
Mincey, Krista; Alfonso, Moya; Hackney, Amy; Luque, John
This study reports findings on views of masculinity with undergraduate Black men, which included interviews and focus groups (N = 46) with participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Specifically, this study explored how Black men define being a man and being a Black man. Undergraduate Black males at a historically Black college and university (N = 25) and a predominately White institution (N = 21) in the Southeastern United States were recruited to participate in this study. Through the use of thematic analysis, findings indicated that three levels of masculinity exist for Black men: what it means to be a man, what it means to be a Black man, and who influences male development. Implications and recommendations for future research and practice are discussed.
Mohammadi, Easa; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh; Simbar, Masoumeh
Background: Many women, throughout their life cycle, experience unintended pregnancy and its subsequent induced abortion. Nonetheless, women's perceptions of this phenomenon – particularly in countries prohibiting elective abortion – are poorly known. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a conventional content analysis study conducted in Tabriz, Iran. The data were collected through 31 semi-structured interviews with 23 women who had recently experienced an unintended pregnancy. The study participants were recruited using the purposive sampling method. Sampling started in March 2013 and continued until reaching data saturation, i.e. till August 2013. Data analysis was carried out concurrently with data collection. MAXQDA 10.0 software was employed for managing the study data. Results: The study data analysis process yielded the formation of three main themes including negative effects of unintended pregnancy on daily life, fear of being stigmatized with violating social norms, and abortion panic, which in turn constituted the broader overarching theme of “threat supposition.” In other words, following an unintended pregnancy, the study participants had experienced different levels of fear and threat depending on their personal, family, and socio-cultural backgrounds. Conclusions: Women perceive unintended pregnancy as a challenging and threatening situation. An unintended pregnancy can threaten women's lives through social deprivations, growing instability, and putting both mother and baby at risk for physical and psychosocial problems. On the other hand, an unsafe illegal abortion could have potentially life-threatening complications. To cope with such a situation, women need strong social support. Healthcare providers can fulfill such women's need for support by developing pre-abortion counseling services and providing them with professional counseling. Also
Carabez, Rebecca M; Eliason, Michele J; Martinson, Marty
This study explored practicing nurses' knowledge of the needs of transgender patients. Structured interviews were conducted with 268 nurses in the San Francisco Bay Area. This study focused on the responses to 1 item in the 16-item interview, "Describe health care issues that are particular to transgender patients." Three themes emerged from the data: discomfort, transition, and harsh consequences of being transgender. These findings revealed nurses' discomfort and lack of knowledge about transgender people and their health care needs. Nursing curricula must challenge the gender binary to better prepare nurses to provide quality care for patients of all genders. PMID:27490881
Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N.
This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented. PMID:22783157
Delcourt, Marcia A. B.; Evans, Karen
This report describes an extension of the Learning Outcomes Study (a nationwide longitudinal investigation of 1,010 students just entering programs for gifted learners in grades 2 and 3) to investigate excellence within each of the four program types considered: within-class programs, pull-out programs, separate classes, and special schools. The…
Natoli, Riccardo; Jackling, Beverley; Siddique, Salina
Efforts to address attrition rates at universities have been driven by Tinto's (1975) model of student engagement with its focus on student: (a) pre entry attributes; (b) academic engagement; and (c) social engagement. Using an ethnographic approach, the study involves interviews with business students to explore the links between these aspects…
Crawford, John; Irving, Christine
Although increasingly recognized as a future skills issue, the use of information in the workplace is a little studied area within library and information research. A substantial "pedagogic" literature of learning in the workplace exists, however, and this was critically reviewed to generate a repertoire of issues which could in turn be used to…
Saeed, Sitwat; Zyngier, David
The authors use Ryan and Deci's (2000) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to better understand how student motivation and engagement are linked combined with Schlechty's Student Engagement Continuum to analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on students' different engagement types. The study seeks to understand which type of…
Lietz, Cynthia A.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.; Cacciatore, Joanne
When children are removed from their parents due to child maltreatment, the goal remains to reunite families whenever possible. Although extensive research exists regarding barriers to reunification, little is known about the families who are successfully reunited. The aim of this study was to examine the strengths families found helpful in the…
Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn
Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…
Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.
Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…
Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie
To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…
Clausson, Eva K.; Berg, Agneta; Janlöv, Ann-Christin
The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' experience of challenges related to documenting schoolchildren's psychosocial health in Sweden. Six focus group discussions were carried out. Areas for discussions included questions about situations, especially challenging to document as well as what constrains and/or facilitates documenting…
Della Torre, Sophie Bucher; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles
Background: In general, schools are an important setting to implement current recommendations for obesity prevention in children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigated the opinions of different school stakeholders on the feasibility and acceptability of current obesity prevention strategies that could be…
Johnson, Megan Patricia
The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…
Puterbaugh, Dolores T.
This article draws from a phenomenological study on the experience of being a bereavement counselor. Ten bereavement counselors shared their experiences in bereavement counseling. Spiritual and emotional aspects of bereavement counseling with grieving and dying persons are discussed as well as the spiritual effects on and growth processes of the…
Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Johnson, Michael B.; Fielding, Cheryl; Cavazos, Alyssa G.; Castro, Veronica; Vela, Luti
This study was conducted with 11 Latina/o college students in order to provide insight into how these students develop a sense of resilience. Five factors from J. H. McMillan and D. F. Reed's (1994) concept of resiliency appeared to play an important role in these students' high academic achievement: high educational goals, support and…
Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.
This study examined how participating preservice teachers reported their perceptions and use of different scaffolds provided to support their WebQuest design. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a succession of course activities designed to guide WebQuest design and development. Results indicated that while participants followed, adapted,…
Kramer, Steven H.
Despite the speed at which Second Life has been adopted by universities and schools to teach courses, little educational research and theory addresses this multiplayer online "world." This case study explored undergraduate university instructors' teaching methods and tools within a virtual environment. It also considered whether instructors are…
Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhaolan; Wang, JianLi
Background Global health has stimulated a lot of students and has attracted the interest of many faculties, thereby initiating the establishment of many academic programs on global health research and education. global health education reflects the increasing attention toward social accountability in medical education. Objective This study aims to identify gaps in the studies on global health education. Design A critical literature review of empirical studies was conducted using Boolean search techniques. Results A total of 238 articles, including 16 reviews, were identified. There had been a boom in the numbers of studies on global health education since 2010. Four gaps were summarized. First, 94.6% of all studies on global health education were conducted in North American and European countries, of which 65.6% were carried out in the United States, followed by Canada (14.3%) and the United Kingdom (9.2%). Only seven studies (2.9%) were conducted in Asian countries, five (2.1%) in Oceania, and two (0.8%) in South American/Caribbean countries. A total of 154 studies (64.4%) were qualitative studies and 64 studies (26.8%) were quantitative studies. Second, elective courses and training or programs were the most frequently used approach for global health education. Third, there was a gap in the standardization of global health education. Finally, it was mainly targeted at medical students, residents, and doctors. It had not granted the demands for global health education of all students majoring in medicine-related studies. Conclusions Global health education would be a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity, reducing health disparities, and also for future professional careers. It is the time to build and expand education in global health, especially among developing countries. Global health education should be integrated into primary medical education. Interdisciplinary approaches and interprofessional collaboration were recommended. Collaboration
van der Hem-Stokroos, H H; Daelmans, H E M; van der Vleuten, C P M; Haarman, H J Th M; Scherpbier, A J J A
Little is known about the effectiveness of clinical education. A more educational structure is considered to be potentially beneficial. The following structured components were added to a surgical clerkship: logbooks, an observed student-patient encounter, individual appraisals, feedback on patient notes, and (case) presentations by students. The authors organized two focus-group sessions in which 19 students participated to explore their perceptions about effective clinical learning experiences and the newly introduced structured components. The analysis of the transcripts showed that observation and constructive feedback are key features of clinical training. The structured activities were appreciated and the results show the direction to be taken for further improvement. Learning experiences depended vastly on individual clinicians' educational qualities. Students experienced being on call, assisting in theatre and time for self-study as instructive elements. Recommended clerkship components are: active involvement of students, direct observation, selection of teachers, a positive learning environment and time for self-study. PMID:12745517
De, Sreeja; Bhatia, Triptish; Thomas, Pramod; Chakraborty, Satabdi; Prasad, Shiv; Nagpal, Rajesh; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Deshpande, Smita N.
Background: Delusions are an important symptom for the diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) in both the commonly used international classificatory systems - the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV - American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and the International Classification of Diseases, X (ICD X - World Health Organization, 1992). Of special significance are “bizarre delusions” the presence of which is alone sufficient for a diagnosis of SZ in DSM IV. In an attempt to find out the frequency, criteria for classification, and other clinical aspects of bizarre delusions and justification of their importance in the diagnostic system, this retrospective study was conducted. Methodology: Records of 1952 Indian patients affected with SZ, recruited for various research projects at one center were included in this study. All had a diagnosis of DSM IV SZ; all symptoms of SZ from the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies were asked regardless of the presence of specific symptoms - like bizarre delusions - sufficient for diagnosis. Results: The prevalence of bizarre delusions was 2.56%. Five themes, identified on analyzing their contents are described. Main themes were unnatural, bodily sensation, change in identity, sexual, and religious. Conclusions: These themes were culture based, but definitely out of context, excessive or extremely odd. Moreover, the rarity of bizarre delusions makes it difficult to include them as a sole criterion for diagnosis. PMID:24249929
Arroyo, José Manuel García; López, María Luisa Domínguez
Advances in treatment of breast cancer have not avoided using mastectomy in all cases, and when this happens, we are dealing with a woman who is suffering from psychological problems. In order to study this issue we have carried out a research with the collaboration of The Andalusian Association of Women with Mastectomies (AMAMA) in Seville, which provided us with a sample of 46 mastectomized women. The objective of this study is to analyze in depth the psychological reaction of women to mastectomy through its different stages from diagnosis to surgical treatment. We chose a cualitative method so as to explore the subjective components of psicologycal respons. As a result, we found in studied women: (a) The “fracture” of the “corporal imaginary” related to the disappearance of a valuable organ, linked to the feeling of loss of personal attractiveness, low self-esteem and avoidance of social relationships. (b) The problem with “femininity” has been linked to the issue of “desirability”, something innate in the “feminine position”. (c) Many of them keep in mind the idea of mutilation, as a “hole” which is impossible to integrate. (d) Finally, we demonstrate how certain features of personality made them especially vulnerable to the explained phenomena. PMID:22312492
Burgoyne, Louise N; Woods, Catherine; Coleman, Rosarie; Perry, Ivan J
Background Effective promotion of physical activity in low income communities is essential given the high prevalence of inactivity in this sector. Methods This study explored determinants of engaging in physical activity in two Irish city based neighbourhoods using a series of six focus groups and twenty five interviews with adult residents. Data were analysed using constant comparison methods with a grounded theory approach. Results Study findings centred on the concept of 'community contentment'. Physical activity was related to the degree of contentment/comfort within the 'self' and how the 'self' interacts within the neighbourhood. Contemporary focus on outer bodily appearance and pressure to comply with societal expectations influenced participants' sense of confidence and competence. Social interaction, involvement, and provision of adequate social supports were viewed as positive and motivating. However normative expectations appeared to affect participants' ability to engage in physical activity, which may reflect the 'close knit' culture of the study neighbourhoods. Access to suitable local facilities and amenities such as structured and pleasant walking routes was regarded as essential. Indeed participants considered walking to be their preferred form of physical activity which may relate to the minimal skill requirement, ease of access and low financial costs incurred. Conclusion In the context of physical activity, health promoters need to be conscious of the difficulties that individuals feel in relation to bodily appearance and the pressure to comply with societal standards. This may be particularly relevant in low income settings where insufficient allocation of resources and social supports means that individuals have less opportunity to attend to physical activity than individuals living in higher income settings. PMID:18373842
Person, Marianne; Hanssen, Ingrid
People with advanced dementia can still enjoy life. Even if their language is impaired and they live in the moment, it should still be possible for them to live a life of pleasure and joy. A pilot study was conducted to learn more about these individuals' experiences, but because of the decline in their access to language, it was necessary to have others speak on their behalf. Analysis of findings was based on a hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur (1981). Central findings were that all the interviewees emphasized humor and interacting with other people as a source of happiness.
Kennedy, Barbara H.
The purpose of this study was to examine how stakeholders in one Texas school district perceive, experience, and respond to the Spanish bilingual teacher shortage. The research design was qualitative with an exploratory, single case study approach. The case study school district was a mid-sized suburban district in Texas that utilized a dual…
Susar Kirmizi, Fatma; Akkaya, Nevin
The objective of this study is to reveal how well summarizing strategies are used by Grade 4 and Grade 5 students as a reading comprehension strategy. This study was conducted in Buca, Izmir and the document analysis method, a qualitative research strategy, was employed. The study used a text titled "Environmental Pollution" and an "Evaluation…
Beauchamp, Darrell G.; Braden, Roberts A.
This study used an eclectic, qualitative research design to explore the effects of visual and verbal variables on affective response and cognitive learning in four different groups of students. The four design imperatives of the study were: (1) both of the primary learning senses (sight and hearing) had to be included in the study; (2) the inquiry…
Andean rural children's drawings and narratives about their crops and the immediate biological environment are rich tools to understand local views of the environment. Children's drawings and narratives were collected and linked to interviews as well as participant observation gathered from parents, leaders and teachers. The research sites are the community of Willca and the school of Mayu. Fieldwork was completed in 1998. In the conceptual framework I distinguish between two dissimilar knowledges, school knowledge and local knowledge. These knowledges produce two dissimilar views of the environment. I further analyze relationships of knowledge and power and argue that school knowledge overpowers local knowledge. Concomitantly, I studied set of ideas associated with two knowledges aforementioned: superacion (surpass) and regeneration (Apffel-Marglin 1995). Although these ideas coexist in peoples' minds they are not linked or effectively connected. In order to link local knowledge and school knowledge together, I propose the integration of environmental studies and art education to enhance a local sense of place (Blandy et. al 1993) in Andean and other schools. This will contribute to grassroots educational policy.
Norris, Pauline; Chamberlain, Kerry; Dew, Kevin; Gabe, Jonathan; Hodgetts, Darrin; Madden, Helen
We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of public views and ways of talking about antibiotics. Four focus groups were held with members of the public. In addition, 39 households were recruited and interviews, diaries of medicine taking, diaries of any contact with medication were used to explore understanding and use of medication. Discussions related to antibiotics were identified and analyzed. Participants in this study were worried about adverse effects of antibiotics, particularly for recurrent infections. Some were concerned that antibiotics upset the body’s “balance”, and many used strategies to try to prevent and treat infections without antibiotics. They rarely used military metaphors about infection (e.g., describing bacteria as invading armies) but instead spoke of clearing infections. They had little understanding of the concept of antibiotic resistance but they thought that over-using antibiotics was unwise because it would reduce their future effectiveness. Previous studies tend to focus on problems such as lack of knowledge, or belief in the curative powers of antibiotics for viral illness, and neglect the concerns that people have about antibiotics, and the fact that many people try to avoid them. We suggest that these concerns about antibiotics form a resource for educating patients, for health promotion and social marketing strategies. PMID:27029314
Garakyaraghi, Mohammad; Givi, Mahshid; Moeini, Mahin; Eshghinezhad, Ameneh
Background: Hypertension has become a major problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Iran. As it is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, even small reductions in the prevalence can have potentially large public health benefits. Among the complementary methods, massage provides an effective means to lower the blood pressure. If nurses perceive the experiences of hypertensive patients receiving massage, they can use massage more effectively in their care plan. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive phenomenological study. Deep interviews were conducted with nine prehypertensive women who received Swedish massage three times a week in a total of 10 sessions, with each session lasting 10-15 min. Then, the researcher conducted an interview using a ‘grand tour question (open ended question) and the participants were then encouraged to speak freely explaining their thoughts and feelings about the experience of massage therapy. Data analysis was done by Colaizzi's method. Validity and reliability were obtained through measures such as real value, applicability, continuity, and authenticity. Results: Women evaluated the massage therapy positively. The findings yielded six themes, including relaxation, sleeping better, reduction of anxiety and tension, reduction of fatigue, invigorating experience, improve connecting. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a body-centered intervention like massage can be valuable in a multidisciplinary approach to women with prehypertension. This method is easy to learn and relatively short (10-15 min) to administer as a suitable complement in nursing care for this group of patients. PMID:25183981
Langebæk, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette
When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part of their multimodal preparation. A mental recipe was used by 15%, whereas 12% mentally visualized their own notes. The study provides new information regarding veterinary students' methods of recollection of surgical procedures and indicates that in Danish veterinary students, a visual dynamic method is the most commonly used. This is relevant information in the current educational situation, which uses an array of educational tools, and it stresses the importance of supporting the traditional surgical teaching methods with high-quality instructional videos. PMID:26560545
Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M.
Background The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents’ perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. Method A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Results Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident’s role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents’ understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. Conclusions This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice. PMID:27004074
Patterson, P Daniel; Probst, Janice C; Leith, Katherine H; Corwin, Sara J; Powell, M Paige
Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are critical to out-of-hospital care, but maintaining staff can be difficult. The study objective was to identify factors that contribute to recruitment and retention of EMTs and paramedics. Information was drawn from three focus groups of EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, and EMT-Paramedic personnel recruited from participants at an annual conference. Thoughts and feelings of EMTs and paramedics were investigated using eight questions designed to explore entry into emergency medical services, what it is like to be an EMT or paramedic, and the EMT educational process. Data were analyzed at the group level for common themes using NVivo. For a majority of respondents, emergency medical services was not a primary career path. Most respondents entered the industry as an alternate or replacement for a nursing career or as a second career following military medic service. The majority of respondents believed the job was stressful yet rewarding, and although it negatively affected their personal lives, the occupation gave them a sense of accomplishment and belonging. Respondents expressed a preference for EMT education resulting in college credit or licensure versus professional certification. Job-related stress produced by numerous factors appears to be a likely contributor to low employee retention. Recruitment and retention efforts should address study findings, incorporating key findings into educational, evaluation, and job enhancement programs.
Background Patient care models have been implemented and documented worldwide. Many studies have focused on features that hinder and facilitate the shift to such models, including the implementation process, staff involvement, resistance to new models and cultural dimensions. However, few studies have identified the potential effects of such new care models from a patient perspective. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients did in fact perceive the intentions of partnership in the new care model 1 year after its implementation. Methods Sixteen participants were interviewed, selected from two wards in a medical department where a new care model had been implemented 1 year earlier. A directed deductive content analysis was selected. The aim of the directed approach to content analysis was to investigate to what extent the new care model had been implemented, using patients’ perspectives to describe the level of implementation. A coding framework was developed based on a theoretical paper that described the key features of the new care model. Results The implementation of person-centred care had clearly occurred to a large degree, even if some patients appeared not to have been exposed to the model at all. Aspects of the newly implemented care model were obvious; however, it was also clear that implementation was not complete. The analysis showed that patients felt listened to and that their own perception of the situation had been noted. Patients spontaneously expressed that they felt that the staff saw them as persons and did not solely focus on their disease. It was also stated that not every ailment or aspect of a patient’s illness needed to be addressed or resolved for open listening to be perceived as a positive experience. Conclusions The findings indicate that even though some patients were not interested in participating and playing an active role in their own care, this might relate to a lack of understanding on how to invite
Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316
Jakobsson, Markus; Tsow, Alex; Shah, Ankur; Blevis, Eli; Lim, Youn-Kyung
This paper reports the highlights of a user study which gauges reactions to a variety of common "trust indicators" - such as logos, third party endorsements, and padlock icons - over a selection of authentic and phishing stimuli. In the course of the think-aloud protocol, participants revealed different sensitivities to email messages and web pages. Our principal result is the analysis of what makes phishing emails and web pages appear authentic. This is not only of interest from a pure scientific point of view, but can also guide the design of legitimate material to avoid unnecessary risks. A second result of ours are observations of what makes legitimate content appear dubious to consumers. This is a result with obvious applications to online advertising.
Childhood sexual assault (CSA) is a common experience for women. Little research has explored the breastfeeding experience of CSA survivors who successfully breastfeed. The objective of this study is to explore the experience of successful breastfeeding with mothers with a history of CSA. Eleven women are interviewed after responding to a community-based advertisement. The women self-identify as having experienced CSA by a family member. Semistructured interviews are conducted by the author. Interviews are transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Four key themes are identified: enhancement of the mother- baby relationship, validation of the maternal body, splitting of the breasts' dual role as maternal and sexual objects, and exposure and control when breastfeeding in public. Healthcare professionals should be aware of these maternal issues when promoting breastfeeding and counseling breastfeeding women. PMID:19414736
Noel, Nora E; Ogle, Richard L; Maisto, Stephen A; Jackson, Lee A
Many approaches to decrease unwanted sex for women emphasize enhanced risk recognition. However, women often remain in risky situations despite recognition; so we need to understand the attractions of normative dating and sex. In this focus group study, 45 young adult women discussed their attractions to men, dating, and sex. Themes emerged describing conflicts between what they wanted, dating realities, desire for "traditional" behavior from the man, alcohol use, sexual arousal (hers and his), indirect communication about sex, feeling "obligated," and enhanced self-esteem. Results suggest improving risk-recognition programs by examining and clarifying women's goals for dating and putting positive emphasis on "have fun, achieve your goals, but try to avoid harm in the process." PMID:25331154
Dogra, Nisha; Carter-Pokras, Olivia
Background Cultural diversity teaching is increasingly present in both undergraduate and postgraduate training programmes. This study explored the views of stakeholders in medical education about the potential outcomes of cultural diversity teaching and how they thought cultural diversity programmes might be effectively evaluated. Methods A semi-structured interview was undertaken with 61 stakeholders (including policymakers, diversity teachers, students and users). The data were analysed and themes identified. Results Many participants felt that clinical practice was improved through 'cultural diversity teaching' and this was mostly as a result of improved doctor-patient communication. There was a strong view that service users need to participate in the evaluation of outcomes of cultural diversity teaching. Conclusion There is a general perception, rather than clear evidence, that cultural diversity teaching can have a positive effect on clinical practice. Cultural diversity teaching needs to be reviewed in undergraduate and postgraduate medicine and better evaluation tools need to be established. PMID:16259640
van Onna, Marloes; Hinsenveld, Elke; de Vries, Hein; Boonen, Annelies
The objective of this study was to explore the health literacy of patients dealing with gout and to understand perceptions that might account for non-adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT). Semi-structured interviews involving patients with gout were conducted. The transcripts of the interviews were scored by two readers and a coding system to categorize the data was developed. Fifteen patients (14 men, mean age 63 years, mean disease duration 11 years) were interviewed; ten patients were recruited from secondary care and five from primary care. Six patients had gout tophi and 12 patients used ULT. Less than half of the patients were sufficiently aware of the pathophysiological processes that cause gout. Twelve patients indicated that treatment of gout only encompasses treatment of the acute attack. Patients were unaware of long-term treatment goals. Six patients admitted medication non-adherence at some point in time. Several reasons for non-adherence, such as healthcare professionals providing conflicting messages about medication, can be considered preventable. Half of the patients expressed that they, especially at the time of diagnosis, wanted to know more about the cause of gout, treatment goals and long-term consequences. In conclusion, the health literacy of patients dealing with gout was low in our study, especially with regard to medication. Yet, patients often recognized these knowledge gaps. Our data suggest that improving knowledge and addressing common misperceptions in training programmes, may ultimately contribute to adherence to ULT and an optimized outcome in patients with gout. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed in future research.
Lee, Yew Kong; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn
Background Patient decisions are influenced by their personal values. However, there is a lack of clarity and attention on the concept of patient values in the clinical context despite clear emphasis on patient values in evidence-based medicine and shared decision making. The aim of the study was to explore the concept of patient values in the context of making decisions about insulin initiation among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods and Findings We conducted individual in-depth interviews with people with type 2 diabetes who were making decisions about insulin treatment. Participants were selected purposively to achieve maximum variation. A semi-structured topic guide was used to guide the interviews which were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic approach. We interviewed 21 participants between January 2011 and March 2012. The age range of participants was 28–67 years old. Our sample comprised 9 women and 12 men. Three main themes, ‘treatment-specific values’, ‘life goals and philosophies’, and ‘personal and social background’, emerged from the analysis. The patients reported a variety of insulin-specific values, which were negative and/or positive beliefs about insulin. They framed insulin according to their priorities and philosophies in life. Patients’ decisions were influenced by sociocultural (e.g. religious background) and personal backgrounds (e.g. family situations). Conclusions This study highlighted the need for expanding the current concept of patient values in medical decision making. Clinicians should address more than just values related to treatment options. Patient values should include patients’ priorities, life philosophy and their background. Current decision support tools, such as patient decision aids, should consider these new dimensions when clarifying patient values. PMID:24282518
Magnier, K; Wang, R; Dale, V H M; Murphy, R; Hammond, R A; Mossop, L; Freeman, S L; Anderson, C; Pead, M J
Workplace learning (WPL) is seen as an essential component of clinical veterinary education by the veterinary profession. This study sought to understand this type of learning experience more deeply. This was done utilising observations of students on intramural rotations (IMR) and interviews with students and clinical staff. WPL was seen as an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and develop clinical and professional skills in what is generally regarded as a safe, authentic environment. Clinical staff had clear ideas of what they expected from students in terms of interest, engagement, professionalism, and active participation, where this was appropriate. In contrast, students often did not know what to expect and sometimes felt under-prepared when entering the workplace, particularly in a new species area. With the support of staff acting as mentors, students learned to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills, which could then be addressed during specific IMR work placements. Findings such as these illustrate both the complexities of WPL and the diversity of different workplace settings encountered by the students.
Rubio, Doris M.; Robinson, Georgeanna F.W.B.; Gilliam, Victoria A.; Primack, Brian A.; Switzer, Galen E.; Seltzer, Deborah L; Kapoor, Wishwa N.
Background Little is known about how investigators approach their research programs along the translational research continuum. Many consider the translational continuum to be linear, with research beginning at the bench and concluding with research at the bedside or in the community. We aimed to understand if translational investigators approach and view their research in this fashion. Methods We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 16 graduates of the University of Pittsburgh’s Multidisciplinary Clinical Research Scholars Program (KL2) in 2012. Results Our research revealed three characteristic models. The first model we called “linear” and represented the traditional approach. The second we called “holistic”; these investigators began with central research questions and sought to explore them in every direction of translation, not necessarily taking linear steps. The third model we called “technical”; in this model, investigators focused on a unique technology or methodology and applied it across multiple research contexts. Conclusion This study found that there are multiple ways that translational investigators approach their research program. Better understanding of these models can help educators and mentors guide investigators so that they can be more productive in their clinical or translational research career. PMID:25066780
Magnier, K; Wang, R; Dale, V H M; Murphy, R; Hammond, R A; Mossop, L; Freeman, S L; Anderson, C; Pead, M J
Workplace learning (WPL) is seen as an essential component of clinical veterinary education by the veterinary profession. This study sought to understand this type of learning experience more deeply. This was done utilising observations of students on intramural rotations (IMR) and interviews with students and clinical staff. WPL was seen as an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and develop clinical and professional skills in what is generally regarded as a safe, authentic environment. Clinical staff had clear ideas of what they expected from students in terms of interest, engagement, professionalism, and active participation, where this was appropriate. In contrast, students often did not know what to expect and sometimes felt under-prepared when entering the workplace, particularly in a new species area. With the support of staff acting as mentors, students learned to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills, which could then be addressed during specific IMR work placements. Findings such as these illustrate both the complexities of WPL and the diversity of different workplace settings encountered by the students. PMID:22090156
Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice.
Murphy, Andrea L.; Gardner, David M.; Kisely, Steve; Cooke, Charmaine; Kutcher, Stan P.; Hughes, Jean
Objective: To explore the lived experience of youth who are prescribed antipsychotics. Methods: We conducted an interpretive phenomenology study of young people with recent experience of taking antipsychotics. Youth were interviewed and a staged approach was used for data analysis of transcriptions. We collected approximately 13 hours of audio from 18 youth aged 13 to 26 years between January and August of 2010. Results: Ambivalence was significant and antipsychotic adverse effects frequently tempered benefits. Both illness and antipsychotics had significant impacts on physical and mental wellbeing with adverse effects on relationships and functioning in various contexts (e.g., school). Stigma related to both antipsychotics and illness was also prominent. Participants’ limited knowledge about their antipsychotics and pressure to conform within their youth culture and context affected decisions on starting, adhering to, and persisting with treatment. Conclusions: The lived experience of youth taking antipsychotics is complex and the benefits (e.g., symptom improvement) and consequences (e.g., adverse effects) associated with antipsychotics affect all facets of life. More research is needed to better understand youth priorities in treatment decisions and whether youth who demonstrate substantive gaps in their knowledge about antipsychotics are truly given the opportunity to be informed and engage in management decisions including whether to initiate, persist with, and discontinue treatments. PMID:26336383
Van Houdenhove, Ellen; Gijs, Luk; T'Sjoen, Guy; Enzlin, Paul
This study aimed to explore how asexual women experience their asexual identity, sexuality, and relationships. The authors recruited participants through the Asexuality Visibility and Education Network's website and posts on several health- and lifestyle-related websites. Interviewees were 9 women between 20 and 42 years of age. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The authors discuss 3 main themes that arose from the data: coming to an (a)sexual identity, experiencing physical intimacy and sexuality, and experiencing love and relationships. Participants described how they have always felt different and how they experienced their process of coming out. The authors found a great variation in the experience of (a) sex and physical intimacy and (b) love and relationships. Engaging in sexual behavior was mainly based on a willingness to comply with partner wishes. Whereas some longed for a relationship, aromantic asexual women did not. Some participants separated love from sex. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita
Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. Methods: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. Results: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Interpretation: Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care. PMID:27398374
BEHBOODI-MOGHADAM, Zahra; NIKBAKHT-NASRABADI, Alireza; EBADI, Abbas; ESMAELZADEH – SAEIEH, Sara; MOHRAZ, Minoo
Background: Childbearing is a cause of concern for women living with HIV. To improve reproductive right of women with HIV and prevent the spread of HIV; it is needed to understand fertility experiences of infected women with HIV. The aim of this study was to explore fertility intentions and experiences of HIV-infected women in Iran. Methods: Totally, 15 in–depth interviews were conducted with HIV- infected women who were at reproductive age and had referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital Consultation Center for Clients with Risky Behaviors in Tehran, Iran. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method in MAXQDA 10. Results: Analysis of the meaning units of interviews showed themes in describing of fertility desires of HIV women as follows: 1) Motherhood as a way for stability of life; 2) Uncertainties about the future; and 3) Unpleasant experience of pregnancy and delivery. This theme has three sub-themes as stigma, discrimination and weakness in health care system. Conclusion: Health care provider and community should respect the right of infected women and inform them on sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26587477
Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora
Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.
Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora
Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152
Thomsen, Tanja; Beyer, Nina; Aadahl, Mette; Hetland, Merete L.; Løppenthin, Katrine; Midtgaard, Julie; Esbensen, Bente A.
Background Despite increasing interest in investigating sedentary behaviour (SB) in the general population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is little documentation of the subjective experiences of SB in patients with RA. This study aimed to examine how patients with RA describe their daily SB. Methods Fifteen patients with RA (10 women and 5 men) from 23 to 73 years of age and with a disease duration ranging from 4 to 27 years were interviewed following a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analysed using the content analysis method described by Graneheim. Results SB appeared in three categories covering: 1) A constant battle between good and bad days; SB could be a consequence of RA in terms of days with pronounced pain and fatigue resulting in many hours of SB. 2) Adaptation to everyday life; living with the unpredictability of RA included constant modification of physical activity level causing increase in SB, especially during periods of disease flare. Prioritizing and planning of SB also functioned as part of self-management strategies. 3) It has nothing to do with my arthritis; for some patients, SB was not related to RA, but simply reflected a way of living independent of the disease. Conclusions SB is perceived, motivated, and performed differently in patients with RA. An individually tailored approach may be essential in understanding and encouraging patients’ motivation towards sustainable change in SB and activity patterns. PMID:26462971
MacKenzie, Heather; Roberts, Graham; van Laar, Darren; Dean, Taraneh
Teenagers are a high-risk group for food-hypersensitivity fatalities, engage in risk-taking behaviours and may experience impaired quality of life. Understanding their experience is important to inform their care. This study aimed to describe the lived experiences of teenagers with food hypersensitivity. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 teenagers (13-18 yr) with food hypersensitivity to a variety of foods and analysed using a phenomenological approach. Teenagers described living with (or coming to know) food hypersensitivity (FHS) as a way of life but still found living with food hypersensitivity to be burdensome. A necessary part of living with food hypersensitivity was coping with associated burden; a variety of coping strategies were employed to this effect. Teenagers described ways in which the burden of living with food hypersensitivity was alleviated or exacerbated by others. Management of food hypersensitivity was based on an assessment of acceptable risk resulting in varying levels of precaution taking. Teenagers' understanding of their FHS and ability to cope with it needs to be regularly assessed. Educational support may be required to ensure they take an appropriate level of precautions to minimize the chance of future reactions while not over compromising their quality of life. Psychological support may be required to help them to utilize healthy adaptive strategies to cope with the stresses of living with FHS. This approach is also likely to facilitate the smooth handover of responsibility from parent to teenager.
Taylor, Taryn S.; Watling, Christopher J.; Teunissen, Pim W.; Dornan, Tim; Lingard, Lorelei
Background: Proposals to implement fatigue-management strategies in residency education assume that medicine shares the view of other risk-adverse industries that fatigue is hazardous. This view is an essential underpinning of fatigue-management strategies that other industries have embedded as part of their workplace occupational health and safety programs. We sought to explore how residents understand fatigue in the context of their training environment. Methods: We interviewed 21 residents in 7 surgical and nonsurgical programs at Western University in 2014. All participants met the inclusion criteria of routinely working 24-hour call shifts while enrolled in their training program. Data collection and analysis occurred iteratively in keeping with constructivist grounded theory methodology and informed theoretical sampling to sufficiency. Results: Four predominant principles of fatigue captured how the social learning environment shaped residents' perceptions of fatigue. These included the conceptualization of fatigue as (a) inescapable and therefore accepted, (b) manageable through experience, (c) necessary for future practice and (d) surmountable when required. Interpretation: This study elaborates our understanding of how principles of fatigue are constructed and reinforced by the training environment. Whereas fatigue is seen as a collective hazard in other industries, our data showed that, in residency training, fatigue may be seen as a personal challenge. Consequently, fatigue-management strategies that conceptualize fatigue as an occupational threat may have a limited impact on resident behaviour and patient safety. PMID:27398364
Bissonnette-Maheux, Véronique; Provencher, Veronique; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Pluye, Pierre; Straus, Sharon; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre
Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death (63%) worldwide. A key behavioral risk factor is unhealthy eating. New strategies must be identified and evaluated to improve dietary habits. Social media, such as blogs, represent a unique opportunity for improving knowledge translation in health care through interactive communication between health consumers and health professionals. Despite the proliferation of food and lifestyle blogs, no research has been devoted to understanding potential blog readers’ perceptions of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians. Objective To identify women’s salient beliefs and perceptions regarding the use of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians promoting the improvement of their dietary habits. Methods We conducted a qualitative study with female Internet users living in the Quebec City, QC, area with suboptimal dietary habits. First, the women explored 4 existing healthy eating blogs written in French by qualified dietitians. At a focus group 2-4 weeks later, they were asked to discuss their experience and perceptions. Focus group participants were grouped by age (18-34, 35-54, and 55-75 years) and by their use of social media (users/nonusers). Using a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, participants were asked to identify salient beliefs underlying their attitudes (advantages/disadvantages), subjective norms (what people important to them would think), and perceptions of control (facilitators/barriers) regarding the use of a healthy eating blog written by a dietitian to improve dietary habits. Discussion groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, coded, and a deductive content analysis was performed independently by 2 individuals using the NVivo software (version 10). Results All participants (N=33) were Caucasian women aged between 22 to 73 year. Main advantages perceived of using healthy eating blogs written by a dietitian were that they provided useful recipe ideas, improved
Ramani, Subha; Mann, Karen
Many research questions posed by medical educators could be answered more effectively by the application of carefully selected qualitative research design than traditional quantitative research methods. Indeed, in many cases using mixed methods research would expand the scope of a study and yield meaningful qualitative data in addition to quantitative data. Qualitative research seeks to understand people's experiences, the meanings they assign to those experiences, the psychosocial aspects of and language used in interpersonal interactions, and the factors that influence perspectives and interactions. This understanding is vital in exploring learning and teaching styles, learners' experiences and perceptions, implementing and studying the impact of educational interventions and faculty development. This article aims to advance medical educators' understanding and application of qualitative research principles in educational scholarship by summarising and consolidating the fundamental principles of research in medical education described in recent AMEE guides. The 12 tips below offer a systematic, yet practical approach to designing a qualitative research study, particularly targeting educators new to this arena.
Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Saunders, Elijah; Mullins, C. Daniel; Pradel, Françoise G.; Zuckerman, Marni; Weir, Matthew R.
Background There is limited information in the literature about reasons for discharges against medical advice (DAMA) as supplied by patients and providers. Information about the reasons for DAMA is necessary for identifying workable strategies to reduce the likelihood and health consequences of DAMA. The objective of this study is to identify the reasons for DAMA based on patient and multi-category provider focus group interviews (FGIs). Methods Patients who discharged against medical advice between 2006 and 2008 from a large, academic medical center along with hospital providers reporting contact with patients who left against medical advice were recruited. Three patient-only groups, one physician-only group, and one nurse/social worker group were held. Focus group interviews were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed to identify themes within and across groups. Participants discussed the reasons for patient DAMA and identified potential solutions. Results Eighteen patients, 5 physicians, 6 nurses and 4 social workers participated in the FGIs. Seven themes emerged across the separate patient, doctor, nurse/social worker group FGIs of reasons why patients leave against medical advice: 1) drug addiction, 2) pain management, 3) external obligations, 4) wait time, 5) doctor’s bedside manner, 6) teaching hospital setting, and 7) communication. Solutions to tackle DAMA identified by participants revolve mainly around enhanced communication and provider education. Conclusions In a large, academic medical center we find some differences and many similarities across patients and providers in identifying the causes of and solutions to DAMA, many of which relate to communication. PMID:20538627
Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia
Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980
Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia
Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.
Background In Canada waiting lists for bariatric surgery are common, with wait times on average > 5 years. The meaning of waiting for bariatric surgery from the patients’ perspective must be understood if health care providers are to act as facilitators in promoting satisfaction with care and quality care outcomes. The aims of this study were to explore patients’ perceptions of waiting for bariatric surgery, the meaning and experience of waiting, the psychosocial and behavioral impact of waiting for treatment and identify health care provider and health system supportive measures that could potentially improve the waiting experience. Methods Twenty-one women and six men engaged in in-depth interviews that were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis between June 2011 and April 2012. The data were subjected to re-analysis to identify perceived health care provider and health system barriers to accessing bariatric surgery. Results Thematic analysis identified inequity as a barrier to accessing bariatric surgery. Three areas of perceived inequity were identified from participants’ accounts: socioeconomic inequity, regional inequity, and inequity related to waitlist prioritization. Although excited about their acceptance as candidates for surgery, the waiting period was described as stressful, anxiety provoking, and frustrating. Anger was expressed towards the health care system for the long waiting times. Participants identified the importance of health care provider and health system supports during the waiting period. Recommendations on how to improve the waiting experience included periodic updates from the surgeon’s office about their position on the wait list; a counselor who specializes in helping people going through this surgery, dietitian support and further information on what to expect after surgery, among others. Conclusion Patients’ perceptions of accessing and
Ruan, Lian J.
Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…
Park, Yeonjeong; Jung, Insung; Reeves, Thomas C.
This study describes the massive open online course (MOOC) experiences of three educational technology scholars assuming the roles of learners. Adapting Carroll's model of school learning as a theoretical framework, the study employed an autoethnography method to collect empirical data in three different MOOCs. Data analysis from regularly…
Kerns, Dannie J.
The qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of financial services industry change managers to understand the genesis of low data management information system project adoption rates. The goal of the study was to find methods to improve data management information system adoption rates. The participant pool consisted of 19…
Catacutan, Maria Rosario G.; de Guzman, Allan B.
Ethical decision-making in school administration has received considerable attention in educational leadership literature. However, most research has focused on principals working in secondary school settings while studies that explore ethical reasoning processes of academic deans have been significantly few. This qualitative study aims to…
Kuo, Ben C. H.; Hsu, Wei-Su; Lai, Nien-Hwa
In this study, we adopted a single qualitative case study method to explore and examine indigenous approaches to crisis counseling in Taiwan, through the distinct lens of an expert Taiwanese counseling psychologist. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted with the psychologist (as the case) to document her lived clinical experiences…
Seven functional families with handicapped children were studied using a case study approach. Through the qualitative paradigm, the development of successful coping mechanisms was examined. The parents completed an instrument called "CHIP, Coping Health Inventory for Parents," and all family members were interviewed. Subject families were…
The focus of the qualitative study was to explore college student sexual health choices from a 4-year undergraduate institution. The study could be used for future research into why the numbers of sexual risk choices including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain among college campuses, and how they affect academic success. Through…
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore characteristics, competencies, and strategies of transition program employment representatives who attain successful employment outcomes for urban Latino/a youths with disabilities. This study employed in-depth interviewing as a method of data collection. The central research question guiding…
De Smet, Cindy; Valcke, Martin; Schellens, Tammy; De Wever, Bram; Vanderlinde, Ruben
This article presents the findings of a qualitative study (carried out between 2011 and 2013) about the adoption and implementation of learning paths within a Learning Management System (LMS). Sixteen secondary school biology teachers of the GO! Network in Flanders (an urbanized region in Belgium) were involved in the study and questioned via…
Levine, Rachel B.; Kern, David E.; Wright, Scott M.
Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of…
Prichard, Tracie Shelley
This qualitative case study examines dialogue and discourse patterns between principals and teachers. It analyzes daily verbal interactions in order to identify shared meanings, hidden messages, and the dynamics of power. This study is also based on the belief that democracy in education is vital to maintaining a collaborative, people friendly…
This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…
Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana
Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…
Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana
Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…
Seale, Deborah E.
Telehealth units are one of many university administrative units created to foster innovation in universities over the last 40 years. Despite the proliferation of such units, few organizational studies have examined the work undertaken inside of these units. This qualitative study used a sequential two-part research design to understand the…
Drawing on data collected for a larger study investigating kindergarten teachers' online discussions of play, the present qualitative study examines teachers' discussions of gender. Findings suggest that teachers' project onto their kindergarten students many of their own gender prejudices about play. These teachers reinforced gendered attitudes…
Homer, Gina M.
This qualitative research study focuses on retention of first-year learners by exploring three variables: academic support, social support, and coping strategies. The research method is grounded theory founded by Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967). The philosophical assumptions of the study are Constructivist and Advocacy/Participatory knowledge…
Sanders, Mavis G.
This study draws from 4 years of qualitative case study data to describe how programmatic and district factors interacted to affect reform sustainability in two school districts--one urban and the other suburban. These districts have been implementing a reform developed by the National Network of Partnership Schools (NNPS) for over a decade. NNPS…
Johnson, Glenda S.
Purpose of the Study: The purpose of my grounded theory study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of beginning school counselors entering the profession and the role that mentoring played in their induction process. Qualitative data (i.e., a demographic questionnaire, written short-answer statements, interviewer observations, and a…
Bibou-Nakou, I.; Tsiantis, J.; Assimopoulos, H.; Chatzilambou, P.
The present paper uses a qualitative method in order to study the ways in which bullying is discursively organized among young adolescent students in relation to the family factors related to it. Only a few studies have linked aspects of parenting and family functioning to bullying through the use of students' discourses despite the fact that…
Thompson, Beti; Thompson, L. Anne; Hymer, Jennifer; Zbikowsi, Susan; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert
Objective: Because little is known about college-age smokers, the authors conducted a qualitative study to better understand this population. Participants: Forty college student smokers from 12 Pacific Northwest colleges participated in the study. Methods: The authors identified themes and built models to ascertain important factors related to…
Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni
Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…
Stipanovic, Natalie; Stringfield, Sam
This qualitative study explores career counseling and guidance services as provided to students engaged in career and technical education programs at three sites in the United States. The sites, consisting of high schools and community colleges, were part of the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's 5-year studies of…
This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…
Schmidt, Stacey M.
This qualitative study examines the journey of females to the role of superintendent. This study is based on interviews of six female superintendents from Indiana and Illinois in cities with a population of 15,000 people or more. Three of the superintendents had more than 25 years of experience in education, and three of the superintendents had 25…
Tuason, Ma. Teresa G.
This qualitative study investigated the psychological experience of poverty among 2 groups of Filipinos who were interviewed about the effects of being raised poor, 12 who became rich, and 13 who remained poor. Using constructivist and critical theories as research paradigms and grounded theory as methodology, the results of the study illustrated…
This article draws on a longitudinal qualitative study of Australian tertiary students studying Outdoor and Environmental Education. It draws on the work of Foucault and Darier to consider how "environmental governmentality" shapes the conduct, desires and attitudes of these students over time. Attention is drawn to normalising and disciplinary…
Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.
This qualitative study investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…
Castillo, Jose M.; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Barclay, Chris; Mattison, Amira; Tan, Sim Yin; Sabnis, Sujay; Brundage, Amber; Marshall, Leslie
Recent studies indicate that the majority of school psychologists' time continues to be dedicated to SPED related activities. Despite ongoing calls for school psychologists to expand their roles, why many practitioners do not deliver more comprehensive services is not well understood. This qualitative study investigated facilitators of and…
Reid, Eric Justin
This qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of IT Managers in publicly traded companies within the San Antonio, Texas area about outsourced data centers. Narrative data was collected using open-ended questions and face-to-face interviews within semi-structured environments. The research questions guided the study: (1)…
The impact of social class backgrounds on young children's educational experiences has attracted increasing attention in early childhood research. However, few longitudinal studies related to social class and parental involvement in young children's education are available, especially in East Asian contexts. In this longitudinal qualitative study,…
Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye
This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…
Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Reventlow, Susanne
General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in…
This article reports the results of a qualitative field study of the ethnotherapeutic treatment practices of "curanderos," the practitioners of traditional Mexican medicine, and their effectiveness in the treatment of mental illness. Three healers and their patients from the southwestern state of Oaxaca participated in the study. The patients had…
Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Burroughs, Tajhma; Wright, Jamie; Lemanczyk, Theresa; Darragh, Amy Rowntree
A significant body of research exists that explores the stressors of raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are fewer studies, however, that examine specific effective coping strategies of mothers of children with an ASD. This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of effective coping strategies for their parenting…
The number of women in the information technology (IT) profession has fluctuated along with the growth of business. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions of women who had been laid off from IT positions during the economic downturn period between 2007 and 2010. The research study was designed to…
Skaza, Robert J.
This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…
Mikkonen, Kristina; Kyngäs, Helvi; Kääriäinen, Maria
The purpose of this study was to describe nursing students' experiences of empathy of nursing teachers with the emphasis on how experiencing empathy from their teachers influences students, their learning and professional development. This research was a qualitative descriptive study conducted through face-to-face interviews with nursing students.…
Story, Julie A.
The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore academic leaders' experiences with the organizational elements of their own high school-college writing center collaborations. Conjoining theories framed this study: collaborative leadership theory, Kenneth Bruffee's notion of social constructionism and collaborative learning…
Lutter, Stacy Lynn
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of female registered nurses who have intentions to leave the profession with particular attention to the influence of gender. The theoretical framework of feminist poststructuralism informed this study, which emphasizes the role of discourse and power relations in the…
Henfield, Malik S.
On the basis of qualitative case study analysis, this study offers in-depth understanding of Black male middle school students' perceptions of racial microaggressions. It was found that Black male adolescents, depending on their backgrounds, are aware of different types of microaggressions. Implications for school counselors, teachers, and…
Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary
This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…
In Hong Kong, onscreen marking (OSM) is superseding paper-based marking (PBM) across the entire national examinations system. This paper describes a qualitative study of the attitudes of Liberal Studies markers towards OSM. This becomes a compulsory subject in Hong Kong's new senior secondary school curriculum to be first examined in 2012, with a…
Hickey, Kathleen Ryan
This qualitative research study examined the experiences of students who have been academically successful within a large, urban school district, specifically the Boston Public School District. The study sought both to uncover specific factors within individuals, homes, schools, and communities that promote academic success and to capture the…
Wilson, Melissa A.
The problem to be investigated by this study is whether museum visitors' history content knowledge is enhanced by their museum experience and whether their lived experiences played a role in their learning. The study is based on the theories of experiential, informal and free-choice learning. A qualitative design examined the lived experiences of…
Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L
This paper examines the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches to study the impact of economic disadvantage on family processes and adolescent development. Quantitative research has the merits of objectivity, good predictive and explanatory power, parsimony, precision and sophistication of analysis. Qualitative research, in contrast, provides a detailed, holistic, in-depth understanding of social reality and allows illumination of new insights. With the pragmatic considerations of methodological appropriateness, design flexibility, and situational responsiveness in responding to the research inquiry, a mixed methods approach could be a possibility of integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches and offers an alternative strategy to study the impact of economic disadvantage on family processes and adolescent development. PMID:21870673
Banning, Maggi; Gumley, Virginia
Caring is a complex phenomenon. Nurses aim to relieve patient suffering, acknowledge subjective experiences, display empathy but also manage emotions related to care provision. This study explored nurses' perceptions, experiences and emotions related to caring for cancer patients. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to explore the emotions management of 32 nurses working in a cancer hospital in Pakistan. Data saturation occurred after 20 interviews. Three themes emerged from the data related to caring, acknowledgement of patients' feelings, professional behaviour, patient involvement and emotional control. Some nurses repressed their emotions and feelings over patients who had difficulties sustaining hope. In such cases nurses require supportive networks to assist their emotions management and intra-personal skills. Educational support is needed to help nurses express their views in relation to emotional contagion, significance of repressed emotions and to identify supportive ways to assist nurses to communicate their experiences.
Hoffmann, Laura; Schumann, Nadine; Fankhaenel, Thomas; Thiel, Carolin; Klement, Andreas; Richter, Matthias
Introduction The synthetic drug methamphetamine with its high addiction potential is associated with substantial adverse health effects. In Germany, especially Central Germany, the increase in the consumption of methamphetamine has exceeded that of other illegal drugs. The treatment system and service providers are facing new challenges due to this rise in consumption. This qualitative study will explore the demand created by the increasing healthcare needs of methamphetamine-addicted persons in Central Germany, and the difficulty of rehabilitating addicted people. Methods and analysis The collection of empirical data will take place in a consecutive, two-stage process. In the first part of data collection, the experiences and perspectives of 40 professionals from numerous healthcare sectors for methamphetamine-addicted persons will be explored with the help of semistructured face-to-face interviews and probed by the research team. These findings will be discussed in 2 focus groups consisting of the participants of the face-to-face interviews; these group discussions comprise the second part of the data collection process. The interviews will be audio recorded, transcribed, and then subjected to qualitative content analysis. Ethics and dissemination All interviewees will receive comprehensive written information about the study, and sign a declaration of consent prior to the interview. The study will comply rigorously with data protection legislation. The research team has obtained the approval of the Ethical Review Committee at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. The results of the study will be published in high-quality, peer-reviewed international journals, presented at several congresses and used to design follow-up research projects. Trial registration number VfD_METH_MD_15_003600. PMID:27256092
Implications for Software Engineering Environments (SEEs) are presented in viewgraph format for characteristics of projects studied; significant problems and crucial problem areas in software design for large systems; layered behavioral model of software processes; implications of field study results; software project as an ecological system; results of the LIFT study; information model of design exploration; software design strategies; results of the team design study; and a list of publications.
Liu, Chennan; Liao, Minli; Smith, Douglas C.
Objectives: The authors systematically reviewed the outcomes and methodological quality of 24 Internet addiction (IA) treatment outcome studies in China. Method: The authors used 15 attributes from the quality of evidence scores to evaluate 24 outcome studies. These studies came from both English and Chinese academic databases from 2000 to 2010.…
Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.
Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…
Valtorta, Clara G.; Berland, Leema K.
Engineering in K-12 classrooms has been receiving expanding emphasis in the United States. The integration of science, mathematics, and engineering is a benefit and goal of K-12 engineering; however, current empirical research on the efficacy of K-12 science, mathematics, and engineering integration is limited. This study adds to this growing…
Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.
For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…
Loh, Jennifer; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.
This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study…
Russell, Brian E.
The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…
Hsu, Jung-Lung; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Liu, Jui-Jung
Although previous studies have acknowledged that helping behavior has many potential benefits, little research has aimed at understanding which factors would possibly enhance helping behaviors among team members in CSCL environment. Accordingly, this study was intended to identify underlying factors leading learners to collaborate in virtual CSCL…
Moore, J. L.
Describes a study which utilized a Likert type questionnaire to assess seven scales of secondary pupils' attitudes toward computers and robotics (school, leisure, career, employment, social, threat, future) and investigated pupils' scores on functions of their sex, general academic ability, course of study, and microcomputer experience. (MBR)
A large-scale study of Swedish men and women, each of whose intelligence level at age 13 was above the 25th percentile and whose father's education was only at the elementary level, was conducted in order to determine what educational level the participants had achieved and to study long-term effects of schooling. Subjects were sent questionnaires…
Ahmed, Jashim Uddin; Chowdhury, Md. Humayun Kabir; Rahman, Sheehan; Talukder, A. K. M. Mominul Haque
This study examines the factors contributing to academic probation in university settings and highlights the problems that students encounter in higher education institutions in Bangladesh. The study focused on students facing academic probation on two private universities in Bangladesh and analyzed students' response with respect to nine…
The research reported in this article aims to demonstrate a method for the systematic study of the therapist/patient interaction in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, drawing upon the tradition and methods of 'pragmatics'--the study of language in interaction. A brief introduction to the discipline of pragmatics demonstrates its relevance to the contemporary focus of clinical theory on the here-and-now dynamics of the relationship between analyst and patient. This is followed by a detailed study of five segments from the transcript of a therapeutic dialogue, drawn from a brief psychoanalytic psychotherapy, in which therapist and patient negotiate the meaning of the patient's symptom: Is it psychosomatic? The research seeks to show how the therapeutic process can be observed and studied as an interactional achievement, grounded in general and well-studied procedures through which meaning is intersubjectively developed and shared. Implications of the analysis for clinical theory and practice, and further research, are discussed.
Barclay-McLaughlin, Gina; Hatch, J. Amos
This article is a dialog between colleagues from different races who struggle with the complexities of doing qualitative research with participants who come from backgrounds that do not match their own. Based on transcriptions of extensive audiotaped conversations, the article explores issues related to studying across difference. The discussion…
Raoofi, Saeid; Chan, Swee Heng; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Rashid, Sabariah Md
This study reports on an investigation into writing strategies of Malaysian university students learning English as a second language. Qualitative data were collected from 21 undergraduate university students aged 19 to 21. The students interviewed reported using a variety of writing strategies. It was also found that all of the participants…
Badrasawi, Kamal J. I.; Zubairi, Ainol; Idrus, Faizah
Writing skill is seen as a cornerstone of university students' success in both academic and career life. This qualitative study was conducted to further explore the teachers' and students' perceptions on the relationship between writing apprehension and writing performance, contributing factors of writing apprehension, and strategies to reduce…
This is an account of a qualitative study designed to elicit and analyse the narratives of women who had trained to be volunteer counsellors at a Rape Crisis centre. Little prior research has focused on the experiences of workers in Rape Crisis centres and this project was designed to explore women's experiences in ways that were meaningful to…
Xue, Mo; Chao, Xia; Kuntz, Aaron M.
Socialization as a theoretical concept has been increasingly applied to higher education over the past several decades. However, little research examines international visiting scholars' overseas academic socialization experiences. Rooted in socialization theory, this one-year qualitative study explores 15 Chinese visiting scholars' lived…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.
Little research has attended to the role of gender and sexual orientation in shaping open adoption dynamics. This qualitative, longitudinal study of 45 adoptive couples (15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 15 heterosexual couples) examined adopters' motivations for open adoption, changes in attitudes about openness, and early relationship dynamics. Key…
Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra
This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…
Stehno, Kathren Ann
Despite state and national legislative literacy reforms, too many 4th grade students in Oklahoma are reading below required levels. This qualitative multiple case study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of sustaining a successful literacy reform three or more years in a post-reformational era. In-depth interviews were conducted to analyze…
Tennill, Marcia Marie
This qualitative follow-up evaluation explored the long-term impact of a faculty development program on participants who were five years post program. This study focused on 12 faculty members who participated in the University of Missouri's New Faculty Teaching Scholars program. The nine month program focused on creating a culture of teaching…
Krejci, Katherine T.
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the learning outcomes of the cooperative-education experience from an Information Technology student's perspective at a large Fortune 500 manufacturing/sales company located in the Midwest United States. Open-ended interview questions were developed based on the four-component model…
Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy
At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…
Turner, George W.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how adults with mild intellectual disabilities live out their social-sexual lives. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are often assumed to be asexual or incapable of having sexual lives, resulting in a paucity of research-based knowledge. Research and educational efforts with this…
Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn
This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…
Land, A'Lesia; Mixon, Jason R.; Butcher, Jennifer; Harris, Sandra
This qualitative, narrative study explored experiences of six successful African American male high school students. Findings suggested that barriers prior to high school were negative elements in the home and community. To be successful in high school, they overcame barriers of absent fathers, disruptive homes, negative community, and peers, and…
Hayes, Monica G.
The concept of cultural competency, its application, and impact on K-12 learning have not received much attention in the literature. Teachers need to understand the connection between culture and pedagogy when teaching minority and underrepresented students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine whether the skill sets in…
Isely, Paul J.; Isely, Peter; Freiburger, Jim; McMackin, Robert
This study examines the impact of child sexual molestation on men assaulted as children by Catholic clergy. In-depth interviews were used to conduct a qualitative analysis of how clergy-perpetrated childhood sexual abuse affected the adult psychological and/or psychosocial functioning of nine men. Subjects were selected in coordination with a…
Obery, Angela D.
This qualitative study examined the influence of the 2011 Oregon Writing Project (OWP) Summer Institute (SI) on the professional development of six teachers in the following ways: 1. The development of case descriptions of teachers' personal and professional backgrounds relevant to their teaching of writing. 2. An examination of the effects…
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
This qualitative case study endeavored to understand how program managers at one post-secondary Canadian university define, understand and undertake the marketing of their revenue-generating English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. Data were collected through interviews with three managers of distinct English as a Second Language (ESL)…
Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele
Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…
Duffy, Ryan D.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.
The present study interviewed 17 of the most research-productive counseling psychologists within APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, seven domains emerged from the interviews: root of productivity, personality characteristics, productivity strategies, work environment, nonwork life, impact, and…
Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip
In this qualitative study a more flexible alternative of conceptualising changes over time in teams is tested within student project teams. The conceptualisation uses turning points during the lifespan of a team to outline team development, based on work by Erbert, Mearns, & Dena (2005). Turning points are moments that made a significant…
Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Joussemet, Mireille; Dufour, Sarah
Research Findings: The present study explored the concrete manifestations of autonomy support (AS) toward toddlers. Eight child care educators were interviewed. Based on our assessment, these educators all valued AS. A qualitative content analysis revealed 18 practices that this group of child care educators considered supportive of toddlers'…
Hanline, Mary Francis; Correa-Torres, Silvia M.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the social experiences of preschoolers with severe disabilities in an inclusive early education setting. Teachers, paraprofessionals, and peers were interviewed, and the children and adults were observed in daily routines of the preschool. Findings showed that social experiences with adults were…
Andrews, Mary Lou; Ridenour, Carolyn S.
Students who aspire to become school principals and superintendents must be prepared to lead schools committed to serving boys and girls equitably. In this qualitative study, 122 graduate students in a cultural diversity course maintained journals of their experiences. The authors kept records of teaching the course and of selected written…
Ortogero, Shawna P.
This qualitative case study explored how three expert secondary special education teachers in Hawaii constructed their perceived roles and successfully negotiated their job demands. There is a strong connection between role problems and special education teachers leaving the profession. The special education teacher shortage has a direct impact on…
Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco
This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine principals' perceptions with respect to teacher leadership and the opportunities or barriers to leadership roles that teachers encounter within a school. Understanding the perspectives of principals with respect to teacher leadership and the opportunities or barriers to leadership…
Dispenza, Franco; Watson, Laurel B.; Chung, Y. Barry; Brack, Greg
In this qualitative study, the authors examined the experience of discrimination and its relationship to the career development trajectory of 9 female-to-male transgender persons. Participants were between 21 and 48 years old and had a variety of vocational experiences. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted via telephone and analyzed…
Administration of post-secondary correctional education (PSCE) programs within state was vastly changed through legislation enacted in 2009. This study examined the transition of a PSCE system formerly facilitated by higher education to the current system administered by the State Department of Corrections (SDC). This qualitative case study…
Herrmann, Kim Jesper
This study examines differences in university students' approaches to learning when attending tutorials as well as variation in students' perceptions of tutorials as an educational arena. In-depth qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with undergraduates showed how surface and deep approaches to learning were revealed in the…
This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…
Roberts, Ellen Adams
The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…
Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Jennings, Vanessa K.
Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate…
This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan…
Brooks, William J.
A basic qualitative research study was conducted to develop insights into how adult learners employ problem-solving and decision-making (PSDM), when considering college financing, student loans, and student debt. Using the social media Website Facebook, eight qualified participants were recruited. Participants were interviewed via telephone, and…
Jang, Yoo Jin; Woo, Hongryun; Henfield, Malik S.
Using consensual qualitative research methodology, this study examines the challenges doctoral-level international students encountered in counselor education programs, during supervisor training, specifically. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants and revealed a variety of difficulties. Despite the wide variability in…
Baxter, Paula Jean
This qualitative study attempted to analyze the educational goals and achievements of successful present and former Native American students at San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, NM. It considered a systemic approach to educating Native American students by taking into account their suggestions of how to improve the educational framework to…
A qualitative case study was conducted to explore best practices for accommodating elementary, middle, and high school students with written expressive disorders. Students with disorders of written expression experience significant impairments in writing for their age, intelligence, and educational experience. Accommodations are crucial…
Sloan, Tina Rye
This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant…
Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.
Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…
Shepherd, Cody A.; Waddell, Charlotte
Canadian autism policy has been unusually contentious, with parents resorting to litigation to secure services for their children in several provinces. To ascertain whether consensus was possible on improving services, we conducted an in-depth qualitative interview study with 39 parents, policymakers and researchers across the country. Parents…
Johnson, Marcia L.
This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…
Edgerton, C. Mark, II
This qualitative case study explored perceptions of teachers and educational administrators regarding differences between online grading systems and traditional written grade books. The purpose was to gain knowledge of online grade books in relation to parental involvement in the educational process and student academic performance, when compared…
Fonteix, Kimberly Ann
This qualitative multi-case study explored the perceptions and beliefs of teachers of students in Grade 9 and 10, at a high school in south-central New Jersey, who taught traditional classroom courses that incorporated technology, regarding their lived experiences delivering homebound instruction for the same curriculum. Technology used in the…
Tyler, Kimberly A.
Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…
This study explores the meaning of the death of a companion animal through autoethnographic poetry in conjunction with narrative reflections. This method expands the depth and scope of poetry in qualitative research by transforming expressive works into both the subject and product of inquiry.
Schoen, Jane; Warner, Sean
A case study in program evaluation that demonstrates the effectiveness of qualitative research methods is presented. Over a 5-year period, the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities in Ohio offered a baccalaureate program (University Without Walls) to local employees of a national manufacturing firm. The institutional research office…
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women in the United States. Although a healthy diet and appropriate physical activity can help reduce risk, few women are engaging in these behaviors. In this study, qualitative methods were used to better understand: knowledge and aware...
Rowe, Anna D.; Fitness, Julie; Wood, Leigh N.
This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring the role and functionality of emotions in feedback. In-depth interview data from students and lecturers at an Australian university are analysed using cognitive appraisal and prototype theory. Results suggest that students experience a range of positive and negative emotions in feedback contexts…
Leite, Francisco Carlos T.; Baggett, Connie D.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.
This qualitative study examines the perceptions of federally supported agricultural school teachers toward the attributes of two educational innovations brought by the educational reform currently undergoing in Brazil--the separation between academic and professional education and the emergence of the competency-based modular curriculum. The…
Smith, Kristi Johnson
This qualitative study explores the impact of experienced teachers' stories on pre-service teachers. Specifically, it examines what stories pre-service teachers hear and remember, if/how those stories impact thoughts or actions, and what factors influence impact. Analyzing pre-service teachers' reactions to stories and utilizing their direct…
Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng
This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…
This qualitative study explored school social workers' relationships during instances of abuse and neglect reporting, focusing on reports made for children and adolescents already receiving school social work services. Although school social workers frequently file abuse and neglect reports, little is known about how they manage clinical and…
Samardzija, Nadine; Peterson, Jean Sunde
The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore how academically gifted eighth graders experience learning, with special attention to learning and classroom preferences. Twenty-three students were interviewed individually. The central phenomenon was that their learning preferences were complex, nuanced, and idiosyncratic, and…
Ghandoura, Waleed A.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine a sample of 13 English as a second language (ESL) students' attitudes about a computer-aided composition (WebCT) class. Participants were enrolled in an introductory writing course. Data from student diaries revealed that students enjoyed and valued the WebCT course and that the course…
Zorrilla, Ana; Tisdell, Elizabeth J.
This qualitative study explored the connection between art and adult education for critical consciousness from the perspective and work of conceptual artist, Luis Camnitzer. The theoretical framework is grounded in the critical public pedagogy literature. Data collection methods included interviews with conceptual artist Luis Camnitzer and with…
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve
This qualitative study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and Newton (2001) and Creswell's (1998) method of…
Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Pantridge, Caroline E.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor
Parental influences on youth drinking are well documented but not the influence of extended family members. This article explores extended family influences on alcohol use among Mexican youths and whether extended family members can be considered natural mentors. We conducted a qualitative study using ethnographic open ended interviews with 117…
Ras, Gerard J. M.
This qualitative study explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…
Phan, Michael N.
The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore how pre-service training and professional development affected recruitment and retention of effective teachers serving in multicultural classrooms. The research questions under investigation were: (1) what pre-service training did effective educators receive before entering…
Cavazos, Alyssa G.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.
A qualitative study with nine Latina/o college students was conducted to determine their experiences with their high school teachers. After careful data analysis, the following themes emerged: (a) some Latina/o students receive high expectations and others receive low expectations, (b) low expectations for non-AP students exist, and (c) some…
This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…
Thornberg, Robert; Og uz, Ebru
The aim of the current study was to examine Swedish and Turkish teachers' perspectives on values education. Qualitative interviews with 52 teachers were conducted and analyzed. Values education was mostly about compliance with societal values and norms. The learning goals or values in values education were mainly on how to treat others and on…
This study explores the usefulness of reflexive photography for qualitative research in the human and social sciences. The investigation was done in the context of how male academics construct their world in a university during transformation. A group of white, male academics in the human sciences were provided with a camera and were requested to…
Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg
The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…
Devlin, Marcia; Gray, Kathleen
The ways in which universities and individual academics attempt to deter and respond to student plagiarism may be based on untested assumptions about particular or primary reasons for this behaviour. Using a series of group interviews, this qualitative study gathered the views of 56 Australian university students on the possible reasons for…
Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara
Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…
Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael
This article explores a scoping review of qualitative studies about children's experiences and feelings during times of parental separation. The purpose of the review was to explore children's feelings and attitudes about their parents' separation and how their voices are heard during times of parental separation. The scoping review examined 44…
Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Normore, Anthony H.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight issues relayed to appropriate design and conduct of qualitative studies in educational leadership. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is a conceptual/logical argument that centers around the notion that while scholars in the field have at times paid attention to such dynamics, it is important…
Watson, Fallon E.
This study describes the communication-specific soft skills that recent engineering graduates from Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) accredited universities in the state of Kentucky report they use at work. Utilizing a basic interpretive qualitative approach in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain the…
Wallace, Phyllis M.
Objective: To describe the development and testing of a theory-based interview guide. To increase awareness of adulterated silicone use among Transgender. Design: A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. Setting: Interviews were conducted in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Method: Seven transgender adults aged 18 and over were interviewed…
Martinez, A.; Dimitriadis, Y.; Rubia, B.; Gomez, E.; de la Fuente, P.
Studying and evaluating real experiences that promote active and collaborative learning is a crucial field in CSCL. Major issues that remain unsolved deal with the merging of qualitative and quantitative methods and data, especially in educational settings that involve both physical and computer-supported collaboration. In this paper we present a…
Henegar, LaTrica Y.
This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…
Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks
This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…
White, Marilyn Domas; Wang, Peiling
A qualitative study of the citing motivations of 12 agricultural economists (faculty and doctoral students) identifies several factors they considered in making citing decisions: the contributions of the document to their research; the criteria they apply to the documents; and metalevel documentation concerns. (Author/AEF)
Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla
Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…
Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.
This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…
Foxx, Laura R.
This qualitative research study was designed as an exploration of the phenomena of alumni non-donors of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Successfully securing private voluntary support is one of the most critical challenges for higher education institutions as traditional sources of financial support diminish, and alumni…
Banning, James; Folkestad, James E.
This article utilizes a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 101 dissertation abstracts found by searching the ProQuest Dissertation and Theses[TM] digital database for dissertations abstracts from 1990 through 2010 using the search terms education, science, technology, engineer, and STEM/SMET. Professional search librarians…
Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have medical conditions similar to those among the general population but with more complex presentation, a extended life expectancy, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These adults' health education has been inadequate. In this qualitative study, the author describes the…
The purpose of this single community qualitative case study was to determine how the voice of the student was present in the IEP process, documentation paperwork, and curricular and diagnostic decisions, among a group of seven students, grades 9 through 12, placed in a self-contained program for students with emotional disabilities in a suburban…