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Sample records for qualitative und quantitative

  1. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative research: beyond the debate.

    PubMed

    Gelo, Omar; Braakmann, Diana; Benetka, Gerhard

    2008-09-01

    Psychology has been a highly quantitative field since its conception as a science. However, a qualitative approach to psychological research has gained increasing importance in the last decades, and an enduring debate between quantitative and qualitative approaches has arisen. The recently developed Mixed Methods Research (MMR) addresses this debate by aiming to integrate quantitative and qualitative approaches. This article outlines and discusses quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research approaches with specific reference to their (1) philosophical foundations (i.e. basic sets of beliefs that ground inquiry), (2) methodological assumptions (i.e. principles and formal conditions which guide scientific investigation), and (3) research methods (i.e. concrete procedures for data collection, analysis and interpretation). We conclude that MMR may reasonably overcome the limitation of purely quantitative and purely qualitative approaches at each of these levels, providing a fruitful context for a more comprehensive psychological research.

  3. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  4. [Quantitative and qualitative nursing research].

    PubMed

    Nieminen, H; Sansoni, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this article is to open a discussion on Nursing research methods. Authors give some thoughts on qualitative nursing research and underlining the difference between positivistic and teleological vision. Relationship between inductive and deductive thinking is discussed.

  5. Using Qualitative Metasummary to Synthesize Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptive Findings

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Barroso, Julie; Voils, Corrine I.

    2008-01-01

    The new imperative in the health disciplines to be more methodologically inclusive has generated a growing interest in mixed research synthesis, or the integration of qualitative and quantitative research findings. Qualitative metasummary is a quantitatively oriented aggregation of qualitative findings originally developed to accommodate the distinctive features of qualitative surveys. Yet these findings are similar in form and mode of production to the descriptive findings researchers often present in addition to the results of bivariate and multivariable analyses. Qualitative metasummary, which includes the extraction, grouping, and formatting of findings, and the calculation of frequency and intensity effect sizes, can be used to produce mixed research syntheses and to conduct a posteriori analyses of the relationship between reports and findings. PMID:17243111

  6. Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    phenomenological approaches at the subjective end of the continuum. A few researchers have suggested ways in which quantitative and qualitative methods may be...Lofland, lq76), symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969), ethnomethodology (Turner, 1974), existentialism (Douglas & Johnson, 1977), and phenomenology ...orienting perspectives. Although most qualitative research will use some form of participant observation, those taking a phenomenological approach which

  7. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-03-01

    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  8. Propagating Qualitative Values Through Quantitative Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak

    1992-01-01

    In most practical problems where traditional numeric simulation is not adequate, one need to reason about a system with both qualitative and quantitative equations. In this paper, we address the problem of propagating qualitative values represented as interval values through quantitative equations. Previous research has produced exponential-time algorithms for approximate solution of the problem. These may not meet the stringent requirements of many real time applications. This paper advances the state of art by producing a linear-time algorithm that can propagate a qualitative value through a class of complex quantitative equations exactly and through arbitrary algebraic expressions approximately. The algorithm was found applicable to Space Shuttle Reaction Control System model.

  9. Bridging the Qualitative/Quantitative Software Divide

    PubMed Central

    Annechino, Rachelle; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    To compare and combine qualitative and quantitative data collected from respondents in a mixed methods study, the research team developed a relational database to merge survey responses stored and analyzed in SPSS and semistructured interview responses stored and analyzed in the qualitative software package ATLAS.ti. The process of developing the database, as well as practical considerations for researchers who may wish to use similar methods, are explored. PMID:22003318

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Proofs of Security Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0207 Qualitative and Quantitative Proofs of Security Properties Joseph Halpern Cornell University...data soun ::es, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of Information. Send comments regarding this...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Qualitative and Quoatitivae Proofs of Security Properties 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-09-l-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  11. Qualitative and quantitative reasoning about thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorstad, Gordon; Forbus, Ken

    1989-01-01

    One goal of qualitative physics is to capture the tacit knowledge of engineers and scientists. It is shown how Qualitative Process theory can be used to express concepts of engineering thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown how to integrate qualitative and quantitative knowledge to solve textbook problems involving thermodynamic cycles, such as gas turbine plants and steam power plants. These ideas were implemented in a program called SCHISM. Its analysis of a sample textbook problem is described and plans for future work are discussed.

  12. Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

  13. Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

  14. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  15. Integrated regional assessment: qualitative and quantitative issues

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-19

    Qualitative and quantitative issues are particularly significant in integrated regional assessment. This chapter examines the terms “qualitative” and “quantitative” separately and in relation to one another, along with a discussion of the degree of interdependence or overlap between the two. Strategies for integrating the two general approaches often produce uneasy compromises. However, integrated regional assessment provides opportunities for strong collaborations in addressing specific problems in specific places.

  16. Qualitative and Quantitative Distinctions in Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.

    2011-01-01

    The “categorical-dimensional debate” has catalyzed a wealth of empirical advances in the study of personality pathology. However, this debate is merely one articulation of a broader conceptual question regarding whether to define and describe psychopathology as a quantitatively extreme expression of normal functioning or as qualitatively distinct in its process. In this paper I argue that dynamic models of personality (e.g., object-relations, cognitive-affective processing system) offer the conceptual scaffolding to reconcile these seemingly incompatible approaches to characterizing the relationship between normal and pathological personality. I propose that advances in personality assessment that sample behavior and experiences intensively provide the empirical techniques, whereas interpersonal theory offers an integrative theoretical framework, for accomplishing this goal. PMID:22804676

  17. Combined qualitative and quantitative research designs.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Jane

    2012-12-01

    Mixed methods research designs have been recognized as important in addressing complexity and are recommended particularly in the development and evaluation of complex interventions. This article reports a review of studies in palliative care published between 2010 and March 2012 that combine qualitative and quantitative approaches. A synthesis of approaches to mixed methods research taken in 28 examples of published research studies of relevance to palliative and supportive care is provided, using a typology based on a classic categorization put forward in 1992. Mixed-method studies are becoming more frequently employed in palliative care research and resonate with the complexity of the palliative care endeavour. Undertaking mixed methods research requires a sophisticated understanding of the research process and recognition of some of the underlying complexities encountered when working with different traditions and perspectives on issues of: sampling, validity, reliability and rigour, different sources of data and different data collection and analysis techniques.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Reineke, James B; Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, which encompasses the internalization and sorting of plasma membrane (PM) lipids and proteins to distinct membrane-bound intracellular compartments, is a highly regulated and fundamental cellular process by which eukaryotic cells dynamically regulate their PM composition. Indeed, endocytosis is implicated in crucial cellular processes that include proliferation, migration, and cell division as well as maintenance of tissue homeostasis such as apical-basal polarity. Once PM constituents have been taken up into the cell, either via clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) or clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE), they typically have two fates: degradation through the late-endosomal/lysosomal pathway or returning to the PM via endocytic recycling pathways. In this review, we will detail experimental procedures that allow for both qualitative and quantitative assessment of endocytic recycling of transmembrane proteins internalized by CDE and CIE, using the HeLa cervical cancer cell line as a model system.

  19. Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray

    This guide discusses combining qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. It covers a wide array of methods, the strengths and limitations of each, and how they can be effectively interwoven into various research designs. The first chapter is "The Qualitative and the Quantitative." Part 1, "A…

  20. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-11-29

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF.

  1. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE METHODS OF SUICIDE RESEARCH IN OLD AGE.

    PubMed

    Ojagbemi, A

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the merits of the qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in the elderly using two studies identified through a free search of the Pubmed database for articles that might have direct bearing on suicidality in the elderly. The studies have been purposively selected for critical appraisal because they meaningfully reflect the quantitative and qualitative divide as well as the social, economic, and cultural boundaries between the elderly living in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. The paper concludes that an integration of both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches may provide a better platform for unraveling the complex phenomenon of suicide in the elderly.

  2. Developing a Research Program Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    1997-01-01

    A research program on postpartum depression is used to illustrate the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The direction of a research program is thus not limited by the type of methods in which a researcher has expertise. (SK)

  3. Developing a Research Program Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    1997-01-01

    A research program on postpartum depression is used to illustrate the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The direction of a research program is thus not limited by the type of methods in which a researcher has expertise. (SK)

  4. Sexual Harassment Prevention Initiatives: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-28

    is met. Gelo, Braakman, and Benetka (2008) describe qualitative and quantitative paradigms as such: Quantitative paradigms see reality as single...and tangible, where the knower and the known are considered as relatively separate and independent. Qualitative paradigms , however, view reality as a...experimental research or the positivist approach) will typically be utilized to explore and answer questions about relationships with measured variables that

  5. When Quantitative Details Impair Qualitative Understanding of Multimedia Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we explored why interspersing quantitative details through a multimedia lesson detracts from learners' qualitative understanding. Three experimental conditions were created. In each, participants had to study a qualitative text on the formation, propagation, and dispersion of ocean waves. In the concise condition no…

  6. When Quantitative Details Impair Qualitative Understanding of Multimedia Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we explored why interspersing quantitative details through a multimedia lesson detracts from learners' qualitative understanding. Three experimental conditions were created. In each, participants had to study a qualitative text on the formation, propagation, and dispersion of ocean waves. In the concise condition no…

  7. Approaches to Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Social Support Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit

    Social scientists tend to adopt either a qualitative or a quantitative perspective in research on social support. As single methods, each perspective has unique distinctions, limitations, and trade-offs. These approaches are based on differing epistemological assumptions. Qualitative research attempts to understand human behavior from the…

  8. A comparison of risk assessment techniques from qualitative to quantitative

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T.J.

    1995-02-13

    Risk assessment techniques vary from purely qualitative approaches, through a regime of semi-qualitative to the more traditional quantitative. Constraints such as time, money, manpower, skills, management perceptions, risk result communication to the public, and political pressures all affect the manner in which risk assessments are carried out. This paper surveys some risk matrix techniques, examining the uses and applicability for each. Limitations and problems for each technique are presented and compared to the others. Risk matrix approaches vary from purely qualitative axis descriptions of accident frequency vs consequences, to fully quantitative axis definitions using multi-attribute utility theory to equate different types of risk from the same operation.

  9. Meaning in Method: The Rhetoric of Quantitative and Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.

    The current debate about quantitative and qualitative research methods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that the connection is not so much logical as rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a…

  10. Qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative simulation of the osmoregulation system in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how Morven, a computational framework which can perform qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative simulation of dynamical systems using the same model formalism, is applied to study the osmotic stress response pathway in yeast. First the Morven framework itself is briefly introduced in terms of the model formalism employed and output format. We then built a qualitative model for the biophysical process of the osmoregulation in yeast, and a global qualitative-level picture was obtained through qualitative simulation of this model. Furthermore, we constructed a Morven model based on existing quantitative model of the osmoregulation system. This model was then simulated qualitatively, semi-quantitatively, and quantitatively. The obtained simulation results are presented with an analysis. Finally the future development of the Morven framework for modelling the dynamic biological systems is discussed.

  11. Qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative simulation of the osmoregulation system in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how Morven, a computational framework which can perform qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative simulation of dynamical systems using the same model formalism, is applied to study the osmotic stress response pathway in yeast. First the Morven framework itself is briefly introduced in terms of the model formalism employed and output format. We then built a qualitative model for the biophysical process of the osmoregulation in yeast, and a global qualitative-level picture was obtained through qualitative simulation of this model. Furthermore, we constructed a Morven model based on existing quantitative model of the osmoregulation system. This model was then simulated qualitatively, semi-quantitatively, and quantitatively. The obtained simulation results are presented with an analysis. Finally the future development of the Morven framework for modelling the dynamic biological systems is discussed. PMID:25864377

  12. The new AP Physics exams: Integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elby, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    When physics instructors and education researchers emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning in problem solving, they usually mean using those types of reasoning serially and separately: first students should analyze the physical situation qualitatively/conceptually to figure out the relevant equations, then they should process those equations quantitatively to generate a solution, and finally they should use qualitative reasoning to check that answer for plausibility (Heller, Keith, & Anderson, 1992). The new AP Physics 1 and 2 exams will, of course, reward this approach to problem solving. But one kind of free response question will demand and reward a further integration of qualitative and quantitative reasoning, namely mathematical modeling and sense-making--inventing new equations to capture a physical situation and focusing on proportionalities, inverse proportionalities, and other functional relations to infer what the equation ``says'' about the physical world. In this talk, I discuss examples of these qualitative-quantitative translation questions, highlighting how they differ from both standard quantitative and standard qualitative questions. I then discuss the kinds of modeling activities that can help AP and college students develop these skills and habits of mind.

  13. [Reconstituting evaluation methods based on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Okubo, Suguru; Yoshie, Satoru; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative EEG in psychotic children.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Simeon, J; Coffin, C

    1976-05-01

    The EEGs of hospitalized psychotic boys were analyzed quantitatively by means of visual evaluation, analog frequency analysis, and digital computer period analysis and were compared with those of age- and sex-matched normals. Visual evaluation of the records demonstrated that psychotic children have significantly more beta activity as well as fewer alpha bursts than normal controls. EEG analog frequency analysis showed that psychotic children have a greater percentage of total voltage in the 3-5 cps and 13-33 cps bands, while they show less voltage in the 6-12 cps bands as compared with normal controls. Digital computer period analysis demonstrated more slow, less alpha, and more fast activity, as well as a greater average frequency and frequency deviation in both the primary wave and first derivative measurements in psychotic children than normals, while normals showed a trend towards higher amplitude and amplitude variability. The similarity of the EEG differences between psychotic and normal children to those differences observed between adult chronic schizophrenics and normals, as well as to those between children of "high risk" for becoming schizophrenic and controls, suggests that the above described findings are characteristic for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  15. Asthma education: different viewpoints elicited by qualitative and quantitative methods.

    PubMed

    Damon, Scott A; Tardif, Richard R

    2015-04-01

    This project began as a qualitative examination of how asthma education provided by health professionals could be improved. Unexpected qualitative findings regarding the use of Asthma Action Plans and the importance of insurance reimbursement for asthma education prompted further quantitative examination. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with primary care physicians in private practice who routinely provide initial diagnoses of asthma and focus groups were conducted with other clinicians in private primary care practices who routinely provide asthma education. Using the DocStyles quantitative tool two questions regarding Asthma Action Plans and insurance reimbursement were asked of a representative sample of physicians and other clinicians. The utility of Asthma Action Plans was questioned in the 2012 qualitative study. Qualitative findings also raised questions regarding whether reimbursement is the barrier to asthma education for patients performed by medical professionals it is thought to be. 2013 quantitative findings show that the majority of clinicians see Asthma Action Plans as useful. The question of whether reimbursement is a barrier to providing asthma education to patients was not resolved by the quantitative data. The majority of clinicians see Asthma Action Plans as a useful tool for patient education. Clinicians had less clear opinions on whether the lack of defined reimbursement codes acted as a barrier to asthma education. The study also provided useful audience data for design of new asthma educational tools developed by CDC.

  16. Evolution of parasite virulence against qualitative or quantitative host resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Gandon, S; Michalakis, Y

    2000-01-01

    We analysed the effects of two different modes of host resistance on the evolution of parasite virulence. Hosts can either adopt an all-or-nothing qualitative response (i.e. resistant hosts cannot be infected) or a quantitative form of resistance (i.e. which reduces the within-host growth rate of the parasite). We show that the mode of host resistance greatly affects the evolutionary outcome. Specifically, a qualitative form of resistance reduces parasite virulence, while a quantitative form of resistance generally selects for higher virulence. PMID:10874747

  17. Classification of cassava genotypes based on qualitative and quantitative data.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E J; Oliveira Filho, O S; Santos, V S

    2015-02-02

    We evaluated the genetic variation of cassava accessions based on qualitative (binomial and multicategorical) and quantitative traits (continuous). We characterized 95 accessions obtained from the Cassava Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura; we evaluated these accessions for 13 continuous, 10 binary, and 25 multicategorical traits. First, we analyzed the accessions based only on quantitative traits; next, we conducted joint analysis (qualitative and quantitative traits) based on the Ward-MLM method, which performs clustering in two stages. According to the pseudo-F, pseudo-t2, and maximum likelihood criteria, we identified five and four groups based on quantitative trait and joint analysis, respectively. The smaller number of groups identified based on joint analysis may be related to the nature of the data. On the other hand, quantitative data are more subject to environmental effects in the phenotype expression; this results in the absence of genetic differences, thereby contributing to greater differentiation among accessions. For most of the accessions, the maximum probability of classification was >0.90, independent of the trait analyzed, indicating a good fit of the clustering method. Differences in clustering according to the type of data implied that analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in cassava germplasm might explore different genomic regions. On the other hand, when joint analysis was used, the means and ranges of genetic distances were high, indicating that the Ward-MLM method is very useful for clustering genotypes when there are several phenotypic traits, such as in the case of genetic resources and breeding programs.

  18. Integrating Quantitative Knowledge into a Qualitative Gene Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Jérémie; Eveillard, Damien; Siegel, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in molecular techniques, biological knowledge remains incomplete. Any theorizing about living systems is therefore necessarily based on the use of heterogeneous and partial information. Much current research has focused successfully on the qualitative behaviors of macromolecular networks. Nonetheless, it is not capable of taking into account available quantitative information such as time-series protein concentration variations. The present work proposes a probabilistic modeling framework that integrates both kinds of information. Average case analysis methods are used in combination with Markov chains to link qualitative information about transcriptional regulations to quantitative information about protein concentrations. The approach is illustrated by modeling the carbon starvation response in Escherichia coli. It accurately predicts the quantitative time-series evolution of several protein concentrations using only knowledge of discrete gene interactions and a small number of quantitative observations on a single protein concentration. From this, the modeling technique also derives a ranking of interactions with respect to their importance during the experiment considered. Such a classification is confirmed by the literature. Therefore, our method is principally novel in that it allows (i) a hybrid model that integrates both qualitative discrete model and quantities to be built, even using a small amount of quantitative information, (ii) new quantitative predictions to be derived, (iii) the robustness and relevance of interactions with respect to phenotypic criteria to be precisely quantified, and (iv) the key features of the model to be extracted that can be used as a guidance to design future experiments. PMID:21935350

  19. Quantitative and Qualitative Change in Children's Mental Rotation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Corth, Martin; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated quantitative and qualitative changes in mental rotation performance and solution strategies with a focus on sex differences. German children (N = 519) completed the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in the 5th and 6th grades (interval: one year; age range at time 1: 10-11 years). Boys on average outperformed girls on both…

  20. Qualitative versus Quantitative Results: An Experimental Introduction to Data Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment in which the student can ascertain the meaning of a negative result from a qualitative test by performing a more sensitive quantitative test on the same sample. Methodology for testing urinary glucose with a spectrophotometer at 630 nm and with commercial assaying glucose strips is presented. (MVL)

  1. Qualitative versus Quantitative Results: An Experimental Introduction to Data Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment in which the student can ascertain the meaning of a negative result from a qualitative test by performing a more sensitive quantitative test on the same sample. Methodology for testing urinary glucose with a spectrophotometer at 630 nm and with commercial assaying glucose strips is presented. (MVL)

  2. Nonstandard Work Schedules and Partnership Quality: Quantitative and Qualitative Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda; Taht, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    This article questions existing findings and provides new evidence about the consequences of nonstandard work schedules on partnership quality. Using quantitative couple data from The Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (NKPS) (N = 3,016) and semistructured qualitative interviews (N = 34), we found that, for women, schedules with varying hours…

  3. Nonstandard Work Schedules and Partnership Quality: Quantitative and Qualitative Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda; Taht, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    This article questions existing findings and provides new evidence about the consequences of nonstandard work schedules on partnership quality. Using quantitative couple data from The Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (NKPS) (N = 3,016) and semistructured qualitative interviews (N = 34), we found that, for women, schedules with varying hours…

  4. Modeling with Young Students--Quantitative and Qualitative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Joan; Ogborn, Jon; Boohan, Richard; Brosnan, Tim; Mellar, Harvey; Sakonidis, Babis

    1999-01-01

    A project created tasks and tools to investigate quality and nature of 11- to 14-year-old pupils' reasoning with quantitative and qualitative computer-based modeling tools. Tasks and tools were used in two innovative modes of learning: expressive, where pupils created their own models, and exploratory, where pupils investigated an expert's model.…

  5. What Good Is Polarizing Research into Qualitative and Quantitative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2006-01-01

    In education research, a polar distinction is frequently made to describe and produce different kinds of research: "quantitative" versus "qualitative." In this article, the authors argue against that polarization and the associated polarization of the "subjective" and the "objective," and they question the attribution of generalizability to only…

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Change in the Dynamics of Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yeou-Teh; Mayer-Kress, Gottfried; Newell, Karl M.

    2006-01-01

    The experiments examined qualitative and quantitative changes in the dynamics of learning a novel motor skill (roller ball task) as a function of the manipulation of a control parameter (initial ball speed). The focus was on the relation between the rates of change in performance over practice time and the changing time scales of the evolving…

  7. Empirically derived phenotypic subgroups – qualitative and quantitative trait analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Marsha A; Wyszynski, Diego F; Panhuysen, Carolien I; Ma, Qianli; Yip, Agustin; Farrell, John; Farrer, Lindsay A

    2003-01-01

    Background The Framingham Heart Study has contributed a great deal to advances in medicine. Most of the phenotypes investigated have been univariate traits (quantitative or qualitative). The aims of this study are to derive multivariate traits by identifying homogeneous groups of people and assigning both qualitative and quantitative trait scores; to assess the heritability of the derived traits; and to conduct both qualitative and quantitative linkage analysis on one of the heritable traits. Methods Multiple correspondence analysis, a nonparametric analogue of principal components analysis, was used for data reduction. Two-stage clustering, using both k-means and agglomerative hierarchical clustering, was used to cluster individuals based upon axes (factor) scores obtained from the data reduction. Probability of cluster membership was calculated using binary logistic regression. Heritability was calculated using SOLAR, which was also used for the quantitative trait analysis. GENEHUNTER-PLUS was used for the qualitative trait analysis. Results We found four phenotypically distinct groups. Membership in the smallest group was heritable (38%, p < 1 × 10-6) and had characteristics consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia. We found both qualitative and quantitative LOD scores above 3 on chromosomes 11 and 14 (11q13, 14q23, 14q31). There were two Kong & Cox LOD scores above 1.0 on chromosome 6 (6p21) and chromosome 11 (11q23). Conclusion This approach may be useful for the identification of genetic heterogeneity in complex phenotypes by clarifying the phenotype definition prior to linkage analysis. Some of our findings are in regions linked to elements of atherogenic dyslipidemia and related diagnoses, some may be novel, or may be false positives. PMID:14975083

  8. Can We Integrate Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Science Education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    The main objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in science education. It is argued that the Kuhnian in commensurability thesis (a major source of inspiration for qualitative researchers) represents an obstacle for this integration. A major thesis of the paper is that qualitative researchers have interpreted the increased popularity of their paradigm (research programme) as a revolutionary break through in the Kuhnian sense. A review of the literature in areas relevant to science education shows that researchers are far from advocating qualitative research as the only methodology. It is concluded that competition between divergent approaches to research in science education (cf. Lakatos, 1970) would provide a better forum for a productive sharing of research experiences.

  9. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

  10. Analyses quantitatives et qualitatives des tests cloze: syntaxe et semantique (Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Cloze Tests: Syntax and Semantics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Kathleen; Toker, Mia Beer

    1984-01-01

    Linguistic and statistical analyses of cloze tests as a measure of second language competence revealed qualitative and quantitative differences between the performances of Anglophone immersion and French control groups. The diagnostic limitations of the procedure and the usefulness of the linguistic information derived from it are discussed. (MSE)

  11. Is Qualitative Research Second Class Science? A Quantitative Longitudinal Examination of Qualitative Research in Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Shuval, Kerem; Harker, Karen; Roudsari, Bahman; Groce, Nora E.; Mills, Britain; Siddiqi, Zoveen; Shachak, Aviv

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. Design A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998–2007). The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research). Findings A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012); and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, P<0.001). Additionally, a higher proportion of qualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. Conclusions Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to

  12. Is qualitative research second class science? A quantitative longitudinal examination of qualitative research in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Kerem; Harker, Karen; Roudsari, Bahman; Groce, Nora E; Mills, Britain; Siddiqi, Zoveen; Shachak, Aviv

    2011-02-24

    Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998-2007). The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research). A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012); and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, P<0.001). Additionally, a higher proportion of qualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to qualitative research, as expressed by the

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Glycogen in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Matsui-Yatsuhashi, Hiroko; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Ishida, Miyuki; Takumi, Hiroko; Kakutani, Ryo; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saeko; Hirose, Junko; Kuriki, Takashi

    2017-02-22

    Identification as well as a detailed analysis of glycogen in human milk has not been shown yet. The present study confirmed that glycogen is contained in human milk by qualitative and quantitative analyses. High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography with a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS) were used for qualitative analysis of glycogen in human milk. Quantitative analysis was carried out by using samples obtained from the individual milks. The result revealed that the concentration of human milk glycogen varied depending on the mother's condition-such as the period postpartum and inflammation. The amounts of glycogen in human milk collected at 0 and 1-2 months postpartum were higher than in milk collected at 3-14 months postpartum. In the milk from mothers with severe mastitis, the concentration of glycogen was about 40 times higher than that in normal milk.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular characteristics and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol Y; Tay, Wan T; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie J; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong L; Lau, Qiangfeng P; Zhu, Ai L; Klein, Ronald; Saw, Seang M; Wong, Tien Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of blood pressure on a spectrum of quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular signs. Retinal photographs from the Singapore Malay Eye Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response) persons aged 40-80 years, were analyzed. Quantitative changes in the retinal vasculature (branching angle, vascular tortuosity, fractal dimension, and vascular caliber) were measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. Qualitative signs, including focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN), arteriovenous nicking (AVN), opacification of the arteriolar wall (OAW), and retinopathy (e.g., microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages), were assessed from photographs by trained technicians. After excluding persons with diabetes and ungradable photographs, 1913 persons provided data for this analysis. In multivariable linear regression models controlling for age, sex, BMI, use of antihypertensive medication, and other factors, retinal arteriolar branching asymmetry ratio, arteriolar tortuosity, venular tortuosity, fractal dimension, arteriolar caliber, venular caliber, FAN, AVN, and retinopathy were independently associated with mean arterial blood pressure. In contrast, arteriolar/venular branching angle, venular branching asymmetry ratio and OAW were not related to blood pressure. Retinal arteriolar caliber (sβ = -0.277) and FAN (sβ = 0.170) had the strongest associations with mean arterial blood pressure, and higher blood pressure levels were associated with increasing number of both quantitative and qualitative retinal vascular signs (P trend <0.001). Elevated blood pressure is associated with a spectrum of quantitative and qualitative retinal vascular signs, with the number of signs increasing with higher blood pressure levels.

  15. [Qualitative and quantitative EEG-findings in schizophrenia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-03-01

    The results of the qualitative but particularly the quantitative EEG-studies indicate that 1. The EEG of adult schizophrenics is characterized by an appearance of excessive fast activity along with some slow waves and the lack of alpha-activity. 2. Excessive fast activity and lack of alpha-waves have also been found in the EEGs of psychotic children and most interestingly in children whose parents (particularly the mother) are schizophrenic (high risk children). 3. Based on the studies during sleep and investigations with neuroleptics, it was established that the origin of the excess fast activity in schizophrenia cannot be the muscle potential. Particularly the excess fast activity in high risk children for schizophrenia goes against the muscle potential hypothesis. 4. The quantitative EEG changes seen in schizophrenia show similarity to those seen after hallucinogenic compounds particularly after anticholinergic hallucinogenics. 5. All neuroleptics (major tranquilizers) produce quantitative EEG alterations which are almost diametrically opposite to those seen in schizoprenia.

  16. [Quantitative and qualitative research methods, can they coexist yet?].

    PubMed

    Hunt, Elena; Lavoie, Anne-Marise

    2011-06-01

    Qualitative design is gaining ground in Nursing research. In spite of a relative progress however, the evidence based practice movement continues to dominate and to underline the exclusive value of quantitative design (particularly that of randomized clinical trials) for clinical decision making. In the actual context convenient to those in power making utilitarian decisions on one hand, and facing nursing criticism of the establishment in favor of qualitative research on the other hand, it is difficult to chose a practical and ethical path that values the nursing role within the health care system, keeping us committed to quality care and maintaining researcher's integrity. Both qualitative and quantitative methods have advantages and disadvantages, and clearly, none of them can, by itself, capture, describe and explain reality adequately. Therefore, a balance between the two methods is needed. Researchers bare responsibility to society and science, and they should opt for the appropriate design susceptible to answering the research question, not promote the design favored by the research funding distributors.

  17. A Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of 8 Clear Sky Models.

    PubMed

    Bruneton, Eric

    2016-10-27

    We provide a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of 8 clear sky models used in Computer Graphics. We compare the models with each other as well as with measurements and with a reference model from the physics community. After a short summary of the physics of the problem, we present the measurements and the reference model, and how we "invert" it to get the model parameters. We then give an overview of each CG model, and detail its scope, its algorithmic complexity, and its results using the same parameters as in the reference model. We also compare the models with a perceptual study. Our quantitative results confirm that the less simplifications and approximations are used to solve the physical equations, the more accurate are the results. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of each model, and how to further improve their accuracy.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative mass spectrometry imaging of drugs and metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Lietz, Christopher B.; Gemperline, Erin; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) has rapidly increased its presence in the pharmaceutical sciences. While quantitative whole-body autoradiography and microautoradiography are the traditional techniques for molecular imaging of drug delivery and metabolism, MSI provides advantageous specificity that can distinguish the parent drug from metabolites and modified endogenous molecules. This review begins with the fundamentals of MSI sample preparation/ionization, and then moves on to both qualitative and quantitative applications with special emphasis on drug discovery and delivery. Cutting-edge investigations on sub-cellular imaging and endogenous signaling peptides are also highlighted, followed by perspectives on emerging technology and the path for MSI to become a routine analysis technique. PMID:23603211

  19. Appraising qualitative research for inclusion in systematic reviews: a quantitative and qualitative comparison of three methods.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Sutton, Alex; Shaw, Rachel; Miller, Tina; Smith, Jonathan; Young, Bridget; Bonas, Sheila; Booth, Andrew; Jones, David

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research is increasingly valued as part of the evidence for policy and practice, but how it should be appraised is contested. Various appraisal methods, including checklists and other structured approaches, have been proposed but rarely evaluated. We aimed to compare three methods for appraising qualitative research papers that were candidates for inclusion in a systematic review of evidence on support for breast-feeding. A sample of 12 research papers on support for breast-feeding was appraised by six qualitative reviewers using three appraisal methods: unprompted judgement, based on expert opinion; a UK Cabinet Office quality framework; and CASP, a Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Papers were assigned, following appraisals, to 1 of 5 categories, which were dichotomized to indicate whether or not papers should be included in a systematic review. Patterns of agreement in categorization of papers were assessed quantitatively using kappa statistics, and qualitatively using cross-case analysis. Agreement in categorizing papers across the three methods was slight (kappa =0.13; 95% CI 0.06-0.24). Structured approaches did not appear to yield higher agreement than that by unprompted judgement. Qualitative analysis revealed reviewers' dilemmas in deciding between the potential impact of findings and the quality of the research execution or reporting practice. Structured instruments appeared to make reviewers more explicit about the reasons for their judgements. Structured approaches may not produce greater consistency of judgements about whether to include qualitative papers in a systematic review. Future research should address how appraisals of qualitative research should be incorporated in systematic reviews.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Hippocampal MRI Assessments in Intractable Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Paramdeep; Kaur, Rupinderjeet; Saggar, Kavita; Singh, Gagandeep; Kaur, Amarpreet

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To acquire normative data of hippocampal volumes and T2 relaxation times, to evaluate and compare qualitative and quantitative assessments in evaluating hippocampi in patients with different durations of intractable epilepsy, and to propose an imaging protocol based on performance of these techniques. Methods. MRI analysis was done in 50 nonepileptic controls and 30 patients with intractable epilepsy on 1.5T scanner. Visual assessment and hippocampal volumetry were done on oblique coronal IR/T2W and T1W MP-RAGE images, respectively. T2 relaxation times were measured using 16-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. Volumetric data was normalized for variation in head size between individuals. Patients were divided into temporal (n = 20) and extratemporal (n = 10) groups based on clinical and EEG localization. Results. In controls, right hippocampal volume was slightly more than the left with no effect of age or gender. In TLE patients, hippocampal volumetry provided maximum concordance with EEG. Visual assessment of unilateral pathology concurred well with measured quantitative values but poorly in cases with bilateral pathologies. There were no significant differences of mean values between extratemporal group and controls group. Quantitative techniques detected mild abnormalities, undetected on visual assessment. Conclusions. Quantitative techniques are more sensitive to diagnose bilateral and mild unilateral hippocampal abnormalities. PMID:23984369

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile constituents from latrines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianming; Aoll, Jackline; Niclass, Yvan; Velazco, Maria Inés; Wünsche, Laurent; Pika, Jana; Starkenmann, Christian

    2013-07-16

    More than 2.5 billion people defecate in the open. The increased commitment of private and public organizations to improving this situation is driving the research and development of new technologies for toilets and latrines. Although key technical aspects are considered by researchers when designing new technologies for developing countries, the basic aspect of offending malodors from human waste is often neglected. With the objective of contributing to technical solutions that are acceptable to global consumers, we investigated the chemical composition of latrine malodors sampled in Africa and India. Field latrines in four countries were evaluated olfactively and the odors qualitatively and quantitatively characterized with three analytical techniques. Sulfur compounds including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl-mono-(di;tri) sulfide are important in sewage-like odors of pit latrines under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, in Nairobi for example, paracresol and indole reached concentrations of 89 and 65 μg/g, respectively, which, along with short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid (13 mg/g) explained the strong rancid, manure and farm yard odor. This work represents the first qualitative and quantitative study of volatile compounds sampled from seven pit latrines in a variety of geographic, technical, and economic contexts in addition to three single stools from India and a pit latrine model system.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative assays for flagellum-mediated chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Darias, José Antonio Reyes; García-Fontana, Cristina; Lugo, Andrés Corral; Rico-Jiménez, Miriam; Krell, Tino

    2014-01-01

    A primary driving force during bacterial evolution was the capacity to access compounds necessary for growth and survival. Since the species of the genus Pseudomonas are characterized by metabolic versatility, these bacteria have developed chemotactic behaviors towards a wide range of different compounds. The specificity of a chemotactic response is determined by the chemoreceptor, which is at the beginning of the signaling cascade and to which chemoattractants and chemorepellents bind. The number of chemoreceptor genes of Pseudomonas species is significantly higher than the average number in motile bacteria. Although some of the receptors have been annotated with a function, the cognate signal molecules for the majority of them still need to be identified. Different qualitative and quantitative methods are presented that can be used to study flagellum-mediated taxis.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative change in the dynamics of motor learning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yeou-Teh; Mayer-Kress, Gottfried; Newell, Karl M

    2006-04-01

    The experiments examined qualitative and quantitative changes in the dynamics of learning a novel motor skill (roller ball task) as a function of the manipulation of a control parameter (initial ball speed). The focus was on the relation between the rates of change in performance over practice time and the changing time scales of the evolving attractor dynamic. Results showed 3 different learning patterns to the changes in the dynamics as a function of practice that were mediated by the initial ball speed. Only participants who learned the task showed a bifurcation in coordination mode that was preceded by enhanced performance variability. The observed multiple time scales to motor learning are interpreted as the products of the dynamical stability and instability realized from (a) the continually evolving landscape dynamics due to bifurcations between attractor organization and (b) the transient phenomena associated with moving toward and away from fixed-point dynamics.

  4. Calibration of qualitative HBsAg assay results for quantitative HBsAg monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Hans; Adachi, Dena; Tang, Julian W

    2014-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen monitoring may be useful in managing patients with chronic HBV infection on certain treatment regimens. Based on these results with the Abbott Architect qualitative and quantitative HBsAg assays, it seems feasible to convert qualitative to quantitative HBsAg values for this purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Marcello; Gangeri, Laura; Brunelli, Cinzia; Boeri, Paolo; Borreani, Claudia; Bosisio, Marco; Karmann, Claude Fusco; Greco, Margherita; Miccinesi, Guido; Murru, Luciana; Trimigno, Patrizia

    2003-01-01

    Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT) for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ), a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81%) completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease). Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness). Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions) has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which emerged from this

  6. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments.

    PubMed

    Conners, Erin E; West, Brooke S; Roth, Alexis M; Meckel-Parker, Kristen G; Kwan, Mei-Po; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Clapp, John D; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, 'place', including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC), whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1) Participatory mapping; 2) Quantitative interviews; 3) Sex work venue field observation; 4) Time-location-activity diaries; 5) In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions.

  7. Composition of fingermark residue: a qualitative and quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Girod, Aline; Ramotowski, Robert; Weyermann, Céline

    2012-11-30

    This article describes the composition of fingermark residue as being a complex system with numerous compounds coming from different sources and evolving over time from the initial composition (corresponding to the composition right after deposition) to the aged composition (corresponding to the evolution of the initial composition over time). This complex system will additionally vary due to effects of numerous influence factors grouped in five different classes: the donor characteristics, the deposition conditions, the substrate nature, the environmental conditions and the applied enhancement techniques. The initial and aged compositions as well as the influence factors are thus considered in this article to provide a qualitative and quantitative review of all compounds identified in fingermark residue up to now. The analytical techniques used to obtain these data are also enumerated. This review highlights the fact that despite the numerous analytical processes that have already been proposed and tested to elucidate fingermark composition, advanced knowledge is still missing. Thus, there is a real need to conduct future research on the composition of fingermark residue, focusing particularly on quantitative measurements, aging kinetics and effects of influence factors. The results of future research are particularly important for advances in fingermark enhancement and dating technique developments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments

    PubMed Central

    Conners, Erin E.; West, Brooke S.; Roth, Alexis M.; Meckel-Parker, Kristen G.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Clapp, John D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, ‘place’, including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC), whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1) Participatory mapping; 2) Quantitative interviews; 3) Sex work venue field observation; 4) Time-location-activity diaries; 5) In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions. PMID:27191846

  9. Critically appraising qualitative research: a guide for clinicians more familiar with quantitative techniques.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Stephen; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Papers using qualitative methods are increasingly common in psychiatric journals. This overview is an introduction to critically appraising a qualitative paper for clinicians who are more familiar with quantitative methods. Qualitative research uses data from interviews (semi-structured or unstructured), focus groups, observations or written materials. Data analysis is inductive, allowing meaning to emerge from the data, rather than the more deductive, hypothesis centred approach of quantitative research. This overview compares and contrasts quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative concepts such as reliability, validity, statistical power, bias and generalisability have qualitative equivalents. These include triangulation, trustworthiness, saturation, reflexivity and applicability. Reflexivity also shares features of transference. Qualitative approaches include: ethnography, action-assessment, grounded theory, case studies and mixed methods. Qualitative research can complement quantitative approaches. An understanding of both is useful in critically appraising the psychiatric literature.

  10. A Qualitative-Quantitative H-NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John S.; Leary, James J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment combining qualitative and quantitative information from hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Reviews theory, discusses the experimental approach, and provides sample results. (JM)

  11. A Qualitative-Quantitative H-NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John S.; Leary, James J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment combining qualitative and quantitative information from hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Reviews theory, discusses the experimental approach, and provides sample results. (JM)

  12. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  13. The life review experience: Qualitative and quantitative characteristics.

    PubMed

    Katz, Judith; Saadon-Grosman, Noam; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-02-01

    The life-review experience (LRE) is a most intriguing mental phenomenon that fascinated humans from time immemorial. In LRE one sees vividly a succession of one's own life-events. While reports of LRE are abundant in the medical, psychological and popular literature, not much is known about LRE's cognitive and psychological basis. Moreover, while LRE is known as part of the phenomenology of near-death experience, its manifestation in the general population and in other circumstances is still to be investigated. In a first step we studied the phenomenology of LRE by means of in-depth qualitative interview of 7 people who underwent full LRE. In a second step we extracted the main characters of LRE, to develop a questionnaire and an LRE-score that best reflects LRE phenomenology. This questionnaire was then run on 264 participants of diverse ages and backgrounds, and the resulted score was further subjected to statistical analyses. Qualitative analysis showed the LRE to manifest several subtypes of characteristics in terms of order, continuity, the covered period, extension to the future, valence, emotions, and perspective taking. Quantitative results in the normal population showed normal distribution of the LRE-score over participants. Re-experiencing one's own life-events, so-called LRE, is a phenomenon with well-defined characteristics, and its subcomponents may be also evident in healthy people. This suggests that a representation of life-events as a continuum exists in the cognitive system, and maybe further expressed in extreme conditions of psychological and physiological stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative fracture analyses of high-strength ceramics.

    PubMed

    Øilo, Marit; Tvinnereim, Helene M; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2009-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the applicability and repeatability of qualitative and quantitative analyses of the fracture patterns of four different high-strength ceramics. Ten bar-shaped specimens of four high-strength ceramics with different material composition and fabrication methods had been fractured by three-point bending in water (n = 40). Commonly used fractographic patterns for brittle materials, such as mirror and mist, were used to characterize and quantify the fractured surfaces of these specimens. The analyses were performed twice, on separate occasions, by the same operator. Assessment of the association between fractographic patterns and fracture stress was carried out, and repeatability assessments of the measurements were performed. The fracture initiator site and the common fractographic markers surrounding this site were found in all specimens. Statistically significant correlations were found between certain fracture patterns and stress at fracture. The repeatability of the measurements of the different fractographic patterns varied among the materials. Fracture analyses seem applicable as a tool to determine the fracture initiation site and to estimate the force vectors involved in the fracture of dental high-strength ceramics.

  15. Qualitation and Quantitation on Microplasma Jet for Bacteria Inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Changming; Liu, Ya; Huang, Yani; Li, Ziming; Men, Rui; Men, Yue; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a self-made microplasma jet system was used to conduct the qualitation and quantitation of inactivation with Escherichia coli as the target bacteria. The logarithmic concentration and the size of antimicrobial rings served as the evaluation parameters, respectively. The effect of various parameters on inactivation effect was studied. The results showed that the majority of bacteria had been inactivated in 30 s. The inactivation effect enhanced and then weakened with the increase of air flow rate, and receded as the extension of treatment distance. The effect with different carrier gases showed as follows: oxygen > air > nitrogen > argon. Meanwhile, the effect of different components of microplasma was studied in the optimum conditions (The flow rate was 5 L/min inactivation distance was 2 cm). The results showed that electrically neutral active species was the main factor of inactivation rather than heating effect, ultraviolet radiation and charged particles. Finally the experiments of thallus change proved that microplasma jet had etching effect on cell membrane. It also found that microplasma could degrade organic material like protein. Furthermore, the images of scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the change of cell morphology step by step in the whole process of inactivation.

  16. Qualitation and Quantitation on Microplasma Jet for Bacteria Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Du, ChangMing; Liu, Ya; Huang, YaNi; Li, ZiMing; Men, Rui; Men, Yue; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a self-made microplasma jet system was used to conduct the qualitation and quantitation of inactivation with Escherichia coli as the target bacteria. The logarithmic concentration and the size of antimicrobial rings served as the evaluation parameters, respectively. The effect of various parameters on inactivation effect was studied. The results showed that the majority of bacteria had been inactivated in 30 s. The inactivation effect enhanced and then weakened with the increase of air flow rate, and receded as the extension of treatment distance. The effect with different carrier gases showed as follows: oxygen > air > nitrogen > argon. Meanwhile, the effect of different components of microplasma was studied in the optimum conditions (The flow rate was 5 L/min; inactivation distance was 2 cm). The results showed that electrically neutral active species was the main factor of inactivation rather than heating effect, ultraviolet radiation and charged particles. Finally the experiments of thallus change proved that microplasma jet had etching effect on cell membrane. It also found that microplasma could degrade organic material like protein. Furthermore, the images of scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the change of cell morphology step by step in the whole process of inactivation. PMID:26732987

  17. Reshaping Plant Biology: Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptors for Plant Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Balduzzi, Mathilde; Binder, Brad M.; Bucksch, Alexander; Chang, Cynthia; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Pradal, Christophe; Sparks, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    An emerging challenge in plant biology is to develop qualitative and quantitative measures to describe the appearance of plants through the integration of mathematics and biology. A major hurdle in developing these metrics is finding common terminology across fields. In this review, we define approaches for analyzing plant geometry, topology, and shape, and provide examples for how these terms have been and can be applied to plants. In leaf morphological quantifications both geometry and shape have been used to gain insight into leaf function and evolution. For the analysis of cell growth and expansion, we highlight the utility of geometric descriptors for understanding sepal and hypocotyl development. For branched structures, we describe how topology has been applied to quantify root system architecture to lend insight into root function. Lastly, we discuss the importance of using morphological descriptors in ecology to assess how communities interact, function, and respond within different environments. This review aims to provide a basic description of the mathematical principles underlying morphological quantifications. PMID:28217137

  18. 'Irrational' stated preferences: a quantitative and qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Fernando San; Ryan, Mandy; Amaya-Amaya, Mabelle

    2005-03-01

    Individuals' rationality has been a key issue long debated in Economics. While normative theories establish the way 'rational' consumers should behave, many empirical studies have documented numerous systematic violations of normative principles. This has led some to question the validity of classic economic models as an adequate approximation of individuals' real decision-making. This paper aims to shed more light on this debate. A stated preference choice experiment was set up to test rational choice properties. Attention was given to the extent to which satisfaction of such tests is related to both the complexity of the design, and subject characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative methods are applied. The majority of respondents passed the rationality tests. Satisfaction of the tests was sensitive to normatively irrelevant factors such as the complexity of the task and demographic characteristics. A significant proportion of those individuals who 'failed' seem to have reformulated the experiment in some way in their mental process. Implications for the design and analyses of future DCEs are discussed.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of enamel after various stripping methods.

    PubMed

    Arman, Ayca; Cehreli, S Burcak; Ozel, Emre; Arhun, Neslihan; Cetinşahin, Alev; Soyman, Mubin

    2006-08-01

    In this study, we investigated ultramorphology, surface roughness, and microhardness of permanent and deciduous tooth enamel after various stripping methods. One hundred twenty deciduous and permanent teeth (n = 60 each) were used. Qualitative (scanning electron microscopy) and quantitative (surface roughness and microhardness tests) experiments were carried out in the following experimental groups: group 1, stripping disk; group 2, diamond-coated metal strip; group 3, stripping disk and Sof-Lex discs (3M-ESPE, Seefeld, Germany); group 4, diamond-coated metal strip and Sof-Lex discs; group 5 (chemical stripping), 37% orthophosphoric acid in conjunction with diamond-coated metal strip; group 6 (control), no stripping. Surface roughness values (Ra) for permanent and deciduous enamel were evaluated with Welch analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tamhane tests, and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively. Microhardness values were evaluated statistically with Kruskal-Wallis, 1-way ANOVA, and Duncan tests. Deciduous and permanent teeth showed similar results in terms of surface roughness and surface morphology. Groups 3 and 4 had the smoothest deciduous and permanent enamel surfaces, whereas chemical stripping (group 5) produced the roughest surfaces in both enamel types. Stripping did not lead to a significant change in the microhardness of permanent enamel. All stripping methods significantly roughened the enamel surfaces. Polishing the stripped surface with Sof-Lex discs decreased the roughness.

  20. Reshaping Plant Biology: Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptors for Plant Morphology.

    PubMed

    Balduzzi, Mathilde; Binder, Brad M; Bucksch, Alexander; Chang, Cynthia; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Pradal, Christophe; Sparks, Erin E

    2017-01-01

    An emerging challenge in plant biology is to develop qualitative and quantitative measures to describe the appearance of plants through the integration of mathematics and biology. A major hurdle in developing these metrics is finding common terminology across fields. In this review, we define approaches for analyzing plant geometry, topology, and shape, and provide examples for how these terms have been and can be applied to plants. In leaf morphological quantifications both geometry and shape have been used to gain insight into leaf function and evolution. For the analysis of cell growth and expansion, we highlight the utility of geometric descriptors for understanding sepal and hypocotyl development. For branched structures, we describe how topology has been applied to quantify root system architecture to lend insight into root function. Lastly, we discuss the importance of using morphological descriptors in ecology to assess how communities interact, function, and respond within different environments. This review aims to provide a basic description of the mathematical principles underlying morphological quantifications.

  1. Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

  2. The Quantitative-Qualitative Distinction and the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnesar, Nimal; Mackenzie, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Conventional discussion of research methodology contrast two approaches, the quantitative and the qualitative, presented as collectively exhaustive. But if qualitative is taken as the understanding of lifeworlds, the two approaches between them cover only a tiny fraction of research methodologies; and the quantitative, taken as the routine…

  3. Factors Distinguishing between Achievers and At Risk Students: A Qualitative and Quantitative Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiselen, R.; Geyser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify factors that distinguish between Achievers and At Risk Students in Accounting 1A, and to explore how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement each other. Differences between the two groups were explored from both a quantitative and a qualitative perspective, focusing on study habits,…

  4. Use of MRI in Differentiation of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Ankur M; Ream, Justin M; Kierans, Andrea S; Bilbily, Matthew; Rusinek, Henry; Huang, William C; Chandarana, Hersh

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitative and quantitative MRI feature analysis is useful for differentiating type 1 from type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). This retrospective study included 21 type 1 and 17 type 2 PRCCs evaluated with preoperative MRI. Two radiologists independently evaluated various qualitative features, including signal intensity, heterogeneity, and margin. For the quantitative analysis, a radiology fellow and a medical student independently drew 3D volumes of interest over the entire tumor on T2-weighted HASTE images, apparent diffusion coefficient parametric maps, and nephrographic phase contrast-enhanced MR images to derive first-order texture metrics. Qualitative and quantitative features were compared between the groups. For both readers, qualitative features with greater frequency in type 2 PRCC included heterogeneous enhancement, indistinct margin, and T2 heterogeneity (all, p < 0.035). Indistinct margins and heterogeneous enhancement were independent predictors (AUC, 0.822). Quantitative analysis revealed that apparent diffusion coefficient, HASTE, and contrast-enhanced entropy were greater in type 2 PRCC (p < 0.05; AUC, 0.682-0.716). A combined quantitative and qualitative model had an AUC of 0.859. Qualitative features within the model had interreader concordance of 84-95%, and the quantitative data had intraclass coefficients of 0.873-0.961. Qualitative and quantitative features can help discriminate between type 1 and type 2 PRCC. Quantitative analysis may capture useful information that complements the qualitative appearance while benefiting from high interobserver agreement.

  5. On Becoming a Pragmatic Researcher: The Importance of Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    The last 100 years have witnessed a fervent debate in the United States about quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Unfortunately, this has led to a great divide between quantitative and qualitative researchers, who often view themselves in competition with each other. Clearly, this polarization has promoted purists, i.e., researchers…

  6. Epilepsy surgery failure in children: a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Englot, Dario J.; Han, Seunggu J.; Rolston, John D.; Ivan, Michael E.; Kuperman, Rachel A.; Chang, Edward F.; Gupta, Nalin; Sullivan, Joseph E.; Auguste, Kurtis I.

    2015-01-01

    Object Resection is a safe and effective treatment option for children with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, but some patients continue experience seizures after surgery. While most studies of pediatric epilepsy surgery focus on predictors of postoperative seizure outcome, these factors are often not modifiable, and the reasons for surgical failure may remain unclear. Methods The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of children and adolescents who received focal resective surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of factors associated with persistent postoperative seizures were conducted. Results Records were reviewed from 110 patients, ranging in age from 6 months to 19 years at the time of surgery, who underwent a total of 115 resections. At a mean 3.1-year follow-up, 76% of patients were free of disabling seizures (Engel Class I outcome). Seizure freedom was predicted by temporal lobe surgery compared with extra-temporal resection, tumor or mesial temporal sclerosis compared with cortical dysplasia or other pathologies, and by a lower preoperative seizure frequency. Factors associated with persistent seizures (Engel Class II–IV outcome) included residual epileptogenic tissue adjacent to the resection cavity (40%), an additional epileptogenic zone distant from the resection cavity (32%), and the presence of a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome (28%). Conclusions While seizure outcomes in pediatric epilepsy surgery may be improved by the use of high-resolution neuroimaging and invasive electrographic studies, a more aggressive resection should be considered in certain patients, including hemispherectomy if a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome is suspected. Family counseling regarding treatment expectations is critical, and reoperation may be warranted in select cases. PMID:25127098

  7. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  8. Geysers of Enceladus: Quantitative analysis of qualitative models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Schmidt, Jürgen; Spahn, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Aspects of two qualitative models of Enceladus' dust plume - the so-called "Cold Faithful" [Porco, C.C., et al., 2006. Cassini observes the active south pole of Enceladus. Science 311, 1393-1401; Ingersoll, A.P., et al., 2006. Models of the Enceladus plumes. In: Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, vol. 38, p. 508] and "Frigid Faithful" [Kieffer, S.W., et al., 2006. A clathrate reservoir hypothesis for Enceladus' south polar plume. Science 314, 1764; Gioia, G., et al., 2007. Unified model of tectonics and heat transport in a Frigid Enceladus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 104, 13578-13591] models - are analyzed quantitatively. The former model assumes an explosive boiling of subsurface liquid water, when pressure exerted by the ice crust is suddenly released due to an opening crack. In the latter model the existence of a deep shell of clathrates below Enceladus' south pole is conjectured; clathrates can decompose explosively when exposed to vacuum through a fracture in the outer icy shell. For the Cold Faithful model we estimate the maximal velocity of ice grains, originating from water splashing in explosive boiling. We find that for water near the triple point this velocity is far too small to explain the observed plume properties. For the Frigid Faithful model we consider the problem of momentum transfer from gas to ice particles. It arises since any change in the direction of the gas flow in the cracks of the shell requires re-acceleration of the entrained grains. While this effect may explain the observed speed difference of gas and grains if the gas evaporates from triple point temperature (273.15 K) [Schmidt, J., et al., 2008. Formation of Enceladus dust plume. Nature 451, 685], the low temperatures of the Frigid Faithful model (˜140-170K) imply a too dilute vapor to support the observed high particle fluxes in Enceladus' plume.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative ultrashort-TE MRI of cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Bydder, Graeme M.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis causes over 1.5 million fractures per year, costing about $15 billion annually in the USA. Current guidelines utilize bone mineral density (BMD) to assess fracture risk; however, BMD alone only accounts for 30–50% of fractures. The other two major components of bone, organic matrix and water, contribute significantly to bone mechanical properties, but cannot be assessed with conventional imaging techniques in spite of the fact that they make up about 57% of cortical bone by volume. Conventional clinical MRI usually detects signals from water in tissues without difficulty, but cannot detect the water bound to the organic matrix, or the free water in the microscopic pores of the Haversian and the lacunar-canalicular system of cortical bone, because of their very short apparent transverse relaxation times (T2*). In recent years, a new class of sequences, ultrashort-TE (UTE) sequences, with nominal TEs of less than 100 μs, which are much shorter than the TEs available with conventional sequences, have received increasing interest. These sequences can detect water signals from within cortical bone and provide an opportunity to study disease of this tissue in a new way. This review summarizes the recent developments in qualitative UTE imaging (techniques and contrast mechanisms to produce bone images with high contrast) and quantitative UTE imaging (techniques to quantify the MR properties, including T1, T2* and the magnetization transfer ratio, and tissue properties, including bone perfusion, as well as total, bound and free water content) of cortical bone in vitro and in vivo. The limitations of the current techniques for clinical applications and future directions are also discussed. PMID:23280581

  10. Leadership and Culture-Building in Schools: Quantitative and Qualitative Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sashkin, Marshall; Sashkin, Molly G.

    Understanding effective school leadership as a function of culture building through quantitative and qualitative analyses is the purpose of this paper. The two-part quantitative phase of the research focused on statistical measures of culture and leadership behavior directed toward culture building in the school. The first quantitative part…

  11. Leadership and Culture-Building in Schools: Quantitative and Qualitative Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sashkin, Marshall; Sashkin, Molly G.

    Understanding effective school leadership as a function of culture building through quantitative and qualitative analyses is the purpose of this paper. The two-part quantitative phase of the research focused on statistical measures of culture and leadership behavior directed toward culture building in the school. The first quantitative part…

  12. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  13. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  14. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE NEUROPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE FETAL NEOCORTEX.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the qualitative and quantitative neuropathological changes that occur in the fetal brain following gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos [(O,O'diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothionate], a commonly used organophosphorus insecticide. Two cohort...

  15. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE NEUROPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE FETAL NEOCORTEX.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the qualitative and quantitative neuropathological changes that occur in the fetal brain following gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos [(O,O'diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothionate], a commonly used organophosphorus insecticide. Two cohort...

  16. Qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones by the method of high-efficiency liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Yanotovskii, M.T.; Mogilevskaya, M.P.; Obol'nikova, E.A.; Kogan, L.M.; Samokhvalov, G.I.

    1986-07-10

    A method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones CoQ/sub 6/-CoQ/sub 10/, using high-efficiency reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Tocopherol acetate was used as the internal standard.

  17. A quantitative analysis of qualitative studies in clinical journals for the 2000 publishing year

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2004-01-01

    Background Quantitative studies are becoming more recognized as important to understanding health care with all of its richness and complexities. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the qualitative studies published in 170 core clinical journals for 2000. Methods All identified studies that used qualitative methods were reviewed to ascertain which clinical journals publish qualitative studies and to extract research methods, content (persons and health care issues studied), and whether mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative methods) were used. Results 60 330 articles were reviewed. 355 reports of original qualitative studies and 12 systematic review articles were identified in 48 journals. Most of the journals were in the discipline of nursing. Only 4 of the most highly cited health care journals, based on ISI Science Citation Index (SCI) Impact Factors, published qualitative studies. 37 of the 355 original reports used both qualitative and quantitative (mixed) methods. Patients and non-health care settings were the most common groups of people studied. Diseases and conditions were cancer, mental health, pregnancy and childbirth, and cerebrovascular disease with many other diseases and conditions represented. Phenomenology and grounded theory were commonly used; substantial ethnography was also present. No substantial differences were noted for content or methods when articles published in all disciplines were compared with articles published in nursing titles or when studies with mixed methods were compared with studies that included only qualitative methods. Conclusions The clinical literature includes many qualitative studies although they are often published in nursing journals or journals with low SCI Impact Factor journals. Many qualitative studies incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:15271221

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Changes of Upper Secondary Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hnatiuk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the Polish educational system, its constituent part - upper secondary education, in particular. Describing the qualitative changes in the upper secondary schools (secondary schools of the second extent) the author singles out one significant document that has changed the direction of education, created the conditions for…

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Changes of Upper Secondary Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hnatiuk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the Polish educational system, its constituent part - upper secondary education, in particular. Describing the qualitative changes in the upper secondary schools (secondary schools of the second extent) the author singles out one significant document that has changed the direction of education, created the conditions for…

  20. Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines several methodological issues associated with combining qualitative and quantitative methods by comparing the increasing interest in this topic with the earlier renewal of interest in qualitative research during the 1980s. The first section argues for the value of Kuhn's concept of paradigm shifts as a tool for examining…

  1. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  2. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a…

  3. Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines several methodological issues associated with combining qualitative and quantitative methods by comparing the increasing interest in this topic with the earlier renewal of interest in qualitative research during the 1980s. The first section argues for the value of Kuhn's concept of paradigm shifts as a tool for examining…

  4. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  5. [Comparison between the qualitative similarity and the quantitative similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Xiang; Hou, Zhi-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Ling; Bi, Kai-Shun; Sun, Yu-Qing

    2007-01-01

    To explore the differences between the qualitative similarity and the quantitative similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines, the quantitative similarity calculated by vector shadow C%, apparent quantitative similarity R%, quantitative similarity P%, etc. were firstly proposed to disclose the quantitative information characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines fingerprints. The HPLC fingerprints of both the standard Fructus gardeniae and the ten batches of Fructus gardeniae produced in different places were evaluated by the new parameters to obtain good results. The contrasted fingerprint contained 35 peaks while geniposide was selected as the reference peak. The HPLC fingerprint had good precision and reproducibility with the RSD of the relative retention time less than 1.5% and the RSD of the relative peak area within 5%. The qualitative similarity and quantitative similarity between each crude drug and the contrasted fingerprint were quantitatively calculated, the values of C%, P%, etc., were applied in the quality control practice, which had less errors. What is more, this method could be used for the overall quality control of Fructus gardeniae and especially suits for qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the chromatographic fingerprints both in chemical constituent distribution and in contents. The quantitative parameters such as C% and P% can be used to objectively, authentically and thoroughly display the content information characteristics. When they combined with the qualitative similarity, it will be the good method to evaluate the chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines.

  6. [Dentistry in Wikipedia: A quantitative and qualitative analysis].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Annette; Türp, Jens C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the scientific quality of the 265 dental articles that were present in January 2008 in the German-language version of Wikipedia. For this purpose, the Wikipedia entries were examined for their correctness by comparing them with the current dental literature. Every article was classified as having "textbook quality", "partial textbook quality" or "missing textbook quality". Of the 261 usable articles, 28% were qualitatively comparable to a textbook, while 56% had partial textbook quality. About 16% of the articles fell into the third group. Almost half of the Wikipedia entries fulfilled the qualitative standards, whereas the remaining articles were characterized by omissions. Hence, individuals interested in dental topics should not exclusively rely on Wikipedia. For a cursory overview, however, a search in Wikipedia appears to be in order.

  7. Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research: an example using Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of a Critical Interpretive Synthesis to synthesize quantitative research, in the form of an effectiveness review and a guideline, with qualitative research to examine the use of morphine to treat cancer-related pain. Critical Interpretive Synthesis is a new method of reviewing, developed from meta-ethnography, which integrates systematic review methodology with a qualitative tradition of enquiry. It has not previously been used specifically to synthesize effectiveness and qualitative literature. Data sources. An existing systematic review of quantitative research and a guideline examining the effectiveness of oral morphine to treat cancer pain were identified. Electronic searches of Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, Health Management Information Consortium database and the Social Science Citation Index to identify qualitative research were carried out in May 2008. Qualitative research papers reporting on the use of morphine to treat cancer pain were identified. The findings of the effectiveness research were used as a framework to guide the translation of findings from qualitative research using an integrative grid. A secondary translation of findings from the qualitative research, not specifically mapped to the effectiveness literature, was guided by the framework. Nineteen qualitative papers were synthesized with the quantitative effectiveness literature, producing 14 synthetic constructs. These were developed into four synthesizing arguments which drew on patients', carers' and healthcare professionals' interpretations of the meaning and context of the use of morphine to treat cancer pain. Critical Interpretive Synthesis can be adapted to synthesize reviews of quantitative research into effectiveness with qualitative research and fits into an existing typology of approaches to synthesizing qualitative and quantitative research.

  8. Qualitative Research? Quantitative Research? What's the Problem? Resolving the Dilemma via a Postconstructivist Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Gary

    It is argued that the debate between qualitative and quantitative research for educational researchers is actually an argument between constructivism and positivism. Positivism has been the basis for most quantitative research in education. Two different things are actually meant when constructivism is discussed (constructivism and…

  9. Quantitative versus qualitative data: the numerical dimensions of drug action.

    PubMed

    Bylund, David B; Toews, Myron L

    2014-01-01

    The application of detailed quantitative analyses of the concentration dependence of the biological responses mediated by endogenous hormones and other mediators, drugs, and related compounds has been the foundation of pharmacology for the past century or more. This approach has been remarkably successful in identifying the specific molecular targets for these mediators and drugs, in establishing the mechanisms for those effects at both the cellular and whole organismal levels, and in the development of new chemical entities (NCEs) with great selectivity for individual molecular targets. The availability of such compounds has unfortunately led to a mindset that detailed quantitative analyses are no longer necessary to use such compounds in understanding biological system function and to draw valid conclusions in regard to the utility of NCEs selective for putative drug targets in the potential treatment of human disease states. This lack of appreciation for quantitative approaches has contributed significantly to the all-too-frequent failures of new drug candidates in early-stage clinical trials. The present article reviews basic drug/receptor concepts together with the mathematical relationships that underlie the quantitative analysis of dose-response and concentration-effect relationships for individual compounds and for more complex systems, such as the comparative analysis of multiple compounds at a single receptor. A thorough understanding of these concepts and their associated analyses, along with their proper and rigorous application in all pre-clinical drug development studies, is an essential component of an integrated approach toward improving drug development.

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Biomarkers in Fusarium verticillioides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, a combination HPLC-DART-TOF-MS system was utilized to identify and quantitatively analyze carbohydrates in wild type and mutant strains of Fusarium verticillioides. Carbohydrate fractions were isolated from F. verticillioides cellular extracts by HPLC using a cation-exchange size-excl...

  11. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies.

    PubMed

    Sandelowski, M

    2000-06-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned to mixed-method techniques to expand the scope and improve the analytic power of their studies. Yet there is still relatively little direction on and much confusion about how to combine qualitative and quantitative techniques. These techniques are neither paradigm- nor method-linked; researchers' orientations to inquiry and their methodological commitments will influence how they use them. Examples of sampling combinations include criterion sampling from instrument scores, random purposeful sampling, and stratified purposeful sampling. Examples of data collection combinations include the use of instruments for fuller qualitative description, for validation, as guides for purposeful sampling, and as elicitation devices in interviews. Examples of data analysis combinations include interpretively linking qualitative and quantitative data sets and the transformation processes of qualitizing and quantitizing.

  12. Organizing "mountains of words" for data analysis, both qualitative and quantitative.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2010-04-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semiquantitative coding and analysis. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed.

  13. Aliasing as noise - A quantitative and qualitative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.; Hazra, Rajeeb

    1993-01-01

    We present a model-based argument that, for the purposes of system design and digital image processing, aliasing should be treated as signal-dependent additive noise. By using a computational simulation based on this model, we process (high resolution images of) natural scenes in a way which enables the 'aliased component' of the reconstructed image to be isolated unambiguously. We demonstrate that our model-based argument leads naturally to system design metrics which quantify the extent of aliasing. And, by illustrating several aliased component images, we provide a qualitative assessment of aliasing as noise.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative flow visualization technique using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a new flow-visualization technique based on the absorption of ultraviolet light by ozone. Ozone is an excellent tracer, because as a gas it has the same effective physical properties as air. Ozone strongly absorbs the principal line (253.7 nm) of a mercury lamp, so that when an ozone-traced flow passes between a mercury lamp and a fluorescent screen, a sharp, shadow-like image of the ozone tracer is cast on the screen. Quantitative photometry can be carried out by replacing the screen with ultraviolet detectors that yield the path-integrated column density of ozone in the flow. High-speed quantitative point monitoring (10 Hz at 10 ppb O3) is possible with capillary probes and chemiluminescent analysis.

  15. Personality and leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Bono, Joyce E; Ilies, Remus; Gerhardt, Megan W

    2002-08-01

    This article provides a qualitative review of the trait perspective in leadership research, followed by a meta-analysis. The authors used the five-factor model as an organizing framework and meta-analyzed 222 correlations from 73 samples. Overall, the correlations with leadership were Neuroticism = -.24, Extraversion = .31, Openness to Experience = .24, Agreeableness = .08, and Conscientiousness = .28. Results indicated that the relations of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness with leadership generalized in that more than 90% of the individual correlations were greater than 0. Extraversion was the most consistent correlate of leadership across study settings and leadership criteria (leader emergence and leadership effectiveness). Overall, the five-factor model had a multiple correlation of .48 with leadership, indicating strong support for the leader trait perspective when traits are organized according to the five-factor model.

  16. Measuring teamwork in primary care: Triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data.

    PubMed

    Brown, Judith Belle; Ryan, Bridget L; Thorpe, Cathy; Markle, Emma K R; Hutchison, Brian; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the triangulation of qualitative dimensions, reflecting high functioning teams, with the results of standardized teamwork measures. The study used a mixed methods design using qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess teamwork in 19 Family Health Teams in Ontario, Canada. This article describes dimensions from the qualitative phase using grounded theory to explore the issues and challenges to teamwork. Two quantitative measures were used in the study, the Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and the Providing Effective Resources and Knowledge (PERK) scale. For the triangulation analysis, the mean scores of these measures were compared with the qualitatively derived ratings for the dimensions. The final sample for the qualitative component was 107 participants. The qualitative analysis identified 9 dimensions related to high team functioning such as common philosophy, scope of practice, conflict resolution, change management, leadership, and team evolution. From these dimensions, teams were categorized numerically as high, moderate, or low functioning. Three hundred seventeen team members completed the survey measures. Mean site scores for the TCI and PERK were 3.87 and 3.88, respectively (of 5). The TCI was associated will all dimensions except for team location, space allocation, and executive director leadership. The PERK was associated with all dimensions except team location. Data triangulation provided qualitative and quantitative evidence of what constitutes teamwork. Leadership was pivotal in forging a common philosophy and encouraging team collaboration. Teams used conflict resolution strategies and adapted to the changes they encountered. These dimensions advanced the team's evolution toward a high functioning team.

  17. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative approach to prostate MR spectroscopy in peripheral zone cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Klijn, Stijn; De Visschere, Pieter J; De Meerleer, Gert O; Villeirs, Geert M

    2012-03-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of a qualitative (pattern recognition) and a quantitative (numerical assessment) approach to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the diagnosis of peripheral zone prostate cancer. 185 patients (131 with histopathologically proven cancer, 54 normal/benign after at least 12 months follow-up) were prospectively evaluated with qualitative MRS using a 4-point scale between 3/2004 and 1/2008, and retrospectively reassessed using a prototype quantitative postprocessing software in April 2008. Based on pathology and follow-up data, diagnostic performance parameters were calculated. The qualitative and quantitative approaches were concordant in 78.9% (146/185) of cases. The difference between the areas under the ROC curve (0.791 versus 0.772, respectively) was not statistically significant. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 55.7%, 94.4% and 67.0% for the qualitative approach, and 55.0%, 83.3% and 63.2% for the quantitative approach. The sensitivity for high grade tumours (Gleason 4+3 or higher) was 85.2% (23/27) for both approaches. All cancers missed on either one approach separately (31/31) and 91% of cancers missed on both approaches together (23/27) were of lower grade (Gleason 3+4 or lower). Qualitative and quantitative approaches to MRS yield similar diagnostic results. Discordances in tumour detection only occurred in lower grade cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Qualitative versus quantitative radiographic analysis of foot deformities in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Westberry, David E; Davids, Jon R; Roush, Thomas F; Pugh, Linda I

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative assessments of standing plain radiographs are frequently used to determine treatment strategies and assess outcomes for the management of a wide range of foot and ankle conditions in children. A quantitative technique for such analyses would presumably be more precise and reliable. The goal of this study was to compare qualitative and quantitative techniques for the assessment of plain radiographs of the foot and ankle in children with hemiplegic type cerebral palsy (CP). Standing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the foot and ankle of the involved side for 49 children with hemiplegic CP were analyzed qualitatively by 2 pediatric orthopaedists, based upon a 3-segment (hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot) foot model. Quantitative assessment of the same radiographs was performed by 2 examiners, using 6 radiographic measurements developed to describe the alignment of the foot based upon the same 3-segment model. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was determined for both the qualitative and the quantitative techniques. The qualitative and quantitative techniques were compared to determine agreement. The qualitative technique demonstrated poor-to-fair interobserver reliability (percent agreement range, 23%-31%; weighted kappa range, 0.291-0.568). The quantitative technique demonstrated good-to-excellent intraobserver (correlation coefficient range, 0.81-0.99) and interobserver (correlation coefficient range, 0.81-0.97) reliability. Percent agreement between the quantitative and the qualitative techniques for the assessment of foot segmental alignment for each examiner ranged from 22.2% to 100% (mean agreement for examiner 1 was 51% [correlation coefficient range, 0.04-0.48]; mean agreement for examiner 2 was 65.3% [correlation coefficient range, 0.22-0.85]). Percent agreement between the quantitative technique and both observers ranged from 11.1% to 83.3% (mean agreement was 36.7% [correlation coefficient range, 0.17-0.94]). Reliable

  19. Qualitative and quantitative processing of side-scan sonar data

    SciTech Connect

    Dwan, F.S.; Anderson, A.L.; Hilde, T.W.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Modern side-scan sonar systems allow vast areas of seafloor to be rapidly imaged and quantitatively mapped in detail. The application of remote sensing image processing techniques can be used to correct for various distortions inherent in raw sonography. Corrections are possible for water column, slant-range, aspect ratio, speckle and striping noise, multiple returns, power drop-off, and for georeferencing. The final products reveal seafloor features and patterns that are geometrically correct, georeferenced, and have improved signal/noise ratio. These products can be merged with other georeferenced data bases for further database management and information extraction. In order to compare data collected by different systems from a common area and to ground truth measurements and geoacoustic models, quantitative correction must be made for calibrated sonar system and bathymetry effects. Such data inversion must account for system source level, beam pattern, time-varying gain, processing gain, transmission loss, absorption, insonified area, and grazing angle effects. Seafloor classification can then be performed on the calculated back-scattering strength using Lambert's Law and regression analysis. Examples are given using both approaches: image analysis and inversion of data based on the sonar equation.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intracranial Hypotension: Diagnostic Value of Combined Qualitative Signs and Quantitative Metrics.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kerim; Gunbey, Hediye Pinar; Tomak, Leman; Ozmen, Zafer; Incesu, Lutfi

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of combination quantitative metrics (mamillopontine distance [MPD], pontomesencephalic angle, and mesencephalon anterior-posterior/medial-lateral diameter ratios) with qualitative signs (dural enhancement, subdural collections/hematoma, venous engorgement, pituitary gland enlargements, and tonsillar herniations) provides a more accurate diagnosis of intracranial hypotension (IH). The quantitative metrics and qualitative signs of 34 patients and 34 control subjects were assessed by 2 independent observers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative metrics and qualitative signs, and for the diagnosis of IH, optimum cutoff values of quantitative metrics were found with ROC analysis. Combined ROC curve was measured for the quantitative metrics, and qualitative signs combinations in determining diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were found, and the best model combination was formed. Whereas MPD and pontomesencephalic angle were significantly lower in patients with IH when compared with the control group (P < 0.001), mesencephalon anterior-posterior/medial-lateral diameter ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.001). For qualitative signs, the highest individual distinctive power was dural enhancement with area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.838. For quantitative metrics, the highest individual distinctive power was MPD with AUC of 0.947. The best accuracy in the diagnosis of IH was obtained by combination of dural enhancement, venous engorgement, and MPD with an AUC of 1.00. This study showed that the combined use of dural enhancement, venous engorgement, and MPD had diagnostic accuracy of 100 % for the diagnosis of IH. Therefore, a more accurate IH diagnosis can be provided with combination of quantitative metrics with qualitative signs.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of stress perfusion CMR in comparison with quantitative coronary angiography: fully quantitative, semiquantitative, and qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Mordini, Federico E; Haddad, Tariq; Hsu, Li-Yueh; Kellman, Peter; Lowrey, Tracy B; Aletras, Anthony H; Bandettini, W Patricia; Arai, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    This study's primary objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of fully quantitative stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) versus a reference standard of quantitative coronary angiography. We hypothesized that fully quantitative analysis of stress perfusion CMR would have high diagnostic accuracy for identifying significant coronary artery stenosis and exceed the accuracy of semiquantitative measures of perfusion and qualitative interpretation. Relatively few studies apply fully quantitative CMR perfusion measures to patients with coronary disease and comparisons to semiquantitative and qualitative methods are limited. Dual bolus dipyridamole stress perfusion CMR exams were performed in 67 patients with clinical indications for assessment of myocardial ischemia. Stress perfusion images alone were analyzed with a fully quantitative perfusion (QP) method and 3 semiquantitative methods including contrast enhancement ratio, upslope index, and upslope integral. Comprehensive exams (cine imaging, stress/rest perfusion, late gadolinium enhancement) were analyzed qualitatively with 2 methods including the Duke algorithm and standard clinical interpretation. A 70% or greater stenosis by quantitative coronary angiography was considered abnormal. The optimum diagnostic threshold for QP determined by receiver-operating characteristic curve occurred when endocardial flow decreased to <50% of mean epicardial flow, which yielded a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 93%. The area under the curve for QP was 92%, which was superior to semiquantitative methods: contrast enhancement ratio: 78%; upslope index: 82%; and upslope integral: 75% (p = 0.011, p = 0.019, p = 0.004 vs. QP, respectively). Area under the curve for QP was also superior to qualitative methods: Duke algorithm: 70%; and clinical interpretation: 78% (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 vs. QP, respectively). Fully quantitative stress perfusion CMR has high diagnostic accuracy for

  2. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of commitment development in psychology students.

    PubMed

    Kunnen, E Saskia

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the development of study- and work-related commitments in 28 psychology students during their bachelor years. Based on seven measurements of exploration and commitments (over a period of three-and-a-half years) we found the theoretically expected information-oriented, normative and diffuse trajectories. In addition, the longitudinal data allowed us to distinguish between a stable and a fluctuating information-oriented trajectory. We also found a stable moratorium and a regression trajectory. Clear, qualitative differences were found between the commitments in the different types of trajectories. Commitments in the information-oriented trajectories show more differentiation, development and change than those in the normative or diffuse trajectories. The fluctuating trajectory showed more doubt and negative emotions than the gradual and normative trajectories. The commitments in the normative trajectories were characterized by high levels of satisfaction and well-being, and by low levels of differentiation and development. The moratorium trajectories showed the highest levels of doubt and negative emotions, and the diffuse trajectories were average in this respect.

  3. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone’s mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young’s modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young’s modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone’s structural integrity. PMID:23976803

  4. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R(2)=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R(2)=0.67) and BV/TV (R(2)=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R(2)=0.92 for BV/TV and R(2)=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  5. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  6. Revisiting the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate: Implications for Mixed-Methods Research

    PubMed Central

    SALE, JOANNA E. M.; LOHFELD, LYNNE H.; BRAZIL, KEVIN

    2015-01-01

    Health care research includes many studies that combine quantitative and qualitative methods. In this paper, we revisit the quantitative-qualitative debate and review the arguments for and against using mixed-methods. In addition, we discuss the implications stemming from our view, that the paradigms upon which the methods are based have a different view of reality and therefore a different view of the phenomenon under study. Because the two paradigms do not study the same phenomena, quantitative and qualitative methods cannot be combined for cross-validation or triangulation purposes. However, they can be combined for complementary purposes. Future standards for mixed-methods research should clearly reflect this recommendation. PMID:26523073

  7. Synthesising quantitative and qualitative research in evidence‐based patient information

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Megan R; Bankhead, Clare R; Austoker, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews have, in the past, focused on quantitative studies and clinical effectiveness, while excluding qualitative evidence. Qualitative research can inform evidence‐based practice independently of other research methodologies but methods for the synthesis of such data are currently evolving. Synthesising quantitative and qualitative research in a single review is an important methodological challenge. Aims This paper describes the review methods developed and the difficulties encountered during the process of updating a systematic review of evidence to inform guidelines for the content of patient information related to cervical screening. Methods Systematic searches of 12 electronic databases (January 1996 to July 2004) were conducted. Studies that evaluated the content of information provided to women about cervical screening or that addressed women's information needs were assessed for inclusion. A data extraction form and quality assessment criteria were developed from published resources. A non‐quantitative synthesis was conducted and a tabular evidence profile for each important outcome (eg “explain what the test involves”) was prepared. The overall quality of evidence for each outcome was then assessed using an approach published by the GRADE working group, which was adapted to suit the review questions and modified to include qualitative research evidence. Quantitative and qualitative studies were considered separately for every outcome. Results 32 papers were included in the systematic review following data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. The review questions were best answered by evidence from a range of data sources. The inclusion of qualitative research, which was often highly relevant and specific to many components of the screening information materials, enabled the production of a set of recommendations that will directly affect policy within the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. Conclusions A

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of atmospheric organosulfates in Centreville, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiyadura, Anusha P. S.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Baumann, Karsten; Goldstein, Allen H.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Koss, Abigail; Keutsch, Frank N.; Skog, Kate; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Organosulfates are components of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) that form from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sulfate. In this study, the composition and abundance of organosulfates were determined in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected from Centreville, AL, during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in summer 2013. Six organosulfates were quantified using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQD) against authentic standards. Among these, the three most abundant species were glycolic acid sulfate (0.5-52.5 ng m-3), lactic acid sulfate (0.5-36.7 ng m-3), and hydroxyacetone sulfate (0.5-14.3 ng m-3). These three species were strongly inter-correlated, suggesting similar precursors and/or formation pathways. Further correlations with sulfate, isoprene, and isoprene oxidation products indicate important roles for these precursors in organosulfate formation in Centreville. Positive filter sampling artifacts associated with these organosulfates due to gas adsorption or reaction of gas phase precursors of organosulfates with sulfuric acid were assessed for a subset of samples and were less than 7.8 % of their PM2.5 concentrations. Together, the quantified organosulfates accounted for < 0.3 % of organic carbon mass in PM2.5. To gain insights into other organosulfates in PM2.5 collected from Centreville, semi-quantitative analysis was employed by way of monitoring characteristic product ions of organosulfates (HSO4- at m/z 97 and SO4- ṡ at m/z 96) and evaluating relative signal strength by HILIC-TQD. Molecular formulas of organosulfates were determined by high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The major organosulfate signal across all samples corresponded to 2-methyltetrol sulfates, which accounted for 42-62 % of the total bisulfate ion signal. Conversely, glycolic acid sulfate, the most abundant organosulfate quantified in this study, was 0

  9. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the

  10. Human factors issues in qualitative and quantitative safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.A.

    1993-10-01

    Humans are a critical and integral part of any operational system, be it a nuclear reactor, a facility for assembly or disassembling hazardous components, or a transportation network. In our concern over the safety of these systems, we often focus our attention on the hardware engineering components of such systems. However, experience has repeatedly demonstrated that it is often the human component that is the primary determinant of overall system safety. Both the nuclear reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island and shipping disasters such as the Exxon Valdez and the Herald of Free Enterprise accidents are attributable to human error. Concern over human contributions to system safety prompts us to include reviews of human factors issues in our safety analyses. In the conduct of Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs), human factors issues are addressed using a quantitative method called Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). HRAs typically begin with the identification of potential sources of human error in accident sequences of interest. Human error analysis often employs plant and/or procedures walk-downs in which the analyst considers the ``goodness`` of procedures, training, and human-machine interfaces concerning their potential contribution to human error. Interviews with expert task performers may also be conducted. In the application of HRA, once candidate sources of human error have been identified, error probabilities are developed.

  11. An Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Biochemical Model Learning Framework Using Evolutionary Strategy and Simulated Annealing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    Both qualitative and quantitative model learning frameworks for biochemical systems have been studied in computational systems biology. In this research, after introducing two forms of pre-defined component patterns to represent biochemical models, we propose an integrative qualitative and quantitative modelling framework for inferring biochemical systems. In the proposed framework, interactions between reactants in the candidate models for a target biochemical system are evolved and eventually identified by the application of a qualitative model learning approach with an evolution strategy. Kinetic rates of the models generated from qualitative model learning are then further optimised by employing a quantitative approach with simulated annealing. Experimental results indicate that our proposed integrative framework is feasible to learn the relationships between biochemical reactants qualitatively and to make the model replicate the behaviours of the target system by optimising the kinetic rates quantitatively. Moreover, potential reactants of a target biochemical system can be discovered by hypothesising complex reactants in the synthetic models. Based on the biochemical models learned from the proposed framework, biologists can further perform experimental study in wet laboratory. In this way, natural biochemical systems can be better understood.

  12. Comparison study on qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network.

    PubMed

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitative method is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitative method is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitative method proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluations of the Enhanced Logo-autobiography Program for Korean-American Women.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyung Mi; Bernstein, Kunsook

    2017-09-05

    This study extends Bernstein et al.'s (2016) investigation of the effects of the Enhanced Logo-autobiography Program on Korean-American women's depressive symptoms, coping strategies, purpose in life, and posttraumatic growth by analyzing quantitative and qualitative data. This study's participants significantly improved on quantitative measures of depression, coping strategies, purpose in life, and post-traumatic growth at eight weeks post-intervention and follow-up. The qualitative content analysis revealed 17 themes with five essential themes. The program's activity to promote purpose in life through posttraumatic growth facilitated participants' recovery from traumatic experiences. Standardized guidelines are needed to conduct this program in Korean community centers.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solvent systems for countercurrent separation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, J Brent; Ahmed, Sana; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-01-16

    Rational solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography technology (collectively known as countercurrent separation) studies continues to be a scientific challenge as the fundamental questions of comparing polarity range and selectivity within a solvent system family and between putative orthogonal solvent systems remain unanswered. The current emphasis on metabolomic investigations and analysis of complex mixtures necessitates the use of successive orthogonal countercurrent separation (CS) steps as part of complex fractionation protocols. Addressing the broad range of metabolite polarities demands development of new CS solvent systems with appropriate composition, polarity (π), selectivity (σ), and suitability. In this study, a mixture of twenty commercially available natural products, called the GUESSmix, was utilized to evaluate both solvent system polarity and selectively characteristics. Comparisons of GUESSmix analyte partition coefficient (K) values give rise to a measure of solvent system polarity range called the GUESSmix polarity index (GUPI). Solvatochromic dye and electrical permittivity measurements were also evaluated in quantitatively assessing solvent system polarity. The relative selectivity of solvent systems were evaluated with the GUESSmix by calculating the pairwise resolution (αip), the number of analytes found in the sweet spot (Nsw), and the pairwise resolution of those sweet spot analytes (αsw). The combination of these parameters allowed for both intra- and inter-family comparison of solvent system selectivity. Finally, 2-dimensional reciprocal shifted symmetry plots (ReSS(2)) were created to visually compare both the polarities and selectivities of solvent system pairs. This study helps to pave the way to the development of new solvent systems that are amenable to successive orthogonal CS protocols employed in metabolomic studies.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of bronze objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankova, V.; Blagoev, K.; Grozeva, M.; Malcheva, G.; Penkova, P.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of solids, liquids and gases. In this work, the method was applied for investigation of archaeological bronze objects. The analytical information obtained by LIBS was used for qualitative determination of the elements in the material used for manufacturing of the objects under study. Quantitative chemical analysis was also performed after generating calibration curves with standard samples of similar matrix composition. Quantitative estimation of the elemental concentration of the bulk of the samples was performed, together with investigation of the surface layer of the objects. The results of the quantitative analyses gave indications about the manufacturing process of the investigated objects.

  18. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  19. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  20. Evaluation of breast lesions by contrast enhanced ultrasound: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Caifeng; Du, Jing; Fang, Hua; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Lin

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative, quantitative and combined analysis for characterization of breast lesions in contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), with histological results used as the reference standard. Ninety-one patients with 91 breast lesions BI-RADS 3-5 at US or mammography underwent CEUS. All lesions underwent qualitative and quantitative enhancement evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different analytical method for discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions. Histopathologic analysis of the 91 lesions revealed 44 benign and 47 malignant. For qualitative analysis, benign and malignant lesions differ significantly in enhancement patterns (p<0.05). Malignant lesions more often showed heterogeneous and centripetal enhancement, whereas benign lesions mainly showed homogeneous and centrifugal enhancement. The detectable rate of peripheral radial or penetrating vessels was significantly higher in malignant lesions than in benign ones (p<0.001). For quantitative analysis, malignant lesions showed significantly higher (p=0.031) and faster enhancement (p=0.025) than benign ones, and its time to peak was significantly shorter (p=0.002). The areas under the ROC curve for qualitative, quantitative and combined analysis were 0.910 (A(z1)), 0.768 (A(z2)) and 0.926(A(z3)) respectively. The values of A(z1) and A(z3) were significantly higher than that for A(z2) (p=0.024 and p=0.008, respectively). But there was no significant difference between the values of A(z1) and A(z3) (p=0.625). The diagnostic performance of qualitative and combined analysis was significantly higher than that for quantitative analysis. Although quantitative analysis has the potential to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, it has not yet improved the final diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment to Develop a Patient Safety Curriculum for Surgical Residents.

    PubMed

    McKee, Rohini; Sussman, Andrew L; Nelson, M Timothy; Russell, John C

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to use qualitative and quantitative analysis to develop a patient safety curriculum for surgical residents. A prospective study of surgical residents using both quantitative and qualitative methods to craft a patient safety curriculum. Both a survey and focus groups were held before and 4 months after delivery of the patient safety curriculum. The University of New Mexico Hospital, a tertiary academic medical center. General surgery residents, postgraduate years 1 to 5 RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed areas that required attention and thus helped to mold the curriculum. Qualitative analysis after delivery of the curriculum showed positive changes in attitudes and normative beliefs toward patient safety. Specifically, attitudes and approach to quality improvement and teamwork showed improvement. Survey analysis did not show any significant change in resident perception of the environment during the time frame of this study. Using qualitative analysis to uncover attitudinal barriers to a safe patient environment can help to enhance the relevance and content of a patient safety curriculum for general surgery residents. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  3. Qualitative and quantitative comparability of human and animal developmental neurotoxicants: a workshop summary.

    PubMed

    Rees, D C; Francis, E Z; Kimmel, C A

    1990-01-01

    A Workshop on the Qualitative and Quantitative Comparability of Human and Animal Developmental Neurotoxicity was held in Williamsburg, Va. on April 11-13, 1989. Based upon data presented at the Workshop, the degree of qualitative and quantitative comparability between data obtained from humans and experimental animals is reviewed for several developmental neurotoxicants (lead, agents of abuse, alcohol, PCBs, phenytoin, methylmercury, and ionizing radiation). Qualitative comparability was considered for the following functional categories: motor development and function, cognitive function, sensory function, motivation/arousal behavior, and social behavior. Quantitative comparability was assessed by comparing administered dose as well as measures of internal dose (e.g., blood levels) for selected agents. Comparability of qualitative changes between humans and rodents was most apparent when comparisons were made on the basis of general categories of behavioral function. These data support the use of animal models in assessing risk for developmental neurotoxicants and provide guidance on the types of functional end points that can be incorporated into a developmental neurotoxicity testing battery. Evidence of quantitative comparability was most apparent when an internal measure of dose (e.g., blood level) was used.

  4. Expressing Certainty in Discussion Sections of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobakhti, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this…

  5. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Methodological Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2013-01-01

    There has been much discussion about quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in different disciplines. In the behavioural and social sciences, these two paradigms are compared to reveal their relative strengths and weaknesses. But the debate about both traditions has commonly taken place in academic books. It is hard to find an article…

  6. Overcoming Methods Anxiety: Qualitative First, Quantitative Next, Frequent Feedback along the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Brooke Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Political Science research methods courses face two problems. First is what to cover, as there are too many techniques to explore in any one course. Second is dealing with student anxiety around quantitative material. We explore a novel way to approach these issues. Our students began by writing a qualitative paper. They followed with a term…

  7. Student Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Information on Rate MyPprofessors.com for Course Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Matthew W.; Prus, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether students used qualitative information, quantitative information, or both when making course selection decisions. Participants reviewed information on four hypothetical courses in an advising context before indicating their likelihood to enroll in those courses and ranking them according to preference. Modeled…

  8. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Developmental Science: Uses and Methodological Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel; Way, Niobe

    2008-01-01

    Multiple methods are vital to understanding development as a dynamic, transactional process. This article focuses on the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies can be combined to enrich developmental science and the study of human development, focusing on the practical questions of "when" and "how." Research situations that may…

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

    1969-01-01

    Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

  10. Expressing Certainty in Discussion Sections of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobakhti, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this study…

  11. University Students' Understanding of the Concepts Empirical, Theoretical, Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2015-01-01

    University research education in many disciplines is frequently confronted by problems with students' weak level of understanding of research concepts. A mind map technique was used to investigate how students understand central methodological concepts of empirical, theoretical, qualitative and quantitative. The main hypothesis was that some…

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  13. Listener Perceptions of Stuttering across Two Presentation Modes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panico, James; Healey, E. Charles; Brouwer, Kyle; Susca, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare participants' quantitative and qualitative judgments of various forms and frequencies of stuttering, during either audiovisual or audio-only presentation modes. A total of 64 participants voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. Each participant was randomly assigned and exposed to only one of the…

  14. Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

  15. Complementary, Not Contradictory: The Spurious Conflict between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashhadi, Azam

    R. Zubir and M. Pope (1984) and K. Howe (1985, 1988) have argued against the "tyranny of methodological dogma" and that the division between quantitative psychometric and qualitative phenomenological and anthropological traditions is unnecessary. The postmodern self-consciousness of educational research has resulted in the realization that there…

  16. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSES OF EXOGENOUS AND ENDOGENOUS CHILDREN IN SOME READING PROCESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAPOBIANCO, RUDOLPH J.; MILLER, DONALD Y.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PRESENT STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE THESE ASPECTS OF THE READING PROCESS--(1) SILENT AND ORAL READING ACHIEVEMENT, (2) PATTERN OF READING ERRORS, (3) AND AUDITORY AND VISUAL PERCEPTION TECHNIQUES. THE FACT THAT COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE EXOGENOUS AND ENDOGENOUS GROUPS ON THE QUANTITATIVE AND MOST OF THE QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF TEST…

  17. The Eudaimonic and Hedonic Components of Happiness: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fave, Antonella Delle; Brdar, Ingrid; Freire, Teresa; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Wissing, Marie P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new project developed by a cross-country team of researchers, with the aim of studying the hedonic and eudaimonic components of happiness through a mixed method approach combining both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Data were collected from 666 participants in Australia, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain,…

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods: Old Wine in New Bottles? On Understanding and Interpreting Educational Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

    2012-01-01

    There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…

  1. Teacher Read-Alouds with and without Student Companion Texts: Quantitative and Qualitative Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Diane H.; Rhee, Jody; Abrantes, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of teacher read-alouds when students use, versus do not use, student companion texts during the read-alouds. Both quantitative and qualitative research data were collected based on an experimental design which randomly assigned 168 low SES, primarily Hispanic, students to either listen-only…

  2. Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

  3. Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

  4. The Eudaimonic and Hedonic Components of Happiness: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fave, Antonella Delle; Brdar, Ingrid; Freire, Teresa; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Wissing, Marie P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new project developed by a cross-country team of researchers, with the aim of studying the hedonic and eudaimonic components of happiness through a mixed method approach combining both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Data were collected from 666 participants in Australia, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain,…

  5. Effects of Suggestopedic Elements on Qualitative and Quantitative Measures of Language Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Uschi; Lawson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    In a 10-week time-series investigation of a class of 12 students, this study looked at whether Suggestopedia affects more sophisticated language skills than recall. Both quantitative and qualitative measures were included to address the criticism that Suggestopedia affects memory skills alone. Findings suggest that Suggestopedia can positively…

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  7. The Legend of the Qualitative/Quantitative Dualism: Implications for Research in Technology and Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip

    The discipline of teacher education and technology is poised to leave poor research behind and to remove the false wall between qualitative and quantitative methods of describing, predicting, and controlling education. The arguments used by Dewey early in the century against the dualisms of his day are still powerful and have a bearing on the…

  8. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Developmental Science: Uses and Methodological Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel; Way, Niobe

    2008-01-01

    Multiple methods are vital to understanding development as a dynamic, transactional process. This article focuses on the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies can be combined to enrich developmental science and the study of human development, focusing on the practical questions of "when" and "how." Research situations that may…

  9. Complementarity as a Program Evaluation Strategy: A Focus on Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafleur, Clay

    Use of complementarity as a deliberate and necessary program evaluation strategy is discussed. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are viewed as complementary and can be integrated into a single study. The synergy that results from using complementary methods in a single study seems to enhance understanding and interpretation. A review of the…

  10. The Evolution of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Classes when Delivered via Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeffrey B.; Klass, Patricia H.

    This study examined whether new streamed Internet audio and video technology could be used for primary instruction in off-campus research classes. Several different off-campus student cohorts at Illinois State university enrolled in both a fall semester qualitative research methods class and a spring semester quantitative research methods class.…

  11. Online versus Paper Evaluations: Differences in Both Quantitative and Qualitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, William B.; Civitano, Adele; Steiner-Grossman, Penny

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine if differences exist in the quantitative and qualitative data collected with paper and online versions of a medical school clerkship evaluation form. Data from six-and-a-half years of clerkship evaluations were used, some collected before and some after the conversion from a paper to an online evaluation system. The…

  12. Predictors of Student Success in Online Courses: Quantitative versus Qualitative Subject Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidry, Krisandra

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine whether the predictors of success for students in an online quantitative course are different than those for an online qualitative course. Data were collected from students taking online courses offered by an AACSB accredited College of Business at a medium sized state university (total student population 7,000) in…

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods: Old Wine in New Bottles? On Understanding and Interpreting Educational Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…

  14. Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

  15. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  16. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almalki, Sami

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…

  17. Quantitative versus Qualitative Evaluation: A Tool to Decide Which to Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrovolny, Jackie L.; Fuentes, Stephanie Christine G.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation is often avoided in human performance technology (HPT), but it is an essential and frequently catalytic activity that adds significant value to projects. Knowing how to approach an evaluation and whether to use qualitative, quantitative, or both methods makes evaluation much easier. In this article, we provide tools to help determine…

  18. University Students' Understanding of the Concepts Empirical, Theoretical, Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2015-01-01

    University research education in many disciplines is frequently confronted by problems with students' weak level of understanding of research concepts. A mind map technique was used to investigate how students understand central methodological concepts of empirical, theoretical, qualitative and quantitative. The main hypothesis was that some…

  19. Early School Leaving in the Lower Vocational Track: Triangulation of Qualitative and Quantitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beekhoven, Sandra; Dekkers, Hetty

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the reasons for very early school leaving of boys in the lower secondary vocational track. A unique combination of quantitative and qualitative data from different sources provided background data on these boys from a national cohort study on their elementary and high school periods. In-depth interviews in which the boys…

  20. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  1. Online versus Paper Evaluations: Differences in Both Quantitative and Qualitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, William B.; Civitano, Adele; Steiner-Grossman, Penny

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine if differences exist in the quantitative and qualitative data collected with paper and online versions of a medical school clerkship evaluation form. Data from six-and-a-half years of clerkship evaluations were used, some collected before and some after the conversion from a paper to an online evaluation system. The…

  2. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Methodological Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2013-01-01

    There has been much discussion about quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in different disciplines. In the behavioural and social sciences, these two paradigms are compared to reveal their relative strengths and weaknesses. But the debate about both traditions has commonly taken place in academic books. It is hard to find an article…

  3. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  5. Quantitative versus Qualitative Dimensions of Prosocial Development: Age-Related Contributors to Children's Donating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Cheri L.; Hudson, Lynne M.

    1985-01-01

    Sixty second-, fourth-, and sixth-grade children were given opportunities to donate money to other children in order to establish age-related differences and demand characteristics contributing to variability in donating behavior. Discussion focuses on necessity of incorporating both qualitative and quantitative dimensions in general models of the…

  6. Integrating Qualitative Methods in a Predominantly Quantitative Evaluation: A Case Study and Some Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Melvin M.; Feller, Irwin; Button, Scott B.

    1997-01-01

    A review of qualitative methods used in a predominantly quantitative evaluation indicates a variety of roles for such a mixing of methods, including framing and revising research questions, assessing the validity of measures and adaptations to program implementation, and gauging the degree of uncertainty and generalizability of conclusions.…

  7. Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches in Studying Student Perceptions of Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Fisher, Darrell L.

    A cross-national study of learning environments in Taiwan and Australia is one example of research that employs both qualitative and quantitative methods. This paper describes the part of that study related to the development and validation of an instrument called the Teacher Student Interaction (TSI) which assess student perceptions of teacher…

  8. Linking Quantitative and Qualitative Distance Education Research through Complementarity. ZIFF Papiere 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, J. Peter

    This article focuses on the linkage between the quantitative and qualitative distance education research methods. The concept that serves as the conceptual link is termed "complementarity." The definition of complementarity emerges through a simulated study of FernUniversitat's mentors. The study shows that in the case of the mentors,…

  9. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis of capillaroscopic findings in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lambova, Sevdalina Nikolova; Hermann, Walter; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2012-12-01

    No guidelines for the application of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the capillaroscopic examination in the rheumatologic practice exist. The aims of the study were to compare qualitative and quantitative analysis of key capillaroscopic parameters in patients with common rheumatic diseases and to assess the reproducibility of the qualitative evaluation of the capillaroscopic parameters, performed by two different investigators. Two hundred capillaroscopic images from 93 patients with different rheumatic diseases were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively by two different investigators. The distribution of the images according to the diagnosis and the microvascular abnormalities was as follows-group 1: 73 images from systemic sclerosis patients ("scleroderma" type pattern), group 2: 10 images from dermatomyositis ("scleroderma-like" pattern), group 3: 25 images from undifferentiated connective tissue disease and different forms of overlap (24 "scleroderma-like"), group 4: 26 images from systemic lupus erythematosus patients, group 5: 46 images from rheumatoid arthritis and group 6: 20 images from primary Raynaud's phenomenon patients. All the images were mixed and blindly presented to both investigators. For comparison of the quantitative and qualitative method, investigator 1 assessed presence of dilated, giant capillaries and avascular areas quantitatively by the available software programme and his estimates were compared with the results of investigator 2, who assessed the parameters qualitatively. In addition, the capillaroscopic images were evaluated qualitatively by the investigator 1 and 2 for presence of dilated, giant capillaries, avascular areas and haemorrhages. The comparison of the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the two investigators demonstrated statistically significant difference between the two methods for the detection of dilated and giant capillaries (P < 0.05) but no significant difference regarding the detection of

  10. Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilrich, Peter-Theodor

    Mit dem Aufschwung von Naturwissenschaft und Technik zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts entstand die mathematische Statistik, angeregt aus der Geodäsie (wie die Methode der kleinsten Quadrate) und der Anthropologie (wie die statistische Analyse mehrdimensionaler Beobachtungen und ihrer stochastischen Abhängigkeiten). Im Gegensatz zu den Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, in denen Daten vorwiegend aus Beobachtungsstudien gewonnen werden, stehen in den Naturwissenschaften Experimente im Vordergrund. Daher gehört die statistische Versuchsplanung zu den insbesondere in Naturwissenschaft und Technik angewendeten statistischen Methoden, aber auch die Extremwertstatistik und Lebensdaueranalysen sowie die Methoden der räumlichen Statistik (insbesondere in der Umweltforschung). Im 20. Jahrhundert wurden Stichprobenpläne und Regelkarten (Kontrollkarten) zur Prozessregelung als Hilfsmittel der statistischen Qualitätssicherung entwickelt. Diese Methodenbündel, mit denen sich der Ausschuss Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik immer wieder befasst, werden im Folgenden vorgestellt.

  11. Using qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate small-scale disease management pilot programs.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Dominick; Taylor, Erin Fries; Gold, Marsha

    2009-02-01

    Interest in disease management programs continues to grow as managed care plans, the federal and state governments, and other organizations consider such efforts as a means to improve health care quality and reduce costs. These efforts vary in size, scope, and target population. While large-scale programs provide the means to measure impacts, evaluation of smaller interventions remains valuable as they often represent the early planning stages of larger initiatives. This paper describes a multi-method approach for evaluating small interventions that sought to improve the quality of care for Medicaid beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions. Our approach relied on quantitative and qualitative methods to develop a complete understanding of each intervention. Quantitative data in the form of both process measures, such as case manager contacts, and outcome measures, such as hospital use, were reported and analyzed. Qualitative information was collected through interviews and the development of logic models to document the flow of intervention activities and how they were intended to affect outcomes. The logic models helped us to understand the underlying reasons for the success or lack thereof of each intervention. The analysis provides useful information on several fronts. First, qualitative data provided valuable information about implementation. Second, process measures helped determine whether implementation occurred as anticipated. Third, outcome measures indicated the potential for favorable results later, possibly suggesting further study. Finally, the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative data in combination helped us assess the potential promise of each intervention and identify common themes and challenges across all interventions.

  12. Learning to Relate Qualitative and Quantitative Problem Representations in a Model-Based Setting for Collaborative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetzner, Rolf; Fehse, Eric; Kneser, Cornelia; Spada, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how 10th-grade students acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. Analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative, as well as quantitative, knowledge can be taught successfully using concept maps. (Author/CCM)

  13. Learning to Relate Qualitative and Quantitative Problem Representations in a Model-Based Setting for Collaborative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetzner, Rolf; Fehse, Eric; Kneser, Cornelia; Spada, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how 10th-grade students acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. Analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative, as well as quantitative, knowledge can be taught successfully using concept maps. (Author/CCM)

  14. Qualitative and quantitative simulation of androgen receptor antagonists: A case study of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Shi, Wei; Xia, Pu; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-12-15

    Recently, great attention has been paid to the identification and prediction of the androgen disrupting potencies of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, few existing models can discriminate active and inactive compounds, which make the quantitative prediction process including the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) technique unreliable. In this study, different grouping methods were investigated and compared for qualitative identification, including molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). The results showed that qualitative identification based on MD, which is lab-independent, accurate and closer to the real transcriptional activation process, could separate 90.5% of active and inactive chemicals and was preferred. The 3D-QSAR models built as the quantitative simulation method showed r(2) and q(2) values of 0.513 and 0.980, respectively. Together, a novel workflow combining qualitative identification and quantitative simulations was generated with processes including activeness discrimination and activity prediction. This workflow, for analyzing the antagonism of androgen receptor (AR) of PBDEs is not only allowing researchers to reduce their intense laboratory experiments but also assisting them in inspecting and adjusting their laboratory systems and results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods health services research articles.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-04-01

    Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and

  16. Using probit regression to disclose the analytical performance of qualitative and semi-quantitative tests.

    PubMed

    Åsberg, Arne; Johnsen, Harald; Mikkelsen, Gustav; Hov, Gunhild Garmo

    2016-11-01

    The analytical performance of qualitative and semi-quantitative tests is usually studied by calculating the fraction of positive results after replicate testing of a few specimens with known concentrations of the analyte. We propose using probit regression to model the probability of positive results as a function of the analyte concentration, based on testing many specimens once with a qualitative and a quantitative test. We collected laboratory data where urine specimens had been analyzed by both a urine albumin ('protein') dipstick test (Combur-Test strips) and a quantitative test (BN ProSpec System). For each dipstick cut-off level probit regression was used to estimate the probability of positive results as a function of urine albumin concentration. We also used probit regression to estimate the standard deviation of the continuous measurement signal that lies behind the binary test response. Finally, we used probit regression to estimate the probability of reading a specific semi-quantitative dipstick result as a function of urine albumin concentration. Based on analyses of 3259 specimens, the concentration of urine albumin with a 0.5 (50%) probability of positive result was 57 mg/L at the lowest possible cut-off limit, and 246 and 750 mg/L at the next (higher) levels. The corresponding standard deviations were 29, 83, and 217 mg/L, respectively. Semi-quantitatively, the maximum probability of these three readings occurred at a u-albumin of 117, 420, and 1200 mg/L, respectively. Probit regression is a useful tool to study the analytical performance of qualitative and semi-quantitative tests.

  17. Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings

    PubMed Central

    Crandell, Jamie L.; Voils, Corrine I.; Chang, YunKyung; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2010-01-01

    The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research. PMID:21572970

  18. Business Scenario Evaluation Method Using Monte Carlo Simulation on Qualitative and Quantitative Hybrid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samejima, Masaki; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Mitsukuni, Koshichiro; Komoda, Norihisa

    We propose a business scenario evaluation method using qualitative and quantitative hybrid model. In order to evaluate business factors with qualitative causal relations, we introduce statistical values based on propagation and combination of effects of business factors by Monte Carlo simulation. In propagating an effect, we divide a range of each factor by landmarks and decide an effect to a destination node based on the divided ranges. In combining effects, we decide an effect of each arc using contribution degree and sum all effects. Through applied results to practical models, it is confirmed that there are no differences between results obtained by quantitative relations and results obtained by the proposed method at the risk rate of 5%.

  19. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16α-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats. PMID:25667939

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16α-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats.

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Assays for Detection and Characterization of Protein Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Farris, M. Heath; Ford, Kara A.; Doyle, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Initial evaluations of large microbial libraries for potential producers of novel antimicrobial proteins require both qualitative and quantitative methods to screen for target enzymes prior to investing greater research effort and resources. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate two complementary assays for conducting these initial evaluations. The microslide diffusion assay provides an initial or simple detection screen to enable the qualitative and rapid assessment of proteolytic activity against an array of both viable and heat-killed bacterial target substrates. As a counterpart, the increased sensitivity and reproducibility of the dye-release assay provides a quantitative platform for evaluating and comparing environmental influences affecting the hydrolytic activity of protein antimicrobials. The ability to label specific heat-killed cell culture substrates with Remazol brilliant blue R dye expands this capability to tailor the dye-release assay to characterize enzymatic activity of interest. PMID:27166738

  3. Outreach with street-involved youth: a quantitative and qualitative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J A; Joly, L E

    2012-08-01

    Outreach workers meet with street-involved youth in their environment, and attempt to engage them in services vital to their well-being. The goal of this study is to conduct a systematic review of both the quantitative and qualitative research that explores outreach with street-involved youth. Using 16 outreach programs with quantitative information, our meta-analysis found that 63% of youth who are contacted through outreach later participate in the offered service. Our meta-synthesis of 31 qualitative articles on outreach uncovered 13 themes across 4 conceptual domains of interest. Themes pertaining to the therapeutic relationship, flexibility, and youth-centric programming had a large presence among the majority of the articles. Outreach with street-involved youth, when characterized through a strong bond between worker and youth, is an effective strategy for involving youth in agency services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mixed methods in gerontological research: Do the qualitative and quantitative data “touch”?

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to illustrate approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration. PMID:20077973

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Quality of Life of Individuals With Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Lauren O; McCune, Ashley M; Mandal, Konoy; Lundgren, Jennifer D

    2015-01-01

    To examine the quality of a broad range of life domains using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Forty-eight individuals seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder (mean age = 29.8 years, female = 100%, white = 96.4%) from 2007 to 2009 completed the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; a medical chart review confirmed diagnosis and treatment history. Patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (n = 24) and bulimia nervosa (n = 24) were compared. Body mass index (kg/m(2)), treatment history, number of comorbid psychiatric conditions, and eating disorder severity were used to predict quality of life. Finally, an inductive content analysis was performed on qualitative QOLI responses to contextualize the quantitative findings. Participants with anorexia nervosa, compared to those with bulimia nervosa, reported significantly less satisfaction with the domain of relatives (F 1,46 = 5.35; P = .025); no other significant group differences were found. The only significant predictor of QOLI global score was number of previous treatments (F 1,41 = 8.67; P = .005; R (2) = 0.175). Content analysis of qualitative data yielded complementary findings to the quantitative data; interesting group differences emerged for satisfaction with health with implications for measuring quality of life domains. Across several life domains, individuals seeking treatment for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa appear to have similar levels of satisfaction, as evidenced by numeric and descriptive responses. Satisfaction with relatives, however, appears to differ between groups and suggests a specific target for intervention among patients in treatment for anorexia nervosa (eg, a family-based intervention such as the Maudsley approach). The use of quantitative and qualitative assessments, such as the QOLI, provides more clinically meaningful, contextualized information about quality of life than traditional self-report assessments

  6. Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Ulrika; Kidd, Lisa; Wengström, Yvonne; Rowa-Dewar, Neneh

    2011-03-01

    It has been argued that mixed methods research can be useful in nursing and health science because of the complexity of the phenomena studied. However, the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches continues to be one of much debate and there is a need for a rigorous framework for designing and interpreting mixed methods research. This paper explores the analytical approaches (i.e. parallel, concurrent or sequential) used in mixed methods studies within healthcare and exemplifies the use of triangulation as a methodological metaphor for drawing inferences from qualitative and quantitative findings originating from such analyses. This review of the literature used systematic principles in searching CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO for healthcare research studies which employed a mixed methods approach and were published in the English language between January 1999 and September 2009. In total, 168 studies were included in the results. Most studies originated in the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada. The analytic approach most widely used was parallel data analysis. A number of studies used sequential data analysis; far fewer studies employed concurrent data analysis. Very few of these studies clearly articulated the purpose for using a mixed methods design. The use of the methodological metaphor of triangulation on convergent, complementary, and divergent results from mixed methods studies is exemplified and an example of developing theory from such data is provided. A trend for conducting parallel data analysis on quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods healthcare research has been identified in the studies included in this review. Using triangulation as a methodological metaphor can facilitate the integration of qualitative and quantitative findings, help researchers to clarify their theoretical propositions and the basis of their results. This can offer a better understanding of the links between theory and

  7. Downscaling SSPs in the GBM Delta - Integrating Science, Modelling and Stakeholders Through Qualitative and Quantitative Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Andrew; Barbour, Emily; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Munsur Rahman, Md.; Hutton, Craig; Lazar, Attila

    2016-04-01

    A downscaled scenario development process was adopted in the context of a project seeking to understand relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The aim was to link the concerns and priorities of relevant stakeholders with the integrated biophysical and poverty models used in the project. A 2-stage process was used to facilitate the connection between stakeholders concerns and available modelling capacity: the first to qualitatively describe what the future might look like in 2050; the second to translate these qualitative descriptions into the quantitative form required by the numerical models. An extended, modified SSP approach was adopted, with stakeholders downscaling issues identified through interviews as being priorities for the southwest of Bangladesh. Detailed qualitative futures were produced, before modellable elements were quantified in conjunction with an expert stakeholder cadre. Stakeholder input, using the methods adopted here, allows the top-down focus of the RCPs to be aligned with the bottom-up approach needed to make the SSPs appropriate at the more local scale, and also facilitates the translation of qualitative narrative scenarios into a quantitative form that lends itself to incorporation of biophysical and socio-economic indicators. The presentation will describe the downscaling process in detail, and conclude with findings regarding the importance of stakeholder involvement (and logistical considerations), balancing model capacity with expectations and recommendations on SSP refinement at local levels.

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Protein Complex Prediction Through Proteome-Wide Simulations.

    PubMed

    Rizzetto, Simone; Priami, Corrado; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2015-10-01

    Despite recent progress in proteomics most protein complexes are still unknown. Identification of these complexes will help us understand cellular regulatory mechanisms and support development of new drugs. Therefore it is really important to establish detailed information about the composition and the abundance of protein complexes but existing algorithms can only give qualitative predictions. Herein, we propose a new approach based on stochastic simulations of protein complex formation that integrates multi-source data--such as protein abundances, domain-domain interactions and functional annotations--to predict alternative forms of protein complexes together with their abundances. This method, called SiComPre (Simulation based Complex Prediction), achieves better qualitative prediction of yeast and human protein complexes than existing methods and is the first to predict protein complex abundances. Furthermore, we show that SiComPre can be used to predict complexome changes upon drug treatment with the example of bortezomib. SiComPre is the first method to produce quantitative predictions on the abundance of molecular complexes while performing the best qualitative predictions. With new data on tissue specific protein complexes becoming available SiComPre will be able to predict qualitative and quantitative differences in the complexome in various tissue types and under various conditions.

  9. Downscaling SSPs in Bangladesh - Integrating Science, Modelling and Stakeholders Through Qualitative and Quantitative Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Barbour, E.; Salehin, M.; Hutton, C.; Lázár, A. N.; Nicholls, R. J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A downscaled scenario development process was adopted in the context of a project seeking to understand relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The aim was to link the concerns and priorities of relevant stakeholders with the integrated biophysical and poverty models used in the project. A 2-stage process was used to facilitate the connection between stakeholders concerns and available modelling capacity: the first to qualitatively describe what the future might look like in 2050; the second to translate these qualitative descriptions into the quantitative form required by the numerical models. An extended, modified SSP approach was adopted, with stakeholders downscaling issues identified through interviews as being priorities for the southwest of Bangladesh. Detailed qualitative futures were produced, before modellable elements were quantified in conjunction with an expert stakeholder cadre. Stakeholder input, using the methods adopted here, allows the top-down focus of the RCPs to be aligned with the bottom-up approach needed to make the SSPs appropriate at the more local scale, and also facilitates the translation of qualitative narrative scenarios into a quantitative form that lends itself to incorporation of biophysical and socio-economic indicators. The presentation will describe the downscaling process in detail, and conclude with findings regarding the importance of stakeholder involvement (and logistical considerations), balancing model capacity with expectations and recommendations on SSP refinement at local levels.

  10. Quantitative end qualitative analysis of the electrical activity of rectus abdominis muscle portions.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical behavior pattern of the Rectus abdominis muscle by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal obtained from its superior, medium and inferior portions during dynamic and static activities. Ten voluntaries (aged X = 17.8 years, SD = 1.6) athletic males were studied without history of muscle skeletal disfunction. For the quantitative analysis the RMS (Root Mean Square) values obtained in the electromyographic signal during the isometric exercises were normalized and expressed in maximum voluntary isometric contraction percentages. For the qualitative analysis of the dynamic activity the electromyographic signal was processed by full-wave rectification, linear envelope and normalization (amplitude and time), so that the resulting curve of the processed signal was submitted to descriptive graphic analysis. The results of the quantitative study show that there is not a statistically significant difference among the portions of the muscle. Qualitative analysis demonstrated two aspects: the presence of a common activation electric pattern in the portions of Rectus abdominis muscle and the absence of significant difference in the inclination angles in the electrical activity curve during the isotonic exercises.

  11. Genetic diversity among exotic cotton accessions as for qualitative and quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, L P; Farias, F J C; Rodrigues, J I S; Suassuna, N D; Teodoro, P E

    2017-02-08

    Studying genetic diversity among a group of genotypes is important in genetic breeding because identifying hybrid combinations of greater heterotic effect also increases the chance of obtaining plants with favorable allele combinations in an intra-population selection program. The objective of this study was to compare different types of long and extra-long staple cotton and their genetic diversity in relation to the fiber traits and some agronomic traits in order to grant breeding programs. Diversity analysis among 29 cotton accessions based on qualitative and quantitative traits and joint including qualitative and quantitative traits was performed. Analysis based on qualitative and quantitative traits and joint met the accessions in three, two, and three groups, respectively. The cross between genotypes Giza 59 and Pima unknown was the most promising to generate segregating populations, comprising simultaneously resistance (based on molecular markers) to blue disease and bacterial blight, partial resistance to root-knot nematode, smaller size, in addition to good fiber characteristics. These populations can be used in recurrent selection programs as donors of alleles for development of long-staple cotton genotypes.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of SEM image using digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Saladra, Dawid; Kopernik, Magdalena

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the this study is improvement of qualitative and quantitative analysis of scanning electron microscope micrographs by development of computer program, which enables automatic crack analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. Micromechanical tests of pneumatic ventricular assist devices result in a large number of micrographs. Therefore, the analysis must be automatic. Tests for athrombogenic titanium nitride/gold coatings deposited on polymeric substrates (Bionate II) are performed. These tests include microshear, microtension and fatigue analysis. Anisotropic surface defects observed in the SEM micrographs require support for qualitative and quantitative interpretation. Improvement of qualitative analysis of scanning electron microscope images was achieved by a set of computational tools that includes binarization, simplified expanding, expanding, simple image statistic thresholding, the filters Laplacian 1, and Laplacian 2, Otsu and reverse binarization. Several modifications of the known image processing techniques and combinations of the selected image processing techniques were applied. The introduced quantitative analysis of digital scanning electron microscope images enables computation of stereological parameters such as area, crack angle, crack length, and total crack length per unit area. This study also compares the functionality of the developed computer program of digital image processing with existing applications. The described pre- and postprocessing may be helpful in scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy surface investigations. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Parafoveal OCT Angiography Features in Diabetic Patients without Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Goudot, Mathilde M; Sikorav, Anne; Semoun, Oudy; Miere, Alexandra; Jung, Camille; Courbebaisse, Blandine; Srour, Mayer; Freiha, Joseph G; Souied, Eric H

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of OCT angiography (OCTA) for detecting infraclinical lesions in parafoveal capillaries in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR). This prospective observational cross-sectional case-control study analyzed the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (SCP and DCP) on macular OCTA scans (3 × 3 mm) centered on the fovea. We compared 22 diabetic patients (34 eyes included) without DR diagnosis on color fundus photographs, with 22 age- and gender-matched nondiabetic controls (40 eyes included). Qualitative analysis concerned morphological ischemic capillary alterations. Quantitative analysis measured foveal avascular zone (FAZ) size, parafoveal capillary density, and enlargement coefficient of FAZ between SCP and DCP. Neither the qualitative nor quantitative parameters were significantly different between both groups. No microaneurysms or venous tortuosity was observed in any of the analyzed images. On the SCP, the mean FAZ area was 0.322 ± 0.125 mm(2) in diabetic patients and 0.285 ± 0.150 mm(2) in controls, P = 0.31. On the DCP, the mean FAZ area was 0.444 ± 0.153 mm(2) in cases and 0.398 ± 0.138 mm(2) in controls, P = 0.20. OCTA did not detect infraclinical qualitative or quantitative differences in parafoveal capillaries of diabetic patients without DR in comparison with nondiabetic controls.

  14. Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis in risk-based highway planning.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Peterson, Kenneth D; Joshi, Nilesh N

    2006-09-01

    Accident analysis involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative data in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the synthesis of relevant quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis and for planning a large and diverse portfolio of highway investment projects. The proposed analysis and visualization techniques along with traditional mathematical modeling serve as an aid to planners, engineers, and the public in comparing the benefits of current and proposed improvement projects. The analysis uses data on crash rates, average daily traffic, cost estimates from highway agency databases, and project portfolios for regions and localities. It also utilizes up to two motivations out of seven that are outlined in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). Three case studies demonstrate the risk-based approach to accident analysis for short- and long-range transportation plans. The approach is adaptable to other topics in accident analysis and prevention that involve the use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, risk analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making for project portfolio selection.

  15. Views on traditional Chinese medicine amongst Chinese population: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Ma, Polly H X; Lau, Chun Hong; Wong, Samuel Y S; Yeoh, Eng Kiong; Griffiths, Sian M

    2014-10-01

    Health-care professionals worldwide have started to appreciate patients' perspectives on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) particularly given its popularity. However, cultural perspectives may vary and it may not be possible to apply research findings on the use of CAM from the west to the east. This systematic review aims to synthesize usage patterns of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) amongst Chinese populations in different parts of the world and explore potential geographical variations. Six international and four Chinese databases were searched, and manual searches of relevant monographs and government publications were carried out. Quantitative, qualitative or mixed-method research that aimed to investigate Chinese patients' perception of, and perspectives on, TCM was included. For each study included, texts under the headings of 'results' or 'findings' were extracted and subjected to analysis. A thematic synthesis approach was adopted for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative studies. Amongst the 28 studies included, twenty were quantitative surveys, six were qualitative studies and two were mixed-method studies. The overall methodological quality was mediocre. Data synthesis suggested that patients from all regions share a common cultural affinity to TCM and consider it to be an effective complement to western medicine (WM) for treating chronic or serious diseases. However, heterogeneous views on (i) disclosing TCM use to WM doctors and (ii) the potential harm of herbs emerged across different study locations. Future research should explore how variation in health systems may influence patients' perception of CAM in different countries. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Family satisfaction in the intensive care unit: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Behrend, Susanne; Skupin, Helga; Westermann, Isabella; Riedemann, Niels C; Pfeifer, Rüdiger; Günther, Albrecht; Witte, Otto W; Reinhart, Konrad; Hartog, Christiane S

    2013-06-01

    To assess family satisfaction in the intensive care unit (ICU) and areas for improvement using quantitative and qualitative analyses. Prospective cohort study performed in four (mixed surgical, neurological, and cardiological) intensive care units of a university hospital in Germany, using a translated and validated version of the Family Satisfaction in the ICU (FS-ICU) questionnaire, with questions answerable on a rating scale and three open-ended questions about strengths and weaknesses. Quantitative analysis was performed to identify items with low performance and high importance. For qualitative analysis, comments were coded and analyzed to identify important themes. Patient-related data were obtained from an electronic patient data management system. Participants were 215 family members visiting adult intensive care patients with length of stay over 48 h. Response rate was 28 %. Respondents were highly satisfied; summary scores were 78.3 ± 14.3 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] on a scale of 0 (poor) to 100 (excellent). Regression analysis failed to identify association with patient- or family-related factors. The following themes for possible improvement emerged from both quantitative and qualitative analyses: patient agitation-consistency, clarity and completeness of information-emotional support-respect and compassion towards families. Families were also dissatisfied with the waiting room, ICU atmosphere, and amenities for visiting relatives. Families report high satisfaction with intensive care. Nevertheless, there is room for improvement, in particular regarding how ICU staff communicate with families and provide emotional support.

  17. Infrared spectroscopy reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences in equine subchondral bone during maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobrina, Yevgeniya; Isaksson, Hanna; Sinisaari, Miikka; Rieppo, Lassi; Brama, Pieter A.; van Weeren, René; Helminen, Heikki J.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2010-11-01

    The collagen phase in bone is known to undergo major changes during growth and maturation. The objective of this study is to clarify whether Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with cluster analysis, can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone in horses during maturation and growth. Equine subchondral bone samples (n = 29) from the proximal joint surface of the first phalanx are prepared from two sites subjected to different loading conditions. Three age groups are studied: newborn (0 days old), immature (5 to 11 months old), and adult (6 to 10 years old) horses. Spatial collagen content and collagen cross-link ratio are quantified from the spectra. Additionally, normalized second derivative spectra of samples are clustered using the k-means clustering algorithm. In quantitative analysis, collagen content in the subchondral bone increases rapidly between the newborn and immature horses. The collagen cross-link ratio increases significantly with age. In qualitative analysis, clustering is able to separate newborn and adult samples into two different groups. The immature samples display some nonhomogeneity. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that FTIR spectral imaging combined with clustering techniques can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone during growth and maturation.

  18. Comparison of N95 disposable filtering facepiece fits using bitrex qualitative and TSI Portacount quantitative fit testing.

    PubMed

    Clapham, S J

    2000-01-01

    As a means of evaluating the use of denatonium benzoate (bitrex) as a qualitative fit test agent with filtering facepiece respirators, the bitrex qualitative and TSI Protacount(R) quantitative fit-test methods were compared using N95 filtering facepieces. Seventy-nine paired tests (trial) were performed. Detection of bitrex during a qualitative fit test or measurement of a fit factor of <100 during a quantitative fit test constituted a failure. Qualitative and quantitative methods were performed using identical test protocols. Data were analyzed using pass/fail criteria, and matched-pair analysis methods were applied. The results of this study indicate that the use of bitrex during qualitative fit testing of N95 disposable filtering facepieces results in an increase in failure and/or rejection in cases where a TSI Portacount (plus N95 companion accessory) quantitatively establishes an acceptable fit.

  19. [Access to health care for an induced abortion: qualitative and quantitative approaches].

    PubMed

    Bajos, N; Moreau, C; Ferrand, M; Bouyer, J

    2003-12-01

    Despite recent studies showing evidence that the organisation of the French health care system raises some problems concerning access to abortion, far little is known on the reality of access conditions and the views of women on the difficulties they experience when they attend an abortion clinic. In this article, we discuss the complementarity of materials from two surveys one qualitative, the other quantitative in the study of patterns of care for an abortion. The qualitative survey included 51 women who reported a history of induced abortion, selected from a qualitative study on unintended pregnancy in France. The quantitative survey included 480 women, who had an abortion in the past 10 years. These women were selected from a representative sample of 2863 women aged 18 to 44, who participated in a study on contraception and abortion. The variety of patterns of care for an abortion, the rareness of dysfunctions in the health care system and the importance of the first professional women contacted, demonstrated in the qualitative survey, were confirmed in the quantitative survey. The quantitative survey enabled quantifying the distribution of the different patterns of care. It also permitted to identify factors associated with the choice of first professional contacted and with the type of subsequent patterns of care. The qualitative survey permitted to explore these patterns of care and to highlight the interaction between the women's request and the representation of the legitimacy of their request. Difficulties of access seemed to be linked to the lack of support women experienced in the process of finding an abortion clinic. Results suggest that general practitioners are less well informed of the procedures required for an abortion than other professionals. However, the qualitative survey also shows that problems of access cannot be reduced to the lack of information of professionals, as their practice was also linked to their own representation of abortion

  20. Quantitative and qualitative 5-aminolevulinic acid–induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in skull base meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Bekelis, Kimon; Valdés, Pablo A.; Erkmen, Kadir; Leblond, Frederic; Kim, Anthony; Wilson, Brian C.; Harris, Brent T.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Object Complete resection of skull base meningiomas provides patients with the best chance for a cure; however, surgery is frequently difficult given the proximity of lesions to vital structures, such as cranial nerves, major vessels, and venous sinuses. Accurate discrimination between tumor and normal tissue is crucial for optimal tumor resection. Qualitative assessment of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence following the exogenous administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has demonstrated utility in malignant glioma resection but limited use in meningiomas. Here the authors demonstrate the use of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence guidance in resecting a skull base meningioma and elaborate on the advantages and disadvantages provided by both quantitative and qualitative fluorescence methodologies in skull base meningioma resection. Methods A 52-year-old patient with a sphenoid wing WHO Grade I meningioma underwent tumor resection as part of an institutional review board–approved prospective study of fluorescence-guided resection. A surgical microscope modified for fluorescence imaging was used for the qualitative assessment of visible fluorescence, and an intraoperative probe for in situ fluorescence detection was utilized for quantitative measurements of PpIX. The authors assessed the detection capabilities of both the qualitative and quantitative fluorescence approaches. Results The patient harboring a sphenoid wing meningioma with intraorbital extension underwent radical resection of the tumor with both visibly and nonvisibly fluorescent regions. The patient underwent a complete resection without any complications. Some areas of the tumor demonstrated visible fluorescence. The quantitative probe detected neoplastic tissue better than the qualitative modified surgical microscope. The intraoperative probe was particularly useful in areas that did not reveal visible fluorescence, and tissue from these areas was confirmed as tumor following histopathological

  1. Genetic toxicology at the crossroads-from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    White, Paul A; Johnson, George E

    2016-05-01

    Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA). A host of pertinent issues were discussed relating to the use of in vitro and in vivo dose-response data, the development of methods for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and approaches to use in vivo dose-response data to determine human exposure limits for regulatory evaluations and decision-making. This Special Issue, which was inspired by the workshop, contains a series of papers that collectively address topics related to the aforementioned themes. The Issue includes contributions that collectively evaluate, describe and discuss in silico, in vitro, in vivo and statistical approaches that are facilitating the shift from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment. The use and application of the benchmark dose approach was a central theme in many of the workshop presentations and discussions, and the Special Issue includes several contributions that outline novel applications for the analysis and interpretation of genetic toxicity data. Although the contents of the Special Issue constitutes an important step towards the adoption of quantitative methods for regulatory assessment of genetic toxicity, formal acceptance of quantitative methods for HHRA and regulatory decision-making will require consensus regarding the

  2. Qualitätsmanagementmethoden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Klaus-Dieter

    Die Qualitätsmanagementmethoden dienen der Überwachung und Verfolgung von Prozessen. Die statistische Prozessregelung SPC (Statistical Process Control) ist in diesem Zusammenhang ein wichtiges Werkzeug.

  3. A comparison of qualitative and quantitative fecal immunochemical tests in the Korean national colorectal cancer screening program.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Jin; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, You Kyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) has since 2004 provided annual colorectal cancer screening using the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for individuals aged 50 years or older. The aim of this study was to examine the positivity and detection rates of the FIT and to compare the detection rates of the qualitative and quantitative FITs in participants in the 2009 NCSP. We analyzed positivity and detection rates according to FIT type (qualitative and quantitative). We used a multinomial logistic regression to analyze the odds ratio of "benign" or "suspicious cancer and cancer" compared to "normal," adjusted for gender, age, health insurance type, region of residence, hospital type, and FIT type. Of the 1,181,904 participants, 72.8% received a qualitative and 27.2% a quantitative FIT. The positivity rates were 8.1% for the qualitative and 2.5% for the quantitative FIT. The detection rate was 5.2% for the qualitative and 14.4% for the quantitative FIT. The odds ratio of a "suspicious cancer and cancer" versus a "normal" result was 2.73 (95% CI = 2.22-3.35) for the quantitative compared to qualitative FIT, after adjustment. The positivity rate of the qualitative FIT was around three times higher than that of the quantitative FIT. However, the odds ratio for detection of "suspicious cancer and cancer" versus "normal" of the quantitative FIT was about three times higher than that of the qualitative FIT. These findings suggest that quality control may be important, particularly for the qualitative FIT.

  4. Is it science? A study of the attitudes of medical trainees and physicians toward qualitative and quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation. After completing a questionnaire, participants were interviewed using a semi-structured procedure. Transcriptions of the interviews were coded for emergent themes. Coding consensus was achieved via iterative discussion. When asked to categorize 10 projects, participants on average ranked quantitative science projects as "more scientific" than those using qualitative methodologies. Although participants appeared largely unaware of the principles underlying qualitative methodologies, most expressed the belief that qualitative data was more biased and less objective than quantitative data. Prior qualitative research experience was the major predictor of acceptance of qualitative research. Participants' acceptance of interpretivistic or positivistic paradigms also influenced what type of science they felt was acceptable. Their level of training did not correlate with the acceptance of qualitative methodologies. On average, participants in our study favoured quantitative methodologies over qualitative methodologies. We postulate that this preference is due to their unawareness of the principles and paradigms underlying the methodologies.

  5. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Keihanian, F; Basirjafari, S; Darbandi, B; Saeidinia, A; Jafroodi, M; Sharafi, R; Shakiba, M

    2017-06-01

    Considering the high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among newborns, different screening methods have been established in various countries. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among newborns in Rasht, Iran, and compare G6PD activity in cord blood samples, using quantitative and qualitative tests. This cross-sectional, prospective study was performed at five largest hospitals in Rasht, Guilan Province, Iran. The screening tests were performed for all the newborns, referred to these hospitals. Specimens were characterized in terms of G6PD activity under ultraviolet light, using the kinetic method and the qualitative fluorescent spot test (FST). We also determined the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of the qualitative assay. Blood samples were collected from 1474 newborns. Overall, 757 (51.4%) subjects were male. As the findings revealed, 1376 (93.4%) newborns showed normal G6PD activity, while 98 (6.6%) had G6PD deficiency. There was a significant difference in the mean G6PD level between males and females (P = 0.0001). Also, a significant relationship was detected between FST results and the mean values obtained in the quantitative test (P < 0.0001). According to the present study, FST showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity for G6PD activity, although it appeared inefficient for diagnostic purposes in some cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Scanning Quadrupole Data Independent Acquisition - Part A. Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization.

    PubMed

    Moseley, M Arthur; Hughes, Christopher J; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Soderblom, Erik J; Lennon, Sarah; Perkins, Simon R; Thompson, J Will; Steinbach, William J; Geromanos, Scott J; Wildgoose, Jason; Langridge, James I; Richardson, Keith; Vissers, Johannes P C

    2017-09-13

    A novel data independent acquisition (DIA) method incorporating a scanning quadrupole in front of a collision cell and orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass analyzer is described. The method has been characterized for the qualitative and quantitative label-free proteomic analysis of typical complex biological samples. The principle of the scanning quadrupole DIA method is discussed and analytical instrument characteristics, such as the quadrupole transmission width, scan/integration time, and chromatographic separation, have been optimized in relation to sample complexity for a number of different model proteomes of varying complexity and dynamic range including human plasma, cell lines, and bacteria. In addition, the technological merits over existing DIA approaches are described and contrasted. The qualitative and semi-quantitative performance of the method is illustrated for the analysis of relatively simple protein digest mixtures and a well-characterised human cell line sample using untargeted and targeted search strategies. Finally, the results from a human cell line were compared against publically available data that used similar chromatographic conditions, but were acquired with DDA technology and alternative mass analyzer systems. Qualitative comparison showed excellent concordance of results with over 90% overlap of the detected proteins.

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

  8. Complete multipoint sib-pair analysis of qualitative and quantitative traits

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglyak, L.; Lander, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    Sib-pair analysis is an increasingly important tool for genetic dissection of complex traits. Current methods for sib-pair analysis are primarily based on studying individual genetic markers one at a time and thus fail to use the full inheritance information provided by multipoint linkage analysis. In this paper, we describe how to extract the complete multipoint inheritance information for each sib pair. We then describe methods that use this information to map loci affecting traits, thereby providing a unified approach to both qualitative and quantitative traits. Specifically, complete multipoint approaches are presented for (1) exclusion mapping of qualitative traits; (2) maximum-likelihood mapping of qualitative traits; (3) information-content mapping, showing the extent to which all inheritance information has been extracted at each location in the genome; and (4) quantitative-trait mapping, by two parametric methods and one nonparametric method. In addition, we explore the effects of marker density, marker polymorphism, and availability of parents on the information content of a study. We have implemented the analysis methods in a new computer package, MAPMAKER/SIBS. With this computer package, complete multipoint analysis with dozens of markers in hundreds of sib pairs can be carried out in minutes. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative PCR methods for detection of three lines of genetically modified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rho, Jae Kyun; Lee, Theresa; Jung, Soon-Il; Kim, Tae-San; Park, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Mi

    2004-06-02

    Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have been developed for the detection of genetically modified (GM) potatoes. The combination of specific primers for amplification of the promoter region of Cry3A gene, potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and potato virus Y coat protein gene allows to identify each line of NewLeaf, NewLeaf Y, and NewLeaf Plus GM potatoes. Multiplex PCR method was also established for the simple and rapid detection of the three lines of GM potato in a mixture sample. For further quantitative detection, the realtime PCR method has been developed. This method features the use of a standard plasmid as a reference molecule. Standard plasmid contains both a specific region of the transgene Cry3A and an endogenous UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene of the potato. The test samples containing 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% GM potatoes were quantified by this method. At the 3.0% level of each line of GM potato, the relative standard deviations ranged from 6.0 to 19.6%. This result shows that the above PCR methods are applicable to detect GM potatoes quantitatively as well as qualitatively.

  10. Advances in liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative and qualitative environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Aceña, Jaume; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes the advances in environmental analysis by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) during the last decade and discusses different aspects of their application. LC-HRMS has become a powerful tool for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of organic pollutants, enabling their quantitation and the search for metabolites and transformation products or the detection of unknown compounds. LC-HRMS provides more information than low-resolution (LR) MS for each sample because it can accurately determine the mass of the molecular ion and its fragment ions if it can be used for MS-MS. Another advantage is that the data can be processed using either target analysis, suspect screening, retrospective analysis, or non-target screening. With the growing popularity and acceptance of HRMS analysis, current guidelines for compound confirmation need to be revised for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Furthermore, new commercial software and user-built libraries are required to mine data in an efficient and comprehensive way. The scope of this critical review is not to provide a comprehensive overview of the many studies performed with LC-HRMS in the field of environmental analysis, but to reveal its advantages and limitations using different workflows.

  11. 'Stories' or 'snapshots'? A study directed at comparing qualitative and quantitative approaches to curriculum evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pateman, B; Jinks, A M

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a study designed to explore the validity of quantitative approaches of student evaluation in a pre-registration degree programme. As managers of the students' education we were concerned that the quantitative method, which used lecturer criteria, may not fully represent students' views. The approach taken is that of a process-type strategy for curriculum evaluation as described by Parlett and Hamilton (1972). The aim of the study is to produce illuminative data, or students' 'stories' of their educational experiences through use of semi-structured interviews. The results are then compared to the current quantitative measurement tools designed to obtain 'snapshots' of the educational effectiveness of the curriculum. The quantitative measurement tools use Likert scale measurements of teacher-devised criterion statements. The results of the study give a rich source of qualitative data which can be used to inform future curriculum development. However, complete validation of the current quantitative instruments used was not achieved in this study. Student and teacher agendas in respect of important issues pertaining to the course programme were found to differ. Limitations of the study are given. There is discussion of the options open to the management team with regard to future development of curriculum evaluation systems.

  12. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge.

  13. Exploring Tai Chi in rheumatoid arthritis: a quantitative and qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory and systemic disease which affects the musculoskeletal system. Exercise programmes are reported to improve physical functioning in patients with RA. Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese martial art which combines slow and gentle movements with mental focus. The purpose of this study was to study in which way Tai Chi group exercise impacted on disease activity, physical function, health status and experience in RA patients, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. Methods Fifteen patients with RA (13 females, age 33-70 years) were recruited from a rheumatology department into a single group study. The patients were instructed in Tai Chi exercise twice weekly for 12 weeks. Assessments at baseline, 12 weeks, and 12 weeks follow-up were performed with a wide range of measures, including disease activity, self-reported health status, physical performance tests (Walking in Figure of Eight, Timed-Stands Test, and Shoulder Movement Impairment Scale). Qualitative data were obtained from a focus group interview conducted after completed intervention with taping and verbatim transcription. Review of the transcripts identified themes important to patients practicing Tai Chi. Results Within the group, Tai Chi practice lead to improved lower-limb muscle function at the end of intervention and at 12 weeks follow-up. Qualitative analyses showed that patients experienced improved physical condition, confidence in moving, balance and less pain during exercise and in daily life. Other experience included stress reduction, increased body awareness, confidence in moving and indicated that Tai Chi was a feasible exercise modality in RA. Conclusions Improved muscle function in lower limbs was also reflected when patient experiences with Tai Chi were studied in depth in this explorative study. The combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods shows that Tai Chi has beneficial effects on health not related to

  14. Exploring Tai Chi in rheumatoid arthritis: a quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Till; Fongen, Camilla; Steen, Eldri; Christie, Anne; Ødegård, Sigrid

    2010-03-05

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory and systemic disease which affects the musculoskeletal system. Exercise programmes are reported to improve physical functioning in patients with RA. Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese martial art which combines slow and gentle movements with mental focus. The purpose of this study was to study in which way Tai Chi group exercise impacted on disease activity, physical function, health status and experience in RA patients, applying quantitative and qualitative methods. Fifteen patients with RA (13 females, age 33-70 years) were recruited from a rheumatology department into a single group study. The patients were instructed in Tai Chi exercise twice weekly for 12 weeks. Assessments at baseline, 12 weeks, and 12 weeks follow-up were performed with a wide range of measures, including disease activity, self-reported health status, physical performance tests (Walking in Figure of Eight, Timed-Stands Test, and Shoulder Movement Impairment Scale). Qualitative data were obtained from a focus group interview conducted after completed intervention with taping and verbatim transcription. Review of the transcripts identified themes important to patients practicing Tai Chi. Within the group, Tai Chi practice lead to improved lower-limb muscle function at the end of intervention and at 12 weeks follow-up. Qualitative analyses showed that patients experienced improved physical condition, confidence in moving, balance and less pain during exercise and in daily life. Other experience included stress reduction, increased body awareness, confidence in moving and indicated that Tai Chi was a feasible exercise modality in RA. Improved muscle function in lower limbs was also reflected when patient experiences with Tai Chi were studied in depth in this explorative study. The combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods shows that Tai Chi has beneficial effects on health not related to disease activity and standardised

  15. A Bayesian method for the synthesis of evidence from qualitative and quantitative reports: the example of antiretroviral medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Voils, Corrine; Hassselblad, Vic; Crandell, Jamie; Chang, Yunkyung; Lee, Eunjeong; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2009-10-01

    Bayesian meta-analysis is a frequently cited but very little-used method for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative research findings. The only example published to date used qualitative data to generate an informative prior probability and quantitative data to generate the likelihood. We developed a method to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative evidence in the likelihood in a Bayesian synthesis of evidence about the relationship between regimen complexity and medication adherence. Data were from 11 qualitative and six quantitative studies. We updated two different non-informative prior distributions with qualitative and quantitative findings to find the posterior distribution for the probabilities that a more complex regimen was associated with lower adherence and that a less complex regimen was associated with greater adherence. The posterior mode for the qualitative findings regarding more complex regimen and lesser adherence (using the uniform prior with Jeffreys' prior yielding highly similar estimates) was 0.588 (95% credible set limits 0.519, 0.663) and for the quantitative findings was 0.224 (0.203, 0.245); due to non-overlapping credible sets, we did not combine them. The posterior mode for the qualitative findings regarding less complex regimen and greater adherence was 0.288 (0.214, 0.441) and for the quantitative findings was 0.272 (0.118, 0.437); the combined estimate was 0.299 (0.267, 0.334). The utility of Bayesian methods for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative research findings at the participant level may depend on the nature of the relationship being synthesized and on how well the findings are represented in the individual reports.

  16. A Bayesian method for the synthesis of evidence from qualitative and quantitative reports: the example of antiretroviral medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    Voils, Corrine I; Hassselblad, Vic; Crandell, Jamie L; Chang, YunKyung; Lee, EunJeong; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Bayesian meta-analysis is a frequently cited but very little-used method for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative research findings. The only example published to date used qualitative data to generate an informative prior probability and quantitative data to generate the likelihood. We developed a method to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative evidence in the likelihood in a Bayesian synthesis of evidence about the relationship between regimen complexity and medication adherence. Methods Data were from 11 qualitative and six quantitative studies. We updated two different non-informative prior distributions with qualitative and quantitative findings to find the posterior distribution for the probabilities that a more complex regimen was associated with lower adherence and that a less complex regimen was associated with greater adherence. Results The posterior mode for the qualitative findings regarding more complex regimen and lesser adherence (using the uniform prior with Jeffreys' prior yielding highly similar estimates) was 0.588 (95% credible set limits 0.519, 0.663) and for the quantitative findings was 0.224 (0.203, 0.245); due to non-overlapping credible sets, we did not combine them. The posterior mode for the qualitative findings regarding less complex regimen and greater adherence was 0.288 (0.214, 0.441) and for the quantitative findings was 0.272 (0.118, 0.437); the combined estimate was 0.299 (0.267, 0.334). Conclusions The utility of Bayesian methods for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative research findings at the participant level may depend on the nature of the relationship being synthesized and on how well the findings are represented in the individual reports. PMID:19770121

  17. [Adequacy of treatment for osteoporosis in primary prevention. Quantitative and qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Vedia Urgell, Cristina; Massot Mesquida, Mireia; Valles Fernandez, Roser; Garcia Vicente, Juan Antonio; Franzi Siso, Alicia; Muñoz Ortiz, Laura; Vilaró Jaques, Laia; Bosch Peligero, Maite

    2017-04-14

    Quantitative study: To assess the prevalence of inadequacy of treatment for osteoporosis in primary prevention (OPP) in women aged 60-74years. Qualitative study: To evaluate the diagnostic and treatment criteria of the OPP and it's variability in primary care physicians (PC) and specialists. Quantitative study: observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study. women aged 60-74years with active treatment for OPP (n=424) in May 2012. Inadequacy if they had ≤2 risk factors with a DXA or DXA T-score ≥-2.4. Qualitative study: Delphi technique (15items) and two rounds of consultation. March-April 2014. PC physicians, rheumatologists and orthopaedic surgeons (n=251). Random sampling. Quantitative study: degree of inadequacy is 63.4%. In 43.2% isn't mention a diagnosis of osteoporosis. In 82.3% there isn't mention of risk factors. bisphosphonate 40.3% and calcium +vitaminD 47.9%. Qualitative study: 23% respond to the first round, and of these 67% the second round. Items with higher agreement were the important of the evaluation of risk factors for diagnosis and bisphosphonates for treatment. Items with fewer consensuses were using the FRAX and densitometry and treatment with only calcium +vitaminD. The percentage of inadequacy is high. The degree of registration in medical history is low. The Delphi method is useful for detecting discrepancies between recommendations of clinical practice guidelines and results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Incremental diagnostic value of combined quantitative and qualitative parameters of magnetocardiography to detect coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Seok; Lam, Yat-Yin; Her, Ae-Young; Brachmann, Johannes; Jung, Friedrich; Park, Jai-Wun

    2017-02-01

    Magnetocardiography (MCG) has been proposed as a non-invasive and functional technique with high accuracy for diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. This study sought to investigate the incremental diagnostic value of combined quantitative and qualitative parameters of MCG to detect coronary artery disease (CAD). Ninety six patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in the analysis to test the diagnostic accuracy of 2 MCG parameters (a quantitative parameter of the percent change of ST-segment fluctuation score and a qualitative parameter of non-dipole phenomenon). The best cut-off value for the percent change of ST-segment fluctuation score was -51.0%. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 78.1, 73.9, 82.0, 79.1, and 77.4, in the percent change of ST-segment fluctuation score and 86.5, 84.8, 88.0, 86.7, and 86.3 in non-dipole phenomenon. The area under the curve of receiver-operating characteristics was 0.79 for the percent change of ST-segment fluctuation score and 0.86 for non-dipole phenomenon (p<0.001). However, the incorporation of non-dipole phenomenon into a model with the percent change of ST-segment fluctuation score significantly improved C-statistics, indicating the enhancement of diagnostic performance in the detection of significant CAD (0.790 to 0.930; p<0.001). Qualitative assessment of non-dipole phenomenon has a better diagnostic value than the quantitative parameter of percent change of ST-segment fluctuation score in the detection of significant CAD. Furthermore, this study found that the incorporation of non-dipole phenomenon into the percent change of ST-segment fluctuation score significantly improved the diagnostic performance of CAD detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lateral supraorbital approach vs pterional approach: an anatomic qualitative and quantitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Salma, Asem; Alkandari, Abdulrahman; Sammet, Steffen; Ammirati, Mario

    2011-06-01

    Several minimally invasive modifications of the standard pterional approach have been proposed recently. The lateral supraorbital approach is one of these modifications. To provide a qualitative and quantitative anatomic comparison of the surgical exposure and the operability afforded by the standard pterional approach and the lateral supraorbital approach. Eight pterional approaches and 8 lateral supraorbital approaches were used in 8 fresh human cadaver heads. One qualitative and 2 quantitative tools were used to assess the surgical exposure. Qualitatively, the lateral supraorbital approach has the advantages of reduced trauma to the temporalis muscle and exposure that is comparable to that provided by the standard pterional approach to the sellar and suprasellar regions. This approach offers limited exposure of the interpeduncular fossa compared with the pterional one. Quantitatively, the pterional approach provides a greater surgical volume than the lateral supraorbital approach (32.90 mL vs 23.60 mL with P < .05). Also, the pterional approach provides a greater associated surgical operability than the lateral supraorbital approach (exposure score of 66 and 53, respectively). However, the lateral supraorbital approach offers an equivalent access to the anterior communicating artery complex, optic nerve, optic chiasm, and sellar area (the exposure scores were 19 for both approaches). From an anatomic point of view, both approaches provide similar exposure to the sellar, suprasellar, and anterior communicating artery areas. The pterional approach provides better exposure of the retrosellar area. The ability to operate in the retrosellar area, as judged by our model, was higher with the pterional than with the lateral supraorbital approach.

  20. High-resolution mass spectrometry for integrated qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Tonoli, David; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative and qualitative high-resolution (HR) dependent and independent acquisition schemes on a QqTOF MS (with resolving power 20,000-40,000) were investigated for the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in biological fluids. High-resolution selected reaction monitoring (HR-SRM) was found to be linear over three orders of magnitude for quantitative analysis of paracetamol in human plasma, offering a real alternative to triple quadrupole LC-SRM/MS. Metabolic stability of talinolol in microsomes was characterized by use of three different acquisition schemes: (i) information-dependent acquisition (IDA) with a TOF MS experiment as survey scan and product-ion scan as dependent scan; (ii) MS(ALL) by collecting TOF mass spectra with and without fragmentation by alternating the collision energy of the collision cell between a low (i.e., 10 eV) and high setting (i.e., 40 eV); and (iii) a novel independent acquisition mode referred to as "sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra" (SWATH) or "global precursor ions scan mode" (GPS) in which sequential precursor ions windows (typically 20 u) are used to collect the same spectrum precursor and fragment ions using a collision energy range. SWATH or GPS was found to be superior to IDA or MS(ALL) in combination with UHPLC for qualitative analysis but requires a rapidly acquiring mass spectrometer. Finally, the GPS concept was used for QUAL/QUAN analysis (i.e. integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis) of bosentan and its metabolites in urine over a concentration range from 5 to 2,500 ng mL(-1).

  1. Sonoelastography for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of superficial soft tissue lesions: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Magarelli, Nicola; Carducci, Chiara; Bucalo, Costanza; Filograna, Laura; Rapisarda, Santi; De Waure, Chiara; Dell'Atti, Claudia; Maccauro, Giulio; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of qualitative and quantitative analysis using sonoelastography (SE) for differentiating between benign and malignant superficial soft-tissue lesions. For this prospective study, 32 patients with superficial soft-tissue lesions detected with grey-scale ultrasound and colour and/or power Doppler ultrasound were evaluated between October 2011 and December 2012. Qualitative analysis: visual grading system was adopted according to colour variation (red-soft, green-medium, blue-hard). Quantitative analysis: median and fraction area of each colour were computed within a region of interest. Differences between fraction areas and median values in compression and decompression phases were calculated. Reference standard: histological findings. Twelve out of 32 lesions (37.5%) were malignant. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.989 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.980-0.994, P < 0.01) with optimal reliability. Area under the curve was 0.823 (95% CI 0.677-0.969) and 0.958 (95% CI 0.989-1.019) for blue and blue area differences, and 0.777 (95% CI 0.615-0.939) and 0.629 (95% CI 0.426-0.833) for red and red area differences, respectively. Blue variations predicted malignancy more accurately (variation ≥0.431: 100% sensitivity, 80% specificity); the blue area difference was highly accurate. Preliminary results showed good correlations between SE and reference standards. SE could be useful in the evaluation of superficial soft tissue lesions. • Sonoelastography helps clarify ambiguous soft-tissue lesions identified using conventional ultrasound techniques. • Addition of this tool increases the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound. • Sonoelastography provides both qualitative and quantitative analysis. • Sonoelastography may help clinicians improve patient care.

  2. Acute cholecystitis: quantitative and qualitative evaluation with 64-section helical CT.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Philippe; Hoeffel, Christine; Dohan, Anthony; Gayat, Etienne; Eveno, Clarisse; Malgras, Brice; Pautrat, Karine; Boudiaf, Mourad

    2013-06-01

    Because of an expanded role for CT in the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal pain, it is not rare that acute cholecystitis is depicted by CT. However, the sensitivity and the specificity of a given CT variable for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis is not known. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze acute cholecystitis at 64-section helical CT with submilimeter and isotropic voxels using a retrospective case-control study. The 64-section helical CT examinations obtained with submilimeter and isotropic voxels in 40 patients with acute cholecystitis (25 men; mean age, 62.2 years) were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed and compared to those of 40 control subjects matched for age and gender. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the most discriminating cut-off values for quantitative variables. Comparisons of qualitative variables were made using univariate analysis. Pericholecystic fat stranding, mural stratification, pericholecystic hypervascularity, spontaneous hyperattenuation of gallbladder wall, short (≥ 32-mm) and long (≥ 74-mm) gallbladder axis enlargement, and gallbladder wall thickening (≥ 3.6-mm) were the most discriminating and independent variables for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (P < 0.0001). Using cut-off values found at ROC curve analysis, gallbladder wall thickening, and short and long gallbladder axis enlargement were the most sensitive findings (sensitivity = 92.5%; 95%CI: 79.6%-98.4%) for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Acute cholecystitis is associated with myriad suggestive findings on 64-section helical CT. It can be anticipated that familiarity with these findings would result in more confident diagnosis of acute cholecystitis at 64-section helical CT. © 2013 The Foundation Acta Radiologica.

  3. Dissociable cortical pathways for qualitative and quantitative mechanisms in the face inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Morita, Tomoyo; Kochiyama, Takanori; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-03-11

    Humans' ability to recognize objects is remarkably robust across a variety of views unless faces are presented upside-down. Whether this face inversion effect (FIE) results from qualitative (distinct mechanisms) or quantitative processing differences (a matter of degree within common mechanisms) between upright and inverted faces has been intensely debated. Studies have focused on preferential responses to faces in face-specific brain areas, although face recognition also involves nonpreferential responses in non-face-specific brain areas. By using dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian model selection, here we show that dissociable cortical pathways are responsible for qualitative and quantitative mechanisms in the FIE in the distributed network for face recognition. When faces were upright, the early visual cortex (VC) and occipital and fusiform face areas (OFA, FFA) suppressed couplings to the lateral occipital cortex (LO), a primary locus of object processing. In contrast, they did not inhibit the LO when faces were inverted but increased couplings to the intraparietal sulcus, which has been associated with visual working memory. Furthermore, we found that upright and inverted face processing together involved the face network consisting of the VC, OFA, FFA, and inferior frontal gyrus. Specifically, modulatory connectivity within the common pathways (VC-OFA), implicated in the parts-based processing of faces, strongly correlated with behavioral FIE performance. The orientation-dependent dynamic reorganization of effective connectivity indicates that the FIE is mediated by both qualitative and quantitative differences in upright and inverted face processing, helping to resolve a central debate over the mechanisms of the FIE. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354268-12$15.00/0.

  4. Is It Science? A Study of the Attitudes of Medical Trainees and Physicians toward Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation.…

  5. Is It Science? A Study of the Attitudes of Medical Trainees and Physicians toward Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation.…

  6. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part II.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Effects of Treatment for Dental Fear and Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Ulf; Carlsson, Sven G.

    1986-01-01

    In a Swedish community-based program for the treatment of dental phobic patients, a clinical trial was performed among 99 severely phobic individuals with long-standing avoidance of dental treatment. The modes of treatment compared were dentistry under general anesthesia and a broad-based psychophysiological therapy both followed by conventional dental treatment. Psychometric as well as overt behavioral measures were used to elucidate initial state and changes in patients' dental fear and behaviors. Quantitative and qualitative data are presented of initial and long-term (two years) treatment effects. The results indicate a significantly better effect for the psychophysiological therapy. PMID:2871777

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Selected Bacterial Groups in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Roszak, Dorota; Gałęcka, Mirosława; Cichy, Wojciech; Szachta, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was evaluation of qualitative and quantitative changes in bacterial ecosystem in 109 children with inflammatory bowel diseases. Stools obtained from patients were analysed for selected bacteria and concentration of faecal inflammatory markers (calprotectin, lactoferrin, M2-PK). The number of selected microorganisms depends on the level of clinical activity of disease and is correlated with faecal concentration of inflammatory markers. Differences in microflora disturbance, observed in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, may suggest different causes of development of both pathologies.

  9. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of PERCEPT indoor navigation system for visually impaired users.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce qualitative and quantitative evaluation of PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multi-story building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows Orientation and Mobility principles. These results encourage us to generalize the solution to large indoor spaces and test it with significantly larger visually impaired population in diverse settings. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces.

  10. Quantification of mitral regurgitation on cardiac computed tomography: comparison with qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters.

    PubMed

    Arnous, Samer; Killeen, Ronan P; Martos, Ramon; Quinn, Martin; McDonald, Kenneth; Dodd, Jonathan Dermot

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) can quantify the severity of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared to qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters. Cardiac computed tomographic angiography was performed in 23 patients (mean ± SD age, 63 ± 16 years; range, 24-86 years) with MR and 20 patients without MR (controls) as determined by transthoracic echocardiography. Multiphasic reconstructions (20 data sets reconstructed at 5% increments of the electrocardiographic gated R-R interval) were used to analyze the mitral valve. Using CCTA planimetry, 2 readers measured the regurgitant mitral orifice area (CCTA ROA) during systole. A qualitative echocardiographic assessment of severity of MR was made by visual assessment of the length of the regurgitant jet. Quantitative echocardiographic measurements included the vena contracta, proximal isovelocity surface area, regurgitant volume, and estimated regurgitant orifice (ERO). Comparisons were performed using the independent t test, and correlations were assessed using the Spearman rank test. All controls and the patients with MR were correctly identified by CCTA. For patients with mild, moderate, or severe MR, mean ± SD EROs were 0.16 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.08, and 0.52 ± 0.03 cm² (P < 0.0001) compared with mean ± SD CCTA ROAs 0.09 ± 0.05, 0.30 ± 0.04, and 0.97 ± 0.26 cm² (P < 0.0001), respectively. When echocardiographic measurements were graded qualitatively as mild, moderate, or severe, strong correlations were seen with CCTA ROA (R = 0.89; P < 0.001). When echocardiographic measurements were graded quantitatively, the vena contracta and the ERO showed modest correlations with CCTA ROA (0.48 and 0.50; P < 0.05 for both). Neither the proximal isovelocity surface area nor the regurgitant volume demonstrated significant correlations with CCTA ROA. Single-source 64-slice CCTA provides a strong agreement with qualitative echocardiographic parameters but only a moderate

  11. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-09-01

    Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  12. Peer support for parents of children with chronic disabling conditions: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Val; Morris, Christopher; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Logan, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To review the qualitative and quantitative evidence of the benefits of peer support for parents of children with disabling conditions in the context of health, well-being, impact on family, and economic and service implications. We comprehensively searched multiple databases. Eligible studies evaluated parent-to-parent support and reported on the psychological health and experience of giving or receiving support. There were no limits on the child's condition, study design, language, date, or setting. We sought to aggregate quantitative data; findings of qualitative studies were combined using thematic analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data were brought together in a narrative synthesis. Seventeen papers were included: nine qualitative studies, seven quantitative studies, and one mixed-methods evaluation. Four themes were identified from qualitative studies: (1) shared social identity, (2) learning from the experiences of others, (3) personal growth, and (4) supporting others. Some quantitative studies reported a positive effect of peer support on psychological health and other outcomes; however, this was not consistently confirmed. It was not possible to aggregate data across studies. No costing data were identified. Qualitative studies strongly suggest that parents perceive benefit from peer support programmes, an effect seen across different types of support and conditions. However, quantitative studies provide inconsistent evidence of positive effects. Further research should explore whether this dissonance is substantive or an artefact of how outcomes have been measured. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative proteome characteristics extracted from in-depth integrated genomics and proteomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Low, Teck Yew; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; van den Toorn, Henk; Giansanti, Piero; Cristobal, Alba; Toonen, Pim; Schafer, Sebastian; Hübner, Norbert; van Breukelen, Bas; Mohammed, Shabaz; Cuppen, Edwin; Heck, Albert J R; Guryev, Victor

    2013-12-12

    Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We obtained peptide evidence for 26,463 rat liver proteins. We validated 1,195 gene predictions, 83 splice events, 126 proteins with nonsynonymous variants, and 20 isoforms with nonsynonymous RNA editing. Quantitative RNA sequencing and proteomics data correlate highly between strains but poorly among each other, indicating extensive nongenetic regulation. Our multilevel analysis identified a genomic variant in the promoter of the most differentially expressed gene Cyp17a1, a previously reported top hit in genome-wide association studies for human hypertension, as a potential contributor to the hypertension phenotype in SHR rats. These results demonstrate the power of and need for integrative analysis for understanding genetic control of molecular dynamics and phenotypic diversity in a system-wide manner.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative studies of chemical composition of sandarac resin by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kononenko, I; de Viguerie, L; Rochut, S; Walter, Ph

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of sandarac resin was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Six compounds with labdane and pimarane skeletons were identified in the resin. The obtained mass spectra were interpreted and the mass spectrometric behaviour of these diterpenoids under EI conditions was described. Quantitative analysis by the method of internal standard revealed that identified diterpenoids represent only 10-30% of the analysed sample. The sandarac resin from different suppliers was analysed (from Kremer, Okhra, Color Rare, La Marchande de Couleurs, L'Atelier Montessori, Hevea). The analysis of different lumps of resins showed that the chemical composition differs from one lump to another, varying mainly in the relative distributions of the components.

  15. Evaluation of cardiac valvular disease with MR imaging: qualitative and quantitative techniques.

    PubMed

    Glockner, James F; Johnston, Donald L; McGee, Kiaran P

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is almost never performed as the initial imaging test in cardiac valvular disease; that role is dominated by echocardiography. Nevertheless, MR imaging has much to offer in selected patients. Quantitative information regarding the severity of regurgitant or stenotic lesions can be obtained by using a combination of cine gradient-echo or steady-state free precession and cine phase-contrast sequences. In addition to providing measurements of peak velocity and flow, MR imaging is the standard of reference for evaluation of ventricular function, which can be a critical factor in determining when surgical intervention is indicated. Improvements in cardiac MR imaging technology have been particularly striking in the past few years, and these developments can easily be applied to the examination of cardiac valves. The authors briefly describe the pathophysiology of valvular disease, discuss standard MR techniques for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of valvular lesions, and illustrate these concepts with several case studies.

  16. Using the realist perspective to link theory from qualitative evidence synthesis to quantitative studies: Broadening the matrix approach.

    PubMed

    van Grootel, Leonie; van Wesel, Floryt; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; Hox, Joop; Boeije, Hennie

    2017-09-01

    This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the qualitative evidence synthesis against interventions in primary quantitative studies. However, types of qualitative evidence syntheses that are associated with theory building generate theoretical models instead of recommendations. Therefore, the output from these types of qualitative evidence syntheses cannot directly be used for the matrix approach but requires transformation. This approach allows for the transformation of these types of output. The approach enables the inference of moderation effects instead of direct effects from the theoretical model developed in a qualitative evidence synthesis. Recommendations for practice are formulated on the basis of interactional relations inferred from the qualitative evidence synthesis. In doing so, we apply the realist perspective to model variables from the qualitative evidence synthesis according to the context-mechanism-outcome configuration. A worked example shows that it is possible to identify recommendations from a theory-building qualitative evidence synthesis using the realist perspective. We created subsets of the interventions from primary quantitative studies based on whether they matched the recommendations or not and compared the weighted mean effect sizes of the subsets. The comparison shows a slight difference in effect sizes between the groups of studies. The study concludes that the approach enhances the applicability of the matrix approach. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The impact of pelvic floor surgery on female sexual function: a mixed quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Roos, A M; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H; de Leeuw, J W; Paulus, A T G

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the current condition-specific sexual function questionnaire provides full insight into sexual function following pelvic floor surgery. Prospective, mixed quantitative and qualitative study. Urogynaecology clinic in a large university hospital. Thirty-seven women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Women were seen before surgery and 3 months postoperatively. At both visits the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ) was completed and a qualitative face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted. PISQ total and domain scores, as well as the change in the preoperative and postoperative score, were calculated and analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and one-sample t-test. The qualitative data were systematically analysed using data-matrices. The impact of pelvic floor surgery on female sexual function. Significant improvement was seen for PISQ total score (P = 0.003) as well as Physical (P < 0.001) and Partner-related (P = 0.002) domains, but not for the Behavioural/Emotive domain (P = 0.220). Analysis of qualitative data showed that improvement in sexual function was a result of cure of POP and SUI symptoms. Deterioration of sexual function was due to dyspareunia, fear of causing damage to the surgical result, new symptoms and a disappointing result of surgery. Our qualitative data show that PISQ is limited in the assessment of sexual function after pelvic floor surgery as it does not assess most surgery-specific negative effects on sexual function. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Modeling approaches for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of cellular signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A central goal of systems biology is the construction of predictive models of bio-molecular networks. Cellular networks of moderate size have been modeled successfully in a quantitative way based on differential equations. However, in large-scale networks, knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is often too limited to allow for the set-up of predictive quantitative models. Here, we review methodologies for qualitative and semi-quantitative modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. In particular, we focus on three different but related formalisms facilitating modeling of signaling processes with different levels of detail: interaction graphs, logical/Boolean networks, and logic-based ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Albeit the simplest models possible, interaction graphs allow the identification of important network properties such as signaling paths, feedback loops, or global interdependencies. Logical or Boolean models can be derived from interaction graphs by constraining the logical combination of edges. Logical models can be used to study the basic input–output behavior of the system under investigation and to analyze its qualitative dynamic properties by discrete simulations. They also provide a suitable framework to identify proper intervention strategies enforcing or repressing certain behaviors. Finally, as a third formalism, Boolean networks can be transformed into logic-based ODEs enabling studies on essential quantitative and dynamic features of a signaling network, where time and states are continuous. We describe and illustrate key methods and applications of the different modeling formalisms and discuss their relationships. In particular, as one important aspect for model reuse, we will show how these three modeling approaches can be combined to a modeling pipeline (or model hierarchy) allowing one to start with the simplest representation of a signaling network (interaction graph), which can later be refined to

  19. Behavioural interventions for weight management in pregnancy: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Fiona; Johnson, Maxine; Messina, Josie; Guillaume, Louise; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2011-06-22

    There is a rising prevalence of excessive weight gain in pregnancy and an increasing number of pregnant women who are overweight or obese at the start of the pregnancy. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal consequences and increases the risk of long-term obesity. Pregnancy therefore may be a key time to prevent excessive weight gain and improve the health of women and their unborn child. This systematic review sought to assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnancy and explore the factors that influence intervention effectiveness. We undertook a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. This included a meta-analysis of controlled trials of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that investigated the views of women on weight management during pregnancy. A thorough search of eleven electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of included studies, relevant review articles and experts in the field were contacted to identify potentially relevant studies.Two independent reviewers extracted data. RevMan software was used to perform the meta-analyses. Qualitative data was subject to thematic analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data were aligned using a matrix framework. Five controlled trials and eight qualitative studies were included. The overall pooled effect size found no significant difference in gestational weight gain amongst participants in the intervention group compared with the control group (mean difference -0.28 95% CI -0.64 to 0.09). The study designs, participants and interventions all varied markedly and there was significant heterogeneity within this comparison in the meta-analysis (I2 67%). Subgroup and sensitivity analysis did not identify contextual elements that influenced the effectiveness of the intervention.In a

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Proteome Analysis of Oral Fluids in Health and Periodontal Disease by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salih, Erdjan

    2017-01-01

    The significance of protein identification and characterization by classical protein chemistry approaches is clearly highlighted by our detailed understanding of the biological systems assembled over a time period of almost a century. The advent of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS) with sensitivity, speed, and global protein analysis capacity without individual protein purification has transformed the classical protein chemistry with premise to accelerate discovery. These combined with the ability of the oral fluids such as whole saliva (WS) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to reflect both systemic and locally derived proteins have generated significant interest to characterize these fluids more extensively by MS technology. This chapter deals with the experimental details of preanalytical steps using multidimensional protein separation combined with MS analysis of WS and GCF to achieve detailed protein composition at qualitative and quantitative levels. These approaches are interfaced with gold standard "stable-isotope" labeling technologies for large-scale quantitative MS analysis which is a prerequisite to determine accurate alterations in protein levels as a function of disease progression. The latter incorporates two stable-isotope chemistries one specific for cysteine containing proteins and the other universal amine-specific reagent in conjunction with oral fluids in health and periodontal disease to perform quantitative MS analysis. In addition, specific preanalytical steps demanded by the oral fluids such as GCF and WS for sample preparations to overcome limitations and uncertainties are elaborated for reliable large-scale quantitative MS analysis.

  1. Systematically reviewing qualitative and quantitative evidence to inform management and policy-making in the health field.

    PubMed

    Mays, Nicholas; Pope, Catherine; Popay, Jennie

    2005-07-01

    Policy-makers and managers have always used a wide range of sources of evidence in making decisions about policy and the organization of services. However, they are under increasing pressure to adopt a more systematic approach to the utilization of the complex evidence base. Decision-makers must address complicated questions about the nature and significance of the problem to be addressed; the nature of proposed interventions; their differential impact; cost-effectiveness; acceptability and so on. This means that Cochrane-style reviews alone are not sufficient. Rather, they require access to syntheses of high-quality evidence that include research and non-research sources, and both qualitative and quantitative research findings. There is no single, agreed framework for synthesizing such diverse forms of evidence and many of the approaches potentially applicable to such an endeavour were devised for either qualitative or quantitative synthesis and/or for analysing primary data. This paper describes the key stages in reviewing and synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence for decision-making and looks at various strategies that could offer a way forward. We identify four basic approaches: narrative (including traditional 'literature reviews' and more methodologically explicit approaches such as 'thematic analysis', 'narrative synthesis', 'realist synthesis' and 'meta-narrative mapping'), qualitative (which convert all available evidence into qualitative form using techniques such as 'meta-ethnography' and 'qualitative cross-case analysis'), quantitative (which convert all evidence into quantitative form using techniques such as 'quantitative case survey' or 'content analysis') and Bayesian meta-analysis and decision analysis (which can convert qualitative evidence such as preferences about different outcomes into quantitative form or 'weights' to use in quantitative synthesis). The choice of approach will be contingent on the aim of the review and nature of

  2. Residual Isocyanates in Medical Devices and Products: A Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Gillian; Harari, Homero; Ahsan, Samavi; Bello, Dhimiter; Sterling, David A.; Nedrelow, Jonathan; Raynaud, Scott; Biswas, Swati; Liu, Youcheng

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a pilot qualitative and quantitative assessment of residual isocyanates and their potential initial exposures in neonates, as little is known about their contact effect. After a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stockroom inventory, polyurethane (PU) and PU foam (PUF) devices and products were qualitatively evaluated for residual isocyanates using Surface SWYPE™. Those containing isocyanates were quantitatively tested for methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) species, using UPLC-UV-MS/MS method. Ten of 37 products and devices tested, indicated both free and bound residual surface isocyanates; PU/PUF pieces contained aromatic isocyanates; one product contained aliphatic isocyanates. Overall, quantified mean MDI concentrations were low (4,4′-MDI = 0.52 to 140.1 pg/mg) and (2,4′-MDI = 0.01 to 4.48 pg/mg). The 4,4′-MDI species had the highest measured concentration (280 pg/mg). Commonly used medical devices/products contain low, but measurable concentrations of residual isocyanates. Quantifying other isocyanate species and neonatal skin exposure to isocyanates from these devices and products requires further investigation. PMID:27773989

  3. Noninvasive Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Spoilage Attributes of Chilled Pork Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a rapid noninvasive method for quantitative and qualitative determination of chilled pork spoilage. Microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value, and color parameter L* were determined to appraise pork quality. The hyperspectral scattering characteristics from 54 meat samples were fitted by four-parameter modified Gompertz function accurately. Support vector machines (SVM) was applied to establish quantitative prediction model between scattering fitting parameters and reference values. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian analysis were utilized as supervised and unsupervised techniques for the qualitative identification of meat spoilage. All stored chilled meat samples were classified into three grades: "fresh," "semi-fresh," and "spoiled." Bayesian classification model was superior to PLS-DA with overall classification accuracy of 92.86%. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with SVM and Bayesian possessed a powerful capability for meat spoilage assessment rapidly and noninvasively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Two approaches to improving mental health care: positivist/quantitative versus skill-based/qualitative.

    PubMed

    Luchins, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The quality improvement model currently used in medicine and mental health was adopted from industry, where it developed out of early 20th-century efforts to apply a positivist/quantitative agenda to improving manufacturing. This article questions the application of this model to mental health care. It argues that (1) developing "operational definitions" for something as value-laden as "quality" risks conflating two realms, what we measure with what we value; (2) when measurements that are tied to individuals are aggregated to establish benchmarks and goals, unwarranted mathematical assumptions are made; (3) choosing clinical outcomes is problematic; (4) there is little relationship between process measures and clinical outcomes; and (5) since changes in quality indices do not relate to improved clinical care, management's reliance on such indices provides an illusory sense of control. An alternative model is the older, skill-based/qualitative approach to knowing, which relies on "implicit/ expert" knowledge. These two approaches offer a series of contrasts: quality versus excellence, competence versus expertise, management versus leadership, extrinsic versus intrinsic rewards. The article concludes that we need not totally dispense with the current quality improvement model, but rather should balance quantitative efforts with the older qualitative approach in a mixed methods model.

  5. [Self-perception of health care team leaders in Andalusia. A quantitative and qualitative study].

    PubMed

    García-Romera, I; Danet, A; March-Cerdà, J C

    To determine the perception and self-assessment on leadership among health care team leaders in Andalusia. Design: Exploratory descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative methodology, developed between 2013 and 2015, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Andalusia. All health managers from the Primary Care Management Units and Health Management Areas of the Departments of Paediatrics, Emergency and Internal Medicine, for the quantitative study. A purposive sample of 24 health managers was used for the qualitative study. Descriptive statistical study and bivariate analysis of comparison of means. Content analysis of the semi-structured interviews: Codification, category tree, and triangulation of results. The best self-assessment dimension relates to support, and the worst to considering oneself as a 'good leader'. The definition of a 'good leader' includes: Honesty, trust, and attitudes of good communication, closeness, appreciation, and reinforcement of the health team members. Different leadership styles were perceived. Main difficulties for leadership are related to the economic crisis and the management of personal conflicts. Health managers describe an adaptive leadership style, based on personal and professional support, and using communication as the main cohesive element for the team project. More studies on leaders' perspectives are important, in order to better understand their experiences, needs and expectations. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative research across cultures and languages: cultural metrics and their application.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Hansen, Karolina; Kronberger, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Growing globalisation of the world draws attention to cultural differences between people from different countries or from different cultures within the countries. Notwithstanding the diversity of people's worldviews, current cross-cultural research still faces the challenge of how to avoid ethnocentrism; comparing Western-driven phenomena with like variables across countries without checking their conceptual equivalence clearly is highly problematic. In the present article we argue that simple comparison of measurements (in the quantitative domain) or of semantic interpretations (in the qualitative domain) across cultures easily leads to inadequate results. Questionnaire items or text produced in interviews or via open-ended questions have culturally laden meanings and cannot be mapped onto the same semantic metric. We call the culture-specific space and relationship between variables or meanings a 'cultural metric', that is a set of notions that are inter-related and that mutually specify each other's meaning. We illustrate the problems and their possible solutions with examples from quantitative and qualitative research. The suggested methods allow to respect the semantic space of notions in cultures and language groups and the resulting similarities or differences between cultures can be better understood and interpreted.

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Iranian Researchers’ Scientific Production in Dentistry Subfields

    PubMed Central

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Motallebnejad, Mina; Gholinia, Hemmat; Esbakian, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: As in other fields of medicine, scientific production in the field of dentistry has significant placement. This study aimed at quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating Iranian researchers’ scientific output in the field of dentistry and determining their contribution in each of dentistry subfields and branches. Methods: This research was a scientometric study that applied quantitative and qualitative indices of Web of Science (WoS). Research population consisted of927indexed documents published under the name of Iran in the time span of 1993-2012 which were extracted from WoS on 10 March 2013. The Mann-Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to data analyses in SPSS 19. Results: 777 (83. 73%) of indexed items of all scientific output in WoS were scientific articles. The highest growth rate of scientific productionwith90% belonged to endodontic sub field. The correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the number of documents and their publication age (P < 0. 0001). There was a significant difference between the mean number of published articles in the first ten- year (1993-2003) and that of the second one (2004-2013), in favor of the latter (P = 0. 001). Conclusions: The distribution frequencies of scientific production in various subfields of dentistry were very different. It needs to reinforce the infrastructure for more balanced scientific production in the field and its related subfields. PMID:26635439

  8. [Adequate application of quantitative and qualitative statistic analytic methods in acupuncture clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming T; Liu, Jian-ping; Lao, Lixing

    2012-08-01

    Recently, proper use of the statistical methods in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has received increased attention. Statistical inference based on hypothesis testing is the foundation of clinical trials and evidence-based medicine. In this article, the authors described the methodological differences between literature published in Chinese and Western journals in the design and analysis of acupuncture RCTs and the application of basic statistical principles. In China, qualitative analysis method has been widely used in acupuncture and TCM clinical trials, while the between-group quantitative analysis methods on clinical symptom scores are commonly used in the West. The evidence for and against these analytical differences were discussed based on the data of RCTs assessing acupuncture for pain relief. The authors concluded that although both methods have their unique advantages, quantitative analysis should be used as the primary analysis while qualitative analysis can be a secondary criterion for analysis. The purpose of this paper is to inspire further discussion of such special issues in clinical research design and thus contribute to the increased scientific rigor of TCM research.

  9. Healthcare Waste Management: Qualitative and Quantitative Appraisal of Nurses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The nurse's role in healthcare waste management is crucial. Objectives. (1) To appraise nurses quantitatively and qualitatively regarding healthcare waste management; (2) to elicit the determinants of knowledge and attitudes of healthcare waste management. Method. A cross-sectional study was undertaken at a tertiary care hospital of Mangalore, India. Self-administered pretested questionnaire and “nonparticipatory observation” were used for quantitative and qualitative appraisals. Percentage knowledge score was calculated based on their total knowledge score. Nurses' knowledge was categorized as excellent (>70%), good (50–70%), and poor (<50%). Chi square test was applied to judge the association of study variables with their attitudes and knowledge. Results. Out of 100 nurses 47 had excellent knowledge (>70% score). Most (86%) expressed the need of refresher training. No study variable displayed significant association (P > 0.05) with knowledge. Apt segregation practices were followed except in casualty. Patients and entourages misinterpreted the colored containers. Conclusion. Nurses' knowledge and healthcare waste management practices were not satisfactory. There is a need of refresher trainings at optimum intervals to ensure sustainability and further improvement. Educating patients and their entourages and display of segregation information board in local language are recommended. PMID:25506075

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of calcium-based microfillers using terahertz spectroscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Abina, Andreja; Puc, Uroš; Jeglič, Anton; Prah, Jana; Venckevičius, Rimvydas; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Valušis, Gintaras; Zidanšek, Aleksander

    2015-10-01

    In different industrial applications, several strictly defined parameters of calcium-based microfillers such as average particle size, particle size distribution, morphology, specific surface area, polymorphism and chemical purity, play a key role in the determination of its usefulness and effectiveness. Therefore, an analytical tool is required for rapid and non-destructive characterization of calcium-based microfillers during the synthesis process or before its use in a further manufacturing process. Since spectroscopic techniques are preferred over microscopy and thermogravimetry, particularly due to its non-destructive nature and short analysis time, we applied terahertz (THz) spectroscopy to analyse calcite microfillers concentration in polymer matrix, its granulation and chemical treatment. Based on the analysis of peak absorbance amplitude, peak frequency position, and the appearance of additional spectral features, quantitative and qualitative analysis was successfully achieved. In addition, THz imaging was also applied for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of calcium-based microfillers. By using spatial distribution map, the inhomogeneity in concentration of calcium carbonate in polymer matrix was characterized. Moreover, by THz spectroscopy and imaging different calcium compounds were detected in binary mixtures. Finally, we demonstrated that the applied spectroscopic technique offers valuable results and can be, in combination with other spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, converted to a powerful rapid analytical tool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The qualitative and quantitative source apportionments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in size dependent road deposited sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jing; Hua, Pei; Krebs, Peter

    2015-02-01

    This study showcases the qualitative and quantitative source apportionments of size-dependent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road deposited sediment by means of molecular diagnostic ratio (MDR) and positive matrix factorisation (PMF) approaches. The MDR was initially used to narrow the PAH source candidates. PMF modelling was subsequently used to provide more precise source apportionment with the assistance of a multiple linear regression analysis. Through a combined qualitative and quantitative source apportionment, different potential source contributors were identified at different size fractions. Explicitly, three major contributors to sorption at the size fraction of 1000-400 μm were tentatively identified as incineration (26%), coal combustion (53%) and gasoline-powered vehicle (20%). Four major contributors to the size fraction of 400-100 μm were identified as gasoline-powered vehicle (25%), surface pavement (15%), diesel-powered vehicle (37%) and industrial boiler (24%). Four major contributors to the size fraction of 100-63 μm were identified as cogeneration emission (13%), diesel-powered vehicle (28%), tire debris (45%) and wood combustion (14%). The potential contributors in the size fraction 63-0.45 μm were identified as diesel-powered vehicle (21%), heterogeneous sources (41%) and biomass burning (38%). In addition, the highest ∑16PAH concentration was found in the smallest size fraction of 63-0.45 μm, which is also where the highest BaPE and TEF values for potential risk assessment occurred.

  12. Experiences of meaning in life: a combined qualitative and quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Debats, D L; Drost, J; Hansen, P

    1995-08-01

    The present study investigates the relation of aspects of meaning in life with indices of psychological well-being by means of a combined qualitative and quantitative design. Content analysis of subjects' answers to open questions about personal experiences with meaning in life showed findings that are in line with phenomena that are reported in the literature. Meaningfulness was found to be strongly associated with contact with self, others and the world, whereas meaninglessness was associated with a state of alienation from self, others and the world. The Life Regard Index (LRI), an instrument designed to measure the construct of positive life regard, was found to be strongly associated with the interpersonal dimension of well-being. The exchange of both positive and negative feelings was associated with positive life regard. As predicted, effective coping with stressful life events in the past was associated with a current sense of meaningfulness as measured with the LRI. The findings support the clinical significance of the construct of meaning in life and add to the validity of the LRI. The strength and weakness of a combined qualitative and quantitative research approach are discussed.

  13. Leaf Dimorphism Of Microgramma Squamulosa (Polypodiaceae): a qualitative and quantitative analysis focusing on adaptations to epiphytism.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ledyane Dalgallo; Droste, Annette; Gehlen, Günther; Schmitt, Jairo Lizandro

    2013-03-01

    The epiphytic fern Microgramma squamulosa occurs in the Neotropics and shows dimorphic sterile and fertile leaves. The present study aimed to describe and compare qualitatively and quantitatively macroscopic and microscopic structural characteristics of the dimorphic leaves of M. squamulosa, to point more precisely those characteristics which may contribute to epiphytic adaptations. In June 2009, six isolated host trees covered by M squamulosa were selected close to the edge of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest fragment in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Macroscopic and microscopic analyzes were performed from 192 samples for each leaf type, and permanent and semi-permanent slides were prepared. Sections were observed under light microscopy using image capture software to produce illustrations and scales, as well as to perform quantitative analyses. Fertile and sterile leaves had no qualitative structural differences, being hypostomatous and presenting uniseriate epidermis, homogeneous chlorenchyma, amphicribal vascular bundle, and hypodermis. The presence of hypodermal tissue and the occurrence of stomata at the abaxial face are typical characteristics ofxeromorphic leaves. Sterile leaves showed significantly larger areas (14.80cm2), higher sclerophylly index (0.13g/cm2) and higher stomatal density (27.75stomata/mm2) than fertile leaves. The higher sclerophylly index and the higher stomatal density observed in sterile leaves are features that make these leaves more xeromorphic, enhancing their efficiency to deal with limited water availability in the epiphytic environment, compared to fertile leaves.

  14. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    LaRue, Nicole; Kahn, Maria; Murray, Marjorie; Leader, Brandon T; Bansil, Pooja; McGray, Sarah; Kalnoky, Michael; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Huiqiang; Jiang, Hui; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2014-10-01

    A barrier to eliminating Plasmodium vivax malaria is inadequate treatment of infected patients. 8-Aminoquinoline-based drugs clear the parasite; however, people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk for hemolysis from these drugs. Understanding the performance of G6PD deficiency tests is critical for patient safety. Two quantitative assays and two qualitative tests were evaluated. The comparison of quantitative assays gave a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.7585 with significant difference in mean G6PD activity, highlighting the need to adhere to a single reference assay. Both qualitative tests had high sensitivity and negative predictive value at a cutoff G6PD value of 40% of normal activity if interpreted conservatively and performed under laboratory conditions. The performance of both tests dropped at a cutoff level of 45%. Cytochemical staining of specimens confirmed that heterozygous females with > 50% G6PD-deficient cells can seem normal by phenotypic tests. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Quantitative analysis of Euclidean distance to complement qualitative analysis of facial expression during deception

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Ananya; Mukhopadhyay, Pritha; Basu, Nabanita; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar; Chatterjee, Tanima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accurate evaluation of an individuals' veracity is a fundamental aspect of social functioning that allows individuals to act in adaptive ways. The domain of deception detection ability is still young, and many components in this field are yet to be touched which demands more research in this field. Aims: The present study aims at deciphering the structural composition of face during felt, posed, and deceived emotions in facial expression unique to Indian culture, using Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Quantitative analysis of Euclidean distance has been done to complement qualitative FACS analysis. Methods: In this study, thirty female, young adults with age range of 23–27 years were chosen randomly for portraying their (felt, posed, and deceived) facial expression. All facial expressions were captured through instruction, and videos were converted into static images. The static images were coded on the basis of FACS to decipher the felt, posed, and deceived expressions. Quantitative analysis of the data has been done using MATLAB to meet the objectives of the study and to complement the qualitative analysis. Results: Felt and posed emotions differ in terms of intensity of the expression and subjective experience. Posed emotional and deceived expressions differ in intent. Facial asymmetry is an important indicator for detecting deception. PMID:28163412

  16. Specific Language Impairment affects the early spelling process quantitatively but not qualitatively.

    PubMed

    Cordewener, Kim A H; Bosman, Anna M T; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) need a special spelling education program, by examining whether the early spelling of children with SLI is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the spelling of typically developing children. Two groups of first grade children participated: 39 children with a typical language development between the age of 73 and 88 months, and 59 children with SLI between the age of 71 and 97 months. The results indicated that children with SLI do have a quantitative delay in both grapheme knowledge and spelling during first grade. However, there was no qualitative difference between the early spelling of children with SLI and typically developing children. This indicated that children with SLI have the same spelling processes as typically developing children, although they develop slower. For clinical practice, this means that teachers of children with SLI can practice the same skills as with typically developing children, but they have to practice substantially more than typically developing children.

  17. Validation of quantitative and qualitative methods for detecting allergenic ingredients in processed foods in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-06-19

    A labeling system for food allergenic ingredients was established in Japan in April 2002. To monitor the labeling, the Japanese government announced official methods for detecting allergens in processed foods in November 2002. The official methods consist of quantitative screening tests using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and qualitative confirmation tests using Western blotting or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). In addition, the Japanese government designated 10 μg protein/g food (the corresponding allergenic ingredient soluble protein weight/food weight), determined by ELISA, as the labeling threshold. To standardize the official methods, the criteria for the validation protocol were described in the official guidelines. This paper, which was presented at the Advances in Food Allergen Detection Symposium, ACS National Meeting and Expo, San Diego, CA, Spring 2012, describes the validation protocol outlined in the official Japanese guidelines, the results of interlaboratory studies for the quantitative detection method (ELISA for crustacean proteins) and the qualitative detection method (PCR for shrimp and crab DNAs), and the reliability of the detection methods.

  18. Criteria for quantitative and qualitative data integration: mixed-methods research methodology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonah; Smith, Carrol A M

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need and importance of a mixed-methods approach for evaluation of clinical information systems. However, those studies had no criteria to guide integration of multiple data sets. Integrating different data sets serves to actualize the paradigm that a mixed-methods approach argues; thus, we require criteria that provide the right direction to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. The first author used a set of criteria organized from a literature search for integration of multiple data sets from mixed-methods research. The purpose of this article was to reorganize the identified criteria. Through critical appraisal of the reasons for designing mixed-methods research, three criteria resulted: validation, complementarity, and discrepancy. In applying the criteria to empirical data of a previous mixed methods study, integration of quantitative and qualitative data was achieved in a systematic manner. It helped us obtain a better organized understanding of the results. The criteria of this article offer the potential to produce insightful analyses of mixed-methods evaluations of health information systems.

  19. Residual Isocyanates in Medical Devices and Products: A Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Gillian; Harari, Homero; Ahsan, Samavi; Bello, Dhimiter; Sterling, David A; Nedrelow, Jonathan; Raynaud, Scott; Biswas, Swati; Liu, Youcheng

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a pilot qualitative and quantitative assessment of residual isocyanates and their potential initial exposures in neonates, as little is known about their contact effect. After a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stockroom inventory, polyurethane (PU) and PU foam (PUF) devices and products were qualitatively evaluated for residual isocyanates using Surface SWYPE™. Those containing isocyanates were quantitatively tested for methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) species, using UPLC-UV-MS/MS method. Ten of 37 products and devices tested, indicated both free and bound residual surface isocyanates; PU/PUF pieces contained aromatic isocyanates; one product contained aliphatic isocyanates. Overall, quantified mean MDI concentrations were low (4,4'-MDI = 0.52 to 140.1 pg/mg) and (2,4'-MDI = 0.01 to 4.48 pg/mg). The 4,4'-MDI species had the highest measured concentration (280 pg/mg). Commonly used medical devices/products contain low, but measurable concentrations of residual isocyanates. Quantifying other isocyanate species and neonatal skin exposure to isocyanates from these devices and products requires further investigation.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of student feedback on ePortfolio learning.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Karen M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta

    2008-11-01

    At the University of British Columbia, we introduced an ePortfolio assignment in the operative dentistry clinical simulation module and conducted a pilot study to explore the usefulness of ePortfolios as a learning tool for dental students. Qualitative assessments included student self-reflections on the ePortfolio experience. In the quantitative evaluation, ePortfolio learning was hypothesized as a multidimensional experience with four dimensions: 1) an ePortfolio experience is valuable for learning operative dentistry; 2) an ePortfolio is time-consuming, but overall a useful experience; 3) ePortfolio learning requires technical skills that are manageable; and 4) ePortfolio experience may be beneficial for lifelong learning. Overall, both quantitative and qualitative assessments demonstrated that students valued ePortfolio learning as a positive experience. In multivariate analyses (confirmatory factor analysis), the four-dimensional model of ePortfolio learning was confirmed. Future studies are needed to validate or revise the four-factor model of ePortfolio learning in different student cohorts.

  1. Convergent and sequential synthesis designs: implications for conducting and reporting systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Hong, Quan Nha; Pluye, Pierre; Bujold, Mathieu; Wassef, Maggy

    2017-03-23

    Systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence can provide a rich understanding of complex phenomena. This type of review is increasingly popular, has been used to provide a landscape of existing knowledge, and addresses the types of questions not usually covered in reviews relying solely on either quantitative or qualitative evidence. Although several typologies of synthesis designs have been developed, none have been tested on a large sample of reviews. The aim of this review of reviews was to identify and develop a typology of synthesis designs and methods that have been used and to propose strategies for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence. A review of systematic reviews combining qualitative and quantitative evidence was performed. Six databases were searched from inception to December 2014. Reviews were included if they were systematic reviews combining qualitative and quantitative evidence. The included reviews were analyzed according to three concepts of synthesis processes: (a) synthesis methods, (b) sequence of data synthesis, and (c) integration of data and synthesis results. A total of 459 reviews were included. The analysis of this literature highlighted a lack of transparency in reporting how evidence was synthesized and a lack of consistency in the terminology used. Two main types of synthesis designs were identified: convergent and sequential synthesis designs. Within the convergent synthesis design, three subtypes were found: (a) data-based convergent synthesis design, where qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed together using the same synthesis method, (b) results-based convergent synthesis design, where qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed separately using different synthesis methods and results of both syntheses are integrated during a final synthesis, and (c) parallel-results convergent synthesis design consisting of independent syntheses of qualitative and quantitative evidence and an

  2. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore

  3. The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Analysis of Academic Achievement among Undergraduates in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Ingrid Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study which uses quantitative and qualitative methods in determining the relationship between academic, institutional and psychological variables and degree performance for a sample of Jamaican undergraduate students. Quantitative methods, traditionally associated with the positivist paradigm, and involving the counting and…

  4. The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Analysis of Academic Achievement among Undergraduates in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Ingrid Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study which uses quantitative and qualitative methods in determining the relationship between academic, institutional and psychological variables and degree performance for a sample of Jamaican undergraduate students. Quantitative methods, traditionally associated with the positivist paradigm, and involving the counting and…

  5. A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation of Using Alice Programming to Improve Confidence, Enjoyment and Achievement among Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy; Courte, Jill; Evans, Donna; Howard, Elizabeth V.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, the use of the Alice programming language in an introductory computing class was studied from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Students in an introductory computing class participated in a 2.5-week unit to learn programming through the graphical programming environment of Alice. Quantitatively, students were…

  6. Extension Trial of Qigong for Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary; Marcon, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ) training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60 min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65%) who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N = 5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N = 8 trial completers and N = 7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes. PMID:24069054

  7. A novel approach to mixing qualitative and quantitative methods in HIV and STI prevention research.

    PubMed

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Macaluso, Maurizio; Peacock, Nadine; Snead, M Christine; Posner, Samuel F

    2014-04-01

    Mixed-method designs are increasingly used in sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention research. The authors designed a mixedmethod approach and applied it to estimate and evaluate a predictor of continued female condom use (6+ uses, among those who used it at least once) in a 6-month prospective cohort study. The analysis included 402 women who received an intervention promoting use of female and male condoms for STI prevention and completed monthly quantitative surveys; 33 also completed a semistructured qualitative interview. The authors identified a qualitative theme (couples' female condom enjoyment [CFCE]), applied discriminant analysis techniques to estimate CFCE for all participants, and added CFCE to a multivariable logistic regression model of continued female condom use. CFCE related to comfort, naturalness, pleasure, feeling protected, playfulness, ease of use, intimacy, and feeling in control of protection. CFCE was associated with continued female condom use (adjusted odds ratio: 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-5.6) and significantly improved model fit (p < .001). CFCE predicted continued female condom use. Mixed-method approaches for "scaling up" qualitative findings from small samples to larger numbers of participants can benefit HIV and STI prevention research.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of protein biotherapeutics with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qu, Miao; An, Bo; Shen, Shichen; Zhang, Ming; Shen, Xiaomeng; Duan, Xiaotao; Balthasar, Joseph P; Qu, Jun

    2017-11-01

    In the last decade, the advancement of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) techniques has enabled their broad application in protein characterization, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Owing to certain important merits of LC/MS techniques (e.g., high selectivity, flexibility, and rapid method development), LC/MS assays are often deemed as preferable alternatives to conventional methods (e.g., ligand-binding assays) for the analysis of protein biotherapeutics. At the discovery and development stages, LC/MS is generally employed for two purposes absolute quantification of protein biotherapeutics in biological samples and qualitative characterization of proteins. For absolute quantification of a target protein in bio-matrices, recent work has led to improvements in the efficiency of LC/MS method development, sample treatment, enrichment and digestion, and high-performance low-flow-LC separation. These advances have enhanced analytical sensitivity, specificity, and robustness. As to qualitative analysis, a range of techniques have been developed to characterize intramolecular disulfide bonds, glycosylation, charge variants, primary sequence heterogeneity, and the drug-to-antibody ratio of antibody drug conjugate (ADC), which has enabled a refined ability to assess product quality. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of technical challenges and strategies of LC/MS-based quantification and characterization of biotherapeutics, with the emphasis on the analysis of antibody-based biotherapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and ADCs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 36:734-754, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Medicare part D and long-term care: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Camilla B; Lapane, Kate L; Briesacher, Becky A

    2013-09-01

    In the largest overhaul to Medicare since its creation in 1965, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 established Part D in 2006 to improve access to essential medication among disabled and older Americans. Despite previous evidence of a positive impact on the general Medicare population, Part D's overall effects on long-term care (LTC) are unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature regarding Part D's impact on the LTC context, specifically costs to LTC residents, providers and payers; prescription drug coverage and utilization; and clinical and administrative outcomes. Four electronic databases [PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Health Business Fulltext Elite and Science Citation Index Expanded], selected US government and non-profit websites, and bibliographies were searched for quantitative and qualitative studies characterizing Part D in the LTC context. Searches were limited to studies that may have been published between 1 January 2006 (date of Part D implementation) and 8 January 2013. Systematic searches identified 1,624 publications for a three-stage (title, abstract and full-text) review. Included publications were in English language; based in the US; assessed Part D-related outcomes; and included or were directly relevant to LTC residents or settings. News articles, reviews, opinion pieces, letters or commentaries; case reports or case series; simulation or modeling studies; and summaries that did not report original data were excluded. A standardized form was used to abstract study type, study design, LTC setting, sources of data, method of data collection, time periods assessed, unit of observation, outcomes and results. Methodological quality was assessed using modified criteria specific to quantitative and qualitative studies. Eleven quantitative and eight qualitative studies met inclusion criteria. In the seven years since its

  10. A comparative study of qualitative and quantitative methods for the assessment of adhesive remnant after bracket debonding.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, S Burcak; Polat-Ozsoy, Omur; Sar, Cagla; Cubukcu, H Evren; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2012-04-01

    The amount of the residual adhesive after bracket debonding is frequently assessed in a qualitative manner, utilizing the adhesive remnant index (ARI). This study aimed to investigate whether quantitative assessment of the adhesive remnant yields more precise results compared to qualitative methods utilizing the 4- and 5-point ARI scales. Twenty debonded brackets were selected. Evaluation and scoring of the adhesive remnant on bracket bases were made consecutively using: 1. qualitative assessment (visual scoring) and 2. quantitative measurement (image analysis) on digital photographs. Image analysis was made on scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and high-precision elemental maps of the adhesive remnant as determined by energy dispersed X-ray spectrometry. Evaluations were made in accordance with the original 4-point and the modified 5-point ARI scales. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated, and the data were evaluated using Friedman test followed by Wilcoxon signed ranks test with Bonferroni correction. ICC statistics indicated high levels of agreement for qualitative visual scoring among examiners. The 4-point ARI scale was compliant with the SEM assessments but indicated significantly less adhesive remnant compared to the results of quantitative elemental mapping. When the 5-point scale was used, both quantitative techniques yielded similar results with those obtained qualitatively. These results indicate that qualitative visual scoring using the ARI is capable of generating similar results with those assessed by quantitative image analysis techniques. In particular, visual scoring with the 5-point ARI scale can yield similar results with both the SEM analysis and elemental mapping.

  11. [Quantitative and qualitative analyses for characteristics of the clock drawing in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Konagaya, Yoko; Konagaya, Masaaki; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Washimi, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the results of the clock drawing test (CDT) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate its significance for cognitive function screening. We administered the CDT and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) to a total of 156 AD patients, and CDT performance was scored quantitatively in accordance with the method by Freedman, while the CDT error types were qualitatively classified by Rouleau's method. We divided AD patients into three groups by their MMSE total score (A: 23 ≤, B: 18~22, C: ≤ 17). The mean total scores of CDT and MMSE in AD were 11.5 ± 3.4 and 19.8 ± 4.7, respectively, and the total CDT scores showed significant positive correlation with the total MMSE scores (r = 0.450). Fewer than 80% of subjects drew the clock correctly for 8 out of 15 sub-items, and fewer were able to correctly draw clock hands than could correctly draw numbers, contour or a center. In analysis of CDT qualitative error types, the most common error types were spatial and/or planning deficit (SPD) (28.2%), and conceptual deficit (CD) (23.7%), which suggested visuospatial impairments and semantic impairments play essential roles in AD patients' poor clock drawings. The frequency of CD and SPD error types significantly increased as severity of cognitive function worsened (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively), and those of stimulus-bound response and perseveration had tendency to increase as severity of cognitive function. The present study suggests that CDT is a useful screening method not only for the impairment of cognitive function and the severity of cognitive dysfunction, but also for identification of specific cognitive function impairments in AD patients.

  12. Carboxylesterase-mediated insecticide resistance: Quantitative increase induces broader metabolic resistance than qualitative change.

    PubMed

    Cui, Feng; Li, Mei-Xia; Chang, Hai-Jing; Mao, Yun; Zhang, Han-Ying; Lu, Li-Xia; Yan, Shuai-Guo; Lang, Ming-Lin; Liu, Li; Qiao, Chuan-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Carboxylesterases are mainly involved in the mediation of metabolic resistance of many insects to organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Carboxylesterases underwent two divergent evolutionary events: (1) quantitative mechanism characterized by the overproduction of carboxylesterase protein; and (2) qualitative mechanism caused by changes in enzymatic properties because of mutation from glycine/alanine to aspartate at the 151 site (G/A151D) or from tryptophan to leucine at the 271 site (W271L), following the numbering of Drosophila melanogaster AChE. Qualitative mechanism has been observed in few species. However, whether this carboxylesterase mutation mechanism is prevalent in insects remains unclear. In this study, wild-type, G/A151D and W271L mutant carboxylesterases from Culex pipiens and Aphis gossypii were subjected to germline transformation and then transferred to D. melanogaster. These germlines were ubiquitously expressed as induced by tub-Gal4. In carboxylesterase activity assay, the introduced mutant carboxylesterase did not enhance the overall carboxylesterase activity of flies. This result indicated that G/A151D or W271L mutation disrupted the original activities of the enzyme. Less than 1.5-fold OP resistance was only observed in flies expressing A. gossypii mutant carboxylesterases compared with those expressing A. gossypii wild-type carboxylesterase. However, transgenic flies universally showed low resistance to OP insecticides compared with non-transgenic flies. The flies expressing A. gossypii W271L mutant esterase exhibited 1.5-fold resistance to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide compared with non-transgenic flies. The present transgenic Drosophila system potentially showed that a quantitative increase in carboxylesterases induced broader resistance of insects to insecticides than a qualitative change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling Activities In Kinematics Understanding quantitative relations with the contribution of qualitative reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanos, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    In Greek traditional teaching a lot of significant concepts are introduced with a sequence that does not provide the students with all the necessary information required to comprehend. We consider that understanding concepts and the relations among them is greatly facilitated by the use of modelling tools, taking into account that the modelling process forces students to change their vague, imprecise ideas into explicit causal relationships. It is not uncommon to find students who are able to solve problems by using complicated relations without getting a qualitative and in-depth grip on them. Researchers have already shown that students often have a formal mathematical and physical knowledge without a qualitative understanding of basic concepts and relations." The aim of this communication is to present some of the results of our investigation into modelling activities related to kinematical concepts. For this purpose, we have used ModellingSpace, an environment that was especially designed to allow students from eleven to seventeen years old to express their ideas and gradually develop them. The ModellingSpace enables students to build their own models and offers the choice of observing directly simulations of real objects and/or all the other alternative forms of representations (tables of values, graphic representations and bar-charts). The students -in order to answer the questions- formulate hypotheses, they create models, they compare their hypotheses with the representations of their models and they modify or create other models when their hypotheses did not agree with the representations. In traditional ways of teaching, students are educated to utilize formulas as the most important strategy. Several times the students recall formulas in order to utilize them, without getting an in-depth understanding on them. Students commonly use the quantitative type of reasoning, since it is primarily used in teaching, although it may not be fully understood by them

  14. Differentiation of Glioblastoma from Brain Metastasis: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using Arterial Spin Labeling MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Leonard; You, Sung-Hye; Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sun-Won; Jung, Cheolkyu; Park, Chul-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to differentiate glioblastoma (GBM) from brain metastasis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board of our hospital approved this retrospective study. The study population consisted of 128 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection and were diagnosed as either GBM (n = 89) or brain metastasis (n = 39). All participants underwent preoperative MR imaging including ASL. For qualitative analysis, the tumors were visually graded into five categories based on ASL-CBF maps by two blinded reviewers. For quantitative analysis, the reviewers drew regions of interest (ROIs) on ASL-CBF maps upon the most hyperperfused portion within the tumor and upon peritumoral T2 hyperintensity area. Signal intensities of intratumoral and peritumoral ROIs for each subject were normalized by dividing the values by those of contralateral normal gray matter (nCBFintratumoral and nCBFperitumoral, respectively). Visual grading scales and quantitative parameters between GBM and brain metastasis were compared. In addition, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ASL-driven CBF to differentiate GBM from brain metastasis. Results For qualitative analysis, GBM group showed significantly higher grade compared to metastasis group (p = 0.001). For quantitative analysis, both nCBFintratumoral and nCBFperitumoral in GBM were significantly higher than those in metastasis (both p < 0.001). The areas under the curve were 0.677, 0.714, and 0.835 for visual grading, nCBFintratumoral, and nCBFperitumoral, respectively (all p < 0.001). Conclusion ASL perfusion MR imaging can aid in the differentiation of GBM from brain metastasis. PMID:27861605

  15. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of semantic verbal fluency in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jaimes-Bautista, A G; Rodríguez-Camacho, M; Martínez-Juárez, I E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y

    2017-08-29

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) perform poorly on semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks. Completing these tasks successfully involves multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. Therefore, quantitative analysis of SVF (number of correct words in one minute), conducted in most studies, has been found to be insufficient to identify cognitive dysfunction underlying SVF difficulties in TLE. To determine whether a sample of patients with TLE had SVF difficulties compared with a control group (CG), and to identify the cognitive components associated with SVF difficulties using quantitative and qualitative analysis. SVF was evaluated in 25 patients with TLE and 24 healthy controls; the semantic verbal fluency test included 5 semantic categories: animals, fruits, occupations, countries, and verbs. All 5 categories were analysed quantitatively (number of correct words per minute and interval of execution: 0-15, 16-30, 31-45, and 46-60seconds); the categories animals and fruits were also analysed qualitatively (clusters, cluster size, switches, perseverations, and intrusions). Patients generated fewer words for all categories and intervals and fewer clusters and switches for animals and fruits than the CG (P<.01). Differences between groups were not significant in terms of cluster size and number of intrusions and perseverations (P>.05). Our results suggest an association between SVF difficulties in TLE and difficulty activating semantic networks, impaired strategic search, and poor cognitive flexibility. Attention, inhibition, and working memory are preserved in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of an analog and digital quantitative and qualitative analysis for the fit of dental copings.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Katharina; Ostertag, Silke; Ostertag, Michael; Walter, Michael H; Luthardt, Ralph G; Rudolph, Heike

    2015-02-01

    Precision in fit is crucial for dental crowns and bridges. Most analyses of fit are based on analog 2D techniques. Aim of this in-vitro study was to compare an analog and a digital quantitative and qualitative analysis for the fit of CAD/CAM fabricated dental copings. A prepared steel canine served as master die. CAD surface models, varying in data density, were purposely enlarged in height (Ez), circumference (Exy) and both of these aspects at once (Exyz). Two titanium copings for each variation were produced. The silicone-replica-technique was applied to analyze the fit by means of a 2D analog light microscope measurement (LMM) and a 3D computer-assisted measurement using an optical digitizing system (ODKM97), respectively. In most cases, restorations based on the low data density showed a better fit than those based on high data density. Original size low density data showed the lowest marginal and axial values in the quantitative 2D analyses (LMM and ODKM97). The 3D measurements (ODKM97) revealed best fit of the low density original size specimens, whereas the Ez specimens showed the highest values. Noticeable variations in fit were detected marginally and axially depending on the specific measurement point (mesial, distal, oral, or buccal) for both measurement systems. The analog 2D replica technique revealed a loss of information due to the necessary cutting process. By contrast, the digital computer-based method provided 3D quantitative and qualitative results without data loss over the complete surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of in vivo SD-OCT measurement of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yijing; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Bienert, Thomas; Kirch, Robert D.; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2017-01-01

    OCT has been demonstrated as an efficient imaging modality in various biomedical and clinical applications. However, there is a missing link with respect to the source of contrast between OCT and other modern imaging modalities, no quantitative comparison has been demonstrated between them, yet. We evaluated, to our knowledge, for the first time in vivo OCT measurement of rat brain with our previously proposed forward imaging method by both qualitatively and quantitatively correlating OCT with the corresponding T1-weighted and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, fiber density map (FDM), and two types of histology staining (cresyl violet and acetylcholinesterase AchE), respectively. Brain anatomical structures were identified and compared across OCT, MRI and histology imaging modalities. Noticeable resemblances corresponding to certain anatomical structures were found between OCT and other image profiles. Correlation was quantitatively assessed by estimating correlation coefficient (R) and mutual information (MI). Results show that the 1-D OCT measurements in regards to the intensity profile and estimated attenuation factor, do not have profound linear correlation with the other image modalities suggested from correlation coefficient estimation. However, findings in mutual information analysis demonstrate that there are markedly high MI values in OCT-MRI signals. PMID:28270970

  18. Relation between qualitative and quantitative 3-dimensional ultrasound and ki-67 expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Bing; He, Yan; Ning, Bing; Nong, Mei-Fen; Wei, Hai-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relation between quantitative blood flow parameters on 3-dimensional (3D) color histogram, 3D ultrasound characteristics and Ki-67 expression in breast cancer. Three-dimensional ultrasound characteristics and histological classifications of 76 breast tumors in 75 confirmed cases were analyzed. Relations of tumor volume (V), vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization-flow index (VFI) on 3D color histogram to Ki-67 expression were studied by statistical methods. VI and VFI measurements of tumors in positive Ki-67 expression group were obviously increased compared with the negative expression group (P<0.05). V and FI measurements of positive expression group were higher than those of the negative expression group, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Cases showing positive expression of Ki-67 were more likely to have lymph node metastases (P<0.05), and Ki-67 expression positively correlated with histological classification (P<0.05). However, the two groups did not show significant differences in the findings of "sun-like symptom" (P>0.05). Qualitative and quantitative 3D ultrasound characteristics correlated with positive expression of Ki-67 in breast cancer. Quantitative analysis with 3D color histogram more accurately evaluates blood supply of breast tumors, providing references for predicting biological behaviors and prognosis of breast cancer.

  19. What Value Can Qualitative Research Add to Quantitative Research Design? An Example From an Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Toye, Francine; Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark A; Fairbank, Jeremy; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-08-09

    Using an example of qualitative research embedded in a non-surgical feasibility trial, we explore the benefits of including qualitative research in trial design and reflect on epistemological challenges. We interviewed 18 trial participants and used methods of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Our findings demonstrate that qualitative research can make a valuable contribution by allowing trial stakeholders to see things from alternative perspectives. Specifically, it can help to make specific recommendations for improved trial design, generate questions which contextualize findings, and also explore disease experience beyond the trial. To make the most out of qualitative research embedded in quantitative design it would be useful to (a) agree specific qualitative study aims that underpin research design, (b) understand the impact of differences in epistemological truth claims, (c) provide clear thematic interpretations for trial researchers to utilize, and (d) include qualitative findings that explore experience beyond the trial setting within the impact plan. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. [Qualitative-Quantitative Analysis of Rice Bran Oil Adulteration Based on Laser Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tu, Bin; Song, Zhi-qiang; Zheng, Xiao; Zeng, Lu-lu; Yin, Cheng; He, Dong-ping; Qi, Pei-shi

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is mainly to have qualitative-quantitative analysis on the adulteration in rice bran oil by near-infrared spectroscopy analytical technology combined with chemo metrics methods. The author configured 189 adulterated oil samples according to the different mass ratios by selecting rice bran oil as base oil and choosing soybean oil, corn oil, colza oil, and waste oil of catering industry as adulterated oil. Then, the spectral data of samples was collected by using near-infrared spectrometer, and it was pre-processed through the following methods, including without processing, Multiplicative Scatter Correction(MSC), Orthogonal Signal Correction(OSC), Standard Normal Variate and Standard Normal Variate transformation DeTrending(SNV_DT). Furthermore, this article extracted characteristic wavelengths of the spectral datum from the pre-processed date by Successive Projections Algorithm(SPA), established qualitatively classified calibration methods of adulterated oil through classification method of Support Vector Machine(SVM), optimized model parameters(C, g) by Mesh Search Algorithm and determined the optimal process condition. In extracting characteristic wavelengths of the spectral datum from pretreatment by Backward interval Partial Least Squares(BiPLS) and SPA, quantitatively classified calibration models of adulterated oil through Partial Least Squares(PLS) and Support Vector Machine Regression(SVR) was established respectively. In the end, the author optimized the combination of model parameters(C, g) by Mesh Search Algorithm and determined the optimal parameter model. According to the analysis, the accuracy of prediction set and calibration set for SVC model reached 95% and 100% respectively. Compared with the prediction of the adulteration oil content of rice bran oil which was established by the PLS model, the SVR model is the better one, although both of them could implement the content prediction. Furthermore, the correlation

  1. Comparative study of contrast-enhanced ultrasound qualitative and quantitative analysis for identifying benign and malignant breast tumor lumps.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Gao, Yun-Hua; Li, Ding-Dong; Gao, Yan-Chun; Hou, Ling-Mi; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    To compare the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) qualitative and quantitative analysis in the identification of breast tumor lumps. Qualitative and quantitative indicators of CEUS for 73 cases of breast tumor lumps were retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate approaches. Logistic regression was applied and ROC curves were drawn for evaluation and comparison. The CEUS qualitative indicator-generated regression equation contained three indicators, namely enhanced homogeneity, diameter line expansion and peak intensity grading, which demonstrated prediction accuracy for benign and malignant breast tumor lumps of 91.8%; the quantitative indicator-generated regression equation only contained one indicator, namely the relative peak intensity, and its prediction accuracy was 61.5%. The corresponding areas under the ROC curve for qualitative and quantitative analyses were 91.3% and 75.7%, respectively, which exhibited a statistically significant difference by the Z test (P<0.05). The ability of CEUS qualitative analysis to identify breast tumor lumps is better than with quantitative analysis.

  2. A systematic review of the health and well-being impacts of school gardening: synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohly, Heather; Gentry, Sarah; Wigglesworth, Rachel; Bethel, Alison; Lovell, Rebecca; Garside, Ruth

    2016-03-25

    School gardening programmes are increasingly popular, with suggested benefits including healthier eating and increased physical activity. Our objectives were to understand the health and well-being impacts of school gardens and the factors that help or hinder their success. We conducted a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence (PROSPERO CRD42014007181). We searched multiple databases and used a range of supplementary approaches. Studies about school gardens were included if they reported on physical or mental health or well-being. Quantitative studies had to include a comparison group. Studies were quality appraised using appropriate tools. Findings were narratively synthesised and the qualitative evidence used to produce a conceptual framework to illustrate how benefits might be accrued. Evidence from 40 articles (21 quantitative studies; 16 qualitative studies; 3 mixed methods studies) was included. Generally the quantitative research was poor. Evidence for changes in fruit and vegetable intake was limited and based on self-report. The qualitative research was better quality and ascribed a range of health and well-being impacts to school gardens, with some idealistic expectations for their impact in the long term. Groups of pupils who do not excel in classroom activities were thought to particularly benefit. Lack of funding and over reliance on volunteers were thought to threaten success, while involvement with local communities and integration of gardening activities into the school curriculum were thought to support success. More robust quantitative research is needed to convincingly support the qualitative evidence suggesting wide ranging benefits from school gardens.

  3. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  4. Qualitative and quantitative approaches in the dose-response assessment of genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Shoji; Gi, Min; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Matsumoto, Michiharu

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches are important issues in field of carcinogenic risk assessment of the genotoxic carcinogens. Herein, we provide quantitative data on low-dose hepatocarcinogenicity studies for three genotoxic hepatocarcinogens: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). Hepatocarcinogenicity was examined by quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, which are the preneoplastic lesions in rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the endpoint carcinogenic marker in the rat liver medium-term carcinogenicity bioassay. We also examined DNA damage and gene mutations which occurred through the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. For the establishment of points of departure (PoD) from which the cancer-related risk can be estimated, we analyzed the above events by quantitative no-observed-effect level and benchmark dose approaches. MeIQx at low doses induced formation of DNA-MeIQx adducts; somewhat higher doses caused elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquanosine levels; at still higher doses gene mutations occurred; and the highest dose induced formation of GST-P positive foci. These data indicate that early genotoxic events in the pathway to carcinogenesis showed the expected trend of lower PoDs for earlier events in the carcinogenic process. Similarly, only the highest dose of IQ caused an increase in the number of GST-P positive foci in the liver, while IQ-DNA adduct formation was observed with low doses. Moreover, treatment with DEN at low doses had no effect on development of GST-P positive foci in the liver. These data on PoDs for the markers contribute to understand whether genotoxic carcinogens have a threshold for their carcinogenicity. The most appropriate approach to use in low dose-response assessment must be approved on the basis of scientific judgment.

  5. A quantitative and qualitative method to control chemotherapeutic preparations by Fourier transform infrared-ultraviolet spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Dziopa, Florian; Galy, Guillaume; Bauler, Stephanie; Vincent, Benoit; Crochon, Sarah; Tall, Mamadou Lamine; Pirot, Fabrice; Pivot, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Chemotherapy products in hospitals include a reconstitution step of manufactured drugs providing an adapted dosage to each patient. The administration of highly iatrogenic drugs raises the question of patients' safety and treatment efficiency. In order to reduce administration errors due to faulty preparations, we introduced a new qualitative and quantitative routine control based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. This automated method enabled fast and specific control for 14 anticancer drugs. A 1.2 mL sample was used to assay and identify each preparation in less than 90 sec. Over a two-year period, 9370 controlled infusion bags showed a 1.49% nonconformity rate, under 15% tolerance from the theoretical concentration and 96% minimum identification matching factor. This study evaluated the reliability of the control process, as well as its accordance to chemotherapy deliverance requirements. Thus, corrective measures were defined to improve the control process.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative histopathological comparisons of multielectrode balloon and thermal balloon endometrial ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Ryan, Thomas P.; Kuk-Nagle, Karen; Soto, Cindi; Vancaillie, Thierry G.; Garza-Leal, Jose

    1998-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative histopathologic techniques were used to compare the distribution, severity and depths of acute thermal lesions formed by in vivo placement of three different intracavitary thermal balloon instruments in the uteri of 19 women scheduled for hysterectomy. Thermal damage reflected by (1) Nitro Blue Tetrazolium stains separating `living' from `dead' tissues, (2) red zone formation and the (3) presence of a clear zone observed in histologic slides extended into the myometrium. One hysterectomy specimen removed 4 days after treatment showed superficial slough of the endometrium but solid, coagulation necrosis of the deeper endometrium and adjacent myometrium. The treatment effect and success of intracavitary thermal coagulation may be related to a delicate balance of complete irradiation of endometrium versus fibrous stricture and intracavitary adhesions of the uterus.

  7. Combining qualitative and quantitative imaging evaluation for the assessment of genomic DNA integrity: The SPIDIA experience.

    PubMed

    Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Pazzagli, Mario; Hartmann, Christina C; Ibrahim-Gawel, Hady; Verderio, Paolo

    2015-06-15

    In this note, we present an ad hoc procedure that combines qualitative (visual evaluation) and quantitative (ImageJ software) evaluations of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) images to assess the genomic DNA (gDNA) integrity of analyzed samples. This procedure could be suitable for the analysis of a large number of images by taking into consideration both the expertise of researchers and the objectiveness of the software. We applied this procedure on the first SPIDIA DNA External Quality Assessment (EQA) samples. Results show that the classification obtained by this ad hoc procedure allows a more accurate evaluation of gDNA integrity with respect to a single approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative In Vitro Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol Phosphatase Substrate Specificity.

    PubMed

    Ip, Laura Ren Huey; Gewinner, Christina Anja

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositides compromise a family of eight membrane lipids which play important roles in many cellular signaling pathways. Signaling through phosphoinositides has been shown in a variety of cellular functions such cell proliferation, cell growth, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. Phospholipid phosphatases regulate cell signaling by modifying the concentration of phosphoinositides and their dephosphorylated products. To understand the role of individual lipid phosphatases in phosphoinositide turnover and functional signaling, it is crucial to determine the substrate specificity of the lipid phosphatase of interest. In this chapter we describe how the substrate specificity of an individual lipid phosphatase can be qualitatively and quantitatively measured in an in vitro radiometric assay. In addition, we specify the different expression systems and purification methods required to produce the necessary yield and functionality in order to further characterize these enzymes. The outstanding versatility and sensitivity of this assay system are yet unmatched and are therefore currently considered the standard of the field.

  9. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.)].

    PubMed

    Janda, Katarzyna; Wolska, Jolanta; Debia, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds on RBCA, YpSs, DG18 media at 25, 37, and 45°C. Twenty samples of sunflower seeds (not roasted and not salted) were used for the analysis. The highest number of moulds were xerophilic species isolated on DG18 at 25°C (33), followed by mesophilic species (29) on RBCA medium at 25°C, and mesophilic (22) and thermophilic species (10) on YpSs medium at 37, and 45°C, respectively. Eurotium herbariorum was isolated from all samples. A total of 287 strains belonging to 52 mould species were isolated from sunflower seeds. The study revealed new species not previously isolated from sunflower seeds mycobiota.

  10. Causality and Causal Inference in Social Work: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the goals of social work requires matching a specific solution to a specific problem. Understanding why the problem exists and why the solution should work requires a consideration of cause and effect. However, it is unclear whether it is desirable for social workers to identify cause and effect, whether it is possible for social workers to identify cause and effect, and, if so, what is the best means for doing so. These questions are central to determining the possibility of developing a science of social work and how we go about doing it. This article has four aims: (1) provide an overview of the nature of causality; (2) examine how causality is treated in social work research and practice; (3) highlight the role of quantitative and qualitative methods in the search for causality; and (4) demonstrate how both methods can be employed to support a “science” of social work. PMID:25821393

  11. HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia

    In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

  12. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of fluoxetine hydrochloride by 19F NMR].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bai-Qin; Kong, Er-Li; Xue, Xiao-Di; Zhao, Shou-Qian; Lin, Shrong-Shi

    2012-05-01

    The chemical shift of fluoxetine hydrochloride appears at delta 14.15 in 19F NMR analysis. The delta moved upfield slightly from 14.158 to 14.145 when the concentration of solution became diluted from 2.00 to 0.05 mmol x L(-1). Spiking test was suggested to confirm the existence of the compound for qualitative analysis. 19F NMR detection sensitivity test illustrated that a concentration of 17 mg in 1 L water could be detected while the sample was scanned 500 times with optimum parameters. In quantitative analysis, standard curve of concentration versus fluorine signal intensity was proposed to determine the amount of fluoxetine. Long capillary tube containing trifluoroacetic acid was used as internal standard for the integration measurements and straight line was obtained with good fitting. Direct additions of trifluoroethanol to fluoxetine solutions gave a poorer standard curve.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of environmental samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorov, N. B.; Popov, A. M.; Zaytsev, S. M.; Labutin, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    The key achievements in the determination of trace amounts of components in environmental samples (soils, ores, natural waters, etc.) by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry are considered. Unique capabilities of this method make it suitable for rapid analysis of metals and alloys, glasses, polymers, objects of cultural heritage, archaeological and various environmental samples. The key advantages of the method that account for its high efficiency are demonstrated, in particular, a small amount of analyzed material, the absence of sample preparation, the possibility of local and remote analysis of either one or several elements. The use of chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for qualitative sample classification is described in detail. Various approaches to improving the figures of merit of quantitative analysis of environmental samples are discussed. The achieved limits of detection for most elements in geochemical samples are critically evaluated. The bibliography includes 302 references.

  14. AOAC validation of qualitative and quantitative methods for microbiology in foods. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, J M

    1998-11-24

    The purpose of AOAC International is promoting quality measurements and methods validation in the analytical sciences. The actual work of developing and testing methods is done by a network of AOAC members and volunteers. Validation of the methods is established by the AOAC Official Methods Program. The objective of this program is to provide analytical methods for which performance characteristics have been validated to the highest degree of confidence through an independent, multiple laboratory collaborative study. The performance characteristics for quantitative microbiological methods include repeatability, reproducibility and critical relative difference, while the characteristics for qualitative methods are sensitivity and specificity. The Official Methods Program is illustrated by a practical example of a collaborative study through which salmonella detection by motility enrichment on Modified Semi-solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) medium was adopted as an Official Method.

  15. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Adriana E. S.; Smart, Simon M.; Henrys, Peter A.; Ashmore, Mike R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as ‘positive indicator-species’ (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists’ assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  16. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the human cerebellum: qualitative and quantitative analyses

    PubMed Central

    Benagiano, Vincenzo; Flace, Paolo; Lorusso, Loredana; Rizzi, Anna; Bosco, Lorenzo; Cagiano, Raffaele; Ambrosi, Glauco

    2009-01-01

    Although autoradiographic, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the cerebellum of various species, immunohistochemistry has never shown immunoreactivity for VIP within cerebellar neuronal bodies and processes. The present study aimed to ascertain whether VIP immunoreactivity really does exist in the human cerebellum by making a systematic analysis of samples removed post-mortem from all of the cerebellar lobes. The study was carried out using light microscopy immunohistochemical techniques based on a set of four different antibodies (three polyclonal and one monoclonal) against VIP, carefully selected on the basis of control tests performed on human colon. All of the antibodies used showed VIP-immunoreactive neuronal bodies and processes distributed in the cerebellar cortex and subjacent white matter of all of the cerebellum lobes, having similar qualitative patterns of distribution. Immunoreactive neurons included subpopulations of the main neuron types of the cortex. Statistical analysis of the quantitative data on the VIP immunoreactivity revealed by the different antibodies in the different cerebellar lobes did not demonstrate any significant differences. In conclusion, using four different anti-VIP antibodies, the first evidence of VIP immunoreactivity is herein supplied in the human post-mortem cerebellum, with similar qualitative/quantitative patterns of distribution among the different cerebellum lobes. Owing to the function performed by VIP as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, it is a candidate for a role in intrinsic and extrinsic (projective) circuits of the cerebellum, in agreement with previous demonstrations of receptors for VIP in the cerebellar cortex and nuclei. As VIP signalling pathways are implicated in the regulation of cognitive and psychic functions, cerebral blood flow and metabolism, processes of histomorphogenesis

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of palmar dermatoglyphics among smokeless tobacco users.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Athreya; Aswath, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Palm prints formed once does not change throughout life and is not influenced by environment. Palmar Dermatoglyphics can indicate the development of potentially malignant and malignant lesions and help in identifying persons at high risk of developing Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC). To analyze the qualitative [finger ridge pattern and presence or absence of hypothenar pattern] and quantitative [mean ATD angle and total AB ridge count] variations in Palmar Dermatoglyphics in patients suffering from OSMF and OSCC. A prospective comparative study among 40 patients (Group I--10 samples of smokeless tobacco users with OSMF, Group II--10 samples of smokeless tobacco users with OSCC, Group III--10 samples of smokeless tobacco users without OSMF or OSCC and Group IV--10 samples without smokeless tobacco habit without OSMF and OSCC as controls) were selected. The palm prints were recorded using an HP inkjet scanner. The patients were asked to place the palm gently on the scanner with the fingers wide apart from each other. The images of the palm prints were edited and qualitative and quantitative analysis were done. Statistical analysis such as Kruskal Wallis, Post Hoc and Analysis of Varience were done. A highly significant difference among the finger ridge, hypothenar pattern and mean ATD angle (P<0.001) and total AB ridge count (P=0.005) in OSMF and OSCC patients were obtained. There is predominance of arches and loops, presence of hypothenar pattern, decrease in mean ATD angle and total AB ridge count in OSMF and Oral Cancer patients. Palmar Dermatoglyphics can predict the probable occurrence of OSMF and OSCC in smokelees tobacco users.

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Hepatitis A Virus in Wastewaters in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Béji-Hamza, A; Khélifi-Gharbi, H; Hassine-Zaafrane, M; Della Libera, S; Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Petricca, S; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Aouni, M; La Rosa, G

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis A causes substantial morbidity in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries and represents an important health problem in several southern Mediterranean countries. The objectives of the study were as follows: (a) to assess the occurrence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Tunisia through the monitoring of urban wastewaters collected at wastewater treatment plants (WTPs); (b) to characterize environmental strains; and (c) to estimate the viral load in raw and treated sewages, in order to evaluate the potential impact on superficial waters receiving discharges. A total of 150 raw and treated wastewaters were collected from three WTPs and analyzed by both qualitative (RT-PCR/nested) and quantitative (qRT-PCR) methods. Of these, 100 (66%) were found to be positive for HAV by the qualitative assay: 68.3% in influents and 64.7% in effluents. The vast majority of HAV sequences belonged to sub-genotype IA, with 11 different strains detected found to be identical to clinical strains isolated from Tunisian patients with acute hepatitis. Five unique variants were also detected, not previously reported in clinical cases. Only two IB strains were found, confirming the rarity of this sub-genotype in this country. The results of the present study indicate a wide circulation of the pathogen in the population, most probably in the form of asymptomatic infections, a finding consistent with the classification of the country as having intermediate/high endemicity. Quantitative data showed high viral loads in influents (3.5E+05 genome copies/liter, mean value) as well as effluents (2.5E+05 genome copies/liter, mean value), suggesting that contaminated water could be a critical element in transmission.

  19. Mixed quantitative/qualitative modeling and simulation of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nebot, A; Cellier, F E; Vallverdú, M

    1998-02-01

    The cardiovascular system is composed of the hemodynamical system and the central nervous system (CNS) control. Whereas the structure and functioning of the hemodynamical system are well known and a number of quantitative models have already been developed that capture the behavior of the hemodynamical system fairly accurately, the CNS control is, at present, still not completely understood and no good deductive models exist that are able to describe the CNS control from physical and physiological principles. The use of qualitative methodologies may offer an interesting alternative to quantitative modeling approaches for inductively capturing the behavior of the CNS control. In this paper, a qualitative model of the CNS control of the cardiovascular system is developed by means of the fuzzy inductive reasoning (FIR) methodology. FIR is a fairly new modeling technique that is based on the general system problem solving (GSPS) methodology developed by G.J. Klir (Architecture of Systems Problem Solving, Plenum Press, New York, 1985). Previous investigations have demonstrated the applicability of this approach to modeling and simulating systems, the structure of which is partially or totally unknown. In this paper, five separate controller models for different control actuations are described that have been identified independently using the FIR methodology. Then the loop between the hemodynamical system, modeled by means of differential equations, and the CNS control, modeled in terms of five FIR models, is closed, in order to study the behavior of the cardiovascular system as a whole. The model described in this paper has been validated for a single patient only.

  20. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    PubMed Central

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  1. Mapping and pyramiding of qualitative and quantitative resistance to stripe rust in barley.

    PubMed

    Castro, A J; Capettini, F; Corey, A E; Filichkina, T; Hayes, P M; Kleinhofs, A; Kudrna, D; Richardson, K; Sandoval-Islas, S; Rossi, C; Vivar, H

    2003-09-01

    The identification and location of sources of genetic resistance to plant diseases are important contributions to the development of resistant varieties. The combination of different sources and types of resistance in the same genotype should assist in the development of durably resistant varieties. Using a doubled haploid (DH), mapping population of barley, we mapped a qualitative resistance gene ( Rpsx) to barley stripe rust in the accession CI10587 (PI 243183) to the long arm of chromosome 1(7H). We combined the Rpsx gene, through a series of crosses, with three mapped and validated barley stripe rust resistance QTL alleles located on chromosomes 4(4H) (QTL4), 5(1H) (QTL5), and 7(5H) (QTL7). Three different barley DH populations were developed from these crosses, two combining Rpsx with QTL4 and QTL7, and the third combining Rpsx with QTL5. Disease severity testing in four environments and QTL mapping analyses confirmed the effects and locations of Rpsx, QTL4, and QTL5, thereby validating the original estimates of QTL location and effect. QTL alleles on chromosomes 4(4H) and 5(1H) were effective in decreasing disease severity in the absence of the resistance allele at Rpsx. Quantitative resistance effects were mainly additive, although magnitude interactions were detected. Our results indicate that combining qualitative and quantitative resistance in the same genotype is feasible. However, the durability of such resistance pyramids will require challenge from virulent isolates, which currently are not reported in North America.

  2. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence in Meningioma: Qualitative and Quantitative Measurements In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Pablo A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Harris, Brent T.; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frederic; Kim, Anthony; Simmons, Nathan E.; Erkmen, Kadir; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence has shown promise as a surgical adjunct for maximizing the extent of surgical resection in gliomas. To date, the clinical utility of 5-ALA in meningiomas is not fully understood, with most descriptive studies using qualitative approaches to 5-ALA-PpIX. OBJECTIVE To assess the diagnostic performance of 5-ALA-PpIX fluorescence during surgical resection of meningioma. METHODS ALA was administered to 15 patients with meningioma undergoing PpIX fluorescence-guided surgery at our institution. At various points during the procedure, the surgeon performed qualitative, visual assessments of fluorescence by using the surgical microscope, followed by a quantitative fluorescence measurement by using an intra-operative probe. Specimens were collected at each point for subsequent neuropathological analysis. Clustered data analysis of variance was used to ascertain a difference between groups, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to assess diagnostic capabilities. RESULTS Red-pink fluorescence was observed in 80% (12/15) of patients, with visible fluorescence generally demonstrating a strong, homogenous character. Quantitative fluorescence measured diagnostically significant PpIX concentrations (CPpIx) in both visibly and nonvisibly fluorescent tissues, with significantly higher CPpIx in both visibly fluorescent (P < .001) and tumor tissue (P = .002). Receiver operating characteristic analyses also showed diagnostic accuracies up to 90% for differentiating tumor from normal dura. CONCLUSION ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence guidance is a potential and promising adjunct in accurately detecting neoplastic tissue during meningioma resective surgery. These results suggest a broader reach for PpIX as a biomarker for meningiomas than was previously noted in the literature. PMID:23887194

  3. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    PubMed

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of computed tomography of the lungs in healthy neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Lascola, Kara M; O'Brien, Robert T; Wilkins, Pamela A; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Hartman, Susan K; Mitchell, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    To qualitatively describe lung CT images obtained from sedated healthy equine neonates (≤ 14 days of age), use quantitative analysis of CT images to characterize attenuation and distribution of gas and tissue volumes within the lungs, and identify differences between lung characteristics of foals ≤ 7 days of age and foals > 7 days of age. 10 Standardbred foals between 2.5 and 13 days of age. Foals were sedated with butorphanol, midazolam, and propofol and positioned in sternal recumbency for thoracic CT. Image analysis software was used to exclude lung from nonlung structures. Lung attenuation was measured in Hounsfield units (HU) for analysis of whole lung and regional changes in attenuation and lung gas and tissue components. Degree of lung attenuation was classified as follows: hyperinflated or emphysema, -1,000 to -901 HU; well aerated, -900 to -501 HU; poorly aerated, -500 to -101 HU; and nonaerated, > -100 HU. Qualitative evidence of an increase in lung attenuation and patchy alveolar patterns in the ventral lung region were more pronounced in foals ≤ 7 days of age than in older foals. Quantitative analysis revealed that mean ± SD lung attenuation was greater in foals ≤ 7 days of age (-442 ± 28 HU) than in foals > 7 days of age (-521 ± 24 HU). Lung aeration and gas volumes were lower than in other regions ventrally and in the mid lung region caudal to the heart. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Identified radiographic patterns and changes in attenuation were most consistent with atelectasis and appeared more severe in foals ≤ 7 days of age than in older neonatal foals. Recognition of these changes may have implications for accurate CT interpretation in sedated neonatal foals with pulmonary disease.

  5. Effects of different sucrose concentrations on vitrified porcine preantral follicles: Qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Paula Rocío; Torres, Pablo; Fratto, María Celeste; Cisale, Humberto; Claver, Juan Alberto; Lombardo, Daniel Marcelo; Fischman, María Laura

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effect of different sucrose concentrations combined with ethylene glycol in the preservation of vitrified porcine preantral follicles. Fragments of ovarian cortex were vitrified in cryotubes containing 200 μl of the vitrification solution (30% Ethylene Glycol; 20% Fetal Bovine Serum; 0 M-0.25 M - 0.75 M or 1 M sucrose) and stored in liquid nitrogen for a week. Histological analysis showed that after vitrification the number of normal follicles decreased compared to the fresh tissue (control). The percentage of normal primordial follicles was sucrose dose dependent. The percentage of normal primary follicles was similar in 0 M or 0.25 M sucrose, while higher concentrations (0.75 M and 1 M) increased significantly the percentage of abnormal follicles (p < 0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in the total area of primordial follicles with 0.75 M sucrose and a significant increase in the cytoplasmic area of primordial follicles with 0 M sucrose (p < 0.05). The qualitative and the quantitative analysis appear to be a complementary tool when choosing a vitrification protocol. For our cryopreservation system - vitrification of ovarian cortex slices in cryotubes-the best vitrification medium was TCM 199-Hepes with 30% de ethylene glycol, 20% of Fetal Bovine Serum and 0 or 0.25 M sucrose. The present study shows that the use of high sucrose concentrations in the vitrification solution has a deleterious effect on the preservation of porcine preantral follicles contained in ovarian tissue. Consequently, its use at 0.75 M or 1 M wouldn't be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Edwin C; Ford, Adriana E S; Smart, Simon M; Henrys, Peter A; Ashmore, Mike R

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as 'positive indicator-species' (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists' assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  7. Quantitative and qualitative computed tomographic characteristics of bronchiectasis in 12 dogs.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Matthew S; Johnson, Lynelle R; Pesavento, Patricia A; Kass, Philip H; Wisner, Erik R

    2013-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is an irreversible dilatation of the bronchi resulting from chronic airway inflammation. In people, computed tomography (CT) has been described as the noninvasive gold standard for diagnosing bronchiectasis. In dogs, normal CT bronchoarterial ratios have been described as <2.0. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe quantitative and qualitative CT characteristics of bronchiectasis in a cohort of dogs with confirmed disease. Inclusion criteria for the study were thoracic radiography, thoracic CT, and a diagnosis of bronchiectasis based on bronchoscopy and/or histopathology. For each included dog, a single observer measured CT bronchoarterial ratios at 6 lobar locations. Qualitative thoracic radiography and CT characteristics were recorded by consensus opinion of two board-certified veterinary radiologists. Twelve dogs met inclusion criteria. The mean bronchoarterial ratio from 28 bronchiectatic lung lobes was 2.71 ± 0.80 (range 1.4 to 4.33), and 23/28 measurements were >2.0. Averaged bronchoarterial ratios from bronchiectatic lung lobes were significantly larger (P < 0.01) than averaged ratios from nonbronchiectatic lung lobes. Qualitative CT characteristics of bronchiectasis included lack of peripheral airway tapering (12/12), lobar consolidation (11/12), bronchial wall thickening (7/12), and bronchial lumen occlusion (4/12). Radiographs detected lack of airway tapering in 7/12 dogs. In conclusion, the most common CT characteristics of bronchiectasis were dilatation, a lack of peripheral airway tapering, and lobar consolidation. Lack of peripheral airway tapering was not visible in thoracic radiographs for some dogs. For some affected dogs, bronchoarterial ratios were less than published normal values. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  8. Delirium superimposed on dementia: A quantitative and qualitative evaluation of patient experience.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Alessandro; Lucchi, Elena; Turco, Renato; Morghen, Sara; Guerini, Fabio; Santi, Rossana; Gentile, Simona; Meagher, David; Voyer, Philippe; Fick, Donna; Schmitt, Eva M; Inouye, Sharon K; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Delirium superimposed on dementia is common and is associated with adverse outcomes. Yet little is known about the patients' personal delirium experiences. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the delirium superimposed on dementia experience among older patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study among patients with delirium superimposed on dementia who were admitted to a rehabilitation ward. Delirium was diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Delirium severity and symptoms were evaluated with the Delirium-O-Meter (D-O-M). The experience of delirium was assessed after delirium resolution (T0) and one month later (T1) with a standardized questionnaire and a qualitative interview. Level of distress was measured with the Delirium Experience Questionnaire. Of the 30 patients included in the study, 50% had mild dementia; 33% and 17% had moderate and severe dementia. Half of the patients had evidence of the full range of D-O-M delirium symptoms. We evaluated 30 patients at T0 and 20 at T1. At T0, half of the patients remembered being confused as part of the delirium episode, and reported an overall moderate level of related distress. Patients reported high distress related to memories of anxiety/fear, delusions, restlessness, hypokinesia, and impaired orientation. Qualitative interviews revealed six main aspects of patient delirium experiences: Emotions; Cognitive Impairment; Psychosis; Memories; Awareness of Change; and Physical Symptoms. The study provides novel information on the delirium experience in patients with dementia. These findings are the key for health care providers to improve the everyday care of this important group of frail older patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Delirium superimposed on dementia: a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of patient experience

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Alessandro; Lucchi, Elena; Turco, Renato; Morghen, Sara; Guerini, Fabio; Santi, Rossana; Gentile, Simona; Meagher, David; Voyer, Philippe; Fick, Donna; Schmitt, Eva M.; Inouye, Sharon K.; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective Delirium superimposed on dementia is common and is associated with adverse outcomes. Yet little is known about the patients’ personal delirium experiences. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the delirium superimposed on dementia experience among older patients. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among patients with delirium superimposed on dementia who were admitted to a rehabilitation ward. Delirium was diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Delirium severity and symptoms were evaluated with the Delirium-O-Meter (D-O-M). The experience of delirium was assessed after delirium resolution (T0) and one month later (T1) with a standardized questionnaire and a qualitative interview. Level of distress was measured with the Delirium Experience Questionnaire. Results Of the 30 patients included in the study, 50% had mild dementia; 33% and 17% had moderate and severe dementia. Half of the patients had evidence of the full range of D-O-M delirium symptoms. We evaluated 30 patients at T0 and 20 at T1. At T0, half of the patients remembered being confused as part of the delirium episode, and reported an overall moderate level of related distress. Patients reported high distress related to memories of anxiety/fear, delusions, restlessness, hypokinesia, and impaired orientation. Qualitative interviews revealed six main aspects of patients delirium experiences: Emotions; Cognitive Impairment; Psychosis; Memories; Awareness of Change; and Physical Symptoms. Conclusions The study provides novel information on the delirium experience in patients with dementia. These findings are key for health care providers to improve the everyday care of this important group of frail older patients. PMID:26282373

  10. Chemometric study of Andalusian extra virgin olive oils Raman spectra: Qualitative and quantitative information.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, E; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M I; Marinas, A; Marinas, J M; Urbano, F J; Caridad, J M; Moalem, M

    2016-08-15

    Authentication of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important topic for olive oil industry. The fraudulent practices in this sector are a major problem affecting both producers and consumers. This study analyzes the capability of FT-Raman combined with chemometric treatments of prediction of the fatty acid contents (quantitative information), using gas chromatography as the reference technique, and classification of diverse EVOOs as a function of the harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and Andalusian PDO (qualitative information). The optimal number of PLS components that summarizes the spectral information was introduced progressively. For the estimation of the fatty acid composition, the lowest error (both in fitting and prediction) corresponded to MUFA, followed by SAFA and PUFA though such errors were close to zero in all cases. As regards the qualitative variables, discriminant analysis allowed a correct classification of 94.3%, 84.0%, 89.0% and 86.6% of samples for harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and PDO, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the New Zealand media portrayal of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wardell, S; Fitzgerald, R P; Legge, M; Clift, K

    2014-04-01

    There are only a small number of studies that systematically explore the tensions between the global shift to universal screening and the media representations of the people with Down syndrome. This paper contributes to the literature by analyzing the New Zealand media coverage of this topic. To describe the content and quality of selected New Zealand media references to Down syndrome in light of the claim by New Zealand support group Saving Downs of state supported eugenics via universal screening. Quantitative content analysis was conducted of 140 relevant New Zealand articles (from 2001 to 2011) and qualitative critical discourse analysis of 18 relevant articles (from 2009 to 2011) selected from television, magazine and newspaper. The content analysis showed no strong directional reporting although the quality of life for people with Down syndrome was represented as slightly negative. Most articles focused on issues of society, government and care rather than genetics. The qualitative analysis identified themes around quality of life, information and bias, preparedness, eugenics, the visualness of disability and the need for public debate around genetic screening and testing. The New Zealand print media coverage of these issues has been relatively balanced. Recent mixed media coverage of the topic is critical, complex and socially inclusive of people with Down syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Visuoconstructional abilities in cognitively healthy illiterate Turkish immigrants: a quantitative and qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T Rune; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of visuospatial function is an integral part of most neuropsychological assessments and is frequently assessed by visuoconstructional tests. A significant impact of limited schooling and illiteracy has been found on numerous neuropsychological tests and it can be difficult to interpret test results from illiterate individuals. In this study, quantitative and qualitative aspects of performance of elderly cognitively healthy illiterate and literate Turkish immigrants were compared on five commonly used visuoconstructional tests. Significantly poorer performances of illiterate compared to literate subjects were found in copying of two- and three-dimensional geometric designs, and in Clock Drawing Test performance. A systematic qualitative analysis found lacking three-dimensionality, "curved angles", omissions, distorted relation between elements, and spatial disorganization to be common error types in illiterate subjects. Performances were not found to be influenced by duration of residence in Denmark or level of acculturation. The results warrant caution in the interpretation of visuoconstructional test performances in illiterate subjects, as they can easily be misinterpreted as signs of cognitive dysfunction.

  13. Worked examples of alternative methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research in systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Patricia J; Baird, Janis; Arai, Lisa; Law, Catherine; Roberts, Helen M

    2007-01-01

    Background The inclusion of qualitative studies in systematic reviews poses methodological challenges. This paper presents worked examples of two methods of data synthesis (textual narrative and thematic), used in relation to one review, with the aim of enabling researchers to consider the strength of different approaches. Methods A systematic review of lay perspectives of infant size and growth was conducted, locating 19 studies (including both qualitative and quantitative). The data extracted from these were synthesised using both a textual narrative and a thematic synthesis. Results The processes of both methods are presented, showing a stepwise progression to the final synthesis. Both methods led us to similar conclusions about lay views toward infant size and growth. Differences between methods lie in the way they dealt with study quality and heterogeneity. Conclusion On the basis of the work reported here, we consider textual narrative and thematic synthesis have strengths and weaknesses in relation to different research questions. Thematic synthesis holds most potential for hypothesis generation, but may obscure heterogeneity and quality appraisal. Textual narrative synthesis is better able to describe the scope of existing research and account for the strength of evidence, but is less good at identifying commonality. PMID:17224044

  14. The quantitative and qualitative recovery of Campylobacter from raw poultry using USDA and Health Canada methods.

    PubMed

    Sproston, E L; Carrillo, C D; Boulter-Bitzer, J

    2014-12-01

    Harmonisation of methods between Canadian government agencies is essential to accurately assess and compare the prevalence and concentrations present on retail poultry intended for human consumption. The standard qualitative procedure used by Health Canada differs to that used by the USDA for both quantitative and qualitative methods. A comparison of three methods was performed on raw poultry samples obtained from an abattoir to determine if one method is superior to the others in isolating Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinses. The average percent of positive samples was 34.72% (95% CI, 29.2-40.2), 39.24% (95% CI, 33.6-44.9), 39.93% (95% CI, 34.3-45.6) for the direct plating US method and the US enrichment and Health Canada enrichment methods, respectively. Overall there were significant differences when comparing either of the enrichment methods to the direct plating method using the McNemars chi squared test. On comparison of weekly data (Fishers exact test) direct plating was only inferior to the enrichment methods on a single occasion. Direct plating is important for enumeration and establishing the concentration of Campylobacter present on raw poultry. However, enrichment methods are also vital to identify positive samples where concentrations are below the detection limit for direct plating.

  15. Validating Quantitative Measurement Using Qualitative Data: Combining Rasch Scaling and Latent Semantic Analysis in Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Rense

    2015-02-01

    An extension of concurrent validity is proposed that uses qualitative data for the purpose of validating quantitative measures. The approach relies on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which places verbal (written) statements in a high dimensional semantic space. Using data from a medical / psychiatric domain as a case study - Near Death Experiences, or NDE - we established concurrent validity by connecting NDErs qualitative (written) experiential accounts with their locations on a Rasch scalable measure of NDE intensity. Concurrent validity received strong empirical support since the variance in the Rasch measures could be predicted reliably from the coordinates of their accounts in the LSA derived semantic space (R2 = 0.33). These coordinates also predicted NDErs age with considerable precision (R2 = 0.25). Both estimates are probably artificially low due to the small available data samples (n = 588). It appears that Rasch scalability of NDE intensity is a prerequisite for these findings, as each intensity level is associated (at least probabilistically) with a well- defined pattern of item endorsements.

  16. Age-related decline in prostacyclin synthesis by human aortic endothelial cells. Qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, O.; Yamada, T.; Fan, J. L.; Watanabe, T.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the functional alteration of human aortic endothelial cells with aging, prostacyclin synthesis was qualitatively and quantitatively examined. The endothelial cells of human aortas and umbilical veins or inferior vena cavae were immunohistochemically examined and found positive for prostacyclin, but the intensity of aortic endothelial cells from older subjects was low. In addition to the endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells in the thickened intima, not the media, of the aorta were also immunoreactive. Endothelial cells were successfully cultured from human aortas obtained from infants through aged subjects and were subdivided into three groups: young, middle, and old. Prostacyclin synthesis by endothelial cells from all types of blood vessels was extremely great at the primary culture, but decreased abruptly in the following subcultures. Among the aortic endothelial cells, the young group synthesized the largest amount of prostacyclin in a conventional culture condition, with synthesis progressively decreasing in the older groups. The in vitro prostacyclin biosynthesis was supported by the qualitative analysis on the tissue sections. These results indicate that prostacyclin synthesis of the aortic endothelial cells decreases with age, but intimal smooth muscle cells potentially have a back-up mechanism and substitute this synthesis to some extent. The decreased synthesis of prostacyclin with age may play an important role in the development and advancement of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1707240

  17. Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour.

  18. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of ammonium salts of hexamethylenetetramine and 1,10-phenanthroline].

    PubMed

    Bernatoniene, Rūta; Stankeviciene, Laimute; Stankevicius, Antanas; Janusiene, Laima

    2003-01-01

    By use of chemical and physicochemical methods the qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacteriostatic agents N-carbamoylmethylhexamethylenetetraamonium chloride (U-77) and 1-propyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium iodide (X-50) was carried out. The color reactions of these salts with various agents, e. g., concentrated acids, precipitants, oxidizers, indicators, ninhydrin, salts of heavy metals were assesssed. Some characteristic color reactions were found for analysis of quaternary ammonium salts. Experimental results indicate that interaction of N-carbamoylmethyhexamethylenetetraammonium chloride with silver nitrate leads to precipitate of the free silver in the form of a mirror under the proper conditions. It is a result of degradation of hexamethylenetetramine to formaldehyde and its oxidation, which is accompanied by reduction of silver ion to free silver. By use of thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry the physicochemical properties of compounds were tested. The suitability of qualitative methods, such as argentometry, mercurimetry, iodometry, extraction photometric analysis was detected. The results suggest, that the most suitable and precise method is argentometry.

  19. Spiraling between qualitative and quantitative data on women's health behaviors: a double helix model for mixed methods.

    PubMed

    Mendlinger, Sheryl; Cwikel, Julie

    2008-02-01

    A double helix spiral model is presented which demonstrates how to combine qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry in an interactive fashion over time. Using findings on women's health behaviors (e.g., menstruation, breast-feeding, coping strategies), we show how qualitative and quantitative methods highlight the theory of knowledge acquisition in women's health decisions. A rich data set of 48 semistructured, in-depth ethnographic interviews with mother-daughter dyads from six ethnic groups (Israeli, European, North African, Former Soviet Union [FSU], American/Canadian, and Ethiopian), plus seven focus groups, provided the qualitative sources for analysis. This data set formed the basis of research questions used in a quantitative telephone survey of 302 Israeli women from the ages of 25 to 42 from four ethnic groups. We employed multiple cycles of data analysis from both data sets to produce a more detailed and multidimensional picture of women's health behavior decisions through a spiraling process.

  20. Qualitative and/or quantitative drinking water recommendations for pediatric obesity treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stookey, Jodi D.; Del Toro, Rigoberto; Hamer, Janice; Medina, Alma; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; TinajeroDeck, Lydia; Juarez, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Objective The qualitative recommendation to ‘drink water instead of caloric beverages’ may facilitate pediatric obesity treatment by lowering total energy intake. The quantitative recommendation to ‘drink enough water to dilute urine’ might further facilitate weight loss by increasing fat oxidation via cell hydration-mediated changes in insulin. Methods This 8 week randomized intervention tested whether both qualitative-plus-quantitative (QQ) drinking water recommendations result in more weight loss than the qualitative recommendation alone (Q) in 25 children (9–12y) with body mass index at or above the 85th Percentile, given a reduced glycemic diet and usual physical activity. Random urine osmolality, saliva insulin, and body weight were assessed weekly. Mixed models explored if insulin mediated an effect of urine osmolality on weight loss. Results In intention-to-treat analyses, QQ and Q participants did not differ significantly with respect to level of urine osmolality, saliva insulin, or weight loss. Only 4 out of 16 QQ participants complied with instruction to drink enough water to dilute urine, however. In completers analyses, the compliant QQ participants, who diluted urine osmolality from 910 ± 161 mmol/kg at baseline to below 500 mmol/kg over time (8 week mean±SE: 450 ± 67 mmol/kg), had significantly lower saliva insulin over time (8 week mean±SE: 13 ± 8 pmol/l vs. 22 ± 4 pmol/l) and greater weight loss (mean ± SE: −3.3 ± 0.7kg vs. −2.0 ± 0.5 kg) than compliant Q participants (7 out of 9 participants) who maintained elevated urine osmolality over time (8- week mean±SE: 888 ± 41 mmol/kg). Urine osmolality below 500 mmol/kg was significantly associated with weight loss. Change in saliva insulin partially explained the association. Conclusions QQ recommendations may increase weight loss for those able to dilute urine. Work is warranted to pursue cell hydration effects of drinking water for pediatric obesity treatment. PMID:25632375

  1. Predictive power of quantitative and qualitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin in population screening for colorectal neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanqin; Li, Qilong; Ge, Weiting; Cai, Shanrong; Zhang, Suzhan; Zheng, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of qualitative and quantitative fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) in population screening for colorectal neoplasm. A total of 9000 participants aged between 40 and 74 years were enrolled in this study. Each participant received two stool sampling tubes and was asked to simultaneously submit two stool samples from the same bowel movement. The stool samples of each participant were tested using an immunogold labeling FIT dipstick (qualitative FIT) and an automated fecal blood analyzer (quantitative FIT). Colonoscopy was performed for those who test positive in either FIT. The positive predictive values and population detection rates of the FITs for predicting colorectal neoplasm were compared. A total of 6494 (72.16%) participants simultaneously submitted two stool samples. The diagnostic consistency for a positive result between quantitative and qualitative FITs was poor (κ=0.278, 95% confidence interval=0.223-0.333). The positive predictive values of the quantitative FIT were significantly higher than those of the qualitative FIT for predicting large (≥1 cm) adenomas (23 cases, 14.29% and 16 cases, 6.72%, P=0.013) and colorectal cancer (10 cases, 6.21% and 5 cases, 2.10%, P=0.034); however, the population detection rate for advanced neoplasm of the quantitative FIT was not significantly different from that of the qualitative FIT. Quantitative FIT is superior to qualitative FIT in predicting advanced colorectal neoplasm during colorectal cancer screening. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causes of the predictive superiority.

  2. Qualitative, quantitative and combination score systems in differential diagnosis of breast lesions by contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wang, YongMei; Fan, Wei; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Rong

    2016-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of score systems in differential diagnosis of breast lesions by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). CEUS was performed in 121 patients with 127 breast lesions by Philips iU22 with Sonovue as contrast agent. Pearson Chi-square χ(2) test, binary logistic regression analysis and Student's t-test are used to identify significant CEUS parameters in differential diagnosis. Based on these significant CEUS parameters, qualitative, quantitative and combination score systems were built by scoring 1 for benign characteristic and scoring 2 for malignant characteristic. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of different analytical methods. Pathological results showed 41 benign and 86 malignant lesions. Qualitative analysis and logistic regression analysis showed that there are significant differences in enhancement degree, enhancement order, internal homogeneity, enhancement margin, surrounding vessels and enlargement of diameters (P<0.05) between benign and malignant lesions. Quantitative analysis indicated that malignant lesions tended to show higher peak intensity (PI), larger area under the curve (AUC) and shorter time to peak (TTP) than benign ones (P<0.05). Qualitative score systems showed higher diagnostic efficacy than single quantitative CEUS parameters. The corresponding area under the ROC curve for qualitative, quantitative and combination score systems were 0.897, 0.716 and 0.903 respectively. Z test showed that area under the ROC curve of quantitative score system was statistically smaller than that of other score systems. Quantitative score system helps little in improving the diagnostic efficacy of CEUS. While qualitative score system improves the performance of CEUS greatly in discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. The application of qualitative could develop the diagnostic performance of CEUS which is clinically promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  3. Agency Problems and Airport Security: Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence on the Impact of Security Training.

    PubMed

    de Gramatica, Martina; Massacci, Fabio; Shim, Woohyun; Turhan, Uğur; Williams, Julian

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the issue of agency costs in aviation security by combining results from a quantitative economic model with a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. Our model extends previous principal-agent models by combining the traditional fixed and varying monetary responses to physical and cognitive effort with nonmonetary welfare and potentially transferable value of employees' own human capital. To provide empirical evidence for the tradeoffs identified in the quantitative model, we have undertaken an extensive interview process with regulators, airport managers, security personnel, and those tasked with training security personnel from an airport operating in a relatively high-risk state, Turkey. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of additional training depends on the mix of "transferable skills" and "emotional" buy-in of the security agents. Principals need to identify on which side of a critical tipping point their agents are to ensure that additional training, with attached expectations of the burden of work, aligns the incentives of employees with the principals' own objectives. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant.

  5. The qualitative-quantitative debate: moving from positivism and confrontation to post-positivism and reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Clark, A M

    1998-06-01

    Critiques of logical positivism form the foundation for a significant number of nursing research papers, with the philosophy being inappropriately deemed synonymous with empirical method. Frequently, proposing an alternative method to those identified with the quantitative paradigm, these critiques are based on a poor foundation. This paper highlights an alternative philosophy to positivism which can also underpin empirical inquiry, that of post-positivism. Post-positivism is contrasted with positivism, which is presented as an outmoded and rejected philosophy which should cease to significantly shape inquiry. Though some acknowledgement of post-positivism has occurred in the nursing literature, this has yet to permeate into mainstream nursing research. Many still base their arguments on a positivistic view of science. Through achievement of a better understanding of post-positivism and greater focus on explicating the philosophical assumptions underpinning all research methods, the distinctions that have long been perceived to exist between qualitative and quantitative methodologies can be confined to the past. Rather methods will be selected solely on the nature of research questions.

  6. The evolution of medical imaging from qualitative to quantitative: opportunities, challenges, and approaches (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Edward F.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increasing focus on quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs), which are defined as "objectively measured characteristics derived from in vivo images as indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or response to a therapeutic intervention"1. To evolve qualitative imaging assessments to the use of QIBs requires the development and standardization of data acquisition, data analysis, and data display techniques, as well as appropriate reporting structures. As such, successful implementation of QIB applications relies heavily on expertise from the fields of medical physics, radiology, statistics, and informatics as well as collaboration from vendors of imaging acquisition, analysis, and reporting systems. When successfully implemented, QIBs will provide image-derived metrics with known bias and variance that can be validated with anatomically and physiologically relevant measures, including treatment response (and the heterogeneity of that response) and outcome. Such non-invasive quantitative measures can then be used effectively in clinical and translational research and will contribute significantly to the goals of precision medicine. This presentation will focus on 1) outlining the opportunities for QIB applications, with examples to demonstrate applications in both research and patient care, 2) discussing key challenges in the implementation of QIB applications, and 3) providing overviews of efforts to address such challenges from federal, scientific, and professional organizations, including, but not limited to, the RSNA, NCI, FDA, and NIST. 1Sullivan, Obuchowski, Kessler, et al. Radiology, epub August 2015.

  7. Quantum dots assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Aisha; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-01

    A quantum dots (QDs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (QDA-LDI-MS) strategy was proposed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a series of carbohydrates. The adsorption of carbohydrates on the modified surface of different QDs as the matrices depended mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonding, which led to higher MS intensity than those with conventional organic matrix. The effects of QDs concentration and sample preparation method were explored for improving the selective ionization process and the detection sensitivity. The proposed approach offered a new dimension to the application of QDs as matrices for MALDI-MS research of carbohydrates. It could be used for quantitative measurement of glucose concentration in human serum with good performance. The QDs served as a matrix showed the advantages of low background, higher sensitivity, convenient sample preparation and excellent stability under vacuum. The QDs assisted LDI-MS approach has promising application to the analysis of carbohydrates in complex biological samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - Qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant. PMID:25763050

  9. [A NIR qualitative and quantitative model of 8 kinds of carbonate-containing mineral Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Yang; Huang, Bi-Sheng; Yu, Chi; Liu, Yi-Mei; Chen, Ke-Li

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply near infrared spectroscopy techniques to construct a rapid identification method for 8 kinds of mineral Chinese Medicines containing carbonates. The qualitative model using clustering analysis method in OPUS software can identify accurately 8 kinds of carbonate-containing mineral Chinese medicines. The near-infrared quantitative model was established by using partial least squares method (PLS) for 7 mineral Chinese Medicines in which main component is calcium carbonate. Compared with the results by EDTA titration, the established quantitative analysis model for calcium carbonate content showed a good prediction result that when the content is between 47.61% -99.17%, the average relative deviation of the prediction result is 0.24% and the average recovery rate was 100.3%. The results also showed that the model using near infrared spectroscopy can get not only a rapid identification of the 8 mineral Chinese medicines containing carbonates, but also an accurate and reliabe content determination of calcium carbonate for the 7 mineral Chinese medicines which contain the component.

  10. Neurolucida Lucivid versus Neurolucida camera: A quantitative and qualitative comparison of three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kaeley; Yamamoto, Erin; Kaplan, Joshua; Hannan, Markus; Jacobs, Bob

    2010-02-15

    A critical issue in quantitative neuromorphology is the accuracy and subsequent reliability of the tracing techniques employed to characterize neuronal components. Historically, the camera lucida was the only option for such investigations. In 1987, MBF Bioscience, Inc. (Williston, VT) developed the integrative Neurolucida computer-microscope system, replacing the camera lucida drawing tube with a Lucivid cathode ray tube, thereby allowing computer overlays directly on the view through microscope oculars. Subsequent advances in digital cameras have allowed the Lucivid system to be replaced so that microscope images can be traced by viewing the digital image on a computer monitor. Indeed, the camera systems now outsell Lucivid systems 9 to 1 (J. Glaser, personal communication, 08/2008). Nevertheless, researchers seldom note which of these configurations are being used (which may confound the accuracy of data sharing), and there have been no published comparisons of the Lucivid and camera configurations. The present study thus assesses the relative accuracy of these two hardware configurations by examining reconstructions of human pyramidal neurons. We report significant differences with respect to dendritic spines, with the camera estimates of spine counts being greater than those obtained with the Lucivid system. Potential underlying reasons (e.g., magnification, illumination, and resolution, as well as observer ergonomic differences between the two systems) for these quantitative findings are explored here, along with qualitative observations on the relative strengths of each configuration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis for meat adulteration from RNA samples.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Hsiao-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-02-01

    Total RNA samples were used to establish qualitative and quantitative PCR-based methods for assessing meat adulteration. The primers were designed based on the mRNA sequences of troponin I (TnI), mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) and tropomodulin genes to distinguish chicken, pork, goat, beef and ostrich. There was no cross reaction between the primers, and the detection limit of the cDNA template was 0.01 and 20 ng in simplex PCR and multiplex PCR, respectively. In the low temperature storage test, the detection limits of cDNA template with 10 and 1 ng were determined at 4 °C and -80 °C. In quantitative assay, the precision of real-time PCR analysis expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.25% to 5.24% and the trueness, expressed as an error, ranged from 0.28% to 6.98% for adulteration. Thus, herein, we provided alternative tools for the assessment of meat adulteration using mRNA-based PCR methods.

  12. Major Chemical Constituents of Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Ding, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Quan; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng; Xia, Er-Dong

    2016-03-30

    Bamboo shoots are a delicacy in Asia. Two novel compounds, adenine-(1'R,2'R,3'R)-cyclic butanetetraol carbonate (16) and (-)-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-β-D-[6-O-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl])-glucopyranoside (20), together with 12 known nucleosides (1-12), 3 amino acids (13-15), β-carboline (17), and 2 megastigmane glycosides (18, 19) were isolated from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens). Their structures and absolute configurations were rigorously determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the composition of carbohydrates in bamboo shoots was qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed with ion chromatography. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate HPLC-UV analysis was built for routine edible quality control of bamboo shoots, and 12 major components of bamboo shoots were quantitatively analyzed. The major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots were determined to be carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides. These findings are correctives to the usual view of bamboo shoots chemical composition, and the previous research reports about the chemical composition of bamboo shoots may have taken the aromatic amino acids and nucleotides for flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of cadaveric human pinealocytes in various age groups.

    PubMed

    Rabia, Ansa; Tahir, Mohammad; Munir, Bushra; Sami, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    To determine age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in human pinealocytes using cadaveric material. Analytical cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January to December 2008. Thirty pineal glands from human cadavers ranging from 16-80 years of age were collected from mortuary of King Edward Medical University, Lahore, using purposive non-probability sampling. These were divided into three different age groups: I, II and III each between 16 to 30, 31 to 45 and 46 to 80 years of age respectively. Pinealocytes were counted; their mean diameter and that of their nuclei was calculated from a total of 30 cells per slide, using 4 μm thick H and E stained histological sections. Mean ± S.E.M. was calculated for quantitative variables. One-way ANOVA was applied to observe group mean differences among three groups. The number of pinealocytes decreased with aging but the difference was statistically insignificant when compared between groups (p=0.234). There was no change in size of pinealocyte soma and its nucleus (p=0.889 and 0.898 respectively). The number and size of pinealocytes, and their nuclei remained unaltered with advancing age.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of protein-phosphoinositide interactions with liposome-based methods.

    PubMed

    Busse, Ricarda A; Scacioc, Andreea; Hernandez, Javier M; Krick, Roswitha; Stephan, Milena; Janshoff, Andreas; Thumm, Michael; Kühnel, Karin

    2013-05-01

    We characterized phosphoinositide binding of the S. cerevisiae PROPPIN Hsv2 qualitatively with density flotation assays and quantitatively through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements using liposomes. We discuss the design of these experiments and show with liposome flotation assays that Hsv2 binds with high specificity to both PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P 2. We propose liposome flotation assays as a more accurate alternative to the commonly used PIP strips for the characterization of phosphoinositide-binding specificities of proteins. We further quantitatively characterized PtdIns3P binding of Hsv2 with ITC measurements and determined a dissociation constant of 0.67 µM and a stoichiometry of 2:1 for PtdIns3P binding to Hsv2. PtdIns3P is crucial for the biogenesis of autophagosomes and their precursors. Besides the PROPPINs there are other PtdIns3P binding proteins with a link to autophagy, which includes the FYVE-domain containing proteins ZFYVE1/DFCP1 and WDFY3/ALFY and the PX-domain containing proteins Atg20 and Snx4/Atg24. The methods described could be useful tools for the characterization of these and other phosphoinositide-binding proteins.

  15. A Novel Qualitative and Quantitative Biofilm Assay Based on 3D Soft Tissue.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Bodil; Lönnberg, Linnea K; Larkö, Eva; Blom, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The lack of predictable in vitro methods to analyze antimicrobial activity could play a role in the development of resistance to antibiotics. Current used methods analyze planktonic cells but for the method to be clinically relevant, biofilm in in vivo like conditions ought to be studied. Hence, our group has developed a qualitative and quantitative method with in vivo like 3D tissue for prediction of antimicrobial activity in reality. Devices (wound dressings) were applied on top of Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated Muller-Hinton (MH) agar or 3D synthetic soft tissues (SST) and incubated for 24 hours. The antibacterial activity was then analyzed visually and by viable counts. On MH agar two out of three silver containing devices showed zone of inhibitions (ZOI) and on SST, ZOI were detected for all three. Corroborating results were found upon evaluating the bacterial load in SST and shown to be silver concentration dependent. In conclusion, a novel method was developed combining visual rapid screening and quantitative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity in both tissue and devices. It uses tissue allowing biofilm formation thus mimicking reality closely. These conditions are essential in order to predict antimicrobial activity of medical devices in the task to prevent device related infections.

  16. [The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study.

  17. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamides A, B in Asari Radix et Rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Xie, De-mei; Liu, Guang-xue; Xu, Feng; Shang, Ming-ying; Zhang, Zi-wei; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-qing

    2015-02-01

    To develop an analytic method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of dodecatetraenamides A, B in 42 samples of two official species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma( ARR) (37 samples of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum with different collection time and 5 samples of Asarum sieboldiivar. seoulense). The HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS methods for the qualitative and UPLC-PDA methods for the quantitative analysis were established. Dodecatetraenamides A, B were identified by comparing the retention time, UV absorption spectrum and quasi-molecular ion peak [ M + H]+ with the reference compound using HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS. The content of dodecatetraenamides A and B in ARR were determined by UPLC-PDA. The separation was successfully carried out on a ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) column eluted with mobile phases of water (A) and acetonitrile (B) in gradient program (0-3 min, 35% B; 3-5 min, 35%-36% B; 5-6 min, 36%-43% B; 6 min-11 min 43% B; 11-12 min, 43%-100% B). The column temperature was 45 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The flow rate was 0.6 mL · min(-1). On one level mass spectrometry scanning, the results showed that the quasi-molecular ion [M + H] + of both dodecatetraenamides A and B were m/z 248.20. The quantitative method with UPLC-PDA has made the baseline separation of the constituents, which were reported as mixtures in the most literatures. The average recovery of dodecatetraenamides A and B were 97.90% and 99.86%, the relative standard deviation were 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. The contents of dodecatetraenamides A, B in all ARR samples was in the range of 0.11-3.89 and 0.24-6.65 mg · g(-1). Their contents reduced with the extension of storage time. Compared with the samples of 2013, the average content of the two constituents in the samples collected in year 2002-2003 reduced 34% and 36%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared the A. sieboldii var. seoulense and A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum with the same collective time

  18. Perfusion CT in acute ischemic stroke: a qualitative and quantitative comparison of deconvolution and maximum slope approach.

    PubMed

    Abels, B; Klotz, E; Tomandl, B F; Kloska, S P; Lell, M M

    2010-10-01

    PCT postprocessing commonly uses either the MS or a variant of the DC approach for modeling of voxel-based time-attenuation curves. There is an ongoing discussion about the respective merits and limitations of both methods, frequently on the basis of theoretic reasoning or simulated data. We performed a qualitative and quantitative comparison of DC and MS by using identical source datasets and preprocessing parameters. From the PCT data of 50 patients with acute ischemic stroke, color maps of CBF, CBV, and various temporal parameters were calculated with software implementing both DC and MS algorithms. Color maps were qualitatively categorized. Quantitative region-of-interest-based measurements were made in nonischemic GM and WM, suspected penumbra, and suspected infarction core. Qualitative results, quantitative results, and PCT lesion sizes from DC and MS were statistically compared. CBF and CBV color maps based on DC and MS were of comparably high quality. Quantitative CBF and CBV values calculated by DC and MS were within the same range in nonischemic regions. In suspected penumbra regions, average CBF(DC) was lower than CBF(MS). In suspected infarction core regions, average CBV(DC) was similar to CBV(MS). Using adapted tissue-at-risk/nonviable-tissue thresholds, we found excellent correlation of DC and MS lesion sizes. DC and MS yielded comparable qualitative and quantitative results. Lesion sizes indicated by DC and MS showed excellent agreement when using adapted thresholds. In all cases, the same therapy decision would have been made.

  19. Qualitative to quantitative: linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on HIV/AIDS in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ajay; Hutter, Inge

    2008-10-01

    With 3.1 million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in India and 39.5 million people globally, the epidemic has posed academics the challenge of identifying behaviours and their underlying beliefs in the effort to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is frequently used to identify risk behaviours and adherence behaviour in the field of HIV/AIDS. Risk behaviour studies that apply HBM have been largely quantitative and use of qualitative methodology is rare. The marriage of qualitative and quantitative methods has never been easy. The challenge is in triangulating the methods. Method triangulation has been largely used to combine insights from the qualitative and quantitative methods but not to link both the methods. In this paper we suggest a linked trajectory of method triangulation (LTMT). The linked trajectory aims to first gather individual level information through in-depth interviews and then to present the information as vignettes in focus group discussions. We thus validate information obtained from in-depth interviews and gather emic concepts that arise from the interaction. We thus capture both the interpretation and the interaction angles of the qualitative method. Further, using the qualitative information gained, a survey is designed. In doing so, the survey questions are grounded and contextualized. We employed this linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on the risk assessment of HIV/AIDS among migrant and mobile men. Fieldwork was carried out in Goa, India. Data come from two waves of studies, first an explorative qualitative study (2003), second a larger study (2004-2005), including in-depth interviews (25), focus group discussions (21) and a survey (n=1259). By employing the qualitative to quantitative LTMT we can not only contextualize the existing concepts of the HBM, but also validate new concepts and identify new risk groups.

  20. FDG-PET/CT characterization of adrenal nodules: diagnostic accuracy and interreader agreement using quantitative and qualitative methods.

    PubMed

    Evans, Paul D; Miller, Chad M; Marin, Daniele; Stinnett, Sandra S; Wong, Terence Z; Paulson, Erik K; Ho, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    To determine interreader agreement and diagnostic accuracy across varying levels of reader experience using qualitative and quantitative methods of evaluating adrenal nodules using ((18)F)-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography. 132 adrenal nodules (96 adenomas, 36 metastases) were retrospectively identified in 105 patients (49 men and 56 women, mean age 66 years, age range 45-85 years) with a history of lung cancer who underwent ((18)F)-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography. For each nodule, three readers independently performed one qualitative and two quantitative measurements: visual assessment, standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and standard uptake ratio (SUVratio). Interreader agreement was calculated using percent agreement with κ statistic for qualitative analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for quantitative analysis. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal nodules were calculated for each method. Percent agreement between readers for visual (qualitative) assessment was 92% to 96% and κ statistic was 0.79 to 0.90 (95% confidence limits 0.66-0.99). ICC for SUVmax was 92% to 99% (95% CL 0.8-1.0), and ICC for SUVratio was 89% to 99% (95% CL 0.74-0.99). For diagnosis of malignancy, mean sensitivity and specificity for visual assessment were 80% and 97%, respectively. Mean sensitivity and specificity for SUVmax were 91% and 81%, respectively; for SUVratio, 90% and 80%. Mean diagnostic accuracy was 93%, 83%, and 84% for visual assessment, SUVmax, and SUVratio, respectively. Excellent interreader agreement is seen for quantitative and qualitative methods of distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal nodules. Qualitative analysis demonstrated higher accuracy but lower sensitivity compared with quantitative analysis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Comparison of (99m)Tc-MDP SPECT qualitative vs quantitative results in patients with suspected condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    López Buitrago, D F; Ruiz Botero, J; Corral, C M; Carmona, A R; Sabogal, A

    To compare qualitative vs quantitative results of Single Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT), calculated from percentage of (99m)Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) uptake, in condyles of patients with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on the (99m)Tc-MDP SPECT bone scintigraphy reports from 51 patients, with clinical impression of facial asymmetry related to condylar hyperplasia referred by their specialist in orthodontics or maxillofacial surgery, to a nuclear medicine department in order to take this type of test. Quantitative data from (99m)Tc-MDP condylar uptake of each were obtained and compared with qualitative image interpretation reported by a nuclear medicine expert. The concordances between the 51 qualitative and quantitative reports results was established. The total sample included 32 women (63%) and 19 men (37%). The patient age range was 13-45 years (21±8 years). According to qualitative reports, 19 patients were positive for right side condylar hyperplasia, 12 for left side condylar hyperplasia, with 8 bilateral, and 12 negative. The quantitative reports diagnosed 16 positives for right side condylar hyperplasia, 10 for left side condylar hyperplasia, and 25 negatives. Nuclear medicine images are an important diagnostic tool, but the qualitative interpretation of the images is not as reliable as the quantitative calculation. The agreement between the two types of report is low (39.2%, Kappa=0.13; P>.2). The main limitation of quantitative reports is that they do not register bilateral condylar hyperplasia cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrological threats to riparian wetlands of international importance - a global quantitative and qualitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christof; Flörke, Martina; De Stefano, Lucia; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-06-01

    Riparian wetlands have been disappearing at an accelerating rate. Their ecological integrity as well as their vital ecosystem services for humankind depend on regular patterns of inundation and drying provided by natural flow regimes. However, river hydrology has been altered worldwide. Dams cause less variable flow regimes and water abstractions decrease the amount of flow so that ecologically important flood pulses are often reduced. Given growing population pressure and projected climate change, immediate action is required. However, the implementation of counteractive measures is often a complex task. This study develops a screening tool for assessing hydrological threats to riparian wetlands on global scales. The approach is exemplified on 93 Ramsar sites, many of which are located in transboundary basins. First, the WaterGAP3 hydrological modeling framework is used to quantitatively compare current and future modified flow regimes to reference flow conditions. In our simulations current water resource management seriously impairs riparian wetland inundation at 29 % of the analyzed sites. A further 8 % experience significantly reduced flood pulses. In the future, eastern Europe, western Asia, as well as central South America could be hotspots of further flow modifications due to climate change. Second, a qualitative analysis of the 93 sites determined potential impact on overbank flows resulting from planned or proposed dam construction projects. They take place in one-third of the upstream areas and are likely to impair especially wetlands located in South America, Asia, and the Balkan Peninsula. Third, based on the existing legal/institutional framework and water resource availability upstream, further qualitative analysis evaluated the capacity to preserve overbank flows given future streamflow changes due to dam construction and climate change. Results indicate hotspots of vulnerability exist, especially in northern Africa and the Persian Gulf.

  3. Learners' decisions for attending Pediatric Grand Rounds: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Dolcourt, Jack L; Zuckerman, Grace; Warner, Keith

    2006-04-27

    Although grand rounds plays a major educational role at academic medical centers, there has been little investigation into the factors influencing the learners' decision to attend. Greater awareness of attendees' expectations may allow grand rounds planners to better accommodate the learners' perspective, potentially making continuing education activities more attractive and inviting. We used both qualitative (part A) and quantitative (part B) techniques to investigate the motivators and barriers to grand rounds attendance. Part A investigated contextual factors influencing attendance as expressed through attendee interviews. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. We created a concept map linking key factors and their relationships. In part B we quantified the motivators and barriers identified during the initial interviews through a survey of the grand rounds audience. Sixteen persons voluntarily took part in the qualitative study (part A) by participating in one of seven group interview sessions. Of the 14 themes that emerged from these sessions, the most frequent factors motivating attendance involved competent practice and the need to know. All sessions discussed intellectual stimulation, social interaction, time constraints and convenience, licensure, content and format, and absence of cost for attending sessions. The 59 respondents to the survey (part B) identified clinically-useful topics (85%), continuing education credit (46%), cutting-edge research (27%), networking (22%), and refreshments (8%) as motivators and non-relevant topics (44%) and too busy to attend (56%) as barriers. Greater understanding of the consumers' perspective can allow planners to tailor the style, content, and logistics to make grand rounds more attractive and inviting.

  4. Refusal of oral polio vaccine in northwestern Pakistan: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hachiya, Masahiko; Khan, Zahir S; Hassan, Syed Q; Sakurada, Shinsaku

    2014-03-10

    Refusal of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) is a difficulty faced by the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in multiple endemic areas, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPP), Pakistan. In 2007, we investigated community perceptions of the OPV and estimated the prevalence of OPV refusal in three districts in Swat Valley, KPP, a polio-endemic area. Qualitative data concerning community perceptions were collected by focus group discussions among lady health workers (LHWs) and mothers with children <1 year old and by key informant interviews with local health managers and officials. Quantitative data collection followed using a questionnaire survey of 200 LHWs and a cluster sampling survey of 210 mothers (per district) with children <1 year old. The qualitative assessments identified the grounded theory of OPV refusal involving facts known by the residents that are related to the OPV (too frequent OPV campaigns, an OPV boycott in northern Nigeria in 2003 and that birth control is viewed as is against Islam), the local interpretations of these facts (perceptions that OPV contained birth control or pork, that OPV was a foreign/central plot against Muslims, and that the vaccination was against the Hadith and the fate determined by God) and different manifestations of OPV refusal. Among the three districts studied, the proportion of LHWs who encountered OPV refusal ranged from 0 to 33%, whereas among the districts, the proportions of mothers unwilling to give OPV to their children ranged from 0.5 to 5.7%. Refusal of other injectable vaccines was almost equally prevalent for reasons that were very similar. The PEI needs to reflect local value system in the path to polio eradication in the studied districts in the Swat Valley. The religious and cultural values as well as the interpretation of the international political situation are of particular importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Secretion of byssal threads in Mytilus galloprovincialis: quantitative and qualitative values after spawning stress.

    PubMed

    Babarro, Jose M F; Reiriz, María José Fernández

    2010-01-01

    The effect of spawning events of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on both quantitative and qualitative values of byssus secretion and its associated attachment force was investigated. Byssogenesis rates and absorption efficiency values were significantly reduced after spawning of individuals. However, the maintenance of individuals under sub-optimal conditions (lack of microalgae in the diet) for a week caused no effect on thread's number. Surprisingly, the attachment force varied within a narrow range of values (1.7-1.9 N) with the exception of a significant drop in the experimental group spawned and kept unfed (1.0 N; P < 0.001), most likely due to a similar pattern of the thread's thickness variability. Qualitative analysis concerned to the amino acid composition of the byssus highlighted a higher presence of the basic residues histidine and lysine in threads secreted by spawned individuals. The presence of both histidine and lysine residues in the byssal collagen is associated to the formation of cross-links and specifically histidine has a functionality with a pronounced effect on metal chelation to stabilise the integrity of the byssus. Results reported here evidence the necessity to integrate all components that eventually determines the attachment strength of the mussels to get more insight to the plasticity of such secretion. Morphology of the byssus (thickness) secreted under different endogenous conditions of mussels was the major parameter to explain variability in the attachment force. Moreover, aminoacidic composition as quality term of the byssus secreted may also contribute to understand the plasticity of this secretion and needs to be extended in further surveys.

  6. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Bao Giang, Kim; Van Minh, Hoang; Wright, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help policy makers to develop and implement effective

  7. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Wright, Pamela

    2014-12-01

    Background The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. Design We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. Results The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help

  8. Chronic Spinal Compression Model in Minipigs: A Systematic Behavioral, Qualitative, and Quantitative Neuropathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Roman; Juhas, Stefan; Keshavarzi, Sassan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Johe, Karl; Marsala, Silvia; Scadeng, Miriam; Lazar, Peter; Tomori, Zoltan; Schulteis, Gery; Beattie, Michael; Ciacci, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The goal of the present study was to develop a porcine spinal cord injury (SCI) model, and to describe the neurological outcome and characterize the corresponding quantitative and qualitative histological changes at 4–9 months after injury. Adult Gottingen-Minnesota minipigs were anesthetized and placed in a spine immobilization frame. The exposed T12 spinal segment was compressed in a dorso-ventral direction using a 5-mm-diameter circular bar with a progressively increasing peak force (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 kg) at a velocity of 3 cm/sec. During recovery, motor and sensory function were periodically monitored. After survival, the animals were perfusion fixed and the extent of local SCI was analyzed by (1) post-mortem MRI analysis of dissected spinal cords, (2) qualitative and quantitative analysis of axonal survival at the epicenter of injury, and (3) defining the presence of local inflammatory changes, astrocytosis, and schwannosis. Following 2.5-kg spinal cord compression the animals demonstrated a near complete loss of motor and sensory function with no recovery over the next 4–9 months. Those that underwent spinal cord compression with 2 kg force developed an incomplete injury with progressive partial neurological recovery characterized by a restricted ability to stand and walk. Animals injured with a spinal compression force of 1.5 kg showed near normal ambulation 10 days after injury. In fully paralyzed animals (2.5 kg), MRI analysis demonstrated a loss of spinal white matter integrity and extensive septal cavitations. A significant correlation between the magnitude of loss of small and medium-sized myelinated axons in the ventral funiculus and neurological deficits was identified. These data, demonstrating stable neurological deficits in severely injured animals, similarities of spinal pathology to humans, and relatively good post-injury tolerance of this strain of minipigs to spinal trauma, suggest that this model can successfully be used

  9. Effect of ethnicity on performance in a final objective structured clinical examination: qualitative and quantitative study

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Val; Roberts, Celia; Hoogenboom, Ron; Jones, Roger; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of ethnicity on student performance in stations assessing communication skills within an objective structured clinical examination. Design Quantitative and qualitative study. Setting A final UK clinical examination consisting of a two day objective structured clinical examination with 22 stations. Participants 82 students from ethnic minorities and 97 white students. Main outcome measures Mean scores for stations (quantitative) and observations made using discourse analysis on selected communication stations (qualitative). Results Mean performance of students from ethnic minorities was significantly lower than that of white students for stations assessing communication skills on days 1 (67.0% (SD 6.8%) and 72.3% (7.6%); P=0.001) and 2 (65.2% (6.6%) and 69.5% (6.3%); P=0.003). No examples of overt discrimination were found in 309 video recordings. Transcriptions showed subtle differences in communication styles in some students from ethnic minorities who performed poorly. Examiners' assumptions about what is good communication may have contributed to differences in grading. Conclusions There was no evidence of explicit discrimination between students from ethnic minorities and white students in the objective structured clinical examination. A small group of male students from ethnic minorities used particularly poorly rated communicative styles, and some subtle problems in assessing communication skills may have introduced bias. Tests need to reflect issues of diversity to ensure that students from ethnic minorities are not disadvantaged. What is already known on this topicUK medical schools are concerned that students from ethnic minorities may perform less well than white students in examinationsIt is important to understand whether our examination system disadvantages themWhat this study addsMean performance of students from ethnic minorities was significantly lower than that of white students in a final year objective structured

  10. Blind Analysis of Fortified Pesticide Residues in Carrot Extracts using GC-MS to Evaluate Qualitative and Quantitative Performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unlike quantitative analysis, the quality of the qualitative results in the analysis of pesticide residues in food are generally ignored in practice. Instead, chemists tend to rely on advanced mass spectrometric techniques and general subjective guidelines or fixed acceptability criteria when makin...

  11. "What about People Our Age?" Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Uncover How Political Ads Alienate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…

  12. OMICS DATA IN THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MODE OF ACTION IN SUPPORT OF IRIS ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge and information generated using new tools/methods collectively called "Omics" technologies could have a profound effect on qualitative and quantitative characterizations of human health risk assessments.

    The suffix "Omics" is a descriptor used for a series of e...

  13. OMICS DATA IN THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MODE OF ACTION IN SUPPORT OF IRIS ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge and information generated using new tools/methods collectively called "Omics" technologies could have a profound effect on qualitative and quantitative characterizations of human health risk assessments.

    The suffix "Omics" is a descriptor used for a series of e...

  14. Students' Perceptions of the Library Service at the University of Sussex: Practical Quantitative and Qualitative Research in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes quantitative and qualitative research that investigated students' perceptions of the library service at the University of Sussex (England). Highlights include results of a user survey regarding the reserve collection, user interviews and the software package used to analyze them, and types of student searching. (Author/LRW)

  15. "What about People Our Age?" Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Uncover How Political Ads Alienate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…

  16. Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2004-01-01

    In this new edition, the author explains quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and incorporates the viewpoints of various research paradigms (postpositivist, constructivist, transformative, and pragmatic) into descriptions of these methods. Special emphasis is provided for conducting research in culturally complex communities. Each chapter…

  17. Parenting Self-Efficacy among Japanese Mothers: Qualitative and Quantitative Perspectives on Its Association with Childhood Memories of Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Susan D.; Behrens, Kazuko Y.

    2002-01-01

    Used qualitative and quantitative methods to examine how 40 Japanese mothers from working-class and middle-class backgrounds supported their child's transition to first grade. Found that mothers reported higher self-efficacy if they had one child, if their child was a boy, and if they had memories of being more frequently rejected by their own…

  18. Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2004-01-01

    In this new edition, the author explains quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and incorporates the viewpoints of various research paradigms (postpositivist, constructivist, transformative, and pragmatic) into descriptions of these methods. Special emphasis is provided for conducting research in culturally complex communities. Each chapter…

  19. The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Little, David C.; Barman, Benoy K.; Wahab, Md. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were…

  20. The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Little, David C.; Barman, Benoy K.; Wahab, Md. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were…

  1. Hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation to analyze the market position from data with two qualitative and p-2 quantitative variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginanjar, Irlandia

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the market position will be easier, efficient, and informative when based on a perceptual map, that can display objects and characteristics. With perceptual map we can identify the information about the objects similarity, the characteristics relationships, and relationship between the object and the characteristics. Characteristics of the object are usually more than two variables, those variables that sometimes are qualitative and some are quantitative. Based on that this paper introduce a method of analysis called hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation (HCAC), this method is the incorporation of correspondence analysis (CA) with biplot of correlation, where the mapped of two qualitative variables is using CA, and for quantitative variables is using correlations. HCAC produces a perceptual map that displays the object, the qualitative characteristics, and quantitative characteristics in a single map, without changing the quantitative data into qualitative data, so that the information obtained is more complete. A reference for mapping quality is counted from the first and second cumulative percent of eigenvalues where resulting from CA.

  2. Quantitative 3D breast magnetic resonance imaging fibroglandular tissue analysis and correlation with qualitative assessments: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Richard; Mema, Eralda; Guo, Xiaotao; Mango, Victoria; Desperito, Elise; Ha, Jason; Wynn, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng

    2016-04-01

    The amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) has been linked to breast cancer risk based on mammographic density studies. Currently, the qualitative assessment of FGT on mammogram (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is prone to intra and inter-observer variability. The purpose of this study is to develop an objective quantitative FGT measurement tool for breast MRI that could provide significant clinical value. An IRB approved study was performed. Sixty breast MRI cases with qualitative assessment of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT were randomly selected for quantitative analysis from routine breast MRIs performed at our institution from 1/2013 to 12/2014. Blinded to the qualitative data, whole breast and FGT contours were delineated on T1-weighted pre contrast sagittal images using an in-house, proprietary segmentation algorithm which combines the region-based active contours and a level set approach. FGT (%) was calculated by: [segmented volume of FGT (mm(3))/(segmented volume of whole breast (mm(3))] ×100. Statistical correlation analysis was performed between quantified FGT (%) on MRI and qualitative assessments of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT. There was a significant positive correlation between quantitative MRI FGT assessment and qualitative MRI FGT (r=0.809, n=60, P<0.001) and mammographic density assessment (r=0.805, n=60, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between qualitative MRI FGT assessment and mammographic density assessment (r=0.725, n=60, P<0.001). The four qualitative assessment categories of FGT correlated with the calculated mean quantitative FGT (%) of 4.61% (95% CI, 0-12.3%), 8.74% (7.3-10.2%), 18.1% (15.1-21.1%), 37.4% (29.5-45.3%). Quantitative measures of FGT (%) were computed with data derived from breast MRI and correlated significantly with conventional qualitative assessments. This quantitative technique may prove to be a valuable tool in clinical use by providing computer generated standardized

  3. Qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating harm-reduction goal setting among chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Grazioli, Véronique S.; Torres, Nicole I.; Taylor, Emily M.; Jones, Connor B.; Hoffman, Gail E.; Haelsig, Laura; Zhu, Mengdan D.; Hatsukami, Alyssa S.; Koker, Molly J.; Herndon, Patrick; Greenleaf, Shawna M.; Dean, Parker E.

    2015-01-01

    Most treatment programs for alcohol dependence have prioritized alcohol abstinence as the primary treatment goal. However, abstinence-based goals are not always considered desirable or attainable by more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence. Because these individuals comprise a multimorbid and high-utilizing population, they are in need of more focused research attention that elucidates their preferred treatment goals. The aim of this secondary study was therefore to qualitatively and quantitatively document participant-generated treatment goals. Participants were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals (N=31) with alcohol dependence who participated in a pilot of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. Throughout the treatment period, study interventionists elicited participants’ goals and recorded them on an open-ended grid. In subsequent weeks, progress towards and achievement of goals was obtained via self-report and recorded by study interventionists. Conventional content analysis was performed to classify participant-generated treatment goals. Representation of the three top categories remained stable over the course of treatment. In the order of their frequency, they included drinking-related goals, quality-of-life goals and health-related goals. Within the category of drinking-related goals, participants consistently endorsed reducing drinking and alcohol-related consequences ahead of abstinence-based goals. Quantitative analyses indicated participants generated an increasing number of goals over the course of treatment. Proportions of goals achieved and progressed toward kept pace with this increase. Findings confirmed hypotheses that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence can independently generate and achieve treatment goals toward alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. PMID:25697724

  4. Qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating harm-reduction goal setting among chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Collins, Susan E; Grazioli, Véronique S; Torres, Nicole I; Taylor, Emily M; Jones, Connor B; Hoffman, Gail E; Haelsig, Laura; Zhu, Mengdan D; Hatsukami, Alyssa S; Koker, Molly J; Herndon, Patrick; Greenleaf, Shawna M; Dean, Parker E

    2015-06-01

    Most treatment programs for alcohol dependence have prioritized alcohol abstinence as the primary treatment goal. However, abstinence-based goals are not always considered desirable or attainable by more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence. Because these individuals comprise a multimorbid and high-utilizing population, they are in need of more focused research attention that elucidates their preferred treatment goals. The aim of this secondary study was therefore to qualitatively and quantitatively document participant-generated treatment goals Participants were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals (N=31) with alcohol dependence who participated in a pilot of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. Throughout the treatment period, study interventionists elicited participants' goals and recorded them on an open-ended grid. In subsequent weeks, progress towards and achievement of goals was obtained via self-report and recorded by study interventionists. Conventional content analysis was performed to classify participant-generated treatment goals Representation of the three top categories remained stable over the course of treatment. In the order of their frequency, they included drinking-related goals, quality-of-life goals and health-related goals. Within the category of drinking-related goals, participants consistently endorsed reducing drinking and alcohol-related consequences ahead of abstinence-based goals. Quantitative analyses indicated participants generated an increasing number of goals over the course of treatment. Proportions of goals achieved and progressed towards kept pace with this increase Findings confirmed hypotheses that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence can independently generate and achieve treatment goals towards alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of extracapsular extension in prostate cancer using qualitative and quantitative multiparametric MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooil; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Jung Jae; Kim, Minji; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for extracapsular extension (ECE) in prostate cancer (PCa). In all, 292 patients who received radical prostatectomy and underwent preoperative mpMRI at 3T were enrolled retrospectively. For determining the associations with ECE, the likelihood of ECE was assessed qualitatively on T2 -weighted imaging (T2 WI) and combined T2 WI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) or dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCEI). Quantitative MRI parameters were measured in PCa based on histopathological findings. Two models for detecting ECE including imaging and clinical parameters were developed using multivariate analysis: Model 1 excluding combined T2 WI and DWI and DCEI and Model 2 excluding combined T2 WI and DWI, and combined T2 WI and DCEI. Diagnostic performance of imaging parameters and models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az). For detecting ECE, the specificity, accuracy, and Az of combined T2 WI and DWI or DCEI were statistically better than those of T2 WI (P < 0.05), and all quantitative MRI parameters showed a statistical difference between the patients with and without ECE (P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, significant independent markers in Model 1 were combined T2 WI and DWI, combined T2 WI and DCEI, and K(trans) (P < 0.05). In Model 2, significant markers were combined T2 WI and DWI and DCEI, K(trans) , Kep , and Ve (P < 0.05). The Az values of models 1 and 2 were 0.944 and 0.957, respectively. mpMRI may be useful to improve diagnostic accuracy of the models for determining the associations with ECE in PCa. 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1760-1770. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. MR imaging of renal cortical tumours: qualitative and quantitative chemical shift imaging parameters.

    PubMed

    Karlo, Christoph A; Donati, Olivio F; Burger, Irene A; Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Hricak, Hedvig; Akin, Oguz

    2013-06-01

    To assess qualitative and quantitative chemical shift MRI parameters of renal cortical tumours. A total of 251 consecutive patients underwent 1.5-T MRI before nephrectomy. Two readers (R1, R2) independently evaluated all tumours visually for a decrease in signal intensity (SI) on opposed- compared with in-phase chemical shift images. In addition, SI was measured on in- and opposed-phase images (SI(IP), SI(OP)) and the chemical shift index was calculated as a measure of percentage SI change. Histopathology served as the standard of reference. A visual decrease in SI was identified significantly more often in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCCs) (R1, 73 %; R2, 64 %) and angiomyolipomas (both, 80 %) than in oncocytomas (29 %, 12 %), papillary (29 %, 17 %) and chromophobe RCCs (13 %, 9 %; all, P < 0.05). Median chemical shift index was significantly greater in clear cell RCC and angiomyolipoma than in the other histological subtypes (both, P < 0.001). Interobserver agreement was fair for visual (kappa, 0.4) and excellent for quantitative analysis (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.80). A decrease in SI on opposed-phase chemical shift images is not an identifying feature of clear cell RCCs or angiomyolipomas, but can also be observed in oncocytomas, papillary and chromophobe RCCs. After excluding angiomyolipomas, a decrease in SI of more than 25 % was diagnostic for clear cell RCCs. • Chemical shift MRI offers new information about fat within renal tumours. • Opposed-phase signal decrease can be observed in all renal cortical tumours. • A greater than 25 % decrease in signal appears to be diagnostic for clear cell RCCs.

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Imaging in Single Photon Emission Tomography for Nuclear Medicine Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoomi, Mojtaba (Arash).

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. An important goal of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) is the determination of absolute regional radionuclide concentration as a function of time. Quantitative and qualitative studies of SPECT with regard to clinical application is the object of this work. Three basic approaches for image reconstruction and factors which affect the choice of a reconstruction algorithm have been reviewed, discussed and the reconstruction techniques, GRADY and CBP evaluated, based on computer modelling. A sophisticated package of computational subroutines, RECLBL, for image reconstruction and for generation of phantoms, which was fully implemented on PRIME was used throughout this study. Two different systems, a rotating gamma-camera and a prototype scanning-rig have been used to carry out tomography experiments with different phantoms in emission and transmission mode. Performance assessment and reproducibility of the gamma-camera was tested prior to the experimental work. SPECT studies are generally hampered for a number of reasons, the most severe being attenuation and scattering. The effect of scattered photons on image quality was discussed, three distinct techniques were utilised to correct the images and results were compared. Determination of the depth of the source, Am-241 and Tc-99m in the attenuating media, water and TEMEX by analysing the spectroscopic data base on the SPR and spatial resolution was studied, results revealed that both techniques had the same range of depth sensitivity. A method of simultaneous emission and transmission tomography was developed to correct the images for attenuation. The reproducibility of the technique was examined. Results showed that the technique is able to present a promising and a practical approach to more accurate quantitative SPECT imaging. A procedure to evaluate images, under certain conditions has been defined, its properties were evaluated using computer

  8. Assessing size of pituitary adenomas: a comparison of qualitative and quantitative methods on MR.

    PubMed

    Davies, Benjamin M; Carr, Elizabeth; Soh, Calvin; Gnanalingham, Kanna K

    2016-04-01

    A variety of methods are used for estimating pituitary tumour size in clinical practice and in research. Quantitative methods, such as maximum tumour dimension, and qualitative methods, such as Hardy and Knosp grades, are well established but do not give an accurate assessment of the tumour volume. We therefore sought to compare existing measures of pituitary tumours with more quantitative methods of tumour volume estimation. Magnetic resonance imaging was reviewed for 99 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas awaiting surgery between 2010 and 2013. Maximal tumour diameter, Hardy and Knosp grades were compared with tumour volume estimates by the ellipsoid equation, [4/3π (a,b,c)], (i.e. ellipsoid volume) and slice-by-slice perimetry (i.e. perimeter volume). Ellipsoid and perimeter methods of tumour volume estimation strongly correlated (R(2) = 0.99, p < 0.0001). However the correlation was less strong with increasing tumour size, with the ellipsoid method slightly underestimating. The mean differences were -0.11 (95 % CI, -0.35, 0.14), -0.74 (95 % CI, -2.2, 0.74) and -1.4 (95 % CI, -6.4, 3.7) for micro-tumours, macro-tumours and giant tumours respectively. Tumour volume correlated with maximal diameter, following a cubic distribution. Correlations of tumour volume with Hardy and Knosp grades was less strong. Perimeter and ellipsoid methods give a good estimation of tumour volume, whereas Knosp and Hardy grades may offer other clinically relevant information, such as cavernous sinus invasion or chiasmal compression. Thus the different methods of estimating tumour size are likely to have different clinical utilities.

  9. Sensitivity of qualitative and quantitative spasticity measures to clinical treatment with cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Allison, S C; Abraham, L D

    2001-03-01

    This study examined the extent to which a battery of tests could detect a reduction of plantarflexor spasticity resulting from cryotherapy. The tests included a traditional qualitative spasticity scale, three potential quantitative spasticity measures and a measure of voluntary ankle muscle function. Twenty-six adult traumatic-brain-injured subjects were examined; these included 22 males and 4 females. The mean age was 28.15 years (range: 18-57, SD 10.78). The five tests were performed in random sequence on both ankles of each subject, before and after a 20 minute cold pack application to the calf. Tests were: modified Ashworth scale (MAS) scoring; H-reflex testing with and without dorsiflexor contraction (Hdf/Hctrl ratio); H-reflex testing with and without Achilles tendon vibration (Hvib/Hctrl ratio); reflex threshold angle (RTA) and timed toe tapping (TIT). Cryotherapy resulted in lowered MAS scores consistent with a reduction in spasticity. Doubly multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference (F = 24.16, P < 0.001) in test scores between the pre- and post-cryotherapy test batteries. Significant pre- and post-cryotherapy differences (P < or = 0.03) for all dependent measures contributed to the main effect for cryotherapy. However, among the potential quantitative measures of spasticity only the RTA test demonstrated appropriate sensitivity to the reduction in spasticity. In spite of spasticity reduction, TIT performance was impaired following muscle cooling. Failure of the H-reflex ratios to show a reduction consistent with reduced spasticity was attributed to competing alpha and gamma motoneuron effects resulting from peripheral cooling.

  10. Statistical tests for comparison of quantitative and qualitative models developed with near infrared spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggo, Y.; Duponchel, L.; Ruckebusch, C.; Huvenne, J.-P.

    2003-06-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been applied for both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of sugar beet. However, chemometrics methods are numerous and a choice criterion is sometime difficult to determine. In order to select the most accurate chemometrics method, statistical tests are developed. In the first part, quantitative models, which predict sucrose content of sugar beet, are compared. To realize a systematic study, 54 models are developed with different spectral pre-treatments (Standard Normal Variate (SNV), Detrending (D), first and second Derivative), different spectral ranges and different regression methods (Principal Component Regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS), Modified PLS (MPLS)). Analyze of variance and Fisher's tests are computed to compare respectively bias and Standard Error of Prediction Corrected for bias (SEP(C)). The model developed with full spectra pre-treated by SNV, second derivative and MPLS methods gives accurate results: bias is 0.008 and SEP(C) is 0.097 g of sucrose per 100 g of sample on a concentration range between 14 and 21 g/100 g. In the second part, McNemar's test is applied to compare the classification methods. The classifications are used with two data sets: the first data set concerns the disease resistance of sugar beet and the second deals with spectral differences between four spectrometers. The performances of four well-known classification methods are compared on the NIRS data: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), K Nearest Neighbors method (KNN), Simple Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ) are computed. In this study, the most accurate method (SIMCA) has a prediction rate of 81.9% of good classification on the disease resistance determination and has 99.4% of good classification on the instrument data set.

  11. Physiotherapists' beliefs and attitudes influence clinical practice in chronic low back pain: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Tania; Refshauge, Kathryn; Smith, Lorraine; McAuley, James; Hübscher, Markus; Goodall, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    What influence do physiotherapists' beliefs and attitudes about chronic low back pain have on their clinical management of people with chronic low back pain? Systematic review with data from quantitative and qualitative studies. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included if they investigated an association between physiotherapists' attitudes and beliefs about chronic low back pain and their clinical management of people with chronic low back pain. Five quantitative and five qualitative studies were included. Quantitative studies used measures of treatment orientation and fear avoidance to indicate physiotherapists' beliefs and attitudes about chronic low back pain. Quantitative studies showed that a higher biomedical orientation score (indicating a belief that pain and disability result from a specific structural impairment, and treatment is selected to address that impairment) was associated with: advice to delay return to work, advice to delay return to activity, and a belief that return to work or activity is a threat to the patient. Physiotherapists' fear avoidance scores were positively correlated with: increased certification of sick leave, advice to avoid return to work, and advice to avoid return to normal activity. Qualitative studies revealed two main themes attributed to beliefs and attitudes of physiotherapists who have a relationship to their management of chronic low back pain: treatment orientation and patient factors. Both quantitative and qualitative studies showed a relationship between treatment orientation and clinical practice. The inclusion of qualitative studies captured the influence of patient factors in clinical practice in chronic low back pain. There is a need to recognise that both beliefs and attitudes regarding treatment orientation of physiotherapists, and therapist-patient factors need to be considered when introducing new clinical practice models, so that the adoption of new clinical practice is maximised. [Gardner T

  12. Research productivity in Syria: Quantitative and qualitative analysis of current status

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Maria M.; Taftaf, Rokana M. O.; Arabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: Scientific research output measured by the number and quality of publications reflects the research productivity of a certain community. Aims: To examine the quantity and quality of research produced by Syrian institutions with particular emphasis on the clinical and biomedical research. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational analysis of research originating from Syrian institutions indexed by Medline and Science Citation Index (SciVerse) Scopus bibliographic databases. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Medline and SciVerse was conducted including data from Jan 01, 1980 till February 2011 searching for authors affiliated with Syrian institutions. Clinical and biomedical research data were further analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results: The total of manuscripts indexed by SciVerse originating from Syrian institutions during the last 3 decades is 3540. A total of 458 publications cover clinical and biomedical subject areas. The quality of these 458 publications was evaluated by the citation frequency and impact factor of publishing journals with h-index of 24. Conclusions: Although the spectrum of research originating from Syrian institutions is broad, the overall number of publications particularly in clinical and biomedical subjects is minuscule and of limited quality. The presented data indicate the need to promote research capabilities and to bridge the gap in research productivity by Syrian institutions. PMID:23210002

  13. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of four species of Curcuma rhizomes using twice development thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J S; Guan, J; Yang, F Q; Liu, H G; Cheng, X J; Li, S P

    2008-11-04

    The rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis, Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma wenyujin and Curcuma longa are used as Ezhu or Jianghuang in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Due to their similar morphological characters, it is difficult to distinguish their origins of raw materials used in clinic. In this study, a simple, rapid and reliable twice development TLC method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the four species of Curcuma rhizomes. The chromatography was performed on silica gel 60F(254) plate with chloroform-methanol-formic acid (80:4:0.8, v/v/v) and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase for twice development. The TLC markers were colorized with 1% vanillin-H(2)SO(4) solution. The four species of Curcuma were easily discriminated based on their characteristic TLC profiles, and simultaneous quantification of eight compounds, including bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, curcumine, curcumenol, curcumol, curdione, furanodienone and curzerene, in Curcuma were also performed densitometrically at lambda(scan)=518nm and lambda(reference)=800 nm. The investigated compounds had good linearity (r(2)>0.9905) within test ranges. Therefore, the developed TLC method can be used for quality control of Curcuma rhizomes.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of extracellular polymeric substances in partial nitrification and full nitrification reactors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Keyi; Chen, Ya; Wu, Na; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2017-02-28

    In present study, two column-type sequencing batch reactors with alternative anoxic/aerobic phases were operated and compared under partial nitrification and full nitrification modes by controlling different dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. During steady state, the characterizations of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from two reactors were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed through chemical and spectroscopic approaches. Data implied that partial nitrification reactor had relatively higher total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) contents. According to excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra, LB-EPS and TB-EPS from two kinds of reactors expressed similar fluorescence peak locations but different intensities. Fluorescence regional integration (FRI) further suggested that Region IV was the main fraction in both types of EPS fractions. Moreover, TB-EPS exhibited a greater number of molecular weight fractions than those of LB-EPS. Both EPS fractions had similar functional groups, which represented the complex nature of EPS compositions.

  15. Sucrose quantitative and qualitative analysis from tastant mixtures based on Cu foam electrode and stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hui, Guohua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Jian; Zheng, Le

    2016-04-15

    Quantitative and qualitative determination of sucrose from complex tastant mixtures using Cu foam electrode was investigated in this study. Cu foam was prepared and its three-dimensional (3-D) mesh structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cu foam was utilized as working electrode in three-electrode electrochemical system. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) scanning results exhibited the oxidation procedure of sucrose on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results indicated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sucrose from four tastant mixtures with low limit of detection (LOD) of 35.34 μM, 49.85 μM, 45.89 μM, and 26.81 μM, respectively. The existence of quinine, NaCl, citric acid (CA) and their mixtures had no effect on sucrose detection. Furthermore, mixtures containing different tastants could be discriminated by non-linear double-layered cascaded series stochastic resonance (DCSSR) output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak parameters of CV measurement data. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener analysis of commercial food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A qualitative and quantitative needs assessment of pain management for hospitalized orthopedic patients.

    PubMed

    Cordts, Grace A; Grant, Marian S; Brandt, Lynsey E; Mears, Simon C

    2011-08-08

    Despite advances in pain management, little formal teaching is given to practitioners and nurses in its use for postoperative orthopedic patients. The goal of our study was to determine the educational needs for orthopedic pain management of our residents, nurses, and physical therapists using a quantitative and qualitative assessment. The needs analysis was conducted in a 10-bed orthopedic unit at a teaching hospital and included a survey given to 20 orthopedic residents, 9 nurses, and 6 physical therapists, followed by focus groups addressing barriers to pain control and knowledge of pain management. Key challenges for nurses included not always having breakthrough pain medication orders and the gap in pain management between cessation of patient-controlled analgesia and ordering and administering oral medications. Key challenges for orthopedic residents included treating pain in patients with a history of substance abuse, assessing pain, and determining when to use long-acting vs short-acting opioids. Focus group assessments revealed a lack of training in pain management and the need for better coordination of care between nurses and practitioners and improved education about special needs groups (the elderly and those with substance abuse issues). This needs assessment showed that orthopedic residents and nurses receive little formal education on pain management, despite having to address pain on a daily basis. This information will be used to develop an educational program to improve pain management for postoperative orthopedic patients. An integrated educational program with orthopedic residents, nurses, and physical therapists would promote understanding of issues for each discipline.

  17. Self-organisation in Cellular Automata with Coalescent Particles: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellouin de Menibus, Benjamin; Sablik, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    This article introduces new tools to study self-organisation in a family of simple cellular automata which contain some particle-like objects with good collision properties (coalescence) in their time evolution. We draw an initial configuration at random according to some initial shift-ergodic measure, and use the limit measure to describe the asymptotic behaviour of the automata. We first take a qualitative approach, i.e. we obtain information on the limit measure(s). We prove that only particles moving in one particular direction can persist asymptotically. This provides some previously unknown information on the limit measures of various deterministic and probabilistic cellular automata: 3 and 4-cyclic cellular automata [introduced by Fisch (J Theor Probab 3(2):311-338, 1990; Phys D 45(1-3):19-25, 1990)], one-sided captive cellular automata [introduced by Theyssier (Captive Cellular Automata, 2004)], the majority-traffic cellular automaton, a self stabilisation process towards a discrete line [introduced by Regnault and Rémila (in: Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2015—40th International Symposium, MFCS 2015, Milan, Italy, Proceedings, Part I, 2015)]. In a second time we restrict our study to a subclass, the gliders cellular automata. For this class we show quantitative results, consisting in the asymptotic law of some parameters: the entry times [generalising K ůrka et al. (in: Proceedings of AUTOMATA, 2011)], the density of particles and the rate of convergence to the limit measure.

  18. Bayesian mapping of genotype x expression interactions in quantitative and qualitative traits.

    PubMed

    Hoti, F; Sillanpää, M J

    2006-07-01

    A novel Bayesian gene mapping method, which can simultaneously utilize both molecular marker and gene expression data, is introduced. The approach enables a quantitative or qualitative phenotype to be expressed as a linear combination of the marker genotypes, gene expression levels, and possible genotype x gene expression interactions. The interaction data, given as marker-gene pairs, contains possible in cis and in trans effects obtained from earlier allelic expression studies, genetical genomics studies, biological hypotheses, or known pathways. The method is presented for an inbred line cross design and can be easily generalized to handle other types of populations and designs. The model selection is based on the use of effect-specific variance components combined with Jeffreys' non-informative prior--the method operates by adaptively shrinking marker, expression, and interaction effects toward zero so that non-negligible effects are expected to occur only at very few positions. The estimation of the model parameters and the handling of missing genotype or expression data is performed via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The potential of the method including heritability estimation is presented using simulated examples and novel summary statistics. The method is also applied to a real yeast data set with known pathways.

  19. Why do children decide not to participate in clinical research: a quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hein, Irma M; Troost, Pieter W; de Vries, Martine C; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-07-01

    More pediatric drug trials are needed, but although specific pediatric regulations warrant safety, recruitment of children for these trials remains one of the main difficulties. Therefore, we investigated potential determining factors of nonparticipation in clinical research, in order to optimize research participation of children by recommending improved recruitment strategies. Between 1 January 2012 and 1 January 2014, we performed a prospective study among161 pediatric patients, aged 6 to 18 y, who were eligible for clinical research. We quantitatively analyzed the association of potential explanatory variables (e.g., age, cognitive development, experience, ethnicity) with nonparticipation and qualitatively analyzed interviews on reasons for nonparticipation. Sixty percent of the children did not participate in the research project on offer (39% decided not to participate, 21% were indecisive). Lower age, less disease experience, and less complex research with lower risk were predictive for not participating. Time constraint and extra burden were expressed as decisive reasons for not participating. Strategies to optimize research participation should be aimed at younger children and their families, who are logistically challenged and unfamiliar with health care and research. Recommendations include informing pediatric patients and their families of the value of research; minimizing logistic burdens; and improving accessibility.

  20. Challenges of interdisciplinary research: reconciling qualitative and quantitative methods for understanding human-landscape systems.

    PubMed

    Lach, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

  1. Enhancement of a virtual reality wheelchair simulator to include qualitative and quantitative performance metrics.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C S; Grant, P M; Conway, B A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing importance of inclusive design and in particular accessibility guidelines established in the U.K. 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) has been a prime motivation for the work on wheelchair access, a subset of the DDA guidelines, described in this article. The development of these guidelines mirrors the long-standing provisions developed in the U.S. In order to raise awareness of these guidelines and in particular to give architects, building designers, and users a physical sensation of how a planned development could be experienced, a wheelchair virtual reality system was developed. This compares with conventional methods of measuring against drawings and comparing dimensions against building regulations, established in the U.K. under British standards. Features of this approach include the marriage of an electromechanical force-feedback system with high-quality immersive graphics as well as the potential ability to generate a physiological rating of buildings that do not yet exist. The provision of this sense of "feel" augments immersion within the virtual reality environment and also provides the basis from which both qualitative and quantitative measures of a building's access performance can be gained.

  2. Satellite Perspective of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport: From Qualitative Tracking to Quantitative Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chin, Mian; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of aerosol intercontinental transport (ICT) is both widespread and compelling. Model simulations suggest that ICT could significantly affect regional air quality and climate, but the broad inter-model spread of results underscores a need of constraining model simulations with measurements. Satellites have inherent advantages over in situ measurements to characterize aerosol ICT, because of their spatial and temporal coverage. Significant progress in satellite remote sensing of aerosol properties during the Earth Observing System (EOS) era offers opportunity to increase quantitative characterization and estimates of aerosol ICT, beyond the capability of pre-EOS era satellites that could only qualitatively track aerosol plumes. EOS satellites also observe emission strengths and injection heights of some aerosols, aerosol precursors, and aerosol-related gases, which can help characterize aerosol ICT. After an overview of these advances, we review how the current generation of satellite measurements have been used to (1) characterize the evolution of aerosol plumes (e.g., both horizontal and vertical transport, and properties) on an episodic basis, (2) understand the seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol ICT and their control factors, (3) estimate the export and import fluxes of aerosols, and (4) evaluate and constrain model simulations. Substantial effort is needed to further explore an integrated approach using measurements from on-orbit satellites (e.g., A-Train synergy) for observational characterization and model constraint of aerosol intercontinental transport and to develop advanced sensors for future missions.

  3. Systematic prevention of overweight and obesity in adults: a qualitative and quantitative literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Kremers, S; Reubsaet, A; Martens, M; Gerards, S; Jonkers, R; Candel, M; de Weerdt, I; de Vries, N

    2010-05-01

    To date, most interventions aimed at preventing obesity have underemphasized the application of systematic intervention development, implementation and evaluation. The present review provides a thorough insight in factors promoting implementation and/or effectiveness in interventions aimed at preventing overweight/obesity among adults. A total of 46 studies evaluating interventions aimed at preventing obesity were reviewed, followed by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The Intervention Mapping protocol and the Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention (EnRG) were applied to analyse and classify the included studies. The interventions were categorized by setting (workplace, community, health care) and target group (ethnic minorities, pregnant women, [pre]menopausal women, smokers, people with intellectual disabilities). Generally, interventions were found to have potential in changing energy balance-related behaviours and anthropometric outcomes. Effect sizes for changes in body mass index ranged between -0.09 and 0.45. When the programme goal specifically aimed at weight management, the intervention was found to be more successful than interventions with programme goals that were aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease or improving general health status. Although a considerable part of studies included motivational interventions, only some actually assessed the effects on potential cognitive mediators. A general lack of reporting underlying theoretical models for behaviour change was observed as well as the inclusion of linkage groups and strategies to promote empowerment.

  4. Sustainable Urban Forestry Potential Based Quantitative And Qualitative Measurement Using Geospatial Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, A. Z.; Reba, M. N. M.; Roslan, N.; Room, M. H. M.

    2014-02-01

    In order to maintain the stability of natural ecosystems around urban areas, urban forestry will be the best initiative to maintain and control green space in our country. Integration between remote sensing (RS) and geospatial information system (GIS) serves as an effective tool for monitoring environmental changes and planning, managing and developing a sustainable urbanization. This paper aims to assess capability of the integration of RS and GIS to provide information for urban forest potential sites based on qualitative and quantitative by using priority parameter ranking in the new township of Nusajaya. SPOT image was used to provide high spatial accuracy while map of topography, landuse, soils group, hydrology, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil series data were applied to enhance the satellite image in detecting and locating present attributes and features on the ground. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique provides structural and pair wise quantification and comparison elements and criteria for priority ranking for urban forestry purpose. Slope, soil texture, drainage, spatial area, availability of natural resource, and vicinity of urban area are criteria considered in this study. This study highlighted the priority ranking MCDM is cost effective tool for decision-making in urban forestry planning and landscaping.

  5. A proficiency testing method for detecting antibodies against Brucella abortus in quantitative and qualitative serological tests.

    PubMed

    Gall, D; Nielsen, K; Nicola, A; Renteria, T

    2008-12-01

    A proficiency testing panel for detecting antibodies against Brucella abortus was developed and evaluated by both primary binding and conventional serological tests, using the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the International Organization for Standardization Guide 43-1. All serological tests were judged satisfactory. Among the primary binding tests, the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA 2) and the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA 1), with standard deviation indices (z-scores) of -0.06 and 0.10, respectively, performed best. Similarly, E(n) numbers (i.e. a way of comparing different measurements of performance) of 0 for both the competitive ELISA 2 and the indirect ELISA 1 indicated that these tests performed best in the initial round of proficiency testing. The conventional serological tests all passed the panel. Comparing data from both the quantitative and qualitative tests demonstrated that this proficiency testing scheme was fit for the purpose for which it was designed.

  6. Real-time PCR assay for rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Erika; Perkátai, Katalin; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Farkas, Agnes; Kucsera, István

    2012-12-01

    Simple real-time PCR assay with one set of primer and probe for rapid, sensitive qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica has been used. Consensus sequences were used to amplify a species-specific region of the 16S rRNA gene, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes were used for detection in a LightCycler platform (Roche). The anchor probe sequence was designed to be a perfect match for the 16S rRNA gene of Entamoeba species, while the acceptor probe sequence was designed for Entamoeba histolytica, which allowed differentiation. The performed characteristics of the real-time PCR assay were compared with ELISA antigen and microscopical detection from 77 samples of individuals with suspected clinical diagnosis of imported E. histolytica infection. Stool and liver abscess pus samples were examined with analytical sensitivity of 5 parasites per PCR reaction. The melting curve means Tms (standard deviation) in clinical isolates were 54°C. The real-time assay was 100% sensitive and specific for differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, compared with conventional ELISA or microscopy. This real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis is rapid, and specific for the detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica. The suitability for routine use of this assay in clinical diagnostic laboratories is discussed.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of kernel anthocyanins from southwestern United States blue corn.

    PubMed

    Nankar, Amol N; Dungan, Barry; Paz, Neil; Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, F Omar; Pratt, Richard C

    2016-10-01

    Anthocyanin-rich blue corn is an emerging specialty crop in the USA. The antioxidant properties of blue corn offer health benefits in the human diet. The objectives of this study were to identify, characterize and quantify the anthocyanins from blue corn. Hypotheses tested were that total anthocyanin content was similar among southwestern US accessions and that it would vary across locations. It was also examined whether different anthocyanin components were unique to certain genotypes. Across all locations and accessions, an average of 0.43 g kg(-1) total anthocyanin content (TAC) was observed. Accessions Santa Clara Blue and Ohio Blue displayed the highest TAC. The TAC of accession Flor del Rio was lower by nearly a factor of six. A total of five anthocyanin components were identified. Cyanidin 3-glucoside was the most abundant, followed by pelargonidin and peonidin 3-glucoside. Succinyl and disuccinyl glycosidic forms of cyanidin were also identified. Cyanidin 3-disuccinylglucoside was newly identified as a novel form of anthocyanin. Quantitative and qualitative anthocyanin expression was determined to be relatively stable across multiple southwestern environments. Increased expression of red and purple pigmentation in accession Flor del Rio appeared to be associated more with reduced TAC and cyanidin 3-glucoside than with elevated pelargonidin per se. A previously unreported anthocyanin component in blue corn, cyanidin 3-disuccinylglucoside, is present in southwestern landraces. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of endophyte alkaloids in perennial ryegrass using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Soto-Barajas, Milton C; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo; González-Martin, Inmaculada; Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R

    2017-04-18

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used in forage quality control because it is faster, cleaner and less expensive than conventional chemical procedures. In Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), one of the most important forage grasses, the infection by asymptomatic Epichloë fungal endophytes alters the plant nutritional quality due to the production of alkaloids. In this research, we developed a rapid method based on NIRS to detect and quantify endophyte alkaloids (peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline) using a heterogeneous set of L. perenne plants obtained from wild grasslands and cultivars. NIR spectra from dried grass samples were recorded and classified according to the absence or presence of alkaloids, based on reference methods. The best discriminant equations for detection of alkaloids classified correctly 94.4%, 87.5% and 92.9% of plants containing peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline, respectively. The quantitative NIR equations obtained by modified partial least squares (MPLS) algorithm had coefficients of correlation of 0.93, 0.41, and 0.76 for peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline respectively. NIRS is a suitable tool for qualitative analysis of endophyte alkaloids in grasses and for the accurate quantification of peramine and ergovaline. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Quantitative risk assessment of noroviruses in drinking water based on qualitative data in Japan.

    PubMed

    Masago, Yoshifumi; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Toru; Haramoto, Eiji; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Omura, Tatsuo; Hirata, Tsuyoshi; Ohgaki, Shinichiro

    2006-12-01

    Noroviruses are one of the major causes of viral gastroenteritis in Japan. A quantitative risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the health risk caused by this virus in drinking water. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to calculate both the probability of infection and the disease burden using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The concentration of noroviruses in tap water was estimated based on qualitative data and a most probable number (MPN) method with an assumed Poisson lognormal distribution. This numerical method was evaluated using two sets of available count data of Cryptosporidium: that collected from a river and that found in tap water in Japan. The dose-response relationships for noroviruses were estimated using assumed ID50 (10 or 100). The annual risk was higher than the US-EPA acceptable level (10(-4) [infection/ person-year]) but around the WHO level (10(-6) [DALYs/ person-year]). As suggested by others, since microbial concentrations are generally lognormally distributed, the arithmetic mean was directly related to the annual risk, suggesting that the arithmetic mean is more useful in representing the degree of microbial contamination than the geometric mean.

  10. Ocular manifestations of Apert and Crouzon syndromes: qualitative and quantitative findings.

    PubMed

    Kreiborg, Sven; Cohen, M Michael

    2010-09-01

    There are significant differences in the ocular manifestations of Apert and Crouzon syndromes. Here, we present qualitative and quantitative data about the oculo-orbital region to demonstrate these differences. Although ocular protosis and hypertelorism characterize both disorders, the nature of the orbital dystopia differs. In Crouzon syndrome, ocular proptosis is primarily caused by retrusion of the lateral and inferior orbital margins with a very short orbital floor. In Apert syndrome, the eyeglobe actually protrudes in relation to the cranial base and to the orbit, probably resulting from marked protrusion of the lateral orbital wall. The implications account for some of the differences encountered. Asymmetry is associated with Apert syndrome frequently. Exotropia is found in Crouzon syndrome, whereas the V pattern is more characteristic in Apert syndrome with divergent upgaze and esotropic downgaze. Subluxation of the eyeglobe is found in some cases of Crouzon syndrome but is not found in Apert syndrome. Optic atrophy found in approximately 20% of Crouzon syndrome patients is not characteristic of Apert syndrome. Structural alterations of the extraocular muscles have been associated with some cases of Apert syndrome, suggesting that ocular motility disturbances in Apert syndrome may not be caused solely by mechanical factors. Absence of the superior rectus and other extraocular muscles has been recorded. Furthermore, albinoid alterations of the fundus have also been associated with Apert syndrome.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative feedback in the context of competency-based education.

    PubMed

    Tekian, Ara; Watling, Christopher J; Roberts, Trudie E; Steinert, Yvonne; Norcini, John

    2017-09-19

    Research indicates the importance and usefulness of feedback, yet with the shift of medical curricula toward competencies, feedback is not well understood in this context. This paper attempts to identify how feedback fits within a competency-based curriculum. After careful consideration of the literature, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) Because feedback is predicated on assessment, the assessment should be designed to optimize and prevent inaccuracies in feedback; (2) Giving qualitative feedback in the form of a conversation would lend credibility to the feedback, address emotional obstacles and create a context in which feedback is comfortable; (3) Quantitative feedback in the form of individualized data could fulfill the demand for more feedback, help students devise strategies on how to improve, allow students to compare themselves to their peers, recognizing that big data have limitations; and (4) Faculty development needs to incorporate and promote cultural and systems changes with regard to feedback. A better understanding of the role of feedback in competency-based education could result in more efficient learning for students.

  12. Efficient Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Antigen-induced Immune Responses*

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of immunization strategies used in therapeutic antibody or vaccine development, it is critical to assess the quality of immunization-induced polyclonal antibody responses. Here, we developed a workflow that uses sensitive methods to quantitatively and qualitatively assess immune responses against foreign antigens with regard to antibody binding affinity and epitope diversity. The application of such detailed assessments throughout an immunization campaign can significantly reduce the resources required to generate highly specific antibodies. Our workflow consists of the following two steps: 1) the use of surface plasmon resonance to quantify antigen-specific antibodies and evaluate their apparent binding affinities, and 2) the recovery of serum IgGs using an automated small scale purification system, followed by the determination of their epitope diversity using hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry. We showed that these methods were sensitive enough to detect antigen-specific IgGs in the nanogram/μl range and that they provided information for differentiating the antibody responses of the various immunized animals that could not be obtained by conventional methods. We also showed that this workflow can guide the selection of an animal that produces high affinity antibodies with a desired epitope coverage profile, resulting in the generation of potential therapeutic monoclonal antibody clones with desirable functional profiles. We postulate that this workflow will be an important tool in the development of effective vaccines to combat the highly sophisticated evasion mechanisms of pathogens. PMID:27288409

  13. Experimental myocardial infarction in the rat: qualitative and quantitative changes during pathologic evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, M. C.; Maclean, D.; Maroko, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    Surgical occlusion of the left coronary artery of the rat is a relatively simple, economical technique for producing experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Histologic study of 1- to 21-day-old MI in rats showed that following a mild and brief acute inflammatory response at the margins of the necrotic myocardium, there is chronic inflammation, vascular and collagenous proliferation, and resorption of necrostic tissue which progresses until scar formation is complete, usually by 21 days. From Day 1 to Day 21 the volume of infarcted myocardium decreases from 45.9 +/- 5.9% (mean +/- SEM) to 26.1 +/- 3.2% of the left ventricle and infarct thickness decreases from 1.30 +/- 0.06 mm to 0.47 +/- 0.02 mm. Concomitantly, the percent of the surface area of the left ventricle which is infarcted decreases insignificantly from 55.7 +/- 7.2% to 48.3 +/- 4.2%, indicating that the decrease in volume of the infarcted tissue occurs primarily as a result of thinning of the MI. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the natural history of MI in rats, which should be useful as a baseline for future studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:619696

  14. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the metabolism of pesticides in biobed substrates and soil.

    PubMed

    Karanasios, Evangelos C; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2013-09-01

    Biobed substrates commonly exhibit high degradation capacity. However, degradation does not always lead to detoxification and information on the metabolic pathways of pesticides in biobeds is scarce. We studied the degradation and metabolism of three pesticides in selected biomixtures and soil. Biomixtures stimulated degradation of terbuthylazine and metribuzin, whereas chlorpyrifos degraded faster in soil. The latter was attributed to the lipophilicity of chlorpyrifos which increased adsorption and limited biodegradation in organic-rich biomixtures. Although the same metabolites were detected in all substrates, qualitative and quantitative differences in the metabolic routes of pesticides in the various substrates were observed. Chlorpyrifos was hydrolyzed to 3,5,6-tricholorpyridinol (TCP) which was further degraded only in compost-biomixture CBX1. Metabolism of terbuthylazine in compost biomixtures (BX) and soil resulted in the formation of desethyl-terbuthylazine (DES) which was fully degraded only in the compost-biomixture CBX2, whereas peat-based biomixture (OBX) promoted the hydroxylation of terbuthylazine. Desamino- (DA) (dominant) and diketo- (DK) metribuzin appear as intermediate metabolites in all substrates and were further transformed to desamino-diketo-metribuzin (DADK) which was fully degraded only in compost-biomixture GSBX. Overall, lower amounts of metabolites were accumulated in biomixtures compared to soil stressing the higher depuration efficiency of biobeds.

  15. Quantitative and qualitative processes of change during staff-coaching sessions: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    van Oorsouw, Wietske M W J; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T

    2013-05-01

    Staff training is one of the interventions that managers can embed in their organizations to help staff improve their professional competences related to challenging behaviour of clients with intellectual disabilities. Individual coaching adds learning opportunities that are feasible but difficult to achieve in an in-service setting. In the present study, we have followed the coaching process of three staff members. Based on differences in the Linell balance of power across sessions, we explored the question: do different coaching processes have similar patterns in the development of dominance and coherence in interactions between coach and staff? Additionally, a qualitative approach was conducted to illustrate and enrich the meaning of quantitative outcomes. Processes were different regarding the balance of power at the start of the coaching, probably due to differences in resistance and insecurity. As a consequence of different starting points and differences in learning styles, each coaching process had its unique development over time. At the end, all dyads were comparable in the sense that all dyads were highly satisfied about the outcomes and process of coaching. This is in line with similar levels of power at the end of the coaching sessions suggesting equal contributions and leadership. The present findings suggest some relevant competencies of coaches within health-care services. Due to the small number of participants, the results have to be interpreted with caution. The present study provides suggestions for future research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilization of Qualitative and Quantitative Information in Modeling Risk for Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, M. M.

    2001-12-01

    Risk assessment in the context of groundwater contamination is an ill-defined problem due in large part to the poorly known toxic behavior of chemicals in the groundwater environment. Characterization of individual cancer risk can be significantly improved by utilizing available ``qualitative'' expert insight in a quantitative manner. The proposed framework is based on the concepts of fuzzy set theory and it allows for the computerized representation as well as processing of subjective information. The framework also provides the capability to use risk-based information in least-cost remediation design. We explore a case study where the chemical of concern is benzene. Statements of public health professionals and toxicologists on 1) the relation between pattern and dose of benzene exposure and its toxic effect and 2) the susceptibility of an individual to benzene exposure are modeled using fuzzy-set theory. The constructed knowledge base in turn is used to produce risk-based design constraints as part of a least-cost remediation problem.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lysine acetylation and methylation in yeast histone H3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kangling

    2008-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications play important roles in cell functions and the modification patterns vary significantly among different organisms. It is important that histone modification patterns be identified. Flowing our previous work-identification of acetylation and methylation sites of histone H3 in a typical transcription most inactive chromatin isolated from chicken erythrocytes, here, we report using mass spectrometry to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze histone modification pattern of H3 in a typical transcription most active chromatin isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We compared the modification patterns of histone H3 between these two functionally opposite chromatins and observed that acetylation level at K9, K14, K27, K56 and methylation level at K4 and K79 are significantly higher in S. cerevisiae than in chicken erythrocytes, methylation at K9 is higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae and methylation level at K36 is unchanged in these two chromatins. Contrary to other sites, acetylation levels at K18 and K23 are higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae. Our data revealed the difference of acetylation and methylation pattern of individual H3 lysine between two distinct chromatins, one with more inactive form versus the other with more active form.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a pilot integrative coping and resiliency program for healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Bonnie; Earley, Michael; Audia, Donna; D'Adamo, Christopher; Berman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Stress, fatigue, and burnout are common maladies among healthcare employees. To address this problem, a holistic integrative self-care program for healthcare practitioners was designed, implemented, and evaluated. A total of 84 participants, recruited via presentations, flyers, and word of mouth, completed the 8-week program. The experiential course, entitled Healing Pathways, combined training in Reiki, guided imagery, yoga, toning, meditation, intuitive scanning, creative expression, and mentorship to foster more empowered and resilient individuals. We measured the effectiveness of the program via mixed methods consisting of qualitative interviews providing in-depth feedback and quantitative analysis demonstrating statistically significant benefit. Participants reported significantly lower levels of stress and significantly increased confidence in their ability to cope at treatment conclusion (8 weeks) and long-term follow-up (12 months). These findings suggest that an integrative wellness and resiliency program, coupled with individual mentorship, may improve coping, decrease stress, and improve functioning and well-being for nurses and other health care providers.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative examination of particle-particle interactions using colloidal probe nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, Dexter; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kim, Hae-Won; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-07-18

    Colloidal Probe Nanoscopy (CPN), the study of the nano-scale interactive forces between a specifically prepared colloidal probe and any chosen substrate using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), can provide key insights into physical interactions present within colloidal systems. Colloidal systems are widely existent in several applications including, pharmaceuticals, foods, paints, paper, soil and minerals, detergents, printing and much more.1-3 Furthermore, colloids can exist in many states such as emulsions, foams and suspensions. Using colloidal probe nanoscopy one can obtain key information on the adhesive properties, binding energies and even gain insight into the physical stability and coagulation kinetics of the colloids present within. Additionally, colloidal probe nanoscopy can be used with biological cells to aid in drug discovery and formulation development. In this paper we describe a method for conducting colloidal probe nanoscopy, discuss key factors that are important to consider during the measurement, and show that both quantitative and qualitative data that can be obtained from such measurements.

  20. Efficacy of fluoride varnishes for preventing enamel demineralization after interproximal enamel reduction. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    González Paz, Belén Manuela; García López, José

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the changes produced to enamel after interproximal reduction and subjected to demineralization cycles, after applying a fluoride varnish (Profluorid) and a fluoride varnish containing tricalcium phosphate modified by fumaric acid (Clinpro White). Materials and methods 138 interproximal dental surfaces were divided into six groups: 1) Intact enamel; 2) Intact enamel + demineralization cycles (DC); 3) Interproximal Reduction (IR); 4) IR + DC; 5) IR + Profluorid + DC; 6) IR + Clinpro White + DC. IR was performed with a 0.5 mm cylindrical diamond bur. The weight percentage of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and fluoride (F) were quantified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Samples were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results The weight percentage of Ca was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Groups 1, 2 and 5 than Groups 4 and 6. No significant differences were detected in the weight percentage of Ca between Group 3 and the other groups (p>0.05). The weight percentage of P was similar among all six groups (p>0.05). F was detected on 65% of Group 6 surfaces. SEM images of Groups 4 and 6 showed signs of demineralization, while Group 5 did not. Conclusions Profluorid application acts as a barrier against the demineralization of interproximally reduced enamel. PMID:28430810

  1. Qualitative and quantitative ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging of cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiang; Carl, Michael; Bydder, Mark; Takahashi, Atsushi; Chung, Christine B.; Bydder, Graeme M.

    2010-12-01

    We describe the use of two-dimensional ultrashort echo time (2D UTE) sequences with minimum TEs of 8 μs to image and quantify cortical bone on a clinical 3T scanner. An adiabatic inversion pulse was used for long T2 water and fat signal suppression. Adiabatic inversion prepared UTE acquisitions with varying TEs were used for T2∗ measurement. Saturation recovery UTE acquisitions were used for T1 measurement. Bone water concentration was measured with the aid of an external reference phantom. UTE techniques were evaluated on cadaveric specimens and healthy volunteers. A signal-to-noise ratio of around 30, contrast-to-noise ratio of around 27/20 between bone and muscle/fat were achieved in tibia in vivo with a nominal voxel size of 0.23 × 0.23 × 6.0 mm 3 in a scan time of 5 min. A mean T1 of 223 ± 11 ms and mean T2∗ of 390 ± 19 μs were found. Mean bone water concentrations of 23.3 ± 1.6% with UTE and 21.7 ± 1.3% with adiabatic inversion prepared UTE sequences were found in tibia in five normal volunteers. The results show that in vivo qualitative and quantitative evaluation of cortical bone is feasible with 2D UTE sequences.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of solar hydrogen generation literature from 2001 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Maghami, Mohammad Reza; Asl, Shahin Navabi; Rezadad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Gomes, Chandima

    Solar hydrogen generation is one of the new topics in the field of renewable energy. Recently, the rate of investigation about hydrogen generation is growing dramatically in many countries. Many studies have been done about hydrogen generation from natural resources such as wind, solar, coal etc. In this work we evaluated global scientific production of solar hydrogen generation papers from 2001 to 2014 in any journal of all the subject categories of the Science Citation Index compiled by Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Philadelphia, USA. Solar hydrogen generation was used as keywords to search the parts of titles, abstracts, or keywords. The published output analysis showed that hydrogen generation from the sun research steadily increased over the past 14 years and the annual paper production in 2013 was about three times 2010-paper production. The number of papers considered in this research is 141 which have been published from 2001 to this date. There are clear distinctions among author keywords used in publications from the five most high-publishing countries such as USA, China, Australia, Germany and India in solar hydrogen studies. In order to evaluate this work quantitative and qualitative analysis methods were used to the development of global scientific production in a specific research field. The analytical results eventually provide several key findings and consider the overview hydrogen production according to the solar hydrogen generation.

  3. The Psychological Consequences of Weight Change Trajectories: Evidence from Quantitative and Qualitative Data†

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Deborah; Jaffe, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We use quantitative and qualitative data to explore the psychological impact of weight change among American adults. Using data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995, we contrast underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III persons along five psychosocial outcomes: positive mood, negative mood, perceived interpersonal discrimination, self-acceptance, and self-satisfaction. We further assess whether these relationships are contingent upon one's body mass index (BMI) at age 21. We find a strong inverse association between adult BMI and each of the five outcomes, reflecting the stigma associated with high body weight. However, overweight adults who were also overweight at age 21 are more likely than persons who were previously slender to say they were “very satisfied” with themselves. Results from 40 in-depth semi-structured interviews reveal similarly that persons who were persistently overweight or obese accept their weight as part of their identity, whereas those who experienced substantial weight increases (or decreases) struggle between two identities: the weight they actually are, and the weight that they believe exemplifies who they are. We discuss implications for stigma theory, and the ways that stigma exits and entries affect psychological well-being. PMID:22580044

  4. A qualitative and quantitative examination of the antecedents of customer incivility.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Jones, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Customer incivility is known to have a negative impact on employees working in service jobs. Despite an understanding of the negative outcomes of customer incivility (e.g., burnout, disengagement, absenteeism), little research has investigated antecedents of this low-intensity deviant behavior. This is a clear oversight, given that understanding antecedents of customer incivility is essential for determining methods for reducing this stressor. As such, we conducted 2 studies examining these antecedents. For Study 1, we used a qualitative approach, assessing customer incivility from the perspective of the customer. Three overall themes (with 13 subthemes) emerged that could potentially lead to customer incivility: characteristics of the customer, characteristics of the organization/environment, and characteristics of the service employee. In Study 2, we conducted a quantitative study to investigate-from the perspective of the service employee-customer incivility antecedents that could be potentially controlled by the organization, either through changing the work environment or the employee (through training and selection). The results of a 2 time-point survey study showed that the service environment, service rep incivility, service orientation, agreeableness, and neuroticism served as antecedents to customer incivility. Practical implications are discussed, identifying options for organizational leaders interested in reducing customer incivility, and advice is provided for researchers seeking to further examine the antecedents of customer incivility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Complex mixture analysis using protein expression as a qualitative and quantitative tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.P.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Bond, J.A. . Dept. of Biological Sciences); Tepper, B.E. . Paper Products Division)

    1994-07-01

    Some proteins in organisms exposed to chemicals in stressful amounts or toxic concentrations show increased expression; others show decreased expression. These inducible and repressible proteins together potentially provide qualitative and quantitative diagnoses of components in complex mixtures of chemicals. The authors examined sets of proteins synthesized by Daphnia magna after exposure to mixtures of a cationic polyamide epichlorhydrin adduct (Kymene) and a combined assortment of water-extractable substances from chemi-thermal-mechanical pulp (CTMP) in lab water. Proteins were identified, after extracting from Daphnia magna, by gel filtration and silver staining, or by radiolabeling and then gel separation. Patterns of proteins induced by Kymene[reg sign] and by CTMP extracts were distinguishable in lab water, but there was interaction between them. The method of identifying and quantifying Kymene, however, was successful using lab simulations of mixtures. The method was tested using wastewater samples from a paper manufacturing plant. Kymene could be detected against variable levels and types of additional substances. But, again, there was interference, perhaps due to Kymene binding to other anionic polymers sometimes present in the samples. Interpretation from analyses of protein expression were consistent with results from sublethal Ceriodaphnia dubia assays.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of near-infrared autofluorescence in diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Shin; Murakami, Tomoaki; Horii, Takahiro; Uji, Akihito; Ogino, Ken; Unoki, Noriyuki; Nishijima, Kazuaki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-05-01

    To study the characteristics of near-infrared autofluorescence (NIR-AF) imaging and its association with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings and logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) in diabetic macular edema (DME). Retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty-one consecutive eyes of 87 patients with center-involved DME for whom NIR-AF and SD-OCT images of sufficient quality were obtained. The NIR-AF images were acquired using Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2 (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and sectional retinal images were obtained using Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg Engineering). The presence of a mosaic pattern and cystoid signs were determined qualitatively. We quantified the average fluorescence intensity in the central 1-mm subfield. The characteristics of the NIR-AF images were compared with the OCT findings and logMAR VA. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the NIR-AF images and their association with SD-OCT findings and logMAR VA. Fifty-seven eyes with a mosaic pattern in the NIR-AF macular images had worse logMAR VA (0.355±0.239 vs. 0.212±0.235; P = 0.001), a thicker central subfield (CSF) (530±143 μm vs. 438±105 μm; P <0.001), and disrupted external limiting membrane (ELM; P <0.001) compared with 64 eyes without these findings. Forty-one eyes with a cystoid sign in the NIR-AF images had worse logMAR VA (0.393±0.233 vs. 0.221±0.234; P <0.001) and a thicker CSF (557±155 μm vs. 443±100 μm; P <0.001) than those without them; there were no significant differences in the ELM status. The relative fluorescence intensity in the central subfield in the NIR-AF images was correlated negatively with the CSF thickness and logMAR VA (R = 0.492, P <0.001 and R = 0.377, P <0.001, respectively). Eyes with foveal serous retinal detachment had lower levels of relative fluorescence intensity than those without it (0.751±0.191 vs. 0.877±0

  7. Comparison of fecal and cecal microbiotas reveals qualitative similarities but quantitative differences.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dragana; Geier, Mark S; Chen, Honglei; Hughes, Robert J; Moore, Robert J

    2015-02-27

    The majority of chicken microbiota studies have used the ceca as a sampling site due to the specific role of ceca in chicken productivity, health and wellbeing. However, sampling from ceca and other gastrointestinal tract sections requires the bird to be sacrificed. In contrast, fecal sampling does not require sacrifice and thus allows the same bird to be sampled repeatedly over time. This is a more meaningful and preferred way of sampling as the same animals can be monitored and tracked for temporal studies. The commonly used practice of selecting a subset of birds at each time-point for sacrifice and sampling introduces added variability due to the known animal to animal variation in microbiota. Cecal samples and fecal samples via cloacal swab were collected from 163 birds across 3 replicate trials. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified and pyrosequenced to determine and compare the phylogenetic profile of the microbiota within each sample. The fecal and cecal samples were investigated to determine to what extent the microbiota found in fecal samples represented the microbiota of the ceca. It was found that 88.55% of all operational taxonomic units (OTUs), containing 99.25% of all sequences, were shared between the two sample types, with OTUs unique for each sample type found to be very rare. There was a positive correlation between cecal and fecal abundance in the shared sequences, however the two communities differed significantly in community structure, represented as either alpha or beta diversity. The microbial populations present within the paired ceca of individual birds were also compared and shown to be similar. Fecal sample analysis captures a large percentage of the microbial diversity present in the ceca. However, the qualitative similarities in OTU presence are not a good representation of the proportions of OTUs within the microbiota from each sampling site. The fecal microbiota is qualitatively similar to cecal microbiota but

  8. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  9. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  10. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  11. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF DETECTION OF CARCINOGENIC TYPES OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS BY QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TESTS].

    PubMed

    Kuzmenko, E T; Labigina, A V; Leshenko, O Ya; Rusanov, D N; Kuzmenko, V V; Fedko, L P; Pak, I P

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of results of screening (n = 3208; sexually active citizen aged from 18 to 59 years) was carried out to detect oncogene types of human papilloma virus in using qualitative (1150 females and 720 males) and quantitative (polymerase chain reaction in real-time (843 females and 115 males) techniques. The human papilloma virus of high oncogene type was detected in 65% and 68.4% of females and in 48.6% and 53% of males correspondingly. Among 12 types of human papilloma virus the most frequently diagnosed was human papilloma virus 16 independently of gender of examined and technique of analysis. In females, under application of qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 18.3% (n = 280) and under application of quantitative tests Rte of human papilloma virus made up to 14.9% (n = 126; p ≤ 0.05). Under examination of males using qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 8.3% (n = 60) and under application of qualitative tests made up to 12.2% (n = 14; p ≥ 0.05). Under application of qualitative tests rate of detection on the rest ofoncogene types of human papilloma virus varied in females from 3.4% to 8.4% and in males from 1.8% to 5.9%. Under application of qualitative tests to females rate of human papilloma virus with high viral load made up to 68.4%, with medium viral load - 2.85% (n = 24) and with low viral load -0.24% (n = 2). Under application of quantitative tests in males rate of detection of types of human papilloma virus made up to 53% and at that in all high viral load was established. In females, the most of oncogene types of human papilloma virus (except for 31, 39, 59) are detected significantly more often than in males.

  12. Using multiple PCR and CE with chemiluminescence detection for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, an ultrasensitive CE-CL detection system coupled with a novel double-on-column coaxial flow detection interface was developed for the detection of PCR products. A reliable procedure based on this system had been demonstrated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism-the detection of Roundup Ready Soy (RRS) samples was presented as an example. The promoter, terminator, function and two reference genes of RRS were amplified with multiplex PCR simultaneously. After that, the multiplex PCR products were labeled with acridinium ester at the 5'-terminal through an amino modification and then analyzed by the proposed CE-CL system. Reproducibility of analysis times and peak heights for the CE-CL analysis were determined to be better than 0.91 and 3.07% (RSD, n=15), respectively, for three consecutive days. It was shown that this method could accurately and qualitatively detect RRS standards and the simulative samples. The evaluation in terms of quantitative analysis of RRS provided by this new method was confirmed by comparing our assay results with those of the standard real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) using SYBR Green I dyes. The results showed a good coherence between the two methods. This approach demonstrated the possibility for accurate qualitative and quantitative detection of GM plants in a single run.

  13. QSTR modeling for qualitative and quantitative toxicity predictions of diverse chemical pesticides in honey bee for regulatory purposes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Mohan, Dinesh

    2014-09-15

    Pesticides are designed toxic chemicals for specific purposes and can harm nontarget species as well. The honey bee is considered a nontarget test species for toxicity evaluation of chemicals. Global QSTR (quantitative structure-toxicity relationship) models were established for qualitative and quantitative toxicity prediction of pesticides in honey bee (Apis mellifera) based on the experimental toxicity data of 237 structurally diverse pesticides. Structural diversity of the chemical pesticides and nonlinear dependence in the toxicity data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) QSTR models were constructed for classification (two and four categories) and function optimization problems using the toxicity end point in honey bees. The predictive power of the QSTR models was tested through rigorous validation performed using the internal and external procedures employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete data, the PNN-QSTR model rendered a classification accuracy of 96.62% (two-category) and 95.57% (four-category), while the GRNN-QSTR model yielded a correlation (R(2)) of 0.841 between the measured and predicted toxicity values with a mean squared error (MSE) of 0.22. The results suggest the appropriateness of the developed QSTR models for reliably predicting qualitative and quantitative toxicities of pesticides in honey bee. Both the PNN and GRNN based QSTR models constructed here can be useful tools in predicting the qualitative and quantitative toxicities of the new chemical pesticides for regulatory purposes.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative symptomatic differences in individuals at Ultra-High Risk for psychosis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Velthorst, Eva; Derks, Eske M; Schothorst, Patricia; Becker, Hiske; Durston, Sarah; Ziermans, Tim; Nieman, Dorien H; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2013-12-15

    Patients at Ultra-High Risk (UHR) for developing a first psychosis vary widely in their symptom presentation and illness course. An important aim in UHR research concerns the characterization of the clinical heterogeneity in this population. We aimed to identify qualitatively and quantitatively different clinical symptom profiles at baseline and at 2-year follow-up in a group of UHR subjects and healthy controls. We employed a Latent Class Factor Analysis (LCFA) to the 19 items of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) ratings at baseline and at 2-year follow-up in a sample of 147 UHR subjects and 141 controls from the Dutch Prediction of Psychosis Study (DUPS) in the Netherlands. Additionally, a stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed with transition to psychosis as a dependent variable and baseline latent variable scores as predictors. Variation in symptomatology at baseline was explained by both quantitative and qualitative differences; at 2-year follow-up qualitative differences between individuals were no longer observed. Quantitative differences showed moderate stability over time (range=0.109-0.42). Within the UHR sample, transition to psychosis was significantly associated with quantitative differences in baseline SIPS scores. The results of our study suggest a 'quasi'-continuous extended psychosis phenotype, a finding that merits replication in other samples.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of viral contamination in bivalve molluscs harvested in Italy.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, Elisabetta; Lanni, Luigi; Arcangeli, Giuseppe; Pepe, Tiziana; Mazzette, Rina; Ciccaglioni, Gianni; Croci, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    Bivalve molluscs are a well documented source of viral infection. Further data on shellfish viral contamination are needed to implement European Regulations with sanitary measures more effective against viral pathogens. To this aim, 336 samples of bivalve molluscs (185 mussels, 66 clams, 23 oysters and 62 samples from other species) collected in harvesting areas of class A and B of four Italian Regions were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative determination of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Norovirus (NoV) GI and GII, using real time RT-PCR. The results showed a wide diffusion of viral contamination in the shellfish production areas considered. HAV prevalence was low (0.9%) with contamination levels that varied from 5 to 7 × 10(2)copies/g. On the contrary, NoV showed a high prevalence (51.5%), with a large variability according to the group considered (e.g. 47.8% for Crassostrea in Veneto, 79.7% for Mytilus in Campania, 84.6% for Tapes in Sardinia). NoV contamination affected class A and class B production areas to a different extent, with a statistically significant difference in both contamination prevalence (22.1% vs. 66.3%; p<0.0001) and quantity (average contamination level of 3.1 × 10(2) vs. 1.9 × 10(3) copies/g; p<0.05). The different species analyzed from class B harvesting areas (Mytilus, Tapes/Ruditapes and Crassostrea) showed a NoV prevalence respectively of 70.3%, 66.0% and 47.8% but comparable NoV contamination levels (between 8.4 × 10(2) and 4.9 × 10(3)copies/g). Other two bivalve species considered in the study (Donax spp. and Solen spp.) showed a relevant NoV presence (40.0% and 34.4% of samples). Finally, samples analyzed before and after commercial purification treatment showed a decrease of contamination prevalence after the treatment, but inconsistent results were recorded on NoV levels. The data obtained, together with other quantitative information to estimate consumer exposure, in association with studies on dose-response and on the

  16. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of PET/CT and PET/MR imaging in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Al-Nabhani, Khalsa Z; Syed, Rizwan; Michopoulou, Sofia; Alkalbani, Jokha; Afaq, Asim; Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; O'Meara, Celia; Groves, Ashley; Ell, Peter; Bomanji, Jamshed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively compare whole-body PET/MR imaging and PET/CT, qualitatively and quantitatively, in oncologic patients and assess the confidence and degree of inter- and intraobserver agreement in anatomic lesion localization. Fifty patients referred for staging with known cancers underwent PET/CT with low-dose CT for attenuation correction immediately followed by PET/MR imaging with 2-point Dixon attenuation correction. PET/CT scans were obtained according to standard protocols (56 ± 20 min after injection of an average 367 MBq of (18)F-FDG, 150 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTATATE, or 333.8 MBq of (18)F-fluoro-ethyl-choline; 2.5 min/bed position). PET/MR was performed with 5 min/bed position. Three dual-accredited nuclear medicine physicians/radiologists identified the lesions and assigned each to an exact anatomic location. The image quality, alignment, and confidence in anatomic localization of lesions were scored on a scale of 1-3 for PET/CT and PET/MR imaging. Quantitative analysis was performed by comparing the standardized uptake values. Intraclass correlation coefficients and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess intra- and interobserver agreement in image quality, alignment, and confidence in lesion localization for the 2 modalities. Two hundred twenty-seven tracer-avid lesions were identified in 50 patients. Of these, 225 were correctly identified on PET/CT and 227 on PET/MR imaging by all 3 observers. The confidence in anatomic localization improved by 5.1% when using PET/MR imaging, compared with PET/CT. The mean percentage interobserver agreement was 96% for PET/CT and 99% for PET/MR imaging, and intraobserver agreement in lesion localization across the 2 modalities was 93%. There was 10% (5/50 patients) improvement in local staging with PET/MR imaging, compared with PET/CT. In this first study, we show the effectiveness of whole-body PET/MR imaging in oncology. There is no statistically significant difference between PET

  17. Mammographic features and subsequent risk of breast cancer: a comparison of qualitative and quantitative evaluations in the Guernsey prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; De Stavola, Bianca; Allen, Diane S; Pérez-Gavilán, Juan J; Ferreira, Jorge M; Fentiman, Ian S; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel

    2005-05-01

    Mammographic features are known to be associated with breast cancer but the magnitude of the effect differs markedly from study to study. Methods to assess mammographic features range from subjective qualitative classifications to computer-automated quantitative measures. We used data from the UK Guernsey prospective studies to examine the relative value of these methods in predicting breast cancer risk. In all, 3,211 women ages > or =35 years who had a mammogram taken in 1986 to 1989 were followed-up to the end of October 2003, with 111 developing breast cancer during this period. Mammograms were classified using the subjective qualitative Wolfe classification and several quantitative mammographic features measured using computer-based techniques. Breast cancer risk was positively associated with high-grade Wolfe classification, percent breast density and area of dense tissue, and negatively associated with area of lucent tissue, fractal dimension, and lacunarity. Inclusion of the quantitative measures in the same model identified area of dense tissue and lacunarity as the best predictors of breast cancer, with risk increasing by 59% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 29-94%] per SD increase in total area of dense tissue but declining by 39% (95% CI, 53-22%) per SD increase in lacunarity, after adjusting for each other and for other confounders. Comparison of models that included both the qualitative Wolfe classification and these two quantitative measures to models that included either the qualitative or the two quantitative variables showed that they all made significant contributions to prediction of breast cancer risk. These findings indicate that breast cancer risk is affected not only by the amount of mammographic density but also by the degree of heterogeneity of the parenchymal pattern and, presumably, by other features captured by the Wolfe classification.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative peptidomic and proteomic approaches to phenotyping chicken semen.

    PubMed

    Labas, Valérie; Grasseau, Isabelle; Cahier, Karine; Gargaros, Audrey; Harichaux, Grégoire; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Alves, Sabine; Bourin, Marie; Gérard, Nadine; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the avian male gamete biology is essential to improve the conservation of genetic resources and performance in farming. In this study, the chicken semen peptidome/proteome and the molecular phenotype related to sperm quality were investigated. Spermatozoa (SPZ) and corresponding seminal plasma (SP) from 11 males with different fertilizing capacity were analyzed using three quantitative strategies (fluid and intact cells MALDI-MS, SDS-PAGE combined to LC-MS/MS with spectral counting and XIC methods). Individual MALDI profiling in combination with top-down MS allowed to characterize specific profiles per male and to identify 16 biomolecules (e.g.VMO1, AvBD10 and AvBD9 including polymorphism). Qualitative analysis identified 1165 proteins mainly involved in oxidoreduction mechanisms, energy processes, proteolysis and protein localization. Comparative analyses between the most and the least fertile males were performed. The enzymes involved in energy metabolism, respiratory chain or oxido-reduction activity were over-represented in SPZ of the most fertile males. The SP of the most and the least fertile males differed also on many proteins (e.g. ACE, AvBD10 and AvBD9, NEL precursor, acrosin). Thus proteomic is a "phenomic molecular tool" that may help to discriminate avian males on their reproductive capacity. The data have been deposited with ProteomeXchange (identifiers PXD000287 and PXD001254). This peptidomic and proteomic study i) characterized for the first time the semen protein composition of the main domestic avian species (Gallus gallus) by analysis of ejaculated spermatozoa and corresponding seminal plasma; ii) established a characteristic molecular phenotype distinguishing semen and males at an individual level; and iii) proposedthe first evidence of biomarkers related to fertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of monomers in polyesters for food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Brenz, Fabrian; Linke, Susanne; Simat, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Polyesters (PESs) are gaining more importance on the food contact material (FCM) market and the variety of properties and applications is expected to be wide. In order to acquire the desired properties manufacturers can combine several FCM-approved polyvalent carboxylic acids (PCAs) and polyols as monomers. However, information about the qualitative and quantitative composition of FCM articles is often limited. The method presented here describes the analysis of PESs with the identification and quantification of 25 PES monomers (10 PCA, 15 polyols) by HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis. Accurate identification and quantification were demonstrated by the analysis of seven different FCM articles made of PESs. The results explained between 97.2% and 103.4% w/w of the polymer composition whilst showing equal molar amounts of PCA and polyols. Quantification proved to be precise and sensitive with coefficients of variation (CVs) below 6.0% for PES samples with monomer concentrations typically ranging from 0.02% to 75% w/w. The analysis of 15 PES samples for the FCM market revealed the presence of five different PCAs and 11 different polyols (main monomers, co-monomers, non-intentionally added substances (NIAS)) showing the wide variety of monomers in modern PESs. The presented method provides a useful tool for commercial, state and research laboratories as well as for producers and distributors facing the task of FCM risk assessment. It can be applied for the identification and quantification of migrating monomers and the prediction of oligomer compositions from the identified monomers, respectively.

  20. The Neocortex of Indian River Dolphins (Genus Platanista): Comparative, Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Julian P; Hof, Patrick R; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the morphology of four primary neocortical projection areas (somatomotor, somatosensory, auditory, visual) qualitatively and quantitatively in the Indian river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica, P. gangetica minor) with histological and stereological methods. For comparison, we included brains of other toothed whale species. Design-based stereology was applied to the primary neocortical areas (M1, S1, A1, V1) of the Indian river dolphins and compared to those of the bottlenose dolphin with respect to layers III and V. These neocortical fields were identified using existing electrophysiological and morphological data from marine dolphins as to their topography and histological structure, including the characteristics of the neuron populations concerned. In contrast to other toothed whales, the visual area (V1) of the 'blind' river dolphins seems to be rather small. M1 is displaced laterally and the auditory area (A1) is larger than in marine species with respect to total brain size. The layering is similar in the cortices of all the toothed whale brains investigated; a layer IV could not be identified. Cell density in layer III is always higher than in layer V. The maximal neuron density in P. gangetica gangetica is found in layer III of A1, followed by layers III in V1, S1, and M1. The cell density in layer V is at a similar level in all primary areas. There are, however, some differences in neuron density between the two subspecies of Indian river dolphins. Taken as a whole, it appears that the neocortex of platanistids exhibits a considerable expansion of the auditory field. Even more than other toothed whales, they seem to depend on their biosonar abilities for navigation, hunting, and communication in their riverine habitat. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Naturals Hazards in the Caldera of Mount Bambouto (West Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangmo Tefogoum, G.; Kagou Dongmo, A.; Nkouathio, D. G.; Wandji, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mount Bambouto is polygenic stratovolcano of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, build between 21 Ma and 4,5Ma (Nkouathio et al., 2008). It is situated at about 200 km NE of mount Cameroon, at 09°55' and 10°15' East and, 05°25' and 05°50' Nord. This volcano covers an area of 500 Km2 and culminates at 2740 m at Meletan hill and bears a collapse caldera (13 x 8 km). Fissural, extrusive and explosive dynamism are responsible of the construction in three main stages this volcano including the edification of a sommital large rim caldera. Mount Bambouto structure gives rise to different natural hazards, of volcanological origin and meteorological origin. In the past time, landslides, floodings, firebush, blocks collapse took place in this area with catastrophic impact on the population. New research program had been carried out in the caldera concerning qualitative and quantitative evaluation of natural risks and catastrophes. The main factors of instability are rain, structure of the basement, slopes, lithology and anthropic activities; particularly, the occurrence of exceptional rainfall due to global change are relevant; this gives opportunity to draw landslides hazards zonation map of the Bambouto caldera which is the main risk in this area. We evaluate the financial potential of the caldera base on the average income of breeding, farming, school fees and the cost of houses and equipments for each family. The method of calculation revealed that, the yearly economy of the mounts Bambouto caldera represents about 2 billions FCFA. Some recommendations have been made in order to prevent and reduced the potential losses and the number of victims in particular by better land use planning. These help us to estimate the importance of destruction of the environment and biodiversity in case of catastrophes. We conclude that in the Bambouto caldera there is moderate to high probability that destructive phenomena due to landslides occurs within the upcoming years with enormous

  2. Single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy in high myopia: qualitative and quantitative visual functions

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Moghaddam, Soheil; Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed; Adili-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Hoorshad, Niloofar; Tofighi, Salar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate quantitative and qualitative optical outcomes of single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) in high myopia. METHODS In a prospective interventional case-series, 30 eyes with high myopia (-6.00 to -8.75 D) with (up to -3.00 D) or without astigmatism were enrolled from Bina Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. One-step TransPRK was performed with aberration-free aspherical optimized profile and SCHWIND AMARIS 500 laser. One-year follow-up results for refraction, visual acuities, vector analysis, ocular wave-front (OWF) and corneal wave-front (CWF) higher order aberrations (HOA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and post-operative haze were assessed. RESULTS After the surgery, both photopic and mesopic CSs significantly improved (both P<0.001). We detected significant induction of OWF coma and trefoil (P<0.001 for both) HOAs; CWF coma (P=0.002), spherical (P<0.001), and tetrafoil (P=0.003) HOAs in 6 mm analysis diameter; and CWF trefoil (P=0.04) HOA in 4 mm analysis diameter. The range of mean induction observed for various HOAs was 0.005-0.11 µm. The 86.7% of eyes reached an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better; 96.7% of eyes were within ±0.5 D of targeted spherical refraction. In vector analysis, mean correction index value was 1.03 and mean index of success was 0.22. By 12mo after the operation, no eye lost any number of corrected distance visual acuity lines. We detected no corneal haze greater than 1+ throughout the follow-up. CONCLUSION Our findings show promising effects of single-step TransPRK on quality of vision in high myopic eyes. It also improves refraction and visual acuity. PMID:28393038

  3. The importance of measuring toothpaste abrasivity in both a quantitative and qualitative way

    PubMed Central

    Tellefsen, Georg; Johannsen, Annsofi; Liljeborg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the relative abrasivity of different toothpastes and polishing pastes both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and methods. Acrylic plates were exposed to brushing in a brushing machine with a toothpaste/water slurry for 1 and 6 h. Twelve different toothpastes were used and also four different polishing pastes. The results were evaluated using a profilometer after 1 and 6 h of brushing (corresponding to 2000 and 12 000 double strokes, respectively). A surface roughness value (Ra-value) and also a volume loss value were calculated from the profilometer measurements. These values were then correlated to each other. An unpaired t-test for the difference in the abrasion values between the toothpastes and the abrasion values over time was used. Results. The polishing paste RDA® 170 yielded higher Ra-values than RDA 250®, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing (1.01 ± 0.22 and 8.99 ± 1.55 compared to 0.63 ± 0.26 and 7.83 ± 5.89, respectively) as well as volume loss values (3.71 ± 0.17 and 20.20 ± 2.41 compared to 2.15 ± 1.41 and 14.79 ± 11.76, respectively), thus poor correlations between the RDA and Ra and Volume loss values were shown. Among the toothpastes, Apotekets® showed the highest Ra value after 1 h of brushing and Pepsodent® whitening after 6 h of brushing. Pepsodent® whitening also showed the highest volume loss values, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing. Conclusion. This study emphasizes the importance of not only considering the RDA value, but also a roughness value, when describing the abrasivity of a toothpaste. Furthermore, it can be concluded that so called ‘whitening' toothpastes do not necessarily have a higher abrasive effect than other toothpastes. PMID:22746180

  4. Predicting Protein Function by Genomic Context: Quantitative Evaluation and Qualitative Inferences

    PubMed Central

    Huynen, Martijn; Snel, Berend; Lathe, Warren; Bork, Peer

    2000-01-01

    Various new methods have been proposed to predict functional interactions between proteins based on the genomic context of their genes. The types of genomic context that they use are Type I: the fusion of genes; Type II: the conservation of gene-order or co-occurrence of genes in potential operons; and Type III: the co-occurrence of genes across genomes (phylogenetic profiles). Here we compare these types for their coverage, their correlations with various types of functional interaction, and their overlap with homology-based function assignment. We apply the methods to Mycoplasma genitalium, the standard benchmarking genome in computational and experimental genomics. Quantitatively, conservation of gene order is the technique with the highest coverage, applying to 37% of the genes. By combining gene order conservation with gene fusion (6%), the co-occurrence of genes in operons in absence of gene order conservation (8%), and the co-occurrence of genes across genomes (11%), significant context information can be obtained for 50% of the genes (the categories overlap). Qualitatively, we observe that the functional interactions between genes are stronger as the requirements for physical neighborhood on the genome are more stringent, while the fraction of potential false positives decreases. Moreover, only in cases in which gene order is conserved in a substantial fraction of the genomes, in this case six out of twenty-five, does a single type of functional interaction (physical interaction) clearly dominate (>80%). In other cases, complementary function information from homology searches, which is available for most of the genes with significant genomic context, is essential to predict the type of interaction. Using a combination of genomic context and homology searches, new functional features can be predicted for 10% of M. genitalium genes. PMID:10958638

  5. Quantitative and qualitative leukocyte abnormalities in dogs with experimental and naturally occurring acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Gianopoulos, Athena; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Theodorou, Konstantina; Christopher, Mary M

    2016-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is one of the most important tick-borne diseases worldwide. Cytopenias have been observed in both acute (nonmyelosuppressive) and chronic (myelosuppressive) CME; however, leukocyte abnormalities and indices have been incompletely described in dogs with acute CME. The aims of this study were to analyze temporal changes in differential leukocyte counts, leukocyte morphology, myeloperoxidase index (MPXI), and lobularity index (LI) in dogs with experimental and naturally occurring acute CME. Differential leukocyte counts and morphology were evaluated in archived blood smears from 13 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with Ehrlichia canis and evaluated weekly for 42 days postinfection (DPI); 20 dogs with naturally occurring acute CME also were evaluated. MPXI and LI were obtained from ADVIA reports. Wilcoxon tests were used to assess changes over time; leukogram results in natural cases were assessed in comparison with reference intervals. In experimental dogs, significant decreases in neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts, and a mild left shift occurred within 14 DPI. The MPXI decreased significantly between 14 and 21 DPI and remained low, while LI increased from 14 to 35 DPI. Lymphocyte counts rebounded at 21 DPI, normalizing total WBC counts. Neutrophil toxicity was seen rarely, but reactive lymphocytes were observed frequently. Dogs with natural infection had variable patterns of leukocyte changes. Acute CME is associated with several discrete quantitative and qualitative leukogram changes indicative of concurrent inflammation, antigenic stimulation, and stress. Changes in MPXI and LI warrant further investigation in dogs with CME and other diseases. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative agar invasion test based on bacterial colony/biofilm.

    PubMed

    Corcuera, María Teresa; Gómez-Aguado, Fernando; Gómez-Lus, María Luisa; Ramos, Carmen; de la Parte, María Antonia; Alonso, María José; Prieto, José

    2013-09-01

    Invasion of the culture medium is a feature frequently studied in yeasts, in which it has been related to a greater virulence, but it is practically unknown in bacteria. Recently, it has been demonstrated that several clinically relevant bacterial species were also able of invading agar media, so it was necessary to design a microbiological assay to study the expression of this character in bacteria. Accordingly, a bacterial agar invasion test based on colony/biofilm development was designed, which allows qualitative and quantitative characterization of bacterial growth into the agar culture medium. Once the culture conditions were optimized, the test was applied to 90 strains from nine bacterial species, validating its usefulness for differentiating invasive strains (positive) from those non invasive (negative). The test also allows sorting invasive strains according to agar invasion intensity (low, moderate, high) and topographic invasion pattern (peripheral, homogeneous, mixed). Moreover, an image analysis routine to quantify the invasion was developed. Implemented method enables direct measuring of two invasion parameters (invasion area and number of invasion dots), automated calculation of three relative variables (invasion relative area, invasion dots relative density, and invasion dot average area), and the establishment of strain specific frequency histograms. This new methodology is simple, fast, reproducible, objective, inexpensive and can be used to study a great number of specimens simultaneously, all of which make it suitable for incorporation to the routine of any microbiology laboratory. It could also be a useful tool for additional studies related to clinical aspects of bacterial isolates such as virulence and antimicrobial response. © 2013.

  7. Midwives' and health visitors' collaborative relationships: A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Maria Raisa Jessica Ryc V; Olander, Ellinor K; Needle, Justin J; Bryar, Rosamund M

    2016-10-01

    Interprofessional collaboration between midwives and health visitors working in maternal and child health services is widely encouraged. This systematic review aimed to identify existing and potential areas for collaboration between midwives and health visitors; explore the methods through which collaboration is and can be achieved; assess the effectiveness of this relationship between these groups, and ascertain whether the identified examples of collaboration are in line with clinical guidelines and policy. A narrative synthesis of qualitative and quantitative studies. Fourteen electronic databases, research mailing lists, recommendations from key authors and reference lists and citations of included papers. Papers were included if they explored one or a combination of: the areas of practice in which midwives and health visitors worked collaboratively; the methods that midwives and health visitors employed when communicating and collaborating with each other; the effectiveness of collaboration between midwives and health visitors; and whether collaborative practice between midwives and health visitors meet clinical guidelines. Papers were assessed for study quality. Eighteen papers (sixteen studies) met the inclusion criteria. The studies found that midwives and health visitors reported valuing interprofessional collaboration, however this was rare in practice. Findings show that collaboration could be useful across the service continuum, from antenatal care, transition of care/handover, to postnatal care. Evidence for the effectiveness of collaboration between these two groups was equivocal and based on self-reported data. In relation, multiple enablers and barriers to collaboration were identified. Communication was reportedly key to interprofessional collaboration. Interprofessional collaboration was valuable according to both midwives and health visitors, however, this was made challenging by several barriers such as poor communication, limited resources, and

  8. Pedagogical implications of approaches to study in distance learning: developing models through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Carnwell, R

    2000-05-01

    The need for flexibility in the delivery of nurse education has been identified by various initiatives including: widening the entry gate; continuous professional development; and the specialist practitioner. Access to degree level programmes is creating the need to acquire academic credit through flexible learning. The aim of this study was to further develop relationships between the need for guidance, materials design and learning styles and strategies and how these impact upon the construction of meaning. The study is based on interviews of 20 female community nurses purposively selected from the 96 respondents who had previously completed a survey questionnaire. The interviews were underpinned by theories relating to learning styles and approaches to study. Of particular concern was how these variables are mediated by student context, personal factors and materials design, to influence the need for support and guidance. The interview transcripts were first analysed using open and axial coding. Three approaches to study emerged from the data - systematic waders, speedy-focusers and global dippers - which were linked to other concepts and categories. Categories were then assigned numerical codes and subjected to logistical regression analysis. The attributes of the three approaches to study, arising from both qualitative and quantitative analysis, are explained in detail. The pedagogical implications of the three approaches to study are explained by their predicted relationships to other variables, such as support and guidance, organization of study, materials design and role of the tutor. The global dipper approach is discussed in more detail due to its association with a variety of predictor variables, not associated with the other two approaches to study. A feedback model is then developed to explore the impact of guidance on the global dipper approach. The paper makes recommendations for guidance to students using different approaches to study in distance

  9. Data capture by digital pen in clinical trials: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Estellat, Candice; Tubach, Florence; Costa, Yolande; Hoffmann, Isabelle; Mantz, Jean; Ravaud, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the use of the digital pen (DP) system to collect data in a clinical trial. To assess the accuracy of the system in this setting. Qualitative study based on semistructured interviews and a focus group. Quantitative study comparing the DP system and a double manual data-entry system in accuracy of acquiring data by variable type (tick boxes, dates, numbers, letters). An ongoing randomised multicentric clinical trial in tertiary care in France. 27 investigators involved in the trial (anaesthetists) who did or did not include patients, 4 study monitors and the study coordinator. Six key findings emerged: 1) the DP system was easy to use; its utilisation was intuitive, even for investigators inexperienced in informatics; 2) despite its portability, the DP was not always used in front of patients; 3) the DP system did not affect patient recruitment; 4) most of the technical problems of the system occurred during setup (compatibility, password access, antivirus software); 5) the main advantage was quickness of data availability for the study coordination staff and the main hindrance was the extra time required for online verification; and 6) all investigators were ready to use the system again. The investigators had to check 16% of data obtained by the DP system during the verification step. There is no relevant difference between the number of errors for the DP and the double manual data-entry systems: 8/5022 versus 6/5022 data entries. 5 out of 8 DP-system failures were due to the intelligent character recognition system. The DP system has a good acceptability among all investigators in a clinical setting, whether they are experienced with computers or not, and a good accuracy, as compared with double manual data entry.

  10. Effects of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative properties of essential oil of two basil landraces.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Mahdad, Elahe; Craker, Lyle

    2013-12-01

    Sweet basil, a plant that is extensively cultivated in some countries, is used to enhance the flavour of salads, sauces, pasta and confectioneries as both a fresh and dried herb. To determine the effect of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the plant and essential oil of basil, two landraces, Purple and Green, were dried in sunlight, shade, mechanical ovens at 40 °C and 60 °C, a microwave oven at 500 W and by freeze-drying. For comparison, the essential oils of all samples were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The highest essential oil yields (v/w on dry weight basis) were obtained from shade-dried tissue in both landraces followed by the freeze-dried sample of the purple landrace and the fresh sample of green landrace. Increasing the drying temperature significantly decreased the essential oil content of all samples. Significant changes in the chemical profile of the essential oils from each of the landrace were associated with the drying method, including the loss of most monoterpene hydrocarbons, as compared with fresh samples. No significant differences occurred among several constituents in the extracted essential oils, including methyl chavicol (estragole), the major compound in the oil of both landraces, whether the plants were dried in the shade or sun, oven at 40 °C or freeze-dried, as compared with a fresh sample. The percentage methyl chavicol in the oil, however, decreased significantly when the plant material was dried in the oven at 60 °C or microwaved. In addition, linalool, the second major compound in the purple landrace, and geranial and neral, major compounds in the green landrace, decreased significantly when the plant tissue was dried in the oven at 60 °C or microwaved.

  11. Quantitative and Qualitative Change of Collagen of Achilles Tendons in Rats With Systemic Administration of Glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Tetsuya; Kubota, Makoto; Saito, Mitsuru; Hattori, Hidekazu; Kimura, Tadashi; Marumo, Keishi

    2016-03-01

    It is unclear whether glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is directly related to Achilles tendon rupture (ATR), because many of the reported patients were receiving long-term GC therapy for underlying diseases. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which systemic GC administration causes weakening of the Achilles tendon by biochemically, mechanically, and morphologically evaluating quantitative and qualitative changes in collagen. Male 8-week-old mice were subcutaneously treated with either prednisolone (10 mg/mL/kg; GC group) or saline (1 mL/kg; control group) for 8 weeks and then subjected to the following experiments: (1) a tensile strength test; (2) quantification of the gene expressions of type 1 collagen and lysyl oxidase; (3) quantification of collagen content, enzymatic crosslinks (immature + mature), and senescent crosslinks; and (4) measurement of collagen fiber diameter by electron microscopy. The maximum tensile load and gene expressions of type 1 collagen and lysyl oxidase were decreased in the GC group. Collagen content was significantly decreased in the GC group compared with the control group. The content of enzymatic crosslinks was significantly lower in the GC group than in the control group. The corresponding amount of senescent crosslinks was not significantly different. The mean collagen fiber diameter was significantly smaller in the GC group than in the control group. Histogram analysis showed a decreased number of thick fibers and an increased number of thin fibers in the GC group. These observations suggest that systemic GC administration causes decreased strength of the Achilles tendon by decreasing its collagen content, hindering the formation of enzymatic crosslinks and thereby keeping collagen fibers in an immature state with smaller diameters. This animal study showed that systemic GC administration directly prevents maturation of tendon collagen fibers and decreases tendon strength, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying

  12. Pushing the Frontier of Data-Oriented Geodynamic Modeling: from Qualitative to Quantitative to Predictive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Hu, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid accumulation of geophysical and geological data sets poses an increasing demand for the development of geodynamic models to better understand the evolution of the solid Earth. Consequently, the earlier qualitative physical models are no long satisfying. Recent efforts are focusing on more quantitative simulations and more efficient numerical algorithms. Among these, a particular line of research is on the implementation of data-oriented geodynamic modeling, with the purpose of building an observationally consistent and physically correct geodynamic framework. Such models could often catalyze new insights into the functioning mechanisms of the various aspects of plate tectonics, and their predictive nature could also guide future research in a deterministic fashion. Over the years, we have been working on constructing large-scale geodynamic models with both sequential and variational data assimilation techniques. These models act as a bridge between different observational records, and the superposition of the constraining power from different data sets help reveal unknown processes and mechanisms of the dynamics of the mantle and lithosphere. We simulate the post-Cretaceous subduction history in South America using a forward (sequential) approach. The model is constrained using past subduction history, seafloor age evolution, tectonic architecture of continents, and the present day geophysical observations. Our results quantify the various driving forces shaping the present South American flat slabs, which we found are all internally torn. The 3-D geometry of these torn slabs further explains the abnormal seismicity pattern and enigmatic volcanic history. An inverse (variational) model simulating the late Cenozoic western U.S. mantle dynamics with similar constraints reveals a different mechanism for the formation of Yellowstone-related volcanism from traditional understanding. Furthermore, important insights on the mantle density and viscosity structures

  13. Comparative qualitative and quantitative determination of alkaloids in narcotic and condiment Papaver somniferum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Frick, Susanne; Kramell, Robert; Schmidt, Jürgen; Fist, Anthony J; Kutchan, Toni M

    2005-05-01

    In the present study morphinan, tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and phthalideisoquinoline alkaloids were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC and LC-MS analysis in tissues of the Tasmanian Papaver somniferum L. elite cultivar C048-6-14-64. The data were compared with the results from the low-morphine cultivar "Marianne". In the elite cultivar, 91.2% of the latex alkaloids consist of the three pharmaceutically most valuable alkaloids: morphine, codeine, and thebaine. In the root system, the major alkaloids are sanguinarine/10-hydroxysanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine/10-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine. In the stems and leaves of C048-6-14-64, the same alkaloids were measured as in the latex. In the stems, a gradient in relative total alkaloid content from the top downward toward the roots was observed. The concentration of morphine was decreasing toward the roots, whereas an increasing gradient from the upper to the lower stem parts was detected for codeine. The relative total alkaloid concentration in leaves remained constant; no gradient was observed. The cultivar "Marianne" displayed a shifted pattern of alkaloid accumulation and reduced levels of total alkaloid. In the condiment cultivar, 80.5% of the alkaloids of the latex consisted of the two phthalideisoquinoline alkaloids narcotoline and noscapine. Only 18.8% of the relative total alkaloid content were morphinan alkaloids. In contrast to the narcotic cultivar, in which the benzo[c]phenanthridines in roots dominated over the morphinan and tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, the concentration of benzo[c]phenanthridines in "Marianne" was similar to that of morphinan and tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids. These data suggest a differential alkaloid regulation in each cultivar of P. somniferum.

  14. Agreement between quantitative and qualitative sensory testing of changes in oro-facial somatosensory sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Agbaje, J; De Laat, A; Constantinus, P; Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative somatosensory testing (QualST) is a simple chairside test. It can be used to roughly assess the presence or absence of altered somatosensory function. To use QualST clinically, it is important to assess its agreement with quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aims of this study were to assess the agreement between QST and QualST when testing the modulation of facial sensitivity by capsaicin in healthy participants and to explore the agreement between QST and QualST in assessing the intraoral sensory function in clinical atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. Eighteen healthy pain-free adults and data from 27 AO patients were included in the study. Thirteen QST and three QualST parameters were evaluated at each site. Z-scores were computed for healthy participants, and Loss-Gain scores were created. The agreement observed between QST and QualST in participants with no alterations in facial sensation (placebo) was good, that is ranging from 89% to 94%. A poorer agreement was seen after capsaicin application in all test modalities with agreement ranging from 50% to 72%. The commonest misclassification observed was participants classified as normal according to QST, but hyper- or hyposensitive according to QualST after capsaicin application, especially for cold and pinprick. A similar trend was observed in AO patients where patients classified as normal using QST were misclassified as hypersensitive and in few patients as hyposensitive by QualST. In conclusion, the study showed that QualST may be used as a screening tool in the clinical setting, especially to show that subjects have normal sensory function.

  15. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using the Mouse Phrenic Nerve Hemidiaphragm Assay (MPN).

    PubMed

    Bigalke, Hans; Rummel, Andreas

    2015-11-25

    The historical method for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is represented by the mouse bioassay (MBA) measuring the animal survival rate. Since the endpoint of the MBA is the death of the mice due to paralysis of the respiratory muscle, an ex vivo animal replacement method, called mouse phrenic nerve (MPN) assay, employs the isolated N. phrenicus-hemidiaphragm tissue. Here, BoNT causes a dose-dependent characteristic decrease of the contraction amplitude of the indirectly stimulated muscle. Within the EQuATox BoNT proficiency 13 test samples were analysed using the MPN assay by serial dilution to a bath concentration resulting in a paralysis time within the range of calibration curves generated with BoNT/A, B and E standards, respectively. For serotype identification the diluted samples were pre-incubated with polyclonal anti-BoNT/A, B or E antitoxin or a combination of each. All 13 samples were qualitatively correctly identified thereby delivering superior results compared to single in vitro methods like LFA, ELISA and LC-MS/MS. Having characterized the BoNT serotype, the final bath concentrations were calculated using the calibration curves and then multiplied by the respective dilution factor to obtain the sample concentration. Depending on the source of the BoNT standards used, the quantitation of ten BoNT/A containing samples delivered a mean z-score of 7 and of three BoNT/B or BoNT/E containing samples z-scores <2, respectively.

  16. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Reichweite. Bei Fakten und ihrer Wirkung etwa: Autonomie und Priorität von Selbstwahrnehmung und Eigensystem; etwaige Wahrnehmung durch einen Beobachter und wie sie ihm seinen Kontakt zum Objekt und dessen Darstellbarkeit in seinem Raum wiederspiegelt oder ändert, als nur für ihn relevant; in dessen Dimensionen sichtbare geometrische Bedingungen wegen diskreter Wirkung, oder logische Effekte bei Objekten kleinster Informationsmengen mit unzureichender Lokalisierbarkeit oder ihrer inadäquaten Betrachtung oder Bestimmung dort. Geboten sind genauere Untersuchungen zu Informationsgehalt, Wirkung, deren Reichweite und Gültigkeit bei einzelnen Photonen, mit Emission und durch direkt benachbart hinzukommende Absorption beendetem ereignisartigen Eigensystem, aber für materielle Beobachter unserer Welt und ihre Dimensionen zur vollständigen Lokalisierbarkeit zuwenigen wirksamen Informationen, was dort außer makroskopisch relevanten Projektionen auf Raum und Zeit sowie Lichtartigkeit auch mikroskopisch zwischenliegende Ereignisse wie Wechselwirkung in Medien oder Beugung und Retadierung oder Welleneigenschaften mit Richtungsänderung ganzzahliger Elementar- oder Wellenlängen, mit jeweiliger Kompensation im Bogen; Nichtlokalität; Unschärfen bei Bestimmung komplementärer also auf identischen Information beruhender Größen; und andere Effekte hervorruft. Voran stehen Erfahrungen zur notwendigen Bewirkung von Neuem durch alles Existente als nicht-materielle funktionelle Qualität seiner Individuation und Konkretisierung, und daher Ereignissen und Wirkung als primäre direkt etwas produzierende Naturkraft und Geometrie. Nachgefügt wurde noch eine Gegenüberstellung des Modelles mit kosmogonischen Aussagen der Offenbarungen (nur 2. Auflage).

  17. Estimating distributions out of qualitative and (semi)quantitative microbiological contamination data for use in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Busschaert, P; Geeraerd, A H; Uyttendaele, M; Van Impe, J F

    2010-04-15

    A framework using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is used to fit a probability distribution to a set of qualitative (e.g., absence in 25 g), semi-quantitative (e.g., presence in 25 g and absence in 1g) and/or quantitative test results (e.g., 10 CFU/g). Uncertainty about the parameters of the variability distribution is characterized through a non-parametric bootstrapping method. The resulting distribution function can be used as an input for a second order Monte Carlo simulation in quantitative risk assessment. As an illustration, the method is applied to two sets of in silico generated data. It is demonstrated that correct interpretation of data results in an accurate representation of the contamination level distribution. Subsequently, two case studies are analyzed, namely (i) quantitative analyses of Campylobacter spp. in food samples with nondetects, and (ii) combined quantitative, qualitative, semiquantitative analyses and nondetects of Listeria monocytogenes in smoked fish samples. The first of these case studies is also used to illustrate what the influence is of the limit of quantification, measurement error, and the number of samples included in the data set. Application of these techniques offers a way for meta-analysis of the many relevant yet diverse data sets that are available in literature and (inter)national reports of surveillance or baseline surveys, therefore increases the information input of a risk assessment and, by consequence, the correctness of the outcome of the risk assessment.

  18. Microstructural study of the nickel-base alloy WAZ-20 using qualitative and quantitative electron optical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA nickel-base alloy WAZ-20 was analyzed by advanced metallographic techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize its phases and stability. The as-cast alloy contained primary gamma-prime, a coarse gamma-gamma prime eutectic, a gamma-fine gamma prime matrix, and MC carbides. A specimen aged at 870 C for 1000 hours contained these same constituents and a few widely scattered high W particles. No detrimental phases (such as sigma or mu) were observed. Scanning electron microscope, light metallography, and replica electron microscope methods are compared. The value of quantitative electron microprobe techniques such as spot and area analysis is demonstrated.

  19. Combining qualitative and quantitative spatial and temporal information in a hierarchical structure: Approximate reasoning for plan execution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoebel, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of plan generation (PG) and the problem of plan execution monitoring (PEM), including updating, queries, and resource-bounded replanning, have different reasoning and representation requirements. PEM requires the integration of qualitative and quantitative information. PEM is the receiving of data about the world in which a plan or agent is executing. The problem is to quickly determine the relevance of the data, the consistency of the data with respect to the expected effects, and if execution should continue. Only spatial and temporal aspects of the plan are addressed for relevance in this work. Current temporal reasoning systems are deficient in computational aspects or expressiveness. This work presents a hybrid qualitative and quantitative system that is fully expressive in its assertion language while offering certain computational efficiencies. In order to proceed, methods incorporating approximate reasoning using hierarchies, notions of locality, constraint expansion, and absolute parameters need be used and are shown to be useful for the anytime nature of PEM.

  20. Systematic Review of Occupational Therapy in the Treatment of Addiction: Models, Practice, and Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Mota, Gloria; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Huertas-Hoyas, Elisabet

    The authors conducted a systematic review of theoretical models, professional practice, and research findings to understand occupational therapy's role in the treatment of addiction. PubMed, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, ERIC, OTseeker, and Google Scholar were searched to identify scientific journal articles, book chapters, or any other similar literature published from 1970 through July 2015 that addressed theoretical approaches, intervention models, and professional roles or were qualitative or quantitative studies in which occupational therapy had a central role. The literature search yielded 16 theoretical and professional role studies, 8 qualitative studies, and 14 quantitative studies. All studies had low levels of evidence, and all were case series, sometimes with very small samples. Although occupational therapy has been involved in the treatment of people with substance addiction and, more recently, with behavioral addictions for more than half a century, the research that has been published is poor.

  1. Leachate generation from landfill in a semi-arid climate: A qualitative and quantitative study from Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Frikha, Youssef; Fellner, Johann; Zairi, Moncef

    2017-09-01

    Despite initiatives for enhanced recycling and waste utilization, landfill still represents the dominant disposal path for municipal solid waste (MSW). The environmental impacts of landfills depend on several factors, including waste composition, technical barriers, landfill operation and climatic conditions. A profound evaluation of all factors and their impact is necessary in order to evaluate the environmental hazards emanating from landfills. The present paper investigates a sanitary landfill located in a semi-arid climate (Tunisia) and highlights major differences in quantitative and qualitative leachate characteristics compared to landfills situated in moderate climates. Besides the qualitative analysis of leachate samples, a quantitative analysis including the simulation of leachate generation (using the HELP model) has been conducted. The results of the analysis indicate a high load of salts (Cl, Na, inorganic nitrogen) in the leachate compared to other landfills. Furthermore the simulations with HELP model highlight that a major part of the leachate generated originates form the water content of waste.

  2. Attitudes of nurses towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Möhler, Ralph; Meyer, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    To examine nurses' attitudes towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care. Systematic review and synthesis of qualitative and quantitative studies. The following databases were searched: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psyndex, PsychInfo, Social SciSearch, SciSearch, Forum Qualitative Social Research (1/1990 to 8/2013). We performed backward and forward citation tracking to all of the included studies. We included in the present review all qualitative and quantitative studies in English and German that investigated nurses' attitudes towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care. Two independent reviewers selected the studies for inclusion and assessed the study quality. We performed a thematic synthesis for the qualitative studies and a content analysis of the questionnaires' items as well as a narrative synthesis for the quantitative surveys. We included 31 publications in the review: 20 quantitative surveys, 10 qualitative and 1 mixed-method study. In the qualitative studies, nurses' attitudes towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care were predominately characterised by negative feelings towards the use of restraints; however, the nurses also described a perceived need for using restraints in clinical practice. This discrepancy led to moral conflicts, and nurses described several strategies for coping with these conflicts when restraints were used. When nurses were in doubt regarding the use of restraints, they decided predominantly in favour of using restraints. The results of the quantitative surveys were inconsistent regarding nurses' feelings towards the use of restraints in geriatric care. Prevention of falls was identified as a primary reason for using restraints. However, the items of the questionnaires focussed primarily on the reasons for the use of restraints rather than on the attitudes of nurses. Despite the lack of evidence regarding the benefits of restraints and the evidence on the adverse effects, nurses often

  3. Assessment of Riboflavin as a Tracer Substance: Comparison of a Qualitative to a Quantitative Method of Riboflavin Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Herron, Abigail J.; Mariani, John J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Parinello, Christina M.; Bold, Krysten W.; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Raby, Wilfred N.; Bisaga, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Background Noncompliance with medications may have major impacts on outcomes measured in research, potentially distorting the validity of controlled clinical trials. Riboflavin is frequently used in trials as a marker of adherence. It can be combined with study medication and is excreted in urine where it fluoresces under UV light. This study compares qualitative visual inspection of fluorescence to quantitative fluorometric analysis of riboflavin concentration in its ability to detect the presence of riboflavin in urine. Methods Twenty-four volunteers received 0 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg doses of riboflavin under single-blind conditions, with 20 also receiving a 100 mg dose. Five serial urine samples were collected over the following 36 hours. Quantitative measurement of riboflavin by fluorometric analysis and qualitative assessment of each sample using visual inspection were performed. Results The overall false positive rate for qualitative assessment was 53%. For quantitative assessment, a riboflavin concentration of 900 ng/mL was established to classify positive samples. More than 80% of samples were positive 2 to 24 hours following ingestion of 25 mg and 50 mg, and less than 80% were positive at 36 hours. At least 95% of observations for the 100 mg dose were above 900 ng/mL at all timepoints. Conclusions Quantitative fluorometric assessment is superior to qualitative visual inspection alone in determining medication adherence. The combination of 25–50 mg of daily riboflavin and a cut-off level of 900 ng/mL allows for the acceptable sensitivity of missing detection of non-compliant participants while preserving a high level of power to detect all cases of medication compliance. PMID:22921475

  4. Assessment of riboflavin as a tracer substance: comparison of a qualitative to a quantitative method of riboflavin measurement.

    PubMed

    Herron, Abigail J; Mariani, John J; Pavlicova, Martina; Parrinello, Christina M; Bold, Krysten W; Levin, Frances R; Nunes, Edward V; Sullivan, Maria A; Raby, Wilfred N; Bisaga, Adam

    2013-02-01

    Noncompliance with medications may have major impacts on outcomes measured in research, potentially distorting the validity of controlled clinical trials. Riboflavin is frequently used in trials as a marker of adherence. It can be combined with study medication and is excreted in urine where it fluoresces under UV light. This study compares qualitative visual inspection of fluorescence to quantitative fluorometric analysis of riboflavin concentration in its ability to detect the presence of riboflavin in urine. Twenty-four volunteers received 0mg, 25mg, and 50mg doses of riboflavin under single-blind conditions, with 20 also receiving a 100mg dose. Five serial urine samples were collected over the following 36h. Quantitative measurement of riboflavin by fluorometric analysis and qualitative assessment of each sample using visual inspection were performed. The overall false positive rate for qualitative assessment was 53%. For quantitative assessment, a riboflavin concentration of 900ng/mL was established to classify positive samples. More than 80% of samples were positive 2-24h following ingestion of 25mg and 50mg, and less than 80% were positive at 36h. At least 95% of observations for the 100mg dose were above 900ng/mL at all timepoints. Quantitative fluorometric assessment is superior to qualitative visual inspection alone in determining medication adherence. The combination of 25-50mg of daily riboflavin and a cut-off level of 900ng/mL allows for the acceptable sensitivity of missing detection of non-compliant participants while preserving a high level of power to detect all cases of medication compliance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla MRI in patients with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Miguel; Herédia, Vasco; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Altun, Ersan; Semelka, Richard C

    2009-04-01

    To compare the quantitative and qualitative image quality intra-individually, at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla (T) in patients with chronic liver diseases. The study group included 24 consecutive patients (17 males, 7 females; mean age +/- standard deviation 56.5 +/- 11.5) who had chronic liver diseases and underwent abdominal MRI for the liver evaluation at both 1.5 and 3.0 T within a 4-month period. All MRI studies were retrospectively evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative analysis was performed by measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR) on various abdominal organs. Qualitative analysis was performed by two reviewers to assess image quality, artifacts, and imaging findings of chronic liver diseases. Quantitative and qualitative analyses findings were compared between 1.5 and 3.0 T using the paired Student t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test, respectively. The statistically significant increase in SNRs in various abdominal tissues ranged from 1.3- to 3.5-fold at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T. Three-dimensional gradient echo (3D-GE) sequences demonstrated significantly higher image quality at 3.0 T (P < 0.01), whereas precontrast spoiled gradient echo (SGE) sequences demonstrated significantly higher image quality at 1.5 T (P < 0.01). T2-weighted sequences did not show any significant difference in image quality between 1.5 and 3.0 T (P > 0.05). The SNRs of various abdominal tissues demonstrated significant increases at 3.0 T. The image quality of 3D-GE sequences was higher at 3.0 T, whereas the image quality of precontrast SGE sequences was higher at 1.5T.

  6. Quantitative versus qualitative cultures of respiratory secretions for clinical outcomes in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Berton, Danilo Cortozi; Kalil, Andre C; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimermann

    2014-10-30

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common infectious disease in intensive care units (ICUs). The best diagnostic approach to resolve this condition remains uncertain. To evaluate whether quantitative cultures of respiratory secretions and invasive strategies are effective in reducing mortality in immunocompetent patients with VAP, compared with qualitative cultures and non-invasive strategies. We also considered changes in antibiotic use, length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1966 to October week 2, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to October 2014) and LILACS (1982 to October 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing respiratory samples processed quantitatively or qualitatively, obtained by invasive or non-invasive methods from immunocompetent patients with VAP and which analysed the impact of these methods on antibiotic use and mortality rates. Two review authors independently reviewed the trials identified in the search results and assessed studies for suitability, methodology and quality. We analysed data using Review Manager software. We pooled the included studies to yield the risk ratio (RR) for mortality and antibiotic change with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 5064 references identified from the electronic databases (605 from the updated search in October 2014), five RCTs (1367 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies compared invasive methods using quantitative cultures versus non-invasive methods using qualitative cultures, and we used them to answer the main objective of this review. The other two studies compared invasive versus non-invasive methods, both using quantitative cultures. We combined all five studies to compare invasive versus non-invasive interventions for diagnosing VAP. The studies that compared quantitative and qualitative cultures (1240 patients) showed no statistically significant differences in mortality rates (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.11). The analysis of

  7. Understanding the information needs of people with haematological cancers. A meta-ethnography of quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Atherton, K; Young, B; Salmon, P

    2017-02-10

    Clinical practice in haematological oncology often involves difficult diagnostic and treatment decisions. In this context, understanding patients' information needs and the functions that information serves for them is particularly important. We systematically reviewed qualitative and quantitative evidence on haematological oncology patients' information needs to inform how these needs can best be addressed in clinical practice. PsycINFO, Medline and CINAHL Plus electronic databases were searched for relevant empirical papers published from January 2003 to July 2016. Synthesis of the findings drew on meta-ethnography and meta-study. Most quantitative studies used a survey design and indicated that patients are largely content with the information they receive from physicians, however much or little they actually receive, although a minority of patients are not content with information. Qualitative studies suggest that a sense of being in a caring relationship with a physician allows patients to feel content with the information they have been given, whereas patients who lack such a relationship want more information. The qualitative evidence can help explain the lack of association between the amount of information received and contentment with it in the quantitative research. Trusting relationships are integral to helping patients feel that their information needs have been met. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Quantitative and qualitative models for carcinogenicity prediction for non-congeneric chemicals using CP ANN method for regulatory uses.

    PubMed

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Vračko, Marjan; Tušar, Marjan; Jezierska, Aneta; Novič, Marjana; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2010-08-01

    The new European chemicals regulation Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals entered into force in June 2007 and accelerated the development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for a variety of endpoints, including carcinogenicity. Here, we would like to present quantitative (continuous) and qualitative (categorical) models for non-congeneric chemicals for prediction of carcinogenic potency. A dataset of 805 substances was obtained after a preliminary screening of findings of rodent carcinogenicity for 1,481 chemicals accessible via Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Public Database Network originated from the Lois Gold Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB). Twenty seven two-dimensional MDL descriptors were selected using Kohonen mapping and principal component analysis. The counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN) technique was applied. Quantitative models were developed exploring the relationship between the experimental and predicted carcinogenic potency expressed as a tumorgenic dose TD(50) for rats. The obtained models showed low prediction power with correlation coefficient less than 0.5 for the test set. In the next step, qualitative models were developed. We found that the qualitative models exhibit good accuracy for the training set (92%). The model demonstrated good predicted performance for the test set. It was obtained accuracy (68%), sensitivity (73%), and specificity (63%). We believe that CP ANN method is a good in silico approach for modeling and predicting rodent carcinogenicity for non-congeneric chemicals and may find application for other toxicological endpoints.

  9. Adherence to hypertension medication: Quantitative and qualitative investigations in a rural Northern Vietnamese community

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C. M.; Nguyen, Thi Bach Yen; Vu, Thu-Hang; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purposes of this study were to assess the adherence to medication of hypertensive patients visiting community health stations in a rural area in Vietnam, to examine the relationship between levels of adherence and cardiovascular risk among hypertensive patients and to further understand factors influencing adherence. Methods This study is part of a prospective one-year study conducted on hypertension management in a population aged 35 to 64 years. Data on age, sex, blood pressure and blood test results were collected at baseline. Cardiovascular risk was based on the Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Model for populations in Asia. To calculate medication adherence, the number of days the drug was taken was divided by the number of days since the first day of the prescription. A threshold of 80% was applied to differentiate between adherence and non-adherence. In-depth interviews were conducted among 18 subjects, including subjects classified as adherent and as non-adherent. Results Among 315 patients analyzed, 49.8% of the patients were adherent. Qualitative investigation revealed discrepancies in classification of adherence and non-adherence based on quantitative analysis and interviews. No significant difference in medication compliance between two cardiovascular disease risk groups (<10% vs. >10% risk) was found, also not after controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio at 1.068; 95% CI: 0.614 to 1.857). The odds of medication adherence in females was 1.531 times higher than in males but the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI: 0.957 to 2.448). Each one-year increase in age resulted in patients being 1.036 times more likely to be compliant (95% CI: 1.002 to 1.072). Awareness of complications related to hypertension was given as the main reason for adherence to therapy. Conclusions Medication adherence rate was relatively low among hypertensive subjects. The data suggest that rather than risk profile, the factor of

  10. 35Year Research History of Cytotoxicity and Cancer: a Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Farghadani, Reyhaneh; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, characterized by irregular cell growth. Cytotoxicity or killing tumor cells that divide rapidly is the basic function of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, these agents can damage normal dividing cells, leading to adverse effects in the body. In view of great advances in cancer therapy, which are increasingly reported each year, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the papers published between 1981 and December 2015, with a closer look at the highly cited papers (HCPs), for a better understanding of literature related to cytotoxicity in cancer therapy. Online documents in the Web of Science (WOS) database were analyzed based on the publication year, the number of times they were cited, research area, source, language, document type, countries, organizationenhanced and funding agencies. A total of 3,473 publications relevant to the target key words were found in the WOS database over 35 years and 86% of them (n=2,993) were published between 20002015. These papers had been cited 54,330 times without self citation from 1981 to 2015. Of the 3,473 publications, 17 (3,557citations) were the most frequently cited ones between 2005 and 2015. The topmost HCP was about generating a comprehensive preclinical database (CCLE) with 825 (23.2%) citations. One third of the remaining HCPs had focused on drug discovery through improving conventional therapeutic agents such as metformin and ginseng. Another 33% of the HCPs concerned engineered nanoparticles (NPs) such as polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendritic polymers, PTX/SPIOloaded PLGAs and cell derived NPs to increase drug effectiveness and decrease drug toxicity in cancer therapy. The remaining HCPs reported novel factors such as miR205, Nrf2 and p27 suggesting their interference with development of cancer in targeted cancer therapy. In conclusion, analysis of 35year publications and HCPs on cytotoxicity in cancer in the present report provides opportunities for

  11. Quantitative and qualitative usage data of an Internet-based asthma monitoring tool.

    PubMed

    Anhøj, Jacob; Nielsen, Lene

    2004-09-03

    In May 2000, AstraZeneca launched a Web service for asthma patients and health-care providers called LinkMedica, which includes an asthma diary for monitoring and self-management. In the diary, the patient enters his or her peak flow, number of doses of rescue medication, and if there have been any asthma symptoms during the previous 24 hours. The patient receives an immediate response from LinkMedica, telling him or her if the asthma is under control and what to do if not, eg, increase the dose of inhaled steroid. Health-care providers have access to the patient diary. The primary objective of the study was to describe patients' and health-care providers' use of LinkMedica. Secondary objectives were to evaluate their perception of the system and how the users' interaction with the system is influenced by their everyday lives. Site statistics regarding number of registered users and diary usage were analyzed. An online survey among users (85 respondents), a mailed questionnaire to health-care providers (131 respondents; response rate 26.8%), as well as in-depth interviews with 10 patients and 5 general practitioners, elicited further quantitative and qualitative data on users' perceptions. In February 2003, a total of 7653 users had registered. During 2002, the growth in registered users averaged 50 per month. In the same period, the number of unique diary users per month decreased from 307 to 138. Patients usually stopped using the diary after a short time; the doctors were reluctant to introduce the diary to patients because of time constraints. Several user subtypes were identified among patients and their relatives. The self-selected survey responses and in-depth interviews indicated that LinkMedica is generally considered a trustworthy and reliable site by both patients and doctors. However, there was a contrast between users' positive perception of LinkMedica and their unwillingness to use the site for more than short periods. The primary reason for this was

  12. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of colonic microendoscopy image features to histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Lai, Keith; Laryea, Jonathan A.; Mizell, Jason S.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, affecting more than 130,000 Americans every year1. Determining tumor margins prior to surgical resection is essential to providing optimal treatment and reducing recurrence rates. Colorectal cancer recurrence can occur in up to 20% of cases, commonly within three years after curative treatment. Typically, when colorectal cancers are resected, a margin of normal tissue on both sides of the tumor is required. The minimum margin required for colon cancer is 5 cm and for the lower rectum 2 cm. However, usually more normal tissue is taken on both sides of the tumor because the blood supply to the entire segment is removed with the surgery and therefore the entire segment must be removed. Anastomotic recurrences may result from inadequate margins. Pathologists look at the margins to ensure that there is no residual tumor and this is usually documented in the pathology report. We have developed a portable, point-of-care fiber bundle microendoscopy imaging system for detection of abnormalities in colonic epithelial microstructure. The system comprises a laptop, a modified fiber bundle image guide with a 1mm active area diameter and custom LabVIEW interface, and is approved for imaging surgically resected colon tissue at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. The microendoscopy probe provides high-resolution images of superficial epithelial histology in real-time to assist surgical guidance and to localize occult regions of dysplasia which may not be visible. Microendoscopy images of freshly resected human colonic epithelium were acquired using the microendoscopy device and subsequently mosaicked using custom post-processing software. Architectural changes in the glands were mapped to histopathology H&E slides taken from the precise location of the microendoscopy images. Qualitatively, glandular distortion and placement of image guide was used to map normal and dysplastic areas of

  13. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of degeneration of cervical intervertebral discs and facet joints.

    PubMed

    Walraevens, Joris; Liu, Baoge; Meersschaert, Joke; Demaerel, Philippe; Delye, Hans; Depreitere, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos; Goffin, Jan

    2009-03-01

    Degeneration of intervertebral discs and facet joints is one of the most frequently encountered spinal disorders. In order to describe and quantify degeneration and evaluate a possible relationship between degeneration and biomechanical parameters, e.g., the intervertebral range of motion and intradiscal pressure, a scoring system for degeneration is mandatory. However, few scoring systems for the assessment of degeneration of the cervical spine exist. Therefore, two separate objective scoring systems to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the degree of cervical intervertebral disc and facet joint degeneration were developed and validated. The scoring system for cervical disc degeneration consists of three variables which are individually scored on neutral lateral radiographs: "height loss" (0-4 points), "anterior osteophytes" (0-3 points) and "endplate sclerosis" (0-2 points). The scoring system for facet joint degeneration consists of four variables which are individually scored on neutral computed tomography scans: "hypertrophy" (0-2 points), "osteophytes" (0-1 point), "irregularity" on the articular surface (0-1 point) and "joint space narrowing" (0-1 point). Each variable contributes with varying importance to the overall degeneration score (max 9 points for the scoring system of cervical disc degeneration and max 5 points for facet joint degeneration). Degeneration of 20 discs and facet joints of 20 patients was blindly assessed by four raters: two neurosurgeons (one senior and one junior) and two radiologists (one senior and one junior), firstly based on first subjective impression and secondly using the scoring systems. Measurement errors and inter- and intra-rater agreement were determined. The measurement error of the scoring system for cervical disc degeneration was 11.1 versus 17.9% of the subjective impression results. This scoring system showed excellent intra-rater agreement (ICC = 0.86, 0.75-0.93) and excellent inter-rater agreement (ICC = 0

  14. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of colonic microendoscopy image features to histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Lai, Keith; Laryea, Jonathan A.; Mizell, Jason S.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, affecting more than 130,000 Americans every year1. Determining tumor margins prior to surgical resection is essential to providing optimal treatment and reducing recurrence rates. Colorectal cancer recurrence can occur in up to 20% of cases, commonly within three years after curative treatment. Typically, when colorectal cancers are resected, a margin of normal tissue on both sides of the tumor is required. The minimum margin required for colon cancer is 5 cm and for the lower rectum 2 cm. However, usually more normal tissue is taken on both sides of the tumor because the blood supply to the entire segment is removed with the surgery and therefore the entire segment must be removed. Anastomotic recurrences may result from inadequate margins. Pathologists look at the margins to ensure that there is no residual tumor and this is usually documented in the pathology report. We have developed a portable, point-of-care fiber bundle microendoscopy imaging system for detection of abnormalities in colonic epithelial microstructure. The system comprises a laptop, a modified fiber bundle image guide with a 1mm active area diameter and custom Lab VIEW interface, and is approved for imaging surgically resected colon tissue at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. The microendoscopy probe provides high-resolution images of superficial epithelial histology in real-time to assist surgical guidance and to localize occult regions of dysplasia which may not be visible. Microendoscopy images of freshly resected human colonic epithelium were acquired using the microendoscopy device and subsequently mosaicked using custom post-processing software. Architectural changes in the glands were mapped to histopathology H&E slides taken from the precise location of the microendoscopy images. Qualitatively, glandular distortion and placement of image guide was used to map normal and dysplastic areas

  15. Domestic Microwave Versus Conventional Tissue Processing: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Devi R, Bhuvanamha; A.R., Subhashree; Parameaswari, P.J.; Parijatham, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Microwave irradiation has been tried as a replacement for the conventional tissue processing technique in histopathology laboratories for quite some time. Studies have shown that Domestic Microwave Tissue Processing (DMWTP) provides a faster delivery of the tissue sections with a morphology which is similar to that which is seen Conventional Tissue Processing (CTP). But many laboratories still confine the domestic microwave tissue processing method only to the handle selected specimens, for which urgent reports are needed. One of the probable reasons is that, understanding about the number of tissue sections which can be processed using a microwave oven at a time, with the appropriate quality, still remains unclear. Aim: The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the optimum number of samples that a domestic microwave could process at a time, as well as to qualitatively analyze the morphological outcome of those tissue sections with that of conventional processing. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the research and ethical committee of Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital. A total of 135 paired tissue sections were included in the study. Ten tissue sections (which are mentioned hereafter as A10) were processed in a domestic microwave and their paired 10 tissues were processed by a conventional method. Subsequently, the number of tissues which was to be processed was increased to B15, C20, D25, E30 and F35, after ascertaining that the morphological qualities of the previously processed tissue sections were satisfactory. Sections of 4 μm thickness were taken and they were stained by the Haematoxylin and Eosin method. The slides of the tissues which were processed by the microwave method and the conventional method were randomly numbered, for a blind study, which were independently evaluated by two observers. The qualities of slides were assessed, based on 4 parameters: the cytoplasmic details, the nuclear details, the tissue

  16. Qualitative and quantitative dermatoglyphic traits in patients with breast cancer: a prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Chintamani; Khandelwal, Rohan; Mittal, Aliza; Saijanani, Sai; Tuteja, Amita; Bansal, Anju; Bhatnagar, Dinesh; Saxena, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most extensively studied cancers and its genetic basis is well established. Dermatoglyphic traits are formed under genetic control early in development but may be affected by environmental factors during first trimester of pregnancy. They however do not change significantly thereafter, thus maintaining stability not greatly affected by age. These patterns may represent the genetic make up of an individual and therefore his/her predisposition to certain diseases. Patterns of dermatoglyphics have been studied in various congenital disorders like Down's syndrome and Kleinfelter syndrome. The prints can thus represent a non-invasive anatomical marker of breast cancer risk and thus facilitate early detection and treatment. Methods The study was conducted on 60 histo-pathologically confirmed breast cancer patients and their digital dermatoglyphic patterns were studied to assess their association with the type and onset of breast cancer. Simultaneously 60 age-matched controls were also selected that had no self or familial history of a diagnosed breast cancer and the observations were recorded. The differences of qualitative (dermatoglyphic patterns) data were tested for their significance using the chi-square test, and for quantitative (ridge counts and pattern intensity index) data using the t- test. Results It was observed that six or more whorls in the finger print pattern were statistically significant among the cancer patients as compared to controls. It was also seen that whorls in the right ring finger and right little finger were found increased among the cases as compared to controls. The differences between mean pattern intensity index of cases and controls were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion The dermatoglyphic patterns may be utilized effectively to study the genetic basis of breast cancer and may also serve as a screening tool in the high-risk population. In a developing country like India it might

  17. Qualitatively and quantitatively investigating the regulation of intestinal microbiota on the metabolism of panax notoginseng saponins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jingcheng; Chen, Huimin; Kang, Dian; Shao, Yuhao; Shen, Boyu; Li, Xinuo; Yin, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Zhangpei; Li, Haofeng; Rao, Tai; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji; Liang, Yan

    2016-12-24

    Intestinal microflora plays crucial roles in modulating pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacological actions of active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, the exact impact of altered intestinal microflora affecting the biotransformation of TCMs remains poorly understood. This study aimed to reveal the specific enterobacteria which dominate the metabolism of panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) via exploring the relationship between bacterial community structures and the metabolic profiles of PNSs. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-challenged and pseudo germ-free (pseudo GF) rats, which prepared by treating TNBS and antibiotic cocktail, respectively, were employed to investigate the influence of intestinal microflora on the PNS metabolic profiles. Firstly, the bacterial community structures of the conventional, TNBS-challenged and pseudo GF rat intestinal microflora were compared via 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing technique. Then, the biotransformation of protopanaxadiol-type PNSs (ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2 and Rd), protopanaxatriol-type PNSs (ginsenoside Re, Rf, Rg1 and notoginsenoside R1) and Panax notoginseng extract (PNE) in conventional, TNBS-challenged and pseudo GF rat intestinal microbiota was systematically studied from qualitative and quantitative angles based on LC-triple-TOF/MS system. Besides, glycosidases (β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase), predominant enzymes responsible for the deglycosylation of PNSs, were measured by the glycosidases assay kits. Significant differences in the bacterial community structure on phylum, class, order, family, and genera levels were observed among the conventional, TNBS-challenged and pseudo GF rats. Most of the metabolites in TNBS-challenged rat intestinal microflora were identified as the deglycosylation products, and had slightly lower exposure levels than those in the conventional rats. In the pseudo GF group, the peak area of metabolites formed by loss of glucose, xylose and

  18. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of colonic microendoscopy image features to histopathology.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Sandra P; Powless, Amy J; Lai, Keith; Laryea, Jonathan A; Mizell, Jason S; Muldoon, Timothy J

    2015-04-09

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, affecting more than 130,000 Americans every year(1). Determining tumor margins prior to surgical resection is essential to providing optimal treatment and reducing recurrence rates. Colorectal cancer recurrence can occur in up to 20% of cases, commonly within three years after curative treatment. Typically, when colorectal cancers are resected, a margin of normal tissue on both sides of the tumor is required. The minimum margin required for colon cancer is 5 cm and for the lower rectum 2 cm. However, usually more normal tissue is taken on both sides of the tumor because the blood supply to the entire segment is removed with the surgery and therefore the entire segment must be removed. Anastomotic recurrences may result from inadequate margins. Pathologists look at the margins to ensure that there is no residual tumor and this is usually documented in the pathology report. We have developed a portable, point-of-care fiber bundle microendoscopy imaging system for detection of abnormalities in colonic epithelial microstructure. The system comprises a laptop, a modified fiber bundle image guide with a 1mm active area diameter and custom Lab VIEW interface, and is approved for imaging surgically resected colon tissue at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. The microendoscopy probe provides high-resolution images of superficial epithelial histology in real-time to assist surgical guidance and to localize occult regions of dysplasia which may not be visible. Microendoscopy images of freshly resected human colonic epithelium were acquired using the microendoscopy device and subsequently mosaicked using custom post-processing software. Architectural changes in the glands were mapped to histopathology H&E slides taken from the precise location of the microendoscopy images. Qualitatively, glandular distortion and placement of image guide was used to map normal and dysplastic areas

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Features of Music Reported to Support Peak Mystical Experiences during Psychedelic Therapy Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Frederick S.; Robbins, Hollis; Smooke, David; Brown, Jenine L.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2017-01-01

    Psilocybin is a classic (serotonergic) hallucinogen (“psychedelic” drug) that may occasion mystical experiences (characterized by a profound feeling of oneness or unity) during acute effects. Such experiences may have therapeutic value. Research and clinical applications of psychedelics usually include music listening during acute drug effects, based on the expectation that music will provide psychological support during the acute effects of psychedelic drugs, and may even facilitate the occurrence of mystical experiences. However, the features of music chosen to support the different phases of drug effects are not well-specified. As a result, there is currently neither real guidance for the selection of music nor standardization of the music used to support clinical trials with psychedelic drugs across various research groups or therapists. A description of the features of music found to be supportive of mystical experience will allow for the standardization and optimization of the delivery of psychedelic drugs in both research trials and therapeutic contexts. To this end, we conducted an anonymous survey of individuals with extensive experience administering psilocybin or psilocybin-containing mushrooms under research or therapeutic conditions, in order to identify the features of commonly used musical selections that have been found by therapists and research staff to be supportive of mystical experiences within a psilocybin session. Ten respondents yielded 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of peak effects with psilocybin, and 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of the period leading up to a peak experience. Qualitative analysis (expert rating of musical and music-theoretic features of the recommended stimuli) and quantitative analysis (using signal processing and music-information retrieval methods) of 22 of these stimuli yielded a description of peak period music that was characterized by regular, predictable

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Usage Data of an Internet-Based Asthma Monitoring Tool

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Lene

    2004-01-01

    Background In May 2000, AstraZeneca launched a Web service for asthma patients and health-care providers called LinkMedica, which includes an asthma diary for monitoring and self-management. In the diary, the patient enters his or her peak flow, number of doses of rescue medication, and if there have been any asthma symptoms during the previous 24 hours. The patient receives an immediate response from LinkMedica, telling him or her if the asthma is under control and what to do if not, eg, increase the dose of inhaled steroid. Health-care providers have access to the patient diary. Objectives The primary objective of the study was to describe patients' and health-care providers' use of LinkMedica. Secondary objectives were to evaluate their perception of the system and how the users' interaction with the system is influenced by their everyday lives. Methods Site statistics regarding number of registered users and diary usage were analyzed. An online survey among users (85 respondents), a mailed questionnaire to health-care providers (131 respondents; response rate 26.8%), as well as in-depth interviews with 10 patients and 5 general practitioners, elicited further quantitative and qualitative data on users' perceptions. Results In February 2003, a total of 7653 users had registered. During 2002, the growth in registered users averaged 50 per month. In the same period, the number of unique diary users per month decreased from 307 to 138. Patients usually stopped using the diary after a short time; the doctors were reluctant to introduce the diary to patients because of time constraints. Several user subtypes were identified among patients and their relatives. Conclusion The self-selected survey responses and in-depth interviews indicated that LinkMedica is generally considered a trustworthy and reliable site by both patients and doctors. However, there was a contrast between users' positive perception of LinkMedica and their unwillingness to use the site for more

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Features of Music Reported to Support Peak Mystical Experiences during Psychedelic Therapy Sessions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Frederick S; Robbins, Hollis; Smooke, David; Brown, Jenine L; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-01-01

    Psilocybin is a classic (serotonergic) hallucinogen ("psychedelic" drug) that may occasion mystical experiences (characterized by a profound feeling of oneness or unity) during acute effects. Such experiences may have therapeutic value. Research and clinical applications of psychedelics usually include music listening during acute drug effects, based on the expectation that music will provide psychological support during the acute effects of psychedelic drugs, and may even facilitate the occurrence of mystical experiences. However, the features of music chosen to support the different phases of drug effects are not well-specified. As a result, there is currently neither real guidance for the selection of music nor standardization of the music used to support clinical trials with psychedelic drugs across various research groups or therapists. A description of the features of music found to be supportive of mystical experience will allow for the standardization and optimization of the delivery of psychedelic drugs in both research trials and therapeutic contexts. To this end, we conducted an anonymous survey of individuals with extensive experience administering psilocybin or psilocybin-containing mushrooms under research or therapeutic conditions, in order to identify the features of commonly used musical selections that have been found by therapists and research staff to be supportive of mystical experiences within a psilocybin session. Ten respondents yielded 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of peak effects with psilocybin, and 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of the period leading up to a peak experience. Qualitative analysis (expert rating of musical and music-theoretic features of the recommended stimuli) and quantitative analysis (using signal processing and music-information retrieval methods) of 22 of these stimuli yielded a description of peak period music that was characterized by regular, predictable

  2. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each

  3. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research - what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618].

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-03-08

    In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this

  4. AI/OR computational model for integrating qualitative and quantitative design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Bradley, Stephen R.; Cagan, Jonathan; Jain, Pramod; Michelena, Nestor

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework for integrating qualitative and numerical computational methods for optimally-directed design is described. The theory is presented as a computational model and features of implementations are summarized where appropriate. To demonstrate the versatility of the methodology we focus on four seemingly disparate aspects of the design process and their interaction: (1) conceptual design, (2) qualitative optimal design, (3) design innovation, and (4) numerical global optimization.

  5. AI/OR computational model for integrating qualitative and quantitative design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Bradley, Stephen R.; Cagan, Jonathan; Jain, Pramod; Michelena, Nestor

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework for